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Sample records for nrc tld direct

  1. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1991-12-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1991

  2. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1992-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the first quarter of 1992. All radiation measurements are made using small, passive detectors called thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), which provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the area in which they are placed. Each site is monitored by arranging approximately 40 to 50 TLD stations in two concentric rings extending to about five miles from the facility. All TLD stations are outside the site boundary of the facility

  3. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1993. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  4. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1993-03-01

    This report present the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1992. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  5. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1990. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  6. NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] direct radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1989-09-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facility sites throughout the country for the second quarter of 1989

  7. NRC TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network: Progress report, January-March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facility sites throughout the country for the first quarter of 1988

  8. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1988-09-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facility sites throughout the country for the second quarter of 1988

  9. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, January-June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 55 NRC-licensed facility sites throughout the country for the first half of 1981. The program objectives, scope, and methodology are given. The TLD system, dosimeter location, data processing scheme, and quality assurance program are outlined

  10. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 5, No. 2. Progress report, April-June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, J.; Kramaric, M.; Cohen, L.

    1985-09-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network provides continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the second quarter of 1985. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included

  11. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October-December 1985. Volume 5, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, J.; Rabatin, K.; Cohen, L.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1985. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  12. NRC TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network: Progress report, October--December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; NcNamara, N.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1988. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 4 tabs

  13. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  14. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  16. NRC TLD [Nuclear Regulatory Commission thermoluminescent dosimeter] direct radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1990-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1989. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  17. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  19. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  20. Direct measurement of annual β dose using TLD on porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.L.; Stokes, M.J.; Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Zhou Zhixin

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of TL authentication test for porcelain, a method of direct measurement of annual β dose using ultrathin TLD (CaSO 4 :Tm) on porcelain was studied. Since the TLD was placed into a hole left after sampling for the TL measurement, the method will not cause any new damage to the studied object. The results show that the technique is suitable for measuring annual β dose and improving accuracy of TL authentication test for both porcelain and pottery

  1. Implementation of a self-directed work team in a TLD Processing Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnwine, A.A.; Bogard, R.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Somers, D.E.; Souleyrette, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to maintain productivity with a decreasing work force, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has adopted the concept of Self-Directed Work Teams in various disciplines. The plant's Health Physics Department was able to eliminate a layer of front-line supervisors by establishing four self-directed work teams. Each team was able to choose their method of implementation. The TLD Processing Center Team chose to use project managment tools to ensure a smooth transition from the traditional work group to a self-directed approach. This process focused on establishing responsibilities, determining training requirements, determining a leadership style for the group, and performing a potential problem analysis for the transition. The transition also reviewed interface issues that could occur with upper management, matrix management, technical oversight, and organizational peers. The team's experience is also evaluated in comparison to other Self-Directed Work Teams

  2. Performance testing of the environmental TLD system for the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toke, L F; Carson, B H; Baker, G G; McBride, M H; Plato, P A; Miklos, J A

    1984-05-01

    Panasonic UD-801 thermoluminescent dosimeters ( TLDs ) containing two calcium sulfate phosphors were tested under Performance Specification 3.1 established by the American National Standard Institute ( ANSI75 ) and in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 4.13 ( NRC77 ). The specific qualifying tests included TLD uniformity, reproducibility, energy dependence and directional dependence. The overall measurement uncertainties and associated confidence levels are within the prescribed guidelines defined in the qualifying requirements for environmental TLDs .

  3. NRC Information No. 88-86: Operating with multiple grounds in direct current distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    During recent NRC maintenance inspections at Quad Cities, Oconee, and D.C. Cook power reactor facilities, it was found that plants had been operating with multiple grounds in the dc distribution systems for extended periods. Specific examples are described. Most nuclear power plant dc systems are two-wire ungrounded, combination battery/charger systems equipped with ground detection. Typical ground detection system features include a remote annunciator and a local indicator and/or recorder. Ground detectors are incorporated in the dc system so that if a single ground point does occur, immediate steps can be taken to clear the ground fault from the system. Failure to respond to a single ground will mask subsequent grounds. Multiple grounds can cause the indiscriminate operation of equipment, which may have safety consequences. Grounds can cause control circuit fuses to fail and can render important safety equipment inoperable as previously described. Furthermore, batteries have a designed capacity to supply power during a station blackout condition, and this capacity can be affected by the presence of unanalyzed loads in the form of multiple grounds. It is recognized that troubleshooting and finding grounds on a dc system are difficult tasks that may affect plant operation. The licensees previously mentioned have reviewed their designs and conditions for potential impact on safety system operability and have taken corrective actions to minimize the effect of grounds

  4. The 1997 NRC IST workshops and the status of questions and issues directed to the ASME O and M committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.M.

    1998-05-01

    This paper describes the results of the four NRC Inservice Testing (IST) Workshops which were held in early 1997 pertaining to NRC Inspection Procedure P 73756, Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves. It also presents the status of the ASME code committees' resolution of certain questions forwarded to the ASME by the NRC. These questions relate to code interpretations, inconsistencies in the code, and industry concerns that are most appropriately resolved through the ASME consensus process. The ASME committees reviewed the questions at their December 1997 and March 1998 code meetings. Of particular interest are those questions for which the ASME code committees did not agree with the NRC response. These questions, as well as those which the committees provided some additional insight or input, are presented in this paper

  5. Reproducibility Test for Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) Using TLD Radpro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Khairunisa Zahidi; Ahmad Bazlie Abdul Kadir; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim

    2016-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) as one type of dosimeter which are often used to substitute the film badge. Like a film badge, it is worn for a period of time and then must be processed to determine the dose received. This study was to test the reproducibility of TLD using Radpro reader. This study aimed to determine the dose obtained by TLD-100 chips when irradiated with Co-60 gamma source and to test the effectiveness of TLD Radpro reader as a machine to analyse the TLD. Ten chips of TLD -100 were irradiated using Eldorado machine with Co-60 source at a distance of 5 meters from the source with 2 mSv dose exposure. After the irradiation process, TLD-100 chips were read using the TLD Radpro reader. These steps will be repeated for nine times to obtain reproducibility coefficient, r i . The readings of dose obtained from experiment was almost equivalent to the actual dose. Results shows that the average value obtained for reproducibility coefficient, r i is 6.39 % which is less than 10 %. As conclusion, the dose obtained from experiment considered accurate because its value were almost equivalent to the actual dose and TLD Radpro was verified as a good reader to analyse the TLD. (author)

  6. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  7. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  8. Optimal selection of TLD chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, P.; Nicoll, J.J.; Edmonds, P.; Paris, M.; Thompson, C.

    1996-01-01

    Large sets of TLD chips are often used to measure beam dose characteristics in radiotherapy. A sorting method is presented to allow optimal selection of chips from a chosen set. This method considers the variation

  9. NRC performance indicator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The performance indicator development work of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) interoffice task group involved several major activities that included selection of candidate indicators for a trial program, data collection and review, validation of the trial indicators, display method development, interactions with the industry, and selection of an optimum set of indicators for the program. After evaluating 27 potential indicators against certain ideal attributes, the task group selected 17 for the trial program. The pertinent data for these indicators were then collected from 50 plants at 30 sites. The validation of the indicators consisted of two primary processes: logical validity and statistical analysis. The six indicators currently in the program are scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, forced outage rate, and equipment forced outages per 100 critical hours. A report containing data on the six performance indicators and some supplemental information is issued on a quarterly basis. The NRC staff is also working on refinements of existing indicators and development of additional indicators as directed by the commission

  10. Personal exposure control using TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Hideharu; Takeda, Shinso

    1979-01-01

    In the Tokai Works of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), for personal exposure control, the switching from film badges to TLD badges (and also finger-ring type local dosimeters) was made in fiscal 1974. The facilities involved are a fuel reprocessing plant, a PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed fuel production facility, and a centrifugal uranium enrichment development facility. The types of radiation concerned are various, such as γ(x), β and n. The situation of personal exposure control with TLD and the dose evaluation methods for respective radiations are explained. The number of personnel subject to exposure control, including transient people, is about 2500 - 3000 per three months. The TLD badges used are a special PNC type with TLDs to measure separately γ(x), β and n. With casings made of ABS resin, the external dimensions are 76 mm x 46 mm. (J.P.N.)

  11. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  12. Environmental effects on TLD 100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilley, E.; Howard, R.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to a recent paper by Dhar et al (Health Phys.; 25:427 (1973)) in which significant differences in the sensitivity of TLD 100 crystals following the same heat treatments in different environments, were reported. Similar work is here reported on TLD 100 at 400 0 C with half the crystals being heat treated in vacuum, irradiated and readout an then annealed in air, irradiated and readout while the other half of the crystals were air annealed and readout before vacuum annealing and readout. In both cases no significant change was detected in contrast to the results of Dhar et al. (U.K.)

  13. A personnel TLD system with person identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widell, C.O.

    1974-01-01

    The TLD system uses Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Mn, Si sintered tablets which are heated by hot nitrogen. The slide which holds the tablets is coded by a self adhesive polyester-aluminium tape. This tape is BCD coded in an ordinary tape punch. The information on the punched tape includes a ten digit social-security number and a two digit information on location and type of dosimetry. By this system dosimetric data is directly transfered into a central dose register for Sweden. All personnel doses are there stored on social-security numbers. (author)

  14. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  15. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  16. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  17. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  18. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  19. Minimizing TLD-DRD differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.L.; McCoy, R.A.; Connell, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    When substantial differences exist in exposures recorded by TLD's and DRD's, it is often necessary to perform an exposure investigation to reconcile the difference. In working with several operating plants, the authors have observed a number of causes for these differences. This paper outlines these observations and discusses procedures that can be used to minimize them

  20. A new TLD system for space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, I.; Deme, S.; Szabo, B.; Vagvoelgyi, J.; Szabo, P.P.; Csoeke, A.; Ranky, M.; Akatov, Yu.A.

    1980-06-01

    A small, portable, vibration and shock resistant thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) system was developed to measure the cosmic radiation dose on board of a spacecraft. The TLD system consists of a special bulb dosemeter and a TLD reader. The measuring dose range of the TLD system is from 10 μGy up to 100 mGy. The TLD reader can operate on a battery; its electrical power consumption is about 5 W, its volume is about 1 dm 3 and its mass is about 1 kg. Details are given of the construction and technical parameters of the dosemeter and reader. (author)

  1. NRC/RSR Data Bank Program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, S.F.

    1979-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established the NRC/Reactor Safety Research (RSR) Data Bank Program to collect, store, and make available data from the many domestic and foreign water reactor safety research programs. Local direction of the program is provided by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The NRC/RSR Data Bank Program provides a central computer storage mechanism and access software for data to be used by code development and assessment groups in meeting the code and correlation needs of the nuclear industry. The administrative portion of the program provides data entry, documentation, and training and advisory services to users and the NRC. The NRC/RSR Data Bank Program and the capabilities of the data access software are described

  2. The NRC measurement verification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, T.N.; Ong, L.D.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective is presented on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach for effectively monitoring the measurement methods and directly testing the capability and performance of licensee measurement systems. A main objective in material control and accounting (MC and A) inspection activities is to assure the accuracy and precision of the accounting system and the absence of potential process anomalies through overall accountability. The primary means of verification remains the NRC random sampling during routine safeguards inspections. This involves the independent testing of licensee measurement performance with statistical sampling plans for physical inventories, item control, and auditing. A prospective cost-effective alternative overcheck is also discussed in terms of an externally coordinated sample exchange or ''round robin'' program among participating fuel cycle facilities in order to verify the quality of measurement systems, i.e., to assure that analytical measurement results are free of bias

  3. The NRC perspective on low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.L. Jr.; Knapp, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) actions in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (the Act) and NRC's assistance to States and Compacts working to discharge their responsibilities under the Act. Three of NRC's accomplishments which respond explicitly to direction in the Act are highlighted. These are: development of the capability of expedited handling of petitions addressing wastes below regulatory concern (BRC); development of capability to review and process an application within fifteen months; and development of guidance on alternatives to shallow land burial. Certain NRC efforts concerning special topics related to the Act as well as NRC efforts to assist States and Compacts are summarized

  4. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter. The rules on which final action has been taken since March 31, 1993 are: Repeal of NRC standards of conduct; Fitness-for-duty requirements for licensees who possess, use, or transport Category I material; Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel; Monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants; Licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive wastes; and Licensees' announcements of safeguards inspections

  5. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rule making which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  6. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considered action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  7. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  8. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This document provides a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  9. NRC closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.

    1994-01-01

    This section contains the edited transcript of the NRC closing remarks made by Mr. Franklin Coffman (Chief, Human Factors Branch, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research) and Dr. Cecil Thomas (Deputy Director, Division of Reactor Controls and Human Factors, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation). This editing consisted of minimal editing to correct grammar and remove extraneous references to microphone volume, etc

  10. NRC overview: Repository QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is on the threshold of an extensive program for characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada to determine if it is a suitable site for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Earlier this year, the DOE published the Consultation Draft Site Characterization Plan for the Nevada site, which describes in some detail the studies that need to be performed to determine if the site is acceptable. In the near future, the final site characterization plan (SCP) is expected to be issued and large-scale site characterization activities to begin. The data and analyses that will result from the execution of that plan are expected to be the primary basis for the license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of the importance of these data and analyses in the assessment of the suitability of the site and in the demonstration of that suitability in the NRC licensing process, the NRC requires in 10CFR60 that site characterization be performed under a quality assurance (QA) program. The QA program is designed to provide confidence that data are valid, retrievable, and reproducible. The documentation produced by the program will form an important part of the record on which the suitability of the site is judged in licensing. In addition, because the NRC staff can review only a selected portion of the data collected, the staff will need to rely on the system of controls in the DOE QA program

  11. NRC inventory of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, G.E.; Thompson, O.O.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC Inventory of Dams has been prepared as required by the charter of the NRC Dam Safety Officer. The inventory lists 51 dams associated with nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams (licensed by NRC) in the US as of February 1, 1982. Of the 85 listed nuclear power plants (148 units), 26 plants obtain cooling water from impoundments formed by dams. The 51 dams associated with the plants are: located on a plant site (29 dams at 15 plant sites); located off site but provide plant cooling water (18 dams at 11 additional plant sites); and located upstream from a plant (4 dams) - they have been identified as dams whose failure, and ensuing plant flooding, could result in a radiological risk to the public health and safety. The dams that might be considered NRC's responsibility in terms of the federal dam safety program are identified. This group of dams (20 on nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams) was obtained by eliminating dams that do not pose a flooding hazard (e.g., submerged dams) and dams that are regulated by another federal agency. The report includes the principal design features of all dams and related useful information

  12. Environmental monitoring with a portable TLD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, P P; Feher, I; Deme, S; Szabo, B; Vagvoelgyi, J; German, E [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1984-01-01

    Two types of TLD systems are used for environmental dose monitoring. One is based on an NHZ-203 laboratory TLD reader and CaSO/sub 4/:Dy powder. The other is based on CaSO/sub 4/:Tm bulbs and a small, portable TLD reader built into a cross-country car and operated by means of the car battery. The laboratory TLD system has been used for many years for environmental monitoring and it has been tested and proved satisfactory at international intercomparisons for environmental dosemeters. The new portable TLD system has the advantage of being able to establish the dose in a few minutes at the environmental station. The transport dose is omitted as the TLDs are evaluated at the field site. The evaluation of a bulb needs only a few minutes and the measured dose value can be reported back by radio - an important aspect during an emergency situation.

  13. NRC performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) performance assessment program includes the development of guidance to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on preparation of a license application and on conducting the studies to support a license application. The nature of the licensing requirements of 10 CFR Part 60 create a need for performance assessments by the DOE. The NRC and DOE staffs each have specific roles in assuring the adequacy of those assessments. Performance allocation is an approach for determining what testing and analysis will be needed during site characterization to assure that an adequate data base is available to support the necessary performance assessments. From the standpoint of establishing is implementable methodology, the most challenging performance assessment needed for licensing is the one that will be used to determine compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) containment requirement

  14. An automated thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kicken, P.J.H.; Huyskens, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    In the Health Physics Division of the Eindhoven University of Technology work is going on in developing an automated TLD-system. Process automization, statistical computation, dose calculation as well as dose recording are carried out, using a microcomputer and floppy disk unit. The main features of this TLD-system are its low costs, flexibility, easy to operate, and the feasibility for use in routine dosimetry as well as in complex TLD research. Because of its modular set-up several components of the system are multifunctional in other operations. The system seems suited for medium sized Health Physics groups. (Auth.)

  15. Automated TLD system for gamma radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, P.C.; Ott, J.D.; Edmonds, C.M.; Hopper, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A gamma radiation monitoring system utilizing a commercially available TLD reader and unique microcomputer control has been built to assess the external radiation exposure to the resident population near a nuclear weapons testing facility. Maximum use of the microcomputer was made to increase the efficiency of data acquisition, transmission, and preparation, and to reduce operational costs. The system was tested for conformance with an applicable national standard for TLD's used in environmental measurements

  16. Centralized TLD service and record keeping in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, D.; Ashmore, J.P.; Bradley, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    A centralized automated TLD service operated by the Department of National Health and Welfare went into operation in May 1977 to monitor radiation workers throughout Canada. Twenty-thousand employees from a wide range of disciplines are enrolled and the number will be increased to fifty thousand by September l978. A prototype of the system, operational from September 1976 to May 1977 for three-thousand people, has already been described. A description of technical and operational highlights is presented as well as a description of problems experienced during the first full year of operation. Details of costs, conversion logistics, operational performance and technical problems are included. A comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of changing from film dosimetry to TLD in a nationwide context is detailed. The dose meter read-out unit is interfaced, through video terminals, with a time-sharing computer system programmed to provide direct access to the Canadian National Dose Registry. Details of this linkage are described, as are the computer programmes for routine processing of raw batch data. The centralized TLD service interactively linked with the National Dose Registry provides a comprehensive occupational monitoring programme invaluable for regulatory control. (author)

  17. NRC/UBC Node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis-Perry, B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Yogendran, Y. [NRC Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' In the search for cleaner, more sustainable energy sources, many of the most promising breakthroughs have been in hydrogen technology. However, this promise will remain unfulfilled without public interest and enthusiasm, and without the infrastructure to support the technology. In order to get there, we have to test, perfect, and demonstrate technology that is safe and affordable, and we must do so in practical, familiar settings. Ideally, such settings should be easily accessible to the engineers, planners, and architects of tomorrow while providing a showcase for hydrogen technology that will attract the general public. This place is the NRC/UBC Hydrogen Node. The UBC campus in Point Grey is home to leading edge, internationally recognized researchers in a range of disciplines, both within the University and at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. On average, 40,000 students, faculty, and staff use the campus every day; UBC graduates go on to leadership positions in communities around the globe. Its spectacular setting makes UBC a popular destination for thousands of visitors from around the world. In 2006 UBC will host the World Urban Forum, and in 2010 it will be one of the sites for the Vancouver-Whistler Olympic Games. UBC and its South Campus neighbourhoods are developing as a model sustainable community, offering an excellent opportunity to develop and showcase hydrogen infrastructure and technology in a real-life, attractive setting that will be seen by thousands of people around the world. UBC's facilities, location, and Trek 2010 commitment to excellence in learning, research, and sustainability make it an ideal location for such a project. The H2 Village at UBC will be an integrated hydrogen demonstration project, linked to the hydrogen highway. This project is bringing together leading companies, researchers, and government agencies committed to making the refinement and early adoption of safe hydrogen technology a

  18. NRC/UBC Node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Perry, B.; Yogendran, Y.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' In the search for cleaner, more sustainable energy sources, many of the most promising breakthroughs have been in hydrogen technology. However, this promise will remain unfulfilled without public interest and enthusiasm, and without the infrastructure to support the technology. In order to get there, we have to test, perfect, and demonstrate technology that is safe and affordable, and we must do so in practical, familiar settings. Ideally, such settings should be easily accessible to the engineers, planners, and architects of tomorrow while providing a showcase for hydrogen technology that will attract the general public. This place is the NRC/UBC Hydrogen Node. The UBC campus in Point Grey is home to leading edge, internationally recognized researchers in a range of disciplines, both within the University and at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. On average, 40,000 students, faculty, and staff use the campus every day; UBC graduates go on to leadership positions in communities around the globe. Its spectacular setting makes UBC a popular destination for thousands of visitors from around the world. In 2006 UBC will host the World Urban Forum, and in 2010 it will be one of the sites for the Vancouver-Whistler Olympic Games. UBC and its South Campus neighbourhoods are developing as a model sustainable community, offering an excellent opportunity to develop and showcase hydrogen infrastructure and technology in a real-life, attractive setting that will be seen by thousands of people around the world. UBC's facilities, location, and Trek 2010 commitment to excellence in learning, research, and sustainability make it an ideal location for such a project. The H2 Village at UBC will be an integrated hydrogen demonstration project, linked to the hydrogen highway. This project is bringing together leading companies, researchers, and government agencies committed to making the refinement and early adoption of safe hydrogen technology a reality

  19. Environmental monitoring system with TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguerre, L.; Carelli, J.; Gregori, B.

    2006-01-01

    Presently work the methodology used by the Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (RNA) to gauge it system of environmental monitoring in function of the media absorbed dose rate in free air and the environmental dose equivalent, H * (10), according to the recommendation ICRU Report 47 is described. It was studied the response of the environmental dosemeter (DA) in fields of photonic radiation of energies W60, Wl 10, W200 and 137 Cs. The irradiations were carried out following the recommendations of the standard ISO:4037. It was analyzed the response in the DA of the detectors LiF: Mg, Ti and CaF 2 : Dy for the different radiation qualities and the relative response at 137 Cs of both. The methodology used in the evaluation of the dose includes: the correction of the readings of both detectors by fading, gotten experimentally, the witness of transfers, the energy answer and the value of the zero. The dose is calculated applying the average pondered in uncertainty of the dose obtained for each type of detector. Its were analyzed and calculated the uncertainties that affect to the measurement following the recommendation of the Argentine standard IRAM 35050. The detection limit of the absorbed dose rate in free air of this system it is 3.5 n Gy/h for a period of sampling of 3 months. With this detection limit environmental dose equivalent rates of the order of 70 n Sv/h are measured with an expanded uncertainty of the order of 10% with a cover factor k = 2. (Author)

  20. NRC's license renewal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide for the continuity of the current generation of nuclear power plant operating licenses and at the same time ensure the health and safety of the public, and the quality of the environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a goal of developing and issuing regulations and regulatory guidance for license renewal in the early 1990s. This paper will discuss some of those activities underway to achieve this goal. More specifically, this paper will discuss the Commission's regulatory philosophy for license renewal and the two major license renewal rule makings currently underway. The first is the development of a new Part 54 to address procedural and technical requirements for license renewal; the second is a revision to existing Part 51 to exclude environmental issues and impacts from consideration during the license renewal process. (author)

  1. NRC quarterly [status] report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report covers the third quarter of calendar year 1987. The NRC licensing activity during the period of this report included the issuance of a full-power license for Beaver Valley 2 on August 14, 1987, and operating license restricted to five percent power for South Texas Unit 1 on August 21, 1987. Additional licensing delay for Shoreham is projected due to complex litigation. Also, licensing delay may occur for Comanche Peak Unit 1, because the duration of the hearing is uncertain. Although a license authorizing fuel loading and precriticality testing for Seabrook Unit 1 has been issued, there is a projected delay for low-power licensing. Full-power licensing for Seabrook Unit 1 will be delayed due to offsite emergency preparedness issues. The length of the delay is not known at this time. With the exception of Seabrook and Shoreham, regulatory delays in this report are not impacted by the schedules for resolving off-site emergency preparedness issues

  2. NRC regulation of DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhl, A.R.; Edgar, G.; Silverman, D.; Murley, T.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), its contractors, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are in for major changes if the DOE follows through on its intentions announced December 20, 1996. The DOE is seeking legislation to establish the NRC as the regulatory agency with jurisdiction over nuclear health, safety, and security at a wide range of DOE facilities. At this stage, it appears that as many as 200 (though not all) DOE facilities would be affected. On March 28, 1997, the NRC officially endorsed taking over the responsibility for regulatory oversight of DOE nuclear facilities as the DOE had proposed, contingent upon adequate funding, staffing resources, and a clear delineation of NRC authority. This article first contrasts the ways in which the NRC and the DOE carry out their basic regulatory functions. Next, it describes the NRC's current authority over DOE facilities and the status of the DOE's initiative to expand that authority. Then, it discusses the basic changes and impacts that can be expected in the regulation of DOE facilities. The article next describes key lessons learned from the recent transition of the GDPs from DOE oversight to NRC regulation and the major regulatory issues that arose in that transition. Finally, some general strategies are suggested for resolving issues likely to arise as the NRC assumes regulatory authority over DOE facilities

  3. NRC influences on nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    NRC influences on utility training programs through prescriptive requirements and evaluation of industry self-initiatives are discussed. NRC regulation and industry initiatives are complimentary and in some instances industry initiatives are replacing NRC requirements. Controls and feedback mechanisms designed to enhance positive NRC influences and minimize or eliminate negative influences are discussed. Industry and NRC efforts to reach an acceptable mix between regulator oversight and self-initiatives by the industry are recognized. Problem areas for continued cooperation to enhance training and minimize conflicting signals to industry are discussed. These areas include: requalification examination scope and content, depth of training and examination on emergency procedures; improved learning objectives as the basis for training and examination, and severe accident training

  4. NRC/RSR data bank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, S.F.; Evans, C.D.; Hardy, H.A.; Litteer, G.L.; Schulz, G.L.; Smith, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) the NRC/Reactor Safety Research (RSR) Data Bank Program. The program is under the direction of EG and G Idaho, Inc., and is intended to provide the means of collecting, processing, and making available experimental data from the many water reactor safety research programs. The NRC/RSR Data Bank Program collects qualified engineering data on a prioritized basis from experimental program data bases, stores the data in a single data bank in a common format, and makes the data available to users. The NRC/RSR Data Bank specializes in water reactor safety experimental data, but it has a number of other scientific applications where large amounts of numeric data are or will be available. As an example of size, a single water reactor safety test may generate 10 million data words. Future examples of the use of a data bank might be in gathering data on low head hydraulics, solar projects, and liquid metal reactor safety data

  5. Deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatnitsky, S.; Izewska, J.

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for high-energy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient

  6. Influences of scattering radiation in a TLD irradiation room, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Osamu; Suwa, Shigeo

    1985-01-01

    The influence of scattering radiation (SR) on radiation dose rate (DR) in a TLD irradiation room was assessed. A single SD from a standard TLD apparatus, i.e., an acrylic or aluminum table, was examined. The maximum DR was attained at approximately 80 cm from the radiation source. Energy spectra of SR ranged up to the energy of direct radiation beam. Circular SD at one m from the radiation source, which contributed to DR to the direct radiation beam, was almost homogeneous. SD was large near the irradiation table, and the influence of SD on DR became smaller with SD being vertically farther from the apparatus. The influence of SD on RD to the direct radiation beam became less with an increase in gamma ray energy. At one m from the radiation source, 6 - 7 % of SD contributed to DR to the direct radiation beam for 0.662 MeV of gamma ray. This figure was one half of that with NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. 75 FR 60485 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0497] NRC Enforcement Policy Revision AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is publishing a major revision to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to...

  8. A new fully automated TLD badge reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Ratna, P.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    At present personnel monitoring in India is being carried out using a number of manual and semiautomatic TLD badge Readers and the BARC TL dosimeter badge designed during 1970. Of late the manual TLD badge readers are almost completely replaced by semiautomatic readers with a number of performance improvements like use of hot gas heating to reduce the readout time considerably. PC based design with storage of glow curve for every dosimeter, on-line dose computation and printout of dose reports, etc. However the semiautomatic system suffers from the lack of a machine readable ID code on the badge and the physical design of the dosimeter card not readily compatible for automation. This paper describes a fully automated TLD badge Reader developed in the RSS Division, using a new TLD badge with machine readable ID code. The new PC based reader has a built-in reader for reading the ID code, in the form of an array of holes, on the dosimeter card. The reader has a number of self-diagnostic features to ensure a high degree of reliability. (author)

  9. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    2- 0010 Report Period: 02/06/2012-02/28/2018 4/11/2018, 12:17 PM During the reporting period, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering , and...to advertise the NRC Research Associateship Programs included the following: 1) attendance at meetings of major scientific and engineering ...professional societies; 2) advertising in programs and career centers for these and other professional society meetings; 3) direct mailing and emailing of

  10. NRC new sustainable building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semczyszyn, D.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The National Research Council Institute For Fuel Cell Innovation is relocating to a purpose-built 71,343 sq. Ft. (6598 sq. M) Research, Testing, Evaluation, and Industry Incubation Facility in the spring of 2006. The new facility will contain Hydrogen-ready laboratories, the existing relocated Hydrogen Safe Environmental Test Chamber, a hydrogen vehicle maintenance bay, a hydrogen vehicle refuelling station, and the following demonstration projects and features: 1. A Ground Source Heat Pump: This long-proven natural-source heating and cooling technology to provide climate control for the new IFCI's atrium and galleria. It is being designed by Keen Engineering of North Vancouver, BC. 2. 5 KW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System: Fuelled by natural gas and in the future, from biomass, the fuel cell will also produce approximately 15 kW of waste heat, which will be captured and used to supply heat for the building. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell will be supplied by Fuel Cell Technologies in Kingston, ON. 3. LEED Building certification: Attaining LEED 'green building' certification is considered an important complement to the plans for the new NRC-IFCI, because it will provide respected third-party verification of government's commitment to efficient building design and construction. Project architects Bunting Coady of Vancouver, BC believe the IFCI has strong potential to earn gold LEED certification. 4. Photovoltaic hydrogen source for back-up power fuel cell system: A photovoltaic array will capture energy from sunlight to power an electrolyzer that will produce and store hydrogen for a PEM fuel cell emergency backup power system. The electrolyzer will be provided by Hydrogenics of Mississauga, ON. Photovoltaics are being designed and installed by the British Columbia Institute of Technology. (author)

  11. NRC nuclear waste geochemistry 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.H.; Birchard, G.F.

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to present results from NRC-sponsored research and to identify regulatory research issues which need to be addressed prior to licensing a high-level waste repository. Important summaries of technical issues and recommendations are included with each paper. The issue reflect areas of technical uncertainty addressed by the NRC Research program in geochemistry. The objectives of the NRC Research Program in geochemistry are to provide a technical basis for waste management rulemaking, to provide the NRC Waste Management Licensing Office with information that can be used to support sound licensing decisions, and to identify investigations that need to be conducted by DOE to support a license application. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  12. Neutron area monitor with TLD pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2011-11-01

    The response of a passive neutron area monitor with pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The response was calculated for one TLD 600 located at the center of a polyethylene cylinder, as moderator. When neutrons collide with the moderator lose their energy reaching the TLD with thermal energies where the ambient dose equivalent is calculated. The response was calculated for 47 monoenergetic neutron sources ranging from 1E(-9) to 20 MeV. Response was calculated using two irradiation geometries, one with an upper source and another with a lateral source. For both irradiation schemes the response was calculated with the TLDs in two positions, one parallel to the source and another perpendicular to the source. The advantage of this passive neutron monitor area is that can be used in locations with intense, pulsed and mixed radiation fields. (Author)

  13. NRC regulatory information conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This volume of the report provides the proceedings from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Information Conference that was held at the Mayflower Hotel, Washington, DC, on April 18, 19, and 20, 1989. This conference was held by the NRC and chaired by Dr. Thomas E. Mosley, Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulations (NRR) and coordinated by S. Singh Bajwa, Chief, Technical Assistance Management Section, NRR. There were approximately 550 participants from nine countries at the conference. The countries represented were Canada, England, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, Taiwan, Yugoslavia, and the United States. The NRC staff discussed with nuclear industry its regulatory philosophy and approach and the bases on which they have been established. Furthermore, the NRC staff discussed several initiatives that have been implemented recently and their bases as well as NRC's expectations for new initiatives to further improve safety. The figures contained in Appendix A to the volume correspond to the slides that were shown during the presentations. Volume 2 of this report contains the formal papers that were distributed at the beginning of the Regulatory Information Conference and other information about the conference

  14. Improvements of RGD3 TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianxing; Wang Jiaqi; Li Yuanfang; Wu Furong; Xiao Wuyun

    1999-01-01

    The author summarized the main features of the improved RGD3 TLD reader. Through a large number of experiments some persuasive data are obtained, which show that an remarkable improvement has been achieved, especially in its stability to the standard illuminates, data dispersivity, and effectiveness to glow curves analysis. Working with the newly developed data processing software, the comprehensive performance of the whole system will be enhanced greatly

  15. Determination of the TLD-100 physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucar J, J.; Picon C, C.

    1998-01-01

    This study was realized in the Physics service at the Radiotherapy Department of the National Institute of Neoplasic Diseases in Lima, Peru, it was determined the activation energy, the kinetic order and the frequency factor of the fifth peak of the TLD-100 thermoluminescent spectra using different algorithms. This was carried out in parallel with the implementation and design of a software and an interface associated with the Tl lecturer which allows a semiautomatic control for a thermoluminescent lecturer process. (Author)

  16. Microcomputer control of automated TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarland, Bert.

    1979-10-01

    The interfacing electronics, the control algorithms and the developed programs of a 6800 microcomputer controlled automated TLD reader are described. The TL reading system is implemented with a photomultiplier tube and a charge-to-pulse converter. The gain of the TL reading system is controlled through the use of a temperature compensated LED reference light source. Automatic compensation of PM tube dark current is optional. The short term stability of TL readings is better than 3 %. (author)

  17. NRC study of control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.J. Jr.; Muller, D.R.; Gammill, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1980, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has held several meetings with the NRC staff to discuss the subject of control room habitability. Several meetings between the ACRS and the staff have resulted in ACRS letters that express specific concerns, and the staff has provided responses in reports and meetings. In June of 1983, the NRC Executive Director for Operations directed the Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and Inspection and Enforcement to develop a plan to handle the issues raised by the ACRS and to report to him specific proposed courses of action to respond to the ACRS's concerns. The NRC control room habitability working group has reviewed the subject in such areas as NRR review process, transformation of control room habitability designs to as-built systems, and determination of testing protocol. The group has determined that many of the ACRS concerns and recommendations are well founded, and has recommended actions to be taken to address these as well as other concerns which were raised independent of the ACRS. The review has revealed significant areas where the approach presently utilized in reviews should be altered

  18. Ionizing radiation source detection by personal TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Mirkov, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The Laboratory for personal dosimetry has about 3000 workers under control. The most of them work in medicine. Some institutions, as big health centers, have different ionizing radiation sources. It is usefull to analyze what has been the source of irradiation, special when appears a dosimeter with high dose. Personal dosimetry equipment is Harshaw TLD Reader Model 6600 and dosimeters consist of two chips LiF TLD-100 assembled in bar-coded cards which are wearing in holders with one tissue-equivalent filter (to determine H(10)) and skin-equivalent the other (to determine H(0.07)). The calibration dosimeters have been irradiated in holders by different sources: x-ray (for 80keV and 100keV), 6 0C o, 9 0S r (for different distances from beta source) and foton beem (at radiotherapy accelerator by 6MeV, 10MeV and 18MeV). The dose ratio for two LiF cristals was calculated and represented with graphs. So, it is possible to calculate the ratio H(10)/H(0.07) for a personal TLD and analyze what has been the source of irradiation. Also, there is the calibration for determination the time of irradiation, according to glow curve deconvolution

  19. Next Generation Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbeck, K.J.; Streetz, K.L.; Rotunda, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    BICRON NE has developed an advanced version of the Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader. Improvements in the reader include a Windows NT TM -based operating system and a Pentium microprocessor for the host controller, a servo-controlled transport, a VGA display, mouse control, and modular assembly. This high capacity reader will automatically read fourteen hundred TLD Cards in one loading. Up to four elements in a card can be heated without mechanical contact, using hot nitrogen gas. Improvements in performance include an increased throughput rate and more precise card positioning. Operation is simplified through easy-to-read Windows-type screens. Glow curves are displayed graphically along with light intensity, temperature, and channel scaling. Maintenance and diagnostic aids are included for easier troubleshooting. A click of a mouse will command actions that are displayed in easy-to-understand English words. Available options include an internal 90 Sr irradiator, automatic TLD calibration, and two different extremity monitoring modes. Results from testing include reproducibility, reader stability, linearity, detection threshold, residue, primary power supply voltage and frequency, transient voltage, drop testing, and light leakage. (author)

  20. TLD territorial network in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroutilikova, D. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    At present, there are 236 measuring points practically homogeneously distributed on the territory of the Czech Republic. 98 measuring points are distributed as local TLD-networks in the surroundings of Czech two nuclear power plants. Both of the TLD-networks are operated by the National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague. The dosimeters hitherto used are the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy-teflon detectors placed in TL-badges and shielded on both sides by energy compensation filters composed of lead and tin. Recently, a new modernization of the measuring system, type of dosimeter and methods of evaluation is under way. From 1996 the Czech Radiation Monitoring Network will be used the TLD system HARSHAW 4000, along with the type 8807 ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETER. The dosimeter is composed of four TL-elements - two LiF and two CaF{sub 2}, placed in a plastic badge. In addition, the CaF{sub 2} elements are shielded on both sides by energy compensation filters composed of tantalum and lead. Before the routine use of the new system a testing of the dosimeters was made. The following text summarizes the obtained results (J.K.). 4 tabs.

  1. Current NRC activities related to MQA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottier, C.A.; Nellis, D.O. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) interest in measurement quality assurance (MQA) goes back to before 1963, when the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) published a notice in the Federal Register concerning the need for establishing a Film Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, and also provided a set of minimum performance criteria to be used by the laboratory in evaluating film dosimetry services used by licensees. The proposed laboratory was not established, but in 1967 the AEC contracted with Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to evaluate film dosimeter performance criteria and provide a basis for establishing a Film Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory if the study showed that it was needed. Then, in 1973, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), concerned with the state of dosimetry processing and the lack of adequate standards, recommended that the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) direct a performance testing program for personnel dosimetry processing services. Later, in 1976, NRC asked PNL to conduct a study to evaluate the four existing performance standards for personnel dosimetry processing. One result of this study was that the HPSSC standard, which later became ANSI N13.11, was recommended as the standard for use in a national dosimetry processing program. The rest is common knowledge. With the support of numerous other federal agencies and the CRCPD, NRC published a regulation, effective in 1988, that required all processors of personnel dosimeters be accredited under the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), operated by the NBS, which is now called the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). At present, there are 75 dosimetry processing laboratories accredited under NVLAP. NRC has also been involved in extremity dosimeters, health physics survey instruments, bioassay measurements, electronic personnel dosimeters, and environmental monitoring around nuclear power plants.

  2. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?; Como diagnosticar cualquier tipo de TLD Reader?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso, E-mail: manolo@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: jotag@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: alex@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: stefan@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: andy@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: gilberto@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included.

  3. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practices in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 22 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  4. RFID based TLD monitoring system - a prospective development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeevanram, S.S.; Pawar, S.T.; Mahule, K.N.; Rath, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Thermo Luminescence Dosimetry (TLD) is an established method of monitoring the radiation dose received by workers in radiation environments. In Radiometallurgy Laboratory, BARC, the TLD movement inside a nuclear facility is completely carried out by a radiation worker. However, there is a chance that the TLDs may get lost in laboratories or some places without the knowledge of the concerned TLD user or health physicist. It may later lead to a false effective dose. Effort is being done to initiate a RFID based TLD monitoring system so that the use of TLD can be acknowledged through a self operating software which can prevent misuse of the detector. A novel method of improving the administrative control through Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based monitoring to avoid such inadvertent misplacement of TLD, is in progress. This paper discusses the method and techniques through which administrative control can be exercised to reduce the number of such in explainable exposures. (author)

  5. Postal TLD audit in radiotherapy in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapucianova, M.; Ekendah, D. l.; Bulanek, B.

    2014-01-01

    The postal TLD audit in radiotherapy is an independent check of dose applied by radiotherapy centers. Our poster provides basic information on the methodology of dose determination within the TLD audit. An overview of different versions of the TLD audit that are focused on specific techniques in radiotherapy is given. We also present results of so called basic version of the TLD audit that is performed regularly for purposes of the State Office for Nuclear Safety. Moreover, results of intercomparison measurements organized by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), in which our laboratory takes part every year, are shown.The methodology of dose determination is based on TL measurement of LiF:Mg,Ti powder. The TL dosemeter (TLD) has form of a plastic capsule containing approximately 160 mg of this material. Before the TL reading, the powder of each particular irradiated dosemeter is divided into 9 identical samples by means of an accurate dispenser. The dosemeter response is given as average of TL responses of the 9 samples. The dose absorbed in water is computed from the TLD response by application of calibration factor and correction coefficients for elimination of energy dependence, supra-linearity and fading of the TL material. The evaluation of the TLD audit is based on comparison of the dose measured by the TLD and the dose stated by a radiotherapy center. Relative deviation between these doses is calculated. Several versions of the TLD audit are available. (authors)

  6. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practives in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 24 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. NRCS-I applies to records common to all or most NRC offices; NRCS-II applies to program records as found in the various offices of the Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, and the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel; NRCS-III applies to records accumulated by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; and NRCS-IV applies to records accumulated in the various NRC offices under the Executive Director for Operations. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  7. Memorandum of Understanding Between U.S. EPA Superfund and U.S. NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are responsible for implementing the 'Memorandum of Understanding Between the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Consultation and Finality on Decommissioning and Decontamination of Contaminated Sites'. This paper provides a brief overview of the origin of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the major features of the MOU, and how the MOU has been implemented site specifically. EPA and NRC developed the MOU in response to direction from the House Committee on Appropriations to EPA and NRC to work together to address the potential for dual regulation. The MOU was signed by EPA on September 30, 2002 and NRC on October 9, 2002. The two agencies had worked on the MOU since March 2000. While both EPA and NRC have statutory authority to clean up these sites, the MOU provides consultation procedures between EPA and NRC to eliminate dual regulation. Under the MOU, EPA and NRC identified the interactions of the two agencies for the decommissioning and decontamination of NRC-licensed sites and the ways in which those responsibilities will be exercised. Except for Section VI, which addresses corrective action under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this MOU is limited to the coordination between EPA, when acting under its CERCLA authority, and NRC, when a facility licensed by the NRC is undergoing decommissioning, or when a facility has completed decommissioning, and the NRC has terminated its license. EPA believes that implementation of the MOU between the two agencies will ensure that future confusion about dual regulation does not occur regarding the cleanup and reuse of NRC-licensed sites. NRC and EPA have so far exchanged MOU consultation letters on eight NRC-licensed sites. EPA has responded to each consultation request with a letter expressing its views on actions

  8. Status report on NRC's current below regulatory concern activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragonette, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of below regulatory concern (BRC) is not new to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission. The regulations and licensing decisions have involved limited and de facto decisions on BRC since the beginning. For example, consumer products containing radioactive materials have been approved for distribution to persons exempt from licensing for some time and procedures for survey and release of equipment have traditionally been a part of many licensees' radiation safety programs. However, these actions have generally been ad hoc decisions in response to specific needs and have not been necessarily consistent. The need to deal with this regulatory matter has been receiving attention from both Congress and the NRC Commissioners. NRC response has grown from addressing specific waste streams, to generic rulemaking for wastes, and finally to efforts to develop a broad generic BRC policy. Section 10 of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 addressed NRC actions on specific waste streams. In response, NRC issued guidance on rulemaking petitions for specific wastes. NRC also issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking indicating consideration of Commission initiated regulations to address BRC wastes in a generic manner. The Commissioners have directed staff to develop an umbrella policy for all agency decisions concerning levels of risk or dose that do not require government regulation

  9. Staged licensing: An essential element of the NRC's revised regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echols, F.S.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past several years, Congress has directed the Department of Energy (DOE), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to abandon their efforts to assess an array of potential candidate geologic repository sites for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear reactor fuel and high level radioactive waste, to develop generally applicable requirements for licensing geologic repositories, and to develop generally applicable radiation protection standards for geologic repositories, and instead to focus their efforts to determine whether a single site located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada can be developed as a geologic repository which providing reasonable assurance that public health and safety and the environment will be adequately protected. If the Yucca Mountain site is found to be suitable for development as a geologic repository, then at each stage of development DOE will have to provide the NRC with progressively more detailed information regarding repository design and long-term performance. NRC regulations reflect the fact that it will not be until the repository has been operated for a number of years that the NRC will be able to make a final determination as to long-term repository performance. Nevertheless, the NRC will be able to allow DOE to construct and operate a repository, provided that the NRC believes that the documented results of existing studies, together with the anticipated results from continuing and future studies, will enable the NRC to make a final determination that it has reasonable assurance that the repository system's long-term performance will not cause undue risk to the public. Thus, in its efforts to revise its current regulations to assure that the technical criteria are specifically applicable to the Yucca Mountain site, the NRC should also make sure that it preserves and clarifies the concept of staged repository development

  10. IRIS and the National Research Council (NRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 2011 National Academies’ National Research Council (NRC) review of the IRIS Program's assessment of Formaldehyde, EPA and NRC have had an ongoing relationship into the improvements of developing the IRIS Assessments.

  11. 76 FR 54986 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Chapter I [NRC-2011-0209] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed enforcement policy revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is soliciting comments from interested...

  12. 76 FR 76192 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0273] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed enforcement policy revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear... licensees, vendors, and contractors), on proposed revisions to the NRC's Enforcement Policy (the Policy) and...

