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Sample records for nrc health effects

  1. Issues in risk assessment and modifications of the NRC health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-07-02

    A report, Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, was published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in 1985, and revised in 1989. These reports provided models for estimating health effects that would be expected to result from the radiation exposure received in a nuclear reactor accident. Separate models were given for early occurring effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects; however, this paper addresses only late somatic effects, or the risk of cancer expected to occur in the lifetimes of exposed individuals. The 1989 revision was prepared prior to the publication of the BEIR V, 1988 UNSCEAR, and ICRP 60 reports. For this reason, an addendum was needed that would provide modified risk models that took into account these recent reports, and, more generally, any new evidence that had appeared since the 1989 publication. Of special importance was consideration of updated analyses of the Japanese A-bomb survivor study data based on revised DS86 dosimetry. The process of preparing the addendum required thorough review and evaluation of the models used by the BEIR V, UNSCEAR, and ICRP committees, and also required thorough consideration of the various decisions that must be made in any risk assessment effort. This paper emphasizes general issues and problems that arise in risk assessment, and also indicates areas where additional development and application of statistical methods may be fruitful.

  2. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  3. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  4. 75 FR 24991 - In the Matter of AREVA NP, Inc.; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately) [NRC-2010-0172

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... documents through the Electronic Information Exchange (EIE), users will be required to install a Web browser... installation of the Web browser plug-in, is available on the NRC's public Web site at http://www.nrc.gov/site... service to perform the intended safety function for identified accident scenarios. 2. Based on...

  5. Current NRC activities related to MQA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottier, C.A.; Nellis, D.O. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) interest in measurement quality assurance (MQA) goes back to before 1963, when the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) published a notice in the Federal Register concerning the need for establishing a Film Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, and also provided a set of minimum performance criteria to be used by the laboratory in evaluating film dosimetry services used by licensees. The proposed laboratory was not established, but in 1967 the AEC contracted with Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to evaluate film dosimeter performance criteria and provide a basis for establishing a Film Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory if the study showed that it was needed. Then, in 1973, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), concerned with the state of dosimetry processing and the lack of adequate standards, recommended that the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) direct a performance testing program for personnel dosimetry processing services. Later, in 1976, NRC asked PNL to conduct a study to evaluate the four existing performance standards for personnel dosimetry processing. One result of this study was that the HPSSC standard, which later became ANSI N13.11, was recommended as the standard for use in a national dosimetry processing program. The rest is common knowledge. With the support of numerous other federal agencies and the CRCPD, NRC published a regulation, effective in 1988, that required all processors of personnel dosimeters be accredited under the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), operated by the NBS, which is now called the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). At present, there are 75 dosimetry processing laboratories accredited under NVLAP. NRC has also been involved in extremity dosimeters, health physics survey instruments, bioassay measurements, electronic personnel dosimeters, and environmental monitoring around nuclear power plants.

  6. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  7. 1996 NRC annual report. Volume 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This 22nd annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes accomplishments, activities, and plans made during Fiscal Year 1996 (FH 1996)--October 1, 1995, through September 30, 1996. Significant activities that occurred early in FY 1997 are also described, particularly changes in the Commission and organization of the NRC. The mission of the NRC is to ensure that civilian uses of nuclear materials in the US are carried out with adequate protection of public health and safety, the environment, and national security. These uses include the operation of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle plants and medical, industrial, and research applications. Additionally, the NRC contributes to combating the proliferation of nuclear weapons material worldwide. The NRC licenses and regulates commercial nuclear reactor operations and research reactors and other activities involving the possession and use of nuclear materials and wastes. It also protects nuclear materials used in operation and facilities from theft or sabotage. To accomplish its statutorily mandated regulatory mission, the NRC issues rules and standards, inspects facilities and operations, and issues any required enforcement actions.

  8. Amounts of nutrients recommended by the NRC abate the effects of a toxic alcohol dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, R.F.; Draves, K. (VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Diet is the food and drink taken daily by an animal. Although the composition of the Lieber-DeCarli 36% alcohol diet is such that recommended amounts of nutrients could be ingested when the diet is fed, the fact is that rats have an aversion to alcohol, ingestion is reduced and the intake of total energy and several nutrients are below recommended levels. Hence the diet is nutritionally inadequate for growth, gestation and lactation. Recent studies with baboons have also shown that the baboon liquid diet is also deficient in total energy and several nutrients. Hence all studies with these liquid alcohol diets have involved two treatments; namely, ethanol and malnutrition. Thus, effects observed when these diets were fed could have been due to alcohol, malnutrition or an interaction effect of alcohol and malnutrition. When liquid diets are fed to rats that provide recommended amounts of nutrients for growth, gestation and lactation and the same dose of ethanol per kg body weight as the 36% alcohol diet, no toxic effects of alcohol are observed. Hence, effects not observed in the malnourished pair-fed controls but observed in the alcohol diet fed rats were likely due to the interaction effect of alcohol and malnutrition.

  9. NRC regulatory initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  10. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy of cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 demonstrates that group I cations are particularly effective in providing structure and stability to this halophilic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Reed

    Full Text Available Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1, which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0-3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general.

  11. NRC/UBC Node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis-Perry, B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Yogendran, Y. [NRC Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' In the search for cleaner, more sustainable energy sources, many of the most promising breakthroughs have been in hydrogen technology. However, this promise will remain unfulfilled without public interest and enthusiasm, and without the infrastructure to support the technology. In order to get there, we have to test, perfect, and demonstrate technology that is safe and affordable, and we must do so in practical, familiar settings. Ideally, such settings should be easily accessible to the engineers, planners, and architects of tomorrow while providing a showcase for hydrogen technology that will attract the general public. This place is the NRC/UBC Hydrogen Node. The UBC campus in Point Grey is home to leading edge, internationally recognized researchers in a range of disciplines, both within the University and at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. On average, 40,000 students, faculty, and staff use the campus every day; UBC graduates go on to leadership positions in communities around the globe. Its spectacular setting makes UBC a popular destination for thousands of visitors from around the world. In 2006 UBC will host the World Urban Forum, and in 2010 it will be one of the sites for the Vancouver-Whistler Olympic Games. UBC and its South Campus neighbourhoods are developing as a model sustainable community, offering an excellent opportunity to develop and showcase hydrogen infrastructure and technology in a real-life, attractive setting that will be seen by thousands of people around the world. UBC's facilities, location, and Trek 2010 commitment to excellence in learning, research, and sustainability make it an ideal location for such a project. The H2 Village at UBC will be an integrated hydrogen demonstration project, linked to the hydrogen highway. This project is bringing together leading companies, researchers, and government agencies committed to making the refinement and early adoption of safe hydrogen technology a

  12. The Effect of Iodine Levels Above of NRC Recommendations on Performance and Thyroidal Hormones in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad ali nurozian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey of using iodine levels above of NRC recommendations on performance and thyroidal hormones, sixteen Holstein dairy cows with the average live body weight and daily milk production of 652 ± 43 and 32.9 ± 2.4 kg respectively, allocated to 4 treatments in a complete randomized design. The dietary treatments were 1 the basal diet (without Potassium Iodide as control diet, 2, 3 and 4, the basal diet plus 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg DM Potassium Iodide respectively. The number of replications in each treatment was 4 cows. The dry matter intake (DMI, milk yield and composition were compared between treatments. The iodine concentrations in feed, water, urine and blood as well as thyroidal hormones (T3 and T4 were determined. There were no significant differences between treatments for DMI, milk yield and compositions as well as diet efficiency. Iodine contents in blood and urine were affected by iodine supplementation and increased significantly (P

  13. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in

  14. Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Policy Partners Climate Effects on Health Air Pollution Allergens Wildfires Temperature Extremes Precipitation Extremes Diseases Carried by Vectors Food and Waterborne Diarrheal Disease Food Security Mental Health and Stress-Related Disorders Climate-Ready States and ...

  15. The nuclear hormone receptor coactivator NRC is a pleiotropic modulator affecting growth, development, apoptosis, reproduction, and wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Muktar A; Das, Sharmistha; Zhu, Hong; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Samuels, Herbert H

    2004-06-01

    Nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC) is a 2,063-amino-acid coregulator of nuclear hormone receptors and other transcription factors (e.g., c-Fos, c-Jun, and NF-kappaB). We and others have generated C57BL/6-129S6 hybrid (C57/129) NRC(+/-) mice that appear outwardly normal and grow and reproduce. In contrast, homozygous deletion of the NRC gene is embryonic lethal. NRC(-/-) embryos are always smaller than NRC(+/+) embryos, and NRC(-/-) embryos die between 8.5 and 12.5 days postcoitus (dpc), suggesting that NRC has a pleotrophic effect on growth. To study this, we derived mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from 12.5-dpc embryos, which revealed that NRC(-/-) MEFs exhibit a high rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, a small interfering RNA that targets mouse NRC leads to enhanced apoptosis of wild-type MEFs. The finding that C57/129 NRC(+/-) mice exhibit no apparent phenotype prompted us to develop 129S6 NRC(+/-) mice, since the phenotype(s) of certain gene deletions may be strain dependent. In contrast with C57/129 NRC(+/-) females, 20% of 129S6 NRC(+/-) females are infertile while 80% are hypofertile. The 129S6 NRC(+/-) males produce offspring when crossed with wild-type 129S6 females, although fertility is reduced. The 129S6 NRC(+/-) mice tend to be stunted in their growth compared with their wild-type littermates and exhibit increased postnatal mortality. Lastly, both C57/129 NRC(+/-) and 129S6 NRC(+/-) mice exhibit a spontaneous wound healing defect, indicating that NRC plays an important role in that process. Our findings reveal that NRC is a coregulator that controls many cellular and physiologic processes ranging from growth and development to reproduction and wound repair.

  16. Overview of NRC review process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokar, M.; Kane, J.D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes the NRC staff`s review of the Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) for an Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker low-level waste disposal facility. Described are the objectives of the review, the resources (e.g., background guidance documents and staff technical disciplines) used, and the products produced. Evaluation conclusions are summarized.

  17. Overview of NRC review process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokar, M.; Kane, J.D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes the NRC staff`s review of the Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) for an Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker low-level waste disposal facility. Described are the objectives of the review, the resources (e.g., background guidance documents and staff technical disciplines) used, and the products produced. Evaluation conclusions are summarized.

  18. Reassessment of NRC`s dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a review and analysis of its dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy. As a result of this review, the NRC has decided to adopt a $2000 per person-rem conversion factor, subject it to present worth considerations, and limit its scope solely to health effects. This is in contrast to the previous policy and staff practice of using an undiscounted $1000 per person-rem conversion factor that served as a surrogate for all offsite consequences (health and offsite property). The policy shift has been incorporated in ``Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission,`` NUREG/BR-0058, Revision 2, November 1995.

  19. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  20. Enhanced killing of breast cancer cells by a d-amino acid analog of the winter flounder-derived pleurocidin NRC-03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchie, Ashley L; Haney, Evan F; Pinto, Devanand M; Hancock, Robert E W; Hoskin, David W

    2015-12-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) defend against pathogens and, in some cases, exhibit potent anticancer activities. We previously reported that the pleurocidin NRC-03 causes lysis of breast cancer and multiple myeloma cells. NRC-03 also reduces the EC50 of other cytotoxic compounds and prevents tumor growth in vivo. However, the therapeutic utility of NRC-03 may be limited by its susceptibility to degradation by proteases. The goal of this study was to characterize the anticancer activities of a d-amino acid analog of NRC-03 ([D]-NRC-03) that was predicted to be resistant to proteolytic degradation. Unlike NRC-03, [D]-NRC-03 was not degraded by human serum or trypsin and, in comparison to NRC-03, showed increased killing of breast cancer cells, including multidrug-resistant cells; however, [D]-NRC-03 was somewhat more cytotoxic than NRC-03 for several types of normal cells. Importantly, [D]-NRC-03 was more effective than NRC-03 in vivo since 4-fold less peptide was required for an equivalent inhibitory effect on the growth of breast cancer cell xenografts in immune-deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that a d-amino acid analog of NRC-03 overcomes a major limitation to the therapeutic use of NRC-03, namely peptide stability. Further modification of [D]-NRC-03 is required to improve its selectivity for cancer cells.

  1. Au Fixed Point Development at NRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedyulin, S. N.; Gotoh, M.; Todd, A. D. W.

    2017-04-01

    Two Au fixed points filled using metal of different nominal purities in carbon crucibles have been developed at the National Research Council Canada (NRC). The primary motivation behind this project was to provide the means for direct thermocouple calibrations at the Au freezing point (1064.18°C). Using a Au fixed point filled with the metal of maximum available purity [99.9997 % pure according to glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS)], multiple freezing plateaus were measured in a commercial high-temperature furnace. Four Pt/Pd thermocouples constructed and calibrated in-house were used to measure the freezing plateaus. From the calibration at Sn, Zn, Al and Ag fixed points, the linear deviation function from the NIST-IMGC reference function (IEC 62460:2008 Standard) was determined and extrapolated to the freezing temperature of Au. For all the Pt/Pd thermocouples used in this study, the measured EMF values agree with the extrapolated values within expanded uncertainty, thus substantiating the use of 99.9997 % pure Au fixed point cell for thermocouple calibrations at NRC. Using the Au fixed point filled with metal of lower purity (99.99 % pure according to GDMS), the effect of impurities on the Au freezing temperature measured with Pt/Pd thermocouple was further investigated.

  2. Critical review of the reactor-safety study radiological health effects model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, D.W.; Evans, J.S.; Jacob, N.; Kase, K.R.; Maletskos, C.J.; Robertson, J.B.; Smith, D.G.

    1983-03-01

    This review of the radiological health effects models originally presented in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) and currently used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was undertaken to assist the NRC in determining whether or not to revise the models and to aid in the revision, if undertaken. The models as presented in the RSS and as implemented in the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) Code are described and critiqued. The major elements analyzed are those concerning dosimetry, early effects, and late effects. The published comments on the models are summarized, as are the important findings since the publication of the RSS.

  3. NRC licensing requirements: DOD options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, W.J.; O' Reilly, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the licensing process (both safety and environmental) that would apply if the Department of Defense (DOD) chooses to obtain licenses from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for using nuclear energy for power and luminous sources. The specific nuclear energy sources being considered include: small or medium-size nuclear power reactors; radioisotopic thermoelectric generators with /sup 90/Sr or /sup 238/Pu; radioisotopic dynamic electric generators with /sup 90/Sr or /sup 238/Pu; and applications of radioisotopes for luminous sources (lights) with /sup 3/H, /sup 85/Kr, or /sup 147/Pm. The steps of the licensing process are summarized in the following sections, with particular attention given to the schedule and level of effort necessary to support the process.

  4. The Effects of HZE Particles, γ and X-ray Radiation on the Survival and Genetic Integrity of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, Halococcus hamelinensis, and Halococcus morrhuae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra

    2017-02-01

    Three halophilic archaea, Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, Halococcus hamelinensis, and Halococcus morrhuae, have been exposed to different regimes of simulated outer space ionizing radiation. Strains were exposed to high-energy heavy ion (HZE) particles, namely iron and argon ions, as well as to γ radiation (60Co) and X-rays, and the survival and the genetic integrity of the 16S rRNA gene were evaluated. Exposure to 1 kGy of argon or iron ions at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility at the National Institute for Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan did not lead to a detectable loss in viability; only after exposure to 2 kGy of iron ions a decline in survival was observed. Furthermore, a delay in growth was manifested following exposure to 2 kGy iron ions. DNA integrity of the 16S rRNA was not compromised up to 1 kGy, with the exception of Hcc. hamelinensis following exposure to argon particles. All three strains showed a high resistance toward X-rays (exposed at the DLR in Cologne, Germany), where Hcc. hamelinensis and Hcc. morrhuae displayed better survival compared to Hbt. salinarum NRC-1. In all three organisms the DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner. To determine a biological endpoint for survival following exposure to γ radiation, strains were exposed to up to 112 kGy at the Beta-Gamma-Service GmbH (BGS) in Germany. Although all strains were incubated for up to 4 months, only Hcc. hamelinensis and Hcc. morrhuae recovered from 6 kGy of γ radiation. In comparison, Hbt. salinarum NRC-1 did not recover. The 16S rRNA gene integrity stayed remarkably well preserved up to 48 kGy for both halococci. This research presents novel data on the survival and genetic stability of three halophilic archaea following exposure to simulated outer space radiation.

  5. 78 FR 5838 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... COMMISSION NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy revision; issuance... to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to incorporate changes directed by the... February 27, 2013, and will be considered by the NRC before the next Enforcement Policy revision....

  6. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC`s competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC`s antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission`s antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC`s antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. NRC drug-free workplace plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    On September 15, 1986, President Reagan signed Executive Order 12564, establishing the goal of a Drug-Free Federal Workplace. The Order made it a condition of employment that all Federal employees refrain from using illegal drugs on or off duty. On July 11, 1987, Congress passed legislation affecting implementation of the Executive Order under Section 503 of the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1987, Public Law 100-71 (the Act). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission first issued the NRC Drug Testing Plan to set forth objectives, policies, procedures, and implementation guidelines to achieve a drug-free Federal workplace, consistent with the Executive Order and Section 503 of the Act. Revision 1, titled, ``NRC Drug-Free Workplace Plan,`` supersedes the previous version and its supplements and incorporates changes to reflect current guidance from the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as other guidance.

  8. The role of research in nuclear regulation: An NRC perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The role of research in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was broadly defined by the US Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1975. This Act empowered the Commission to do research that it deems necessary for the performance of its licensing and regulatory functions. Congress cited a need for an independent capability that would support the licensing and regulatory process through the development and analysis of technical information related to reactor safety, safeguards and environmental protection. Motivation for establishing such a safety research function within the regulatory agency is the need to address the defects, abnormal occurrences and shutdowns involving light water reactors. Congress further stated that the NRC should limit its research to {open_quotes}confirmatory assessment{close_quotes} and that the Agency {open_quotes}should never be placed in a position to generate, and then have to defend, basic design data of its own.{close_quotes} The author reviews the activities of the research arm as related to regulatory research, performed in the past, today, and projected for the future. NRC`s public health and safety mission demands that its research products be developed independently from its licensees; be credible and of the highest technical quality as established through peer review; and open to the public scrutiny through publication in technical journals as well as NRC documents. A special trust is placed on regulatory research through the products it produces as well as the three dimensions that underlie the processes through which they are produced.

  9. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs.