  13. Environmental monitoring with TLD in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.; Mora, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using thermoluminescent dosimeters (Harshaw TLD-200) the first set of costarican data on absorbed doses in air from natural radiation is obtained. During the period from September 1996 to october 2000 eight different sites throughout the country were chosen to instal the TLD stations. Each station had eight cards (five were changed every three months and three changed annually). The dosimeters were read in the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory using a 4000 Harshaw reader and with the help a mathematical algorithm and the equipment calibration factors the dose rate in air (nGy h -1 ) was calculated. The national average is 108.9 ± 32.4 nGy h -1 , the lowest values (in nGy h -1 ) were obtain at sea level at Quebrada Honda with 53 ± 11 and the highest values (in nGy h -1 ) at Cartago with 160 ± 19. A slight increase with altitude is observed even though the Cartago station was always the highest. The values found agree with reported worldwide values for environmental doses in air. (Author) [es

  14. Experience of TLD personnel monitoring laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakhete, Prashant

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Renentech Laboratories is the first Private Enterprise in India to have been chosen to provide Personnel radiation monitoring services to radiation workers at different parts of the country. Since 1992 the Company has been manufacturing TLD phosphor powder of requisite quality and from 1995 commenced the production of TLD cards for radiation monitoring. After getting the necessary approval from the competent authorities in the country, the company undertook a rigorous quality assurance programme and received the accreditation in 1999 to carry out the personnel monitoring of radiation. Since then the trained staff of the Company is covering 1200 institutions in 16 states where radiation is being used. This translates to processing of 60,000 Till cards annually, the maximum limit permitted by BARC. Processing of exposure data is done strictly according well-laid guidelines. Any cases of overexposure are immediately referred to Calibration and Dose Record Section of BARC to meet the regulatory requirements. Necessary procedural guidelines are followed to handle such cases. In this lecture, learning, operation and implementation experience of a typical Private Company in a task, which, hitherto had been regarded as exclusive responsibility of state owned institution, is enumerated

  15. Reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatnitsky, Stanislav; Izewska, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy [1] is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for highenergy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient

  16. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Title 44 United States Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) ''Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, ''Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules

  17. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations

  18. 76 FR 57006 - Proposed Generic Communications; Draft NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX; NRC Regulation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 30 and 150 [NRC-2011-0146] Proposed Generic Communications; Draft NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX; NRC Regulation of Military Operational Radium-226... published for public comment the proposed draft RIS 2011-XX; NRC Regulation of Military Operational Radium...

  19. Robust determination of effective atomic numbers for electron interactions with TLD-100 and TLD-100H thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) are the most commonly implemented for clinical dosimetry. The small physical magnitude of TLDs makes them attractive for applications such as small field measurement, in vivo dosimetry and measurement of out-of-field doses to critical structures. The most broadly used TLD is TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) and, for applications requiring higher sensitivity to low-doses, TLD-100H (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) is frequently employed. The radiological properties of these TLDs are therefore of significant interest. For the first time, in this study effective atomic numbers for radiative, collisional and total electron interaction processes are calculated for TLD-100 and TLD-100H dosimeters over the energy range 1 keV-100 MeV. This is undertaken using a robust, energy-dependent method of calculation rather than typical power-law approximations. The influence of dopant concentrations and unwanted impurities is also investigated. The two TLDs exhibit similar effective atomic numbers, ranging from approximately 5.77-6.51. Differences arising from the different dopants are most pronounced in low-energy radiative effects. The TLDs have atomic numbers approximately 1.48-2.06 times that of water. The effective atomic number of TLD-100H is consistently higher than that of TLD-100 over a broad energy range, due to the greater influence of the higher-Z dopants on the electron interaction cross sections. Typical variation in dopant concentration does not significantly influence the effective atomic number. The influence on TLD-100H is comparatively more pronounced than that on TLD-100. Contrariwise, unwanted hydroxide impurities influence TLD-100 more than TLD-100H. The effective atomic number is a key parameter that influences the radiological properties and energy response of TLDs. Although many properties of these TLDs have been studied rigorously, as yet there has been no investigation of their effective atomic numbers for electron interactions. The

  20. Determination of the TLD-100 physical parameters; Determinacion de parametros fisicos del TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paucar J, J.; Picon C, C. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas. INEN. Av. Angamos Este 2520, Lima 34 (Peru)

    1998-12-31

    This study was realized in the Physics service at the Radiotherapy Department of the National Institute of Neoplasic Diseases in Lima, Peru, it was determined the activation energy, the kinetic order and the frequency factor of the fifth peak of the TLD-100 thermoluminescent spectra using different algorithms. This was carried out in parallel with the implementation and design of a software and an interface associated with the Tl lecturer which allows a semiautomatic control for a thermoluminescent lecturer process. (Author)

  1. New advanced TLD system for space dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, I.; Szabo, B.; Vagvoelgyi, J.; Deme, S.; Szabo, P.P.; Csoeke, A.

    1983-10-01

    A new version of the TLD reader type PILLE has been developed for space applications. The earlier compact and portable device could also be used for measurements during space flights but its range was limited. A new bulb detector with easier handling has also been developed with an upper limit of linear dose response of 10 Gy. The range of this new and more versatile reader, NA206S, (1μGy-10 Gy) is 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of the earlier system; it also has increased sensitivity and decreased mass. It can be used not only in space applications but also for environmental monitoring or even in accident dosimetry. The measured dose value is displayed on a four-digit display with automatic range switch. Another new version, the NA206E, has been developed for environmental dosimetry; it can be operated from a battery or from the mains. (author)

  2. The IAEA/WHO TLD postal programme for radiotherapy hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Andreo, P.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1969 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), together with the World Health Organization (WHO), has performed postal TLD audits to verify the calibration of radiotherapy beams in developing countries. A number of changes have recently been implemented to improve the efficiency of the IAEA/WHO TLD programme. The IAEA has increased the number of participants and reduced significantly the total turn-around time to provide results to the hospitals within the shortest possible time following the TLD irradiations. The IAEA has established a regular follow-up programme for hospitals with results outside acceptance limits of ±5%. The IAEA has, over 30 years, verified the calibration of more than 3300 clinical photon beams at approximately 1000 radiotherapy hospitals. Only 65% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results within the acceptance limits, while more than 80% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. The experience of the IAEA in TLD audits has been transferred to the national level. The IAEA offers a standardized TLD methodology, provides Guidelines and gives technical back-up to the national TLD networks. The unsatisfactory status of the dosimetry for radiotherapy, as noted in the past, is gradually improving however, the dosimetry practices in many hospitals in developing countries need to be revised in order to reach adequate conformity to hospitals that perform modern radiotherapy in Europe, USA and Australia. (author)

  3. X-rays individual dose assessment using TLD dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in Embalse NPP for measuring individual X-ray dose in dentists and radiologists, who work in areas near the plant. Personnel is provided with TLD personal dosimeters for thoracic use, as well as TLD ring dosimeters. This individual X-ray dosimetry is fundamental in order to know the effective energy coming from the radiation field, since the dosimetry factors depend on it. On the other hand, the response of the TLD crystals also depends of the effective energy; this accentuates the problem when assessing the individual dose. The X-ray dosimeter must simultaneously determine the value of the effective energy and the corresponding dose value. The basic principle for determining effective energy is by using at least two different TLD materials covered by filters of different thickness. The TLD materials used have totally energy responses. Therefore, different readouts from each of the crystals are obtained. The ratio between both readouts provides a factor that depends of the effective energy but that is 'independent' from the exposure values irradiated to the dosimeter. The Personal TLD dosimeter currently in use is Bicron-Harshaw. It comprises a carrier model 8807. This carrier contains a card model 2211 which groups two TLD 200 crystals and two TLD 100 crystals. It has internal filters at each side of the TLD 200 crystals. The periodical calibration of these dosimeters consists in the irradiation of some dosimeters with different X-ray energy beams in the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). This dosimeter was used, by the National Regulatory Authority (ARN) in several comparisons, always getting satisfactory results. (author)

  4. TLD audit in radiotherapy in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroutilikova, D.; Zackova, H.; Judas, L.

    1998-01-01

    National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague organizes the TLD audit. The aim of the TLD postal audit is to provide control of the clinical dosimetry in the Czech Republic for purposes of state supervision in radiotherapy, to investigate and to reduce uncertainties involved in the measurements of absorbed dose and to improve consistency in dose determination in the regional radiotherapy centers. TLD audit covers absorbed dose measurements under reference conditions for 60 Co and 137 Cs beams, high-energy X-ray and electron beams of of linear accelerators and betatrons. The thermo-luminescence dosemeters are sent regularly to all radiotherapy centers. Absorbed dose measures by the TLD is compared to absorbed dose stated by radiotherapy center. Encapsulated LiF:Mg, Ti powder is used for the measurement. Deviation of 3% between stated and TLD measured dose is considered for photons and ±5% for electron beams. First TLD audit was started in 1997. A total of 135 beams was checked. There were found seven major deviations (more than ±6%), which were very carefully investigated. Medical Physicists from these departments reported a set-up mistake. However, at most of those hospitals with major deviations, an in situ audit in details was made soon after TLD audit. There were found discrepancies of clinical dosimetry but also bad technical state of some of the irradiation units. In 1998, second course TLD audit was started. No major deviation was found. Regular TLD audit seems to be a good way to eliminate big mistakes in the basic clinical dosimetry. Repeated audit in the regional radiotherapy centers that had major deviation during the first audit exhibited improvement of their dosimetry. It is intended to broaden the method and to control also beam parameters by means of a multi-purpose phantom. (authors)

  5. 75 FR 6063 - Availability of NRC Open Government Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... ( http://www.nrc.gov/open ) will be available by February 6, 2010, and directs that, after February 10... http://www.regulations.gov Web site. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James B. Schaeffer, Deputy..., 2010, and provided options for submitting comments by mail, fax, or at http://www.regulations.gov , but...

  6. Measurement of annual dose on porcelain using surface TLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of TL authentication test for porcelain, a method of measurement of annual dose using ultrathin (CaSO 4 :Tm) dosage layer on porcelain was studied. The TLD was placed on the part of porcelain without glaze. A comparison of measurement of annual dose for surface TLD, inside TLD and alpha counting on porcelain was made. The results show that this technique is suitable for measuring annual dose and improving accuracy of TL authentication test for both porcelain and pottery

  7. TLD audit in the radiotherapy at the national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroutilikova, D.; Zackova, H.; Novotny, J.; Pridal, I.

    1998-01-01

    Czech legislation requires that all radiotherapy departments undertake quality independent audit annually. An authorized auditing group was created as a body of the National Radiation Protection Institute. It has been decided that TLD postal audit combined with film dosimetry would alternate with in situ audit every two or three years. For this, a local TLD measuring network has been established. The methods applied in the TLD audit were taken from EROPAQ and EURAQA projects in 1996 and modified to comply with Czech local circumstances. First TLD audits were started in February 1997. During the February to September period, 60 beams were checked: 26 Co-60 beams, 10 Cs-137 beams, 15 X-ray beams, and 9 electron beams. Details of the measurements and their results are given. (P.A.)

  8. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) quality assurance network in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroutilķková, Daniela; Novotný, Josef; Judas, Libor

    2003-02-01

    The Czech thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) quality assurance network was established in 1997. Its aim is to pursue a regular independent quality audit in Czech radiotherapy centres and to support state supervision. The audit is realised via mailed TL dosimetry. The TLD system consists of encapsulated LiF:Mg,Ti powder (type MT-N) read with Harshaw manual reader model 4000. Basic mode of the TLD audit covers measurements under reference conditions, specifically beam calibration checks for all clinically used photon and electron beams. Advanced mode consists of measurements under both reference and non-reference conditions using a solid multipurpose phantom ('Leuven phantom') for photon beams. The radiotherapy centres are instructed to deliver to the TLD on central beam axis absorbed dose of 2 Gy calculated with their treatment planning system for a particular treatment set-up. The TLD measured doses are compared with the calculated ones. Deviations of +/-3% are considered acceptable for both basic and advanced mode of the audit. There are 34 radiotherapy centres in the Czech Republic. They undergo the basic mode of the TLD audit regularly every 2 years. If a centre shows a deviation outside the acceptance level, it is audited more often. Presently, most of the checked beams comply with the acceptance level. The advanced TLD audit has been implemented as a pilot study for the present. The results were mostly within the acceptance limit for the measurements on-axis, whereas for off-axis points they fell beyond the limit more frequently, especially for set-ups with inhomogeneities, oblique incidence and wedges. The results prove the importance of the national TLD quality assurance network. It has contributed to the improvement of clinical dosimetry in the Czech Republic. In addition, it helps the regulatory authority to monitor effectively and regularly radiotherapy centres.

  9. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) quality assurance network in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroutilikova, Daniela; Novotny, Josef; Judas, Libor

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The Czech thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) quality assurance network was established in 1997. Its aim is to pursue a regular independent quality audit in Czech radiotherapy centres and to support state supervision. Materials and methods: The audit is realised via mailed TL dosimetry. The TLD system consists of encapsulated LiF:Mg,Ti powder (type MT-N) read with Harshaw manual reader model 4000. Basic mode of the TLD audit covers measurements under reference conditions, specifically beam calibration checks for all clinically used photon and electron beams. Advanced mode consists of measurements under both reference and non-reference conditions using a solid multipurpose phantom ('Leuven phantom') for photon beams. The radiotherapy centres are instructed to deliver to the TLD on central beam axis absorbed dose of 2 Gy calculated with their treatment planning system for a particular treatment set-up. The TLD measured doses are compared with the calculated ones. Deviations of ±3% are considered acceptable for both basic and advanced mode of the audit. Results: There are 34 radiotherapy centres in the Czech Republic. They undergo the basic mode of the TLD audit regularly every 2 years. If a centre shows a deviation outside the acceptance level, it is audited more often. Presently, most of the checked beams comply with the acceptance level. The advanced TLD audit has been implemented as a pilot study for the present. The results were mostly within the acceptance limit for the measurements on-axis, whereas for off-axis points they fell beyond the limit more frequently, especially for set-ups with inhomogeneities, oblique incidence and wedges. Conclusions: The results prove the importance of the national TLD quality assurance network. It has contributed to the improvement of clinical dosimetry in the Czech Republic. In addition, it helps the regulatory authority to monitor effectively and regularly radiotherapy centres

  10. NRC licensing requirements: DOD options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, W.J.; O'Reilly, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the licensing process (both safety and environmental) that would apply if the Department of Defense (DOD) chooses to obtain licenses from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for using nuclear energy for power and luminous sources. The specific nuclear energy sources being considered include: small or medium-size nuclear power reactors; radioisotopic thermoelectric generators with 90 Sr or 238 Pu; radioisotopic dynamic electric generators with 90 Sr or 238 Pu; and applications of radioisotopes for luminous sources (lights) with 3 H, 85 Kr, or 147 Pm. The steps of the licensing process are summarized in the following sections, with particular attention given to the schedule and level of effort necessary to support the process

  11. The NRC and utility finances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byus, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    In a speech before the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners in November 1991, Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Ivan Selin presented what he called an open-quotes expansion of the concept of safety beyond our previous narrow bounds.close quotes He went on to explain, open-quotes To be seen as successful and safe operators of nuclear facilities, utilities must have safe and predictable cash flows.close quotes While there is little disagreement that the concepts of successful plant operations and financial strength go hand in hand, the relationship between the two is not clear. Which came first, successful operation of generating plants or financial strength? Selin's views on NRC involvement in financial aspects of utility operation in the United States are sure to stimulate debate on the issue

  12. NRC regulatory uses of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murley, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The publication in 1975 of WASH-1400, with its new probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology, had the effect of presenting a pair of eyeglasses to a man with poor eyesight. Suddenly, it gave us a view of nuclear safety with a new clarity, and it allowed us to sort out the important safety issues from the unimportant. In the intervening years, PSA insights have permeated the fabric of nearly all our safety judgments. This acceptance can be seen from the following list of broad areas where the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff uses PSA insights and methodology: evaluating the safety significance of operating events and recommending safety improvements where warranted; requesting licensees to systematically look for design vulnerabilities in each operating reactor; evaluating the safety significance of design weaknesses or non-compliances when judging the time frame for necessary improvements; conducting sensitivity analyses to judge where safety improvements are most effective; assessing the relative safety benefits of design features for future reactors. In judging where PSA methodology can be improved to give better safety insights, it is believed that the following areas need more attention: better modeling of cognitive errors; more comprehensive modeling of accident sequences initiated from conditions other than full power; more comprehensive modeling of inter-system loss of coolant accident (ISLOCA) sequences. Although PSA is widely used in the staff's regulatory activities, the NRC deliberately chooses not to include probabilistic prescriptions in regulations or guidance documents. The staff finds the bottom line risk estimates to be one of the least reliable products of a PSA. The reason for this view is that PSA cannot adequately address cognitive errors nor assess the effects of a pervasive poor safety attitude

  13. Dosimetric characteristics of a TLD dosemeter with extremities; Caracteristicas dosimetricas de un dosimetro TLD de extremidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina P, D.; Diaz B, E.; Lien V, R. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, CPHR, Apdo.Postal 6195, Habana 6, CP 10600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    It was designed a TLD dosemeter for the monitoring of the extremities. This one consists in a metallic ring with a circular orifice where is arranged a T L detector of LiF: Mg,Ti (Model JR1152C) 5 x 5 x 0.8 mm{sup 3} covered by a polyethylene fine layer. In this work were studied the dosimetric properties of the dosemeter for its application in the dosimetry of extremities for photonic radiation. the results obtained allow conclude that the designed dosemeter can be used for the extremities monitoring. (Author)

  14. Estimation of uncertainty in TLD calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasabelrasoul, H. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this study thermoluminescence dosimeter TLD was use of individual control devices to make sure the quality assurance and quality control in individual monitoring. The uncertainty measured in reader calibration coefficients for tow reader and uncertainty in radiation dose after irradiate in SSDL laboratory. Fifty sample was selected for the study was placed in the oven at a temperature of 400 for an hour to get zero or background and took zero count by or background and took zero count by reader (1) and reader (2) and then irradiate in SSDL by cesium-137 at a dose of 5 mGy and laid back in the oven at degrees 100 and degrees 10 minutes, to 10 chips for calibration and readout count by reader one and reader two. The RCF was found for each reader above 1.47 and 1.11, respectively, and found the uncertainty RCF was found for each reader above 1.47 and 1.11, respectively, and found the uncertainly RCF 0.430629 and 0.431973. Radiation dose was measured for fifty samples irradiate to dose of 5 mGy and read the count by reader 1 and reader 2 the uncertainty was found for each reader 0.490446 and 0.587602.(Author)

  15. Update of NRC uranium mill licensing activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Increased vigilance must be given to controlling emissions from active milling operations, particularly windblown tailings, to assure that the soon-to-be-effective EPA Fuel Cycle Standard is met. Comprehensive environmental monitoring programs will have to be developed to confirm that, in fact, the limit is met. Just as was the case last year, tailings management and disposal is still the major item of concern relating to uranium milling operations. As stated earlier, the NRC feels that below-grade disposal is the preferred method of tailings disposal in that it provides the greatest assurances of long-term isolation. In any event, tailings must be disposed of in such a way that no active care is required of disposal sites, to avoid committing future generations to a significant, lingering obligation to care for wastes generated to produce benefits which they will only indirectly receive, if at all. While the primary means of providing long-term isolation of tailings must be by physical barriers, as a prudent, supplementary measure of control, we are concluding in the GEIS on Uranium Milling that ownership of disposal sites by a Government agency is desirable. We expect a low level of continued surveillance at disposal sites with small expense involved. We are concluding that requiring operators to contribute on the order of $100,000 per disposal site to cover ongoing expenses would be the most apropriate means of conforming to the principle that the waste generator should pay full costs of waste disposal. We feel such an arrangement would be fair, simple, and efficient, favoring it over complicated schemes involving such things as taxes on product or tailings generated and continued management of ear-marked funds. Legislation is now pending in the Congress which would give NRC direct regulatory control over mill tailings and put into place the authorities needed to implement the long-term control and funding arrangements discussed above

  16. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford's mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue

  17. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford`s mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  18. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford's mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  19. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    conducted the following activities in support of the subject contract: Outreach and Promotion The promotional schedule to advertise the NRC Research...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT During this reporting period, the NRC promoted research...Associateship Programs included the following: 1) attendance at meetings of major scientific and engineering professional societies; 2) advertising in

  20. NRC perspectives on fuel cycle and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, K.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses NRC's mandate in the field of safeguards and the thoughts of NRC on other newly emerging policy considerations. The status of some of the current issues facing the nuclear community and the regulatory staff in particular is touched on

  1. Report to Congress on NRC emergency communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island highlighted the need for improved communications among the NRC and other organizations which respond to such emergencies. This report summarizes the communication problems identified by several major review groups after the accident, the status of corrective actions, and NRC plans to improve communications still further. (author)

  2. 78 FR 5838 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0014] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy revision; issuance and request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy,'' December 30, 2009 (ADAMS Accession No. ML093200520);(2...

  3. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC's competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC's antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission's antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC's antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  4. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC`s competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC`s antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission`s antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC`s antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Comparison of LiF (TLD-100 and TLD-100H) detectors for extremity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, L. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2683-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Laboratorio de Medicina Nuclear, Lda, Atomedical, Rua Helena Felix, 11D, 1600-121 Lisboa (Portugal); Calado, A.; Cardoso, J.V.; Santos, L.M. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2683-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Alves, J.G. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2683-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: jgalves@itn.pt

    2008-02-15

    In this work the results aimed at assessing the performance of two types of LiF detectors, TLD-100 and TLD-100H, used in the context of extremity dosimetry are presented. Each detector variety was studied for reproducibility, batch homogeneity, residual dose, linearity and energy dependence using, when appropriate, the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y radiation source built-in one of the Harshaw 6600 readers, the ISO narrow X-ray beams of N30, N40, N60, N80, N100 and N120 or the gamma radiations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. Two calibration energies (N120 and {sup 137}Cs) were also used. The reproducibility and linearity results indicate that both LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P performed equally well. However, LiF:Mg,Cu,P presents a higher residual signal. In terms of energy dependence, LiF:Mg,Cu,P shows less variation than LiF:Mg,Ti particularly when N120 is used as calibration radiation. This seems to be a more realistic setup since the energy of the most frequently used radioisotopes in Nuclear Medicine departments with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) use gamma radiation energies closer to N120 than to {sup 137}Cs.

  6. TLD DRD dose discrepancy: role of beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munish Kumar; Pradhan, S.M.; Bihari, R.R.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Babu, D.A.R.; Gupta, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Ionization chamber based direct reading/pocket dosimeters (DRDs), are used along with the legal dosimeters (thermoluminescent dosimeters-TLDs) for day to day monitoring and control of radiation doses received by radiation workers. The DRDs are routinely used along with the passive dosimeters (TLDs) in nuclear industry at different radiation installations where radiation levels could vary significantly and the possibility of receiving doses beyond investigation levels by radiation workers is not ruled out. Recently, recommendations for dealing with discrepancies between personal dosimeter systems used in parallel were issued by ISO. The present study was performed to measure the response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters to various beta sources having energy (E max ) ranging from 0.224 MeV-3.54 MeV. It is expected that the above study will be useful in resolving the disparity between TLD and DRD doses at those radiation installations where radiation workers are likely to be exposed simultaneously from photons and beta particles

  7. Measurement of TLD Albedo response on various calibration phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Shinohara, K.; Ishiguro, H.; Nakamura, T.

    1996-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has recommended that individual dosemeter should be calibrated on a suitable phantom and has pointed out that the calibration factor of a neutron dosemeter is strongly influenced by the the exact size and shape of the body and the phantom to which the dosemeter is attached. As the principle of an albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD) is essentially based on a detection of scattered and moderated neutron from a human body, the sensitivity of albedo TLD is strongly influenced by the incident neutron energy and the calibration phantom. (1) Therefore for albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD), the information of neutron albedo response on the calibration phantom is important for appropriate dose estimation. In order to investigate the effect of phantom type on the reading of the albedo TLD, measurement of the TLD energy response and angular response on some typical calibration phantoms was performed using dynamitron accelerator and 252 Cf neutron source. (author)

  8. TLD array for precise dose measurements in stereotactic radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, A.; Kitz, K.; Griffitt, W.; Hartl, R.F.E.; Zehetmayer, M.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a new TLD array for precise dose measurement and verification of the spatial dose distribution in small radiation targets. It consists of a hemicylindrical, tissue-equivalent rod made of polystyrene with 17 parallel moulds for an exact positioning of each TLD. The spatial resolution of the TLD array was evaluated using the Leskell spherical phantom. Dose planning was performed with KULA 4.4 under stereotactic conditions on axial CT images. In the Leksell gamma unit the TLD array was irradiated with a maximal dose of 10 Gy with an unplugged 14 mm collimator. The doses delivered to the TLDs were rechecked by diode detector and film dosimetry and compared to the computer-generated dose profile. We found excellent agreement of our measured values, even at the critical penumbra decline. For the 14 mm and 18 mm collimator and for the 11 mm collimator combination we compared the measured and calculated data at full width at half maximum. This TLD array may be useful for phantom or tissue model studies on the spatial dose distribution in confined radiation targets as used in stereotactic radiotherapy. (author)

  9. NRC methods for evaluation of industry training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, D.S.; Koontz, J.L.; Persensky, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    On March 20, 1985, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission published the Policy Statement on Training and Qualification. The Policy Statement endorsed the INPO-managed Training Accreditation Program because it encompasses the five elements of performance-based training. This paper described the multiple methods that the NRC is using to monitor industry efforts to improve training and implement the NRC Policy Statement on Training and Qualification. The results of the evaluation of industry training improvement programs will be reviewed by the Commissioners in April 1987 to determine the nature of continuing NRC policy and programs for ensuring effective training for the US nuclear industry

  10. Public citizen slams NRC on nuclear inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, P.

    1993-01-01

    Charging the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with open-quotes abandoning tough regulation of the nuclear power industry,close quotes Public Citizen's Critical Mass Energy Project on Wednesday released a report asserting that NRC is shielding sensitive internal nuclear industry self-evaluations from public scrutiny. Based on their review of 56 Institute of Nuclear Power Operations reports and evaluations and comparing these to the NRC's Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance reports for the same plants, it was concluded that the NRC failed to address issues raised in all eight areas evaluated by the INPO reports

  11. Impacts of NRC programs on state and local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, D.A.; Lubenau, J.O.

    1983-12-01

    This document reports the results of an NRC staff examination of the impacts of NRC regulatory programs on State and local governments. Twenty NRC programs are identified. For each, the source of the program (e.g., statutory requirement) and NRC funding availability are described and the impacts upon State and local governments are assessed. Recommendations for NRC monitoring and assessing impacts and for enhancing NRC staff awareness of the impacts are offered

  12. NRC Information No. 89-89: Event notification worksheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The NRC ''Event Notification Worksheet,'' NRC Form 361, has been revised to assist the NRC Headquarters Operations Officers in obtaining adequate information for evaluation of significant events reported to the NRC Operations Center. The new forms more accurately reflect the event classifications and the 10 CFR 50.72 categories that must be reported. A copy of the new worksheet is enclosed for your reference. NRC Form 361 can be ordered from the NRC Information and Records Management Branch

  13. NRC safety research in support of regulation. Selected highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The report presents selected highlights of how research has contributed to the regulatory effort. It explains the research role of the NRC and nuclear safety research contributions in the areas of: pressure vessel integrity, piping, small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents, hydrogen and containment, source term analysis, seismic hazards and high-level waste management. The report also provides a summary of current and future research directions in support of regulation

  14. NRC Enforcement Policy Review, July 1995-July 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Pedersen, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    On June 30, 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a complete revision of its General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Action (Enforcement Policy) (60 FR 34381). In approving the 1995 revision to the Enforcement Policy, the Commission directed the staff to perform a review of its implementation of the Policy after approximately 2 years of experience and to consider public comments. This report represents the results of that review

  15. Data processing of personnel exposure in TLD and film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, A.; Liav, N.; Eisen, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The program for the processing and storage of data on the personnel irradiation exposure in Israel is built on the data base of the Weizmann Institute of Science; it is a general program suitable for both TLD and film dosimetry. The TSO system helped bring up-to-date the data of the various collections in an interactive way. The introduction of the TLD dosemeters in the badge service required certain changes in the thinking line - this because the TLD being a personal dosemeter is returned into service after having been deciphered. This demands following up the dosemeter when the worker moves from unit to unit or after he had finished his work. The program takes into account the internal exposures,too and conforms to the new recommendation published in ICRP-26. (B.G.)

  16. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included

  17. Positional glow curve simulation for thermoluminescent detector (TLD) system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, C.J.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Multi- and thin element dosimeters, variable heating rate schemes, and glow-curve analysis have been employed to improve environmental and personnel dosimetry using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Detailed analysis of the effects of errors and optimization of techniques would be highly desirable. However, an understanding of the relationship between TL light production, light attenuation, and precise heating schemes is made difficult because of experimental challenges involved in measuring positional TL light production and temperature variations as a function of time. This work reports the development of a general-purpose computer code, thermoluminescent detector simulator, TLD-SIM, to simulate the heating of any TLD type using a variety of conventional and experimental heating methods including pulsed focused or unfocused lasers with Gaussian or uniform cross sections, planchet, hot gas, hot finger, optical, infrared, or electrical heating. TLD-SIM has been used to study the impact on the TL light production of varying the input parameters which include: detector composition, heat capacity, heat conductivity, physical size, and density; trapped electron density, the frequency factor of oscillation of electrons in the traps, and trap-conduction band potential energy difference; heating scheme source terms and heat transfer boundary conditions; and TL light scatter and attenuation coefficients. Temperature profiles and glow curves as a function of position time, as well as the corresponding temporally and/or spatially integrated glow values, may be plotted while varying any of the input parameters. Examples illustrating TLD system functions, including glow curve variability, will be presented. The flexible capabilities of TLD-SIM promises to enable improved TLD system design

  18. Study of physical factors affecting the TLD readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Amira Abd Elrhman Ebrahim

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to study the effects of physical factors in TLD reading. The dosimeters have been irradiated with x rays of (0.5 mGy to 5 mGy) using plastic holder with Aluminum filters with dimensions 1.5 x 0.8 mm and 0.5 mm in thickness to obtain the equivalent dose Hp (10) flux of nitrogen gas and annealing after data collection by TLD Reader Analyzer 04 (Version 0.9.400 micro lab (krakow 2012). The count and dose analysis shows that; The count/s given by TLD appears to be higher in case of using filtration which was 7189.9 eps in contrast with reading without filter which was 4055.8 eps. There was proportional linear relationship between the applied dose and the TLD count for both cases with and without filter. And the correlation could be fitted in the form of equations: y=423.9 x + 1023 and y = 432.5 x + 405.3 for filtered and y refers to count/s. Such increment in count is ascribed to increasing applied radiation dose as well it indicates and confirms the linearity of TLD in measuring the radiation dose since R 2 = 0.9. However the count with filter for the applied radiation dose in mGy was greater than that without filter. The that measured with pellets annealing (reading of zero doses). TLD pellets reading without zero dose measurement usually gives greater dose ( 441.8 and 563.6 μGy) relative to the case where the zero doses have been measured which were 289.6 and 429.2 μGy, respectively. While the effect of using filtration is so obvious and leads to increase of zero dose, respectively relative to dose s of un reading of zero dose, and reading of zero dose, but without filter.(Author)

  19. Presentation on NRC Regulatory Positions and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    The NRC staff recognizes the potential for enhanced safety and reliability that digital systems bring to the nuclear industry. The staff also recognizes the challenges to safety that are unique to digital systems implementation

  20. Typical NRC inspection procedures for model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, J.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of NRC inspection procedures for a model LEU fuel fabrication plant is presented. Procedures and methods for combining inventory data, seals, measurement techniques, and statistical analysis are emphasized

  1. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    8. Curcumin : A Prototype Anti-inflammatory Therapeutic for Burn Pain and Wound Healing. Burn and Trauma Research Workgroup. BAMMC Burn Center 2014 9...from Burkholderia infection in mice. 9) PUBLICATIONS AND PAPERS RESULTING FROM NRC ASSOCIATESHIP RESEARCH Provide complete citations: author(s), title...PUBLICATIONS AND PAPERS RESULTING FROM NRC ASSOCIATESHIP RESEARCH Provide complete citations: author(s), title, full name of journal, volume number, page

  2. NRC's object-oriented simulator instructor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.I.; Griffin, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    As part of a comprehensive simulator upgrade program, the simulator computer systems associated with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) nuclear power plant simulators were replaced. Because the original instructor stations for two of the simulators were dependent on the original computer equipment, it was necessary to develop and implement new instructor stations. This report describes the Macintosh-based Instructor Stations developed by NRC engineers for the General Electric (GE) and Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) simulators

  3. Application of combined TLD and CR-39 PNTD method for measurement of total dose and dose equivalent on ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Deme, S.; Apathy, I.

    2006-01-01

    To date, no single passive detector has been found that measures dose equivalent from ionizing radiation exposure in low-Earth orbit. We have developed the I.S.S. Passive Dosimetry System (P.D.S.), utilizing a combination of TLD in the form of the self-contained Pille TLD system and stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (P.N.T.D.) oriented in three mutually orthogonal directions, to measure total dose and dose equivalent aboard the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille TLD system, consisting on an on board reader and a large number of Ca 2 SO 4 :Dy TLD cells, is used to measure absorbed dose. The Pille TLD cells are read out and annealed by the I.S.S. crew on orbit, such that dose information for any time period or condition, e.g. for E.V.A. or following a solar particle event, is immediately available. Near-tissue equivalent CR-39 P.N.T.D. provides Let spectrum, dose, and dose equivalent from charged particles of LET ∞ H 2 O ≥ 10 keV/μm, including the secondaries produced in interactions with high-energy neutrons. Dose information from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is used to correct the absorbed dose component ≥ 10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose. Dose equivalent from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is combined with the dose component <10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose equivalent. Dose rates ranging from 165 to 250 μGy/day and dose equivalent rates ranging from 340 to 450 μSv/day were measured aboard I.S.S. during the Expedition 2 mission in 2001. Results from the P.D.S. are consistent with those from other passive detectors tested as part of the ground-based I.C.C.H.I.B.A.N. intercomparison of space radiation dosimeters. (authors)

  4. USA NRC/RSR Data Bank System and Reactor Safety Research Data Repository (RSRDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Bankert, S.F.

    1979-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through its Division of Reactor Safety Research (RSR) of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has established the NRC/RSR Data Bank Program to collect, process, and make available data from the many domestic and foreign water reactor safety research programs. An increasing number of requests for data and/or calculations generated by NRC Contractors led to the initiation of the program which allows timely and direct access to water reactor safety data in a manner most useful to the user. The program consists of three main elements: data sources, service organizations, and a data repository

  5. 1996 NRC annual report. Volume 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This 22nd annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes accomplishments, activities, and plans made during Fiscal Year 1996 (FH 1996)--October 1, 1995, through September 30, 1996. Significant activities that occurred early in FY 1997 are also described, particularly changes in the Commission and organization of the NRC. The mission of the NRC is to ensure that civilian uses of nuclear materials in the US are carried out with adequate protection of public health and safety, the environment, and national security. These uses include the operation of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle plants and medical, industrial, and research applications. Additionally, the NRC contributes to combating the proliferation of nuclear weapons material worldwide. The NRC licenses and regulates commercial nuclear reactor operations and research reactors and other activities involving the possession and use of nuclear materials and wastes. It also protects nuclear materials used in operation and facilities from theft or sabotage. To accomplish its statutorily mandated regulatory mission, the NRC issues rules and standards, inspects facilities and operations, and issues any required enforcement actions.

  6. 1996 NRC annual report. Volume 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 22nd annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes accomplishments, activities, and plans made during Fiscal Year 1996 (FH 1996)--October 1, 1995, through September 30, 1996. Significant activities that occurred early in FY 1997 are also described, particularly changes in the Commission and organization of the NRC. The mission of the NRC is to ensure that civilian uses of nuclear materials in the US are carried out with adequate protection of public health and safety, the environment, and national security. These uses include the operation of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle plants and medical, industrial, and research applications. Additionally, the NRC contributes to combating the proliferation of nuclear weapons material worldwide. The NRC licenses and regulates commercial nuclear reactor operations and research reactors and other activities involving the possession and use of nuclear materials and wastes. It also protects nuclear materials used in operation and facilities from theft or sabotage. To accomplish its statutorily mandated regulatory mission, the NRC issues rules and standards, inspects facilities and operations, and issues any required enforcement actions

  7. Assessment of the NRC Enforcement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Coblentz, L.

    1995-04-01

    On May 12, 1994, the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) established a Review Team composed of senior NRC managers to re-examine the NRC enforcement program. A copy of the Review Team's charter is enclosed as Appendix A. This report presents the Team's assessment. The purpose of this review effort are: (1) to perform an assessment of the NRC's enforcement program to determine whether the defined purposes of the enforcement program are appropriate; (2) to determine whether the NRC's enforcement practices and procedures for issuing enforcement actions are consistent with those purposes; and (3) to provide recommendations on any changes the Review Team believes advisable. In accordance with its charter, the Review Team considered the following principal issues in conducting its assessment of the enforcement program: the balance between providing deterrence and incentives (both positive and negative) for the identification and correction of violations; the appropriateness of NRC sanctions; whether the commission should seek statutory authority to increase the amount of civil penalties; whether the NRC should use different enforcement policies and practices for different licensees (e.g., materials licensees in contrast to power reactors or large fuel facilities); and whether the commission should establish open enforcement conferences as the normal practice

  8. Differences in TLD 600 and TLD 700 glow curves derived from distict mixed gamma/neutron field irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Castro, Vinicius A.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.

    2013-01-01

    In Neutron Capture Therapy, a thermal neutron beam shall impinge on a specific nuclide, such as 10 B, to promote a nuclear reaction which releases the useful therapeutic energy. A nuclear reactor is usually used as the neutron source, and therefore field contaminants such as gamma and high energy neutrons are also present in the field. However, mixed field dosimetry still stands as a challenge in some cases, due to the difficulty to experimentally discriminate the dose from each field component. For the mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation end Units (ICRU) recommends the use of detector pairs with different responses for each beam component. The TLD 600/700 pair meets this need, because these LiF detectors have different Li isotopes concentration, with distinct thermal neutron responses because 6 Li presents a much higher neutron capture cross section than does 7 Li for low energy neutrons. TLD 600 is 6 Li enriched while TLD 700 is 7 Li enriched. However, depending on the neutron spectrum presented in the mixed field, TLD 700 response to thermal neutrons cannot be disregarded. This work aims to study the difference in TLD 600 and TLD 700 glow curves when these TLDs are submitted to mixed fields of different energy spectra and components balance. The TLDs were irradiated in a pure gamma source, and in mixed fields from an AmBe sealed source and from the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. These TLDs were read and had their two main dosimetric regions analyzed to observe the differences in the glow curves of these TLDs in each irradiation. Field components discrimination was achieved through Monte Carlo simulations run with MCNP radiation transport code. (author)

  9. NRC wants plant-specific responses on Thermo-Lag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Dissatisfied with recent industry-backed efforts to assure fire safety at nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission announced on November 24 that it would direct all nuclear plant owners to specify the actions they would take to assure that the use of the Thermo-Lag 330 fire barrier material would not lead to insufficient protection of electrical cables connected to safe-shutdown systems. Previously, the NRC had been content to let the matter wait until tests sponsored by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (Numarc) could show whether Thermo-Lag, used and installed in certain ways, would provide sufficient protection, but the NRC and Numarc have disagreed over the test methodology, and the Numarc tests are now considered to be several months behind schedule

  10. Shift technical advisors: in the eyes of the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    Since January 1, 1980, the NRC has required that Shift Technical Advisors be on-shift at all operating nuclear power plants. The objective of the requirement is to assure that technical expertise is immediately available to each operating shift to assess off-normal events and to provide advice to control room personnel. Further, this advice and assistance is to be provided by an individual not responsible for control manipulations or for directing the activities of reactor operators. The long-term requirement for on-shift technical expertise is firm. However, the exact manner in which this expertise must be furnished has not been determined. Licensees have proposed various alternatives to meet this requirement. These proposals still are being reviewed by the NRC staff

  11. Performance test of a portable TLD system for accidental doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihelic, M.; Stuhec, M.; Mitic, D.; Vekic, B.; Miljanic, S.; Ban, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A portable TLD measuring system was constructed at the J. Stefan Institute many years ago, motivated by the thread of a catastrophic nuclear event. It was designed for fast measurements in accidental dosimetry mainly for military and civil protection use. The system consists of a robust portable measuring unit built for measurements in field conditions, sized about 40 cm in diameter and weighting 5 kg. Dosimeters are based on CaF 2 :Mn ceramic tablets closed in water resistant plastic housings. In original design producer assured measuring range from cGy to kGy. Specially designed energy compensating filters are used to satisfy requirements for energy response from 0,1 to 3 MeV. Stability of readings is maintained with the temperature stabilized light source. Measuring time for manually driven heating-reading cycle of one dosimeter is about 30 sec. Many systems of the type with sets of dosimeters were stored unused for some years in depositories of different institutions. Modernization of equipment in last years raised questions of applicability of such measurement systems for contemporary needs. The system was thus tested in a secondary standards dosimetry laboratory for compliance with up to date requirements for accidental individual monitoring. Dosimeter characteristics as repeatability, linearity and directional response were of particular interest. As a result of the tests, technical improvements are suggested to extent systems measuring capabilities in order to meet new standards. Possibilities of its use in different fields of dosimetry are discussed, where quick in field measurements of high doses is required as for example in medicine or in civil protection motivated by the new threads of terrorist attacks. (author)

  12. Quality control in medical radiology using T.L.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolemberg Silva, F.A.; Nascimento Souza, D. do

    2006-01-01

    In this work tests of quality control in beams of X rays have been carried out, at diagnostic level, of two radiological services equipments of Brazilian hospitals (Aracaju, SE). We obtained the air kerma and kerma rate values, the beams efficiency, the coherence between the luminous fields and the referring fields of irradiation and half-value layer to each equipment and set of parameters. The measures of direct form have been obtained using two ionization chambers, one cylindrical and another one with parallel plates. An optional method for accomplishment some of the tests were carried out with CaSO 4 :Dy + Teflon thermoluminescent dosimeters. The values of air kerma were evaluated for three tube voltage, 40, 60 and 81 kV at 1.0 m from the focus of the equipments. For each one of the voltages three distinct current values were chosen besides a fixed value of exposition time. The results showed that the values of air kerma varied between 8.0 μGy and 0.35 μGy. The T.L.D. have revealed useful for the measures if the response to the dose is previously known for each set of beam parameters used for the irradiations. Otherwise, the tests with the dosimeters can serve to evaluate the beams conditions and their reproducibility. The evaluation results of coherence between the luminous fields and the irradiation fields demonstrated that the difference between the radiation and the luminous fields did not exceed 2% of the distance between the focal point and the film. We found satisfactory values for half-value layer. (author)

  13. Towards an automated TLD system that meets international requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Vanamo, V.

    1988-01-01

    The new recently introduced fully automated TLD system developed by Alnor OY on the basis of the Riso prototype, is intended to meet draft IEC/ISO proposals and ANSI requirements. Part of the system is a personal dosemeter badge and an environmental dosemeter package following ICRU recommendations. The overall system consists of a software-controlled automated reader, a programable irradiator/calibrator, a computer, and dosemeters for environmental, whole body, extremity and clinical applications. The personal TLD badge that contains four TLD pellets is designed to agree with ICRU H p (10) and H s (0.07) quantities for determining dose equivalent. The badge can accommodate a large variety of the most commonly used solid TL dosemeter products. A special effort was put into the evaluation of skin dose by considering the use of graphite-mixed hot-sintered LiF pellets. The TLD system is described and results from a performance test that comprised measurements of photon energy response, angular dependence, and reproducibility are presented

  14. Periodicity of TLD badge personnel monitoring service in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kher, R.K.; Joshi, V.D.; Kaushik, Aruna; Sharma, Amiy; Chatterjee, S.

    2003-01-01

    The periodicity of an individual monitoring service is an important aspect. Presently minimum period for TLD badge service is maintained as 'calendar month' and choice of quarterly service is also offered. The periodicity of the TLD service for a given category/application type of institution, is to be fixed taking into account level of average occupational doses in all or typical institutions of given category and other information indicating the status of safety and possible fluctuations of exposure levels and potential for overexposure cases. This paper presents the status on the periodicity of TLD Badge Service as is evolved and adopted for the four broad categories i.e. DAE (Nuclear Fuel Cycle) Institutions, Industrial, Medical, Research institutions. It is concluded that quarterly service is a convenient option for institution categories where type of work/workload, and work practices are such that occupational exposures could be normally kept below about one mSv or so in the monitoring period, average annual dose less than 1 mSv and persons receiving annual dose >10 mSv is less than 1% of total in the category. Also, the judicious use of the flexibility in the periodicity of TLD Badge service would help (i) to keep the monitoring related workload to the optimum for the monitoring units and (ii) to keep the expenses incurred by the institution towards monitoring to the minimum without sacrificing radiation safety (iii) to focus the extra monitoring efforts on the applications/situations requiring improvement in radiation safety. (author)

  15. Environmental dose measurement with microprocessor based portable TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    Application of TL method for environmental gamma-radiation dosimetry involves uncertainty caused by the dose collected during the transport from the point of annealing to the place of exposure and back to the place of evaluation. Should an accident occur read out is delayed due to the need to transport to a laboratory equipped with a TLD reader. A portable reader capable of reading out the TL dosemeter at the place of exposure ('in situ TLD reader') eliminates the above mentioned disadvantages. We have developed a microprocessor based portable TLD reader for monitoring environmental gamma-radiation doses and for on board reading out of doses on space stations. The first version of our portable, battery operated reader (named Pille - 'butterfly') was made at the beginning of the 80s. These devices used CaSO 4 bulb dosemeters and the evaluation technique was based on analogue timing circuits and analogue to digital conversion of the photomultiplier current with a read out precision of 1 μGy and a measuring range up to 10 Gy. The measured values were displayed and manually recorded. The version with an external power supply was used for space dosimetry as an onboard TLD reader

  16. 10 CFR 2.709 - Discovery against NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery against NRC staff. 2.709 Section 2.709 Energy... Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.709 Discovery against NRC staff. (a)(1) In a proceeding in which the NRC staff is a party, the NRC staff will make available one or more witnesses, designated by the...

  17. Introducing 2D barcode on TLD cards - a step towards automation in personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.; Annalakshmi, O; Rajagopal, V.; Santhanam, R.; Jose, M.T.

    2018-01-01

    As part of personnel monitoring services, TLD lab, RSD, IGCAR issues and receives large numbers of TLD cards every month, for use by occupational workers belonging to various hot facilities at Kalpakkam. Considering the nature of the work being manual, routine, labour intensive and being prone for human errors, introducing automation would be necessary at the TLD lab as well as at the user facility. This requires identification of the individual components of the TLD and embed them with unique identification for the system to accomplish the task. The paper discusses the automation part related to the TLD cards

  18. Overview of the NRC performance monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    In response to the accident at Three Mile Island, the NRC developed the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) Program to aid in the identification of those licensees that were more likely than others to have safety problems and to provide a rational basis for allocation of inspection resources. The NRC also has an ongoing program of screening and evaluating operating reactor event reports on a daily basis for promptly identifying safety problems. Although the SALP and event report evaluation programs have been successful in identifying potential performance problems, a concern developed recently about the adequacy and timeliness of NRC programs to detect poor or declining performance. The performance indicator program as approved by the commission is in the implementation phase. The program is expected to undergo refinements as new indicators are developed and experience is gained in the use of indicators

  19. NRC/RSR Data Bank Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, S.F.; Evans, C.D.; Hardy, H.A.; Litteer, G.L.; Schulz, G.L.; Smith, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established the NRC/Reactor Safety Research (RSR) Data Bank Program to provide a means of collecting, processing, and making available experimental data from the many domestic and foreign water reactor safety research programs. The NRC/RSR Data Bank Program collects qualified engineering data from experimental program data bases, stores the data in a single data bank in a common format, and makes the data available to users. The program is designed to be user oriented to minimize the effort required to obtain and manipulate data of interest. The data bank concept and structure embodied in the data bank processing system are applicable to any program where large quantities of scientific (numeric) data are generated and require compiling, storage, and accessing in order to be collected and made available to multiple users. 3 figures

  20. NRC perspective and experience on valve testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    Testing of safety related valves is one of the major activities at commercial nuclear power plants. In addition to Technical Specification, valve testing is required in 10 CFR 50.55a and 10 CFR 50 Appendix J. NRC inspectors (both resident and specialists) spend a considerable amount of time in following the valve test activities as part of their routine business. In the past, depending on a licensee's organizational structure, a valve could be tested more than three times to verify conformance with Technical Specifications, 10 CFR 50.55a, and 10 CFR 50 Appendix J. The regulatory reviewers were isolated from each other. Licensee test personnel were also not communicating among themselves. As a result, NRC inspectors found that certain valves in the IST program were inadequately tested. The typical licensee response was to say that this valve is exempted from testing under Appendix J. Others would say that the technical specification does not require fast closure of a valve in question. In addition to the above, the inspectors had to deal with exemption requests that were not dispositioned by the NRC. In the seventies there was a gentlemen's agreement to allow the licensee to do the testing in accordance with the exception, without waiting for the NRC approval. Needless to say when the new NRC inspection procedure was issued in March 1989 for implementation, the Regional inspectors had extremely difficult time to cope with the gray areas of valve testing. In August 1987, NRC Region I was reorganized and the special test program section was established to perform inspections in the IST area. This section was chartered to optimize resources and develop a meaningful inspection plan. The perspectives and insights used in the development of a detailed inspection plan is discussed below

  1. 75 FR 44992 - Review of Management Directive 8.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0242] Review of Management Directive 8.11 AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC) is requesting public comment on Management Directive (MD) 8.11, ``Review Process for 10 CFR 2.206... members of the public and the NRC, the NRC is soliciting comments from the public, on what, if any...

  2. Overview of NRC PRA research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.A.; Drouin, M.T.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; VanderMolen, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC's research program in probabilistic risk analysis includes a set of closely-related elements, from basic research to regulatory applications. The elements of this program are as follows: (1) Development and demonstration of methods and advanced models and tools for use by the NRC staff and others performing risk assessments; (2) Support to agency staff on risk analysis and statistics issues; (3) Reviews of risk assessments submitted by licensees in support of regulatory applications, including the IPEs and IPEEEs. Each of these elements is discussed in the paper, providing highlights of work within an element, and, where appropriate, describing important support and feedback mechanisms among elements

  3. NRC licensing criteria for portable radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The shortcomings of various components of the liquid and solid radwaste systems at nuclear power reactors has resulted in the contracting of the functions performed by these systems to various contractors who utilize portable equipment. In addition, some streams, for which treatment was not originally anticipated, have been processed by portable equipment. The NRC criteria applicable to portable liquid and solid radwaste systems is presented along with discussion on what is required to provide an adequate 10 CFR Part 50.59 review for those situations where changes are made to an existing system. The criteria the NRC is considering for facilities which may intend to utilize portable incinerators is also presented

  4. NRC/RSR Data Bank Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, S.F.; Evans, C.D.; Hardy, H.A.; Litteer, G.L.; Schulz, G.L.; Smith, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established the NRC/Reactor Safety Research (RSR) Data Bank Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The program provides the means of collecting, storing, and making available experimental data from the many water reactor safety research programs in the United States and other countries. The program collects qualified engineering data on a prioritized basis from experimental program data bases, stores the data in a single data bank in a common format, and makes the data available to users

  5. NRC program of inspection and enforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeDoux, J.C.; Rehfuss, C.

    1978-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates civilian uses of nuclear materials to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) develops and implements the inspection, investigation, and enforcement programs for the NRC. The IE conducts inspection programs for reactors under construction and in operation, nuclear industry vendors, fuel facilities and users of nuclear materials, and all aspects of the safeguarding of facilities and materials. Recently the IE began implementing a program that will place inspectors on site at nuclear power reactors and will provide for national appraisal of licensee performance and for an evaluation of the effectiveness of the inspection programs

  6. Dosimetric quality control in radiotherapy using TLD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravi, M.C.; Kessler, C.; Alvarez, P.E.; Feld, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project 'Development of a Quality Assurance Program for Radiation Therapy Dosimetry in Developing Countries' a Dosimetric Quality Control Group was set up in Argentina in 1996, to develop a program in order to improve radiotherapy in the country. Nowadays, this Group, briefly called External Audit Group (EAG), is composed by the national Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), which has the responsibility for dose determinations, traceability to international dosimetry chain and TLD measurements, and two Medical Physicists from CNEA who are working at the Oncology Hospital 'Marie Curie' in Buenos Aires. The present paper reports the activities performed by the EAG with external high energy photon beams in reference conditions and the results of two pilot studies on cobalt 60 beams in non-reference conditions. The first step of the program was to update the existing data base about the radiotherapy centres operating in the country. A form was sent to each of them in order to obtain basic information about their staff, number and type of treatment machines, brachytherapy sources, measuring devices, beam calibration, treatment planning system, simulator and other relevant data. 90 radiotherapy centres were registered in the EAG data base. Forms were completed by 75/90 centres. There are nowadays 69 cobalt 60 units and 42 LINACs operating in the country (18/42 LINACs producing high energy X ray and electron beams). EAG deals with measurements performed with mailed TLD irradiated at radiotherapy centres. Internal quality control on our TLD system is made during each audit by means of reference capsules irradiated by IAEA; external controls consist in blind tests performed by IAEA once a year. The correction factor, K en , determined at our SSDL for high energy X-rays was checked with the collaboration of IAEA and Prague National Radiation Protection Institute (PNRPI) by means of a blind test. Results for 4 MV, 6 MV

  7. Environmental monitoring system with TLD; Sistema de monitoreo ambiental con TLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguerre, L.; Carelli, J.; Gregori, B. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear Argentina (Argentina)]. e-mail: laguerre@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    Presently work the methodology used by the Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (RNA) to gauge it system of environmental monitoring in function of the media absorbed dose rate in free air and the environmental dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10), according to the recommendation ICRU Report 47 is described. It was studied the response of the environmental dosemeter (DA) in fields of photonic radiation of energies W60, Wl 10, W200 and {sup 137} Cs. The irradiations were carried out following the recommendations of the standard ISO:4037. It was analyzed the response in the DA of the detectors LiF: Mg, Ti and CaF{sub 2}: Dy for the different radiation qualities and the relative response at {sup 137} Cs of both. The methodology used in the evaluation of the dose includes: the correction of the readings of both detectors by fading, gotten experimentally, the witness of transfers, the energy answer and the value of the zero. The dose is calculated applying the average pondered in uncertainty of the dose obtained for each type of detector. Its were analyzed and calculated the uncertainties that affect to the measurement following the recommendation of the Argentine standard IRAM 35050. The detection limit of the absorbed dose rate in free air of this system it is 3.5 n Gy/h for a period of sampling of 3 months. With this detection limit environmental dose equivalent rates of the order of 70 n Sv/h are measured with an expanded uncertainty of the order of 10% with a cover factor k = 2. (Author)

  8. Image-guided method for TLD-based in vivo rectal dose verification with endorectal balloon in proton therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, Wen C.; Fagundes, Marcio; Zeidan, Omar; Hug, Eugen; Schreuder, Niek

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present a practical image-guided method to position an endorectal balloon that improves in vivo thermoluminiscent dosimeter (TLD) measurements of rectal doses in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods: TLDs were combined with endorectal balloons to measure dose at the anterior rectal wall during daily proton treatment delivery. Radiopaque metallic markers were employed as surrogates for balloon position reproducibility in rotation and translation. The markers were utilized to guide the balloon orientation during daily treatment employing orthogonal x-ray image-guided patient positioning. TLDs were placed at the 12 o'clock position on the anterior balloon surface at the midprostatic plane. Markers were placed at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions on the balloon to align it with respect to the planned orientation. The balloon rotation along its stem axis, referred to as roll, causes TLD displacement along the anterior-posterior direction. The magnitude of TLD displacement is revealed by the separation distance between markers at opposite sides of the balloon on sagittal x-ray images. Results: A total of 81 in vivo TLD measurements were performed on six patients. Eighty-three percent of all measurements (65 TLD readings) were within +5% and −10% of the planning dose with a mean of −2.1% and a standard deviation of 3.5%. Examination of marker positions with in-room x-ray images of measured doses between −10% and −20% of the planned dose revealed a strong correlation between balloon roll and TLD displacement posteriorly from the planned position. The magnitude of the roll was confirmed by separations of 10–20 mm between the markers which could be corrected by manually adjusting the balloon position and verified by a repeat x-ray image prior to proton delivery. This approach could properly correct the balloon roll, resulting in TLD positioning within 2 mm along the anterior-posterior direction. Conclusions: Our results show that image-guided TLD

  9. Photon energy response of an aluminum oxide TLD environmental dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsher, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Because of aluminum oxide's significant advantage in sensitivity (about a factor of 30) over LiF, minimal fading characteristics and ease of processing, aluminum oxide thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDS) are being phased in at Los alamos for environmental monitoring of photon radiation. The new environmental dosimeter design consists of a polyethylene holder, about 0. 5 cm thick, loaded with a stack of four aluminum oxide TLD chips, each 1 mm thick and 5 mm in diameter. As part of the initial evaluation of the new design, the photon energy response of the dosimeter was calculated over the range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. Specific goals of the analysis included the determination of individual chip response in the stack, assessment of the response variation due to TLD material (i.e., LiF versus A1 2 O 3 ), and the effect of copper filtration in flattening the response

  10. Quality Assurance and Quality Control in TLD Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, S.I.; Qronfla, M.M.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Kinsara, A.A.; Taha, T.M.; Molla, N.I.; Elmohr, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    TLD technique characterized by high precision and reproducibility of dose measurement is presented by addressing pre-readout annealing, group sorting, dose evaluation, blind tests, internal dose quality audit and external quality control audits. Two hundred and forty TLD chips were annealed for 1 hour at 4000 degree C followed by 2 h at 1000 degree C. After exposure of 1 mGy from 90 Sr irradiator TLDs were subjected to pre-readout annealing at 1000 degree C, then readout, sorted into groups each with nearly equal sensitivity. Upon repeating the procedures, TLDs having response >3.5% from group mean were dropped to assuring group stability. Effect of pre-readout annealing has been studied. Series of repeated measurements were conducted to stabilize calibration procedures and DCF generation using SSDL level 137 Cs calibrator, dose master, ionization chambers. Performed internal dose quality audits, blind tests and validated by external QC tests with King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology

  11. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ''Management and Use of Information and Records,'' and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA's General Records Schedule (dated August 1995)

  12. Abstracts: NRC Waste Management Program reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Minichino, C.

    1979-11-01

    This document consists of abstracts of all reports published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Waste Management Program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). It will be updated at regular intervals. Reports are arranged in numerical order, within each category. Unless otherwise specified, authors are LLL scientists and engineers.

  13. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    maintaining a presence on social media sites such as Facebook . The NRC attended a number of minority focused events in which we maintained exhibit booths...PROPOSAL The Use of Glial Inhibitors to Increase the Efficacy of Opioid Analgesics while Eliminating the Propensity for Addiction 7) SUMMARY OF RESEARCH

  14. Abstracts: NRC Waste Management Program reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Minichino, C.

    1979-11-01

    This document consists of abstracts of all reports published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Waste Management Program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). It will be updated at regular intervals. Reports are arranged in numerical order, within each category. Unless otherwise specified, authors are LLL scientists and engineers

  15. 77 FR 33786 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... methods: Federal Rulemaking Web site: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and search for Docket ID NRC-2011... search, select ``ADAMS Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems... either 2.3.2.a. or b. must be met for the disposition of a violation as an NCV.'' The following new...

  16. 48 CFR 2009.100 - NRC policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... noncompetitive award of contracts to organizations where former NRC employees have dominant management interests...) Contracts awarded noncompetitively under the Small Business Administration's 8(a) Program; (2) Individual... consulting with the Executive Director for Operations. This is in addition to any justification and approvals...

  17. 76 FR 48919 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    .... In all such cases when a licensee determines that an unplanned change during construction associated..., States, members of the public, and the regulated industry (i.e., reactor and materials licensees, vendors, and contractors), on construction-related topics addressed in this notice that the NRC staff is...

  18. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  19. Environmental radiation measurements using TLD in and around AERE, Dhaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Husain, S.R.; Rahman, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The external background radiation level in and around the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) in Dhaka has been measured. The measurements were performed using lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD-100) at 32 locations, all one metre above the ground. The annual average dose rate measured in the AERE environs was 1.74+-0.23 mGy.y -1 in air, based on analysis of thermoluminescence dosemeter data collected from 1982 to 1984. (author)

  20. Meeting regulatory standards with BeO ceramic TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Christian, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of exposures below 1 mR are possible with BeO ceramic TLD by signal recording that discriminates against an interfering pyroelectric incandescence. Performance under environmental monitoring conditions is considered in light of current regulatory criteria. Factors such as reproducibility and batch uniformity are satisfactory. An anomalous energy dependence causes an over-response that will probably require use of an energy compensation shield

  1. NRC safety research in support of regulation, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports responding to congressional inquiries as to the utilization of nuclear regulatory research. NUREG-1175, ''NRC Safety Research in Support of Regulation,'' published in May 1986, reported major research accomplishments between about FY 1980 and FY 1985. This report narrates the accomplishments of FY 1986 and does not restate earlier accomplishments. Earlier research results are mentioned in the context of current results in the interest of continuity. Both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge and their regulatory applications, when there has been a definite regulatory outcome during FY 1986, have been described

  2. Indoor gamma radiation monitoring In Rawalpindi, Pakistan using TLD100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Sana; Tufail, Muhammad; Sohail, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Natural radioactivity originates from extraterrestrial sources as well as from radioactive elements in earth's crust. The amount of radioactivity varies from place to place and with altitude. The aim of this study was to observe the indoor radiation level in Rawalpindi using TLD. For this purpose LiF:Mg:Ti (TLD100) chips were used. Chips were annealed and then calibrated using different sources and the calibration factor obtained by using Cs137 source was selected for dose estimation. Its value was 0.1403 μGy/TL response. Rawalpindi categorized into six regions. In each region, 5 cemented houses were selected and TLD 100 chips were placed at a distance of 0.5 m from ground the level. Chips were properly covered to protect them from ultraviolet light and moisture and were placed for three months. The average annual indoor dose rate for Rawalpindi was estimated to be 392.105μGy/yr and average dose to be 97.65μGy. Therefore, the effective dose for population of Rawalpindi from indoor gamma radiation was estimated to be 313.68μSv/yr using an indoor occupancy factor of 80%. (author)

  3. Self-shielding factors for TLD-600 and TLD-100 in an isotropic flux of thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Y.S.; Dubi, A.; Ben Shahar, B.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters in mixed n-γ environments, and the dependence of LiF-TL on linear energy transfer are both topics of current interest. Monte Carlo calculations have therefore been carried out to determine the thermal neutron absorption probability (and consequently the self-shielding factor) for an isotropic flux of neutrons impinging on different sized cylindrical samples of LiF TLD-100 and TLD-600. The calculations were performed for cylinders of radius up to 10 cm and heights of 0.1 to 1.5 cm. The Monte Carlo results were found to be significantly different from the analytic calculations for infinitely long cylinders, but, as expected, converged to the same value for (r/h) << 1. (U.K.)

  4. Neutron dose measurements of Varian and Elekta linacs by TLD600 and TLD700 dosimeters and comparison with MCNP calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Darestani, Hoda; Banaee, Nooshin; Shagholi, Negin; Mohammadi, Kheirollah; Shahvar, Arjang; Bayat, Esmaeel

    2014-01-01

    High-energy linacs produce secondary particles such as neutrons (photoneutron production). The neutrons have the important role during treatment with high energy photons in terms of protection and dose escalation. In this work, neutron dose equivalents of 18 MV Varian and Elekta accelerators are measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) 600 and TLD700 detectors and compared with the Monte Carlo calculations. For neutron and photon dose discrimination, first TLDs were calibrated separately by gamma and neutron doses. Gamma calibration was carried out in two procedures; by standard 60Co source and by 18 MV linac photon beam. For neutron calibration by (241)Am-Be source, irradiations were performed in several different time intervals. The Varian and Elekta linac heads and the phantom were simulated by the MCNPX code (v. 2.5). Neutron dose equivalent was calculated in the central axis, on the phantom surface and depths of 1, 2, 3.3, 4, 5, and 6 cm. The maximum photoneutron dose equivalents which calculated by the MCNPX code were 7.06 and 2.37 mSv.Gy(-1) for Varian and Elekta accelerators, respectively, in comparison with 50 and 44 mSv.Gy(-1) achieved by TLDs. All the results showed more photoneutron production in Varian accelerator compared to Elekta. According to the results, it seems that TLD600 and TLD700 pairs are not suitable dosimeters for neutron dosimetry inside the linac field due to high photon flux, while MCNPX code is an appropriate alternative for studying photoneutron production.

  5. Developmental roles of the BMP1/TLD metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gaoxiang; Greenspan, Daniel S

    2006-03-01

    The astacin family (M12A) of the metzincin subclan MA(M) of metalloproteinases has been detected in developing and mature individuals of species that range from hydra to humans. Functions of this family of metalloproteinase vary from digestive degradation of polypeptides, to biosynthetic processing of extracellular proteins, to activation of growth factors. This review will focus on a small subgroup of the astacin family; the bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1)/Tolloid (TLD)-like metalloproteinases. In vertebrates, the BMP1/TLD-like metalloproteinases play key roles in regulating formation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) via biosynthetic processing of various precursor proteins into mature functional enzymes, structural proteins, and proteins involved in initiating mineralization of the ECM of hard tissues. Roles in ECM formation include: processing of the C-propeptides of procollagens types I-III, to yield the major fibrous components of vertebrate ECM; proteolytic activation of the enzyme lysyl oxidase, necessary to formation of covalent cross-links in collagen and elastic fibers; processing of NH2-terminal globular domains and C-propeptides of types V and XI procollagen chains to yield monomers that are incorporated into and control the diameters of collagen type I and II fibrils, respectively; processing of precursors for laminin 5 and collagen type VII, both of which are involved in securing epidermis to underlying dermis; and maturation of small leucine-rich proteoglycans. The BMP1/TLD-related metalloproteinases are also capable of activating the vertebrate transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-like "chalones" growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8, also known as myostatin), and GDF11 (also known as BMP11), involved in negative feedback inhibition of muscle and neural tissue growth, respectively; by freeing them from noncovalent latent complexes with their cleaved prodomains. BMP1/TLD-like proteinases also liberate the vertebrate TGF

  6. Test of an albedo neutron dosimetry system: TLD calibration and readout procedure, neutron calibration, dosimetry properties, routine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1988-03-01

    The two-component albedo dosemeter in use consists of an universal boron-loaded plastic encapsulation, the beta and albedo neutron windows of which are adopted to the corresponding TLD system of the manufacturers Alnor, Harshaw, Panasonic and Vinten. Beside the TLD detectors the capsule may contain also track etch detectors. Within a BMU project the system was investigated by four governmental measurement services in the FRG with respect to its qualification for personnel monitoring with emphasis in the readout and calibration procedures for the TLD system, the evaluation technique for the estimation of the photon and neutron dose equivalent in routine monitoring and the calibration of the personnel dosemeter in stray neutron fields. The test has shown the readiness of the system to act in the application areas of nuclear power reactors and linacs behind heavy shieldings, in the fuel element cycle, use of fissile materials, criticality, use of radionuclide sources, high energy particle accelerators. The uncertainty due to energy dependence was found to be within a factor of 2 for a single application area. In the case of irradiations from the front half space the dose equivalent H'(10) is indicated sufficiently independent of the direction of the radiation incidence. After completion of the test the albedo dosemeter became the official neutron personnel dosemeter in the FRG. It allows the separate estimation of the dose equivalent of hard beta radiation, photon radiation and neutrons. (orig./HP) [de

  7. IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service and high precision measurements for radiotherapy level dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Bera, P.; Vatnitsky, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1969 the International Atomic Energy Agency, together with the World Health Organization, has performed postal TLD audits to verify calibration of radiotherapy beams in developing countries. The TLD programme also monitors activities of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs). The programme has checked approximately 4000 clinical beams in over 1100 hospitals, and in many instances significant errors have been detected in the beam calibration. Subsequent follow-up actions help to resolve the discrepancies, thus preventing further mistreatment of patients. The audits for SSDLs check the implementation of the dosimetry protocol in order to assure proper dissemination of dosimetry standards to the end-users. The TLD audit results for SSDLs show good consistency in the basic dosimetry worldwide. New TLD procedures and equipment have recently been introduced by the IAEA that include a modified TLD calibration methodology and computerised tools for automation of dose calculation from TLD readings. (author)

  8. Performance and Test Results of Harshaw Pelletised LiF:Mg,Ti TLD Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbeck, K.J.; Zhang, L.; Green, R.; Tomlins, P.

    1999-01-01

    BICRON NE has recently introduced a pelletised version of their popular TLD-100, 600 and 700 lithium fluoride based thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs). These materials can be used unmounted or in card and ring formats. Applications include whole-body, environmental, medical, and extremity monitoring. The former manufacturing process included purifying, growing doped LiF, grinding, blending, pressing, slicing, and dicing. The new process eliminates the last four steps, replacing them with a pelletising process. This process transforms the material directly from a powder to its final form. This new process provides the benefits of better batch uniformity and excellent dimensional consistency. The testing is described that was performed for the purpose of accepting the pelletised material as a directly interchangeable substitute for the same material produced by the former process. Tests performed include reproducibility, batch homogeneity, linearity, detection threshold, and light sensitivity. (author)

  9. NRC Regulatory Agenda: Quarterly report, October--December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules which the NRC has proposed or is considering action on, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission

  10. The characteristics of CaF2:Tm crystals (TLD-300) irradiated by electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; Yona, S.; Laichter, Y.; German, U.; Weiser, G.

    1985-09-01

    The main characteristics of the CaF 2 :Tm crystals (TLD-300), as a dosimeter, were measured: the glow curve, sensitivity, linearity, fading and energy dependence for photons, and compared to those of LiF (TLD-100) and CaF 2 :Dy (TLD-200). It was found that CaF 2 :Tm can be used for environmental dosimetry by reading the crystals after four days. (Author)

  11. Ten years experience with a large computerized TLD-personnel monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    It is now ten years since our Institute for Radiation Protection has fully replaced its filmdosimetry service by a computerized automated TLD system. Presently more than 13000 radiation workers are monthly monitored by three automated TLD readers linked to the computer center. The paper describes system hardware and software and experience gained in long-term routine operation. In particular the introduction of the new ICRU quantities for personnel dosimetry in the existing TLD system is discussed. (Author)

  12. 10 CFR 2.1505 - Role of the NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Role of the NRC staff. 2.1505 Section 2.1505 Energy... Legislative Hearings § 2.1505 Role of the NRC staff. The NRC staff shall be available to answer any Commission or presiding officer's questions on staff-prepared documents, provide additional information or...

  13. 10 CFR 51.40 - Consultation with NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation with NRC staff. 51.40 Section 51.40 Energy....40 Consultation with NRC staff. (a) A prospective applicant or petitioner for rulemaking is encouraged to confer with NRC staff as early as possible in its planning process before submitting...

  14. Study of a method based on TLD detectors for in-phantom dosimetry in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Natl. Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Klamert, V. [Dept. of Nuclear Eng. of Polytechnic, CESNEF, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Agosteo, S. [INFN, Natl. Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Dept. of Nuclear Eng. of Polytechnic, CESNEF, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Birattari, C.; Gay, S. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Natl. Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Rosi, G. [FIS-ION, ENEA, Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Scolari, L. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Natl. Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    A method has been developed, based on thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD), aimed at measuring the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms exposed to thermal or epithermal neutrons, separating the contributions of various secondary radiation generated by neutrons. The proposed method takes advantage of the very low sensitivity of CaF{sub 2}:Tm (TLD-300) to low energy neutrons and to the different responses to thermal neutrons of LiF:Mg,Ti dosemeters with different {sup 6}Li percentage (TLD-100, TLD-700, TLD-600). The comparison of the results with those obtained by means of gel dosemeters and activation foils has confirmed the reliability of the method. The experimental modalities allowing reliable results have been studied. The glow curves of TLD-300 after gamma or neutron irradiation have been compared; moreover, both internal irradiation effect and energy dependence have been investigated. For TLD-600, TLD-100 and TLD-700, the suitable fluence limits have been determined in order to avoid radiation damage and loss of linearity. (authors)

  15. Review of NRC Regulatory processes and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has spent much time over many years observing and examining the NRC licensing process. The Committee is, consequently, in a position to comment on the situation, and it believes this review will be helpful to those examining the regulatory process by discussing how it works, where it is weak, and the opportunities for improvement. The Committee's review may also help put current proposals and discussions in perspective

  16. Nuclear regulation. NRC's security clearance program can be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; Bagnulo, John E.

    1988-12-01

    Because of the national security implications of its programs, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) investigates the background of its employees and consultants as well as others to ensure that they are reliable and trustworthy. If the investigation indicates that an employee will not endanger national security, NRC grants a security clearance that allows access to classified information, material, and facilities. NRC also requires periodic checks for some clearance holders to ensure their continued clearance eligibility. The Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, House Committee on Government Operations, asked GAO to review NRC's personnel security clearance program and assess the procedures that NRC uses to ensure that those who operate nuclear power plants do not pose a threat to the public. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 requires NRC to conduct background investigations of its employees and consultants as well as others who have access to classified information, material, or facilities. To do this, NRC established a personnel security clearance program. Under NRC policies, a security clearance is granted after the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) or the Federal Bureau of Investigation checks the background of those applying for an NRC clearance. NRC also periodically reassesses the integrity of those holding the highest level clearance. NRC employees, consultants, contractors, and licensees as well as other federal employees hold approximately 10,600 NRC clearances. NRC does not grant clearances to commercial nuclear utility employees unless they require access to classified information or special nuclear material. However, the utilities have voluntarily established screening programs to ensure that their employees do not pose a threat to nuclear plants. NRC faces a dilemma when it hires new employees. Although its policy calls for new hires to be cleared before they start work, the security clearance process takes so long

  17. NRC perspective on alternative disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L.; Tokar, M.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper is discussed an NRC staff strategy for the development of technical criteria and procedures for the licensing of various alternatives for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Steps taken by the staff to identify viable alternative disposal methods and to comply with the requirements of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (LLRWPAA) of 1985 are also discussed. The strategy proposed by the NRC staff is to focus efforts in FY 87 on alternative concepts that incorporate concrete materials with soil or rock cover (e.g., below ground vaults and earth-mounded concrete bunkers), which several State and State Compacts have identified as preferred disposal options. While the NRC staff believes that other options, such as above ground vaults and mined cavities, are workable and licensable, the staff also believes, for reasons addressed in the paper, that it is in the best interest of the industry and the public to encourage standardization and to focus limited resources on a manageable number of alternative options. Therefore, guidance on above ground vaults, which are susceptible to long-term materials degradation due to climatological effects, and mined cavities, which represent a significant departure from the current experience base for low-level radioactive waste disposal, will receive minimal attention. 6 references

  18. Dosimetric characteristics of a TLD dosemeter with extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, D.; Diaz B, E.; Lien V, R.

    1999-01-01

    It was designed a TLD dosemeter for the monitoring of the extremities. This one consists in a metallic ring with a circular orifice where is arranged a T L detector of LiF: Mg,Ti (Model JR1152C) 5 x 5 x 0.8 mm 3 covered by a polyethylene fine layer. In this work were studied the dosimetric properties of the dosemeter for its application in the dosimetry of extremities for photonic radiation. the results obtained allow conclude that the designed dosemeter can be used for the extremities monitoring. (Author)

  19. Dosimetry Measurements around the Angiography Units Using Thermoluminescence Detectors (TLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-den, T.; Shahein, A.Y.; Gomaa, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are widely used not only in the field of personnel monitoring (dosimetry) service for ionizing radiation to medical, and research communities, but also for measurements of X-rays emitted from different angiography's unit. Measurements ionizing radiation around the bed area during cardiac catheterization procedures using X-rays was measured. TLD Badges used to determine the annual effective doses, the safe distance for the staff to minimize radiation exposure and the effectiveness of shield and used leaded apron. The results indicated that annual effective dose for by angiography cardiac Catheterization room may exceed the limits

  20. NRC as referee (reactor licensing following the Three Mile Island accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhut, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    In this article, the NRC's licensing director reports on the progress made by US utilities in complying with the key regulations stemming from the Three Mile Island accident. Over 130 items must be improved at more than 65 reactors. The actions taken by France in response to its own analysis of the accident are discussed. New NRC requirements with regard to operational safety, design, and emergency-response capability are outlined. Nearly all the training, or software, items in Nureg-0737 (''Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements'') and more than half of the mechanical, or hardware, items have been completed at plants with operating reactors. The Committee to Review Generic Requirements was created to develop means for controlling the number and nature of NRC requirements placed on licensees. Probabilistic risk-assessment techniques were not widely used by the NRC until after the Three Mile Island accident. The NRC has directed licensees and applicants for operating licenses to conduct control-room design reviews to identify and correct human-engineering discrepancies. Includes 2 tables

  1. A TLD dose algorithm using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscovitch, M.; Rotunda, J.E.; Tawil, R.A.; Rathbone, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    An artificial neural network was designed and used to develop a dose algorithm for a multi-element thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD). The neural network architecture is based on the concept of functional links network (FLN). Neural network is an information processing method inspired by the biological nervous system. A dose algorithm based on neural networks is fundamentally different as compared to conventional algorithms, as it has the capability to learn from its own experience. The neural network algorithm is shown the expected dose values (output) associated with given responses of a multi-element dosimeter (input) many times. The algorithm, being trained that way, eventually is capable to produce its own unique solution to similar (but not exactly the same) dose calculation problems. For personal dosimetry, the output consists of the desired dose components: deep dose, shallow dose and eye dose. The input consists of the TL data obtained from the readout of a multi-element dosimeter. The neural network approach was applied to the Harshaw Type 8825 TLD, and was shown to significantly improve the performance of this dosimeter, well within the U.S. accreditation requirements for personnel dosimeters

  2. Environmental radiation monitoring of nuclear sites by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, Ch.

    1978-04-01

    The measurement of environmental radiation doses around nuclear facilities requires the detection of few mrem/year. The properties of the automatic TLD-system Harshaw Mod. 2271 for such measurements have been evaluated under practical conditions and optimized techniques derived. The automatic TLD-system is based on LiF dosimeter cards with two crystals providing gamma and beta dose values. Limit of detection defined as three standard deviations of residuel dose is 1,2 mR. Automatic readout combined with electronic data evaluation are especially useful for large monitoring networks. Practical intercomparisons of this dosimeter with bulb-type CaF 2 detectors have been performed showing good agreement of both detector. Although bulb-dosimeters proved to be extremely sensitive with a limit of detection at 0,012 mR which makes them very suitable for very short exposure times, the automatic LiF system is superior in regards of man power requirement if monthly monitoring periods are sufficient. The system has been tested in practice during two international intercomparisons performed by the US Department of Energy - Health and Safety Laboratory New York and the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, Germany, showing excellent agreement. Furthermore a routine monitoring network consisting of 12 measurement positions around the Research Center Seibersdorf has been operated with this technique since more than two years. (author)

  3. Funding for reactor decommissioning: the NRC perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The cost of decommissioning a nuclear power plant is discussed. Four funding approaches that have received the most attention from the NRC are: prepayment into a trust fund of estimated decommissioning funds at the start of facility operation; annual contributions into a trust fund outside the control of the utility over the estimated life of a facility; internal reserve or sinking fund amortizations over the estimated life of a facility; and insurance or other surety mechanisms used separately or in conjunction with any of the first three mechanisms

  4. Public meeting on radiation safety for industrial radiographerss: remarks, questions and answers at five NRC regional meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Over the past several years thenumber of radiation overexposures experienced in the radiography industry has been higher than for any other single group of NRC licensees. To inform radiography licensees of NRC's concern fo these recurring overexposure incidents, NRC staff representatives met with licensees in a series of five regional meetings. At these meetings the staff presented prepared remarks and answered questions on NRC regulations and operations. The main purposes of the meetings were to express NRC's concern for the high incidence of overexposures, and to open a line of communication between the NRC and radiography licensees in an effort to achieve the common goal of improved radiation safety. The remarks presented by the staff and subjects discussed at these meetings included: the purpose, scope, findings and goals of the NRC inspection program; ways and means of incorporating safety into radiography operations; and case histories of overexposure incidents, with highlights of the causes and possible preventions. At each of the regional meetings the staff received a request for a copy of the prepared remarks and a consolidation of the questions and answers that were discussed. This document includes that information, and a copy is being provided to each organizaion or firm attending the regional meetings. Requests for other copies should be made in accordance with the directions printed inside the front cover of this document

  5. Response of TLD-100"T"M microtubes to two RQR3 quality radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, M.G.; Villani, D.; Almeida, S.B.; Vivolo, V.; Yoriyaz, H.; Louis, G.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present work compares the response of TLD-100"T"M microcubes to two RQR 3 diagnostic radiology reference quality radiation beams, defined by IEC-61267 norm, aiming to evaluate the detectability of TLD-100"T"M energy dependence reported in literature within the same reference quality radiation range. TLD-100"T"M microcubes reproducibility is assessed through the response of a second set of TLD-100"T"M microcubes, evaluated in a second thermoluminescence reader, to the RQR 3 diagnostic radiology reference quality radiation beam implemented at the Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. The dependence of TLD-100"T"M microcubes TL response was not detectable in these conditions and the reproducibility of the measurements is 90,2%. (author)

  6. A TLD-based personal dosemeter system for air crew monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Vana, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Due to the complex spectrum of different particles and energies involved, in-flight radiation dosimetry is usually associated with extensive instrumentation. The exposure of air crew personnel to cosmic radiation is paid serious attention, being further enhanced by the release of the European Council Directive 96/29/Euratom which makes the surveillance of crew members an obligatory issue. The high temperature ratio (HTR) method for small and easy-to-handle LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters was developed at the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities and fulfils these demands by permitting the determination of dose equivalent in radiation fields of unknown composition. The method uses the relative intensity of glow peaks 6 and 7 compared with the dominant peak 5 in the LiF Tl emission as an indication for the average LET and, thus, the mean quality factor of the radiation field. Extensive experiments in various ion beams established a HTR vs. LET calibration curve for the commercially available Tl phosphors TLD-600 and TLD-700. Additionally, the different neutron sensitivity of both types may be exploited for the determination of the dose equivalent delivered from neutrons which dominate at aviation altitudes. However, it is essential that the calibration of the Tl detectors is performed in a neutron environment of similar spectral shape as that encountered in flight. In our case, this constraint was satisfied by the CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF). Results of both neutron and total dose equivalent for several different north-bound and trans-equatorial routes are presented, ranging from 2.1 ± 0.1 μSv/h with a 30 % neutron contribution for Vienna-Sydney to 4.9 ± 0.2 μSv/h and a roughly 55 % neutron contribution for Vienna-Tokyo. The measured route doses are compared with CARI-6M calculations. (author)

  7. Measuring thermo-luminescence efficiency of TLD-2000 detectors to different energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei Min; Chen, Bao Wei; Han, Yi; Yang, Zhong Jian [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    As an important detecting device, TLD is a widely used in the radiation monitoring. It is essential for us to study the property of detecting element. The aim of this study is to calculate the thermo-luminescence efficiency of TL elements. A batch of thermo-luminescence elements were irradiated by the filtered X-ray beams of average energies in the range 40-200 kVp, 662 keV {sup 137}Cs gamma rays and then the amounts of lights were measured by the TL reader. The deposition energies in elements were calculated by theory formula and Monte Carlo simulation. The unit absorbed dose in elements by photons with different energies corresponding to the amounts of lights was calculated, which is called the thermo luminescent efficiency (η(E)). Because of the amounts of lights can be calculated by the absorbed dose in elements multiply η(E), the η(E) can be calculated by the experimental data (the amounts of lights) divided by absorbed dose. The deviation of simulation results compared with theoretical calculation results were less than 5%, so the absorbed dose in elements was calculated by simulation results in here. The change range of η(E) value, relative to 662 keV {sup 137}Cs gamma rays, is about 30% in the energy range of 33 keV to 662 keV, is in accordance by the comparison with relevant foreign literatures. The η(E) values can be used for updating the amounts of lights that are got by the direct ratio assumed relations with deposition energy in TL elements, which can largely reduce the error of calculation results of the amounts of lights. These data can be used for the design of individual dosimeter which used TLD-2000 thermo-luminescence elements, also have a certain reference value for manufacturer to improve the energy-response performance of TL elements by formulation adjustment.

  8. NRC Response to an Act or Threat of Terrorism at an NRC-Licensed Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank Congel

    2000-01-01

    The mandated response to a threat or act of terrorism at a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility was examined through a tabletop exercise in May 2000 and a limited field exercise in August 2000. This paper describes some of the new issues addressed and lessons learned from those exercises

  9. Reassessment of the NRC's program for protecting allegers against retaliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC's program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC's overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC's involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area

  10. NRC safety research in support of regulation, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report, the seventh in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1991. The goal of this office is to ensure that safety-related research provides the technical bases for rulemaking and for related decisions in support of NRC licensing and inspection activities. This research is necessary to make certain that the regulations that are imposed on licensees provide an adequate margin of safety so as to protect the health and safety of the public. This report describes both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge with regard to nuclear safety and their regulatory applications

  11. NRC safety research in support of regulation, FY 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This report, the sixth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1990. The goal of this office is to ensure that safety-related research provides the technical bases for rulemaking and for related decisions in support of NRC licensing and inspection activities. This research is necessary to make certain that the regulations that are imposed on licensees provide an adequate margin of safety so as to protect the health and safety of the public. This report describes both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge with regard to nuclear safety and their regulatory applications

  12. NRC safety research in support of regulation--FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report, the fifth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1989. The goal of this office is to ensure that safety-related research provides the technical bases for rulemaking and for related decisions in support of NRC licensing and inspection activities. This research is necessary to make certain that the regulations that are imposed on licensees provide an adequate margin of safety so as to protect the health and safety of the public. This report describes both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge with regard to nuclear safety and their regulatory applications

  13. NRC safety research in support of regulation, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This report, the fourth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to Congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during 1988. The goal of this office is to ensure that safety-related research provides the technical bases for rulemaking and for related decisions in support of NRC licensing and inspection activities. This research is necessary to make certain that the regulations that are imposed on licensees provide an adequate margin of safety so as to protect the health and safety of the public. This report describes both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge with regard to nuclear safety and their regulatory applications

  14. NRC concerns about steam generator tube U-bend failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper concerns itself with genralized NRC regulatory policy regarding SGT failures and staff reports and opinions which may tend to influence the developing policy specific to U-bend failures. The most significant analysis at hand in predicting NRC policy on SGT U-bend failures is Marsh's Evaluation of Steam Generator Tube Rupture Events. Marsh sets out to describe and analyze the five steam generator tube ruptures that are known to NRC. All have occurred in the period 1975 to 1980

  15. Brazilian two-component TLD albedo neutron individual monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, M.M., E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, E.S. da, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia, COPPE/PEN Caixa Postal 68509, CEP: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Since 1983, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Brazil, uses a TLD one-component albedo neutron monitor, which has a single different calibration factor specifically for each installation type. In order to improve its energy response, a two-component albedo monitor was developed, which measure the thermal neutron component besides the albedo one. The two-component monitor has been calibrated in reference neutron fields: thermal, five accelerator-produced monoenergetic beams (70, 144, 565, 1200 and 5000 keV) and five radionuclide sources ({sup 252}Cf, {sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O), {sup 241}Am-Be, {sup 241}Am-B and {sup 238}Pu-Be) at several distances. Since January 2008, mainly Brazilian workers who handle neutron sources at different distances and moderation, such as in well logging and calibration facilities are using it routinely.

  16. Performance analysis of the TNO TLD individual monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, J.W.E. van; Julius, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the performance and to establish the lowest detectable occupational dose (LDOD) of the TNO TL dosemeter, in use for large scale routine individual monitoring since 1983. The TNO individual monitoring service uses three TLD reader systems and over 45000 TL dosemeters, designed to measure H s (0.07) and H p (10). Each reader system is normalised daily and each individual dosemeter is calibrated every ten readout cycles. The performance of the service is monitored by a double blind experimental set-up. A series of 10 routine dosemeters is issued every fortnight, mailed, exposed by staff not involved in the monitoring service, sent back and evaluated. The conclusion of this study is that the lowest detectable occupational dose is less than 0.04 mSv and that the integrated dose at the level of the annual dose limit is measured within 2%. (author)

  17. Analysis of uncertainties in the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izewska, J. [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: j.izewska@iaea.org; Hultqvist, M. [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Bera, P. [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-02-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) operate the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme. Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) are used as transfer devices in this programme. In the present work the uncertainties in the dose determination from TLD measurements have been evaluated. The analysis of uncertainties comprises uncertainties in the calibration coefficient of the TLD system and uncertainties in factors correcting for dose response non-linearity, fading of TL signal, energy response and influence of TLD holder. The individual uncertainties have been combined to estimate the total uncertainty in the dose evaluated from TLD measurements. The combined relative standard uncertainty in the dose determined from TLD measurements has been estimated to be 1.2% for irradiations with Co-60 {gamma}-rays and 1.6% for irradiations with high-energy X-rays. Results from irradiations by the Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM), Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (PSDLs) and Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) compare favourably with the estimated uncertainties, whereas TLD results of radiotherapy centres show higher standard deviations than those derived theoretically.

  18. NRC systematic evaluation program: seismic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    The NRC Systematic Evaluation Program is currently making an assessment of the seismic design safety of 11 older nuclear power plant facilities. The general review philosophy and review criteria relative to seismic input, structural response, and equipment functionability are presented, including the rationale for the development of these guidelines considering the significant evolution of seismic design criteria since these plants were originally licensed. Technical approaches thought more realistic in light of current knowledge are utilized. Initial findings for plants designed to early seismic design procedures suggest that with minor exceptions, these plants possess adequate seismic design margins when evaluated against the intent of current criteria. However, seismic qualification of electrical equipment has been identified as a subject which requires more in-depth evaluation

  19. Design basis for the NRC Operations Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, M.K.; Wise, J.A.; Griffin, B.N.; Desrosiers, A.E.; Meitzler, W.D.

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the development of a design for a new NRC Operations Center (NRCOC). The project was conducted in two phases: organizational analysis and facility design. In order to control the amount of traffic, congestion and noise within the facility, it is recommended that information flow in the new NRCOC be accomplished by means of an electronic Status Information Management System. Functional requirements and a conceptual design for this system are described. An idealized architectural design and a detailed design program are presented that provide the appropriate amount of space for operations, equipment and circulation within team areas. The overall layout provides controlled access to the facility and, through the use of a zoning concept, provides each team within the NRCOC the appropriate balance of ready access and privacy determined from the organizational analyses conducted during the initial phase of the project.

  20. Design basis for the NRC Operations Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Wise, J.A.; Griffin, B.N.; Desrosiers, A.E.; Meitzler, W.D.