  10. 76 FR 54507 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for... the effects of natural phenomena, including earthquakes, without losing the capability to perform... Electric Power Research Institute models to estimate earthquake ground motion and updated models...

  11. Overview of NRC PRA research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.A.; Drouin, M.T.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; VanderMolen, M.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The NRC`s research program in probabilistic risk analysis includes a set of closely-related elements, from basic research to regulatory applications. The elements of this program are as follows: (1) Development and demonstration of methods and advanced models and tools for use by the NRC staff and others performing risk assessments; (2) Support to agency staff on risk analysis and statistics issues; (3) Reviews of risk assessments submitted by licensees in support of regulatory applications, including the IPEs and IPEEEs. Each of these elements is discussed in the paper, providing highlights of work within an element, and, where appropriate, describing important support and feedback mechanisms among elements.

  12. 48 CFR 2009.100 - NRC policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NRC policy. 2009.100 Section 2009.100 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND... consulting with the Executive Director for Operations. This is in addition to any justification and...

  13. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  14. 75 FR 60485 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... plants (GDPs) and does not address other enrichment facilities such as gas centrifuge or laser enrichment... laser enrichment facility. Currently, NRC is performing the licensing review for a third uranium... facilities are in the same base civil penalty category as test reactors and industrial radiographers with a...

  15. Abstracts: NRC Waste Management Program reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Minichino, C.

    1979-11-01

    This document consists of abstracts of all reports published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Waste Management Program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). It will be updated at regular intervals. Reports are arranged in numerical order, within each category. Unless otherwise specified, authors are LLL scientists and engineers.

  16. Multipollutant health effect simulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Resulting betas (health effects) from a variety of copollutant epidemiologic models used to analyze the impact of exposure measurement error on health effect...

  17. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  18. U.S. NRC staff views on the technical bases for Yucca Mountain standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federline, M.V.; Kotra, J.P.; Firth, J.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has established a committee to examine the scientific and technical issues that underlie the health and safety standards for high-level waste (HLW) disposal. The NAS Committee is developing recommendations for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning an appropriate standard for evaluating a potential HLW repository at Yucca Mountain. Because of its regulatory role for the protection of public health and safety, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a significant interest in the progress and outcome of the NAS study as well as in the form and content of any standards EPA ultimately promulgates. The NRC will be required to revise its regulations for consistency with EPA`s environmental standards and, subsequently, to evaluate compliance of any proposed repository with NRC`s regulations. This paper discusses those issues which, in the NRC staff`s view, are critical to the formulation of disposal standards for high-level waste and spent fuel, and which the NAS and, eventually, EPA and NRC will need to address.

  19. Web-based training course for evaluating radiological dose assessment in NRC's license termination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoire, D; Richmond, P; Cheng, J-J; Kamboj, S; Arnish, J; Chen, S Y; Barr, C; McKenney, C

    2008-08-01

    As part of the requirement for terminating the licenses of nuclear power plants or other nuclear facilities, license termination plans or decommissioning plans are submitted by the licensee to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review and approval. Decommissioning plans generally refer to the decommissioning of nonreactor facilities, while license termination plans specifically refer to the decommissioning of nuclear reactor facilities. To provide a uniform and consistent review of dose modeling aspects of these plans and to address NRC-wide knowledge management issues, the NRC, in 2006, commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to develop a Web-based training course on reviewing radiological dose assessments for license termination. The course, which had first been developed in 2005 to target specific aspects of the review processes for license termination plans and decommissioning plans, evolved from a live classroom course into a Web-based training course in 2006. The objective of the Web-based training course is to train NRC staff members (who have various relevant job functions and are located at headquarters, regional offices, and site locations) to conduct an effective review of dose modeling in accordance with the latest NRC guidance, including NUREG-1757, Volumes 1 and 2. The exact size of the staff population who will receive the training has not yet been accurately determined but will depend on various factors such as the decommissioning activities at the NRC. This Web-based training course is designed to give NRC staff members modern, flexible access to training. To this end, the course is divided into 16 modules: 9 core modules that deal with basic topics, and 7 advanced modules that deal with complex issues or job-specific topics. The core and advanced modules are tailored to various NRC staff members with different job functions. The Web-based system uses the commercially available software Articulate, which incorporates audio, video

  20. Design basis for the NRC Operations Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, M.K.; Wise, J.A.; Griffin, B.N.; Desrosiers, A.E.; Meitzler, W.D.

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the development of a design for a new NRC Operations Center (NRCOC). The project was conducted in two phases: organizational analysis and facility design. In order to control the amount of traffic, congestion and noise within the facility, it is recommended that information flow in the new NRCOC be accomplished by means of an electronic Status Information Management System. Functional requirements and a conceptual design for this system are described. An idealized architectural design and a detailed design program are presented that provide the appropriate amount of space for operations, equipment and circulation within team areas. The overall layout provides controlled access to the facility and, through the use of a zoning concept, provides each team within the NRCOC the appropriate balance of ready access and privacy determined from the organizational analyses conducted during the initial phase of the project.

  1. NRC Licensing Status Summary Report for NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, is based on research and development activities supported by the Department of Energy Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. The NGNP will be licensed for construction and operation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, not all elements of current regulations (and their related implementation guidance) can be applied to HTGR technology at this time. Certain policies established during past LWR licensing actions must be realigned to properly accommodate advanced HTGR technology. A strategy for licensing HTGR technology was developed and executed through the cooperative effort of DOE and the NRC through the NGNP Project. The purpose of this report is to provide a snapshot of the current status of the still evolving pre-license application regulatory framework relative to commercial HTGR technology deployment in the U.S. The following discussion focuses on (1) describing what has been accomplished by the NGNP Project up to the time of this report, and (2) providing observations and recommendations concerning actions that remain to be accomplished to enable the safe and timely licensing of a commercial HTGR facility in the U.S.

  2. 10 CFR 14.35 - Limitation on NRC's authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recommendations or views of the NRC. A referral or request to the Department of Justice may be made at any time... claim under this part only after consultation with the Department of Justice if, in the opinion of the... under this part only after consultation with the Department of Justice if the NRC is informed or...

  3. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  4. Strategic Planning and NRC Decadal Survey Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbacher, C. C., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Strategic planning exercises are routinely undertaken by a wide variety of organizations that span the private, public and academic sectors and with a wide variety of corporate goals. It is difficult to single out best procedures as the purposes of strategic planning are as varied as the organizations. As a former head of a governmental agency that requested such a NRC study, namely the first "Earth Sciences and Applications from Space" study, I will examine the process, provide my definitions and assessments of the good and the not-so-good, and compare to my experiences with other similar strategic planning exercises during my Navy, NOAA, and private sector careers. I find that there is always room for improvement, but there is no one process or procedure that can guarantee success. Overarching initial considerations that can position the effort for overall "success" will be defined and applied to the recent NSC Study: "Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Science", for which I was neither an initiator nor a participant, but a very interested observer.

  5. NRC ARDC Guidance Support Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, Mark R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report provides a summary that reflects the progress and status of proposed regulatory design criteria for advanced non-light water reactor (LWR) designs in accordance with the Level 3 milestone M3AT-17IN2001013 in work package AT-17IN200101. These criteria have been designated as advanced reactor design criteria (ARDC) and they provide guidance to future applicants for addressing the general design criteria (GDC) that are currently applied specifically to LWR designs. This report provides a summary of Phase 2 activities related to the various tasks associated with ARDC development and the subsequent development of ARDC regulatory guidance for sodium fast reactor (SFR) and modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs. Status Report Organization: Section 2 discusses the origin of the GDC and their application to LWRs. Section 3 addresses the objective of this initiative and how it benefits the advanced non-LWR reactor vendors. Section 4 discusses the scope and structure of the initiative. Section 5 provides background on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ARDC team’s original development of the proposed ARDC that were submitted to the NRC for consideration. Section 6 provides a summary of recent ARDC Phase 2 activities. Appendices A through E document the DOE ARDC team’s public comments on various sections of the NRC’s draft regulatory guide DG–1330, “Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Non-Light Water Reactors.”

  6. NRC policy on future reactor designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-07-01

    On April 13, 1983, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Commission Policy Statement on Severe Accidents and Related Views on Nuclear Reactor Regulation'' (48 FR 16014). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy statement now entitled, ''Policy Statement on Severe Reactor Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants.'' It provides an overview of comments received from the public and the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the staff response to these. In addition to the Policy Statement, the report discusses how the policies of this statement relate to other NRC programs including the Severe Accident Research Program; the implementation of safety measures resulting from lessons learned in the accident at Three Mile Island; safety goal development; the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issues and other Generic Safety Issues; and possible revisions of rules or regulatory requirements resulting from the Severe Accident Source Term Program. Also discussed are the main features of a generic decision strategy for resolving Regulatory Questions and Technical Issues relating to severe accidents; the development and regulatory use of new safety information; the treatment of uncertainty in severe accident decision making; and the development and implementation of a Systems Reliability Program for both existing and future plants to ensure that the realized level of safety is commensurate with the safety analyses used in regulatory decisions.

  7. NRC policy on future reactor designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-07-01

    On April 13, 1983, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Commission Policy Statement on Severe Accidents and Related Views on Nuclear Reactor Regulation'' (48 FR 16014). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy statement now entitled, ''Policy Statement on Severe Reactor Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants.'' It provides an overview of comments received from the public and the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the staff response to these. In addition to the Policy Statement, the report discusses how the policies of this statement relate to other NRC programs including the Severe Accident Research Program; the implementation of safety measures resulting from lessons learned in the accident at Three Mile Island; safety goal development; the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issues and other Generic Safety Issues; and possible revisions of rules or regulatory requirements resulting from the Severe Accident Source Term Program. Also discussed are the main features of a generic decision strategy for resolving Regulatory Questions and Technical Issues relating to severe accidents; the development and regulatory use of new safety information; the treatment of uncertainty in severe accident decision making; and the development and implementation of a Systems Reliability Program for both existing and future plants to ensure that the realized level of safety is commensurate with the safety analyses used in regulatory decisions.

  8. Application of PLUTO Test Facility for U. S. NRC Licensing of a Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dongseok; Shin, Changhwan; Lee, Kanghee; Kang, Heungseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The fuel assembly of the PLUS-7 loaded in the APR-1400 follows the same schedule. Meanwhile, In July 1998, the U.S. NRC adopted a research plan to address the effects of high burnup from a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). From these programs, several important technical findings for rule revision were obtained. Based on the technical findings, the U. S. NRC has amended the 10 CFR 50.46 which will be proclaimed sooner or later. Through the amendment, a LOCA analysis on the fuel assembly has to show the safety at both a fresh and End of Life (EOL) state. The U. S. NRC has already required EOL effects on seismic/LOCA performance for a fuel assembly since 1998. To obtain U.S NRC licensing of a fuel assembly, based on the amendment of 10CFR50.46, a LOCA analysis of the fuel assembly has to show safety both fresh and EOL states. The proper damping factor of the fuel assembly measured at the hydraulic test loop for a dynamic model in a LOCA and a seismic analysis code are at least required. In this paper, we have examined the damping technologies and compared the test facility of PLUTO with others in terms of performance. PLUTO has a better performance on the operating conditions than any others.

  9. The role of research in NRC regulatory programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.A.

    1996-03-01

    This article is the text of the opening remarks by NRC Chairwoman Shirley Jackson to the Reactor Safety Meeting. In her remarks, Dr. Jackson discusses the role of research in NRC regulatory programs and points out by way of example that many of the research programs provide considerable benefit to the industry as well as to the Commission. She then outlines current activities as well as future plans.

  10. Regulatory decision with EPA/NRC/DOE/State Session (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Donnell, E.

    1995-12-31

    This panel will cover the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) proposed radiation limits in the Branch Technical Position on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Performance Assessment and the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) draft regulation in Part 193. Representatives from NRC and EPA will discuss the inconsistencies in these two regulations. DOE and state representatives will discuss their perspective on how these regulations will affect low-level radioactive waste performance assessments.

  11. NRC Consultation and Monitoring at the Savannah River Site: Focusing Reviews of Two Different Disposal Actions - 12181

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridge, A. Christianne; Barr, Cynthia S.; Pinkston, Karen E.; Parks, Leah S.; Grossman, Christopher J.; Alexander, George W. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2012-07-01

    radionuclide release from the waste. Because the waste inventory and concentration at both sites is sufficient to generate unacceptable doses to an off-site member of the public or inadvertent intruder in the absence of engineered barriers, the NRC staff review focused on the engineering features DOE plans to put in place to limit radionuclide release. At the FTF, DOE expects that peak doses are delayed beyond a 10,000 year performance period by a combination of (1) the flow-limiting effect of the steel tank liner and (2) chemical conditions created by the stabilizing grout overlying the waste that limit the solubility of key radionuclides for tens of thousands of years. At the SDF, DOE expects that flow will be significantly limited by water shedding along the closure cap lower drainage layer and that radionuclide release will be further limited by radionuclide precipitation or sorption within the high pH, chemically reducing conditions created within the saltstone waste form. Because the performance of both facilities depends on the performance of engineered barriers for thousands of years, the reviews included a detailed evaluation of the expected long-term behavior of these barriers. As previously discussed, NRC staff reviews of DOE waste determinations during consultation are designed to evaluate the three NDAA criteria, whereas the review of an updated PA during monitoring only addresses whether the NRC staff has reasonable assurance that the planned disposal action will meet the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 61. The NRC staff review of the Waste Determination for the FTF did not include conclusions about whether the planned disposal of residual waste at the FTF would meet the NDAA criteria because of the substantial uncertainties in the degree of waste removal DOE would achieve and other technical uncertainties. The main product of the NRC staff review of the planned FTF disposal action is the recommendation that DOE should conduct waste release experiments to

  12. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  13. Phytochemicals: Health Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston; Beck, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, non-nutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, herbs, nuts and seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulfur compounds, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and soluble fibre, contains a host of active phytochemicals. Clinical trials have not yet been able to demonstrate the same protective effects from taking supplements. It is difficult to estimate how many Canadians achieve an adequate level of consumption, but it seems reasonable to assume that many Canadians could benefit from substantially increasing their intake of vegetables and fruit.

  14. PHYSICAL FIDELITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR NRC ADVANCED REACTOR CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATORS USED FOR INSPECTOR/EXAMINER TRAINING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branch, Kristi M.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Miller, Mark; Cochrum, Steven

    2010-11-07

    This paper describes research into the physical fidelity requirements of control room simulators to train U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff for their duties as inspectors and license examiners for next-generation nuclear power plants. The control rooms of these power plants are expected to utilize digital instrumentation and controls to a much greater extent than do current plants. The NRC is assessing training facility needs, particularly for control room simulators, which play a central role in NRC training. Simulator fidelity affects both training effectiveness and cost. Research has shown high simulation fidelity sometimes positively affects transfer to the operational environment but sometimes makes no significant difference or actually impedes learning. The conditions in which these different effects occur are often unclear, especially for regulators (as opposed to operators) about whom research is particularly sparse. This project developed an inventory of the tasks and knowledges, skills, and abilities that NRC regulators need to fulfill job duties and used expert panels to characterize the inventory items by type and level of cognitive/behavioral capability needed, difficulty to perform, importance to safety, frequency of performance, and the importance of simulator training for learning these capabilities. A survey of current NRC staff provides information about the physical fidelity of the simulator on which the student trained to the control room to which the student was assigned and the effect lack of fidelity had on learning and job performance. The study concludes that a high level of physical fidelity is not required for effective training of NRC staff.

  15. Transition from Consultation to Monitoring-NRC's Increasingly Focused Review of Factors Important to F-Area Tank Farm Facility Performance - 13153

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Cynthia; Grossman, Christopher; Alexander, George; Parks, Leah; Fuhrmann, Mark; Shaffner, James; McKenney, Christepher [U.S. NRC, Rockville, MD (United States); Pabalan, Roberto; Pickett, David [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Dinwiddie, Cynthia [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In consultation with the NRC, DOE issued a waste determination for the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) facility in March 2012. The FTF consists of 22 underground tanks, each 2.8 to 4.9 million liters in capacity, used to store liquid high-level waste generated as a result of spent fuel reprocessing. The waste determination concluded stabilized waste residuals and associated tanks and auxiliary components at the time of closure are not high-level and can be disposed of as LLW. Prior to issuance of the final waste determination, during the consultation phase, NRC staff reviewed and provided comments on DOE's revision 0 and revision 1 FTF PAs that supported the waste determination and produced a technical evaluation report documenting the results of its multi-year review in October 2011. Following issuance of the waste determination, NRC began to monitor DOE disposal actions to assess compliance with the performance objectives in 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C. To facilitate its monitoring responsibilities, NRC developed a plan to monitor DOE disposal actions. NRC staff was challenged in developing a focused monitoring plan to ensure limited resources are spent in the most cost-effective manner practical. To address this challenge, NRC prioritized monitoring areas and factors in terms of risk significance and timing. This prioritization was informed by NRC staff's review of DOE's PA documentation, independent probabilistic modeling conducted by NRC staff, and NRC-sponsored research conducted by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses in San Antonio, TX. (authors)

  16. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Markman

    1999-09-17

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control

  17. Risk-informed inservice test activities at the NRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.; Cheok, M.; Hsia, A.

    1996-12-01

    The operational readiness of certain safety-related components is vital to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Inservice testing (IST) is one of the mechanisms used by licensees to ensure this readiness. In the past, the type and frequency of IST have been based on the collective best judgment of the NRC and industry in an ASME Code consensus process and NRC rulemaking process. Furthermore, IST requirements have not explicitly considered unique component and system designs and contribution to overall plant risk. Because of the general nature of ASME Code test requirements and non-reliance on risk estimates, current IST requirements may not adequately emphasize testing those components that are most important to safety and may overly emphasize testing of less safety significant components. Nuclear power plant licensees are currently interested in optimizing testing by applying resources in more safety significant areas and, where appropriate, reducing measures in less safety-significant areas. They are interested in maintaining system availability and reducing overall maintenance costs in ways that do not adversely affect safety. The NRC has been interested in using probabilistic, as an adjunct to deterministic, techniques to help define the scope, type and frequency of IST. The development of risk-informed IST programs has the potential to optimize the use of NRC and industry resources without adverse affect on safety.

  18. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, July--September 1993: Volume 13, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1993-11-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1993.

  19. Licensee over-reliance on conservatisms in NRC guidance regarding the release of patients treated with 131I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jeffry A; Marcus, Carol S; Stabin, Michael G

    2007-12-01

    Medical licensees are required to comply with U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations pertaining to the release of patients administered radioactive material. However, use of the associated NRC guidance expressed in NUREG-1556, Volume 9, is completely optional and has been shown to be overly conservative. Rigid adherence to the guidance recommendations has placed an undue burden on nuclear medicine therapy patients and their families, as well as licensees responsible for ensuring compliance with NRC requirements. More realistic guidance has been published by other responsible professional societies and will be presented in this work. These more realistic calculations allow for higher releasable activity levels than the widely adopted NUREG levels, particularly for thyroid cancer patients. The guidance-suggested releasable activity limit is similar to our calculational result for hyperthyroid patients, 2.1 GBq (57 mCi) compared to 2.3 GBq (62 mCi), but is significantly lower for thyroid cancer patients, 6.6 GBq (179 mCi) vs. 16.9 GBq (457 mCi) using the regulatory definition of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). Higher limits are both possible and reasonable, if the permissible extra-regulatory definition of the TEDE is used in which the effective dose equivalent (EDE), rather than the deep-dose equivalent (DDE), is determined. We maintain that professionals evaluating compliance with the NRC requirements for patient release, pursuant to 10 CFR 35.75, should use the procedures presented here and not rely automatically on the NUREG.

  20. Recommendations for NEAMS Engagement with the NRC: Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholdt, David E [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The vision of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program is to bring a new generation of analytic tools to the nuclear engineering community in order to facilitate students, faculty, industry and laboratory researchers in investigating advanced reactor and fuel cycle designs. Although primarily targeting at advance nuclear technologies, it is anticipated that these new capabilities will also become interesting and useful to the nuclear regulator Consequently, the NEAMS program needs to engage with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the software is being developed to ensure that they are familiar with and ready to respond to this novel approach when the need arises. Through discussions between key NEAMS and NRC staff members, we tentatively recommend annual briefings to the Division of Systems Analysis in the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. However the NEAC subcommittee review of the NEAMS program may yield recommendations that would need to be considered before finalizing this plan.

  1. NRC Enforcement Policy Review, July 1995-July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, J.; Pedersen, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    On June 30, 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a complete revision of its General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Action (Enforcement Policy) (60 FR 34381). In approving the 1995 revision to the Enforcement Policy, the Commission directed the staff to perform a review of its implementation of the Policy after approximately 2 years of experience and to consider public comments. This report represents the results of that review.

  2. A review of NRC staff uses of probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The NRC staff uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management as important elements its licensing and regulatory processes. In October 1991, the NRC`s Executive Director for Operations established the PRA Working Group to address concerns identified by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards with respect to unevenness and inconsistency in the staff`s current uses of PRA. After surveying current staff uses of PRA and identifying needed improvements, the Working Group defined a set of basic principles for staff PRA use and identified three areas for improvements: guidance development, training enhancements, and PRA methods development. For each area of improvement, the Working Group took certain actions and recommended additional work. The Working Group recommended integrating its work with other recent PRA-related activities the staff completed and improving staff interactions with PRA users in the nuclear industry. The Working Group took two key actions by developing general guidance for two uses of PRA within the NRC (that is, screening or prioritizing reactor safety issues and analyzing such issues in detail) and developing guidance on basic terms and methods important to the staff`s uses of PRA.

  3. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory.

  4. Noise Pollution and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geravandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Noise pollution is of particular importance due to the physical and psychological effects on humans. Noise is a stressor that affects the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Noise is also a threat to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Health risks from noise are correlated with road traffic. In other words, noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Objectives This study aims to determine the effect of noise pollution (near roadways on health issues in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, equivalent sound pressure level were measured by sound level meters TES-1353 in 75 locations around 4 roadways, which had a high load of traffic in Ahvaz City during day time. During the study, 820 measurements were recorded at measuring stations, for 7 days per week with 1-hour interval between each measurement. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS software. Results According to the research findings, the equivalent sound pressure levels in all stations were 76.28 ± 3.12 dB (Mean ± SD. According to sound measurements and the survey questionnaire, noise pollution is higher than EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency and Iran standard level. Based on result of this study the worst noise health effects were the nervousness and sleep quality during 2012. Conclusions According to the results of this study, with increasing load of traffic, there is an increasing need for proper consideration plans to control noise pollution and prevent its effects.

  5. 75 FR 5633 - Notice of Extension of Comment Period for NUREG-1921, EPRI/NRC-RES Fire Human Reliability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Extension of Comment Period for NUREG-1921, EPRI/NRC- RES Fire Human Reliability... document entitled ``NUREG-1921 (EPRI 1019196), EPRI/NRC-RES Fire Human Reliability Analysis Guidelines...-4209, 301-415-4737, or by e-mail to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . NUREG-1921 ``EPRI/NRC-RES Fire...

  6. The U.S.-Russian radiation health effects research program in the Southern Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, P.J.

    2000-07-01

    The Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) was established through a bilateral US-Russian agreement to support research and exchange information on radiation health effects. The U.S. member agencies include the Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Department of Defense (DoD), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Russians are represented by the Ministries of Emergencies (EMERCOM), the Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and Health (MINZDRAV), and the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE). The focus of this research is on the workers from the Mayak Production Association (MAYAK) in the Southern Urals and on the neighboring populations along the Techa River exposed to contamination from the plant. The goal of the program is to better define the relationship between the health effects and the chronic low dose and dose-rate exposure, these data being essential to validate current radiation protection standards and practices. The current primary areas of JCCRER research include dose reconstruction, epidemiologic health studies, molecular epidemiology/biodosimetry, and the creation of tissue banks. The organization of the ongoing research conducted under the aegis of the JCCRER and the rationale for this work are described.

  7. Health Effects of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resulting health effects. Extreme weather events due to climate change may cause people to experience geographic displacement, damage to their property, loss of loved ones, and chronic stress—all of which can negatively affect ... change may be associated with staple food shortages, malnutrition, ...

  8. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  9. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzermans, C.J.; Donker, G.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aim: We are involved in research on the possible health effects of three disasters in the Netherlands: a plane crash in an Amsterdam neighbourhood, the explosion of a firework factory in the city of Enschede and a fire in a discotheque in Volendam. Which methodologies were used and

  10. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: We carry out prospective, longitudinal studies on the possible health effects of two disasters in the Netherlands: the explosion of fireworks depot in a residential area (Enschede) and a fire in discotheque in Volendam. Learning from the chaotic aftermath previous disasters, the Dutch g

  11. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzermans, C.J.; Donker, G.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aim: We are involved in research on the possible health effects of three disasters in the Netherlands: a plane crash in an Amsterdam neighbourhood, the explosion of a firework factory in the city of Enschede and a fire in a discotheque in Volendam. Which methodologies were used and wh

  12. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  13. Two-way time transfers between NRC/NBS and NRC/USNO via the Hermes (CTS) satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, C. C.; Daams, H.; Boulanger, J. S.; Hanson, D. W.; Klepczynski, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    At each station the differences were measured between the local UTC seconds pulse and the remote UTC pulse received by satellite. The difference between the readings, if station delays are assumed to be symmetrical, is two times the difference between the clocks at the two ground station sites. Over a 20-minute period, the precision over the satellite is better than 1 ns. The time transfer from NRC to the CRC satellite terminal near Ottawa and from NBS to the Denver HEW terminal was examined.

  14. Reassessment of the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC`s overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC`s involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area.

  15. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC maintenance team inspection reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.

  16. Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, James [Center for Nuclear Technology and Society at WPI, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Data from the peer-reviewed scientific literature establish a sound basis to define a low-dose, low-dose-rate, dose-response. These data include human health dose-response studies; immunologically 'whole' animal studies; and cellular and molecular biological studies of complete biological systems for the relevant immunological and physiological responses. Initiatives are required to constructively apply these data to both radiation research and radiation protection policies. First, current low level radiation health effects research must apply existing data to define research projects to integrate and confirm existing dose-response data, with specific emphasis on the biological bases that exist in definitive and reproducible cellular and biological dose-response. Second, dose-response assessment must identify and incorporate all existing substantial and confirmed data, including natural radiation sources, to establish the bases for radiation protection policy for interventions to protect public health and safety. A preliminary assessment of these data is applied to: 1) Specify research that can be constructively applied to describe radiation health effects dose-response. 2) Apply health effects dose-response to radiation and radioactivity applications policies to maximize radiation health effects interventions for occupational applications, medical applications, and other radiation and radioactive materials applications controls to cost-effectively assure public health and safety. An assessment of the proposed revisions to ICRP radiation protection policies is provided that associates the basis for administrative limits with the previous proposal of the US NRC for a 'Below Regulatory Concern' (BRC) policy. This proposal ignores the context of the fact that very low levels of radiation exposure are far within the variations of natural radiation exposures, and therefore can have no gross net consequences. The equivalent failure of the BRC proposal

  17. Assessment of the effects of supplementation with vitamin E on health and production of feedlot cattle using meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Paul; McMeniman, Neil; Rabiee, Ahmad; Lean, Ian

    2009-04-01

    Delivery of supplemental antioxidant vitamins to cattle placed in feedlots might be expected to improve health and performance outcomes by reducing the effects of oxidative stress to which these cattle are presumably exposed. Meta-analytic procedures were used in this study to assess published experiments on the effects of vitamin E supplementation in feedlot cattle. The health outcome of morbidity, and the production outcomes of average daily gain (ADG) and gain to feed ratio (G:F), were analysed. The currently available data do not support the use of supplemental vitamin E administered as an injection (morbidity risk ratio=1.17; P=0.17). The authors conclude that supplemental dietary vitamin E should be fed within the [NRC, 1996. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 7th ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC] recommended range.

  18. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  19. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    The effects of REM deprivation on electrodermal - activity in human sleep . In Weitzman ED (ed): Adv Sleep Res 2:164-176, 1976. 21. Baust W, Moppeney H...and health consequences of total, selective, and partial sleep loss were documented in this paper by examining adrenimedullary activity ...kinds of sleep loss on the functional integrity of the human organism. The factors discussed include: adrenomedullary activity , adrenocortical activ - ity

  20. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the effects of global climate change are of growing concerns in Ethiopia. ... air pollution and health, occupational health and safety and climate change and health. Methods: The methods used in this work include a systematic review of ...

  1. [Health effects of electromagnetic fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Use of electricity causes extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and wireless communication devices emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Average ELF-MF exposure is mainly determined by high voltage power lines and transformers at home or at the workplace, whereas RF-EMF exposure is mainly caused by devices operating close to the body (mainly mobile and cordless phones). Health effects of EMF are controversially discussed. The IARC classified ELF-MF and RF-EMF as possible carcinogenic. Most consistent epidemiological evidence was found for an association between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. If causal, 1 - 4 percent of all childhood leukaemia cases could be attributed to ELF-MF. Epidemiological research provided some indications for an association between ELF-MF and Alzheimer's diseases as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although not entirely consistent. Regarding mobile phones and brain tumours, some studies observed an increased risk after heavy or long term use on the one hand. On the other hand, brain tumour incidence was not found to have increased in the last decade in Sweden, England or the US. Acute effects of RF-EMF on non-specific symptoms of ill health seem unlikely according to randomized and double blind provocation studies. However, epidemiological research on long term effects is still limited. Although from the current state of the scientific knowledge a large individual health risk from RF-EMF exposure is unlikely, even a small risk would have substantial public health relevance because of the widespread use of wireless communication technologies.

  2. Overview of NRC's Regulatory Perspective on Performance Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedors, R. W.; Pohle, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste at 10 CFR Part 63, Subpart F, require the implementation of a Performance Confirmation Program for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The goals of the Performance Confirmation Program are to confirm that the (i) actual subsurface conditions and potential changes in these conditions during construction and waste emplacement operations are within the limits assumed during the licensing review, and (ii) natural and engineered barriers are functioning as intended and anticipated. For a license application for construction authorization, only a plan is required by the regulations. Proposed activities might include (i) monitoring the repository environment, both engineered and natural components, (ii) field and laboratory investigations under more controlled conditions to better understand processes, and (iii) scientific and programmatic evaluation of the data to support operational decisionmaking and guide adaptive design alterations. NRC review of vadose zone monitoring methods revealed limitations in current technological solutions such that many presently available hydro-environmental sensors would likely not be suitable for long- term, deep-subsurface, fractured rock monitoring activities, particularly with respect to the temperatures and radiation environment that will occur near or within waste emplacement drifts. Sensor deployment strategies will also have to be developed considering the repository environment. Thus, achieving the goals of the performance confirmation program could be affected by limits on sensor capabilities or on an as yet to be proposed sensor deployment strategy. A performance confirmation program implemented over a lengthy operational period allows for future evolution and development of sensors and strategies to further advance the collection of information relevant to processes important for performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The NRC

  3. The NRC staff evaluation of shutdown and low-power operation at nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, G.M.; Caruso, M.A. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's recent evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants are summarized in this paper. The NRC staff's evaluation was initiated following their investigation of the loss during shutdown of all vital alternating current power on March 20, 1990, at the Alvin W. Vogtle nuclear plant. The objective of the evaluation has been to assess risk broadly during shutdown, refueling, and startup, addressing not only issues raised by the Vogtle event, but also a number of other shutdown-related issues that had been identified by foreign regulatory organizations as well as the NRC and any new issues uncovered in the evaluation process. The key issues concerning shutdown risk identified in the integration process described earlier and subsequently addressed by the staff include the following: (1) outage planning and control; (2) stress on personnel and programs; (3) the need to improve training and procedures; (4) technical specifications; and (5) PWR safety during midloop operation. Other technical topics identified for further study by the staff included loss of RHR, containment capability, rapid boron dilution, fire protection, instrumentation, emergency core cooling system recirculation capability, effect of PWR upper internals, on-site emergency planning, fuel handling and heavy loads, potential for draining the BWR reactor vessel, reporting requirements for shutdown events, and need to strengthen inspection program.

  4. NRC regulatory agenda: Semiannual report, July--December 1996. Volume 15, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued semiannually.

  5. 75 FR 20009 - Development of NRC's Safety Culture Policy Statement: Cancellation of Public Workshops Scheduled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... COMMISSION Development of NRC's Safety Culture Policy Statement: Cancellation of Public Workshops Scheduled...: Cancellation of public workshops tentatively scheduled for April 13-15, 2010, and October 27-28, 2010. SUMMARY... into the NRC's draft final policy statement. In addition, the information gathered at the workshop...

  6. Canister storage building compliance assessment SNF project NRC equivalency criteria - HNF-SD-SNF-DB-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACK, D.M.

    1999-08-11

    This document presents the Project's position on compliance with the SNF Project NRC Equivalency Criteria--HNF-SD-SNF-DE-003, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Path Forward Additional NRC Requirements. No non-compliances are shown The compliance statements have been reviewed and approved by DOE. Open items are scheduled to be closed prior to project completion.

  7. 77 FR 36583 - NRC Form 5, Occupational Dose Record for a Monitoring Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION NRC Form 5, Occupational Dose Record for a Monitoring Period AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Monitoring Period.'' The current NRC Form 5 is being revised to align with current regulations. We are... Form 5, ``Occupational Dose Record for a Monitoring Period,'' or in an equivalent paper or electronic...

  8. Evaluating NRC's Recommendations for Educating Children with Autism a Decade Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Cucchiarra, Maia Bloomfield; Thurman, S. Kenneth; Snyder, Mark R.; McCarthy, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over a decade ago, the National Research Council (NRC) published the influential book, "Educating Children with Autism." Objective: To survey parents and state-level special education administrators to evaluate how NRC's recommendations, as published in "Educating Children with Autism," have impacted…

  9. Evaluating NRC's Recommendations for Educating Children with Autism a Decade Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Cucchiarra, Maia Bloomfield; Thurman, S. Kenneth; Snyder, Mark R.; McCarthy, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over a decade ago, the National Research Council (NRC) published the influential book, "Educating Children with Autism." Objective: To survey parents and state-level special education administrators to evaluate how NRC's recommendations, as published in "Educating Children with Autism," have impacted…

  10. 10 CFR 51.104 - NRC proceeding using public hearings; consideration of environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental impact statement. 51.104 Section 51.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED....104 NRC proceeding using public hearings; consideration of environmental impact statement. (a)(1) In... scope of NEPA and this subpart are in issue, the NRC staff may not offer the final environmental impact...

  11. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Zarfeshany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions.

  12. Health effects of dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Ötles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fi bres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fi bres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous benefi cial effects on human health. Dietary fi bre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fi bers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal refl ux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fi bers and their important implications on human health will be investigated.

  13. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 3, Development documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L. [System Improvements, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haas, P.; Terranova, M. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program.

  14. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Abrahmson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilbert, E.S. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  15. Health promotion: An effective tool for global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes.

  16. E-health: effect on health system efficiency of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Afshan; Rashid, Audil; Kureshi, Nadeem Ishaq

    2014-01-01

    The health system in Pakistan is spraining because of increasing cost and demand gravities. The shortage of skilled health care workers is one of the main factors of health issues. There is a need to move away from the dependency of tools such as pen, paper, and human memory to a milieu where patients and health care providers can reliably access and share health information in real time across geographic and health sector boundaries. The purpose of this research is to observe the effect of e-health on the physician-patient relationship and to analyze the capacity of health professionals by noting information and communication technologies usage as indicators. Structured questionnaire was used to gather data from physicians to judge the success and effect of existing e-health policy. Both categorical and Likert scale variables were used. The analysis of data was per.formed using chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Specialist doctors comprised the major proportion of health care professionals in both male and female categories with good knowledge about Internet usage. E-health-based communication does not seem to be gender specific. Logistic regression revealed that busy doctors whose patients are more than 100 per week believe that e-health would significantly strengthen their communication with patients (OR=3.06; 95% CI=1.05- 8.87). Among other significant impacts of e-health include reduced consultation period and time of diagnosis. E-health technology can play a crucial role in controlling many epidemic diseases through effective surveillance. E-health implementation will result in improving the efficiency, better access of general public to the health care system, and eradication of diseases in Pakistan.

  17. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.

    2009-10-09

    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  18. Joint DOE/NRC field study of tracer migration in the unsaturated zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyhan, J.; Polzer, W.; Essington, E.; Cokal, E.; Lane, L.; Lopez, E.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.