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the development of a design for a new NRC Operations Center (NRCOC). The project was conducted in two phases: organizational analysis and facility design. In order to control the amount of traffic, congestion and noise within the facility, it is recommended that information flow in the new NRCOC be accomplished by means of an electronic Status Information Management System. Functional requirements and a conceptual design for this system are described. An idealized architectural design and a detailed design program are presented that provide the appropriate amount of space for operations, equipment and circulation within team areas. The overall layout provides controlled access to the facility and, through the use of a zoning concept, provides each team within the NRCOC the appropriate balance of ready access and privacy determined from the organizational analyses conducted during the initial phase of the project

  1. U.S. NRC's generic issues program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.V.; Foster, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a Generic Issues Program (GIP) to address Generic Issues (GI). A GI is defined as 'a regulatory matter involving the design, construction, operation, or decommissioning of several, or a class of, NRC licensees or certificate holders that is not sufficiently addressed by existing rules, guidance, or programs'. This rather legalistic definition has several practical corollaries: First, a GI must involve safety. Second, the issue must involve at least two plants, or it would be a plant-specific issue rather than a GI. Third, the potential safety question must not be covered by existing regulations and guidance (compliance). Thus, the effect of a GI is to potentially change the body of regulations and associated guidance (e.g., regulatory guides). The GIP was started in 1976, thus it is a relatively mature program. Approximately 850 issues have been processed by the program to date. More importantly, even after 30 years, new GIs continue to be proposed. The entire set of Generic Issues (GIs) is updated annually in NUREG-0933, 'A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues'. GIs normally involve complex questions of safety and regulation. Efficient and effective means of addressing these issues are very important for regulatory effectiveness. If an issue proves to pose a genuine, significant safety question, then swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective action needs to be taken. Conversely, if an issue is of little safety significance, the issue should be dismissed in an expeditious manner, avoiding unnecessary expenditure of resources and regulatory burden or uncertainty. This paper provides a summary of the 5-stage program, from identification through the regulatory assessment stage. The paper also includes a discussion of the program's seven criteria, sources of proposed GIs, recent improvements, publicly available information, historical performance, and status of current GIs. (authors)

  2. NRC Licensing Status Summary Report for NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, is based on research and development activities supported by the Department of Energy Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. The NGNP will be licensed for construction and operation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, not all elements of current regulations (and their related implementation guidance) can be applied to HTGR technology at this time. Certain policies established during past LWR licensing actions must be realigned to properly accommodate advanced HTGR technology. A strategy for licensing HTGR technology was developed and executed through the cooperative effort of DOE and the NRC through the NGNP Project. The purpose of this report is to provide a snapshot of the current status of the still evolving pre-license application regulatory framework relative to commercial HTGR technology deployment in the U.S. The following discussion focuses on (1) describing what has been accomplished by the NGNP Project up to the time of this report, and (2) providing observations and recommendations concerning actions that remain to be accomplished to enable the safe and timely licensing of a commercial HTGR facility in the U.S.

  3. NRC licensing of uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing a rule making that establishes the licensing requirements for low-enriched uranium enrichment plants. Although implementation of this rule making is timed to correspond with receipt of a license application for the Louisiana Energy Services centrifuge enrichment plant, the rule making is applicable to all uranium enrichment technologies. If ownership of the US gaseous diffusion plants and/or atomic vapor laser isotope separation is transferred to a private or government corporation, these plants also would be licensable under the new rule making. The Safeguards Studies Department was tasked by the NRC to provide technical assistance in support of the rule making and guidance preparation process. The initial and primary effort of this task involved the characterization of the potential safeguards concerns associated with a commercial enrichment plant, and the licensing issues associated with these concerns. The primary safeguards considerations were identified as detection of the loss of special nuclear material, detection of unauthorized production of material of low strategic significance, and detection of production of uranium enriched to >10% 235 U. The primary safeguards concerns identified were (1) large absolute limit of error associated with the material balance closing, (2) the inability to shutdown some technologies to perform a cleanout inventory of the process system, and (3) the flexibility of some technologies to produce higher enrichments. Unauthorized production scenarios were identified for some technologies that could prevent conventional material control and accounting programs from detecting the production and removal of 5 kg 235 U as highly enriched uranium. Safeguards techniques were identified to mitigate these concerns

  4. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.M.; Saez, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp(10) and H*(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-802) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With these data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs

  5. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A. M.; Saez, J. C

    1994-01-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp (10) and H(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-002) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With those data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs

  6. Experimental determination of the photon-energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD600 and TLD700 (LiF:Mg,Ti) thermoluminescence detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwahofer, Andrea [Vivantes Clinic Neukoelln, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy; Feist, Harald [Munich Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Georg, Holger [PTW Freiburg (Germany). Calibration Lab.; Haering, Peter; Schlegel, Wolfgang [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study has been the experimental determination of the energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD600 and TLD700 thermoluminescent detectors (Harshaw) in X-ray beams with mean photon energies from about 20 to 200 keV in comparison with {sup 60}Co gamma rays and 6 MV X-rays. Experiments were carried out in collaboration with the German secondary standard laboratory PTW Freiburg. The energy dependent relative responses of TLD600 and TLD700 thermoluminescence detectors were determined at radiation qualities between 30 kV{sub p} and 280 kV{sub p}. The overall uncertainty of the measured values was characterized by standard deviations varying from 1.2 to 3%. The present results agree with previous studies on the energy dependent dose-to-water response of TLD100. As an application example, the results were used to measure doses associated with X-ray imaging in image-guided radiotherapy.

  7. NRC Regulatory Agenda: Quarterly report, July-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The NRC Regulatory agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the commission. The regulatory agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  8. NRC Regulatory Agenda quarterly report, July--September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The NRC Regulator Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  9. NRC regualtory agenda. Semiannual report, July 1997--December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a semiannual compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  10. NRC regulatory agenda: Quarterly report, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  11. NRC regulatory agenda. Seminnual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rule making which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The regulatory Agenda is updated and issued semiannually

  12. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program

  13. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume I is a concise description of the need for the human performance investigation process, the process' components, the methods used to develop the process, the methods proposed to test the process, and conclusions on the process' usefulness

  14. Safeguards at NRC licensed facilities: Are we doing enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Safeguards at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) facilities are discussed in this paper. The NRC is pursuing a number of initiatives in the safeguards area. The Commission is conducting a reassessment of its safeguards design basis threat statements to consider the possible implications of an explosive-laden vehicle for U.S. nuclear safeguards and to examine the comparability of safeguards features at NRC-licensed and DOE facilities. The Commission is also completing action on measures to protect against the sabotage threat from an insider at NRC-licensed facilities, and is examining the potential safety implications of safeguards measures. Finally, the NRC has developed measures to reduce the theft potential for high-enriched uranium

  15. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique

  16. Vivo dosimetry using TLD detectors in prostate seed implants of I-125: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Pedro, A.; Bassas, P.; Duch, M. A.; Cros, M.; Mane, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a new in vivo dosimetry technique that could allow to know immediately after implantation of the prostate if the dose distribution determined by the scheduler is similar to the actual dose measured with TLD detectors.

  17. Postal TLD audits in radiotherapy in the Czech Republic: current status, experience and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Kapucianova, Michaela; Dufek, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with practice and performance of postal TLD audits in radiotherapy with emphasis on the possibilities of application of the advanced versions that were developed following up technological progress in radiotherapy. The new methodologies of the TLD audit are focused specifically on up-to-date linear accelerators, equipped with multileaf collimators, and modern treatment planning systems. The dose is checked by the TLD not only for reference conditions but also in conditions of radiation fields influenced by presence of inhomogeneities in the irradiated volume. As regards small radiation fields, the check also includes dose profile verification using gafchromic films. The methodologies were tested within pilot studies performed in collaboration with some Czech radiotherapy centers. The results and experience gave evidence of the usefulness and appropriateness of the new TLD audit methodologies. (orig.)

  18. Dosimetric properties of the 'Pille' portable, wide dose range TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, P.P.; Feher, I.; Deme, S.; Szabo, B.; Vagvoelgyi, J.

    1986-01-01

    The dosimetric properties of a portable TLD reader are described. The TLD system named 'Pille' or 'moth' consists of a lightweight battery-operated portable TLD reader and its CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosemeters. The reproducibility of the TLD system at constant temperature was found to be better than + -2%, and the mean time between failures exceeded 5 years. The dose range of the system is wide, covering more than 6 orders of magnitude, from 5 μGy to 10 Gy. The energy dependence of the CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosemeters is less than + - 20% above 100 keV in the energy compensation capsules. Without additional annealing, the bulb dosemeters can be re-used at least 100 times, which is an important aspect during in situ measurements. (author)

  19. Summary of NRC LWR safety research programs on fuel behavior, metallurgy/materials and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1979-09-01

    The NRC light-water reactor safety-research program is part of the NRC regulatory program for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This paper summarizes the results of NRC-sponsored research into fuel behavior, metallurgy and materials, and operational safety. The fuel behavior research program provides a detailed understanding of the response of nuclear fuel assemblies to postulated off-normal or accident conditions. Fuel behavior research includes studies of basic fuel rod properties, in-reactor tests, computer code development, fission product release and fuel meltdown. The metallurgy and materials research program provides independent confirmation of the safe design of reactor vessels and piping. This program includes studies on fracture mechanics, irradiation embrittlement, stress corrosion, crack growth, and nondestructive examination. The operational safety research provides direct assistance to NRC officials concerned with the operational and operational-safety aspects of nuclear power plants. The topics currently being addressed include qualification testing evaluation, fire protection, human factors, and noise diagnostics

  20. Methods on TLD management be applicable in nuclear power plantsunder the multi-reactor operational mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Huiyong; Wen Qinghua; Li Ruirong; Yu Enjian

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods on management of TLD dosimeters adopted in DNMC and other NPPs, analyzes and evaluates their both defects and advantages. Facing the coming of the multi-reactor operational mode applied in NPPs, a new method intelligent management mode is put forward, this optimized method not only assures the accuracy of TLD's measurement but also reduces the cost of production and improves the efficiency of management greatly. (authors)

  1. NRC Seismic Design Margins Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, G.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Recent studies estimate that seismically induced core melt comes mainly from earthquakes in the peak ground acceleration range from 2 to 4 times the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) acceleration used in plant design. However, from the licensing perspective of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, there is a continuing need for consideration of the inherent quantitative seismic margins because of, among other things, the changing perceptions of the seismic hazard. This paper discusses a Seismic Design Margins Program Plan, developed under the auspices of the US NRC, that provides the technical basis for assessing the significance of design margins in terms of overall plant safety. The Plan will also identify potential weaknesses that might have to be addressed, and will recommend technical methods for assessing margins at existing plants. For the purposes of this program, a general definition of seismic design margin is expressed in terms of how much larger that the design basis earthquake an earthquake must be to compromise plant safety. In this context, margin needs to be determined at the plant, system/function, structure, and component levels. 14 refs., 1 fig

  2. NRC policy on future reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    On April 13, 1983, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Commission Policy Statement on Severe Accidents and Related Views on Nuclear Reactor Regulation'' (48 FR 16014). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy statement now entitled, ''Policy Statement on Severe Reactor Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants.'' It provides an overview of comments received from the public and the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the staff response to these. In addition to the Policy Statement, the report discusses how the policies of this statement relate to other NRC programs including the Severe Accident Research Program; the implementation of safety measures resulting from lessons learned in the accident at Three Mile Island; safety goal development; the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issues and other Generic Safety Issues; and possible revisions of rules or regulatory requirements resulting from the Severe Accident Source Term Program. Also discussed are the main features of a generic decision strategy for resolving Regulatory Questions and Technical Issues relating to severe accidents; the development and regulatory use of new safety information; the treatment of uncertainty in severe accident decision making; and the development and implementation of a Systems Reliability Program for both existing and future plants to ensure that the realized level of safety is commensurate with the safety analyses used in regulatory decisions

  3. NRC ARDC Guidance Support Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, Mark R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report provides a summary that reflects the progress and status of proposed regulatory design criteria for advanced non-light water reactor (LWR) designs in accordance with the Level 3 milestone M3AT-17IN2001013 in work package AT-17IN200101. These criteria have been designated as advanced reactor design criteria (ARDC) and they provide guidance to future applicants for addressing the general design criteria (GDC) that are currently applied specifically to LWR designs. This report provides a summary of Phase 2 activities related to the various tasks associated with ARDC development and the subsequent development of ARDC regulatory guidance for sodium fast reactor (SFR) and modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs. Status Report Organization: Section 2 discusses the origin of the GDC and their application to LWRs. Section 3 addresses the objective of this initiative and how it benefits the advanced non-LWR reactor vendors. Section 4 discusses the scope and structure of the initiative. Section 5 provides background on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ARDC team’s original development of the proposed ARDC that were submitted to the NRC for consideration. Section 6 provides a summary of recent ARDC Phase 2 activities. Appendices A through E document the DOE ARDC team’s public comments on various sections of the NRC’s draft regulatory guide DG–1330, “Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Non-Light Water Reactors.”

  4. NRC ARDC Guidance Support Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbrook, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a summary that reflects the progress and status of proposed regulatory design criteria for advanced non-light water reactor (LWR) designs in accordance with the Level 3 milestone M3AT-17IN2001013 in work package AT-17IN200101. These criteria have been designated as advanced reactor design criteria (ARDC) and they provide guidance to future applicants for addressing the general design criteria (GDC) that are currently applied specifically to LWR designs. This report provides a summary of Phase 2 activities related to the various tasks associated with ARDC development and the subsequent development of ARDC regulatory guidance for sodium fast reactor (SFR) and modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs. Status Report Organization: Section 2 discusses the origin of the GDC and their application to LWRs. Section 3 addresses the objective of this initiative and how it benefits the advanced non-LWR reactor vendors. Section 4 discusses the scope and structure of the initiative. Section 5 provides background on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ARDC team’s original development of the proposed ARDC that were submitted to the NRC for consideration. Section 6 provides a summary of recent ARDC Phase 2 activities. Appendices A through E document the DOE ARDC team’s public comments on various sections of the NRC’s draft regulatory guide DG–1330, “Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Non-Light Water Reactors.”

  5. Applications of probabilistic techniques at NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thadani, A.; Rowsome, F.; Speis, T.

    1984-01-01

    The NRC is currently making extensive use of probabilistic safety assessment in the reactor regulation. Most of these applications have been introduced in the regulatory activities in the past few years. Plant Probabilistic Safety Studies are being utilized as a design tool for applications for standard designs and for assessment of plants located in regions of particularly high population density. There is considerable motivation for licenses to perform plant-specific probabilistic studies for many, if not all, of the existing operating nuclear power plants as a tool for prioritizing the implementation of the many outstanding licensing actions of these plants as well as recommending the elimination of a number of these issues which are judged to be insignificant in terms of their contribution to safety and risk. Risk assessment perspectives are being used in the priorization of generic safety issues, development of technical resolution of unresolved safety issues, assessing safety significance of proposed new regulatory requirements, assessment of safety significance of some of the occurrences at operating facilities and in environmental impact analyses of license applicants as required by the National Environmental Policy Act. (orig.)

  6. NRC Confirmatory Testing Program for SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.; Bessette, D.E.; Shotkin, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the NRC Confirmatory Testing Program for SBWR is to provide integral data for code assessment, which reasonably reproduce the important phenomena and processes expected in the SBWR under various loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and transient conditions. To achieve this objective, the Program consists of four coupled elements: (1) to design and construct an integral, carefully-scaled SBWR test facility at Purdue Univ., (2) to provide pre-construction RELAP5/CONTAIN predictions of the facility design, (3) to provide confirmatory data for code assessment, and (4) to assess the RELAP5/CONTAIN code with data. A description of the open-quotes preliminary designclose quotes of the Purdue test facility and test matrix is presented. The facility is scheduled to be built by December 1994. Approximately 50 tests will be performed from April 1995 through April 1996 and documented by interim data reports. A final and complete data report is scheduled to be published by July 31, 1996

  7. Strategic Planning and NRC Decadal Survey Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbacher, C. C., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Strategic planning exercises are routinely undertaken by a wide variety of organizations that span the private, public and academic sectors and with a wide variety of corporate goals. It is difficult to single out best procedures as the purposes of strategic planning are as varied as the organizations. As a former head of a governmental agency that requested such a NRC study, namely the first "Earth Sciences and Applications from Space" study, I will examine the process, provide my definitions and assessments of the good and the not-so-good, and compare to my experiences with other similar strategic planning exercises during my Navy, NOAA, and private sector careers. I find that there is always room for improvement, but there is no one process or procedure that can guarantee success. Overarching initial considerations that can position the effort for overall "success" will be defined and applied to the recent NSC Study: "Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Science", for which I was neither an initiator nor a participant, but a very interested observer.

  8. ITAAC Development for APR1400 NRC Design Certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Myoung Ki

    2013-01-01

    ITAAC (Inspections, Tests, Analyses and Acceptance Criteria) is essential document for Design Certification, which is certified by NRC and ruled as the Appendix of the 10 CFR Part 52. Approximately 870 ITAAC items were selected for APR1400 Design Certification to be submitted to NRC. In this paper, the code and standard related to ITAAC and process of ITACC development are discussed to seek the way to complete the best ITAAC to get the Design Certification of APR1400 from NRC through the lessons learned from other competitive applicants. For saving the time and manpower to complete ITAAC of APR1400 NRC DC and reduction of the RAIs (Request Additional Information) from NRC, we took advantage of the lessons learned from the competitive designs like US-APWR and AP1000 based on KNGR ITAAC. Finally new and different ITAAC from ITAAC of KNGR was developed for APR1400 DC from NRC. RG 1.206 and SRPs were applied first in Korea to the APR1400 DCD preparation. For testability and acceptability check, ITAAC V and V table was completed by the system designers. APR1400 DCD will be submitted by the end of September this year and we hope that NRC issues lees RAIs on ITAAC document

  9. TLD system for the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochioiu, Ana; Sahagia, Maria; Tudor, Ion

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a high sensitivity TLD system, designed for the survey of the environmental radioactivity. It is based on the use of TL detectors type LiF:Mg, Cu, P, commercially known as GR-200A. The dosimeter designed in our Institute, contains 3 detectors, and the measurement value is calculated as the arithmetic mean. A very sensitive, TL Reader, READER ANALYSER RA'94 was chosen and an optimal thermal cycle was designed, such as to enhance the measurement performances. For each placement, a set of 3 dosemeters is used, and survey intervals from 1 to 100 days, depending on the radioactivity level and reporting requirements, are selected. The technical characteristics of the system were determined by exposing the dosimeters in reference X and gamma radiation fields, such as required by the IEC standard 61066:iun.2006 'Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring'. The main technical parameters are of highest quality and recommend it for use in the survey of the environmental radioactivity, at the level of ambient dose equivalent rate, due to normal natural radioactivity, in open areas. The paper describes the method of characterisation and measurement results, as well as their relevance. (author)

  10. The application of artificial neural networks to TLD dose algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscovitch, M.

    1997-01-01

    We review the application of feed forward neural networks to multi element thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) dose algorithm development. A Neural Network is an information processing method inspired by the biological nervous system. A dose algorithm based on a neural network is a fundamentally different approach from conventional algorithms, as it has the capability to learn from its own experience. The neural network algorithm is shown the expected dose values (output) associated with a given response of a multi-element dosimeter (input) many times.The algorithm, being trained that way, eventually is able to produce its own unique solution to similar (but not exactly the same) dose calculation problems. For personnel dosimetry, the output consists of the desired dose components: deep dose, shallow dose, and eye dose. The input consists of the TL data obtained from the readout of a multi-element dosimeter. For this application, a neural network architecture was developed based on the concept of functional links network (FLN). The FLN concept allowed an increase in the dimensionality of the input space and construction of a neural network without any hidden layers. This simplifies the problem and results in a relatively simple and reliable dose calculation algorithm. Overall, the neural network dose algorithm approach has been shown to significantly improve the precision and accuracy of dose calculations. (authors)

  11. Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.; Akatov, Y.A.; Reitz, G.; Arkhanguelski, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of crew, equipment, and experiments to the ambient space radiation environment in low Earth orbit poses one of the most significant problems to long-term space habitation. Accurate dose measurement has become increasingly important during the assembly (extravehicular activity (EVA)) and operation of space stations such as on Space Station Mir. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetry mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. The well-known advantages of passive detector systems are their independence of power supply, small dimensions, high sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental effects, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, they have the general disadvantage that for evaluation purposes they need a laboratory or large--in mass and power consumption--terrestrial equipment, and consequently they cannot provide time-resolved dose data during long-term space flights. KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI) has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosemeter systems for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 10 μGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a compact, self-contained, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A detailed description of the system is given and the comprehensive results of these measurements are summarised

  12. Use of MCNP to compare the response of dose deposited in the TLD 100, TLD 600 and TLD 700 in radiation fields due to {sup 60}Co and {sup 241}AmBe source; Uso do MCNP para comparacao das respostas de dose depositada nos TLD 100, TLD 600 e TLD 700 em campos de irradiacao devido a fontes de {sup 60}Co e {sup 241}AmBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Castro, Vinicius A.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D., E-mail: tassio.cavalieri@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    The successes of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depend on the ability to deliver an adequate irradiation field to the target cells. Neutron beams used in BNCT are mostly driven from reactors and therefore, not only have a neutron energy range which far exceeds the thermal region but also do have a great gamma component. Beam characterization and dosimetry are consequently one of the essential procedures to be overcome to properly apply this technique. One of the methods currently used in mixed field (field containing both neutron and gamma) characterization, lies on the use of a pair of detectors with distinct responses to each beam component. But this technique needs to be better understood of how each thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) behaves in a mixed field or in a pure field. This work presents the results of a set of simulations performed in order to analyze the response of three ordinary types of TLDs - TLD 100, TLD 600 and TLD 700 - submitted to different irradiation fields from a Cobalt source and an Americium-Beryllium source inside a paraffin disk. And is also a possible method for performing the selection and calibration of theses TLDs. (author)

  13. 76 FR 10072 - Proposed Generic Communications; Draft NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX, Adequacy of Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0013] Proposed Generic Communications; Draft NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX, Adequacy of Station Electric Distribution System Voltages; Reopening of... (NRC's) Draft Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX, Adequacy of Station Electric Distribution System...

  14. Safeguards at NRC licensed facilities: Are we doing enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is pursuing a number of initiatives in the safeguards area. The Commission is conducting a reassessment of its safeguards design basis threat statements to consider the possible implications of an explosive-laden vehicle for U.S. nuclear safeguards and to examine the comparability of safeguards features at NRC-licensed and DOE facilities. The Commission is also completing action on measures to protect against the sabotage threat from an insider at NRC-licensed facilities, and is examining the potential safety implications of safeguards measures. Finally, the NRC has developed measures to reduce the theft potential for high-enriched uranium

  15. Assessment of dose using TLD during activity handling at RPhL, BRIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choughule, Nitin V.; Bairwa, S.M.; Murali, S.; Rakesh, R.B.; Madhumita, B.; Adtani, M.M.; Mehra, Kiran; Padmanabhan, D.; Borkute, S.D.; Pal, N.; Sachdev, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical Lab (RPhL), BRIT undertakes production, supply of radiopharmaceuticals. At RPhL short lived isotopes 131 I, 99 Mo, 99m Tc, 125 I, 153 Sm, 32 P and 51 Cr, are handled with total activity handled per week ranging from MBq to TBq (mCiCi). Radiological survey provides idea on radiation level helps to ensure safe working condition. In order to improve the working condition and to estimate the integrated dose over a period of week with uniform pattern of activity handling in the period, a study was carried out using TLD badges. Specifically prepared TLD badges containing CaSO 4 :Dy phosphor were placed at various locations at RPhL It is used for personnel monitoring. One set of TLD was exposed for a week long period while the other set was exposed only during activity handling, kept in the lead pot during the rest of the period. Dose measured by TLDs were compared with the dose estimated using the survey data for the respective locations as well as with the dose estimated using the activity handled by taking into account the time, distance and shielding. The maximum radiation level recorded during lab survey was used to estimate the TLD exposure during the period. It was observed that results on TLD dose measurement and estimated doses using survey results were of same order. The cumulative TLD dose recorded for week duration (168 h) was significantly higher than doses recorded by exposed TLD only during activity handling (8 h). It was expected that the TLD dose would not be more than dose estimated using radiation survey data, while in 3 among 8 experimental TLDs, the dose was ∼ 25% higher. This could be due to the movement of active material or open handling of activity do not get reflected during normal radiation survey and contribution from background radiation at the lab where those TLDs were placed. The individual dose of all the personnel working in different labs were well within the relevant dose limits indicating the safe working condition

  16. Hand book on the use of TLD badge based on CaSO4:Dy teflon TLD discs for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Adtani, M.M.; Varadharajan, G.; Bakshi, A.K.; Srivastava, Kshama; Bihari, R.R.

    2002-10-01

    Individual monitoring is one of the most important aspects of a radiation protection programme. In India, an official and centralized personnel monitoring service to radiation workers started in 1952. With the indigenous development of a TLD badge system in 1975 at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, decentralization of monitoring service was initiated. At present, about 40,000 radiation workers are monitored using this system through twelve TLD units located in different parts of the country, including a private accredited laboratory. Regulatory and other inspecting bodies have often asked outstation TLD units to produce a duly approved document on the procedures being practiced for the assessment of personal doses. A need for such a document has also been felt to ensure the uniformity in processing of dosemeters, recording and reporting of doses by different TLD units and to provide guidelines regarding the infrastructure requirement. This document in the form of a handbook has been prepared to cater to the above needs. The handbook is expected to provide necessary guidelines not only to the newcomers/ forthcoming units and the existing laboratories but also to help the regulators, inspectors and assessors. (author)

  17. SU-E-I-09: Application of LiF:Mg,Cu (TLD-100H) Dosimeters for in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sina, S; Zeinali, B; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Sadeghi, M; Faghihi, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD100H) in obtaining the Entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H, were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. Methods: In this study the ESD values were measured using two types of Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-100, and TLD-100H) for 16 patients undergoing diagnostic radiology (lumbar spine imaging). The ESD values were also obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom for different imaging techniques and different views (AP, and lateral). The TLD chips were annealed with a standard procedure, and the ECC values for each TLD was obtained by exposing the chips to equal amount of radiation. Each time three TLD chips were covered by thin dark plastic covers, and were put at the surface of the phantom or the patient. The average reading of the three chips was used for obtaining the dose. Results: The results show a close agreement between the dose measuered by the two dosimeters.According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e.signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100.The ESD values varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for measurements. Conclusion: The TLD-100H dosimeters are suggested as effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields because of their higher sensitivities

  18. SU-E-I-09: Application of LiF:Mg,Cu (TLD-100H) Dosimeters for in Diagnostic Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, S [Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zeinali, B; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Sadeghi, M [Nuclear Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, R [Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nuclear Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD100H) in obtaining the Entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H, were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. Methods: In this study the ESD values were measured using two types of Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-100, and TLD-100H) for 16 patients undergoing diagnostic radiology (lumbar spine imaging). The ESD values were also obtained by putting the two types of TLDs at the surface of Rando phantom for different imaging techniques and different views (AP, and lateral). The TLD chips were annealed with a standard procedure, and the ECC values for each TLD was obtained by exposing the chips to equal amount of radiation. Each time three TLD chips were covered by thin dark plastic covers, and were put at the surface of the phantom or the patient. The average reading of the three chips was used for obtaining the dose. Results: The results show a close agreement between the dose measuered by the two dosimeters.According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e.signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100.The ESD values varied between 2.71 mGy and 26.29 mGy with the average of 11.89 mGy for TLD-100, and between 2.55 mGy and 27.41 mGy with the average of 12.32 mGy for measurements. Conclusion: The TLD-100H dosimeters are suggested as effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields because of their higher sensitivities.

  19. NRC/DAE reactor safety research Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    In 1976, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the NRC/Division of Accident Evaluation (DAE) Data Bank to collect, store, and make available data from the many domestic and foreign water reactor safety research programs. This program has since grown from the conceptual stage to a useful, usable service for computer code development, code assessment, and experimentation groups in meeting the needs of the nuclear industry. Data from 20 facilities are now processed and permanently stored in the Data Bank, which utilizes the Control Data Corporation (CDC) CYBER 176 computer system located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). New data and data sources are continually being added to the Data Bank. In addition to providing data storage and access software, the Data Bank program supplies data entry, documentation, and training and advisory services to users and the NRC. Management of the NRC/DAE Data Bank is provided by EG and G Idaho, Inc

  20. 48 CFR 2009.570 - NRC organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conflicts of interest. 2009.570 Section 2009.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570 NRC organizational conflicts of interest. ...

  1. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Centro de Engenharia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues F, M. A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Dermatologia e Radioterapia, Av. Prof. Montenegro s/n, Rubiao Junior, 18601-970 Botucatu (Brazil); Vivolo, V., E-mail: chancez@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with {sup 7}Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H.; Rodrigues F, M. A.; Vivolo, V.

    2014-08-01

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with 7 Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  3. TLD Intercomparison in accelerators for radiotherapy in three Latin american countries; Intercomparacion TLD en aceleradores para radioterapia en tres paises latinoamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin N, J.; Perez, M.A.; Picon, C.; Castellanos, E.; Plazas, M.C.; Murcia, G.; Archundia, L. [Depto. El Hombre y su Ambiente. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Calz. Del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In Radiotherapy one of the objectives is to establish and to give follow up to quality assurance programs which make sure that the doses administered to the patients with cancer are a high probability of a success in external radiation. Likewise, one of the present preoccupations of the United Nations Agencies as well as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Pan-American Health Organization is the optimal employment of the radiations in the treatment of cancer patients since the administered dose in Radiotherapy suffers considerable variations by the lack of quality assurance programs. The use of Electron linear accelerators requires a program of quality assurance that includes expert personnel, equipment and adequate facilities. The more used methodology for the dosimetry calibration and characterization of X-ray beams and high energy electrons for radiotherapy use is using a ionization chamber dosemeter calibrated in a regional secondary standardization laboratory. However, to establish and give follow up to the quality assurance programs it is necessary the dosimetric intercomparison through TLD. In this study it was designed plastic phantoms with TLD crystals and it was made its characterization to realize an absorbed dose analysis in the crystals exposed at X-ray beams 6 MV and high energy electrons 10 and 12 MeV to standardize the dosimetric procedures and proceeding to realize an International Pilot intercomparison of absorbed doses in TLD crystals in three Latin American countries: Mexico, Peru and Colombia with the participation of accelerators of five different institutions. The found results show that the majority of the measured doses with TLD in the different accelerators were in the 0.95-1.05 range though it had two cases outside of this range. The use of the phantoms with TLD crystals shows that they are of excellent aid to make analysis of the doses administered to the patients and an intercomparison of results to standardize procedures at

  4. A method to minimise the fading effects of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-600 and TLD-700) using a pre-heat technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, YoungJu; Won, Yuho; Kang, Kidoo

    2015-04-01

    Passive integrating dosemeters [thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)] are the only legally permitted individual dosemeters for occupational external radiation exposure monitoring in Korea. Also its maximum issuing cycle does not exceed 3 months, and the Korean regulations require personal dosemeters for official assessment of external radiation exposure to be issued by an approved or rather an accredited dosimetry service according to ISO/IEC 17025. KHNP (Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power, LTD), a unique operating company of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea, currently has a plan to extend a TLD issuing cycle from 1 to 3 months under the authors' fading error criteria, ±10%. The authors have performed a feasibility study that minimises post-irradiation fading effects within their maximum reading cycle employing pre-heating technique. They repeatedly performed irradiation/reading a bare TLD chip to determine optimum pre-heating conditions by analysing each glow curve. The optimum reading conditions within the maximum reading cycle of 3 months were decided: a pre-heating temperature of 165°C, a pre-heating time of 9 s, a heating rate of 25°C s(-1), a reading temperature of 300°C and an acquisition time of 10 s. The fading result of TLD-600 and TLD-700 carried by newly developed time temperature profile (TTP) showed a much smaller fading effect than that of current TTP. The result showed that the fading error due to a developed TTP resulted in a ∼5% signal loss, whereas a current TTP caused a ∼15% loss. The authors also carried out a legal performance test on newly developed TTP to confirm its possibility as an official dosemeter. The legal performance tests that applied the developed TTP satisfied the criteria for all the test categories. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Amalgamation of performance indicators to support NRC senior management reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wreathall, J.; Schurman, D.; Modarres, M.; Mosleh, A.; Anderson, N.; Reason, J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a methodology for amalgamating performance indicators to provide an overall perspective on plant safety, as one input to Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) senior management reviews of plant safety. These reviews are used to adjust the level of oversight by NRC. Work completed to date includes the development of frameworks for relating indicator measures to safety, a classification scheme for performance indicators, and a mapping process to portray indicators in the frameworks

  6. Regulatory decision with EPA/NRC/DOE/State Session (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Donnell, E.

    1995-12-31

    This panel will cover the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) proposed radiation limits in the Branch Technical Position on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Performance Assessment and the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) draft regulation in Part 193. Representatives from NRC and EPA will discuss the inconsistencies in these two regulations. DOE and state representatives will discuss their perspective on how these regulations will affect low-level radioactive waste performance assessments.

  7. IAEA/ WHO TLD postal dose intercomparison results in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Bhuiyan, N.U.; Rahman, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: For the accurate delivery of prescribed dose to the patients, high precision and accuracy in radiation dosimetry is required. The hospital/medical physicist is responsible for the accurate delivery of whole planned radiation doses to the patients prescribed by the radio therapist. The proper delivery of radiation doses depends upon the accurate output measurements of doses from the therapy machines. In Bangladesh, only six 60 Co units and five deep therapy machines are in use. Some more are expected to be installed soon. Still in 2001, none of the Government radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh was properly equipped with medical physicists as well as radiotherapy dosimetry equipment. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is responsible for radiation safety in Bangladesh and BAEC has assigned Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Bangladesh for providing dosimetry calibration to all radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh. The output measurements of therapy machines are performed once in a year by SSDL and the results are compared by participating in the annual TLD postal dose intercomparison program organized by IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. The absorbed dose to water is determined using IAEA dosimetry protocol (TRS 277 and 381) and water phantom of size 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 , The measurements of SSDL are traceable to NPL of UK. The accuracy achieved in SSDL, Bangladesh has been found better than ± 3.5%, which is within the prescribed limit of dosimetry standard of IAEA. The methodology of output dose measurements in different radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh is described along with the IAEA/WHO intercomparison results

  8. Safety Second: the NRC and America's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adato, M.; MacKenzie, J.; Pollard, R.; Weiss, E.

    1987-01-01

    In 1975, Congress created the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Its primary responsibility was to be the regulation of the nuclear power industry in order to maintain public health and safety. On March 28, 1979, in the worst commercial nuclear accident in US history, the plant at Three Mile Island began to leak radioactive material. How was Three Mile Island possible? Where was the NRC? This analysis by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) of the NRC's first decade, points specifically to the factors that contributed to the accident at Three Mile Island. The NRC, created as a watchdog of the nuclear power industry, suffers from problems of mindset, says the UCS. The commission's problems are political, not technical; it repeatedly ranks special interests above the interest of public safety. This book critiques the NRC's performance in four specific areas. It charges that the agency has avoided tackling the most pervasive safety issues; has limited public participation in decision making and power plant licensing; has failed to enforce safety standards or conduct adequate regulation investigations; and, finally, has maintained a fraternal relationship with the industry it was created to regulate, serving as its advocate rather than it adversary. The final chapter offers recommendations for agency improvement that must be met if the NRC is to fulfill its responsibility for safety first

  9. Personnel dose equivalent monitoring at SLAC using lithium-fluoride TLD's [thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.M.; Busick, D.D.

    1987-03-01

    TLD's replaced film badges in the early 1970's for all dose equivalent monitoring, both neutron and photon, and for all locations at SLAC. The photon TLD's, composed of Li-7 loaded teflon discs, are calibrated using conventional gamma-ray sources; i.e., Co-60, Cs-137, etc. For these TLD's a nominal value of 1 nC/mrem is used, and is independent of source energy for 100 keV to 3 MeV. Since measured dose equivalents at SLAC are only a small fraction of the allowable levels, it was not deemed necessary to develop neutron dosimeters which would measure dose equivalent accurately for all possible neutron spectra. Today, wallet TLD's, composed of pairs of Li-7 and Li-6 discs, are used, with the Li-6 measuring only thermal neutrons; i.e., they aren't moderated in any way to make them sensitive to neutrons with energies greater than thermal. The assumption is made that there is a correlation between thermal neutron fluences and fast neutron fluences around the research area where almost all neutron doses (exclusive of sealed sources) are received. The calibration factor for these Li-6 TLD's is 1 nC/mrem of fast neutrons. The method of determining the validity of this calibration is the subject of this note. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  10. The study of new calibration features in the Harshaw TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, L. Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Harshaw TLD system has three key calibration procedures: the Reader, the Dosemeter and the Algorithm. These functions must be properly calibrated for the system to achieve the optimum results. For the conventional reader and dosemeter calibration, Harshaw TLD recommends a pre-fade and a post-fade of 24-48 h when calibrating the system for LiF:Mg,Ti type dosemeter. It is also recommended that keeping the fade time consistent is important to maintain the quality of the system performance. In recent years, new calibration features have been introduced into the Harshaw TLD models 6600 and 8800 operating systems. These new features are Auto Calibration, Auto QC and Auto Blank, and they give the user the ability to set up the clear-expose-read process to be performed automatically in a sequence for each dosemeter. This saves processing time and keeps the fade time the same. However, since the fade time is near zero, will it affect the TLD system calibration factors? What should the user expect? This paper presents a study of the effect of Auto Calibration/Auto QC to the TLD operation. (authors)

  11. Policy issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance in NRC proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the report presented is to focus and develop the myriad issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance for the NRC's proposed rulemaking proceeding. The report analyzes and assesses the various alternatives open to the Commission, and collects relevant data and material which may be informative to those participating in and conducting the rulemaking. Three major questions are examined: (1) should the Commission, as a matter of policy choice, provide financial assistance to intervenors in NRC proceedings; (2) are there preferable alternatives to direct intervenor financial aid, such as the establishment of an office of public counsel or provision of other forms of Commission assistance; and (3) what are the legal, administrative and policy considerations involved in implementing a determination to award financial assistance to intervenors, should the Commission so decide

  12. Improvement of Accuracy in Environmental Dosimetry by TLD Cards Using Three-dimensional Calibration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HosseiniAliabadi S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The angular dependency of response for TLD cards may cause deviation from its true value on the results of environmental dosimetry, since TLDs may be exposed to radiation at different angles of incidence from the surrounding area. Objective: A 3D setting of TLD cards has been calibrated isotropically in a standard radiation field to evaluate the improvement of the accuracy of measurement for environmental dosimetry. Method: Three personal TLD cards were rectangularly placed in a cylindrical holder, and calibrated using 1D and 3D calibration methods. Then, the dosimeter has been used simultaneously with a reference instrument in a real radiation field measuring the accumulated dose within a time interval. Result: The results show that the accuracy of measurement has been improved by 6.5% using 3D calibration factor in comparison with that of normal 1D calibration method. Conclusion: This system can be utilized in large scale environmental monitoring with a higher accuracy

  13. Investigation of LiF, Mg and Ti (TLD-100 Reproducibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available LiF, Mg and Ti cubical TLD chips (known as TLD-100 are widely used for dosimetry purposes. The repeatability of TL dosimetry is investigated by exposing them to doses of (81, 162 and 40.5 mGy with 662keV photons of Cs-137. A group of 40 cubical TLD chips was randomly selected from a batch and the values of Element Correction Coefficient (ECC were obtained 4 times by irradiating them to doses of 81 mGy (two times, 162mGy and 40.5mGy. Results of this study indicate that the average reproducibility of ECC calculation for 40 TLDs is 1.5%, while these values for all chips do not exceed 5%.

  14. Investigation of LiF, Mg and Ti (TLD-100) Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M; Sina, S; Faghihi, R

    2015-12-01

    LiF, Mg and Ti cubical TLD chips (known as TLD-100) are widely used for dosimetry purposes. The repeatability of TL dosimetry is investigated by exposing them to doses of (81, 162 and 40.5 mGy) with 662keV photons of Cs-137. A group of 40 cubical TLD chips was randomly selected from a batch and the values of Element Correction Coefficient (ECC) were obtained 4 times by irradiating them to doses of 81 mGy (two times), 162mGy and 40.5mGy. Results of this study indicate that the average reproducibility of ECC calculation for 40 TLDs is 1.5%, while these values for all chips do not exceed 5%.

  15. Optimization of the temperature profiles due to a nitrogen jet impinging on a TLD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.; Bar-Kohany, T.; German, U.; Ziskind, G.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to simulate the temperature profiles during readout in a typical, commercial thermo-luminescence dosimeter (TLD) chip and to optimize the readout conditions. The study makes use of a previously developed numerical model which calculates the crystal's temperature profile evolution inside a TLD crystal compound. The calculated profiles were implemented in the Randall-Wilkins equation to obtain the estimated glow curve. A number of jet temperature profiles were investigated in order to optimize the readout process. - Highlights: • The temperature profiles in a TLD chip compound were simulated. • Some non-routine heating profiles are proposed. • A better efficiency and shorter time can be obtained with these profiles. • The resulting glow curves were evaluated as well

  16. Personal neutron monitoring using TLD albedo combined with etched tracks detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, N.; Momose, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibarakiken (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The albedo dosimetry has been carried out in personal neutron monitoring in the MOX fuel plant of JNC Tokai Works, however, it has shortcomings mainly due to the inherently poor energy response. This paper describes our efforts to overcome these difficulties in practical use of albedo dosemeters. The following four subjects are presented: (1) the neutron energy response functions of albedo TLD obtained from the mono-energetic neutron irradiation experiments and the Monte-Carlo calculations, (2) the location- dependent correction factors calculated from the response functions and neutron energy spectra measured in the workplaces, (3) the results of the international personal neutron dosimetry intercomparison program, and (4) the operational comparison program of TLD albedo and etched tracks detector worn by workers engaged in the fabrication process of the MOX fuel plant. Finally, the characteristics of the combination neutron dosemeter using TLD albedo and solid state etched track detector are summarized.

  17. 10 CFR 2.1202 - Authority and role of NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and role of NRC staff. 2.1202 Section 2.1202... ORDERS Informal Hearing Procedures for NRC Adjudications § 2.1202 Authority and role of NRC staff. (a) During the pendency of any hearing under this subpart, consistent with the NRC staff's findings in its...

  18. Program of TLD audits for quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P.; Feld, D.; Gomez, C.; Kessler, C.; Montano, R.G.; Lindner, C.; Peretti, M.; Saravi, M.; Miguez, V.; Paidon, S.; Raslawski, E.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: It is known that a high precision in radiotherapy is essential to ensure a successful radiation treatment. To reach this goal it is necessary to detect and minimise many errors, which can be done through a periodic program of quality control, not only internal checks but also participating in external audits that attempt to control the absorbed dose delivered and detect any source of error, coming from the machine itself or from human mistakes. Under the frame of the International Quality Assurance Network for Dosimetry in Radiotherapy proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, a National External Audit Group (EAG) has been created in our country, composed by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), 2 Medical Physics and 1 Medical Radiotherapist. The SSDL and one of the Medical Physics belong to the National Atomic Energy Agency, meanwhile the rest of the group belong to the National Pediatric Hospital P rof. J.P.Garrahan . This EAG performs external audits to Radiation Therapy Centres with a thermoluminescence system, which is checked periodically by the IAEA. The audits are performed to the 60 Co γ-ray and high energy X-ray beams that are being used for medical application in the whole country. The SSDL is the responsible of the thermoluminescence measurements; deviation of the absorbed dose determined by the TLD system from the one informed by the Responsible of the Center within the interval ± 5% are considered acceptable while deviations out of this interval require the intervention of the Medical Physic Group and the Radiotherapist in order to determine the cause of the discrepancies. In 1997, 4 audits performed in reference conditions were carried out 68 60 Co units participated in the audits, 61 of them with deviation within the acceptable interval in their first participation, meanwhile 1 got this deviation in repeated audits, after the follow up performed by the Medical Physic Group. Regarding high energy X-ray beams

  19. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The NRC plan defines the functional role of the NRC in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 to assure that agency regulatory responsibilities and objectives will be fulfilled. The plan outlines NRC functions in TMI-2 cleanup operations in the following areas: (1) the functional relationship of NRC to other government agencies, the public, and the licensee to coordinate activities, (2) the functional roles of these organizations in cleanup operations, (3) the NRC review and decision-making procedure for the licensee's proposed cleanup operation, (4) the NRC/licensee estimated schedule of major actions, and (5) NRC's functional role in overseeing implementation of approved licensee activities

  20. Audit on dose delivery by using TLD in Radiotherapy Centers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion Salikin; Taiman Kadni; Husaini Salleh; Asmaliza Hashim; Hasrul Husham Hussain

    2004-01-01

    The External Audit Group (EAQ) is established and supported by IAEA. Its main objective is to audit the accuracy of dose delivery to patients in radiotherapy centres or hospitals in developing countries in IAEA member states. At MINT the operation of EAG is managed by Medical Physics Group and supported by Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), MINT. The selected radiotherapy centers are supplied with TLD powder in capsule form, to be irradiated with the required radiation doses, by their physicists. The irradiated TLD is analysed at SSDL. The result of the audit for a few radiotherapy centres in Malaysia, is presented in brief in this paper. (Author)

  1. Automated TLD systems: what can we expect from the market today?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, Ch.

    1990-01-01

    The personnel monitoring service at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, which presently handles some 16,000 dosemeters per month, has been operating for more than ten years with three automated TLD systems, Harshaw model 2271. In order to renew the instrumentation an extensive evaluation and comparison of four commercially available automated systems designed to the present state-of-the-art has been carried out. The test procedures included dosimetric performance, reliability, handling speed and throughput, and additional information such as glow curve evaluation etc. The results should provide useful advice to monitoring services interested in the application of modern automated TLD systems currently on the market. (author)

  2. A microcontroller based readout unit for a smart personnel monitoring TLD badge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaonkar, U.P.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Kannan, S.