    1986-03-01

    The results of a joint DOE/NRC field experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of solutes in a sandy silt backfill used for shallow land burial operations at Los Alamos are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. The migration of iodide, bromide, and lithium through the backfill material is studied as functions of depth and time and they are compared with one another. The bromide and iodide tracer data are used to estimate the diffusion coefficient, the tortuosity factor, and dispersivity. These values are used to calculate effective dispersion coefficients for subsequent analyses of the retardation factor and the distribution coefficient for lithium using least squares procedures. The results of the tracer migration study are discussed relative to challenges facing the waste management community, and chemical transport modeling opportunities are presented for a modeling workshop to be held in FY86.

  19. Health effects of dietary phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küllenberg Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs. From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits.

  20. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  1. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  2. Update on the NAS-NRC Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William F

    2006-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) Twin Registry is one of the oldest, national population-based twin registries in the United States. It consists of 15,924 white male twin pairs born in the years 1917 to 1927 (inclusive), both of whom served in the armed forces, mostly during World War II. This article updates activity in this registry since the earlier 2002 article in Twin Research. The results of clinically based studies on dementia, Parkinson's disease, age-related macular degeneration, and primary osteoarthritis were published, as well as articles based on previously collected questionnaire data on chronic fatigue syndrome, functional limitations, and healthy aging. In addition, risk factor studies are being planned to merge clinical data with earlier collected risk factor data from questionnaires. Examination data from the subset of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) twins resulted in a number of articles, including the relationship of endogenous sex hormones to coronary heart disease and morphological changes in aging brain structures. The NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory (a paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaire) has been fielded for the first time. A push to consolidate the various data holdings of the registry is being made.

  3. Health Effects of Petroleum Coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant quantities of fugitive dust from pet coke storage and handling operations present a health risk. EPA’s research suggests that petcoke does not pose a different health risk than similar-sized particulate matter (PM10).

  4. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing.

  5. NRC regulatory agenda: Semiannual report, January--June 1997. Volume 16, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a semiannual compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition. The agenda consists of two sections that have been updated through June 30, 1997. Section 1, ``Rules,`` includes (A) rules on which final action has been taken since December 31, 1996, the closing date of the last NRC Regulatory Agenda; (B) rules published previously as proposed rules on which the Commission has not taken final action; (C) rules published as advance notices of proposed rulemaking for which neither a proposed nor final rule has been issued; and (D) unpublished rules on which the NRC expects to take action. Section 2, ``Petitions for Rulemaking,`` includes (A) petitions denied or incorporated into final rules since December 31, 1996; (B) petitions incorporated into proposed rules; and (C) petitions pending staff review.

  6. Oxidant pollution - Effects on health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignon, J.

    Oxidizing pollution consists of air-borne gaseous, liquid and particle pollutants acting like reducing agents that can react with oxygen to produce toxic derivatives: superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicles and other free radicles. The major oxidizing gaseous pollutants are NO/sub x,/ particularly NO/sub 2/, ozone and photo-oxidizing agents as derivatives. Epidemiological studies have generally failed to show any significant relation between NO/sub 2/ concentration and respiratory disorders. Correlations are better with SO/sub 2/ and total suspended particles. In certain very sunny areas with high ozone levels, there is a link between O/sub 3/ concentration and respiratory disorders. Controlled trials comparing healthy and asthmatic volunteers have given variable results with highly raised bronchoreactivity at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 ppm NO/sub 2/ and 0.25 ppm O/sub 3/ for 1 to 2 hours in about half the studies. Using this data, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has established maximum exposure levels. Numerous investigations on exposure of animals to NO/sub 2/ and ozone have been performed using rodents, the dog, the cat and the primate. At concentrations close to peak urban air pollution levels various biochemical and cellular changes in the respiratory apparatus are generally observed. The areas most affected by NO/sub 2/ and ozone are the peripheral airways with distal stenosal bronchiolitis. NO/sub 2/ led to emphysematous lesions and O/sub 3/ to fibrosal hyperplasic lesions in alveolar tissue. Short bursts at high levels were generally more toxic than long exposure at low levels. There is an additive effect between NO/sub 2/ and ozone and with other pollutants. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and ozone is conducive to bacterial and viral infection. Results for genitotoxicity and carcinogenic effects produced by NO/sub 2/ and ozone have hitherto been inconclusive.

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project path forward: nuclear safety equivalency to comparable NRC-licensed facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    This document includes the Technical requirements which meet the nuclear safety objectives of the NRC regulations for fuel treatment and storage facilities. These include requirements regarding radiation exposure limits, safety analysis, design and construction. This document also includes administrative requirements which meet the objectives of the major elements of the NRC licensing process. These include formally documented design and safety analysis, independent technical review, and oppportunity for public involvement.

  8. Health Effects and Energy Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1975-01-01

    The United States will continue to have a high energy demand to maintain our present life style. The development of a national health policy statement that would serve to coordinate federal programs for research and regulation of environmental health is suggested. (BT)

  9. Health Knowledge Effects: An Integrated Community Health Promotion Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Chiu; Lin, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Hsiao-Ting; Ho, Wen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The Taiwanese government subsidizes healthcare providers offering preventive medicine to patients to help reduce the threats of chronic sickness and halt skyrocketing medical expenditures. Usually, nurses are the primary workers who perform community health promotion; however, because of the chronic shortage of working nurses, many Taiwan hospitals have closed wards and deferred the responsibility of promoting primary prevention. With a community health promotion platform integrating interactive response features and Web sites for community patients and hospital staff, a case hospital efficiently sustained the community health services. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the integrated community health promotion platform for conducting education. Fifty-four patients/residents were invited to join a quasi-experiment of health education, and a follow-up survey was conducted to assess the acceptance of the community health promotion platform from both the experimental group of learners/users and the hospital staff. The results showed that the community health promotion platform was effective in improving participant health awareness. The experimental group outperformed the control group, with higher posttest scores and longer knowledge retention. Furthermore, users indicated a high acceptance of the community health promotion platform.

  10. HFE Process Guidance and Standards for potential application to updating NRC guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; J. J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews and evaluates the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of these guidance documents to ensure that they remain state-of-the-art design evaluation tools. Thus, the NRC has initiated a project with BNL to update the NRC guidance to remain current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology. INL supported Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) to update the detailed HFE review criteria contained in NUREG-0711 and NUREG-0700 based on (1) feedback obtained from end users, (2) the results of NRC research and development efforts supporting the NRC staff’s HFE safety reviews, and (3) other material the project staff identify as applicable to the update effort. INL submitted comments on development plans and sections of NUREGs 0800, 0711, and 0700. The contractor prepared the report attached here as the deliverable for this work.

  11. A RE-LOOK AT THE US NRC SAFETY GOALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    mubayi v.

    2013-09-22

    Since they were adopted in 1986, the US NRC’s Safety Goals have played a valuable role as a de facto risk acceptance criterion against which the predicted performance of a commercial nuclear power reactor can be evaluated and assessed. The current safety goals are cast in terms of risk metrics called quantitative health objectives (QHOs), limiting numerical values of the risks of the early and latent health effects of accidental releases of radioactivity to the offsite population. However, while demonstrating compliance with current safety goals has been an important step in assessing the acceptance of the risk posed by LWRs, new or somewhat different goals may be needed that go beyond the current early fatality and latent cancer fatality QHOs in assessing reactor risk. Natural phenomena such as hurricanes seem to be suitable candidates for establishing a background rate to derive a risk goal as their order of magnitude cost of damages is similar to those estimated in severe accident Level 3 PRAs done for nuclear power plants. This paper obtains a risk goal that could have a wider applicability, compared to the current QHOs, as a technology-neutral goal applicable to future reactors and multi-unit sites.

  12. Health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The clearest effect to be seen to date is the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in children. The evidence for increased leukaemia is less clear, but there are indications of increased leukaemia incidence in Russian clean-up workers. There is also evidence of increases in breast cancer, cataract and cardiovascular disease. However, to date the largest public health problem caused by the accident is the mental health impact.

  13. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  14. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, L

    1990-01-01

    health workers and community as a whole. Besides the needful enlargement of sources, these complicated questions are resolvable in observing unity of medical, organizational and economical rationality on all levels of health service management and in all health institutions. This is also the way how to improve the efficiency of health care. The term of efficiency in relation to the health services. In economics, the efficiency is the ratio between the achieved result (effect) and the expenditure of a specified amount of resources. Mathematically, this ratio is expressed as follows: efficiency = end-result/costs Linked to the Health care, the efficiency may be understood also differently from its economic term.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  15. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  16. An overview of health effects on noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Although noise can damage the inner ear and cause other pathological changes, its most common negative effects are non-somatic, such as a perception of noisiness and disturbance of daily activities. According to the definition of health by WHO, this should be considered as a health hazard. These health effects of noise can be classified into the following three categories: (I) hearing loss, perception of noisiness and masking are produced along the auditory pathway and are thus direct and specific effects of noise; (II) interference with performance, rest and sleep, a feeling of discomfort and some physiological effects are produced as indirect and non-specific effects via reticular formation of the midbrain; (III) annoyance is not merely a feeling of unpleasantness but the feeling of being bothered or troubled, and includes the development of a particular attitude toward the noise source. Individual or group behavioral responses will be evoked when annoyance develops. Annoyance and behavioral response are integrated and composite effects. The health effects of noise are modified by many factors related to both the noise and the individual. Noise level, frequency spectrum, duration and impulsiveness modify the effects. Sex, age, health status and mental character also have an influence on the effects. Direct effects of noise are most dependent on the physical nature of the noise and least dependent on human factors. Indirect effects are more dependent, and integrated effects most dependent, on human factors.

  17. nRC: non-coding RNA Classifier based on structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiannaca, Antonino; La Rosa, Massimo; La Paglia, Laura; Rizzo, Riccardo; Urso, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) are small non-coding sequences involved in gene expression regulation of many biological processes and diseases. The recent discovery of a large set of different ncRNAs with biologically relevant roles has opened the way to develop methods able to discriminate between the different ncRNA classes. Moreover, the lack of knowledge about the complete mechanisms in regulative processes, together with the development of high-throughput technologies, has required the help of bioinformatics tools in addressing biologists and clinicians with a deeper comprehension of the functional roles of ncRNAs. In this work, we introduce a new ncRNA classification tool, nRC (non-coding RNA Classifier). Our approach is based on features extraction from the ncRNA secondary structure together with a supervised classification algorithm implementing a deep learning architecture based on convolutional neural networks. We tested our approach for the classification of 13 different ncRNA classes. We obtained classification scores, using the most common statistical measures. In particular, we reach an accuracy and sensitivity score of about 74%. The proposed method outperforms other similar classification methods based on secondary structure features and machine learning algorithms, including the RNAcon tool that, to date, is the reference classifier. nRC tool is freely available as a docker image at https://hub.docker.com/r/tblab/nrc/. The source code of nRC tool is also available at https://github.com/IcarPA-TBlab/nrc.

  18. Verification of Self-Report of Zygosity Determined via DNA Testing in a Subset of the NAS-NRC Twin Registry 40 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T.; Plassman, B.L.; Tanner, C.M.; Dick, D. M.; Rinehart, S.A.; Nichols, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences – National Research Council (NAS-NRC) twin panel, created nearly 50 years ago, had twin zygosity determined primarily via a similarity questionnaire that has been estimated to correctly classify at least 95% of twins. In the course of a study on the genetics of healthy aging in the NAS-NRC twins DNA was collected for genome-wide scanning and zygosity confirmation was examined in 343 participating pairs. The sample was supplemented from two other studies using NAS-NRC twins where one or both co-twins were suspected to have Alzheimer disease or another dementia, or Parkinson’s disease. Overall there were 578 twin-pairs with DNA analyzed. 96.8% (519/536) had confirmation of zygosity assignment via questionnaire. Among 42 pairs whose questionnaire responses were inconclusive for assigning zygosity, 50% were found to be monozygous and 50% were dizygous. There was some evidence for greater misclassification of presumed DZ pairs in the healthy aging study where participation favored pairs who were similar in having a favorable health history and willingness to volunteer without any element of perceived risk for a specific disease influencing participation. PMID:16176721

  19. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  20. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, November 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1976-09-30

    A bibliography of 152 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period November 1975 through June 1976 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are sorted by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography.

  1. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, July--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1977-03-01

    A bibliography of 148 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period July through December 1976 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are sorted by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography.

  2. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC office of nuclear regulatory research, July--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1978-04-01

    A bibliography of 198 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period July through December 1977 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are arranged first by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography.

  3. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that vegetarian diet is healthy, nutritionally adequate and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Analysis of the Lateral Stability of a Truck on the NRC Curved Track Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dukkipati Rao V.

    1994-01-01

    The development of experimental facilities for rail vehicle testing at the NRC Centre for Surface Transportation Technology is being complemented by analytic studies. The purpose of this effort has been to gain insight into the dynamics of rail vehicles in order to guide the development of the Curved Track Simulator (CTS) and to establish an analytic framework for the design and interpretation of tests to be conducted on the CTS. The work described here represents an initial effort towards meeting these objectives.Parametric study results using linear model of freight truck on the CTS showed that (a) increasing roller radius increases critical speed (b) increasing the wheel initial cone angle will decrease the hunting speed (c) increasing the roller cant increases hunting speed (d) decrowning of the wheelset on the rollers will not effect the hunting speed but induces longitudinal destabilzing horizontal forces at the contact and (e) lozenging of wheelset on the rollers induces a yaw moment and the hunting speed decreases with increasing wheelset yaw angle.

  5. Probiotics and oral health effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics are living micro-organisms added to food which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present a general background on probiotics and its health effects in children, and to examine the evidence for oral...... colonization and the possible impact on oral health in children and young adults. METHODS: For delivery and general health effects, recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and other relevant papers were used. Concerning oral installation and oral effects, a broad search for publications in English...... of daily consumption of probiotic milk. CONCLUSION: Bacteriotheraphy in the form of probiotic bacteria with an inhibitory effect on oral pathogens is a promising concept, especially in childhood, but this may not necessarily lead to improved oral health. Further placebo controlled trials that assess...

  6. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.

  7. Preparation for Scaling Studies of Ice-Crystal Icing at the NRC Research Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Fuleki, Dan; Knezevici, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes experiments conducted at the National Research Council (NRC) of Canadas Research Altitiude Test Facility between March 26 and April 11, 2012. The tests, conducted collaboratively between NASA and NRC, focus on three key aspects in preparation for later scaling work to be conducted with a NACA 0012 airfoil model in the NRC Cascade rig: (1) cloud characterization, (2) scaling model development, and (3) ice-shape profile measurements. Regarding cloud characterization, the experiments focus on particle spectra measurements using two shadowgraphy methods, cloud uniformity via particle scattering from a laser sheet, and characterization of the SEA Multi-Element probe. Overviews of each aspect as well as detailed information on the diagnostic method are presented. Select results from the measurements and interpretation are presented which will help guide future work.

  8. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, July--September 1997. Volume 17, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the third quarter of 1996. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included. In some instances, two power reactor facilities are monitored by the same set of dosimeters (e.g., Kewaunee and Point Beach).

  9. Regulatory Multidimensionality of Gas Vesicle Biogenesis in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew I. Yao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that the regulation of gas vesicle biogenesis in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 is multifaceted and appears to integrate environmental and metabolic cues at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The mechanistic details underlying this process, however, remain unclear. In this manuscript, we quantify the contribution of light scattering made by both intracellular and released gas vesicles isolated from Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, demonstrating that each form can lead to distinct features in growth curves determined by optical density measured at 600 nm (OD600. In the course of the study, we also demonstrate the sensitivity of gas vesicle accumulation in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 on small differences in growth conditions and reevaluate published works in the context of our results to present a hypothesis regarding the roles of the general transcription factor tbpD and the TCA cycle enzyme aconitase on the regulation of gas vesicle biogenesis.

  10. Short-run Effects of Job Loss on Health Conditions, Health Insurance, and Health Care Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Jessamyn Schaller; Ann Huff Stevens

    2014-01-01

    Job loss in the United States is associated with long-term reductions in income and long-term increases in mortality rates. This paper examines the short- to medium-term changes in health, health care access, and health care utilization after job loss that lead to these long-term effects. Using a sample with more than 9800 individual job losses and longitudinal data on a wide variety of health-related measures and outcomes, we show that job loss results in worse self-reported health, includin...

  11. Health effects of vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  12. Autonomous Systems, Robotics, and Computing Systems Capability Roadmap: NRC Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornetzer, Steve; Gage, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction. Process, Mission Drivers, Deliverables, and Interfaces. Autonomy. Crew-Centered and Remote Operations. Integrated Systems Health Management. Autonomous Vehicle Control. Autonomous Process Control. Robotics. Robotics for Solar System Exploration. Robotics for Lunar and Planetary Habitation. Robotics for In-Space Operations. Computing Systems. Conclusion.

  13. New high burnup fuel models for NRC`s licensing audit code, FRAPCON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, D.D.; Beyer, C.E.; Painter, C.L. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Fuel behavior models have recently been updated within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission steady-state FRAPCON code used for auditing of fuel vendor/utility-codes and analyses. These modeling updates have concentrated on providing a best estimate prediction of steady-state fuel behavior up to the maximum burnup level s of current data (60 to 65 GWd/MTU rod-average). A decade has passed since these models were last updated. Currently, some U.S. utilities and fuel vendors are requesting approval for rod-average burnups greater than 60 GWd/MTU; however, until these recent updates the NRC did not have valid fuel performance models at these higher burnup levels. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has reviewed 15 separate effects models within the FRAPCON fuel performance code (References 1 and 2) and identified nine models that needed updating for improved prediction of fuel behavior at high burnup levels. The six separate effects models not updated were the cladding thermal properties, cladding thermal expansion, cladding creepdown, fuel specific heat, fuel thermal expansion and open gap conductance. Comparison of these models to the currently available data indicates that these models still adequately predict the data within data uncertainties. The nine models identified as needing improvement for predicting high-burnup behavior are fission gas release (FGR), fuel thermal conductivity (accounting for both high burnup effects and burnable poison additions), fuel swelling, fuel relocation, radial power distribution, fuel-cladding contact gap conductance, cladding corrosion, cladding mechanical properties and cladding axial growth. Each of the updated models will be described in the following sections and the model predictions will be compared to currently available high burnup data.

  14. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  15. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  16. 76 FR 11529 - Gregory Desobry, Ph.D.; Order Requiring Notification of Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... NRC requirements and the Atomic Energy Act. Therefore, on May 24, 2010, the NRC issued a Demand for... on electronic storage media. Participants may not submit paper copies of their filings unless they... presiding officer. Participants are requested not to include personal privacy information, such as social...

  17. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  20. 10 CFR 110.8 - List of nuclear facilities and equipment under NRC export licensing authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under NRC export licensing authority. (a) Nuclear reactors and especially designed or prepared equipment and components for nuclear reactors. (See Appendix A to this part.) (b) Plants for the separation of... plants. (See Appendix N to this part.) (d) Plants for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor...

  1. 77 FR 30332 - Mr. James Chaisson; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... the Internet, or in some cases to mail copies on electronic storage media. Participants may not submit...-Submittal server for any proceeding in which it is participating; and (2) advise the Secretary that the...-certificates.html . System requirements for accessing the E-Submittal server are detailed in the NRC's...

  2. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research…

  3. Grinding the Antitesting Ax: More Bias than Evidence behind NRC Panel's Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    In all the acrimonious discussion surrounding No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), surprisingly little attention has been given to the actual impact of that legislation and other accountability systems on student performance. Now a reputable body, a committee set up by the National Research Council (NRC), the research arm of the National…

  4. Optimization Conditions of Extracellular Proteases Production from a Newly Isolated Streptomyces Pseudogrisiolus NRC-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed E. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial protease represents the most important industrial enzymes, which have an active role in biotechnological processes. The objective of this study was to isolate new strain of Streptomyces that produce proteolytic enzymes with novel properties and the development of the low-cost medium. An alkaline protease producer strain NRC-15 was isolated from Egyptian soil sample. The cultural, morphological, physiological characters and chemotaxonomic evidence strongly indicated that the NRC-15 strain represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, hence the name Strptomyces pseudogrisiolus NRC-15. The culture conditions for higher protease production by NRC-15 were optimized with respect to carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions, pH and temperature. Maximum protease production was obtained in the medium supplemented with 1% glucose, 1% yeast extract, 6% NaCl and 100 μmol/L of Tween 20, initial pH 9.0 at 50 °C for 96 h. The current results confirm that for this strain, a great ability to produce alkaline proteases, which supports the use of applications in industry.

  5. 75 FR 21979 - NRC Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    .... * * * * * (b) * * * (2) * * * (ii) If the nuclear power reactor is located in Region II, submissions must be..., 30, 40, 55, 70, and 73 RIN 3150-AI80 NRC Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes AGENCY... amending its regulations to update the street address for its Region II office and to update the...

  6. 10 CFR 9.37 - Fees for search and review of agency records by NRC personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for search and review of agency records by NRC personnel. 9.37 Section 9.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS Freedom of Information Act... review at a salary rate that is equivalent to a GG-7/step 7, plus 16 percent fringe benefits;...

  7. Public health genomics Relevance of genomics for individual health information management, health policy development and effective health services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brand

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare delivery systems are facing fundamental challenges. New ways of organising theses systems based on the different needs of stakeholders’ are required to meet these challenges. While medicine is currently undergoing remarkable developments from its morphological and phenotype orientation to a molecular and genotype orientation, promoting the importance of prognosis and prediction, the discussion about the relevance of genome-based information and technologies for the health care system as a whole and especially for public health is still in its infancy. The following article discusses the relevance of genome-based information and technologies for individual health information management, health policy development and effective health services.

  8. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 2, Investigators`s Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L. [System Improvements, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haas, P.; Terranova, M. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique.

  9. Polygamy and its Effect on Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polygamy is a form of marriage in which more than one gender involved in its institution. It's seen all around the world, being especially common in the Middle East, South Asia and Africa. Polygamy is a multidisciplinary subject with social, cultural, economic, political and religious aspects. Polygamy mainly has various effects on mental health of women and children. The objective of this article is to accomplish a review on the prevalence and causes of polygamy, studies conducted by various disciplines about the features of polygamic marriage institution and its effect on mental health. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 221-228

  10. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  11. [Cost effectiveness and health sector reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, P

    1995-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a health intervention is an estimate of the relation between what it costs to be provided, and the improvement in health which results from such intervention. Health may improve because the incidence of illness or injury is reduced, because death is avoided or delayed, or because the duration or severity of disability is limited. The calculation of this health benefit combines objective factors, such as the age at incidence and whether or not the outcome is death, with subjective factors such as the severity of disability, the judgement as to the value of life lived at different ages, and the rate at which the future is discounted. The construction and interpretation of the estimate are explained. Also, the paper examines whether the concept of cost-effectiveness is consistent with ethical norms such as equity, and concludes that they are not in conflict. Finally, it addresses the question of how to incorporate cost-effectiveness into a health sector reform, and possible ways to implement it.

  12. Resistance of the Extreme Halophile Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 to Multiple Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygli, Patrick E.; Prajapati, Surendra; DeVeaux, Linda C.; DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya; Mestari, Mohammed Amine; Wells, Douglas P.

    2009-03-01

    The model Archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 is an extreme halophile known for its resistance to multiple stressors, including electron-beam and ultraviolet radiation. It is a well-developed system with a completely sequenced genome and extensive post-genomic tools for the study of a variety of biological processes. To further understand the mechanisms of Halobacterium's, radiation resistance, we previously reported the selection for multiple independent highly resistant mutants using repeated exposure to high doses of 18-20 MeV electrons using a medical S-band Linac. Molecular analysis of the transcriptional profile of several of these mutants revealed a single common change: upregulation of the rfa3 operon. These genes encode proteins homologous to the subunits of eukaryotic Replication Protein A (RPA), a DNA binding protein with major roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. This operon has also been implicated in a somewhat lesser role in resistance of wild type Halobacterium to ultraviolet radiation, suggesting common mechanisms for resistance. To further understand the mechanism of radiation resistance in the mutant strains, we measured the survival after exposure to both electron-beam and ultraviolet radiation, UV-A, B, and C All mutant strains showed increased resistance to electrons when compared with the parent. However, the mutant strains do not display increased UV resistance, and in one case is more sensitive than the parent strain. Thus, the protective role of increased RPA expression within a cell may be specific to the DNA damage caused by the different physical effects induced by high energy electron-beam radiation.

  13. Summary of high burnup fuel issues and NRC`s plan of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    For the past two years the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has concentrated mostly on the so-called reactivity-initiated accidents -- the RIAs -- in this session of the Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting, but this year there is a more varied agenda. RIAs are, of course, not the only events of interest for reactor safety that are affected by extended burnup operation. Their has now been enough time to consider a range of technical issues that arise at high burnup, and a list of such issues being addressed in their research program is given here. (1) High burnup capability of the steady-state code (FRAPCON) used for licensing audit calculations. (2) General capability (including high burnup) of the transient code (FRAPTRAN) used for special studies. (3) Adequacy at high burnup of fuel damage criteria used in regulation for reactivity accidents. (4) Adequacy at high burnup of models and fuel related criteria used in regulation for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). (5) Effect of high burnup on fuel system damage during normal operation, including control rod insertion problems. A distinction is made between technical issues, which may or may not have direct licensing impacts, and licensing issues. The RIAs became a licensing issue when the French test in CABRI showed that cladding failures could occur at fuel enthalpies much lower than a value currently used in licensing. Fuel assembly distortion became a licensing issue when control rod insertion was affected in some operating plants. In this presentation, these technical issues will be described and the NRC`s plan of action to address them will be discussed.

  14. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  15. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Moreira Ramiro do Carmo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polydextrose (PDX is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases.

  16. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  17. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; Dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-09-08

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases.

  18. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  19. Dietary flavonoids: intake, health effects and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been described. They may have beneficial health effects because of their antioxidant properties and their inhibitory role in various stages of tumour development in animal stud

  20. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... has a potential as a healthy and highly satisfying diet for the general population....

  1. Effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Mathew; Melancon, Jim; Sneed, Demarcus; Nunning, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Currently, heart disease and diabetes dominate society as the leading cause of death for Americans. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a lifestyle enhancement program on factors related to the development of heart disease. The Wabash Valley Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) is a community-based lifestyle change program with…

  2. Respiratory health effects in pig farmers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a cross-sectional study of risk factors of chronic respiratory health effects in pig farmers working in the South of the Netherlands. The study population comprised 100 pig farmers with and 100 pig farmers without chronic respiratory symptoms. Base-line lung function, non-speci

  3. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... has a potential as a healthy and highly satisfying diet for the general population....

  4. Effects of nutrition on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G A Agbelusi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition represents a summation of intake, absorption, storage and utilization of foods by the tissues. Oral tissues are one of the most sensitive indicators of nutritional state of the body. Nutritional deficiencies are associated with changes in the integrity (health and appearance of the oral structures/ tissues and these changes are frequently the first clinical signs of deficiency. Nutrition affects oral health and oral health affects nutrition. The effects of malnutrition can be seen in the oral structures in all stages of human growth and development from conception to old age. The consequence of certain oral diseases may compromise the nutrition by affecting the intake and mastication particularly in some vulnerable groups like people with severe caries, severe oral ulceration, advanced periodontal disease and the resulting edentulousness. The HIV pandemic has added another dimension to the issue of nutrition and oral health. Oral lesions are some of the earliest lesions seen in HIV/AIDS and 90% of HIV/AIDS patients will have oral lesions at a point in the course of the disease. These oral lesions are painful; disturb food intake and mastication thereby further compromising the nutrition of the affected individuals. In Africa, particularly the Sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of poverty, economic downturn and the HIV pandemic have added another dimension to the issue of food availability and nutrition. Malnutrition is a real problem in this area. This paper will examine the effects of compromised nutrition on oral health and the reverse.

  5. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  6. Ethnocentrism: a barrier to effective health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiederman, S B

    1986-08-01

    The effective delivery of health care to growing ethnic populations within the United States is a challenge for nurse practitioners. A breakdown in cross-cultural communication and understanding, which stems from the tendency of health care professionals to project their own culturally specific values and behaviors onto the foreign-born patient, has contributed significantly to non-compliance in this patient population. In order to remedy this situation, it is important for nurse practitioners to separate the values of their own cultural background from the cultural background and values of the patients for whom they provide care.

  7. Use of DandD for dose assessment under NRC`s radiological criteria for license termination rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, D.P.; Brown, T.J.; Davis, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Risk and Decision Analysis Dept.; Daily, C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (DandD) software package has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) specifically for the purpose of providing a user-friendly analytical tool to address the dose criteria contained in NRC`s Radiological Criteria for License Termination rule (10 CFR Part 20 Subpart E; NRC, 1997). Specifically, DandD embodies the NRC`s screening methodology to allow licensees to convert residual radioactivity contamination levels at their site to annual dose, in a manner consistent with both 10 CFR Part 20 and the corresponding implementation guidance developed by NRC. The screening methodology employs reasonably conservative scenarios, fate and transport models, and default parameter values that have been developed to allow the NRC to quantitatively estimate the risk of releasing a site given only information about the level of contamination. Therefore, a licensee has the option of specifying only the level of contamination and running the code with the default parameter values, or in the case where site specific information is available to alter the appropriate parameter values and then calculate dose. DandD can evaluate dose for fur different scenarios: residential, building occupancy, building renovation, or drinking water. The screening methodology and DandD are part of a larger decision framework that allows and encourages licensees to optimize decisions on choice of alternative actions at their site, including collection of additional data and information. This decision framework is integrated into and documented in NRC`s technical guidance for decommissioning.

  8. NRC`s proposed rulemaking on the documentation and reporting of low-level radioactive waste shipment manifest information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahs, W.R.; Haisfield, M.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Since the 1982 promulgation of regulations for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), requirements have been in place to control transfers of LLW intended for disposal at licensed land disposal facilities. These requirements established a manifest tracking system and defined processes to control transfers of LLW intended for disposal at a land disposal facility. Because the regulations did not specify the format for the LLW shipment manifests, it was not unexpected that the two operators of the three currently operating disposal sites should each have developed their own manifest forms. The forms have many similarities and the collected information, in many cases, is identical; however, these manifests incorporate unique operator preferences and also reflect the needs of the Agreement State regulatory authority in the States where the disposal sites are located. Since Agreement State regulations must be compatible with, but need not always be identical to, those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the possibility of a proliferation of different manifest forms containing variations in collected information could be envisioned. If these manifests were also to serve a shipping paper purpose, effective integration of the Department of Transportations` (DOT) requirements would also have to be addressed. This wide diversity in uses of manifest information by Federal and State regulatory authorities, other State or Compact entities, and disposal site operators, suggested a single consolidated approach to develop a uniform manifest format with a baseline information content and to define recordkeeping requirements. The NRC, in 1989, had embarked on a rulemaking activity to establish a base set of manifest information needs for regulatory purposes. In response to requests from State and Regional Compact organizations who are attempting to design, develop and operate LLW disposal facilities, and with the general support of Agreement State regulatory

  9. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  10. [Dependent relative: Effects on family health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Fernández, M Eugenia; Gil Lacruz, Ana I; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Viñas López, Antonio

    2017-04-18

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. The study included 19,351 participants aged over 25 years who completed the 2011-2012 Spanish National Health Survey. This research is based on demographic information obtained from a Spanish National Health Survey (2011/12). Using an empirical framework, the Logit model was select and the data reported as odds ratio. The estimations were repeated independently by sub-groups of age and gender. The study showed that the health of people who share their lives with a dependent person is worse than those who do not have any dependent person at home (they are 5 times at higher risk of developing health problems). The study found that being a woman, advance age, low educational level and does not work, also has an influence. Being a caregiver reduces the likelihood of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise, relaxation, or eating a balanced diet. Living with a dependent person reduces the likelihood of maintaining healthy lifestyles and worsens the state of health of family members. Significant differences in gender and age were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental health effects of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.

  12. Results from the NRC AP600 testing program at the Oregon State University APEX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, J.N. Jr. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Bessette, D.E. [Nuclear regulatory Systems, Washington, DC (United States); DiMarzo, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Nuclear Engineering at Oregon State University (OSU) is performing a series of confirmatory tests for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These tests are being conducted in the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) facility which is a 1/4 length scale and 1/192 volume scale integral system simulation of the Westinghouse Advanced Passive 600 MWe (AP600) plant. The purpose of the testing program is to examine AP600 passive safety system performance, particularly during long term cooling. Thus far, OSU has successfully performed ten integral system tests for the NRC. This paper presents a description of the APEX facility and summarizes the important results of the NRC test program at OSU.

  13. The NRC's SPAR Models: Current Status, Future Development, and Modeling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Buell

    2008-09-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) play an increasingly important role in the regulatory framework of the U.S. nuclear power industry. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) relies on a set of plant-specific Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models to provide critical risk-based input to the regulatory process. The Significance Determination Process (SDP), Management Directive 8.3 - NRC Incident Investigation Program, Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) and Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) programs are among the regulatory initiatives that receive significant input from the SPAR models. Other uses of the SPAR models include: Screening & Resolution of Generic Safety Issues, License Amendment reviews and Notice of Enforcement Discretion (NOEDs). This paper presents the current status of SPAR model development activities, future development objectives, and issues related to the development, verification and maintenance of the SPAR models.

  14. An overview of fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) research at NRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S.; Speis, T.P. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, North Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-03-01

    An overview of the fuel-coolant interactions (FCI) research programs sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is presented in this paper. A historical perspective of the program is provided with particular reference to in-vessel steam explosion and its consequences on the reactor pressure vessel and the containment integrity. Emphasis is placed on research in the last decade involving fundamentals of FCI phenomenology, namely, premixing, triggering, propagation, and energetics. The status of the current understanding of in-vessel steam explosion-induced containment failure (alpha-mode) issue, and other FCI issues related to reactor vessel and containment integrity are reported, including the extensive review and discussion of these issues at the recently held second Steam Explosion Review Group Workshop (SERG-2). Ongoing NRC research programs are discussed in detail. Future research programs including those recommended at the SERG-2 workshop are outlined.

  15. NRC assessment of the Department of Energy annealing demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.A.; Malik, S.N. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Thermal annealing is the only known method for mitigating the effects of neutron irradiation embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Westinghouse, Cooperheat, Electric Power Research Institute (with participating utilities), Westinghouse Owner`s Group, Consumers Power, Electricite` de France, Duquesne Light and the Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (Japan) sponsored an annealing demonstration project (ADP) at Marble Hill. The Marble Hill Plant, located in Madison, Indiana, is a Westinghouse 4 loop design. The plant was nearly 70% completed when the project was canceled. Hence, the RPV was never irradiated. The paper will present highlights from the NRCs independent evaluation of the Marble Hill Annealing Demonstration Project.

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickan, Sharon M

    2005-05-01

    While it is recognised that effective health care teams are associated with quality patient care, the literature is comparatively sparse in defining the outcomes of effective teamwork. This literature review of the range of organisational, team and individual benefits of teamwork complements an earlier article which summarised the antecedent conditions for (input) and team processes (throughput) of effective teams. This article summarises the evidence for a range of outcome measures of effective teams. Organisational benefits of teamwork include reduced hospitalisation time and costs, reduced unanticipated admissions, better accessibility for patients, and improved coordination of care. Team benefits include efficient use of health care services, enhanced communication and professional diversity. Patients report benefits of enhanced satisfaction, acceptance of treatment and improved health outcomes. Finally, team members report enhanced job satisfaction, greater role clarity and enhanced well-being. Due to the inherent complexity of teamwork, a constituency model of team evaluation is supported where key stakeholders identify and measure the intended benefits of a team.

  17. A multilevel model of organizational health culture and the effectiveness of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen

    2014-01-01

    Organizational health culture is a health-oriented core characteristic of the organization that is shared by all members. It is effective in regulating health-related behavior for employees and could therefore influence the effectiveness of health promotion efforts among organizations and employees. This study applied a multilevel analysis to verify the effects of organizational health culture on the organizational and individual effectiveness of health promotion. At the organizational level, we investigated the effect of organizational health culture on the organizational effectiveness of health promotion. At the individual level, we adopted a cross-level analysis to determine if organizational health culture affects employee effectiveness through the mediating effect of employee health behavior. The study setting consisted of the workplaces of various enterprises. We selected 54 enterprises in Taiwan and surveyed 20 full-time employees from each organization, for a total sample of 1011 employees. We developed the Organizational Health Culture Scale to measure employee perceptions and aggregated the individual data to formulate organization-level data. Organizational effectiveness of health promotion included four dimensions: planning effectiveness, production, outcome, and quality, which were measured by scale or objective indicators. The Health Promotion Lifestyle Scale was adopted for the measurement of health behavior. Employee effectiveness was measured subjectively in three dimensions: self-evaluated performance, altruism, and happiness. Following the calculation of descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test the multilevel hypotheses. Organizational health culture had a significant effect on the planning effectiveness (β = .356, p organizational health culture on three dimensions of employee effectiveness were completely mediated by health behavior. The construct connections established in this multilevel model will help in

  18. Cohort Profile: The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Margaret; Harris, Jennifer R; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt; Smith, Nicholas L; Snieder, Harold; Spiro, Avron; Butler, David A

    2015-06-01

    The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry) is a comprehensive registry of White male twin pairs born in the USA between 1917 and 1927, both of the twins having served in the military. The purpose was medical research and ultimately improved clinical care. The cohort was assembled in the early 1960s with identification of approximately 16,000 twin pairs, review of service records, a brief mailed questionnaire assessing zygosity, and a health survey largely comparable to questionnaires used at that time with Scandinavian twin registries. Subsequent large-scale data collection occurred in 1974, 1985 and 1998, repeating the health survey and including information on education, employment history and earnings. Self-reported data have been supplemented with mortality, disability and medical data through record linkage. Potential collaborators should access the study website [http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Veterans/TwinsStudy.aspx] or e-mail the Medical Follow-up Agency at [Twins@nas.edu]. Questionnaire data are being prepared for future archiving with the National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA) at the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), University of Michigan, MI.