    1997-01-01

    An automated TLD personnel monitoring system is under development to cope up with the requirements of personnel monitoring of rapidly growing number of radiation workers. The core of the system is a smart TLD badge incorporating a memory device and a microcontroller based readout unit for reading the memory contents of the badge. The memory is used to store personnel data including the accumulated dose data. The reader unit has a serial RS 232C interface for connection to a PC for entering/modifying data in the memory. A password protected software has also been developed in C for entering/modifying the data in the single memory. 3 figs

  3. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  4. US NRC research on the integrity of piping in nuclear reactor primary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpan, C.Z. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper has attempted to provide a ''snapshot'' of the activities underway in NRC on the subject of LWR piping integrity as of the summer and fall of 1983. The paper is necessarily vague on certain topics of policy because they are either under review or are under development and the outcome cannot be accurately forecast at this time. Particularly in the area of BWR pipe cracking, events are very rapid so that positions and actions described in this paper may well be obsolete by the time it is published. Nevertheless, the activities and positions are as accurate as possible at the time of writing. Certainly the longer-range aspects of the research program represent the current direction and intent of NRC; nevertheless, as results come in and actions occur in the licensing and regulation arena of operating reactors, the emphasis of the research programs will necessarily shift to accommodate them so as to remain as relevant as possible. Thus, this paper is useful to show the intentions of NRC in the area of research for LWR piping, and it is also useful to document the status of the regulations on piping for which the research is being performed. (orig.)

  5. Consolidation and Decomposition of APR1400 NRC Design Certification Processes for Collaborative and Accelerated Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Chul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Deog Ji [KNHP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    KEPCO and KHNP are conducting APR1400 Design Certification from NRC. For the proper management of processes and information, a system called RIS (Regulatory Information management System) has been implemented by FNC from 2014, and it is on the final stage. In retaining the certification from NRC, RIS will be a very essential role by providing platform for collaborative and accelerated processing of responses to RAI (Request of Additional Information). Preparation of responses to RAI with this kind of systematic approach may be the first in the world. Westinghouse is doing manually and using MS Excel to collect the processing status. Where as, RIS will enable each member can do his own job and collect the status automatically. In this paper, how collaborative and accelerated processing of responses to RAI can be enabled will be described, and further enhancements will also be discussed. It handles MS Word directory with the help of VSTO. And with the help of Aspose.Total for .NET, the prepared response to RAI meets NRC's requirements. Through some further work and direct integration with requirement management solution, RIS can be expanded to cover a prior impact notice in case of DCD being altered.

  6. Recent developments in NRC guidelines for atmosphere cleanup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains the policy of updating when necessary, its published guidance for the design of engineered safety feature (ESF) and normal ventilation systems. The guidance is disseminated by means of issuing new, or revisions to, existing Regulatory Guides, Standard Review Plans, Branch Technical Positions and Technical Specifications. A revised Regulatory Guide, new Technical Specifications and new Standard Review Plans with Branch Technical Positions for atmosphere cleanup systems are discussed. Regulatory Guide 1.52, ''Design, Testing and Maintenance Criteria for Atmosphere Cleanup System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants,'' was issued in July 1973. The major comments received from the nuclear industry since the guide was issued, NRC's experience in implementing the guide in recent license applications, status of operating plants in meeting the guidelines and NRC's continuing assessment of operating data and laboratory tests to assure that the guide reflects the latest technology are discussed

  7. Initial experience with the NRC significance determination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, A.L. [Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has revamped its inspection, assessment, and enforcement programs for commercial nuclear power plants. The new oversight process uses more objective, timely, and safety-significant criteria in assessing performance, while seeking to more effectively and efficiently regulate the industry. The NRC tested the new process at thirteen reactors at nine sites across the country on a pilot basis in 1999 to identify what things worked well and what improvements were called for before beginning Initial Implementation at all US nuclear power plants on April 2, 2000. After a year of experience has been gained with the new oversight process at all US plants, the NRC anticipates making further improvements based on this wider experience. (author)

  8. Coupled processes in NRC high-level waste research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanzi, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses NRC research effort in support of evaluating license applications for disposal of nuclear waste and for promulgating regulations and issuing guidance documents on nuclear waste management. In order to do this they fund research activities at a number of laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial organizations. One of our research efforts is the coupled processes study. This paper discusses interest in coupled processes and describes the target areas of research efforts over the next few years. The specific research activities relate to the performance objectives of NRC's high-level waste (HLW) regulation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) HLW standard. The general objective of the research program is to ensure the NRC has a sufficient independent technical base to make sound regulatory decisions

  9. Congress, NRC mull utility access to FBI criminal files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultroska, D.

    1984-01-01

    Experiences at Alabama Power Company and other nuclear utilities have promped a request for institutionalizing security checks of personnel in order to eliminated convicted criminals and drug users. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which could provide FBI criminal history information by submitting fingerprints, does not do so, and would require new legislation to take on that duty. Believing that current malevolent employees can be managed with existing procedures, NRC allows criminal background checks only on prospective employees in order to avoid a negative social impact on personnel. Legislation to transfer criminal histories to nuclear facilities is now pending, and NRC is leaning toward a request for full disclosure, partly because of terrorist threats and partly to save manpower time and costs in reviewing case histories

  10. Initial experience with the NRC significance determination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madison, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has revamped its inspection, assessment, and enforcement programs for commercial nuclear power plants. The new oversight process uses more objective, timely, and safety-significant criteria in assessing performance, while seeking to more effectively and efficiently regulate the industry. The NRC tested the new process at thirteen reactors at nine sites across the country on a pilot basis in 1999 to identify what things worked well and what improvements were called for before beginning Initial Implementation at all US nuclear power plants on April 2, 2000. After a year of experience has been gained with the new oversight process at all US plants, the NRC anticipates making further improvements based on this wider experience. (author)

  11. The use of TLD-700H dosemeters in the assessment of external doses at the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P; Dederichs, H; Pillath, J; Schlecht, W; Hille, R; Artemev, O; Ptitskaya, L; Akhmetov, M

    2002-01-01

    The joint projects performed since 1995 by the Jülich Research Centre in co-operation with the Kazakh National Nuclear Centre in the area of the former nuclear test site near Semipalatinsk, in eastern Kazakhstan, have assessed the current dose rate of the population at and around the test site, as well as determining retrospectively the dose rate of persons affected by the atmospheric tests. Measurements of the population by personal dosemeters depend on reliably wearing these dosemeters over prolonged periods of time, and of a sufficient dosemeter return. In the past, such measurements have been particularly successful whenever short wearing times were possible. This requires high sensitivity of the dosemeters. The suitability of the highly sensitive TLD material of the BICRON TLD 700H type for such personal dosimetry measurements was investigated. It was tested in practical field application at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in September 2000. Initial results are available from individual doses received by a group of geologists and a group of herdsmen at the test site. For the first time, the individual dose was measured directly in these population groups. Detection limits below 1 microSv permit informative measurements for wearing times of less than two weeks. Most individual doses did not arise significantly out of local fluctuations of natural background. A conservative assessment from the aspect of practical health physics yielded a mean personal dose of 0.55 microSv per day for the herdsmen, whereas the geologists received a mean personal dose of 0.45 microSv per day. For an annual exposure period of typically, about three months, the radiation dose received by the persons investigated, in addition to the natural radiation exposure, is thus well below the international limit value of 1 mSv x a(-1) for the population dose.

  12. NRC's limit on intake of uranium-ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1983-04-01

    In 1960 the Atomic Energy Commission adopted an interim limit on the intake by inhalation of airborne uranium-ore dust. This report culminates two decades of research aimed at establishing the adequacy of that limit. The report concludes that the AEC underestimated the time that thorium-230, a constituent of uranium-ore dust, would remain in the human lung. The AEC assumed that thorium-230 in ore dust would behave like uranium with a 120-day biological half-life in the lung. This report concludes that the biological half-life is actually on the order of 1 year. Correcting the AEC's underestimate would cause a reduction in the permitted airborne concentration of uranium-ore dust. However, another factor that cancels the need for that reduction was found. The uranium ore dust in uranium mills was found to occur with very large particle sizes (10-micron activity median aerodynamic diameter). The particles are so large that relatively few of them are deposited in the pulmonary region of the lung, where they would be subject to long-term retention. Instead they are trapped in the upper regions of the respiratory tract, subsequently swallowed, and then rapidly excreted from the body through the gastrointestinal tract. The two effects are of about the same magnitude but in opposing directions. Thus the present uranium-ore dust intake limit in NRC regulations should provide a level of protection consistent with that provided for other airborne radioactive materials. The report recalculates the limit on intake of uranium-ore dust using the derived air concentrations (DAC) from the International Commission on Radiological Protection's recent Publication 30. The report concludes that the silica contained in uranium-ore dust is a greater hazard to workers than the radiological hazard

  13. Comparison of the calculated absorbed dose using the Cadplan™ treatment planning software and Tld-100 measurements in an Alderson-Rando phantom for a bronchogenic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez Castillo, J. G., E-mail: jggc59@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Hospital de Oncología, IMSS, CMN Siglo XXI, Cuauhtémoc 330 Col. Doctores (Mexico); Álvarez Romero, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx; Calderón, A. Torres, E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx; M, V. Tovar, E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: fisarmandotorres@gmail.com, E-mail: victor.tovar@inin.gob.mx [SSDL, Departamento de Metrología ININ, Salazar, Estado de México 15245 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    To verify the accuracy of the absorbed doses D calculated by a TPS Cadplan for a bronchogenic treatment (in an Alderson-Rando phantom) are chosen ten points with the following D's and localizations. Point 1, posterior position on the left edge with 136.4 Gy. Points: 2, 3 and 4 in the left lung with 104.9, 104.3 and 105.8 Gy, respectively; points 5 and 6 at the mediastinum with 192.4 and 173.5 Gy; points 7, 8 and 9 in the right lung with 105.8, 104.2 and 104.7 Gy, and 10 at posterior position on right edge with 143.7 Gy. IAEA type capsules with TLD 100 powder are placed, planned and irradiated. The evaluation of the absorbed dose is carried out a curve of calibration for the LiF response (nC) {sup vs} {sup DW}, to several cavity theories. The traceability for the DW is obtained with a secondary standard calibrated at the NRC (Canada). The dosimetric properties for the materials considered are determined from the Hounsfield numbers reported by the TPS. The stopping power ratios are calculated for nominal spectrum to 6 MV photons. The percent variations among the planned and determined D in all the cases they are < ± 3%.

  14. Initial demonstration of the NRC`s capability to conduct a performance assessment for a High-Level Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codell, R.; Eisenberg, N.; Fehringer, D.; Ford, W.; Margulies, T.; McCartin, T.; Park, J.; Randall, J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. This report documents an initial demonstration of this capability. The demonstration made use of the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. By expanding and developing the NRC staff capability to conduct such analyses, NRC would be better able to conduct an independent technical review of the US Department of Energy (DOE) licensing submittals for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. These activities were divided initially into Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. Additional phases may follow as part of a program of iterative performance assessment at the NRC. The NRC staff conducted Phase 1 activities primarily in CY 1989 with minimal participation from NRC contractors. The Phase 2 activities were to involve NRC contractors actively and to provide for the transfer of technology. The Phase 2 activities are scheduled to start in CY 1990, to allow Sandia National Laboratories to complete development and transfer of computer codes and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to be in a position to assist in the acquisition of the codes.

  15. Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, B.J.; Fairchild, C.I.; DeField, J.D.; Hack, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A project of the Health, Safety and Environment Division is described. The project provides the NRC with information of respiratory protective devices and programs for their licensee personnel. The following activities were performed during FY 1983: selection of alternate test aerosols for quality assurance testing of high-efficiency particulate air respirator filters; evaluation of MAG-1 spectacles for use with positive and negative-pressure respirators; development of a Manual of Respiratory Protection in Emergencies Involving Airborne Radioactive Materials, and technical assistance to NRC licensees regarding respirator applications. 2 references, 1 figure

  16. Skin dose measurements using MOSFET and TLD for head and neck patients treated with tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Murthy, Vedang; Goel, Vineeta; Tambe, Chandrashekar M.; Dhote, Dipak S.; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to estimate skin dose for the patients treated with tomotherapy using metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). In vivo measurements were performed for two head and neck patients treated with tomotherapy and compared to TLD measurements. The measurements were subsequently carried out for five days to estimate the inter-fraction deviations in MOSFET measurements. The variation between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD for first patient was 2.2%. Similarly, the variation of 2.3% was observed between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD for second patient. The tomotherapy treatment planning system overestimated the skin dose as much as by 10-12% when compared to both MOSFET and TLD. However, the MOSFET measured patient skin doses also had good reproducibility, with inter-fraction deviations ranging from 1% to 1.4%. MOSFETs may be used as a viable dosimeter for measuring skin dose in areas where the treatment planning system may not be accurate.

  17. Calibration of TLD cards to beta ray spectra of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; German, U.; Naim, E.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the evaluation of TLD chips are received in nC, and we need to transform these values to mGy, in order to obtain the penetrating and the non-penetrating dose. The calibration factors were determined experimentally by irradiation the TLD chips with an uranium source. Beta rays having other spectra can cause incorrect values when estimating the non-penetrating dose. If the spectrum of the beta source is known, a specific evaluation of the calibration factor can be performed. In this report, the estimation of the calibration factor for a 32 P source is presented. LiF:Ti,Mg TLD cards were irradiated calibrated source of 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 204 Tl and non-calibrated source of 32 P, in order to find the beta correction factor for the spectrum of 32 P. Calculations of the beta correction factor were performed too, by applying the Loevinger equations to the geometry of the TLD chips used in our routine measurements. The calculated values of the beta correction factors are lower than the experimental ones. When comparing the ratios, between the beta factors of 32 P and 90 Sr/ 90 Y received from the experiments and from the calculation, we found them to be constant up to ±5%. (authors) 15 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Development and extension of TLD audit in radiation therapy in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, J.; Ekendahl, D.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive and adequate quality assurance (QA) program is a crucial factor in minimizing gross errors and in reducing uncertainties caused during any of consecutive steps of radiation therapy process. Since 1997, the measuring centre of National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague (NRPI) has been performing TLD audit in external beam radiation therapy via mailed TL dosimeters, as a part of comprehensive QA program. The objective of TLD audit is to check dose delivery accuracy at radiation therapy centers and to inform the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) on the situation. The flexibility of the method enables NRPI to inspect each centre at least once every two years. Compared with the EU average, situation in the Czech Republic seems to be similar. 95 % of measurements show deviation up to 5 % (97 % in the EQUAL network). Nevertheless, the acceptance level is stricter (3 %) in the Czech Republic. This is affordable because o(the small size of the country, and better ability to confirm the results promptly , if tolerance levels are exceeded. Still, 84 % of results meet the criteria of 3 %. Both basic and advanced modes of TLD audit may discover deviations in clinical dosimetry or in treatment planning for reference and non reference .conditions, although they do not provide enough data for proper interpretation of errors. The results show the importance of independent TLD audit as a flexible and operational part of the comprehensive quality assurance program. (authors)

  19. Operating experience of an automated TLD dispensing system at CORAL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.; Arun, R.; Yuvaraj, N.; Karthikeyan, D.; Dheeraj, R.; Akila, R.; Santhanam, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Kumar, Amudhu Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of exposures to occupational workers on individual basis is a regulatory requirement to demonstrate compliance that the dose to the workers is well within the dose limit. Over three decades for monitoring of external exposures, CaSO 4 based Thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLDs), which exhibit the required accuracy, reliability and ruggedness have been employed. TLD cards with unique identification number are loaded in plastic cassettes along with photographs are placed in wooden racks at the entry of the controlled area of the plant. However, there is always a chance that a TLD may be misplaced, used by others or there could be a deliberate act of misuse or abuse. To circumvent this it was decided to install an automated TLD dispensing system with individual TLD tracking as well as locking arrangement. CORAL reprocessing facility at IGCAR was the first to install one such system at Kalpakkam and the operating experience of the system for the last two years is brought out in this paper

  20. Skin dose measurements using MOSFET and TLD for head and neck patients treated with tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A; Murthy, Vedang; Goel, Vineeta; Tambe, Chandrashekar M; Dhote, Dipak S; Deshpande, Deepak D

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to estimate skin dose for the patients treated with tomotherapy using metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). In vivo measurements were performed for two head and neck patients treated with tomotherapy and compared to TLD measurements. The measurements were subsequently carried out for five days to estimate the inter-fraction deviations in MOSFET measurements. The variation between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD for first patient was 2.2%. Similarly, the variation of 2.3% was observed between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD for second patient. The tomotherapy treatment planning system overestimated the skin dose as much as by 10-12% when compared to both MOSFET and TLD. However, the MOSFET measured patient skin doses also had good reproducibility, with inter-fraction deviations ranging from 1% to 1.4%. MOSFETs may be used as a viable dosimeter for measuring skin dose in areas where the treatment planning system may not be accurate.

  1. Environmental dosimetry system based on LiF : Mg, Ti (TLD-100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez Vergara, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents the various tests carried out to the characterize a thermoluminescence environmental dosimetry systems, using the phosphor LiF:mg,Ti (TLD-100) in chip form. The holder has been specifically designed in order to obtain simplicity in the operation and to assure correct measurements in terms of the new operational quantities in radiation protection (ICRU-1985). Some topics in TLD Environmental Monitoring are discussed (Dark Current, Reference Light, Zero Reading, Free-in-Air or Phantom Calibration, Fading Correction, Transit Dose, etc.), and the proposed solutions are exposed. The tests performed have been designed to conform with the different existing international Standards and Recommendations (ANSI : N545-1975; IEC: Draft 45B-1987, ISO : DP 8034-19849. The data from an European Interlaboratory Programm (EUR-8932) have been used to evaluate the performance : the TLD System presented is among the best systems using TLD-100. The results obtained in the characterization (linearity, repeatability, detection threshold, residue, angular response, stability of stored information, etc.) show the optimum performance of this dosimetric system in its application to environmental gamma dose monitoring. Based on these results, two operational procedures have been developed for the application of this Dosimetric System, specially in Quality Assurance Monitoring Programs around Nuclear Plants in Spain. (author)

  2. Electronic stability and reproducible accuracy of HARSHAW 2000(A,B) TLD-analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yossef, S.K.; Henaish, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Nowadays, the thermoluminescence techniques utilizing natural materials and assorted chemical compound of various geometrical configurations are widely and popularly used on the international scale as a dose evaluation system. The main problems which are usually encounting the accuracy of the evaluated dose by means of such various dosimeter forms are the long and short term stability of the measuring system. Also this manuscript is a very essential details stated out the principle mechanisms which cause that produced TL-readers instability. As it is stated out through the different sections of this issue, it is mainly due to the interior mechanisms of the TLD measuring systems. Further more, the various detailed discussions availed through the different sections of such issue are mainly accompanied by long term experiences gained by the authors. A novel heating cycle mechanism applied to HARSHOW 2000(A and b) TLD analyzer is tested experimentally. Also long and short term stability beside the reproducibility of the TLD reader system were experimentally tested under various seasonable environmental thermal conditions. The results of experimental measurements were noted for a total duration of six months during continuous operation of the TLD reader for one year. 1 fig., 3 tab

  3. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markman, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control

  4. TLD Intercomparison in accelerators for radiotherapy in three Latin american countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin N, J.; Perez, M.A.; Picon, C.; Castellanos, E.; Plazas, M.C.; Murcia, G.; Archundia, L.

    1998-01-01

    In Radiotherapy one of the objectives is to establish and to give follow up to quality assurance programs which make sure that the doses administered to the patients with cancer are a high probability of a success in external radiation. Likewise, one of the present preoccupations of the United Nations Agencies as well as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Pan-American Health Organization is the optimal employment of the radiations in the treatment of cancer patients since the administered dose in Radiotherapy suffers considerable variations by the lack of quality assurance programs. The use of Electron linear accelerators requires a program of quality assurance that includes expert personnel, equipment and adequate facilities. The more used methodology for the dosimetry calibration and characterization of X-ray beams and high energy electrons for radiotherapy use is using a ionization chamber dosemeter calibrated in a regional secondary standardization laboratory. However, to establish and give follow up to the quality assurance programs it is necessary the dosimetric intercomparison through TLD. In this study it was designed plastic phantoms with TLD crystals and it was made its characterization to realize an absorbed dose analysis in the crystals exposed at X-ray beams 6 MV and high energy electrons 10 and 12 MeV to standardize the dosimetric procedures and proceeding to realize an International Pilot intercomparison of absorbed doses in TLD crystals in three Latin American countries: Mexico, Peru and Colombia with the participation of accelerators of five different institutions. The found results show that the majority of the measured doses with TLD in the different accelerators were in the 0.95-1.05 range though it had two cases outside of this range. The use of the phantoms with TLD crystals shows that they are of excellent aid to make analysis of the doses administered to the patients and an intercomparison of results to standardize procedures at

  5. A Computerized QC Analysis of TLD Glow Curves for Personal Dosimetry Measurements Using Tag QC Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primo, S.; Datz, H.; Dar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The External Dosimetry Lab (EDL) at the Radiation Safety Division at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC) is ISO 17025 certified and provides its services to approximately 13,000 users throughout the country from various sectors such as medical, industrial and academic. About 95% of the users are monitored monthly for X-rays, radiation using Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) cards that contain three LiF:Mg,Ti elements and the other users, who work also with thermal neutrons, use TLD cards that contain four LiF:Mg,Ti elements. All TLD cards are measured with the Thermo 8800pc reader. Suspicious TLD glow curve (GC) can cause wrong dose estimation so the EDL makes great efforts to ensure that each GC undergoes a careful QC procedure. The current QC procedure is performed manually and through a few steps using different softwares and databases in a long and complicated procedure: EDL staff needs to export all the results/GCs to be checked to an Excel file, followed by finding the suspicious GCs, which is done in a different program (WinREMS), According to the GC shapes (Figure 1 illustrates suitable and suspicious GC shapes) and the ratio between the elements result values, the inspecting technician corrects the data. The motivation for developing the new program is the complicated and time consuming process of our the manual procedure to the large amount of TLDs each month (13,000), similarly to other Dosimetry services that use computerized QC GC analysis. it is important to note that only ~25% of the results are above the EDL recorded level (0.10 mSv) and need to be inspected. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe a new program, TagQC, which allows a computerized QC GC analysis that identifies automatically, swiftly, and accurately suspicious TLD GC

  6. NRC Regulatory Agenda. Quarterly report, July-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed, or is considering action as well as those on which it has recently completed action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received and are pending disposition by the Commission

  7. Risk-informed inservice test activities at the NRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.; Cheok, M.; Hsia, A.

    1996-12-01

    The operational readiness of certain safety-related components is vital to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Inservice testing (IST) is one of the mechanisms used by licensees to ensure this readiness. In the past, the type and frequency of IST have been based on the collective best judgment of the NRC and industry in an ASME Code consensus process and NRC rulemaking process. Furthermore, IST requirements have not explicitly considered unique component and system designs and contribution to overall plant risk. Because of the general nature of ASME Code test requirements and non-reliance on risk estimates, current IST requirements may not adequately emphasize testing those components that are most important to safety and may overly emphasize testing of less safety significant components. Nuclear power plant licensees are currently interested in optimizing testing by applying resources in more safety significant areas and, where appropriate, reducing measures in less safety-significant areas. They are interested in maintaining system availability and reducing overall maintenance costs in ways that do not adversely affect safety. The NRC has been interested in using probabilistic, as an adjunct to deterministic, techniques to help define the scope, type and frequency of IST. The development of risk-informed IST programs has the potential to optimize the use of NRC and industry resources without adverse affect on safety.

  8. Risk-informed inservice test activities at the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.; Cheok, M.; Hsia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The operational readiness of certain safety-related components is vital to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Inservice testing (IST) is one of the mechanisms used by licensees to ensure this readiness. In the past, the type and frequency of IST have been based on the collective best judgment of the NRC and industry in an ASME Code consensus process and NRC rulemaking process. Furthermore, IST requirements have not explicitly considered unique component and system designs and contribution to overall plant risk. Because of the general nature of ASME Code test requirements and non-reliance on risk estimates, current IST requirements may not adequately emphasize testing those components that are most important to safety and may overly emphasize testing of less safety significant components. Nuclear power plant licensees are currently interested in optimizing testing by applying resources in more safety significant areas and, where appropriate, reducing measures in less safety-significant areas. They are interested in maintaining system availability and reducing overall maintenance costs in ways that do not adversely affect safety. The NRC has been interested in using probabilistic, as an adjunct to deterministic, techniques to help define the scope, type and frequency of IST. The development of risk-informed IST programs has the potential to optimize the use of NRC and industry resources without adverse affect on safety

  9. Agency procedures for the NRC incident response plan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The NRC Incident Response Plan, NUREG-0728/MC 0502 describes the functions of the NRC during an incident and the kinds of actions that comprise an NRC response. The NRC response plan will be activated in accordance with threshold criteria described in the plan for incidents occurring at nuclear reactors and fuel facilities involving materials licensees; during transportation of licensed material, and for threats against facilities or licensed material. In contrast to the general overview provided by the Plan, the purpose of these agency procedures is to delineate the manner in which each planned response function is performed; the criteria for making those response decisions which can be preplanned; and the information and other resources needed during a response. An inexperienced but qualified person should be able to perform functions assigned by the Plan and make necessary decisions, given the specified information, by becoming familiar with these procedures. This rule of thumb has been used to determine the amount of detail in which the agency procedures are described. These procedures form a foundation for the training of response personnel both in their normal working environment and during planned emergency exercises. These procedures also form a ready reference or reminder checklist for technical team members and managers during a response

  10. NRC Regulatory Agenda: Quarterly report, January--March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed, or is considering action as well as those on which it has recently completed action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received and are pending disposition by the Commission

  11. Comparative study on skin dose measurement using MOSFET and TLD for pediatric patients with acute lymphatic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohammed, Huda I; Mahyoub, Fareed H; Moftah, Belal A

    2010-07-01

    The object of this study was to compare the difference of skin dose measured in patients with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) using metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (mobile MOSFET dose verification system (TN-RD-70-W) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100 chips, Harshaw/ Bicron, OH, USA). Because TLD has been the most-commonly used technique in the skin dose measurement of TBI, the aim of the present study is to prove the benefit of using the mobile MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) dosimeter, for entrance dose measurements during the total body irradiation (TBI) over thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The measurements involved 10 pediatric patients ages between 3 and 14 years. Thermoluminescent dosimeters and MOSFET dosimetry were performed at 9 different anatomic sites on each patient. The present results show there is a variation between skin dose measured with MOSFET and TLD in all patients, and for every anatomic site selected, there is no significant difference in the dose delivered using MOSFET as compared to the prescribed dose. However, there is a significant difference for every anatomic site using TLD compared with either the prescribed dose or MOSFET. The results indicate that the dosimeter measurements using the MOSFET gave precise measurements of prescribed dose. However, TLD measurement showed significant increased skin dose of cGy as compared to either prescribed dose or MOSFET group. MOSFET dosimeters provide superior dose accuracy for skin dose measurement in TBI as compared with TLD.

  12. U.S. N.R.C. special safeguards study on nuclear material control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    In Feb. 1975, NRC directed that an effort be made to determine a safeguards program for Pu recycle. This paper summarizes results of individual contractor evaluations of upgrading material control and accounting concepts as applied to strategically important special nuclear material and describes staff interpretations of these results as applied to future high-throughput fuel-cycle facilities. Real-time material control, design for physical inventory, Pu isotopics control and calorimetry, and material control and accounting for highly enriched uranium fuel materials were the concepts studied. 1 table, 15 references

  13. NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] safety research in support of regulation, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This report, the third in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during 1987. The goal of this office is to ensure that research provides the technical bases for rulemaking and for related decisions in support of NRC licensing and inspection activities. This report describes both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge with regard to nuclear safety and their regulatory applications

  14. The NRC weighs public input on plant cleanup standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1993-01-01

    In the wake of seven public open-quotes work-shopsclose quotes held around the country over the past several months, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing to develop radiological criteria for decommissioning nuclear power plants. The criteria will apply to plants that operate for their normal lifespan, those that shut down prematurely, as well as a range of other NRC-licensed facilities, including materials licensees, fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants, and independent spent fuel storage installations. The criteria have been years in the making, and their progress is being monitored closely by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which shares with the NRC the authority to regulate radiological hazards. Both agencies have made abortive attempts to promulgate standards in the past. The EPA's most recent proposal, dating from 1986, has yet to reach the final rule stage. The NCRC's 1990 policy statement, open-quotes Below Regulatory Concern,close quotes was overturned by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, a setback that prompted the Commission's call for open-quotes enhanced participatory rulemakingclose quotes-a.k.a., public meetings-last December. In its Rulemaking Issues Paper, the NRC outlined for discussion four open-quotes fundamentalclose quotes objectives as a basis for developing decommissioning criteria: (1) establishing limits above which the risks to the public are deemed open-quotes unacceptableclose quotes; (2) establishing open-quotes goalsclose quotes below which the risks to the public are deemed open-quotes trivialclose quotes; (3) establishing criteria for what is achievable using the open-quotes best availableclose quotes cleanup technology; and (4) removing all radioactivity attributable to plant activity. The NRC expects to publish a proposed rule and a draft generic environmental impact statement in April 1994; the final rule is scheduled for May 1995

  15. NRC perspectives on the digital system review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauck, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Since about 1988, the USNRC has been involved in the review of digital retrofits to instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. Initially, this involvement was limited but with the advent of the 1990s, NRC involvement has become greater because of increased interest in and application of digital systems as existing analog systems become obsolete. Criteria for the design of such systems to ensure safety has been promulgated over the years and the USNRC has been actively involved both nationally and internationally with this effort. With the publication of the Zion Eagle 21 Safety Evaluation Report in 1992, Generic Letter 95-02 in April 1995 which endorses EPRI guidance document TR-102348 on digital upgrades and the latest revision to Regulatory Guide 1.152 which endorses IEEE 7.4.3.2-1993; a basic digital system review process was established. The NRC supplemented this review process with recently issued inspection procedures for use by NRC inspectors when conducting onsite reviews of digital modifications. In addition, the NRC undertook a major effort to codify the above guidance and the experience gained from digital system reviews of both operating plant modifications and advanced reactor designs, over these years into a revision to Standard Review Plan, (SRP), NUREG-0800, Chapter 7, Instrumentation and Control. This SRP revision was published in June, 1997, and included new SRP sections, branch technical positions and six new regulatory guides endorsing IEEE standards on software quality. The NRC staff believes that a stable digital system review process is now in place. (author)

  16. Comparison of neutron dose measured by Albedo TLD and etched tracks detector at PNC plutonium fuel facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, N.; Momose, T.; Shinohara, K.; Ishiguro, H.

    1996-01-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has fabricated Plutonium and Uranium Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel for FBR MONJU at Tokai works. In this site, PNC/Panasonic albedo TLDs/1/ are used for personnel neutron monitoring. And a part of workers wore Etched Tracks Detector (ETD) combined with TLD in order to check the accuracy of the neutron dose estimated by albedo TLD. In this paper, the neutron dose measured by TLD and ETD in the routine monitoring is compared at PNC plutonium fuel facilities. (author)

  17. Vivo dosimetry using TLD detectors in prostate seed implants of I-125: preliminary results; Dosimetria in vivo mediante detectores de TLD en implantes de prostata con semillas de I-125: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Pedro, A.; Bassas, P.; Duch, M. A.; Cros, M.; Mane, S.

    2011-07-01

    We present preliminary results of a new in vivo dosimetry technique that could allow to know immediately after implantation of the prostate if the dose distribution determined by the scheduler is similar to the actual dose measured with TLD detectors.

  18. Thermoluminescent relative efficiencies of TLD-100 for nitrogen ions respect of gamma radiation; Eficiencias termoluminiscentes relativas de TLD-100 para iones de nitrogeno respecto de radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha S, K. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Avila, O. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [ICN-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez V, M.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to measure the thermoluminescent relative efficiency of those TLD-100 dosemeters irradiated with nitrogen ions with respect to the gamma radiation of {sup 60} Co, in function of the linear energy transfer (LET). Two energy of such nitrogen ions were selected that has the same value from LET when impacting in the dosemeters but with E{sub 1} energy (4.8 MeV) and E{sub 2} (9.95 MeV) smaller and greater respectively that the energy of the Bragg peak. (Author)

  19. Parallel analysis of film and TLD application in personal dosimetry of medical staff during application of invasive radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misovic, M.; Boskovic, Z.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    1997-01-01

    Although both types of dosimeters showed similar results for mentioned category of health care workers we wished to emphasize some advantages in use of TLD and film dosemeters in personal dosimetry. The main advantageous of film for dosimetric purposes are that it can provide visual representation of the radiation field and they are cheap, but there are lot of disadvantages. Advantages of TLD are based on: possibility for re-use, practically for whole users working life, small dimensions suitable for results, high precision and specially wide dose range. They are sensitive on low dose, practically for ten times more than film is. Disadvantages of TLD are based on their previous thermal and radiation history and on the fact that information about dose disappears after reading procedure. Considering advantages and disadvantages of both types of dosemeters we decided to propose TLD for routine hospital practice in personal dosimetry. (author)

  20. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... FR 54507), that requested public comment on Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk...

  1. 10 CFR 2.1403 - Authority and role of the NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and role of the NRC staff. 2.1403 Section 2.1403... ORDERS Expedited Proceedings with Oral Hearings § 2.1403 Authority and role of the NRC staff. (a) During the pendency of any hearing under this subpart, consistent with the NRC staff's findings in its own...

  2. 10 CFR 2.1316 - Authority and role of NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and role of NRC staff. 2.1316 Section 2.1316... ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1316 Authority and role of NRC staff. (a) During the pendency of any hearing under this subpart, consistent with the NRC staff's findings...

  3. Current perspectives on performance assessment at the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.; Eisenberg, N.A.; Federline, M.V.; Randall, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is engaging in a number of activities involving performance assessment in order to support NRC's program in high-level waste management. Broad areas of activity include: (1) reactive work responding to products and activities of the Department of Energy (DOE), (2) proactive work, including development of an independent performance assessment capability, development of guidance for DOE, support for technical and programmatic integration, (3) a program of regulatory research, and (4) participation in a number of international activities. As the U.S. high-level waste program continues to mature, performance assessment is seen as playing a more prominent role in evaluating safety and focussing technical activities

  4. NRC Regulatory Agenda. Quarterly report, July-September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received and are pending disposition by the Commission. The agenda consists of two sections. Section I, Rules, includes: (1) rules on which final action has been taken since June 30, the cutoff date of the last Regulatory Agenda; (2) rules published previously as proposed rules and on which the Commission has not taken final action; (3) rules published as advance notices of proposed rulemaking and for which neither a proposed nor final rule has been issued; and (4) unpublished rules on which the NRC expects to take action. Section II, Petitions for Rulemaking, includes: (1) Petitions incorporated into final rules or petitions denied since the cutoff date of the last Regulatory Agenda; (2) Petitions incorporated into proposed rules, (3) Petitions pending staff review; and (4) Petitions with deferred action

  5. Occupational radiation exposures at NRC-licensed facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    For the past ten years, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission, have required certain licensees to routinely submit two types of occupational radiation exposure reports: termination and annual reports. Each licensee engaged in any one of the activities: (1) operation of nuclear power reactors, (2) industrial radiography, (3) fuel fabrication, processing and reprocessing, and (4) large supply of byproduct material, is required to submit an annual statistical report and a termination report for each monitored employee who ends his employment or work assignment. A new regulation now requires all NRC licensees to submit annual reports for the years 1978 and 1979. These reports have been collected, computerized and maintained by the Commission at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. They are useful to the NRC in the evaluation of the risk of radiation exposure associated with the related activities. (author)

  6. Evaluation of NRC maintenance team inspection reports for managing aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, A.; Gunther, W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear power plant's maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. Over the past two years, the NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] has evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the U.S. The reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed to ascertain the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components. Selected results of this review are presented in this paper, including examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue are also discussed. 6 refs., 1 tab

  7. Recommendations for NEAMS Engagement with the NRC: Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernholdt, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The vision of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program is to bring a new generation of analytic tools to the nuclear engineering community in order to facilitate students, faculty, industry and laboratory researchers in investigating advanced reactor and fuel cycle designs. Although primarily targeting at advance nuclear technologies, it is anticipated that these new capabilities will also become interesting and useful to the nuclear regulator Consequently, the NEAMS program needs to engage with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the software is being developed to ensure that they are familiar with and ready to respond to this novel approach when the need arises. Through discussions between key NEAMS and NRC staff members, we tentatively recommend annual briefings to the Division of Systems Analysis in the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. However the NEAC subcommittee review of the NEAMS program may yield recommendations that would need to be considered before finalizing this plan.

  8. NRC nuclear-plant-analyzer concept and status at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, F.; Wagner, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Office of Research of the US NRC has proposed development of a software-hardware system called the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). This paper describes how we of the INEL envision the nuclear-plant analyzer. The paper also describes a pilot RELAP5 plant-analyzer project completed during the past year and current work. A great deal of analysis is underway to determine nuclear-steam-system response. System transient analysis being so complex, there is the need to present analytical results in a way that interconnections among phenomena and all the nuances of the transient are apparent. There is the need for the analyst to dynamically control system calculations to simulate plant operation in order to perform what if studies as well as the need to perform system analysis within hours of a plant emergency to diagnose the state of the stricken plant and formulate recovery actions. The NRC-proposed nuclear-plant analyzer can meet these needs

  9. Recommendations for NEAMS Engagement with the NRC: Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholdt, David E [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The vision of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program is to bring a new generation of analytic tools to the nuclear engineering community in order to facilitate students, faculty, industry and laboratory researchers in investigating advanced reactor and fuel cycle designs. Although primarily targeting at advance nuclear technologies, it is anticipated that these new capabilities will also become interesting and useful to the nuclear regulator Consequently, the NEAMS program needs to engage with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the software is being developed to ensure that they are familiar with and ready to respond to this novel approach when the need arises. Through discussions between key NEAMS and NRC staff members, we tentatively recommend annual briefings to the Division of Systems Analysis in the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. However the NEAC subcommittee review of the NEAMS program may yield recommendations that would need to be considered before finalizing this plan.

  10. NRC drug-free workplace plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    On September 15, 1986, President Reagan signed Executive Order 12564, establishing the goal of a Drug-Free Federal Workplace. The Order made it a condition of employment that all Federal employees refrain from using illegal drugs on or off duty. On July 11, 1987, Congress passed legislation affecting implementation of the Executive Order under Section 503 of the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1987, Public Law 100-71 (the Act). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission first issued the NRC Drug Testing Plan to set forth objectives, policies, procedures, and implementation guidelines to achieve a drug-free Federal workplace, consistent with the Executive Order and Section 503 of the Act. Revision 1, titled, ``NRC Drug-Free Workplace Plan,`` supersedes the previous version and its supplements and incorporates changes to reflect current guidance from the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as other guidance.

  11. Implementation study for the NRC Application and Development Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, R.J.; Ross, D.J.; Sasser, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed the desire to establish an Application and Development Facility (ADF) for NRC Headquarters. The ADF is a computer system which will provide safeguards analysts access to safeguards analysis computer software. This report analyzes the issues, requirements and options available in the establishment of an ADF. The purpose and goals of the ADF are presented, along with some general issues to be considered in the implementation of such a system. A phased approach for ADF implementation, which will allow for the earliest possible access to existing codes and also allow for future expansion, is outlined. Several options for central computers are discussed, along with the characteristics and approximate costs for each. The report concludes with recommended actions proposed to start the development of the ADF

  12. NRC drug-free workplace plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    On September 15, 1986, President Reagan signed Executive Order 12564, establishing the goal of a Drug-Free Federal Workplace. The Order made it a condition of employment that all Federal employees refrain from using illegal drugs on or off duty. On July 11, 1987, Congress passed legislation affecting implementation of the Executive Order under Section 503 of the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1987, Public Law 100-71 (the Act). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission first issued the NRC Drug Testing Plan to set forth objectives, policies, procedures, and implementation guidelines to achieve a drug-free Federal workplace, consistent with the Executive Order and Section 503 of the Act. Revision 1, titled, ''NRC Drug-Free Workplace Plan,'' supersedes the previous version and its supplements and incorporates changes to reflect current guidance from the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as other guidance

  13. Effects of phosphor proportion and grain size on photon energy response of CaSO4:Dy teflon TLD discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Bhatt, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of phosphor proportion and grain size on the photon energy dependence of CaSO 4 :Dy embedded teflon TLD discs have been studied. It was found that in the commonly used TLD disc compositions, the proportion of phosphor has only little effect on energy dependence. This dependence could be significantly reduced by using phosphor of grain size less than 1 μm. The experimental results are compared with calculated results. (Auth.)

  14. Impact of ANSI 2009 criteria for performance testing in TLD personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MeenaI, P.; Rakesh, R.B.; Srivastava, Kshama; KoIambe, D.H.; Sapra, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    External Quality Assurance in TLD Personnel Monitoring Service was initiated in 1985, for periodic performance evaluation of various TLD Laboratories through postal exercise. Presently, all the 16 laboratories involved in Personnel Monitoring Service are covered under QA exercise. Since beginning, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) criteria have been adopted for performance testing in QA exercise. Presently, ANSI 2001 performance criteria along with ISO trumpet curve analysis method are being used for performance evaluation. In 2009, ANSI modified the performance evaluation criteria and this study evaluates its impact and feasibility of implementation of ANSI 2009 criteria in the quality assurance program for personnel monitoring. The performance of some laboratories evaluated using both ANSI 2001 and ANSI 2009 criteria have been discussed. The study shows that the ANSI 2009 criteria is more stringent and encourages even distribution of bias and standard deviation. This can be implemented with suitable modifications for performance evaluation

  15. Fast neutron responses of CaF2:Tm Teflon TLD discs of different thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Hoffmann, W.

    1986-01-01

    The fact that in CaF 2 :Tm (TLD-300) the ratio of the heights of thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks at 240 0 C and 150 0 C is greater for irradiations by high LET radiations than by gamma rays has been found useful for the simultaneous and separate measurement of fast neutron and gamma ray absorbed doses. A recent study has indicated that the mixed field dosimetric characteristics of CaF 2 :Tm could be significantly improved by using thin TLDs. In the present study, CaF 2 :Tm Teflon TLD discs of thickness as low as 0.05 mm were evaluated. The thin discs could be read out by using normal planchette heating if a 400 0 C heat treatment is given to the discs prior to irradiation and TL readout. Influence of encapsulation of thin dosemeters was studied and their utility in situations such as interface dosimetry is discussed. (author)

  16. Pattern check of TLD disc readings - an important tool to identify abnormal conditions in workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, S.M.; Sneha, C.; Bhattacharya, M.; Sahai, M.K.; Pradeep, Ratna; Datta, D.; Bhatnagar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Personnel monitoring for external radiation using CaSO 4 :Dy based TLD badge is well established in Indian radiation protection program. TLD badge enables evaluation of occupational dose based on the pattern and values of the three disc readings. Different patterns of disc readings are obtained depending on the type and energy of radiation in the workplace. Pattern not conforming to the radiation in the workplace also called as improper pattern can be a useful tool for investigation of any deviation / abnormality in workplace or monitoring practices. The paper presents different examples of improper pattern observed in monitoring that has helped to find out the deviations in the workplace or monitoring practices. Results of the experiments conducted to simulate some of the observed pattern are also presented in the paper

  17. The Dependence of the Dose Response Supralinearity of Peak 5 in TLD-100 on Recombination Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Y.S.; Satinger, D.; Oster, L.

    1999-01-01

    Isothermal readout of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-700) has recently been used to study the dependence of the supralinearity of peak 5 on recombination temperature. The results were interpreted to be in conflict with earlier results which investigated the effect of readout heating rate on the supralinearity of peak 5 in TLD-100. In this work the two experiments are inspected in greater detail. It is illustrated that the isothermal decay data is not in conflict with the heating rate data. However, the heating rate results do apparently indicate a strong transition in the temperature dependence of the relative strengths of the recombination and competitive cross sections at approximately 235 deg. C, which requires further study and analysis. (author)

  18. Adequacy of annealing duration in reducing the background counts of personnel monitoring TLD cards - a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Kshama; Varadharajan, Geetha; Punekar, M.P.; Chougaokar, M.P.; Ayappan, P.

    2010-01-01

    In India, the personnel monitoring service of ∼ 70,000 radiation workers is being provided using indigenously developed TLD system comprising three CaSO 4 :Dy embedded Teflon discs. In order to remove TL and reset the distribution of defects/trapping centres, all TLD cards are subjected to an annealing treatment at elevated temperature prior to their next use. As per the standardized protocol annealing is carried out in a hot air circulating oven at 230 deg C for 4 hr, which is sufficient to reset the TL dosemeters for dose levels upto 100 mSv. In order to verify the appropriateness of annealing procedures adopted by the Laboratory, a detailed study was conducted using four sets of cards namely A, B, C and D series, exposed to various dose levels

  19. Further characteristics important in the operation of ceramic BeO TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    There is now a considerable volume of published research dealing with ceramic BeO--TLD (Crase and Gammage, 1975; Yamashita et al., 1974; Scarpa et al., 1971). Its high sensitivity to radiation (1 mR), cheapness, commercial availability, non-toxicity, chemical stability, an atomic number of near tissue equivalence, and resistance to thermal fading, suggest that it should, by now, have found widespread acceptance as a TLD phosphor. It has not. There are only a small handful of reports dealing with the practical application of this type of dosimeter (Puite et al., 1974; Gammage and Haywood, 1976; Gesell et al., 1975). It seems wise, therefore, to look at the phosphor more closely and to focus on characteristics likely to cause problems under real operating conditions, especially those which are acting as a deterrent to its widespread acceptance. Operational characteristics were studied and the results are discussed

  20. Results and discussion of laboratory experiences with different automated TLD readers for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.; Drexeler, G.

    Although the film seems to continue serving as the main personnel dosemeter in Germany for the time in sight, the evolution of particularly solid state techniques and their properties are thoroughly considered with respect to a possible generalized application in personnel monitoring. For this reason different automated TLD systems that are commercially available have been investigated in the laboratory in order to find out their usefulness for a largescale or also decentralized service. Along with studying the dosimetrical and apparative parameters, the question has been discussed to which monitoring philosophy these TLD systems seem to fit. It is reported both on experimental experiences achieved as well as on the results of basic discussions that in return influence the discussion about the necessary outfit of personnel TL dosemeters

  1. PorTL - a compact, portable TLD reader for environmental and personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Bodnar, L.; Csoke, A.; Feher, I.; Pazmandi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for environmental monitoring, for personal and medical dosimetry, for dosimetry in nuclear facilities, etc. Major advantages are their independence of the power supply, small dimension, sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental changes and relatively low cost. The disadvantage is that the detector must be transported for evaluation to a laboratory equipped with a large, heavy and expensive TLD Reader operated by qualified personnel, which considerably increases the costs and delays results. To overcome this disadvantage, the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI), in co-operation with BL Electronics (Hungary), has developed a new and unique TLD system containing a small, portable, battery powered and moderate-price reader for commercial use. This paper gives a detailed description and parameters of this system.(author)

  2. Essential and non-essential DNA replication genes in the model halophilic Archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DasSarma Shiladitya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information transfer systems in Archaea, including many components of the DNA replication machinery, are similar to those found in eukaryotes. Functional assignments of archaeal DNA replication genes have been primarily based upon sequence homology and biochemical studies of replisome components, but few genetic studies have been conducted thus far. We have developed a tractable genetic system for knockout analysis of genes in the model halophilic archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and used it to determine which DNA replication genes are essential. Results Using a directed in-frame gene knockout method in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, we examined nineteen genes predicted to be involved in DNA replication. Preliminary bioinformatic analysis of the large haloarchaeal Orc/Cdc6 family, related to eukaryotic Orc1 and Cdc6, showed five distinct clades of Orc/Cdc6 proteins conserved in all sequenced haloarchaea. Of ten orc/cdc6 genes in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, only two were found to be essential, orc10, on the large chromosome, and orc2, on the minichromosome, pNRC200. Of the three replicative-type DNA polymerase genes, two were essential: the chromosomally encoded B family, polB1, and the chromosomally encoded euryarchaeal-specific D family, polD1/D2 (formerly called polA1/polA2 in the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome sequence. The pNRC200-encoded B family polymerase, polB2, was non-essential. Accessory genes for DNA replication initiation and elongation factors, including the putative replicative helicase, mcm, the eukaryotic-type DNA primase, pri1/pri2, the DNA polymerase sliding clamp, pcn, and the flap endonuclease, rad2, were all essential. Targeted genes were classified as non-essential if knockouts were obtained and essential based on statistical analysis and/or by demonstrating the inability to isolate chromosomal knockouts except in the presence of a complementing plasmid copy of the gene. Conclusion The results showed that ten

  3. Future of Nuclear Power: NRC emergency preparedness licensing activities agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    This talk summary addresses the issue of how future policies of the NRC will affect nuclear power in areas such as construction, emergency preparedness, and licensing. Specific topics covered include the following: Emergent EP licensing issues for operating nuclear Power Plants; 10CFR Part 52 and the process for licensing of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs); and potential revisions to emergency preparedness programs for future nuclear power plants

  4. NRC regulatory agenda: Quarterly report, April-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Verification or treatment planning system of radiotherapy using TLD-100; Verificacion de los sistemas de planificacion de tratamiento de radioterapia empleando TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinuela, J., E-mail: jcpinuela@hotmail.co [Hospital Central de Maracay (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Servicio de Radioterapia

    2010-07-01

    The evaluation of the treatment planning system (TPS) used in radiotherapy Precise Plan, was carried out using TLD-100 dosimeters, comparing the dose obtained with an ionization chamber. The TLD-100 were calibrated using secondary standard of SSDL, selecting dosimeters which had a standard deviation less than 1% for dosimeter calibration and less than 5% for dosimeter of field, for the tests conducted in TPS, The Alderson Phantom was used to evaluate the wedge and bolus, and Lucy 3D allowed us to evaluate correspondence of CT numbers, volume expansion, beam shaping, precise dose and beam weigh assignment. It was observed that the results of Lucy 3D were within the values expected except the volume expansion process with more than 10% difference, the evaluation of beam modulators systems with wedges and bolus as beam shaping yielded values within the expected with variations less than 5% and to assess the supply of specific doses, it was observed that the values obtained were precise and accurate since the same variation was less than 0.5% for the test. The importance of assessing the TPS lies in our country there is no procedure to verify that system and these tests provide a basis for future comparisons. (author)

  6. Overview of the NRC nuclear waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaro, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The NRC has firmly established waste management as a high-priority effort and has made the commitment to act rapidly and methodically to establish a sound regulatory base for licensing waste management activities. We believe the priorities for NRC work in waste management are consistent with the needs of the overall national waste management program. Present licensing procedures and criteria are adequate for the short term, and priority attention is being given to the longer term, when the quantities of waste to be managed will be greater and licensing demands will increase. Recognizing that its decision will affect industry, other governmental jurisdictions, private interest groups, and the public at large, NRC has encouraged and will continue to encourage their participation in planning our program. We also recognize that the problems of nuclear waste management are international in scope. Many waste management problems (e.g., potential for contamination of oceans and atmosphere, need for isolation of some wastes for longer periods than governments and political boundaries have remained stable in the past), require a set of internationally acceptable and accepted solutions. The wastes from the U.S. nuclear industry will account for only about one third of the nuclear waste generated in the world. Therefore, we propose to cooperate and where appropriate take the lead in establishing acceptable worldwide policies, standards and procedures for handling nuclear wastes

  7. NRC Support for the Kalinin (VVER) probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, D.; Diamond, D.J.; Chu, T.L.; Azarm, A.; Pratt, W.T.; Johnson, D.; Szukiewicz, A.; Drouin, M.; El-Bassioni, A.; Su, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of the Russian Federation have been working together since 1994 to carry out a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a VVER-1000 in the Russian Federation. This was a recognition by both parties that this technology has had a profound effect on the discipline of nuclear reactor safety in the West and that the technology should be transferred to others so that it can be applied to Soviet-designed plants. The NRC provided funds from the Agency for International Development and technical support primarily through Brookhaven National Laboratory and its subcontractors. The latter support was carried out through workshops, by documenting the methodology to be used in a set of guides, and through periodic review of the technical activity. The result of this effort to date includes a set of procedure guides, a draft final report on the Level 1 PRA for internal events (excluding internal fires and floods), and progress reports on the fire, flood, and seismic analysis. It is the authors belief that the type of assistance provided by the NRC has been instrumental in assuring a quality product and transferring important technology for use by regulators and operators of Soviet-designed reactors. After a thorough review, the report will be finalized, lessons learned will be applied in the regulatory and operational regimes in the Russian Federation, and consideration will be given to supporting a containment analysis in order to complete a simplified Level 2 PRA

  8. Handbook for value-impact assessments of NRC regulatory actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; DiPalo, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    According to current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) procedures, value-impact (cost-benefit) assessments must be prepared for all rulemaking actions and for a broad range of other regulatory requirements and guidance. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods furnish an important part of the information base for these assessments. PRA methods are frequently the principal quantitative tool for estimating the benefits (e.g., public risk reduction) of proposed regulatory actions. In December 1983, the NRC published A Handbook for Value-Impact Assessment, NUREG/CR-3568, which provides a set of systematic procedures for performing value-impact assessments. The Handbook contains methods, data, and sources of information that can assist the regulatory analyst in conducting such assessments. The use of probabilistic risk analysis to estimate the benefits of proposed regulatory actions is described. Procedures and methods are also given for evaluating the costs and other consequences associated with regulatory actions. The Handbook has been adopted by the NRC as the recommended guideline for value impact assessments. This paper presents the background, objectives, and scope of the Handbook, describes the value-impact assessment methods (including the use of probabilistic risk assessment to estimate benefits), and discusses a selection of current and planned applications, with examples to illustrate how the methods are used

  9. A review of NRC staff uses of probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The NRC staff uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management as important elements its licensing and regulatory processes. In October 1991, the NRC`s Executive Director for Operations established the PRA Working Group to address concerns identified by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards with respect to unevenness and inconsistency in the staff`s current uses of PRA. After surveying current staff uses of PRA and identifying needed improvements, the Working Group defined a set of basic principles for staff PRA use and identified three areas for improvements: guidance development, training enhancements, and PRA methods development. For each area of improvement, the Working Group took certain actions and recommended additional work. The Working Group recommended integrating its work with other recent PRA-related activities the staff completed and improving staff interactions with PRA users in the nuclear industry. The Working Group took two key actions by developing general guidance for two uses of PRA within the NRC (that is, screening or prioritizing reactor safety issues and analyzing such issues in detail) and developing guidance on basic terms and methods important to the staff`s uses of PRA.

  10. Changing emphasis at the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the Office of Research is to ensure availability of sound technical information for timely decision making in support of the NRC's safety mission. The Office of Research is changing some of its emphasis to better meet the expected needs of the NRC's regulatory offices. Long-standing programs in support of operating reactors are nearing completion. These programs include plant aging and severe accident research for currently operating plants. This meeting will also address the new challenges faced by the NRC in its review of the advanced light water and non-light water reactors. As plant aging and severe accident research programs are nearing completion, the research activities are coming to focus on the emerging technologies, for example, digital instrumentation and control systems, both as replacement equipment for operating plants and as the technology of choice and necessity for the advanced reactors. Necessity, because analog equipment is becoming obsolete. Other examples include the use of new materials in operating plants, human factors considerations in the design and operation of the advanced plants, thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the advanced reactors, and new construction techniques

  11. A review of NRC staff uses of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The NRC staff uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management as important elements its licensing and regulatory processes. In October 1991, the NRC's Executive Director for Operations established the PRA Working Group to address concerns identified by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards with respect to unevenness and inconsistency in the staff's current uses of PRA. After surveying current staff uses of PRA and identifying needed improvements, the Working Group defined a set of basic principles for staff PRA use and identified three areas for improvements: guidance development, training enhancements, and PRA methods development. For each area of improvement, the Working Group took certain actions and recommended additional work. The Working Group recommended integrating its work with other recent PRA-related activities the staff completed and improving staff interactions with PRA users in the nuclear industry. The Working Group took two key actions by developing general guidance for two uses of PRA within the NRC (that is, screening or prioritizing reactor safety issues and analyzing such issues in detail) and developing guidance on basic terms and methods important to the staff's uses of PRA

  12. The role of research in nuclear regulation: An NRC perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The role of research in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was broadly defined by the US Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1975. This Act empowered the Commission to do research that it deems necessary for the performance of its licensing and regulatory functions. Congress cited a need for an independent capability that would support the licensing and regulatory process through the development and analysis of technical information related to reactor safety, safeguards and environmental protection. Motivation for establishing such a safety research function within the regulatory agency is the need to address the defects, abnormal occurrences and shutdowns involving light water reactors. Congress further stated that the NRC should limit its research to open-quotes confirmatory assessmentclose quotes and that the Agency open-quotes should never be placed in a position to generate, and then have to defend, basic design data of its own.close quotes The author reviews the activities of the research arm as related to regulatory research, performed in the past, today, and projected for the future. NRC's public health and safety mission demands that its research products be developed independently from its licensees; be credible and of the highest technical quality as established through peer review; and open to the public scrutiny through publication in technical journals as well as NRC documents. A special trust is placed on regulatory research through the products it produces as well as the three dimensions that underlie the processes through which they are produced

  13. Measurement of high natural background radiation levels by TLD at Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, M.A.; Husain, S.R.; Malek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High natural background radiation levels at the Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh were measured by LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters. The dose rates varied from 2621 to 35391 μGy.y -1 with a mean of 11968 μGy.y -1 . The average dose rate is found to significantly higher than the world average value. In order to formulate appropriate guidelines for radiation protection of the population in this area, the necessary recommendations are described. (author)

  14. Evaluation of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100 for Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Liuzzi

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present work was to investigate thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs response to intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT beams. In an IOERT treatment, a large single radiation dose is delivered with a high dose-per-pulse electron beam (2-12 cGy/pulse during surgery. To verify and to record the delivered dose, in vivo dosimetry is a mandatory procedure for quality assurance. The TLDs feature many advantages such as a small detector size and close tissue equivalence that make them attractive for IOERT as in vivo dosimeters.LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters (TLD-100 were irradiated with different IOERT electron beam energies (5, 7 and 9 MeV and with a 6 MV conventional photon beam. For each energy, the TLDs were irradiated in the dose range of 0-10 Gy in step of 2 Gy. Regression analysis was performed to establish the response variation of thermoluminescent signals with dose and energy.The TLD-100 dose-response curves were obtained. In the dose range of 0-10 Gy, the calibration curve was confirmed to be linear for the conventional photon beam. In the same dose region, the quadratic model performs better than the linear model when high dose-per-pulse electron beams were used (F test; p<0.05.This study demonstrates that the TLD dose response, for doses ≤10 Gy, has a parabolic behavior in high dose-per-pulse electron beams. TLD-100 can be useful detectors for IOERT patient dosimetry if a proper calibration is provided.

  15. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  16. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L.; Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E.

    2006-01-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of 131 I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  17. TLD gamma-ray energy deposition measurements in the zero energy fast reactor ZEBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A recent study of gamma-ray energy deposition was carried out in the Zebra reactor at AEE Winfrith during a collaborative programme between the UKAEA and PNC of Japan. The programme was given the title MOZART. This paper describes the TLD experiments in the MOZART MZB assembly and discusses the technique and various corrections necessary to relate the measured quantity to the calculated energy deposition

  18. Measurement of exposure dose rate by TLD in 60Co garden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chengfang; Li Pinfang; Wu Maoliang; Zhao Quan

    1987-01-01

    The use of TLD method to measure exposure dose rate in 60 Co garden is described. As compared with chemical dosimetry, the relative deviation of measurement would not exceed 10%. The good repeatability has been proved by comparing the measurements of different times and distances with correction of decay law and 1/1 2 law. Besides, the distribution of exposure dose rate was influenced by scattering of the living plants

  19. Review of NRC Commission Papers on Regulatory Basis for Licensing and Regulating Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Yeong; Shin, Hyeong Ki [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) accumulated in nuclear power plant has been a serious issue in most countries with operating nuclear power plants. Direct disposal of SNF could be a solution of the problem but many countries including the Republic of Korea have had a hard time selecting a site for high level waste repository because of low public acceptance. SNF recycling technologies consisting of reprocessing and transmutation have been developed so as to reduce the final volume of the disposed radioactive waste and to diminish the radiotoxicity of the waste. The Republic of Korea is now developing pyroprocessing and sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology to be used for the recycling of the wastes. KAERI has a plan to construct a pyroprocessing facility with a capacity of 30 tHM/y and a facility manufacturing TRU fuel for SFR by 2025. However, to license these facility and secure the safety, the current regulatory system related to SNF treatment needs to be improved and amended since the system has been developed focusing on facilities to examine irradiated nuclear materials. Status of reprocessing facility regulations developed by U.S.NRC was reviewed based on SECY papers. U.S.NRC has approved the development of a new rule referred to nationally as '10CFR Part 7x'. Existing 10CFR 50 and 70 has been evolved mainly for nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities whose radiological hazard is much lower than reprocessing plants respectively. U.S.NRC also derived many regulatory gaps including safety assessment methods, technical specification, general design criteria and waste classification and continue to develop the regulatory framework limited in scope to the resolution of Gap 5.

  20. Proton/gamma relative thermoluminescence efficiencies of LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE prepared at ININ and TLD-100H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, O.; Gonzalez, P.; Murillo, G.

    2009-10-01

    Properties of LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE dosemeters developed at ININ have been investigated in order to evaluate their performance compared to those of equivalent commercial dosemeters. In this work both LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE and TLD-100H pellets were exposed to low fluence 3 MeV protons and to low dose gamma radiation to evaluate experimental proton/gamma efficiencies. Gamma irradiation was performed using the Vic krad irradiator at ININ at varying doses between 25 and 500 mGy. For proton irradiation the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at ININ was used. Dosemeters were placed on a holder inside a scattering chamber where protons impinge on a gold target and scatter in all directions. The holder allows for several angular positions so that dosemeters receive proton fluence between 10 6 and 10 1 0 p/cm 2 . Experimental efficiency values found for LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE and TLD-100H were 0.18 +- 03 and 0.23 +- 0.03, respectively. These results allow to confirm the reliability of the dosemeters developed at ININ. (Author)

  1. The evaluation of dose of TSEI with TLD and diode detector of the uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je, Young Wan; Na, Keyung Su; Yoon, Il Kyu; Park, Heung Deuk

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate radiation dose and accuracy with TLD and diode detector when treat total skin with electron beam. Using Stanford Technique, we treated patient with Mycosis Fungoides. 6 MeV electron beam of LINAC was used and the SSD was 300 cm. Also, acrylic speller(0.8 cm) was used. The patient position was 6 types and the gantry angle was 64, 90 and 116 degree. The patient's skin dose and the output were detected 5 to 6 times with TLD and diode. The deviations of dose detected with TLD from tumor dose were CA + 6%, thigh + 8%, umbilicus + 4%, calf - 8%, vertex - 74.4%, deep axillae - 10.2%, anus and testis - 87%, sole - 86% and nails shielded with 4 mm lead + 4%. The deviations of dose detected with diode were - 4.5% ∼ + 5% at the patient center and - 1.1% ∼ + 1% at the speller. The deviation of total skin dose was + 8% ∼ - 8% and that deviation was within the acceptable range(±10%). The boost dose was irradiated for the low dose areas(vertex, anus, sole). The electron beam output detected at the sootier was stable. It is thought that the deviation of dose at patient center detected with diode was induced by detection point and patient position.

  2. Comparative study of trapping parameters of LiF(TLD-100) from different production batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, A.J.J.; Piters, T.M.; Vries, W. de; Hoogenboom, J.E. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Institute)

    1990-01-01

    Computerised glow curve analysis has been used to determine the trapping parameters of the main peaks of the thermoluminescent (TL) material LiF(TLD-100). The TL material (solid state chips) originated from six different production batches with at least 19 chips per batch. The maxima of glow peaks 2 to 5 are found at the same temperature within very small limits. The activation energy and frequency factor of the main glow peak (peak 5) of TLD-100 originating from two batches differ significantly from those of the other four investigated batches. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of glow peak 5 is more or less the same for all batches. The trapping parameters of glow peaks 2 to 4 of TLD-100 vary little from batch to batch. The measured half-life of peak 2 differed strongly from batch to batch. For all investigated peaks no correlation has been found between glow peak sensitivity and trapping parameters. The results of this study suggest that both defect concentration and nature of the trapping centres vary from batch to batch. It would appear that as a consequence of selection by the manufacturer, the differences between the batches in terms of total light output are small. (author).

  3. Quality control of the breast cancer treatments on Hdr brachytherapy with TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres H, F. [Universidad de Cordoba, Materials and Applied Physics Group, 230002 Monteria, Cordoba (Colombia); De la Espriella V, N. [Universidad de Cordoba, Grupo Avanzado de Materiales y Sistemas Complejos, 230002 Monteria, Cordoba (Colombia); Sanchez C, A., E-mail: franciscotorreshoyos@yahoo.com [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Enfermeria, 230002 Monteria, Cordoba (Colombia)

    2014-07-01

    An anthropomorphic Phantom, a female trunk, was built with a natural bone structure and experimental material coated, glycerin and water-based material called JJT to build soft tissue equivalent to the muscle of human tissue, and a polymer (styrofoam) to build the lung as critical organ to simulate the treatment of breast cancer, with high dose rate brachytherapy (Hdr) and sources of Ir-192. The treatments were planned and calculated for the critical organ: Lung, and injury of 2 cm in diameter in breast with Micro Selectron Hdr system and the software Plato Brachytherapy V 14.1 of the Nucletron (Netherlands) which uses the standard protocol of radiotherapy for brachytherapy treatments. The dose experimentally measured with dosimeters TLD-100 LiF: Mg; Ti, which were previously calibrated, were placed in the same positions and bodies mentioned above, with less than 5% uncertainty. The reading dosimeters was carried out in a Harshaw TLD 4500. The results obtained for calculated treatments, using the standard simulator, and the experimental with TLD-100, show a high concordance, as they are on average a ± 1.1% making process becomes in a quality control of this type of treatments. (Author)

  4. Dose rate dependence for different dosimeters and detectors: TLD, OSL, EBT films, and diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsch, L.; Beyreuther, E.; Burris-Mog, T.; Kraft, S.; Richter, C.; Zeil, K.; Pawelke, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of laser accelerators in radiation therapy can perhaps increase the low number of proton and ion therapy facilities in some years due to the low investment costs and small size. The laser-based acceleration technology leads to a very high peak dose rate of about 10 11 Gy/s. A first dosimetric task is the evaluation of dose rate dependence of clinical dosimeters and other detectors. Methods: The measurements were done at ELBE, a superconductive linear electron accelerator which generates electron pulses with 5 ps length at 20 MeV. The different dose rates are reached by adjusting the number of electrons in one beam pulse. Three clinical dosimeters (TLD, OSL, and EBT radiochromic films) were irradiated with four different dose rates and nearly the same dose. A faraday cup, an integrating current transformer, and an ionization chamber were used to control the particle flux on the dosimeters. Furthermore two diamond detectors were tested. Results: The dosimeters are dose rate independent up to 410 9 Gy/s within 2% (OSL and TLD) and up to 1510 9 Gy/s within 5% (EBT films). The diamond detectors show strong dose rate dependence. Conclusions: TLD, OSL dosimeters, and EBT films are suitable for pulsed beams with a very high pulse dose rate like laser accelerated particle beams.

  5. Application of Glow Curve Deconvolution Method to Evaluate Low Dose TLD LiF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, E; Oetami, H R; Mutiah

    1996-01-01

    Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD), especially LiF:Mg, Ti material, is one of the most practical personal dosimeter in known to date. Dose measurement under 100 uGy using TLD reader is very difficult in high precision level. The software application is used to improve the precision of the TLD reader. The objectives of the research is to compare three Tl-glow curve analysis method irradiated in the range between 5 up to 250 uGy. The first method is manual analysis, dose information is obtained from the area under the glow curve between pre selected temperature limits, and background signal is estimated by a second readout following the first readout. The second method is deconvolution method, separating glow curve into four peaks mathematically and dose information is obtained from area of peak 5, and background signal is eliminated computationally. The third method is deconvolution method but the dose is represented by the sum of area of peak 3,4 and 5. The result shown that the sum of peak 3,4 and 5 method can improve reproducibility six times better than manual analysis for dose 20 uGy, the ability to reduce MMD until 10 uGy rather than 60 uGy with manual analysis or 20 uGy with peak 5 area method. In linearity, the sum of peak 3,4 and 5 method yields exactly linear dose response curve over the entire dose range

  6. The effect of the build-up wall at the TLD calibration using Co-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariyama, N.

    2000-01-01

    Absorbed dose in thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material at the calibration using Co-60 gamma rays depends on the TLD thickness and the wall material used for electric equilibrium condition. The relation was examined for LiF, BeO and CaF 2 TLDs sandwiched with PMMA, Teflon and Pyrex glass walls using a Monte Carlo transport code and compared with cavity ionization theory calculations. For the mismatched combination of LiF, BeO/Pyrex glass and CaF 2 /PMMA, it was found that the energy deposition did not change monotonously with TLD thickness from small cavity to large cavity value: a depression observed around 1-mm thickness for LiF/Pyrex glass and a peak around 0.6-mm thickness for CaF 2 /PMMA. The phenomena were explained by using different exponential attenuation coefficients β and β' for the weighting functions of cavity theory. Moreover, use of large cavity values was found to lead possibly to 3-5% errors in the calibration of thin TLDs. (author)

  7. The study of new calibration features in the Harshaw TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, L.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the Harshaw TLD system, there are three key calibration procedures; the reader, the dosimeter and the algorithm. These procedures must be properly calibrated for the system to achieve the optimum results. For the conventional reader and dosimeter calibration, Harshaw recommends a pre-fade and a post-fade of 24 - 48 hours when calibrating the system. Harshaw also emphasizes that keeping the fade time consistent is important to maintain the quality of the system performance. In recent years, new calibration features have been introduced into the operating system. These new features are auto calibration, auto QC and auto blank, and they give the user the ability to set up the clear-expose-read performed automatically in a sequence for each dosimeter. This saves processing time and keeps the fade time the same. However, since the fade time is near zero, will it affect the TLD system calibration factors? What should the user expect? This paper presents a study of the effect of auto calibration / auto QC to the TLD operation. (author)

  8. Alanine and TLD coupled detectors for fast neutron dose measurements in neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia, A.; Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A. [ENEA-FIS-ION, Casaccia RC, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Colli, V.; Gambarini, G. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Rosi, G. [ENEA-FIS-ION, Casaccia RC, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Scolari, L. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    A method was investigated to measure gamma and fast neutron doses in phantoms exposed to an epithermal neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy (NCT). The gamma dose component was measured by TLD-300 [CaF{sub 2}:Tm] and the fast neutron dose, mainly due to elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei, was measured by alanine dosemeters [CH{sub 3}CH(NH{sub 2})COOH]. The gamma and fast neutron doses deposited in alanine dosemeters are very near to those released in tissue, because of the alanine tissue equivalence. Couples of TLD-300 and alanine dosemeters were irradiated in phantoms positioned in the epithermal column of the Tapiro reactor (ENEA-Casaccia RC). The dosemeter response depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of radiation, hence the precision and reliability of the fast neutron dose values obtained with the proposed method have been investigated. Results showed that the combination of alanine and TLD detectors is a promising method to separate gamma dose and fast neutron dose in NCT. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of mixed energy neutron doses using TLD NG-67 type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, Mukhlis; Thoyib Thamrin, M; Usmiyati Dewi, K.

    2000-01-01

    A research has been carried out to develop dose evaluation method of mixed neutron source with its neutron doses can be classified to two groups, I.e neutron doses with energy ≥ 0.5 eV and thermal neutron doses with energy less than 0.5 e V consist of epithermal and fast neutron, but in this research they were classified as fast neutron. Development of this dose evaluation method was carried out by sensitivity (S) intercomparison of TLD-600 to fast neutron, mixed energy neutron of nuclear rectors, and thermal neutron. From the experiment it was obtained that the value of Sfast : Sreactor : Sthermal = 0.005 : 0.010 : 1. Calibration factor (CF) of TLD is defined as 1/S. from the sensitivity data it can be obtained that the value of Cffast : Cfreactor : Cfthermal = 200 :100 : 1. The value of Cfreactor can be applied for mixed energy neutron doses evaluation of TLD-600. Key word : dosemeter, neutron dose, calibration factor, fast neutron, thermal neutron, nuclear reactor

  10. A study on dose attenuation in bone density when TBI using diode detector and TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Hyun Sil; Lee, Jung Jin; Jang, Ahn Ki; KIm, Wan Sun

    2003-01-01

    Uniform dose distribution of the whole body is essential factor for the total body irradiation(TBI). In order to achieved this goal, we used to compensation filter to compensate body contour irregularity and thickness differences. But we can not compensate components of body, namely lung or bone. The purpose of this study is evaluation of dose attenuation in bone tissue when TBI using diode detectors and TLD system. The object of this study were 5 patients who undergo TBI at our hospital. Dosimetry system were diode detectors and TLD system. Treatment method was bilateral and delivered 10 MV X-ray from linear accelerator. Measurement points were head, neck, pelvis, knees and ankles. TLD used two patients and diode detectors used three patients. Results are as followed. All measured dose value were normalized skin dose. TLD dosimetry : Measured skin dose of head, neck, pelvis, knees and ankles were 92.78±3.3, 104.34±2.3, 98.03±1.4, 99.9±2.53, 98.17±0.56 respectably. Measured mid-depth dose of pelvis, knees and ankles were 86±1.82, 93.24±2.53, 91.50±2.84 respectably. There were 6.67%-11.65% dose attenuation at mid-depth in pelvis, knees and ankles. Diode detector : Measured skin dose of head, neck, pelvis, knees and ankles were 95.23±1.18, 98.33±0.6, 93.5±1.5, 87.3±1.5, 86.90±1.16 respectably. There were 4.53%-12.6% dose attenuation at mid-depth in pelvis, knees and ankles. We concluded that dose measurement with TLD or diode detector was inevitable when TBI treatment. Considered dose attenuation in bone tissue, We must have adequately deduction of compensator thickness that body portion involved bone tissue.

  11. Application of artificial neural network for development of an algorithm for TLD badge system in the mixed field dosimetry of X and gamma radiation in terms of Hp(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, K.; Bakshi, A.K.; Geetha, V.; Kher, R.K.; Dhar, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    ICRU has introduced new operational quantities for individual monitoring. Therefore it is required to develop an algorithm that gives direct response of the TLD badge in terms of the operational quantities. For this purpose and also to improve the precision in the mixed fields dosimetry, two methods were studied i)- analytical method by developing an algorithm based on of higher order polynomial fit of the data points for known delivered doses and ii) use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Study on the response of the TLD badge system based on CaSO 4 : Dy Teflon TLD discs in the mixed fields of X and gamma radiation in terms of operational quantity Hp(10) was carried out using the prevalent algorithm, algorithm developed using higher order polynomial and neural network predicted algorithm for different proportion of dose delivered by X and gamma radiations. It was found that the uncertainties in the dose response for few fields are beyond the acceptable limit for prevalent algorithm and within the acceptable limit for other two algorithms. Algorithm based on ANN gives higher precision in the mixed field of two radiations compared to other two algorithms. (author)

  12. Characterization of TLD-100 in powders for dosimetric quality control of 192 Ir sources used in brachytherapy of high dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza C, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetric at the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) calibrated a lot of powdered TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) in terms of absorbed dose to water D w for the energy of: 60 Co, 137C s, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Later on, it is carried out an interpolation of the calibration for the energy of the 192 Ir. This calibration is part of a dosimetric quality control program, to solve the problems of traceability for the measurements carried out by the users of 192 Ir sources employed in the treatments of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR) at the Mexican Republic. The calibrations of the radiation beams are made with the following protocols: IAEA TRS-398 for the 60 Co for D w , using a secondary standard ionization chamber PTW N30013 calibrated in D w by the National Research Council (NRC, Canada). AAPM TG-43 for D w in terms of the strength kerma Sk, calibrating this last one quantity for the 137 Cs radioactive source, with a well chamber HDR 1000 PLUS traceable to the University of Wisconsin (US). AAPM TG-61 for X ray of 250 and 50 kVp for D w start to Ka using field standard a Farmer chamber PTW 30001 traceable to K for the Central Laboratory of Electric Industries (CLEI, France). The calibration curves (CC) they built for the response of the powder TLD: R TLD vs D w : For the energy of 60 Co, 137 Cs, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Fitting them with the least square method weighed by means of a polynomial of second grade that corrects the supra linearity of the response. iii. Each one of the curves was validated with a test by lack of fitting and for the Anderson Darling normality test, using the software MINITAB in both cases. iv. The sensibility factor (F s ) for each energy corresponds to the slope of the CC, v. The F s for the two 192 Ir sources used are interpolated: one for a Micro Selectron source and the other one a Vari Source source. Finally, a couple of capsules were sent to two hospitals that have the HDR Brachytherapy with sources of 192

  13. Recommendations: Introducing the quality system into the use of significant ionizing radiation sources in radiotherapy. TLD audit by mail within the quality system in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, D.; Valenta, J.; Horakova, I.

    2005-01-01

    The publication consists of the following sections: TLD measurement methodology (Description of the TLD system; Dose determination); TLD audit in radiotherapy: methodologies and evaluation of results (Checking the dose calculated by the planning system and beam quality control; Checking the calculated dose distribution using a versatile phantom; Checking the calculated doses for linear accelerators with multilammelar collimators; Evaluation and analysis of results; Organizing a performing audits by mail); and Annexes: Detailed guidelines and protocols for radiotherapy departments. (P.A.)

  14. Measurement of computed tomography dose profile with pitch variation using Gafchromic XR-QA2 and thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, S.; Lubis, L. E.; Pawiro, S. A.; Soejoko, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    This research was aimed to check the patterns of dose profile on adult and pediatric head scan. We compared measurement result on dose profile along the z- axis rotation at peripheries and center phantom with a variety of pitch, i.e. 0.75, 1, 1.5 for adult and pediatric head protocol, keeping the rest of the scan parameters constant. Measurements were performed on homogeneous, cylindrical PMMA phantom with diameters of 16 and 10 cm using XR-QA2 Gafchromic film and TLD as dosimeters. The measurement result indicated a decrease in the dose about 50% and 47% for adult and pediatric head scan with the increase of pitch. For 0.75 value of pitch adult head scan, dose range for each position were (2.4 - 5.0) cGy, (3.1 - 5.3) cGy, (2.2 - 4.5) cGy, (2.8 - 5.3) cGy, and (3.3 - 5.6) cGy for position of center, 3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock peripheral phantom position respectively. Dose profile for adult and pediatric head scan protocols has pattern curve with the maximum dose in the middle and tendency of symmetry near the edges, with different the plateau length along z- axis direction in accordance to the measurement position in the phantom.

  15. Comparison of electronic digital alarm dosimeter with TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Pandey, J.P.N.; Shinde, A M.; Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Control of exposure of radiation workers on day to day basis has been made easy by use of semiconductor based electronic digital dosimeter. Additional dose constraints of 10 mSv for occupational radiation workers have made it essential to use such type of digital personal monitoring devices. In addition to conventional ionisation chamber based direct reading dosimeters, additional 35 semiconductor based digital dosimeters model MGP DMC 2000 S were used for the monitoring of personal exposure of radiation workers in a spent fuel reprocessing plant. Though better least count and good performance over a wide range of dose rate are claimed by the manufacture, before making use of such dosimeter on large scale, validation of its performance is required to be checked. In this paper, an effort is made to determine the performance of digital dosimeters, by exposing these digital dosimeters in combination with TLDs at different radiation levels and obtained results were compared and analysed

  16. Comparison of wrist and head TLD doses with whole body TLD doses during high active jobs at RAPS-5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ravi Kant; Abhishek, Neel; Kakkar, Amandeep; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear power plant radiation dose monitoring and assessment is done to control the individual dose and station collective doses. While performing a radioactive job on systems or equipment with significant radiation levels of non uniform and beaming radiation; there is potential of localized exposure to extremities hands in particular and lens of the eye in comparison to other body parts. Keeping in view of this, separate equivalent dose limit to the extremities (hands and feet) and lens of the eye are defined by ICRP. A study has been carried out during Biennial Shutdown (BSD) of RAPS-6 in the month of October-2015 to establish the correlation between the doses received by chest TLDs which is being used to estimate the effective whole body dose of the radiation worker and the doses received in wrist TLD and head TLDs which are being used to monitor the equivalent dose received by hands and lens of the eye with applying a suitable correction factor

  17. Risk-based regulation - an NRC perspective and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.L.; Murphy, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision making has traditionally been part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) policy and practice. In the early days of regulation, this consideration was more qualitative in nature and was reflected in prescriptive/deterministic regulatory requirements. However, with the development of quantitative risk assessment methods, more detailed and comprehensive (although not complete) risk information on nuclear power plants is available to the designer, operator, and regulator. The availability of such information provides an opportunity to assess the need for change in the current regulatory structure and to develop future regulatory requirements in a less prescriptive, more performance-oriented fashion

  18. Neutron spectral characterization of the NRC-HSST experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiation experiments are being performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program. Results of dosimetry performed in the second experiment have been previously reported. Similar procedures were followed in the third experiment. The experiences gained in these two experiments have led to modifications in the composition and distribution of foil dosimeters which monitor the neutron flux-spectra in the irradiated steel specimens. It is expected that in the new experiments much higher accuracies than previously possible can be achieved in the determination of irradiation damage parameters

  19. Neutron spectral characterization of the NRC-HSST experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallmann, F. W.; Kam, F. B.K.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiation experiments are being performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program. Results of dosimetry performed in the second experiment have been previously reported. Similar procedures were followed in the third experiment. The experiences gained in these two experiments have led to modifications in the composition and distribution of foil dosimeters which monitor the neutron flux-spectra in the irradiated steel specimens. It is expected that in the new experiments much higher accuracies than previously possible can be achieved in the determination of irradiation damage parameters.

  20. Software for automated tracking of open items at NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWispelare, A.R.; Mackin, P.C.; Johnson, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Open Item Tracking System (OITS) was developed in response to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) need for a reliable, easy to use automated database system, to track all open (awaiting resolution) items related to regulatory, institutional, and technical uncertainties for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) high-level waste (HLW) disposal program. The OITS system was integrated with the Regulatory Program Database (RPD) Version 1.1, resulting in the RPD/OITS Version 2.0 system. RPD/OITS is a network bases system with client server architecture and a graphical user interface. This paper outlines the system and results of its implementation

  1. Comments on the NRC Safety Research Program budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This report includes comments on the budget levels and program plans for the supplemental request for FY 1980 to support research related to the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI) as well as for the FY 1981 Budget. For both budgets, the funding levels considered by the ACRS are the original requests by RES and the Budget Review Group (BRG) markup as of July 10, 1979. In its current review of the NRC research program, the ACRS has given special attention to both the short- and long-term implications of the TMI accident and their significance to research for both the short- and long-term research programs

  2. NRPB TLD and dose record keeping service - further progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenslade, E.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of the National Radiological Protection Board's service are described. An increasing number of UK employers are transferring from film monitors, and record keeping is now provided for both large and small groups of workers. Data entry directly from punched cards prepared by the larger employers has reduced initial costs and therefore carries a reduced registration fee for these users. Computerized dose record keeping allows automatic retrieval of cumulative dose information from any NRPB record of previous employment, thus safeguarding itinerant workers. Warning Dose Reports are issued automatically when cumulative dose totals reach or exceed 60% of a limit, or when a dose rate greater than 0.1 rem per 4 weeks is recorded. Flexibility in wearing period results in dosemeter economy and reduces laboratory work load. High recorded doses can be checked by UV stimulation of both disks to confirm the accuracy of the previous measurement. Employers are provided with a comprehensive and accurate monitoring package, fulfilling HSE requirements and exempting employers from their former responsibility to keep their own comprehensive records. (UK)

  3. NRC proposes changes to nuke decommissioning funding rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed to amend its regulations to allow self-guarantee as a means of assuring adequate funding for nuclear plant decommissioning. It acted in response to a rulemaking petition filed by General Electric Co. and Westinghouse Electric Corp. The proposal would allow self-guarantees if certain conditions are met: Tangible net worth of at least $1 billion; Tangible net worth at least 10 times the present decommissioning cost estimate for all activities the utility is responsible for as a self-guaranteeing licensee and as parent guarantor; Domestic assets amounting to at least 90 percent of total assets or at least 10 times the present decommissioning cost estimate; A credit rating for the utility's most recent bond issuance of AAA, AA, or A (Standard ampersand Poor's), or Aaa, Aa, or A (Moody's). Additional requirements include that the utility licensee must have at least one class of equity securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and that an independent auditor must verify that the utility met the financial test. A utility also would be responsible for reporting any change in circumstances affecting the criteria used to meet the financial test, and would be responsible for meeting that test within 90 days of each financial year. The NRC will accept written comments until March 29, 1993

  4. MHTGR demonstration role in the NRC design certification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, A.P. Jr.; Jones, G.

    1986-01-01

    A modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) design is being developed by the US HTGR Program. Because of the small size of the individual modules that would make up a commercial facility, it appears feasible to design and construct a single-module demonstration plant within the funding constraints on the public and private-sector program participants. Furthermore, the safety margins that can be made inherent to the design permit full-scale testing that could supply a new basis for demonstrating investment protection and safety adequacy to the public, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and potential users. With this in mind, a Project Definition Study was sponsored by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates and the Tennessee Valley Authority to study the potential benefits of undertaking such a demonstration project. One of the areas investigated was the potential benefits of such a facility in supporting the NRC design certification process, which is envisioned as a necessary commercialization step for the MHTGR

  5. Analysis of NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21 Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Yook, Dae Sik; Lee, Byung Soo [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    It is essential to have a degree of uniformity in the methods used for measuring, evaluating, recording, and reporting data on radioactive material in effluents and solid wastes. For this purpose, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a revised version of the Regulatory Guide 1.21 'Measuring, evaluating, and reporting radioactive material in liquid and gaseous effluents and solid waste' (revision 2) in 2009, updating the revision 1 version released in 1974. This study compares the previous revision 1 (1974) version with the revision 2 (2009) version to elaborate on the application of the guidelines to Korea. This study consists of an analysis of the 2009 Revision 2 version of the U.S. NRC Regulatory Guidelines 1.21 and an exposition of methods for its application in the domestic environment. Major revisions were made to allow for the adoption of a risk informed approach. Radionuclides with lower than 1% contribution to emission or radiation levels can be selected as principal radionuclides. Requirements for analysis of leaks and spills have been reinforced, with additional groundwater monitoring and hydrological data analysis becoming necessary.