  19. Estimación lineal de los requerimientos nutricionales del NRC para cabras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Elizondo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron ecuaciones de regresi ón lineal para calcular los requerimientos nutricionales de las cabras (TND, ED, EM, EN, PC, PD, Ca, P, Vitamina A y Vitamina D en diferentes etapas fisiológicas: mantenimiento, crecimiento y producción de leche, se utiliza como base las tablas de requerimientos nutricionales del NRC. En todas las ecuaciones se calculó el coeficiente de determinación para conocer el grado de ajuste.

  20. Estimación lineal de los requerimientos nutricionales del NRC para cabras

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Elizondo

    2002-01-01

    Se obtuvieron ecuaciones de regresi ón lineal para calcular los requerimientos nutricionales de las cabras (TND, ED, EM, EN, PC, PD, Ca, P, Vitamina A y Vitamina D) en diferentes etapas fisiológicas: mantenimiento, crecimiento y producción de leche, se utiliza como base las tablas de requerimientos nutricionales del NRC. En todas las ecuaciones se calculó el coeficiente de determinación para conocer el grado de ajuste.

  1. Health-related ad information and health motivation effects on product evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effect of health-related ad information on perceived product healthfulness and purchase intention. Also, the study investigates whether consumers' health motivation moderates the effects, because of the way health motivation affects processing of health-related information...... in ads. Three types of healthrelated ad elements are distinguished: functional claims, process claims and health imagery. These elements were combined in mock ads and an online experiment was run to test the study hypotheses. Results show that health imagery has the largest impact on consumers' product...... evaluations, while functional claims and process claims have much smaller effects. Health motivation shows significant interaction with process claims on product evaluations....

  2. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  3. Health Effects of Noise Exposure in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Clark, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Environmental noise exposure, such as road traffic noise and aircraft noise, is associated with a range of health outcomes in children. Children demonstrate annoyance responses to noise, and noise is also related to lower well-being and stress responses, such as increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Noise does not cause more serious mental health problems, but there is growing evidence for an association with increased hyperactivity symptoms. Studies also suggest that noise might cause changes in cardiovascular functioning, and there is some limited evidence for an effect on low birth weight. There is robust evidence for an effect of school noise exposure on children's cognitive skills such as reading and memory, as well as on standardised academic test scores. Environmental noise does not usually reach levels that are likely to affect children's hearing; however, increasing use of personal electronic devices may leave some children exposed to harmful levels of noise.

  4. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  5. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-13

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  6. Purification and characterization of gamma poly glutamic acid from newly Bacillus licheniformis NRC20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Sanaa E; Aly, Magda M; Alakilli, Saleha Y; Al-Seeni, Madeha N

    2015-03-01

    γ-poly glutamic acid (γ-PGA) has received considerable attention for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. γ-PGA from the newly isolate Bacillus licheniformis NRC20 was purified and characterized using diffusion distance agar plate, mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. All analysis indicated that γ-PGA is a homopolymer composed of glutamic acid. Its molecular weight was determined to be 1266 kDa. It was composed of L- and D-glutamic acid residues. An amplicon of 3050 represents the γ-PGA-coding genes was obtained, sequenced and submitted in genbank database. Its amino acid sequence showed high similarity with that obtained from B. licheniformis strains. The bacterium NRC 20 was independent of L-glutamic acid but the polymer production enhanced when cultivated in medium containing L-glutamic acid as the sole nitrogen source. Finally we can conclude that γ-PGA production from B. licheniformis NRC20 has many promised applications in medicine, industry and nanotechnology.

  7. Development of probabilistic RESRAD computer codes for NRC decommissioning and license termination applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. Y.; Yu, C.; Mo. T.; Trottier, C.

    2000-10-17

    In 1999, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) tasked Argonne National Laboratory to modify the existing RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes to perform probabilistic, site-specific dose analysis for use with the NRC's Standard Review Plan for demonstrating compliance with the license termination rule. The RESRAD codes have been developed by Argonne to support the US Department of Energy's (DOEs) cleanup efforts. Through more than a decade of application, the codes already have established a large user base in the nation and a rigorous QA support. The primary objectives of the NRC task are to: (1) extend the codes' capabilities to include probabilistic analysis, and (2) develop parameter distribution functions and perform probabilistic analysis with the codes. The new codes also contain user-friendly features specially designed with graphic-user interface. In October 2000, the revised RESRAD (version 6.0) and RESRAD-BUILD (version 3.0), together with the user's guide and relevant parameter information, have been developed and are made available to the general public via the Internet for use.

  8. NRC staff review of licensee responses to pressure-locking and thermal-binding issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbun, H.J.

    1996-12-01

    Commercial nuclear power plant operating experience has indicated that pressure locking and thermal binding represent potential common mode failure mechanisms that can cause safety-related power-operated gate valves to fail in the closed position, thus rendering redundant safety-related systems incapable of performing their safety functions. In Generic Letter (GL) 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves,{close_quotes} the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff requested that nuclear power plant licensees take certain actions to ensure that valves susceptible to pressure locking or thermal binding are capable of performing their safety functions within the current licensing bases of the facility. The NRC staff has received summary information from licensees in response to GL 95-07 describing actions they have taken to prevent the occurrence of pressure locking and thermal binding. The NRC staff has developed a systematic process to help ensure uniform and consistent review of licensee submittals in response to GL 95-07.

  9. The effect of trends in health and longevity on health services use by older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, B.; Huisman, M.; Meijboom, Bert; Deeg, D.J.H.; Polder, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of population aging on future health services use depends on the relationship between longevity gains and health. Whether further gains in life expectancy will be paired by improvements in health is uncertain. We therefore analyze the effect of population ageing on health servi

  10. Acute health effects common during graffiti removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langworth, S; Anundi, H; Friis, L; Johanson, G; Lind, M L; Söderman, E; Akesson, B A

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify possible health effects caused by different cleaning agents used in graffiti removal. In 38 graffiti removers working 8-h shifts in the Stockholm underground system, the exposure to organic solvents was assessed by active air sampling, biological monitoring, and by interviews and a questionnaire. Health effects were registered, by physical examinations, porta7ble spirometers and self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of symptoms was compared with 49 controls working at the underground depots, and with 177 population controls. The 8-h time-weighted average exposures (TWA) were low, below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents. The short-term exposures occasionally exceeded the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL), especially during work in poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators. The graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of tiredness and upper airway symptoms compared with the depot controls, and significantly more tiredness, headaches and symptoms affecting airways, eyes and skin than the population controls. Among the graffiti removers, some of the symptoms increased during the working day. On a group basis, the lung function registrations showed normal values. However, seven workers displayed a clear reduction of peak expiratory flow (PEF) over the working shift. Though their average exposure to organic solvents was low, the graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of unspecific symptoms such as fatigue and headache as well as irritative symptoms from the eyes and respiratory tract, compared with the controls. To prevent adverse health effects it is important to inform the workers about the health risks, and to restrict use of the most hazardous chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to develop good working practices and to encourage the use of personal protective equipment.

  11. SU-A-210-02: Medical Physics Opportunities at the NRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abogunde, M. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of this student annual meeting is to address topics that are becoming more relevant to medical physicists, but are not frequently addressed, especially for students and trainees just entering the field. The talk is divided into two parts: medical billing and regulations. Hsinshun Wu – Why should we learn radiation oncology billing? Many medical physicists do not like to be involved with medical billing or coding during their career. They believe billing is not their responsibility and sometimes they even refuse to participate in the billing process if given the chance. This presentation will talk about a physicist’s long career and share his own experience that knowing medical billing is not only important and necessary for every young medical physicist, but that good billing knowledge could provide a valuable contribution to his/her medical physics development. Learning Objectives: The audience will learn the basic definition of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes performed in a Radiation Oncology Department. Understand the differences between hospital coding and physician-based or freestanding coding. Apply proper CPT coding for each Radiation Oncology procedure. Each procedure with its specific CPT code will be discussed in detail. The talk will focus on the process of care and use of actual workflow to understand each CPT code. Example coding of a typical Radiation Oncology procedure. Special procedure coding such as brachytherapy, proton therapy, radiosurgery, and SBRT. Maryann Abogunde – Medical physics opportunities at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) The NRC’s responsibilities include the regulation of medical uses of byproduct (radioactive) materials and oversight of medical use end-users (licensees) through a combination of regulatory requirements, licensing, safety oversight including inspection and enforcement, operational experience evaluation, and regulatory support activities. This presentation will explore the

  12. Enhancing a taxonomy for health information technology: an exploratory study of user input towards folksonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brian E; McGowan, Julie J

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has created a public website to disseminate critical information regarding its health information technology initiative. The website is maintained by AHRQ's Natiomal Resource Center (NRC) for Health Information Technology. In the latest continuous quality improvement project, the NRC used the site's search logs to extract user-generated search phrases. The phrases were then compared to the site's controlled vocabulary with respect to language, grammar, and search precision. Results of the comparison demonstrate that search log data can be a cost-effective way to improve controlled vocabularies as well as information retrieval. User-entered search phrases were found to also share many similarities with folksonomy tags.

  13. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negeri KG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results: Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000 in the region. Conclusion: Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: health aid, infant mortality, developing countries, panel data

  14. Revised standards for protection against radiation; minor amendments--NRC. Final rule: minor corrective and conforming amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This final rule makes a number of minor corrective and conforming amendments to the NRC's revised standards for protection against radiation. The final rule is necessary to correct recently discovered errors in the text of the revised standards, to conform portions of regulatory text to the Commission's decision to defer mandatory implementation of the revised standards until 1994, and to reflect the recent OMB approval of the use of NRC Forms 4 and 5.

  15. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Rosell, Magdalena S

    2006-02-01

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B(12) and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B(12) and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B(12). Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

  16. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places......, seafarers are also exposed to vibrations to the feet when standing on vibrating surfaces onboard. Anecdotal reports have related the development of “white feet” to local exposure to vibration, e.g. in mining, but this connection has not been investigated in the maritime setting. As known from studies...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...

  17. Health effects of toxicants: Online knowledge support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Philip; Judson, Richard; de Marcellus, Sally; de Knecht, Joop; Leinala, Eeva

    2016-01-15

    Research in toxicology generates vast quantities of data which reside on the Web and are subsequently appropriated and utilized to support further research. This data includes a broad spectrum of information about chemical, biological and radiological agents which can affect health, the nature of the effects, treatment, regulatory measures, and more. Information is structured in a variety of formats, including traditional databases, portals, prediction models, and decision making support tools. Online resources are created and housed by a variety of institutions, including libraries and government agencies. This paper focuses on three such institutions and the tools they offer to the public: the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and its Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Reference is also made to other relevant organizations.

  18. Proposed NRC portable target case for short-range triangulation-based 3D imaging systems characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Benjamin; MacKinnon, David; Cournoyer, Luc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    2011-03-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is currently evaluating and designing artifacts and methods to completely characterize 3-D imaging systems. We have gathered a set of artifacts to form a low-cost portable case and provide a clearly-defined set of procedures for generating characteristic values using these artifacts. In its current version, this case is specifically designed for the characterization of short-range (standoff distance of 1 centimeter to 3 meters) triangulation-based 3-D imaging systems. The case is known as the "NRC Portable Target Case for Short-Range Triangulation-based 3-D Imaging Systems" (NRC-PTC). The artifacts in the case have been carefully chosen for their geometric, thermal, and optical properties. A set of characterization procedures are provided with these artifacts based on procedures either already in use or are based on knowledge acquired from various tests carried out by the NRC. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T), a well-known terminology in the industrial field, was used to define the set of tests. The following parameters of a system are characterized: dimensional properties, form properties, orientation properties, localization properties, profile properties, repeatability, intermediate precision, and reproducibility. A number of tests were performed in a special dimensional metrology laboratory to validate the capability of the NRC-PTC. The NRC-PTC will soon be subjected to reproducibility testing using an intercomparison evaluation to validate its use in different laboratories.

  19. The Effects of Alarm Display, Processing, and Availability on Crew Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    A-A NUREG /CR-6691 BNL- NUREG -52600 The Effects of Alarm Display, Processing, and Availability on Crew Performance I Brookhaven National...OF REFERENCE MATERIALS IN NRC PUBLICATIONS NRC Reference Material As of November 1999, you may electronically access NUREG -series publications and... NUREG -series publications; Federal Register notices; applicant, licensee, and vendor documents and correspondence; NRC correspondence and internal

  20. Cadmium and children: exposure and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Zuurbier, Moniek; Naginiene, Rima; van den Hazel, Peter; Stilianakis, Nikolaos; Ronchetti, Roberto; Koppe, Janna G

    2006-10-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis which are observed at adult age. Cadmium exposure through inhalation is also associated with lung cancer in adulthood. Although transfer to the neonate through the placenta and through breast milk is limited, teratogenic and developmental effects were observed in experimental animals. The database on human studies involving children is limited, yet effects on motoric and perceptual behaviour in children have been associated with elevated in utero cadmium exposure. In school age children urinary cadmium levels were associated with immune suppressive effects. More studies are needed to confirm these results. Experimental data in vitro and in animals refer to effects of cadmium on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis at different levels. This may lead to disorders of the endocrine and/or immune system. Cadmium exposure at early age should be limited as much as possible to prevent direct effects on children and to prevent accumulation of cadmium which may have serious health effects only becoming manifest at older age.

  1. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae, commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  2. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica)], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  3. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar; Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus[Tamarindus indica L.(T.Indira)],belongs to the family Leguminosae(Fabaceae),commonly known as Tamarind tree,is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine.The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T.indir.a.Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google.The keywords Tamarind,T.indica were used for search.Only the health related articles selected.Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent,Africa,Pakistan,Bangladesh,Nigeria and most of the tropical countries.It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain,diarrhea and dysentery,some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations,wound healing,constipation and inflammation.It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals,and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic,antimicrobial,antivenomic,antioxidant,antimalarial,cardioprotective,hepatoprotective,antiasthmatic,laxative and anti-hyperlipidemir activity.T.indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases.It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access.Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  4. Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women in Jos, Plateau State. ... and practices of proper domestic refuse handling and factors affecting same ... Conclusion: Health education intervention was found to be effective in ...

  5. Determinants of Perceived Health and Environmental Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Perceived Health and Environmental Effects of Fuelwood Exploitation among Farm Families in Ogun State, Nigeria. ... fuelwood exploitation on their perception of environmental and health effects of fuelwood ... Article Metrics.

  6. Health effects of the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.

    1987-02-01

    The paper on radiation health effects was presented to the United Kingdom (U.K.) Nuclear Electricity Information Group, 1986. The radiation risks to workers in the U.K. nuclear industry are discussed in terms of the results of mortality studies and allowable dose limits. The radiation doses to members of the public from the nuclear industry, i.e. from discharges of radioactive wastes to the environment, are also described, along with epidemiological studies. Finally risks to the public from radiation accidents are briefly outlined. (U.K.).

  7. Health literacy and its importance for effective communication. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    This is the first of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. The authors define the components of health literacy, as well as describing the extent and implications of limited health literacy for parents/caregivers and their children. The article also identifies the link between poor health literacy and health outcomes and outlines a framework for adolescent health literacy. Part two will be published in May.

  8. [Nutrient content and health effects of nuts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías-Rangil, I; García-Lorda, P; Torres-Moreno, M; Bulló, M; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2004-06-01

    Nuts are foods with a high energy density, due in part to its small water content. They also present a low saturated fat content (unsaturated fat contribution (40-60%). They represent one of the richest sources of dietary fiber, which is basically of the insoluble type. The effects of nut intake on health have been widely studied. Several prospective epidemiological studies performed on large cohorts have consistently shown that regular consumption of small amounts of nuts is negatively related to the risk of cardiovascular disease and to the risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. From these studies can be concluded that regular consumption of small amounts of nuts leads to a 30-50% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, intervention studies have shown a positive effect of nut intake on lipid profile with significant reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels and small or null effects on the HDL fraction. More recently, some studies have focused on the effect of nuts on body weight. At present, no evidences support a detrimental effect of nut consumption on body weight. On the contrary some weight loss studies suggest a beneficial effect of nut intake on body weight regulation.

  9. Health care provider beliefs concerning the adverse health effects of environmental and ecosystem degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckner, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about health care provider interest, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the health effects of human-induced environmental degradation (HIED). A survey was created and distributed to better characterize health provider beliefs about the adverse health effects of HIED. An invitation to participate in an online 24-question survey was e-mailed to 2177 members of the Wilderness Medical Society to characterize experience with health effects of HIED, types of health effects attributed to HIED, attitudes toward HIED, and educational sources about HIED. Data were analyzed from 665 responses, a response rate of 35%. Results demonstrate that health care providers identify a large number and variety of health effects associated with HIED, although exacerbation of asthma, reactive airways disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were most commonly identified. Over 80% report that HIED has affected the health of a patient they have cared for; 60% report patients have asked about HIED effects on health; and 93% report that they do not distribute information to patients about HIED. Over 75% of respondents believe there is an unfulfilled need for information and education about the adverse health effects of HIED. Respondents report continuing medical education, journal articles, and medical schools/residency programs as the best methods for education and for raising awareness of the health effects of HIED. Results indicate strong health professional belief in health effects of HIED, patient concern related to the health effects of HIED, and a need to educate both health care providers and patients on the adverse health effects of HIED.

  10. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health impact, is particulate matter (PM) of which road traffic is a major source. Therefore, the health effects of traffic-related air pollution have been under considerable scrutiny. We examined in vivo t...

  11. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  12. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  13. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  14. Epidemiology of health effects of radiofrequency exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbom, Anders; Green, Adele; Kheifets, Leeka; Savitz, David; Swerdlow, Anthony

    2004-12-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive review of epidemiologic studies about the effects of radiofrequency fields (RFs) on human health in order to summarize the current state of knowledge, explain the methodologic issues that are involved, and aid in the planning of future studies. There have been a large number of occupational studies over several decades, particularly on cancer, cardiovascular disease, adverse reproductive outcome, and cataract, in relation to RF exposure. More recently, there have been studies of residential exposure, mainly from radio and television transmitters, and especially focusing on leukemia. There have also been studies of mobile telephone users, particularly on brain tumors and less often on other cancers and on symptoms. Results of these studies to date give no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relation between RF exposure and any adverse health effect. On the other hand, the studies have too many deficiencies to rule out an association. A key concern across all studies is the quality of assessment of RF exposure. Despite the ubiquity of new technologies using RFs, little is known about population exposure from RF sources and even less about the relative importance of different sources. Other cautions are that mobile phone studies to date have been able to address only relatively short lag periods, that almost no data are available on the consequences of childhood exposure, and that published data largely concentrate on a small number of outcomes, especially brain tumor and leukemia.

  15. Effect of Thyroid Disorders on Skeletal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVS Krishna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid physiology is linked to skeletal health. T3 and TSH independently affect bone growth and development, mineralization and remodeling. Thyrotoxicosis, a clinical syndrome characterized by excess thyroid hormone is one of the commonly recognized conditions of the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis causes accelerated bone remodeling and serves as one of the risk factors for osteoporosis. Treatment of thyrotoxicosis leads to reversal of bone loss and decreases fracture risk. Though treatment of thyrotoxicosis leads to improvement of bone mineral density (BMD, it is not necessarily to normal levels. The effects of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the bone are controversial. Thyroidectomy and methimazole may decrease the risk of fractures in these patients compared with treatment with radioiodine. Hypothyroidism may also be risk factor for fractures. Replacement therapy with levothyroxine in hypothyroid patients may temporarily reduce bone density after initiation of therapy. However it is not associated with osteoporosis or increased fracture risk. TSH suppressing doses of levothyroxine may reduce BMD, especially in post menopausal women. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D in hyperthyroid patients should be considered. There are limited studies in India pertinent to reversibility of these changes. In this review, we have discussed about the effects of various aspects of skeletal health in thyroid disorders Turk Jem 2012; 16: 19-25

  16. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  17. RADIATION AND EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YAREN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern world, living without radiation is impossible. Radiation is defined as ?energy transmitted through space as waves or particles? and also determined as ?particles or waves emitted from the nucleus of unstable radioactive atoms to become stable? Mainly two types of radiation are exist; ionising radiation and non-ionising radiation. Ionising radiation is consist of alpha, beta particules, neutrons, x rays and gamma rays. Ionising radiation which can be measured by ion chambers, geiger-Mueller detectors, Scintillation Counters, fluorescent counters etc. Has harmfull effects on human health in levels of molecular, cellular, tissue, organs and organ systems. These harmfull effects can also be named somatic and genetic. One of the most encountered problem is ?Acute Radiation Syndrom? which has three sub syndroms called haematopoetic syndrom, gastrointestinal syndrom and neurovascular syndrom. Exposure time, distance and armorisation are the key elements of protection from radiation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(4.000: 199-208

  18. Effective Feedback Procedures in Games for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Moderator Tom; Bower, Participants Kelly; Krebs, Paul; Lamoth, Claudine J; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    Feedback on game performance can be provided in many ways (e.g., cumulative points on game achievements, points on selected aspects of game play, biofeedback, brief statements offered during gameplay on choices made, verbal feedback at end of gameplay on overall performance, etc.). Feedback could be used motivationally to maintain player interest and involvement, informationally to guide the player in more effective choices, to build player confidence, and for a variety of other purposes. Although diverse feedback types and purposes are possible, some are more likely to be useful and effective. We have contacted several accomplished game designers and game researchers to obtain their insights into issues in feedback in Games for Health Journal.

  19. Estimación lineal de los requerimientos nutricionales del NRC para cabras.

    OpenAIRE

    Elizondo-Salazar, Jorge Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Se obtuvieron ecuaciones de regresión lineal para calcular los requerimientos nutricionales delas cabras (TND, ED, EM, EN, PC, PD, Ca, P, Vitamina A yVitamina D) en diferentes etapas fisiológicas: mantenimiento,crecimiento y producción de leche, se utiliza como baselas tablas de requerimientos nutricionales del NRC. En todaslas ecuaciones se calculó el coeficiente de determinación paraconocer el grado de ajuste. Linear regressionecuations have been obtained to calculate nutrientrequirement...

  20. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health im

  1. Update on human health effects of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being.

  2. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (5OH-MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (5oxo-MEHP, mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl phthalate (5cx-MEPP, and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  3. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  4. Production of levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis NRC 33a and enzymic synthesis of levan and Fructo-Oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmed F; Mahmoud, Doaa A R; Esawy, Mona A T

    2005-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis NRC 33a was able to produce both inducible and constitutive extracellular levansucrase, respectively, using sucrose and glucose as carbon source. The optimal production of the levansucrase was at 30 degrees C. The effect of different nitrogen sources showed that baker's yeast with 2% concentration gave the highest levansucrase activity. Addition of 0.15 g/L MgSO(4) was the most favorable for levansucrase production. The enzymic synthesis of levan was studied using 60% acetone fraction. The results indicated that high enzyme concentrations produced increasing amounts of levan, and hence conversion of fructose to levan reached 84% using 1,000 microg/ml enzyme protein. Sucrose concentration was the most effective factor controlling the molecular weight of the synthesized levan. The conversion of fructose to levan was maximal at 30 degrees C. The time of reaction clearly affected the conversion of fructose to levan, which reached its maximum productivity at 18 hours (92%). Identification of levan indicated that fructose was the building unit of levan.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Health Coaching: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rachel; Giese, Jeannie

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate published literature to distinguish how health coaching influences the cost of chronic disease management in insured adults with chronic conditions. An integrated literature review was conducted. MEDLINE, Business Source Complete, and OneSearch were searched for the years 2001-2016 utilizing the following key words: health coaching, health coaching AND insurance companies, health coaching AND cost, health coaching AND health insurance, and health coaching AND insurance cost. A total of 67 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed for applicability. Of those, 27 articles were found to be relevant to the research question. The practice settings of these articles are mostly primary care and wellness programs. Throughout the literature, health coaching has been found effective in chronic disease management such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of health coaching are limited. The current literature does not clearly demonstrate that health coaching lowers expenditures and patient copayments in the short term but projects future savings. Health coaching has the potential to improve chronic disease management and lower health care expenditures. Further long-term research is needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health coaching. It has been projected that the cost-effectiveness of health coaching will be long-term or over 12 months after initiating the health coaching program.

  6. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk.

  7. A review on the analysis of ingredients with health care effects in health food in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Wen Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the analysis of ingredients with health care effects in health food in Taiwan. The top 10 items on the list of registered health food products up to 2014 in Taiwan are described, including monocolin K, ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, β-glucans, inulin, catechins, oligosaccharides, resistant maltodextrin, amino acids, medium chain fatty acids, and polysaccharides. Some analytical methods for the analysis of ingredients with health care effects are announced to the public on the website of health food section of the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for the application and the postmarket surveillance of health food. Each application of health food should include the appropriate analytical method for the analysis of the ingredient or specific compound that has the health care effect, for the sake of quality assurance. Self-management of each applicant is required for regulation, the reputation of its own, and social responsibility to the consumers.

  8. Effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthyala Pavana Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary dental care can be a way of achieving good oral health for the community. This can be achieved by integration of oral health care with the existing primary health care activities through training of primary health care workers on aspects of oral health. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center (PHC in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Descriptive longitudinal study was conducted from June 2010 to August 2010 at a PHC. Knowledge about oral health among primary health care workers was pretested using a self-administered questionnaire prepared in local language (Telugu. Later after a month health education was provided to the health workers, and pamphlets with information on oral health were distributed. Posttest assessment was done 1-month after providing health education using the same questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 12.0 software, Student′s t-test was used to compare knowledge scores between pre and posttests. Results: A total of 118 Primary Health Care Workers with the majority in the 20-30 years age group participated in the study. Posttest assessment showed a change in knowledge level with an overall increase in knowledge level of primary health care workers with a mean difference of 12.56 ± 3.23, which was highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The knowledge about oral health was poor, and it improved after providing health education to primary health care workers. Change in knowledge was appreciable and may play a key role in oral health promotion of the vast majority of the rural population.

  9. Characterization of Extracellular Dextranase from a Novel Halophilic Bacillus subtilis NRC-B233b a Mutagenic Honey Isolate under Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Esawy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis NRC-B233b was isolated from Libyan honey sample proved to be a potent dextranase producer by applying solid state fermentation and utilizing corn flour as the sole carbon source. The optimized culture conditions for dextranase productions were 37°C, pH 10, 32 h, and 20% (v/w moisture content. A unique character of this isolate is its ability to produce steady dextranase irrespective to the presence of NaCl in the medium. The addition of 0.175 Mm CrCl3 increased the enzyme production by about 4.5 fold. Further improvement in enzyme production was achieved by simple UV mutation which increased the enzyme production up to about 2842 U/g. The crude extract has been partially purified about 112-fold from crude extract by only two purification steps involving ultra-filtration. The partially purified dextranase showed its maximum activity at pH 9.2 and 70°C. It retained full activity (100% at 75°C for one hour. Dextranase activity increased about 4 fold in the presence of 10% NaCl. This enzyme showed variable degradation effect on different types of dextran and its derivatives. The treatment of viscous sugar cane juice with the enzyme preparation resulted in clear visual dextran hydrolysis. These results suggest that the dextranase produced by Bacillus subtilis NRC-B233b is industrially applicable.

  10. NRC confirmatory AP600 safety system phase I testing in the ROSA/AP600 test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, G.S.; Kukita, Yutaka; Schultz, R.R.

    1996-03-01

    The NRC confirmatory phase I testing for the AP600 safety systems has been completed in the modified ROSA (Rig of Safety Assessment) test facility located at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) campus in Tokai, Japan. The test matrix included a variety of accident scenarios covering both design and beyond-design basis accidents. The test results indicate the AP600 safety systems as reflected in ROSA appear to perform as designed and there is no danger of core heatup for the accident scenarios investigated. In addition, no detrimental system interactions nor adverse effects of non-safety systems on the safety system functions were identified. However, three phenomena of interest have been identified for further examination to determine whether they are relevant to the AP600 plant. Those three phenomena are: (1) a potential for water hammer caused by rapid condensation which may occur following the actuation of the automatic depressurization system (ADS), (2) a large thermal gradient in the cold leg pipe where cooled water returns from the passive residual heat removal system and forms a thermally stratified layer, and (3) system-wide oscillations initiating following the ADS stage 4 actuation and persisting until the liquid in the pressurizer drains and steam generation in the core becomes insignificant.

  11. NRC nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria. Task 4. Test development review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyscinski, K.S.; Swyler, K.J.; Klamut, C.J.

    1980-05-01

    This interim report concerns the development of testing procedures to assess the performance of waste packages to be used for high-level waste disposal in geologic repositories. Single component testing of the waste package is determined to be a workable strategy for testing and evaluation in terms of NRC release rate criteria. An initial literature review has identified key tests and those variables which must be included in testing procedures to simulate repository conditions. The range of these conditions remains to be determined precisely. Methods for leach, corrosion, and sorption testing are reviewed and initial recommendations made for preferred procedures. A combination of static and dynamic tests is needed to evaluate waste package component performance. Additional research is necessary in certain areas both to establish reliable testing methods and to define the range of testing variables. Research recommendations are included in the report. Ancillary measurements will be required to ensure that key tests rigorously assess the durability of waste package components under anticipated repository conditions. In particular, radiation effects in the repository environment must be considered and, where necessary, simulated during critical testing. Research is recommended to aid in determining when and how this should be done.

  12. Effects of chronic parasitosis on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiso, R

    1997-07-01

    Parasitic diseases are closely related to the lack of sanitation (unavailability of potable water, inadequate disposal of human waste, lack of latrines) or the absence of personal hygiene. They are also closely linked to warm and humid climates, and are therefore considered tropical diseases. This chapter addresses chronic hookworm parasitosis and malaria, and their effect on women's health. Of all Helminthes, hookworms cause the most severe anemia because of iron deficiency due to chronic blood loss. Worldwide, an estimated 51% of pregnant women suffer from anemia-almost twice as many as non-pregnant women. In severe cases (Hb deficiency affects the fetus, causes retarded intrauterine growth, and reduces fetal ability to absorb iron provided by the mother. Hookworms are nematodes that infect roughly 1 billion people. Their preferred habitat is the jejunum, where they attach to the mucous tissue to feed, and secrete an anticoagulant causing bleeding. Hookworm infections often begin in childhood. The worm enters the body through the skin and reaches the highest number at the end of adolescence and young adulthood. Little attention has been given to the treatment of pregnant women because of unavailability of safe antiparasitic drugs and fear of teratogenesis. However, there are new treatments, and the anthelminthic drugs may be administered in schools and organized women's groups in communities. During pregnancy anthelminthic treatment can improve maternal, fetal and infant health. Treatment given every 4 months has been shown to interrupt the transmission cycle of the parasite and help to improve the iron status of all women. Therapeutic strategies should be linked to other measures, such as promoting the use of shoes, introduction of potable water, education and treatment of the population at large, especially the school-age population. An estimated 267 million people are annually infected by malaria, a parasitic disease caused by Protozoa of the genus Plasmodium

  13. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed.

  14. Allyl nitrile: Toxicity and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Hideji

    2017-03-28

    Allyl nitrile (3-butenenitrile) occurs naturally in the environment, in particular, in cruciferous vegetables, indicating a possible daily intake of the compound. There is no report on actual health effects of allyl nitrile in humans, although it is possible that individuals in the environment are at a risk of exposure to allyl nitrile. However, little is known about its quantitative assessment for the environment and bioactivity in the body. This study provides a review of previous accumulated studies on allyl nitrile. Published literature on allyl nitrile was examined for findings on toxicity, metabolism, risk of various cancers, generation, intake estimates, and low-dose effects in the body. High doses of allyl nitrile produce toxicity characterized by behavioral abnormalities, which are considered to be produced by an active metabolite, 3,4-epoxybutyronitrile. Cruciferous vegetables have been shown to have a potential role in reducing various cancers. Hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinigrin, rich in cruciferous vegetables, results in the generation of allyl nitrile. An intake of allyl nitrile is estimated at 0.12 μmol/kg body weight in Japan. Repeated exposure to low doses of allyl nitrile upregulates antioxidant/phase II enzymes in various tissues; this may contribute to a reduction in neurotoxicity and skin inflammation. These high and low doses are far more than the intake estimate. Allyl nitrile in the environment is a compound with diverse bioactivities in the body, characterized by inducing behavioral abnormalities at high doses and some antioxidant/phase II enzymes at low doses.

  15. Health effects of prenatal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela M; Fletcher, Stacy

    2010-09-01

    Pregnant women are at risk of exposure to nonionizing and ionizing radiation resulting from necessary medical procedures, workplace exposure, and diagnostic or therapeutic interventions before the pregnancy is known. Nonionizing radiation includes microwave, ultrasound, radio frequency, and electromagnetic waves. In utero exposure to nonionizing radiation is not associated with significant risks; therefore, ultrasonography is safe to perform during pregnancy. Ionizing radiation includes particles and electromagnetic radiation (e.g., gamma rays, x-rays). In utero exposure to ionizing radiation can be teratogenic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic. The effects are directly related to the level of exposure and stage of fetal development. The fetus is most susceptible to radiation during organogenesis (two to seven weeks after conception) and in the early fetal period (eight to 15 weeks after conception). Noncancer health effects have not been detected at any stage of gestation after exposure to ionizing radiation of less than 0.05 Gy (5 rad). Spontaneous abortion, growth restriction, and mental retardation may occur at higher exposure levels. The risk of cancer is increased regardless of the dose. When an exposure to ionizing radiation occurs, the total fetal radiation dose should be estimated and the mother counseled about the potential risks so that she can make informed decisions about her pregnancy management.

  16. Comparison of the standards for air kerma of the NRC and the BIPM for {sup 60}Co gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, C.; Allisy, P.J.; Burns, D.T. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); McCaffrey, J.P.; Ross, C.K. [National Research Council (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    An indirect comparison of the standards for air kerma of the National Research Council (NRC), Canada, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the {sup 60}Co radiation beam of the BIPM in May 2009. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for two transfer standards and expressed as a ratio of the NRC and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 1.0032 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.8 * 10{sup -3}. The result of the previous direct comparison in {sup 60}Cogamma rays, made in 1998 and modified in 2007 was 1.0025 (27). The degrees of equivalence between the NRC and the other participants in the key comparison have been calculated and the results are presented in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  17. Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  18. Oral Health of Drug Abusers: A Review of Health Effects and Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ekhtiari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral health problems, among the most prevalent comorbidities related to addiction, require more attention by both clinicians and policy-makers. Our aims were to review oral complications associated with drugs, oral health care in addiction rehabilitation, health services available, and barriers against oral health promotion among addicts. Drug abuse is associated with serious oral health problems including generalized dental caries, periodontal diseases, mucosal dysplasia, xerostomia, bruxism, tooth wear, and tooth loss. Oral health care has positive effects in recovery from drug abuse: patients’ need for pain control, destigmatization, and HIV transmission. Health care systems worldwide deliver services for addicts, but most lack oral health care programs. Barriers against oral health promotion among addicts include difficulty in accessing addicts as a target population, lack of appropriate settings and of valid assessment protocols for conducting oral health studies, and poor collaboration between dental and general health care sectors serving addicts. These interfere with an accurate picture of the situation. Moreover, lack of appropriate policies to improve access to dental services, lack of comprehensive knowledge of and interest among dental professionals in treating addicts, and low demand for non-emergency dental care affect provision of effective interventions. Management of drug addiction as a multi-organ disease requires a multidisciplinary approach. Health care programs usually lack oral health care elements. Published evidence on oral complications related to addiction emphasizes that regardless of these barriers, oral health care at various levels including education, prevention, and treatment should be integrated into general care services for addicts.