  6. TLD postal dose quality audit service for Co-60 beams in reference conditions in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Lores, S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Alonso Villanueva, G.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and experience of the Cuban's Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory for the implementation of postal dose quality audits service for Co-60 beams in reference conditions, using TLDs. Under coordinated research project (Contract 10794) were bought (TLD -100) Tl rods type JR 1152F made in China, with dimensions of 6 mm x 1 mm x 1 mm. All of these rods were identified individually with a consecutive number made over one of its sides, using a fine tip of graphite. The method used to determinate the individual sensibility of the TL detectors was: irradiating a group of them, with the same history of irradiation and readout (100 rods approximately), four serial times in the same geometrical conditions, to read them out and to attribute to each of them a sensitivity factor. This sensitivity factor is equal to average for the 4 cycle of irradiation and readout of the quote between the TL readout from dosimeter i and the mean of all values for each cycle. The TLD signal was read using HARSHAW 2000C/B reader. The results obtained in the external verification of the accuracy of the dose determination by the TLD system were performed in cooperation with IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory at Seibersdorf in different years are shown, the results obtained of the quality audits carried out to the different services of radiotherapy of the country are analysed also. The quality audits are an useful tool for the improvement of the accuracy in the dosimetry of clinical beams of radiotherapy with Co-60, contributing this way to the improvement of the life quality to cancer patients of the Cuban system of health. (author)

  7. A quality control program for the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) in personnel radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Hyung Sub

    1994-01-01

    High quality radiation dosimetry is essential for workers who rely upon personal dosemeters to record the amount of radiation to which they are exposed. The ministry of science and technology (MOST) issued a ministerial ordinance (No 199-15) about the technical criteria on personnel dosimeter processors on 1992. The purpose of this quality control program is to prescribe the procedures approved by the management of KAERI for implementing a quality badge service by means of TLD for personnel working in an area where they may be exposed to ionization radiation. (Author) 10 refs

  8. Thermoluminescent relative efficiencies of TLD-100 for nitrogen ions respect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concha S, K.; Avila, O.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Rodriguez V, M.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to measure the thermoluminescent relative efficiency of those TLD-100 dosemeters irradiated with nitrogen ions with respect to the gamma radiation of 60 Co, in function of the linear energy transfer (LET). Two energy of such nitrogen ions were selected that has the same value from LET when impacting in the dosemeters but with E 1 energy (4.8 MeV) and E 2 (9.95 MeV) smaller and greater respectively that the energy of the Bragg peak. (Author)

  9. TLD Quality Assurance (QA) network in radiotherapy and radiology in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroutilikova, D.; Novak, N.; Novotny, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Czech TLD QA network was established in 1997, as a part of the External Auditing Group (EAG) originated in 1995, in order to perform an independent quality audit in external beam therapy for two purposes: a) to unify the dose within radiotherapy departments, b) to impact state supervision. On basis of a good experience with this network in radiotherapy, new methods were developed to expand the network also to radiology in order to simplify the operation of state supervision. The TLD QA network in dental radiology has been brought into practice in 2001. Both the TLD audits performed in radiotherapy and radiology are realized via mailed dosimetry. In radiotherapy, two modes of the audit are used. Basic mode of TLD audit covers measurements under reference conditions, specifically beam calibration checks for all clinically used photon and electron beams. According to Czech regulations every beam must be checked in this way at least once during two years' period. Advanced mode consists of measurements under both reference and non- reference conditions using Leuven multi-purpose phantom for photon beams. It enables to check a substantial part of the treatment planning process inclusive of final dose realization of the planned radiotherapy. The radiotherapy centers are instructed to deliver absorbed dose of 2 Gy to the TLDs on central beam axis based on calculated treatment time or monitor units by their treatment planning system for a particular treatment set-up. In this way the TLD measured doses are compared with the calculated ones. Deviations of ±3% are considered acceptable for both basic and advanced modes of the audit, deviations up to ±6% are still tolerable, but new audit is repeated as soon as possible to solve the dosimetry problem. Deviations above ±6% leads immediately to investigation by EAG. There are 34 centers in the Czech Republic, which provide external beam radiotherapy. Since they must undergo the basic TLD audit regularly every

  10. Evaluation of the breast plan using the TLD and MOSFET for the skin dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Myeong; Kim, Young Bum; Bak, Sang Yun; Lee, Sang Rok; Jeong, Se Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The measurement of skin dose is very important that treatment of breast cancer. On account of the cold or hot dose as compared with prescription dose, it is necessary to analyse the skin dose occurring during the various plan of the breast cancer treatment. At our hospital, we want to apply various analyses using a diversity of dosimeters to the breast cancer treatment. In the study, the anthropomorphic phantom is used to find out the dose difference of the skin(draining site), scar and others occurring from the tangential treatment plan of breast cancer. We took computed tomography scan of the anthropomorphic phantom and made plans for the treatment planing using open and wedge, Field-in-Field, Dose fluence. Using these, we made a comparative analysis of the dose date points by using the Eclipse. For the dose comparison, we place the anthropomorphic phantom in the treatment room and compared the measurement results by using the TLD and MOSFET on the dose data points. On the central point of treatment planing basis, the upward and downward skin dose measured by the MOSFET was the highest when the fluence was used. The skin dose of inner and outer was distinguished from the figure(5.7% - 10.3%) when the measurements were fulfilled by using TLD and MOSFET. The other side of breast dose was the lowest in the open beam, on the other hand, is highest in the Dose fluence plan. In the different kinds of treatment, the dose deviation of inner and outer was the highest, and so this was the same with the TLD and MOSFET measurement case. The outer deviation was highest in the TLD, and the Inner' was highest in the MOSFET. Skin dose in relation to the treatment plan was the highest in the planing using the fluence technique in general and it was supposed that the high dose had been caused by the movement of the MLC. There's some differences among the all the treatment planning, but the sites such as IM node occurring the lack of dose, scar, drain site are needed pay

  11. Development and evaluation of new semi-automatic TLD reader software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, M.S.; Pradhan, S.M.; Palani Selvam, T.; Datta, D.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, all technology advancement is primarily focused on creating the user-friendly environment while operating any machine, also minimizing the human errors by automation of procedures. In the present study development and evaluation of new software for semi-automatic TLD badge reader (TLDBR-7B) is presented. The software provides an interactive interface and is compatible with latest windows OS as well as USB mode of data communication. Important new features of the software are automatic glow curve analysis for identifying any abnormality, event log register, user defined limits on TL count and time of temperature stabilization for readout interruption and auto reading resumption options

  12. Evaluation of the breast plan using the TLD and MOSFET for the skin dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Myeong; Kim, Young Bum; Bak, Sang Yun; Lee, Sang Rok; Jeong, Se Young

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of skin dose is very important that treatment of breast cancer. On account of the cold or hot dose as compared with prescription dose, it is necessary to analyse the skin dose occurring during the various plan of the breast cancer treatment. At our hospital, we want to apply various analyses using a diversity of dosimeters to the breast cancer treatment. In the study, the anthropomorphic phantom is used to find out the dose difference of the skin(draining site), scar and others occurring from the tangential treatment plan of breast cancer. We took computed tomography scan of the anthropomorphic phantom and made plans for the treatment planing using open and wedge, Field-in-Field, Dose fluence. Using these, we made a comparative analysis of the dose date points by using the Eclipse. For the dose comparison, we place the anthropomorphic phantom in the treatment room and compared the measurement results by using the TLD and MOSFET on the dose data points. On the central point of treatment planing basis, the upward and downward skin dose measured by the MOSFET was the highest when the fluence was used. The skin dose of inner and outer was distinguished from the figure(5.7% - 10.3%) when the measurements were fulfilled by using TLD and MOSFET. The other side of breast dose was the lowest in the open beam, on the other hand, is highest in the Dose fluence plan. In the different kinds of treatment, the dose deviation of inner and outer was the highest, and so this was the same with the TLD and MOSFET measurement case. The outer deviation was highest in the TLD, and the Inner' was highest in the MOSFET. Skin dose in relation to the treatment plan was the highest in the planing using the fluence technique in general and it was supposed that the high dose had been caused by the movement of the MLC. There's some differences among the all the treatment planning, but the sites such as IM node occurring the lack of dose, scar, drain site are needed pay

  13. TLD Postal service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez L, S.; Walwyn S, G.; Alonso V, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the methodology and experience of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Cuba in the establishment of the TLD Postal Service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions. Materials and methods: Through the Coordinated Project of Research (Contract 10794) its was bought 200 solid thermoluminescent detectors of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) in micro bars form with dimensions of 6 x 1 x 1 mm and of the JR 1152F type manufactured in China. All these detectors were identified individually with a serial number on one of its faces, using a graphite fine sheet. Those detectors for its irradiation are introduced in cylindrical plastic capsules developed and used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the Audit Postal Service of Dose IAEA/WHO, the capsules have one cavity equal to 3 mm for that is necessary to recover this cavity with a fine plastic tube so that the detectors remain immobile during the irradiation. The method used to determine the individual sensitivity of the thermoluminescent detectors is: to irradiate a detectors group (100 micro bars) 4 times in those same geometric conditions, with the same irradiation history and reading, then it is determine for each detector a sensitivity factor equal to the average of those readings obtained for the 4 irradiation cycles for each i detector among the average of all the reading values obtained during the 4 cycles. The thermoluminescent signal is obtained with a Harshaw 2000C/B reader manual. Results: The satisfactory results obtained in the verification of the calibration of the TLD system, using the reference irradiation service of the Seibersdorf Dosimetry Laboratory of the IAEA in three different years are shown. The results of the audits carried out to the different radiotherapy services of the country in different years are also presented. Conclusions: The experience with the detectors acquired in the project demonstrates that with an appropriate

  14. Interpretation of TLD data measured in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.; Baggenstos, M.; Schuler, J.; Voelkle, H.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that incorporating the location-specific characteristics of natural radiation into the interpretation of the surrounding measurements makes some valuable contributions to the improvement of the measuring quality of thermoluminescent enviromental dosimetry. This brings the possibility to determine the net dose of the additional man-made radiations (e.g. caused by the nuclear power plant) with better accuracy. The authors propose a method of analysing the measured results which enables one to include the measured data from the evidence finding phase in the interpretation of the environment monitoring-TLD-measurement (orig./DG) [de

  15. Applying risk insights in US NRC reviews of integral pressurized water reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, M.A.; Hilsmeier, T.; Kevern, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    In its Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) on COMGBJ-10-0004/COMGEA-10-0001, 'Use of Risk Insights to Enhance Safety Focus of Small Modular Reactor Reviews,' dated August 31, 2010 (ML102510405), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) directed the NRC staff to more fully integrate the use of risk insights into pre-application activities and the review of small modular reactor (SMR) applications with near-term focus on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) designs. The Commission's objective is to align the review focus and resources with the risk-significant systems, structures, and components (SSCs) and other aspects of the design, that contribute most to safety in order to enhance the efficiency of the review process while still enabling a decision of reasonable assurance of the design's safety. The staff was directed to develop a design-specific, risk-informed review plan for each SMR to address pre-application and application review activities. The NRC staff submitted a response to the Commission which describes its approach for (1) using risk insights, consistent with current regulatory requirements, to assign SSCs to one of a limited set of graded categories, and (2) adjusting the scope and depth of current review plans--where possible--consistent with regulatory requirements and consistent with the applicable graded category. Because the staff's review constitutes an independent audit of the application, the staff may emphasize or de-emphasize particular aspects of its review guidance (i.e., Standard Review Plan), as appropriate and consistent with regulatory requirements, for the application being reviewed. The staff may propose justifications for not performing certain sections of the reviews called for by the applicable review plan. Examples of acceptable variations in the scope of a review can include reduced emphasis on SSC attributes such as reliability, availability, or functional performance when the SSC will be in the scope of a program

  16. Reassessment of the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC`s overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC`s involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area.

  17. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.; Perkins, K.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.

    1987-02-01

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Response is the fifth in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes NRC response modes, organizations, and official positions; roles of other federal agencies are also described briefly. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text

  18. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-02-01

    This NRC Plan, which defines NRC's functional role in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 and outlines NRC's regulatory responsibilities in fulfilling this role, is the first revision to the initial plan issued in July 1980 (NUREG-0698). Since 1980, a number of policy developments have occurred which will have an impact on the course of cleanup operations. This revision reflects these developments in the area of NRC's review and approval process with regard to cleanup operations as well as NRC's interface with the Department of Energy's involvement in the cleanup and waste disposal. This revision is also intended to update the cleanup schedule by presenting the cleanup progress that has taken place and NRC's role in ongoing and future cleanup activities

  19. Comparative analysis of DOE Order 5820.2A, NRC, and EPA radioactive and mixed waste management requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    As directed by DOE-Headquarters and DOE-Idaho, the Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program (TSP) drafted an analysis of DOE Order 5820. 2A on ''Radioactive Waste Management'' to develop guidelines and criteria for revising the Order. This comparative matrix is a follow up to the earlier analysis. This matrix comparing the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A with Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations was prepared at the request of EM-30. The matrix compares DOE Order 5820.2A with the following: NRC regulations in 10 CFR Part 61 on ''Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste''; NRC regulations in 10 CFR Part 60 on ''Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste in Geologic Repositories''; EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 191 on ''Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Waste''; EPA regulations in 40 FR Part 192 on ''Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailing''; and EPA regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  20. Annual technical meeting of the NRC cooperative severe accident research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the 1992 annual technical meeting of the NRC Cooperative Severe Accident Research Program (CSARP-92) held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Bethesda, Maryland, May 4-8, 1992. The report is taken mainly from coverage of the meeting published in the June 5, 1992, issue of Atomic Energy Clearinghouse. Results of this meeting are formalized at the Water Reactor Safety Information Meetings (WRSIM) that are held annually in October. Nuclear Safety summarizes the annual WRSIM meetings and provides a list of the presentations that were given. Interested readers are encouraged to review listed topics to identify specific topic areas in severe accident research. Sessions were held on in-vessel core melt progression; fuel-coolant interactions; fission-product behavior; direct containment heating; and severe accident code development, assessment, and validation. Summaries of the individual technical sessions and the current state of the art in these areas were given by the chairmen

  1. The roles of NRC research in risk-informed, performance-based regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.L.; Murphy, J.A.; Hodges, M.W.; Cunningham, M.A.; Drouin, M.T.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; VanderMolen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC is expanding the use of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) throughout the spectrum of its regulatory activities. The NRC's research program in PRA supports this expansion in a number of ways, from performing basic research to developing guidance for regulatory applications. The author provides an overview of the NRC's PRA research program, then focuses on two key activities - the review of individual plant examinations, and the development of guidance for use of PRA in reactor regulation

  2. Analysis of read-out heating rate effects on the glow peaks of TLD-100 using WinGCF software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauk, Sabar, E-mail: sabar@usm.my [Physics Section, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Hussin, Siti Fatimah [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Alam, Md. Shah [Physics Section, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Physics Department, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet (Bangladesh)

    2016-01-22

    This study was done to analyze the effects of the read-out heating rate on the LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) glow peaks using WinGCF computer software. The TLDs were exposed to X-ray photons with a potential difference of 72 kVp and 200 mAs in air and were read-out using a Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. The TLDs were read-out using four read-out heating rates at 10, 7, 4 and 1 °C s{sup −1}. It was observed that lowering the heating rate could separate more glow peaks. The activation energy for peak 5 was found to be lower than that for peak 4. The peak maximum temperature and the integral value of the main peak decreased as the heating rate decreases.

  3. Unusual ratio of TL readouts of different discs of personnel monitoring TLD badge based on CaSO4: Dy teflon disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, S.M.; Ande, C.D.; Kher, R.K.; Chourasiya, G.; Vashishtha, R.; Gupta, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    In India Personnel Monitoring against external radiation hazard of gamma, beta and X-rays is provided using a TLD badge based on CaSO 4 : Dy Teflon TLD disc. Unusual ratios of TL readouts of different discs of TLD badge (Disc Ratios) observed for service TLD badges of radiation workers were investigated and simulated. Simulations were carried out by exposure of TLD badges by speck type radioactive sources placed in contact of badges, exposure of TLD badges placed on concrete floor to a radiography source. Clues for the simulation were obtained from nature of work, radiological conditions during course of individuals' work whose TLD badges showed the unusual disc ratios and geometrical calculations performed. It is concluded that although the actual exposure condition during use is unknown, the unusual disk ratios observed for the service TLD badges can be simulated and utilized to arrive at probable exposure conditions. The study helped in investigations of the abnormal exposures and assigning doses to the concerned radiation workers. (author)

  4. Characterization of TLD-100 in powders for dosimetric quality control of {sup 192} Ir sources used in brachytherapy of high dose rate; Caracterizacion de TLD-100 en polvo para control de calidad dosimetrico de fuentes de Ir{sup 192} usadas en braquiterapia de alta tasa de dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaiza C, S.P

    2007-07-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetric at the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) calibrated a lot of powdered TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) in terms of absorbed dose to water D{sub w} for the energy of: {sup 60}Co, {sup 137C}s, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Later on, it is carried out an interpolation of the calibration for the energy of the {sup 192}Ir. This calibration is part of a dosimetric quality control program, to solve the problems of traceability for the measurements carried out by the users of {sup 192}Ir sources employed in the treatments of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR) at the Mexican Republic. The calibrations of the radiation beams are made with the following protocols: IAEA TRS-398 for the {sup 60}Co for D{sub w}, using a secondary standard ionization chamber PTW N30013 calibrated in D{sub w} by the National Research Council (NRC, Canada). AAPM TG-43 for D{sub w} in terms of the strength kerma Sk, calibrating this last one quantity for the {sup 137}Cs radioactive source, with a well chamber HDR 1000 PLUS traceable to the University of Wisconsin (US). AAPM TG-61 for X ray of 250 and 50 kVp for D{sub w} start to Ka using field standard a Farmer chamber PTW 30001 traceable to K for the Central Laboratory of Electric Industries (CLEI, France). The calibration curves (CC) they built for the response of the powder TLD: R{sub TLD} vs D{sub w}: For the energy of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, X rays of 250 and 50 kVp. Fitting them with the least square method weighed by means of a polynomial of second grade that corrects the supra linearity of the response. iii. Each one of the curves was validated with a test by lack of fitting and for the Anderson Darling normality test, using the software MINITAB in both cases. iv. The sensibility factor (F{sub s}) for each energy corresponds to the slope of the CC, v. The F{sub s} for the two {sup 192}Ir sources used are interpolated: one for a Micro Selectron source and the other one a Vari Source source. Finally, a couple of

  5. Development of a TLD mailed system for remote dosimetry audit for 192Ir HDR and PDR sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roue, Amelie; Venselaar, Jack L.M.; Ferreira, Ivaldo H.; Bridier, Andre; Dam, Jan van

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: In the framework of an ESTRO ESQUIRE project, the BRAPHYQS Physics Network and the EQUAL-ESTRO laboratory have developed a procedure for checking the absorbed dose to water in the vicinity of HDR or PDR sources using a mailed TLD system. The methodology and the materials used in the procedure are based on the existing EQUAL-ESTRO external radiotherapy dose checks. Materials and methods: A phantom for TLD postal dose assurance service, adapted to accept catheters from different HDR afterloaders, has been developed. The phantom consists of three PMMA tubes supporting catheters placed at 120 degrees around a central TLD holder. A study on the use of LiF powder type DTL 937 (Philitech) has been performed in order to establish the TLD calibration in dose-to-water at a given distance from 192 Ir source, as well as to determine all correction factors to convert the TLD reading into absorbed dose to water. The dosimetric audit is based on the comparison between the dose to water measured with the TL dosimeter and the dose calculated by the clinical TPS. Results of the audits are classified in four different levels depending on the ratio of the measured dose to the stated dose. The total uncertainty budget in the measurement of the absorbed dose to water using TLD near an 192 Ir HDR source, including TLD reading, correction factors and TLD calibration coefficient, is determined as 3.27% (1 s). Results: To validate the procedures, the external audit was first tested among the members of the BRAPHYQS Network. Since November 2004, the test has been made available for use by all European brachytherapy centres. To date, 11 centres have participated in the checks and the results obtained are very encouraging. Nevertheless, one error detected has shown the usefulness of this audit. Conclusion: A method of absorbed dose to water determination in the vicinity of an 192 Ir brachytherapy source was developed for the purpose of a mailed TL dosimetry system. The

  6. External assurance program in radiotherapy dose by TLD: implementation of a quality system and extension to complex treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojsiejczuk, N.; Lohr, J.; Molina, L.; Vallejos, M.; Montaño, G.; Stefanic, A.; Zaretzky, A.

    2011-01-01

    Until now, the Regional Reference Center with secondary patterns for dosimetry ('Centro Regional de Referencia con Patrones Secundarios para Dosimetria' (CRRD)) has done dosimetry verifications with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in radiotherapy in square and rectangular fields. The objective of this paper is to inform about the first tests done to span new verification conditions in irradiations with multi-leaf collimator using regular and irregular field shapes. On the other hand, it will briefly describe the progress in the implementation of a quality management system adopted by the CRRD, regarding the TLD verification service. (author)

  7. Development of a TLD mailed system for remote dosimetry audit for (192)Ir HDR and PDR sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Amélie; Venselaar, Jack L M; Ferreira, Ivaldo H; Bridier, André; Van Dam, Jan

    2007-04-01

    In the framework of an ESTRO ESQUIRE project, the BRAPHYQS Physics Network and the EQUAL-ESTRO laboratory have developed a procedure for checking the absorbed dose to water in the vicinity of HDR or PDR sources using a mailed TLD system. The methodology and the materials used in the procedure are based on the existing EQUAL-ESTRO external radiotherapy dose checks. A phantom for TLD postal dose assurance service, adapted to accept catheters from different HDR afterloaders, has been developed. The phantom consists of three PMMA tubes supporting catheters placed at 120 degrees around a central TLD holder. A study on the use of LiF powder type DTL 937 (Philitech) has been performed in order to establish the TLD calibration in dose-to-water at a given distance from (192)Ir source, as well as to determine all correction factors to convert the TLD reading into absorbed dose to water. The dosimetric audit is based on the comparison between the dose to water measured with the TL dosimeter and the dose calculated by the clinical TPS. Results of the audits are classified in four different levels depending on the ratio of the measured dose to the stated dose. The total uncertainty budget in the measurement of the absorbed dose to water using TLD near an (192)Ir HDR source, including TLD reading, correction factors and TLD calibration coefficient, is determined as 3.27% (1s). To validate the procedures, the external audit was first tested among the members of the BRAPHYQS Network. Since November 2004, the test has been made available for use by all European brachytherapy centres. To date, 11 centres have participated in the checks and the results obtained are very encouraging. Nevertheless, one error detected has shown the usefulness of this audit. A method of absorbed dose to water determination in the vicinity of an (192)Ir brachytherapy source was developed for the purpose of a mailed TL dosimetry system. The accuracy of the procedure was determined. This method allows a

  8. Unfolding neutron spectra obtained from BS–TLD system using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A.L.; Silva, E.R.; Ferreira, T.A.E; Vilela, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the variability of neutron spectrum within the same environment, it is essential that the spectral distribution as a function of energy should be characterized. The precise information allows radiological quantities establishment related to that spectrum, but it is necessary that a spectrometric system covers a large interval of energy and an unfolding process is appropriate. This paper proposes use of a technique of Artificial Intelligence (AI) called genetic algorithm (GA), which uses bio-inspired mathematical models with the implementation of a specific matrix to unfolding data obtained from a combination of TLDs embedded in a BS system to characterize the neutron spectrum as a function of energy. The results obtained with this method were in accordance with reference spectra, thus enabling this technique to unfold neutron spectra with the BS–TLD system. - Highlights: ► The unfolding code used the artificial intelligence technique called genetic algorithms. ► A response matrix specific to the unfolding data obtained with the BS–TLD system is used by the AGLN. ► The observed results demonstrate the potential use of genetic algorithms in solving complex nuclear problems.

  9. Measurements of environmental background radiation levels by TLD in and around the Jahangirnagar University Campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Aleya Begum; Idris Miah, M.; Yunus, Afrozi

    1997-01-01

    The background radiation levels at 30 locations in and around the Jahangirnagar University Campus (JUC) were measured using a LiF(TLD-100) thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). In addition, dose rates at three pre-selected locations were measured on a monthly as well as quarterly basis for one year period (July 1993 - June 1994). The dose rate ranges from 1016 to 2167 μSv.y -1 (101.6 to 216.7 mrem.y -1 ) with a mean value of 1595 μSv.y -1 (159.5 mrem.y -1 ). These values are comparable with those of pre- and post-operational values for the reactor site. The estimated average annual effective dose equivalent to the inhabitants at the study areas was found to be 1276 μSv (127.6 mrem). Variation of background radiation level with meteorological parameters, namely, temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and pressure was also studied. The influence on the dose rate of the meteorological parameters was observed. (author)

  10. TLD personnel monitoring dose estimation- extending the upper limit of the dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, K.L.; Sathian, Deepa; Divakaran, T.; Massand, O.P.

    2001-01-01

    TLD personnel monitoring was introduced in the year 1975 in India and at present nearly 41,000 radiation workers are being monitored by 13 monitoring laboratories all over India. The BARC- TLD being used for personnel monitoring is based on CaSO 4 :Dy embedded in PTFE and semi-automatic TL reader using hot N 2 Gas for heating the dosimeters. This reader has the range to measure γ dose from ten μSv to 3 μSv and x-ray dose form 1 μ Sv to 0.3 Sv due to the higher sensitivity of CaSO 4 : Dy to lower energy photons (20keV-50 keV) generated by diagnostic x-ray units. The x-ray radiation workers are at present nearly 35% of the total radiation workers monitored and this number is expected to grow as more and more number of x-ray workers are covered under this service. The upper limit of the x-ray dose range of the instrument is 0.3 Sv, whereas in the past one year it has been observed that at least 25% of the total overexposures reported in case of x-ray workers have recorded the dose more than 0.3 Sv. This paper presents the technique developed to extend the upper limit of the range from 0.3 Sv to 1 Sv for x-rays and 10 Sv for γ rays

  11. The design philosophy for an automatic TLD system to meet current international specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaslahti, J.

    1986-01-01

    The object of this paper is to describe the elements of a new automatic TLD system intended to meet draft IEC/ISO proposals and ANSI requirements in the USA. Dosemeter badge design is based on ICRU recommendations. The basic intent has been to produce a standard system that can measure and file raw data that can be adapted to specific user requirements with software. The system consists of a programmable automatic reader, an automatic irradiator, a computer, and dosemeters for environmental, whole body, extremity, and clinical applications. The reader uses hot nitrogen heating and photon counting, and measurement conditions may be chosen with complete freedom. The reader can produce a real-time glow curve to assist in checking performance. The irradiator has a 90 Sr- 90 Y source to permit programmed irradiation for calibration and material sensitivity checks. Cassettes are used to hold TLD cards during processing. Cassette coding both identifies samples and calls measurement parameters into use from memory. The system can be preprogrammed to measure all common materials and all common dosemeter elements (both square and round). (author)

  12. On the determination of the post-irradiation time from the glow curve of TLD-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, M.; German, U.; Dubinsky, S.; Alfassi, Z.B.

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of peak 3 to the sum of peaks 4 + 5 in TLD-100 was measured for various pre-irradiation and post-irradiation time periods, under conditions characteristic of routine personal dosimetry. It was confirmed that the value of this ratio depends only on the elapsed time between the prior readout and the present one, independent of the moment when the irradiation took place during the total time interval (storage time). This effect indicates that fading of peak 3 seems to be due mainly to changes in the unoccupied traps, and not to decay of trapped charges, being almost independent of the presence of electrons or holes in the traps. This observation leads to the conclusion that the suggestions in the past to use the decay of peak 3 in TLD-100 for the measurement of the elapsed time between irradiation and readout may have been wrong. On the other hand, the decay of peak 2 can be used to measure the elapsed time from irradiation, since the rate of decay is different when related to pre-irradiation and post-irradiation times, indicating a much higher decay rate of the trapped charges (Randall-Wilkins decay). However, because of the fast decay rate of peak 2, its use for determination of the elapsed time since irradiation is of little practical significance. (author)

  13. The development of the advanced cryogenic radiometer facility at NRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamouras, A.; Todd, A. D. W.; Côté, É.; Rowell, N. L.

    2018-02-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) of Canada has established a next generation facility for the primary realization of optical radiant power. The main feature of this facility is a new cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer with a closed-cycle helium cryocooler. A monochromator-based approach allows for detector calibrations at any desired wavelength. A custom-designed motion apparatus includes two transfer standard radiometer mounting ports which has increased our measurement capability by allowing the calibration of two photodetectors in one measurement cycle. Measurement uncertainties have been improved through several upgrades, including newly designed and constructed transimpedance amplifiers for the transfer standard radiometers, and a higher power broadband light source. The most significant improvements in uncertainty arise from the enhanced characteristics of the new cryogenic radiometer including its higher cavity absorptance and reduced non-equivalence effects.

  14. NRC Regulatory Agenda semiannual report, July--December 1995. Volume 14, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued semianually

  15. NRC regulatory agenda: Semiannual report, July--December 1996. Volume 15, Number 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued semiannually

  16. 76 FR 40755 - Impact of Reduced Dose Limits on NRC Licensed Activities; Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... scientifically justified, to achieve greater alignment with the 2007 recommendations of the International... and image files of the NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to ADAMS or if there are... informed of all the benefits and burdens associated with further alignment of NRC's current radiation...

  17. 10 CFR 51.104 - NRC proceeding using public hearings; consideration of environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental impact statement. 51.104 Section 51.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED....104 NRC proceeding using public hearings; consideration of environmental impact statement. (a)(1) In... scope of NEPA and this subpart are in issue, the NRC staff may not offer the final environmental impact...

  18. 76 FR 54507 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0204] Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic... functions. SSCs in operating nuclear power plants are designed either in accordance with, or have been... nuclear reactors. The background information relevant to this GL includes the individual plant...

  19. Canister storage building compliance assessment SNF project NRC equivalency criteria - HNF-SD-SNF-DB-003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACK, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the Project's position on compliance with the SNF Project NRC Equivalency Criteria - HNF-SD-SNF-DE-003, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Path Forward Additional NRC Requirements. No non-compliances are shown. The compliance statements have been reviewed and approved by DOE. Open items are scheduled to be closed prior to project completion

  20. A Computerized QC Analysis of TLD Glow Curves for Personal Dosimetry Measurements Using TagQC Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primo, S.; Datz, H.; Dar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The External Dosimetry Lab (EDL) at the Radiation Safety Division at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC) is ISO 17025 certified and provides its services to approximately 13,000 users throughout the country from various sectors such as medical, industrial and academic. About 95% of the users are monitored monthly for X-rays, and radiation using Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) cards that contain three LiF:Mg,Ti elements and the other users, who work also with thermal neutrons, use TLD cards that contain four LiF:Mg,Ti elements. All TLD cards are measured with the Thermo 8800pc reader.Suspicious TLD glow curve (GC) can cause wrong dose estimation so the EDL makes great efforts to ensure that each GC undergoes a careful QC procedure. The current QC procedure is performed manually and through a few steps using different softwares and databases in a long and complicated procedure: EDL staff needs to export all the results/GCs to be checked to an Excel file, followed by finding the suspicious GCs, which is done in a different program (WinREMS), According to the GC shapes (Figure 1 illustrates suitable and suspicious GC shapes) and the ratio between the elements result values, the inspecting technician corrects the data

  1. Response of TLD badge for the estimation of exposure conditions in diagnostic x-ray departments - use of lead aprons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Chatterjee, S.; Bakshi, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to ascertain the conditions of exposure of the TLD badge and to evaluate the inaccuracy involved in the estimation of dose received by the worker using an averaged lead apron transmission factor for the use of the badge above lead apron

  2. Malaysia Participation in the IAEA/ WHO TLD Postal Dose Quality Audit Service: Data Analysis From 2011-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhayati Abdullah; Taiman Kadni

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the dosimetry methodology used and the results of 22 Malaysian radiotherapy centres participated in the Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Postal Dose Quality Audit Service organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in collaboration with World Health Organisation (WHO) from 2011 to 2015. In this audit, a set of three capsules of TLD (encapsulated with Lithium Flouride powder) including a control TLD were sent to the participating centres for irradiation with 2 Gy of absorbed dose to water under reference condition. In this period, a total of 70 photon beams consists of 43 beams and 27 beams produced by 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively have been audited. The results demonstrated that all participating centres comply with the acceptance limits of ±5 % as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 24, except eight photon beams from six centres. However, these centres presented better compliance results after followed up with a second round of TLD irradiation. (author)

  3. U.S. NRC training for research and training reactor inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Kunze, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, a large number of license activities (Early Site Permits, Combined Operating License, reactor certifications, etc.), are pending for review before the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). Much of the senior staff at the NRC is now committed to these review and licensing actions. To address this additional workload, the NRC has recruited a large number of new Regulatory Staff for dealing with these and other regulatory actions such as the US Fleet of Research and Test Reactors (RTRs). These reactors pose unusual demands on Regulatory Staff since the US Fleet of RTRs, although few (32 Licensed RTRs as of 2010), they represent a broad range of reactor types, operations, and research and training aspects that nuclear reactor power plants (such as the 104 LWRs) do not pose. The US NRC must inspect and regulate all these entities. This paper addresses selected training topics and regulatory activities provided US NRC Inspectors for US RTRs. (author)

  4. Building confidence in nuclear waste regulation: how NRC is adapting in response to stakeholder concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotra, Janet P.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing public confidence in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as an effective and independent regulator is an explicit goal of the Agency. When developing new, site-specific regulations for the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, NRC sought to improve its efforts to inform and involve the public in NRC's decision-making process. To this end, NRC has made, and continues to make significant organizational, process and policy changes. NRC successfully applied these changes as it completed final regulations for Yucca Mountain, when introducing a draft license review plan for public comment, and when responding to public requests for information on NRC's licensing and hearing process. It should be understood, however, that these changes emerged, and continue to be applied, in the context of evolving agency concern for increasing stakeholder confidence reflected in institutional changes within the agency as a whole. (author)

  5. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 3, Development documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L. [System Improvements, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haas, P.; Terranova, M. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program.

  6. A new TLD badge with machine readable ID for fully automated readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S. Ratna P.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The TLD badge currently being used for personnel monitoring of more than 40,000 radiation workers has a few drawbacks such as lack of on-badge machine readable ID code, delicate two-point clamping of dosimeters on an aluminium card with the chances of dosimeters falling off during handling or readout, projections on one side making automation of readout difficult etc. A new badge has been designed with a 8-digit identification code in the form of an array of holes and smooth exteriors to enable full automation of readout. The new badge also permits changing of dosimeters when necessary. The new design does not affect the readout time or the dosimetric characteristics. The salient features and the dosimetric characteristics are discussed. (author)

  7. Characterization of TLD-100 micro-cubes for use in small field dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña-Jiménez, Salvador, E-mail: zoid-9861@yahoo.com.mx; Gamboa-deBuen, Isabel, E-mail: gamboa@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, 04510 DF (Mexico); Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel, E-mail: jose.larraga.gtz@gmail.com, E-mail: amanda.garcia.g@gmail.com; García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda, E-mail: jose.larraga.gtz@gmail.com, E-mail: amanda.garcia.g@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Av. Insurgentes Sur 3877, 14269 DF (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    At present there are no international regulations for the management of millimeter scale fields and there are no suggestions for a reference detector to perform the characterization and dose determination for unconventional radiation beams (small fields) so that the dosimetry of small fields remains an open research field worldwide because these fields are used in radiotherapy treatments. Sensitivity factors and reproducibility of TLD-100 micro-cubes (1×1×1 mm3) were determinate irradiating the dosimeters with a 6 MV beam in a linear accelerator dedicated to radiosurgery at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN). Thermoluminescent response as a function of dose was determined for doses in water between 0.5 and 3 Gy and two field sizes (2×2 cm2 and 10×10 cm2). It was found that the response is linear over the dose range studied and it does not depend on field size.

  8. Evaluation of the uncertainties in the TLD radiosurgery postal dose system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, L. T.; Leite, S. P.; de Almeida, C. E. V.; Magalhães, L. A. G.

    2018-03-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is a single-fraction radiation therapy procedure for treating intracranial lesions using a stereotactic apparatus and multiple narrow beams delivered through noncoplanar isocentric arcs. To guarantee a high quality standard, a comprehensive Quality Assurance programme is extremely important to ensure that the measured dose is consistent with the tolerance considered to improve treatment quality. The Radiological Science Laboratory operates a postal audit programme in SRT and SRS. The purpose of the programme is to verify the target localization accuracy in known geometry and the dosimetric conditions of the TPS. The programme works in such a way those thermoluminescence dosimeters, consisting of LiF chips, are sent to the centre where they are to be irradiated to a certain dose. The TLD are then returned, where they are evaluated and the absorbed dose is obtained from TLDs readings. The aim of the present work is estimate the uncertainties in the process of dose determination, using experimental data.

  9. TLD environmental monitoring at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, I.H. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Caixa Postal 68550, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosa, L.A.R. da [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Caixa Postal 37760, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: lrosa@ird.gov.br; Crispim, V.R. [PEN/COPPE-DNC/POLI/CT/UFRJ, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    Since 2003 the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, operates a new cyclotron, RDS-111, to produce {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose to be used in nuclear medicine. Additionally, the IEN radioactive waste repository has been enlarged during the past last years, receiving a considerable amount of radioactive materials. Therefore, it became necessary to evaluate a possible increase of the environmental gamma exposure rates at the institute site due to the operation of the new accelerator and the enlargement of the institute waste repository as well. LiF:Mg,Cu,P, TLD-100H, and TL detectors were employed for environmental kerma rate evaluation and the results were compared with previous results obtained before the RDS-111 operation initialisation and the enlargement of IEN waste repository. No significant contribution for the enhancement of environmental gamma kerma rates was detected.

  10. Nuclear accident dosimeter designed for use with the Panasonic TLD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A new design for the nuclear accident dosimeter (NAD) compatible with the Panasonic TLD badge has recently been adopted for use at LLNL. This NAD was tested at the 1984 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimeters study. We describe the procedures and constants developed to evaluate the NAD components. These constants were averaged to give reasonable results from bare and moderated spectra. Other procedures to evaluate a person's neutron dose using activation of the blood sodium and hair are described. These latter procedures are used to complement the dose determined using the NAD, or to determine a dose if a NAD had not been worn during exposure. If little is known about the configuration of the fissile material or shielding between the material and the exposed person, a procedure which combines the blood and hair activations gives a good estimate of the dose. (DT) 3 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Effect of temperatures up to 130 deg C on the responses of TLD 700

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J A; Binns, P J [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Environmental and Medical Sciences Div.

    1984-01-01

    The need to measure doses at temperatures up to 130 deg C led to an investigation into the effect of exposure and storage at these temperatures on the response of TLD 700 before and after UV phototransfer. As a preliminary, the delays required during the UV re-estimation process were optimised. The effects of storage and exposure were compared. This was followed by a detailed examination of the effects of storage at temperatures up to 130 deg C. Glow curves were analysed to investigate the rates of growth and decay of the different peaks. The findings for peaks 6 and 7 are compatible with previously reported effects at lower temperatures on peaks 3, 4 and 5. Storage at temperatures of 130 deg C or below for periods up to 28 days does not affect the UV photo-transfer response.

  12. Radiation doses measured by TLD (thermo luminescent dosimeter) in x-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hiraki, Motoji; Murakami, Shozo; Nishikawa, Naozo; Yagi, Takayuki

    1977-01-01

    By means of TLD, we measured the radiation doses to the skin in the central area of the field of radiation and doses scattered outside of the radiation field, utilizing a phantom to define a suitable radiation field. Clinically, when radiography of the gall bladder and the chest was done, we measured both the radiation doses of the central skin area where radiation was done and the skin above the area of the female gonads. In radiography of the chest, the radiation doses to the skin area above the female gonads situate was under 0.1 mR. When female gonads are less than 15 cm from the margin of the radiation field of the radiation dose can be decreased by 30% if gum sheets containing lead are used to cover the skin area outside the radiation field. (auth.)

  13. A review of TLD's zero-count based on temperature and radiation history of them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçel, Nina; Karakuş, İsmail; Dündar, Ertuğrul; Toykan Çiflikçi, Özlem

    2017-09-01

    In order to review the background value of a group of TLD-100, the zero-count values were collected from the first reading and after seven years after using them in experimental irradiations. The zero-counts for these two conditions were collected, as well as the dependence of temperature and radiation history of this group was evaluated. This study recommended that after frequently irradiation of TLDs the rearrangement for obtaining zero-count value must be performed before using TLDs in a new irradiation examination. Regarding on memory of radiation and thermal history, the sensitivity can change after receiving a large dose of radiation and undergoing readout. Additional annealing would be necessary to restore the original sensitivity. TLDs must be used under reproducible conditions to obtain consistent results.

  14. The cardiac catheterization laboratory personnel TLD dosimetry in Dr. Faghihi Hospital in Shiraz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshan, Sh.

    2004-01-01

    In this study all of the personnel of Angiography of Dr.Faghihi hospital used TLD service During 2002-2003. This service was given by center for Radiation Protection and Application of the Shiraz University. These staff were divided in two group, one groups was technicians and the other group was the nurses. The result of this research shows that the maximum dose received to Technicians and nurses were 0.4mSv and 0.55mSV respectively. The average annual dose to technicians and nurses were 0.02 mSv and 0.19 mSv. This result shows that the nurses of this hospital receive more dose than the techniques

  15. Response of TLD-100 LiF dosimeters for X-rays of low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzi, E. V.; Mainardi, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    In diverse practical applications as the existent in radiological clinics, industrial facilities and research laboratories, the solid state dosimeters are used for the measure of the different types of ionizing radiations. At the present time dosimeters are manufactured with different types of materials that present thermoluminescent properties, to the effects of determining the absorbed radiation dose. Under these conditions, the radiation dose is determined integrated in all the range of energies of the beam of X-rays, since it assumes that the response of these dosimeters is lineal with the energy of the photons or radiant particles. Because interest exists in advancing in the development of a determination method in the way of the X-rays spectrum emitted by a tube of those used in diagnostic or therapy, we have measured the response of TLD-100 LiF dosimeters for low energies, minor at 60 keV, for a several group of these dosimeters. (Author)

  16. Thermoluminescence of pure LiF and Lif (TLD-100) irradiated at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagastibelza Chivite, F.

    1980-01-01

    The thermoluminescence of pure LiF and LiF (TLD-100) crystals irradiated at room temperature with x - or gamma-rays has been studied up to 460 degree centigree. For most of the glow peaks found the kinetics, preexponential factors and activation energies have been determined. These parameters have been obtained by means of the isothermal method. The study of the thermal annealing of the radiation induced F and Z centres has allow to show that there is a correlation among the glow peaks and the annealing stages of these centres. It is concluded that the F and Z - centres play the role of recombination centres for halogen interstitial atom thermally released from traps. Light emission occurs in this recombination. (Author) 120 refs

  17. Evaluation of the kinetic parameters of CaF2:Tm (TLD-300) thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin, Juan; Gutierrez, Alicia; Furetta, Claudio

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of the first, third and fifth peaks of CaF 2 :Tm (TLD-300) dosemeters were determined experimentally using methods based on initial rise, peak shape, different heating rates, isothermal decay and numerical fitting method and a comparison was made between the results obtained. The average activation energy values determined by the methods used here were 0.72, 1.16 and 1.77 eV, with mean values for the frequency factor of 2.58 x 10 8 , 2.89 x 10 13 and 6.16 x 10 16 s -1 for the first, third and fifth peaks respectively. The values of activation energy obtained for each peak using the different methods covered a spread of about 4%. However, the spread for each of the frequency factors was very high. (author)

  18. Unfolding neutron spectra with BS-TLD system using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joelan A.L.; Silva, Everton R.; Vilela, Eudice C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the variability of neutron spectrum within the same environment, it is essential that the spectral distribution as function of energy to be characterized. To perform this task, the neutron spectrometer has a primary role in determining the neutron flux (Φ E (E)). Precise information allows radiological quantities establishment related to that spectrum but it is necessary, however, a series of steps with a spectrometric system that can cover a large interval of energy and whose answer is isotropic. The most widely used for accomplishing this task is the spectrometric Bonner spheres system. One of the biggest problems related to neutron spectrometry is the process of data analysis, known as unfolding. Most of the work undertaken to implement new techniques of this process, using data obtained with the scintillator 6 LiI(I). However, characteristics related to the dead time make it not be so effective when used in high flow neutron fields. An alternative to this problem is the use of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), but the codes used do not provide a more specific response matrix to unfolding the information obtained through these materials, which makes the development of a specific response matrix important to adequately characterize the response obtained by them. This paper proposes using a technique of artificial intelligence called genetic algorithm, which uses bio-inspired mathematical models and through the implementation of a specific matrix to unfolding data obtained from a combination of TLDs embedded in a system of Bonner spheres, such as thermal neutron detectors, to characterize the neutron spectrum as a function of energy. The results obtained with this method were in accordance with reference spectra, thus enables of this technique to unfolding neutrons spectra with BS-TLD system. (author)

  19. Unfolding neutron spectra with BS-TLD system using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelan A.L., E-mail: jasantos@cnen.gov.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Everton R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Informatica; Ferreira, Tiago A.E. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica e Informatica; Fonseca, Evaldo S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vilela, Eudice C., E-mail: ecvilela@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the variability of neutron spectrum within the same environment, it is essential that the spectral distribution as function of energy to be characterized. To perform this task, the neutron spectrometer has a primary role in determining the neutron flux ({Phi}{sub E}(E)). Precise information allows radiological quantities establishment related to that spectrum but it is necessary, however, a series of steps with a spectrometric system that can cover a large interval of energy and whose answer is isotropic. The most widely used for accomplishing this task is the spectrometric Bonner spheres system. One of the biggest problems related to neutron spectrometry is the process of data analysis, known as unfolding. Most of the work undertaken to implement new techniques of this process, using data obtained with the scintillator {sup 6}LiI(I). However, characteristics related to the dead time make it not be so effective when used in high flow neutron fields. An alternative to this problem is the use of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), but the codes used do not provide a more specific response matrix to unfolding the information obtained through these materials, which makes the development of a specific response matrix important to adequately characterize the response obtained by them. This paper proposes using a technique of artificial intelligence called genetic algorithm, which uses bio-inspired mathematical models and through the implementation of a specific matrix to unfolding data obtained from a combination of TLDs embedded in a system of Bonner spheres, such as thermal neutron detectors, to characterize the neutron spectrum as a function of energy. The results obtained with this method were in accordance with reference spectra, thus enables of this technique to unfolding neutrons spectra with BS-TLD system. (author)

  20. QA Programme of the TLD laboratory of the University of Costa Rica: IEC 61066 testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Porras Chaverria, Mariela

    2008-01-01

    The Thermoluminescence Personal Dosimetry Laboratory of the University of Costa Rica provides dose measurements for around 90% of occupational radiation workers in the country. The assessment of doses to workers routinely exposed to external sources of radiation constitutes an integral part of any radiation protection programme and helps national authorities to ensure acceptably safe and satisfactory radiological conditions in workplaces. Harshaw Readers Model 4000 and 4500, dosimeter holders Type 8814 with TLD-100 in 0110 cards and loose TLD-100 chips are used to monitor personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). In order to provide a reliable measurement of the operational quantities, a study was undertaken to verify the fulfillment of international requirements in our system (Model 4500 with cards) against the Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring CEI IEC 61066 (1991 -2012). The type tests performed were nine in total: batch homogeneity, reproducibility, linearity, detection threshold, effect of climate conditions on reader, effect of light exposure on dosimeters, isotropy, transient voltage and dropping on dosimeters. A Cesium-137 source was used to irradiate the dosimeters and all procedures follow the indications given on the standard. Results showed that all IEC criteria were met by our Laboratory. Acceptable uncertainties were also studied under the ICRP recommendations; the analysis of the Trumpet Curve was done with satisfactory results (for doses above 0.5 mSv; quotient of measure to real dose less than 3%). For purposes of accreditation (ISO/IEC 17025:2005) and performance testing this work is very relevant since the University of Costa Rica wants to establish a solid individual monitoring programme for external radiation exposure that will provide users, registrants, licensees and regulatory bodies with information that can be used for the optimization of protection and dose limitation of Costa Rican workers

  1. NRC/UBC fuelling station with intelligent compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dada, A.; Boyd, B.; Law, L.; Semczyszyn, D.

    2004-01-01

    BOC Canada Ltd. will design, integrate and construct the second fueling station on the Hydrogen Highway. This station will be located at the National Research Council's Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation on the campus of the University of British Columbia. BOC's design will bring together an existing alkaline electrolyser, new compression, storage and dispensing. The station will be designed to serve fuel cell passenger vehicles using 350-bar storage. However, the flexible design concept will allow for many other user needs including the potential for servicing larger vehicles, as well as filling portable storage systems for use at satellite stations. The novel station design also offers the potential to fuel from multiple hydrogen sources. Together with NRC, this fueling station will be used to increase public, consumer and investor awareness of hydrogen technologies. Design and construction of this facility will assist in the development of industry codes and standards and familiarize authorities having jurisdiction with hydrogen fueling. The system concept offers the utmost attention to safety, novelty and flexibility. (author)

  2. Examples of NRC research products used in regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    The key to effective research is a close relationship between information needs and research results. This can only be achieved by close cooperation between the researchers and the regulators. At the NRC, this relationship has matured over the years until now the researchers participate in definition of the information needs and the regulators help define the research programs. The more formal means of ensuring a close match between needs and results include joint research groups, oversight working groups, and a system of Research Information Letters (RILs). On an informal basis there are many day to day discussions and meetings on the various programs which ensure effective program guidance and early identification of significant findings. This paper describes both the formal and informal researcher/regulation interface and discusses some examples of how specific research programs are utilized in the regulatory process. Specific programs described are the pressurized thermal shock program, the seismic margins program and the Category 1 structures program. Other examples cited are the aging and life extension programs

  3. Overview of NRC's human factors regulatory research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The human factors research program is divided into distinct and interrelated program activities: (1) Personnel Performance measurement, (2) Personnel Subsystem, (3) Human-System Interface, (4) Organization and Management, and (5) a group of Reliability Assessment activities. The purpose of the Personnel Performance Measurement activity is to improve the Agency's understanding of the factors influencing personnel performance and the effects on the safety of nuclear operations and maintenance by developing improvements to methods for collecting and managing personnel performance data. Personnel Subsystem research will broaden the understanding of such factors as staffing, qualifications, and training that influence human performance in the nuclear system and will develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to reduce any adverse impact of these influences on nuclear safety. Research in the Human-System Interface activity will provide the technical basis for ensuring that the interface between the system and the human user supports safe operations and maintenance. Organization and Management research will result in the development of tools for evaluating organization and management issues within the nuclear industry. And finally, the Reliability Assessment group of activities includes multidisciplinary research that will integrate human and hardware considerations for evaluating reliability and risk in NRC licensing, inspection, and regulatory decisions

  4. NRC source term assessment for incident response dose projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easley, P.; Pasedag, W.

    1984-01-01

    The NRC provides advice and assistance to licensees and State and local authorities in responding to accidents. The TACT code supports this function by providing source term projections for two situations during early (15 to 60 minutes) accident response: (1) Core/containment damage is indicated, but there are no measured releases. Quantification of a predicted release permits emergency response before people are exposed. With TACT, response personnel can estimate releases based on fuel and cladding conditions, coolant boundary and containment integrity, and mitigative systems operability. For this type of estimate, TACT is intermediate between default assumptions and time-consuming mechanistic codes. (2) A combination of plant status and limited release data are available. For this situation, iterations between predictions based on known conditions which are compared to measured releases gives reasonable confidence in supplemental source term information otherwise unavailable: nuclide mix, releases not monitored, and trending or abrupt changes. The assumptions and models used in TACT, and examples of its use, are given in this paper

  5. The IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits for radiotherapy: a perspective of dosimetry practices at hospitals in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, Joanna; Andreo, Pedro; Vatnitsky, Stanislav; Shortt, Ken R.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: The IAEA/WHO TLD postal programme for external audits of the calibration of high-energy photon beams used in radiotherapy has been in operation since 1969. This work presents a survey of the 1317 TLD audits carried out during 1998-2001. The TLD results are discussed from the perspective of the dosimetry practices in hospitals in developing countries, based on the information provided by the participants in their TLD data sheets. Materials and methods: A detailed analysis of the TLD data sheets is systematically performed at the IAEA. It helps to trace the source of any discrepancy between the TLD measured dose and the user stated dose, and also provides information on equipment, dosimetry procedures and the use of codes of practice in the countries participating in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits. Result: The TLD results are within the 5% acceptance limit for 84% of the participants. The results for accelerator beams are typically better than for Co-60 units. Approximately 75% of participants reported dosimetry data, including details on their procedure for dose determination from ionisation chamber measurements. For the remaining 25% of hospitals, who did not submit these data, the results are poorer than the global TLD results. Most hospitals have Farmer type ionisation chambers calibrated in terms of air kerma by a standards laboratory. Less than 10% of the hospitals use new codes of practice based on standards of absorbed dose to water. Conclusion: Despite the differences in dosimetry equipment, traceability to different standards laboratories and uncertainties arising from the use of various dosimetry codes of practice, the determination of absorbed dose to water for photon beams typically agrees within 2% among hospitals. Correct implementation of any of the dosimetry protocols should ensure that significant errors in dosimetry are avoided

  6. Personal dosimetry TLD 100 in orthopedic surgeons exposed to ionizing radiation in Bogota - Colombia; Dosimetria personal TLD 110 en medicos ortopedistas expuestos a radiacion ionizante en Bogota - Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra C, B. Y.; Jimenez, Y. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Fisica Medica, Carrera 45 No. 26-85, Bogota (Colombia); Plazas, M. C. [Hospital Universitario Fundacion Santa Fe de Bogota, Instituto de Oncologia Carlos Ardila Lulle, Calle 119, No. 7-90, 220246 Bogota (Colombia); Eslava S, J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas, Grupo Equidad en Salud, Carrera 45 No. 26-85, Bogota (Colombia); Groot R, H., E-mail: brigith.sierra@gmail.com [Universidad de los Andes, Laboratorio de Genetica Humana, Carrera 1 No. 18A -12, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-08-15

    Orthopedic surgeons should be considered as professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation, for using C arc (fluoroscope) an equipment of X type radiation emission, during surgical procedures for imaging generation. Some health institutes, use of C arc under uncontrolled circumstances, such a lack of dosimetry control, incomplete or absence of personnel protective elements and protective measures, which in turn, lead to a high exposition to the personnel. Materials and methods. Study of double match cohort by age and gender, was conducted, in four health institutions of second and third level of attention in Bogota city. Personal dosimetry measurements with TLD-100 dosimetry crystals in both cohorts and environmental dosimetry in each of operation rooms used for orthopedic procedures, were carry out during six months of follow up. Dosimetry crystals were read in a Harshaw 4500 - Bicron equipment, in the Medical Physics Laboratory of National University of Colombia. Results. Dosimetry measurements are compatibles with those of occupationally exposed personnel 3.44 mSv/6 m CI 95% (1.66-3.99), even does not overpass ICRP recommendations, are higher as were expect at the beginning of the study. The median of effective accumulative dose in thorax is 3,4 mSv CI 95% (1,66-3,99), higher in comparison with neck value 2,7 mSv CI 95% (1,73-3,80) and hand dosimetry 1,42 mSv CI 95% (0,96-2,34). Conclusions: Orthopedic surgeons should be considered occupational exposed to ionizing radiation, who has to accomplish to the radiological protection measures, dosimetric follow up and maintenance of the used X ray equipment. It was confirm throughout this study that dosimetry shows higher levels as expected at the beginning of the study, compatible with occupationally exposed personnel. (Author)

  7. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer Instruments; Trazabilidad de un irradiador panoramico mediante sistemas de dosimetria TL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, A. M.; Saez, J. C

    1994-07-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp (10) and H(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-002) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With those data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs.

  8. Traceability of a panoramic gamma irradiator using different TLD systems as transfer instruments; Trazabilidad de un irradiador panoramico mediante sistemas de dosimetria TL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, A.M.; Saez, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    This work shows the calibration in terms of the new operational radiological quantities Hp(10) and H*(10) for different TLD systems (Harshaw TLD-100 and Panasonic UD-802) used in personal and environmental monitoring. The irradiations were performed in the Spanish Reference Laboratory in radiation protection levels, managed by the CIEMAT Metrology of ionizing radiations Unit. With these data, different calibrations of a panoramic gamma irradiator in terms of the radiological quantity for unit of time were established, providing the traceability of the irradiator to the Reference Laboratory using the corresponding TLD systems as transfer instruments. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. Performance testing of dosimetry processors, status of NRC rulemaking for improved personnel dosimetry processing, and some beta dosimetry and instrumentation problems observed by NRC regional inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, N.A.; Kinneman, J.D.; Costello, F.M.; White, J.R.; Nimitz, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Early dosimetry processor performance studies conducted between 1967 and 1979 by several different investigators indicated that a significant percentage of personnel dosimetry processors may not be performing with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Results of voluntary performance testing of US personnel dosimetry processors against the final Health Physics Society Standard, Criteria for Testing Personnel Dosimetry Performance by the University of Michigan for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will be summarized with emphasis on processor performance in radiation categories involving beta particles and beta particles and photon mixtures. The current status of the NRC's regulatory program for improved personnel dosimetry processing will be reviewed. The NRC is proposing amendments to its regulations, 10 CFR Part 20, that would require its licensees to utilize specified personnel dosimetry services from processors accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program of the National Bureau of Standards. Details of the development and schedule for implementation of the program will be highlighted. Finally, selected beta dosimetry and beta instrumentation problems observed by NRC Regional Staff during inspections of NRC licensed facilities will be discussed

  10. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs.

  11. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs

  12. International cooperation during radiological emergencies. NRC program guidance for the provision of technical advice to foreign counterpart organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseney, R.

    1986-04-01

    This report defines the scope, application, and limits of the technical cooperation the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) would provide, upon request, to a foreign regulatory agency in a nuclear emergency. It outlines the basis for such cooperation, offers a model written agreement, and describes recent cases of NRC assistance. It also identifies non-NRC sources of emergency advisory assistance available to foreign organizations

  13. NRC Information No. 91-29: Deficiencies identified during electrical distribution system functional inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    During multidisciplinary inspections, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified many deficiencies related to the electrical distribution system. To address these deficiencies, the NRC has developed an inspection to specifically evaluate the electrical distribution system. During the last year, the NRC completed eight EDSFIs, performing at least one in each of the several common deficiencies in the licensees' programs and in the electrical distribution systems as designed and configured at each plant. These deficiencies included inadequate ac voltages at the 480 Vac and 120 Vac distribution levels, inadequate procedures to test circuit breakers, and inadequate determinations and evaluations of setpoints

  14. NRC approach to evaluating training effectiveness in accordance with the policy statement on training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persensky, J.J.; Blumer, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The activity of the past two years has provided an opportunity for the NRC to examine and realign the way in which it views the training process. In the process, it has provided the industry with an incentive to emphasize training as an opportunity for enlightened self-regulation. As a result, the NRC and industry perspectives on training have, for all intents and purposes, merged into a single performance orientation. This cooperation should provide the needed momentum towards improvements in training effectiveness. It is the NRC's goal to monitor this momentum and to encourage progress toward the ideal of systematic, performance-based training for all essential personnel in the nuclear industry

  15. Perspective on US NRC Policy Issues Concerning Use of Risk Insights for Non-LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Kim, In Goo; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Kyun Tae

    2011-01-01

    Since the PRA Implementation plan of US NRC (1994), PRA has been applied to all NPPs in USA and risk insights have been used for the regulation as a complement of the deterministic approaches. RIRIP (Risk-Informed Regulation Implementation Plan, 2000) and RPP (Risk-Informed and Performance-Based Plan, 2007) were announced by US NRC thereafter, which recommended enhanced use of risk insights. In the meantime, there have been lots of policy issues concerning use of risk insights for licensing Non-LWR designs, which will be discussed in this paper to understand the stream of perspectives on US NRC's approach

  16. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars: NRC Community Panel Decadal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.

    2002-12-01

    A report was completed recently by a Community Panel for the NRC Decadal Study of Solar System Exploration. The desire was for a review of the current state of knowledge and for recommendations for action over the next decade. The topic of this panel, Terrestrial Analogs to Mars, was chosen to bring attention to the need for an increase in analog studies in support of the increased pace of Mars exploration. It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all of these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the overarching science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel considered the issues of data collection and archiving, value of field workshops, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities. Parts of this work were performed under contract to NASA.

  17. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of high temperature peaks in TLD-100 dosemeters; Eficiencias termoluminiscentes relativas proton/gamma y helio/gamma de picos de alta temperatura en dosimetros TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores M, E.; Avila, O.; Rodriguez V, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Massillon, J.L.G.; Buenfil A, E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E. [IFUNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gamboa De Buen, I. [ICN-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of those high temperature peaks of TLD-100 dosemeters exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and to helium nuclei of 3 and 7.5 MeV. A rigorous reading and of deconvolution protocol was used for the calculation of the TL efficiencies. Additionally an Excel program that facilitated the deconvolution adjustment process of the glow curves was elaborated. (Author)

  18. Comparison between indicators dosimetric released by teams and estimates by dosimetry TLD in the mammography of the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rot San Juan, M. J.; Martinez Gomez, L. C.; Gilarranz Moreno, R.; Milanes Gaillet, A. I.; Adaimi Hernandez, P.; Delgado rodriguez, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    With the incorporation of new technology, computers have indicators of dose for this magnitude. In this work we will compare to the mammography in our area the measure with the DSE TLD values thrown by the equipment. (Author)

  19. Performance evaluation of vertical feed fully automated TLD badge reader using 0.8 and 0.4 mm teflon embedded CaSO4:Dy dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna, P.; More, Vinay; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The personnel monitoring of more than 80,000 radiation workers in India is at present carried out by semi-automated TLD badge Reader systems (TLDBR-7B) developed by Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. More than 60 such reader systems are in use in all the personnel monitoring centers in the country. Radiation Safety Systems Division also developed the fully automated TLD badge reader based on a new TLD badge having built-in machine readable ID code (in the form of 16x3 hole pattern). This automated reader is designed with minimum of changes in the electronics and mechanical hardware in the semiautomatic version (TLDBR-7B) so that such semi-automatic readers can be easily upgraded to the fully automated versions by using the new TLD badge with ID code. The reader was capable of reading 50 TLD cards in 90 minutes. Based on the feedback from the users, a new model of frilly automated TLD badge Reader (model VEFFA-10) is designed which is an improved version of the previously reported fully Automated TLD badge reader. This VEFFA-10 PC based Reader incorporates vertical loading of TLD bards having machine readable ID code. In this new reader, a vertical rack, which can hold 100 such cards, is mounted from the right side of the reader system. The TLD card falls into the channel by gravity from where it is taken to the reading position by rack and pinion method. After the readout, the TLD card is dropped in a eject tray. The reader employs hot N 2 gas heating method and the gas flow is controlled by a specially designed digital gas flow meter on the front panel of the reader system. The system design is very compact and simple and card stuck up problem is totally eliminated in the reader system. The reader has a number of self-diagnostic features to ensure a high degree of reliability. This paper reports the performance evaluation of the Reader using 0.4 mm thick Teflon embedded CaSO 4 :Dy TLD cards instead of 0.8 mm cards

  20. NRC regulatory agenda: Semiannual report, January--June 1997. Volume 16, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a semiannual compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition. The agenda consists of two sections that have been updated through June 30, 1997. Section 1, ''Rules,'' includes (A) rules on which final action has been taken since December 31, 1996, the closing date of the last NRC Regulatory Agenda; (B) rules published previously as proposed rules on which the Commission has not taken final action; (C) rules published as advance notices of proposed rulemaking for which neither a proposed nor final rule has been issued; and (D) unpublished rules on which the NRC expects to take action. Section 2, ''Petitions for Rulemaking,'' includes (A) petitions denied or incorporated into final rules since December 31, 1996; (B) petitions incorporated into proposed rules; and (C) petitions pending staff review

  1. Status of NRC approval of EPRI electromagnetic interference susceptibility testing guidelines for digital equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.; Shank, J.W.; Yoder, C.

    1996-01-01

    Historically, nuclear power plants installing digital equipment have been required to conduct expensive, site-specific electromagnetic interference (EMI) surveys to demonstrate that EMI will not affect the operation of sensitive electronic equipment. Consequently, EPRI formed a Utility Working Group which developed a set of generic EMI susceptibility testing guidelines, which were published as an EPRI report in September 1994. These guidelines are based upon EMI survey data obtained from several different plants and include criteria for determining their applicability. The Working Group interacted with NRC staff to obtain NRC approval. In April 1996, the NRC issued a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) endorsing the guidelines as a valid means of demonstrating EMI compatibility. The issuance of this SER was conditional on issuing a revision to the EPRI EMI Guidelines. This paper summarizes the guidelines, the NRC SER, and the current status of Revision 1 to the report

  2. Low-level mixed waste: An RCRA perspective for NRC licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The publication presents an overview of RCRA requirements for commercially-generated low-level mixed waste. It is designed for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees who may not be familiar with EPA regulations that apply to their waste products

  3. Plan for reevaluation of NRC policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Recognizing that the current generation of large commercial reactors and supporting nuclear facilities would substantially increase future decommissioning needs, the NRC staff began an in-depth review and re-evaluation of NRC's regulatory approach to decommissioning in 1975. Major technical studies on decommissioning have been initiated at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory in order to provide a firm information base on the engineering methodology, radiation risks, and estimated costs of decommissioning light water reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is now considering development of a more explicit overall policy for nuclear facility decommissioning and amending its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 50, and 70 to include more specific guidance on decommissioning criteria for production and utilization facility licensees and byproduct, source, and special nuclear material licensees. The report sets forth in detail the NRC staff plan for the development of an overall NRC policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  4. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual. Overview and summary of major points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Martin, J.A. Jr.; Giitter, J.G.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Watkins

    1987-02-01

    Overview and Summary of Major Points is the first in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes elementary perspectives on severe accidents and accident assessment. Other volumes in the series are: Volume 2-Severe Reactor Accident Overview; Volume 3- Response of Licensee and State and Local Officials; Volume 4-Public Protective Actions-Predetermined Criteria and Initial Actions; Volume 5 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. The volumes have been organized into these training modules to accommodate the scheduling and duty needs of participating NRC staff. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material

  5. TLD-100 glow-curve deconvolution for the evaluation of the thermal stress and radiation damage effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sabini, M G; Cuttone, G; Guasti, A; Mazzocchi, S; Raffaele, L

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the dose response of TLD-100 dosimeters has been studied in a 62 MeV clinical proton beams. The signal versus dose curve has been compared with the one measured in a sup 6 sup 0 Co beam. Different experiments have been performed in order to observe the thermal stress and the radiation damage effects on the detector sensitivity. A LET dependence of the TL response has been observed. In order to get a physical interpretation of these effects, a computerised glow-curve deconvolution has been employed. The results of all the performed experiments and deconvolutions are extensively reported, and the TLD-100 possible fields of application in the clinical proton dosimetry are discussed.

  6. N2 gas station and gas distribution system for TLD personnel monitoring gas based semi-automatic badge readers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chourasiya, G.; Pradhan, S.M.; Kher, R.K.; Bhatt, B.C

    2003-01-01

    Full text: New improvised hot gas based Auto TLD badge reader has several advantages over the earlier contact heating based manual badge reader. It requires constant supply of N 2 gas for its operation; The gas supplied using replaceable individual gas cylinders may have some safety hazards in their handling. It was therefore considered worthwhile to setup a N 2 gas assembly/ station outside the lab area and to bring regulated gas supply through network of tubes with proper regulation to the individual readers. The paper presents detailed description of the gas station and distribution system. The system is quite useful and offers several practical advantages for readout of TLD badges on the semiautomatic badge readers based on gas heating. Important advantage from dosimetric point of view is avoidance of gas flow rate fluctuations and corresponding variations in TL readouts

  7. An approach to an analysis of the energy response of LiF-TLD to high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiragai, A.

    1977-01-01

    Responses of LiF-TLD to high energy electrons relative to 60 Co γ-rays were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The Burlin et al. theory (Burlin, T.E., Snelling, R.J., and Owen, B., 1969, in Proc.2nd Symp. on Microdosimetry, Stresa, Italy; Brussels: Commission of European Communities; p.455), its modified version by Almond and McCray (Almond, P.R., and McCray, K., 1970, Phys.Med.Biol., vol.15, 335 and 746) and the Holt et al. semi-empirical theory (Holt, J.G., Edelstein, G.R., and Clark, T.E., 1975, Phys.Med.Biol., vol.20, 559) were examined in comparison with each experiment. An approximate approach to theoretical analysis of energy response of LiF-TLD was attempted and compared with some experimental results. (author)

  8. Expression and purification of toxic anti-breast cancer p28-NRC chimeric protein

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani, Meysam; Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Hamid; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chimeric proteins consisting of a targeting moiety and a cytotoxic moiety are now under intense research focus for targeted therapy of cancer. Here, we report cloning, expression, and purification of such a targeted chimeric protein made up of p28 peptide as both targeting and anticancer moiety fused to NRC peptide as a cytotoxic moiety. However, since the antimicrobial activity of the NRC peptide would intervene expression of the chimeric protein in Escherichia coli, we evaluated...

  9. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  10. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC through December 31, 1984. Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions in derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  11. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC-June 30, 1985. Revision 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSRL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels. 12 figs

  12. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  13. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  14. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1983. Rev. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing/allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms-related, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project path forward: nuclear safety equivalency to comparable NRC-licensed facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    This document includes the Technical requirements which meet the nuclear safety objectives of the NRC regulations for fuel treatment and storage facilities. These include requirements regarding radiation exposure limits, safety analysis, design and construction. This document also includes administrative requirements which meet the objectives of the major elements of the NRC licensing process. These include formally documented design and safety analysis, independent technical review, and oppportunity for public involvement

  16. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC through June 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdy, P.; Davidson, J.; Lin, H.

    1981-09-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  17. Thermoluminescent response of dosemeters TLD-100 exposed to distinct baker protocols, irradiation and reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada E, D.

    2002-01-01

    The interest that motivated the realization of this work is the opposing discrepancy among the values of the efficiency thermoluminescent of heavy charged particles (PCP) regarding gamma radiation (η PCP , γ) reported in different works and gathered recently for Horowitz (Ho 01). The measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency have importance in relation to the dosimetry associated to medical therapy with heavy charged particle. The measurement of η PCP , γ depends of multiple experimental factors. To understand this dependence it was quantified the effect of using different procedures experimental in the estimate of the relative thermoluminescent efficiency of dosemeters TLD-100 (LiF: Ti; Mg) for protons of 3 MeV regarding gamma rays of 60 Co (η PCP , γ), varying the lot, the presentation, the one baked and the team reader. When was used the same global procedure values they were obtained for (η PCP , γ) inside the interval [0.30, 0.58] for the peak 5 and [0.35, 0.76] for the total thermoluminescent signal (Tl). At the use different equipment, baked and lot are obtained maximum differences of 30%, 12% and 6% respectively in the values of (η PCP , γ) for the peak 5, and 25%, 28% and 7% for the total Tl signal. The changes more significant of 36% and 44% for peak 5 and total signal respectively are obtained when changing the presentation of the dosemeter. As a complementary investigation it was studied the distribution of the Tl signal of each peak in the deconvolution of the curve of brightness with regard to the total signal in exposed dosemeters to high fluence of protons (1x10 10 p/cm 2 ) varying the experimental protocol. It was found that the distribution of the Tl signal has a difference of the order of 5% when changing the used reading team. It was observed that the contribution of the peak 5 regarding the total signal are preserved when changing baked and that it results to be 8% greater for the presentation in dosemeters of 1 x 1 x 1 mm 3

  18. Personnel photon dosimeter on the base of TLD sup n sup a sup t LiF

    CERN Document Server

    Kaskanov, G Y

    2003-01-01

    A personnel photon dosemeter on the basis of thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) sup n sup a sup t LiF is described. Experimental responses of the dosemeters in the unit of individual equivalent dose H sub p (10) for energy of photons 59.5, 120, 662, and 1250 keV are presented. It is shown that the dosemeter allows one to measure H sub p (10) with admissible uncertainty in the energy range from 60 to 1250 keV.

  19. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of high temperature peaks in TLD-100 dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, E.; Avila, O.; Rodriguez V, M.; Massillon, J.L.G.; Buenfil A, E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.; Gamboa De Buen, I.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of those high temperature peaks of TLD-100 dosemeters exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and to helium nuclei of 3 and 7.5 MeV. A rigorous reading and of deconvolution protocol was used for the calculation of the TL efficiencies. Additionally an Excel program that facilitated the deconvolution adjustment process of the glow curves was elaborated. (Author)

  20. NRC research on the application of advanced I and C technology to commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollei, K.R.; Hon, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    The operational safety and efficiency of commercial nuclear power plants (NPP's) could possibly be enhanced by utilizing advanced instrumentation and control technology developed by other industries. The NRC is interested in learning about new I and C technology that probably will or could be applied to new or existing plants. This would enable the NRC to be better prepared to evaluate the application without undue delays. It would also help identify any appropriate changes in NRC regulations or guidance necessary to facilitate the application of advanced IandC technology to NPP's. The NRC has initiated a project to work cooperatively with the advanced technology industry, power industry, EPRI, and technical organizations such as ISA toward this goal. This paper describes the objectives and plans of this cooperative effort. It summarizes the highlights of some of the advanced technology already being evaluated by NRC such as microprocessor applications, instruments to detect inadequate core cooling and other two-phase flow measurements, reactor noise surveillance and diagnostic techniques. This paper also suggests potential candidates for consideration such as utilization of advanced instruments for LOCA experiments. It also identifies some of the potential challenges facing the application of advanced technology to NPP's. It concludes that close cooperation between NRC and industry is essential for the success of such applications

  1. A regulator's perspective on NRC's participation in the operations ampersand maintenance committees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessman, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    As a regulator fairly new to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Operations and Maintenance (O ampersand M) Committee process, the author does not have a personal historical perspective as do many of the longer-term, and highly respected, members of the O ampersand M Committee. However, as Branch Chief of the Mechanical Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering, in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation at the NRC for just over two years, he has responsibility for the regulatory agency's review of licensee actions involving the products that come from the efforts of the O ampersand M Committee, as well as responsibility for portions of the activities of interest to other ASME Code groups such as Section III, Section XI, and Qualification of Mechanical Equipment. As a result, the author has learned a great deal about the code process in a short time. Here he gives his perspectives on the process and provides a few thoughts on the direction for the future

  2. A regulator`s perspective on NRC`s participation in the operations & maintenance committees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessman, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    As a regulator fairly new to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Committee process, the author does not have a personal historical perspective as do many of the longer-term, and highly respected, members of the O&M Committee. However, as Branch Chief of the Mechanical Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering, in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation at the NRC for just over two years, he has responsibility for the regulatory agency`s review of licensee actions involving the products that come from the efforts of the O&M Committee, as well as responsibility for portions of the activities of interest to other ASME Code groups such as Section III, Section XI, and Qualification of Mechanical Equipment. As a result, the author has learned a great deal about the code process in a short time. Here he gives his perspectives on the process and provides a few thoughts on the direction for the future.

  3. OECD/NRC BWR Turbine Trip Benchmark: Simulation by POLCA-T Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, Dobromir

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse transient code POLCA-T brings together the system thermal-hydraulics plant models and three-dimensional (3-D) neutron kinetics core models. Participation in the OECD/NRC BWR Turbine Trip (TT) Benchmark is a part of our efforts toward the code's validation. The paper describes the objectives for TT analyses and gives a brief overview of the developed plant system input deck and 3-D core model.The results of exercise 1, system model without netronics, are presented. Sensitivity studies performed cover the maximal time step, turbine stop valve position and mass flow, feedwater temperature, and steam bypass mass flow. Results of exercise 2, 3-D core neutronic and thermal-hydraulic model with boundary conditions, are also presented. Sensitivity studies include the core inlet temperature, cladding properties, and direct heating to core coolant and bypass.The entire plant model was validated in the framework of the benchmark's phase 3. Sensitivity studies include the effect of SCRAM initialization and carry-under. The results obtained - transient fission power and its initial axial distribution and steam dome, core exit, lower and upper plenum, main steam line, and turbine inlet pressures - showed good agreement with measured data. Thus, the POLCA-T code capabilities for correct simulation of pressurizing transients with very fast power were proved

  4. NRC sponsored rotating equipment vibration research: a program description and progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzel, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is currently involved in a research project sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding operational vibration in rotating equipment. The object of this program is to assess the nature of vibrational failures and the effect that improved qualification standards may have in reducing the incidence of failure. In order to limit the scope of the initial effort, safety injection (SI) pumps were chosen as the component group for concentrated study. The task has been oriented to addressing the issues of whether certain SI pumps experience more failures than others, examining the dynamic environments in operation, examining the adequacy of current qualification standards, and examining what performance parameters could be used more efficiently to predict degradation or failure. Results of a literature search performed to survey SI pump failures indicate that failures are due to a diversity of causes, many of which may not be influenced by qualification criteria. Cooperative efforts have been undertaken with a limited number of nuclear utilities to describe the variety of possible operating environments and to analyze available data. The results of this analysis as they apply to the research issues are presented and possibilities for the future direction of the program are discussed

  5. Scenarios and analytical methods for UF6 releases at NRC-licensed fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siman-Tov, M.; Dykstra, J.; Holt, D.D.; Huxtable, W.P.; Just, R.A.; Williams, W.R.

    1984-06-01

    This report identifies and discusses potential scenarios for the accidental release of UF 6 at NRC-licensed UF 6 production and fuel fabrication facilities based on a literature review, site visits, and DOE enrichment plant experience. Analytical tools needed for evaluating source terms for such releases are discussed, and the applicability of existing methods is reviewed. Accident scenarios are discussed under the broad headings of cylinder failures, UF 6 process system failures, nuclear criticality events, and operator errors and are categorized by location, release source, phase of UF 6 prior to release, release flow characteristics, release causes, initiating events, and UF 6 inventory at risk. At least three types of releases are identified for further examination: (1) a release from a liquid-filled cylinder outdoors, (2) a release from a pigtail or cylinder in a steam chest, (3) an indoor release from either (a) a pigtail or liquid-filled cylinder or (b) other indoor source depending on facility design and operating procedures. Indoor release phenomena may be analyzed to determine input terms for a ventilation model by using a time-dependent homogeneous compartment model or a more complex hydrodynamic model if time-dependent, spatial variations in concentrations, temperature, and pressure are important. Analytical tools for modeling directed jets and explosive releases are discussed as well as some of the complex phenomena to be considered in analyzing UF 6 releases both indoors and outdoors

  6. Study of the influence of the time temperature profile on the minimum detectable dose of TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Leonardo S.; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio S.; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Ferreira, Hudson R., E-mail: meirelesls@cdtn.br, E-mail: masl@cdtn.br, E-mail: lcmb@cdtn.br, E-mail: hrf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Monitoring of workers and workplaces is an integral part of any radiation protection programme (RPP). It is essential to demonstrate compliance with regulations that limit the allowable dose to the public from manmade sources and to enable the responsible of the installations to verify compliance with the legal dose limits to the workers and ALARA goals. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are generally employed to assess the environmental and personnel doses. To completely characterize a TLD dosimetry system is fundamental to determine the Lowest Dose that the system is capable of measuring. As the amount of the light emitted by TLD material is a function of the time temperature profile (TTP), in the present study, the influence of the TTP on the Detection Threshold (MDD) of the LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) detectors was evaluated. Eighteen different TTPs were tested for two different annealing processes: (I) utilization of the TTP itself and; (II) a microprocessor controlled oven annealing procedure. Results showed that TTP choice can influence significantly in the MDD values. The worst results were generally found for TLDs annealed by the TTP itself. The lack of pattern or the unexpected behavior to the influence of some parameters of the TTP on the calculated MDDs must be carefully investigated. Greater variations on the TTP parameters must be undertaken. Special attention must be also done on the methodology of calculating the MDDs. (author)

  7. A Pb-TLD spectrometer to measure high energy photons in z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Fenni; Yang, Jianlun; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Ye, Fan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Chuanfei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed to measure spectra of high energy photons in wire-array z pinches on PTS. • Energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code. • The energy of high energy x-ray on PTS is obtained to be mainly within the region of 100 keV to 1.3 MeV. - Abstract: A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed based on attenuation techniques to measure high energy photons in wire-array z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand (PTS). It is composed of a stack of 18 lead filters interspersed with 19 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). A shield is constructed for the spectrometer and scattered radiation is reduced to less than 5% by the shield. Response functions of the spectrometer are calculated by MCNP5 for 0–2 MeV photons. Based on response functions and 19 dose data measured in experiments, energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code using iterative least square fit. Results show that energy peak locates within 200 keV and 300 keV, and the fluence decreases to background level at energy higher than 1.3 MeV.

  8. In-vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy: a comparison of the response of semiconductor and thermoluminescence (TLD700) dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vynckier, S [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium). Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc; Greffe, J L; Loncol, T; Vanneste, F; Octave-Prignot, M; Denis, J M; De Patoul, N

    1995-12-01

    Semiconductor dosemeters and thermoluminescence dosemeters were calibrated in view of in-vivo dosimetry. Their response in a 8 MV photon beam and the respective correction factors for the treatment conditions were systematically studied. A total of 249 entrance and exit measurements with this dual detector combination were performed, mainly for treatments of the head and neck region. The resulting entrance and exit doses were compared with the expected doses at these positions, calculated on basis of the treatment and patient parameters. The results at the entrance showed a value of 1.010 (2.8% for the ratio of the measured to the calculated dose by diodes, 1.013) 4.9% for the ratio of the measured to the calculated dose by TLD and 1.003 (3.6% for the ratio of the measured dose by TLD to diodes. With respect the exit dose, the results were 0.998) 4.9%, 1.016 (7.7% and 1.019) 7.0% respectively after correction for the heterogeneity`s. Although the standard deviation for the TLD dosemeters is systematically larger than the standard deviation for the diodes, it is concluded that both dosemeters will yield similar results for-in-vivo dosimetry, if utilized under the same conditions.

  9. A Pb-TLD spectrometer to measure high energy photons in z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Fenni; Yang, Jianlun; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Ye, Fan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Chuanfei, E-mail: sifenni@163.com

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed to measure spectra of high energy photons in wire-array z pinches on PTS. • Energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code. • The energy of high energy x-ray on PTS is obtained to be mainly within the region of 100 keV to 1.3 MeV. - Abstract: A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed based on attenuation techniques to measure high energy photons in wire-array z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand (PTS). It is composed of a stack of 18 lead filters interspersed with 19 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). A shield is constructed for the spectrometer and scattered radiation is reduced to less than 5% by the shield. Response functions of the spectrometer are calculated by MCNP5 for 0–2 MeV photons. Based on response functions and 19 dose data measured in experiments, energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code using iterative least square fit. Results show that energy peak locates within 200 keV and 300 keV, and the fluence decreases to background level at energy higher than 1.3 MeV.

  10. Study of the influence of the time temperature profile on the minimum detectable dose of TLD-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meireles, Leonardo S.; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio S.; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Ferreira, Hudson R.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of workers and workplaces is an integral part of any radiation protection programme (RPP). It is essential to demonstrate compliance with regulations that limit the allowable dose to the public from manmade sources and to enable the responsible of the installations to verify compliance with the legal dose limits to the workers and ALARA goals. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are generally employed to assess the environmental and personnel doses. To completely characterize a TLD dosimetry system is fundamental to determine the Lowest Dose that the system is capable of measuring. As the amount of the light emitted by TLD material is a function of the time temperature profile (TTP), in the present study, the influence of the TTP on the Detection Threshold (MDD) of the LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) detectors was evaluated. Eighteen different TTPs were tested for two different annealing processes: (I) utilization of the TTP itself and; (II) a microprocessor controlled oven annealing procedure. Results showed that TTP choice can influence significantly in the MDD values. The worst results were generally found for TLDs annealed by the TTP itself. The lack of pattern or the unexpected behavior to the influence of some parameters of the TTP on the calculated MDDs must be carefully investigated. Greater variations on the TTP parameters must be undertaken. Special attention must be also done on the methodology of calculating the MDDs. (author)

  11. Status of services, overexposure and QAC in TLD PMS to defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, A.S.; Gupta, D.K.; Samaria, H.C.; Chouhan, R.L.; Mishra, M.; Goyal, J.K.; Gautam, M.; Kalla, R.

    2008-01-01

    Individual monitoring has always played an important role in radiological protection. There is continuous development in the field of dosimetry systems and many changes have taken place in last many years. The use of radiation for peaceful purposes is increasing with advancement of technological growth in the country. Thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLDs) have emerged as one of the best alternatives for personal monitoring. Defence sector has nearly 2100 persons, who are working in various Military Hospitals, Military Colleges, DRDO Labs, Defence Ordinance factories and many others CPMFs like CISF, BSF, who are likely to receive radiation doses. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur is providing the TLD personal monitoring service since Jan 1999 as per the guideline by B.A.R.C. to all the institutions mentioned above. This paper brings out salient features of this service in terms of facility available, procedures fulfilling the requirement of accreditation, over exposure reported, quality measures adopted and quality assurance results conducted by BARC, utility and suggestions for such type of services. (author)

  12. PTTL Dose Re-estimation Applied to Quality Control in TLD-100 Based Personal Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, J.L.; Correcher, V.; Delgado, A.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for quality control of dose performance in Personal Dosimetry using TLD-100 is presented. This method consists of the application of dose reassessment techniques based on phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL). Reassessment is achieved through a second TL readout of the dosemeters worn by the controlled workers, after a reproducible UV exposure. Recent refinements in the PTTL technique developed in our laboratory allow reassessing doses as low as 0.2 mSv, thus extending the reassessment capability to the entire dose range that must be monitored in personal dosimetry. After a one month exposure, even purely environmental doses can be reassessed. This method can be applied for either re-estimation of single doses or of the total dose accumulated after a number of exposures and dose measurements. Several tests to reconfirm low doses in normal working conditions for personal dosimetry have been performed. Each test consisted of several cycles of exposure and TL evaluations and a final PTTL re-estimation of the total accumulated dose in those cycles. The results obtained always showed very good agreement between the sum of the partial doses and the total reassessed dose. The simplicity of the method and the possibility of re-evaluating the doses assessed to the workers employing their own dosemeters are advantageous features to be considered in designing systems for the determination of real performance in personal dosimetry. (author)

  13. Systematical and statistical errors in using reference light sources to calibrate TLD readers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgkhardt, B.; Piesch, E.

    1981-01-01

    Three light sources, namely an NaI(Tl) scintillator + Ra, an NaI(Tl) scintillator + 14 C and a plastic scintillator + 14 C, were used during a period of 24 months for a daily check of two TLD readers: the Harshaw 2000 A + B and the Toledo 651. On the basis of light source measurements long-term changes and day-to-day fluctuations of the reader response were investigated. Systematical changes of the Toledo reader response of up to 6% during a working week are explained by nitrogen effects in the plastic scintillator light source. It was found that the temperature coefficient of the light source intensity was -0.05%/ 0 C for the plastic scintillator and -0.3%/ 0 C for the NaI(Tl) scintillator. The 210 Pb content in the Ra activated NaI(Tl) scintillator caused a time-dependent decrease in light source intensity of 3%/yr for the light source in the Harshaw reader. The internal light sources revealed a relative standard deviation of 0.5% for the Toledo reader and the Harshaw reader after respective reading times of 0.45 and 100 sec. (author)

  14. Measurement of dose to skin using TLD of several radiodiagnostic studies in San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.

    1998-01-01

    It is quantified the radiation doses on skin for several radiodiagnostic studies in patients of the Calderon Guardia Hospital in San Jose, Costa Rica at the period October 1997-September 1998 using thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD 100. The crystals receive the decoction standard procedures and they are arranged at the middle of the irradiation field. For a total of 973 radiodiagnostic studies it was found that the dose on skin in mGy are: 2.09 for thorax AP/AP, 5.33 for thorax LAT, 5.35 for skull AP/PA, 2.98 for skull LAT, 10.74 for abdomen, hips and pelvis, 6.20 for spines AP, 9.35 for spines LAT, 11.48 for lumbar columns AP, 29.99 for lumbar columns LAT and 6.87 for intravenous skin diagrams (first plate ap). It is produced thus the first reference bank for the national hospitals, which is compared with the orientation levels of doses for IAEA. Recommendations to diminish the collective doses through quality control programs are discussed, taking as goal to have got radiographs of excellent diagnostic quality, but with the less possible doses. (Author)

  15. Radiocromic film, TLD, OSL and 'Paracas Phantom' by dosimetric intercomparation in stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucar Jauregui, R.; Condori Marcos, P.; Vidarte Garcia, F.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In Peru, one deals to patients with arteriovenous malformations or cerebral tumors by means of stereotactic radiosurgery, using fine photon beams of high energy of 6 MeV, generated by a linear accelerator Varian 2100 Clinac CD of the Complejo Hospitalario San Pablo in Lima, Peru. In this work we describes the 'Dosimetric Intercomparation System of the Quality Assurance Program in Stereotactic Radiosurgery of the Complejo Hospitalario San Pablo (DIS)'. The DIS allows to guarantee application of the doses with high accuracy. It shows the good performance of the Local DIS's components: dosimetry of radiocromics films, dosimetry termoluminiscent (TLD), dosimetry of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and an anthropomorphic phantom of head constructed locally, denominated 'Paracas Phantom'. Also, in the International DIS practiced with The University of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center, stands out results within the ranges: a) Dose to the center of the target (RDS/Institution): 0,95-1,05; b) Treated volumen (Measured/Institution): 0,75 - 1,05; c) Ratio of measure treated volume to target volume: 1,00 - 2,00; and d) Minimum dose to target (Minimum dose/Prescription dose): >0,90. It concludes that the DIS is important for the good decision making on the radiological safety of the patients dealt with stereotactic radiosurgery. (author)

  16. External radiation monitoring in TAPS and RAPS environs (1980-81) using TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.S.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of environmental external radiation monitoring using quarterly integrated TLD measurements are presented for environments of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) for the two year monitoring period (1980-81). The data fit into the unimodal log-normal distribution except for locations where gaseous radioactivity escaping from the plant makes a significant contribution. The average natural radiation background in TAPS and RAPS environment is estimated to be 59.6 +- 4.7 mR yr -1 and 65.1 +- 9.8 mR yr -1 respectively. Contribution from the plant superimposed over the natural level leads frequently to bi-normal distribution. The effect of stack-released gaseous radioactivity is seen in locations within 1.6 km of TAPS: for example Ghivoli village registered an excess of 9.3 mR yr -1 over the natural background. The quarterly background values indicate minor temporal and spatial variations which can be attributed to changes in natural as well as stack released radioactivity. (author)

  17. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) exposed to high fluxes of gamma radiation, thermal neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarini, G.; Martini, M.; Meinardi, F.; Raffaglio, C.; Salvadori, P.; Scacco, A.; Sichirollo, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD), widely experimented and utilized in personal dosimetry, have some advantageous characteristics which induce one to employ them also in radiotherapy. The new radiotherapy techniques are aimed at selectively depositing a high dose in cancerous tissues. This goal is reached by utilising both conventional and other more recently proposed radiation, such as thermal neutrons and heavy charged particles. In these inhomogeneous radiation fields a reliable mapping of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose is desirable, and the utilized dosemeters have to give such a possibility without notably perturbing the radiation field with the materials of the dosemeters themselves. TLDs, for their small dimension and their tissue equivalence for most radiation, give good support in the mapping of radiation fields. After exposure to the high fluxes of therapeutic beams, some commercial TL dosemeters have shown a loss of reliability. An investigation has therefore be performed, both on commercial and on laboratory made phosphors, in order to investigate their behaviour in such radiation fields. In particular the thermal neutron and gamma ray mixed field of the thermal column of a nuclear reactor, of interest for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (B.N.C.T.) and a proton beam, of interest for proton therapy, were considered. Here some results obtained with new TL phosphors exposed in such radiation fields are presented, after a short description of some radiation damage effect on commercial LiF TLDs exposed in the (n th ,γ) field of the thermal column of a reactor. (author)

  18. Reproducibility study of TLD-100 micro-cubes at radiotherapy dose level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Luiz Antonio R. da; Regulla, Dieter F.; Fill, Ute A.

    1999-01-01

    The precision of the thermoluminescent response of Harshaw micro-cube dosimeters (TLD-100), evaluated in both Harshaw thermoluminescent readers 5500 and 3500, for 1 Gy dose value, was investigated. The mean reproducibility for micro-cubes, pre-readout annealed at 100 deg. C for 15 min, evaluated with the manual planchet reader 3500, is 0.61% (1 standard deviation). When micro-cubes are evaluated with the automated hot-gas reader 5500, reproducibility values are undoubtedly worse, mean reproducibility for numerically stabilised dosimeters being equal to 3.27% (1 standard deviation). These results indicate that the reader model 5500, or, at least, the instrument used for the present measurements, is not adequate for micro-cube evaluation, if precise and accurate dosimetry is required. The difference in precision is apparently due to geometry inconsistencies in the orientation of the imperfect micro-cube faces during readout, requiring careful and manual reproducible arrangement of the selected micro-cube faces in contact with the manual reader planchet

  19. Design and implementation of a ''cheese'' phantom-based Tomotherapy TLD dose intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefer, Hans; Buchauer, Konrad; Heinze, Simon [Medical Physics Group, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Henke, Guido; Plasswilm, Ludwig [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    The unique beam-delivery technique of Tomotherapy machines (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif.) necessitates tailored quality assurance. This requirement also applies to external dose intercomparisons. Therefore, the aim of the 2014 SSRMP (Swiss Society of Radiobiology and Medical Physics) dosimetry intercomparison was to compare two set-ups with different phantoms. A small cylindrical Perspex phantom, which is similar to the IROC phantom (Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core, Houston, Tex.), and the ''cheese'' phantom, which is provided by the Tomotherapy manufacturer to all institutions, were used. The standard calibration plans for the TomoHelical and TomoDirect irradiation techniques were applied. These plans are routinely used for dose output calibration in Tomotherapy institutions. We tested 20 Tomotherapy machines in Germany and Switzerland. The ratio of the measured (D{sub m}) to the calculated (D{sub c}) dose was assessed for both phantoms and irradiation techniques. The D{sub m}/D{sub c} distributions were determined to compare the suitability of the measurement set-ups investigated. The standard deviations of the TLD-measured (thermoluminescent dosimetry) D{sub m}/D{sub c} ratios for the ''cheese'' phantom were 1.9 % for the TomoHelical (19 measurements) and 1.2 % (11 measurements) for the TomoDirect irradiation techniques. The corresponding ratios for the Perspex phantom were 2.8 % (18 measurements) and 1.8 % (11 measurements). Compared with the Perspex phantom-based set-up, the ''cheese'' phantom-based set-up without individual planning was demonstrated to be more suitable for Tomotherapy dose checks. Future SSRMP dosimetry intercomparisons for Tomotherapy machines will therefore be based on the ''cheese'' phantom set-up. (orig.) [German] Die einzigartige Bestrahlungstechnik mit Tomotherapie-Bestrahlungsgeraeten (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) erfordert spezifische

  20. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in