  19. Initial demonstration of the NRC`s capability to conduct a performance assessment for a High-Level Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codell, R.; Eisenberg, N.; Fehringer, D.; Ford, W.; Margulies, T.; McCartin, T.; Park, J.; Randall, J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. This report documents an initial demonstration of this capability. The demonstration made use of the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. By expanding and developing the NRC staff capability to conduct such analyses, NRC would be better able to conduct an independent technical review of the US Department of Energy (DOE) licensing submittals for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. These activities were divided initially into Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. Additional phases may follow as part of a program of iterative performance assessment at the NRC. The NRC staff conducted Phase 1 activities primarily in CY 1989 with minimal participation from NRC contractors. The Phase 2 activities were to involve NRC contractors actively and to provide for the transfer of technology. The Phase 2 activities are scheduled to start in CY 1990, to allow Sandia National Laboratories to complete development and transfer of computer codes and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to be in a position to assist in the acquisition of the codes.

  20. Health Effects & Wine: The FDA Should Regulate the Health Effects on Wine Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Sara L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1976, the District Court of the Western District of Kentucky, in Brown-Forman Distillers Corp. v. Matthews, found that alcoholic beverages were exempt from the Food & Drug Administration labeling requirements. Since then the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms has had exclusive jurisdiction over the labeling of alcoholic beverages. As a result of the recent findings on the health effects of alcoholic beverages, in particular wine, it is necessary to revisit that 1976 decision. The...

  1. The effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme on health care utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, N J; Fink, G; Osei-Akoto, I

    2012-06-01

    The study investigates the effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) on health care utilisation. We provide a short history of health insurance in Ghana, and briefly discuss general patterns of enrolment in Ghana as well as in Accra in a first step. In a second step, we use data from the Women's Health Study of Accra wave II to evaluate the effect of insurance on health seeking behaviour using propensity score matching. We find that on average individuals enrolled in the insurance scheme are significantly more likely to obtain prescriptions, visit clinics and seek formal health care when sick. These results suggest that the government's objective to increase access to the formal health care sector through health insurance has at least partially been achieved.

  2. Quantile treatment effects of job loss on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Valentin; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    Studies on health effects of job loss mostly estimate mean effects. We argue that the effects might differ over the distribution of the health status and use quantile regression methods to provide a more complete picture. To take the potential endogeneity of job loss into account, we estimate quantile treatment effects where we rely on job loss due to plant closures. We find that the effect of job loss indeed varies across the mental and physical health distribution. Job loss due to plant closures affects physical health adversely for individuals in the middle and lower part of the health distribution while those in best physical condition do not seem to be affected. The results for mental health, though less distinct, point in the same direction. We find no effects on BMI.

  3. Effects of television programs about Family Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is an observational study, which sought to reflect on the impact of television programs on family health. Thus, from February to July 2011, a Family Health Unit of Barra do Garças - Mato Grosso, the researcher observed the behavior of customers, through spontaneous expressions which referred to the materials or articles about health programs. At the end of the study, it wasfound that such programs stimulated and generated new behaviors, especially in women. But to do so, health professionals must engage with this media education and participate in the conduct of learned information in accordance with the need of the viewer.

  4. Coalfield health effects: Variation in health across former coalfield areas in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M.; Terashima, M.; Curtis, S.; Shucksmith, J.; Carlebach, S. [University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Regions affected by deindustrialisation are often characterised by unfavourable local health profiles. This was the situation in coalfield areas in England, where the scale and suddenness of the job losses in the 1980s and 1990s left these communities experiencing difficult socioeconomic conditions, and associated poor health status. Using data from the Health Survey for England, this paper examines whether poorer health outcomes still characterise coalfield areas today. Findings confirm a 'coalfield health effect' related to limiting long-term illness. With regards to self reported general health and mental health outcomes, results are less clear. The population health profile of coalfield communities is not homogeneous, with some coalfield communities faring worse than others, indicating more localised health issues.

  5. Effect of Alcohol to Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization there are almost two billion people worldwide who consume alcohol on a regular basis. It’s a common abuse and almost 80 million are diagnozed with “alcohol abuse disorders” (WHO 2002, 2004. Excessive alcohol consumption is related to more than 60 different medical conditions, as suicide, homicide and different forms of accidents. Some conditions are acute, while other conditions such as liver cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis, haemorrhagic stroke and various forms of cancer, are chronic consequences. Non-carious destructions of teeth like dental erosion are also associated with frequent alcohol consumption, because of precipitation of salivary proline-rich proteins caused by polyphenols present in most alcoholic drinks. The high concentration of organic and inorganic acids and the habit of keeping the alcoholic drink in the mouth can cause chronic inflammations of the soft tissues in the mouth and can increase the negative side effects from metals of crowns, bridges, orthodontic devises and various restorations. A literature review has been made due to the authors clinical observations and experiences.

  6. Thallium in the environment and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazantzis, G. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Environmental Geochemistry Research Group, TH Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Royal School of Mines

    2000-12-01

    Thallium is present in the natural environment in low concentration, being found most frequently in the sulphide ores of a number of heavy metals. Atmospheric emission and deposition from industrial sources has resulted in raised levels in the vicinity of mineral smelters, coal burning power plants, brick works and cement plants. In contaminated areas, raised levels are found in vegetables, fruit and in farm animals. Thallium is used industrially in small quantities, with uses in electronics, in the production of certain glasses and crystals and in medical diagnostics. It has in the past been commonly used as a rodenticide, but its use has now been banned in many countries. Thallium salts are now considered to be amongst the most toxic compounds known. With regard to population exposure, an epidemiological study in an area with high thallium concentrations in soil and garden vegetables centred on a cement plant, has found evidence of a dose response relationship between thallium concentration in urine and a number of non-specific subjective symptoms. Much further research is required to investigate the possible adverse health effects of thallium following population exposure. 7 refs.

  7. The Effects of Educational Intervention & Parental Support on Dental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Edward J.; Behr, Mary T.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine the effectiveness of a school-based dental health education program which included a parental support component. It was hypothesized that changes in dental health attitudes would be positively affected by the outreach effort to educate parents on the importance of dental health. (JN)

  8. NRC-BNL Benchmark Program on Evaluation of Methods for Seismic Analysis of Coupled Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokshi, N.; DeGrassi, G.; Xu, J.

    1999-03-24

    A NRC-BNL benchmark program for evaluation of state-of-the-art analysis methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of coupled structures with non-classical damping is described. The program includes a series of benchmarking problems designed to investigate various aspects of complexities, applications and limitations associated with methods for analysis of non-classically damped structures. Discussions are provided on the benchmarking process, benchmark structural models, and the evaluation approach, as well as benchmarking ground rules. It is expected that the findings and insights, as well as recommendations from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving licensing applications of these alternate methods to coupled systems.

  9. NRC-BNL BENCHMARK PROGRAM ON EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF COUPLED SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU,J.

    1999-08-15

    A NRC-BNL benchmark program for evaluation of state-of-the-art analysis methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of coupled structures with non-classical damping is described. The program includes a series of benchmarking problems designed to investigate various aspects of complexities, applications and limitations associated with methods for analysis of non-classically damped structures. Discussions are provided on the benchmarking process, benchmark structural models, and the evaluation approach, as well as benchmarking ground rules. It is expected that the findings and insights, as well as recommendations from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving licensing applications of these alternate methods to coupled systems.

  10. LHCb - A SciFi production center in NRC KI FOR LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The Scintillating Fiber Tracker, SciFi for short, will be the main new tracking detector in LHCb. It will provide better than 100 µm spatial resolution, and high rate capability and radiation hardness enabling a fast, 40 MHz, trigger rate with a capability to withstand 50 fb$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity, delivered by LHC, without a major performance degradation. The main active element of the tracker is a scintillating fiber ribbon with the SiPM readout. The ribbons consist of 6 layers of the 250 µm scintillating fibers Kuraray SCSF-78MJ, assembled by winding and bound together by the epoxy glue. NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, together with the colleagues from ITEP, CERN, TU of Dortmund and RWTH of Aachen are developing dedicated production centers with the aim to reach by 2016 production rate one ribbon per day per center, necessary to supply more than 1300 fibre ribbons (mats) needed for the new LHCb tracker.

  11. NRC approves spent-fuel cask for general use: Who needs Yucca Mountain?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.

    1993-07-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on April 7, 1993, added Pacific Sierra Nuclear Associates`s (PSNA`s) VSC-24 spent-fuel container to its list of approved storage casks. Unlike previously approved designs, however, the cask was made available for use by utilities without site-specific approval. The VSC-24 (ventilated storage cask) is a 130-ton, 16-foot high vertical storage container composed of a ventilated concrete cask (VCC) housing a steel multi-assembly sealed basket (MSB). A third component, a transfer cask (MTC), shields, supports, and protects the MSB during fuel loading and VCC loading operations. The VCC is a cylindrical reinforced-concrete cask 29 inches thick, with a 1.75-inch-thick A 36 steel liner. The cask contains eight vents-four on the top and four on the bottom-to provide for MSB (and fuel rod) cooling. Its concrete shell provides protection against shearing and penetration by tornado projectiles, protects the MSB in the event of a drop or tipover, and is designed to withstand internal temperatures of 350 degrees Farenheit. The VCC is closed with a bolted-down cover of 0.75-inch-thick A 36 steel. The MSB, which provides the primary boundary for 24 spent fuel rods, is a cylindrical steel shell with a thick shield plug and steel cover plates welded at each end. The shell and covers are constructed from SA 516 Grade 70 pressure vessel steel. Fuel is housed in a basket fabricated from SA 516 Grade 70 sheet steel. Penetrations in the MSB`s structural and shield lids allow for vacuum drying and backfilling with helium after fuel loading. Although its manufacturer claims a design life of 50 years, the NRC has licensed the VSC-24 cask for 20 years.

  12. Health literacy and its importance for effective communication. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    This is the second of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. Part 1 was published in April ( Lambert and Keogh 2014 ). This article explains how to detect low levels of health literacy among parents and children, and outlines the challenges to assessing health literacy levels, including the stigma and discrimination some people experience. Some basic healthcare communication strategies for supporting health literacy in practice are suggested.

  13. [Health promotion effectiveness: testing the German statutory health insurance agencies evaluation system in health promotion, and preliminary findings from 212 health training courses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliche, T; Schreiner-Kürten, K; Wanek, V; Koch, U

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement system for the evaluation of health promotion training courses offered by German statutory health insurance companies. In a field test, N=1 671 participants from 212 youth and adult courses for the promotion of either physical activity, coping with stress or nutritional improvement were included. 80% were female. Participants were questioned in a pre-post-design with a three month follow-up. The questionnaires covered health behaviour and health status. Participants' compliance and psychometric quality of the measurement instruments were good. On average, the health insurance companies assigned participants to different interventions adequately according to the participant's individual health problems. The health promotion courses triggered improvements of high effect sizes for health behaviour patterns, of moderate effect sizes for physical complaints, subjective health ratings, and health-related quality of life. Effects decreased after the end of the intervention but remained significantly above the initial values. BMI values continued their improvement after the end of the training courses. Thus, health promotion training courses generated stable health improvements of practically relevant effect sizes. The interventions provided good support and health improvements for all subgroups of participants, regardless of age, gender and educational background. Thus, the health promotion curricula of the health insurance companies offer a ubiquitous and easily accessible but effective intervention for health promotion in Germany, although men are clearly underrepresented among the participants. The trainings may be recommended and used by other health-care suppliers. The evaluation toolkit provides practical and valid instruments for a routine evaluation of health promotion trainings. It should be applied within random sampling designs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. The effect of health value and ethnicity on the relationship between hardiness and health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shanette M

    2004-04-01

    Associations among hardiness, health value, and health protective behaviors were examined as a function of ethnicity among 80 African American and 100 European American college students. The role of health value as moderator versus mediator in the hardiness-health behavior link was explored. Racial differences in correlations among hardiness, control, and commitment were found, with stronger relations for African American than European Americans. Moderate positive relations between hardiness, control, commitment, and health value for African American, as contrasted with weak relations between commitment and health value for European Americans, were also shown. A partial mediational effect for health value with personal distress and moderator effects for health value with personal distress and health habits were found for African American only. Race predicted hardiness variables, tobacco and alcohol use, personal distress, and health habits beyond what was accounted for by occupation and income. The ramifications of these data with regard to future studies on hardiness, health value, and health behaviors for African American are discussed.

  15. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  16. Divergent effects of obesity on bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Casazza, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Historically, obesity was thought to be advantageous for maintaining healthy bones due to the greater BMD observed in overweight individuals. However, recent observations of increased fracture in some obese individuals has led to concern that common metabolic complications of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and inflammation may be associated with poor bone health. In support of this hypothesis, greater visceral fat, a hallmark of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, is associated with lower BMD. Research is needed to determine if and how visceral fat and/or poor metabolic health are causally associated with bone health. Clinicians should consider adding a marker metabolic health, such as waist circumference or fasting plasma glucose concentration, to other known risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture. PMID:24063845

  17. Nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria for the NRC. Task 1. Waste package overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayal, R.; Lee, B.S.; Wilke, R.J.; Swyler, K.J.; Soo, P.; Ahn, T.M.; McIntyre, N.S.; Veakis, E.

    1982-02-01

    In this report the current state of waste package development for high level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel in the US and abroad has been assessed. Specifically, reviewed are recent and on-going research on various waste forms, container materials and backfills and tentatively identified those which are likely to perform most satisfactorily in the repository environment. Radiation effects on the waste package components have been reviewed and the magnitude of these effects has been identified. Areas requiring further research have been identified. The important variables affecting radionuclide release from the waste package have been described and an evaluation of regulatory criteria for high level waste and spent fuel is presented. Finally, for spent fuel, high level, and TRU waste, components which could be used to construct a waste package having potential to meet NRC performance requirements have been described and identified.

  18. Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brubaker

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities.In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects.The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses.The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska.Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate.The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.

  19. Health selection and the process of social stratification: the effect of childhood health on socioeconomic attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Steven A

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates whether childhood health acts as a mechanism through which socioeconomic status is transferred across generations. The study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to track siblings and to estimate fixed-effects models that account for unobserved heterogeneity at the family level. The results demonstrate that disadvantaged social background is associated with poor childhood health. Subsequently, poor health in childhood has significant, direct, and large adverse effects on educational attainment and wealth accumulation. In addition, childhood health appears to have indirect effects on occupational standing, earnings, and wealth via educational attainment and adult health status. The results further show that socioeconomic health gradients are best understood as being embedded within larger processes of social stratification.

  20. Guide to NRC reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Compiled from requirements in Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations as codified on December 31, 1993; Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.; Shelton, B.

    1994-07-01

    This compilation includes in the first two sections the reporting and recordkeeping requirements applicable to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees and applicants and to members of the public. It includes those requirements codified in Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, on December 31, 1993. It also includes, in a separate section, any of those requirements that were superseded or discontinued between January 1992 and December 1993. Finally, the appendix lists mailing and delivery addresses for NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices mentioned in the compilation. The Office of Information Resources Management staff compiled this listing of reporting and recordkeeping requirements to briefly describe each in a single document primarily to help licensees readily identify the requirements. The compilation is not a substitute for the regulations, and is not intended to impose any new requirements or technical positions. It is part of NRC`s continuing efforts to comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 and the Office of Management and Budget regulations that mandate effective and efficient Federal information resources management programs.

  1. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  2. 78 FR 66968 - In the Matter of Landon E. Brittain; Order Prohibiting Involvement In NRC-Licensed Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... adjudicatory documents over the internet, or in some cases to mail copies on electronic storage media... access the E-Submittal server for any proceeding in which it is participating; and (2) advise the... server are detailed in the NRC's ``Guidance for Electronic Submission,'' which is available on the agency...

  3. 78 FR 66970 - In the Matter of Michael J. Buhrman; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... cases to mail copies on electronic storage media. Participants may not submit paper copies of their... (or its counsel or representative) to digitally sign documents and access the E-Submittal server for... requirements for accessing the E-Submittal server are detailed in the NRC's ``Guidance for Electronic...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Electromagnetic Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority H Appendix H to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. H Appendix H to Part 110—Illustrative List of Electromagnetic Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

  5. 76 FR 11526 - In the Matter of Dr. Gary Kao; Order Prohibiting Involvement In NRC-Licensed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ..., on May 26, 2009, the NRC issued a Demand for Information (DFI) to Dr. Kao. This DFI was limited in... documents over the internet, or in some cases to mail copies on electronic storage media. Participants may... requested not to include personal privacy information, such as social security numbers, home addresses, or...

  6. Cohort Profile : The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatz, Margaret; Harris, Jennifer R.; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt; Smith, Nicholas L.; Snieder, Harold; Spiro, Avron; Butler, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry) is a comprehensive registry of White male twin pairs born in the USA between 1917 and 1927, both of the twins having served in the military. The purpose was medical research and ultimately improved clini

  7. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant... Appendix O to Part 110—Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority Note: Nuclear fuel elements are manufactured from source or...

  8. 75 FR 65515 - NRC Corporation, USPS Help Desk of Customer Care Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Volt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration NRC Corporation, USPS Help Desk of Customer Care Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Volt Consulting, West Columbia, SC; Notice of Affirmative...

  9. 75 FR 64749 - Request for Comments on the Use of Electronic Signatures for NRC Documents Related to the Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...-4737, or by e-mail to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ashley Cockerham, Office... other regulated individuals may use digital certificates for digitally signing electronic documents, but... specifications stored in electronic media must include all pertinent information such as stamps, initials,...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. N Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority G Appendix G to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. G Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and...

  12. Comparative Analysis of CTF and Trace Thermal-Hydraulic Codes Using OECD/NRC PSBT Benchmark Void Distribution Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Avramova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark has been established to provide a test bed for assessing the capabilities of thermal-hydraulic codes and to encourage advancement in the analysis of fluid flow in rod bundles. The benchmark was based on one of the most valuable databases identified for the thermal-hydraulics modeling developed by NUPEC, Japan. The database includes void fraction and departure from nucleate boiling measurements in a representative PWR fuel assembly. On behalf of the benchmark team, PSU in collaboration with US NRC has performed supporting calculations using the PSU in-house advanced thermal-hydraulic subchannel code CTF and the US NRC system code TRACE. CTF is a version of COBRA-TF whose models have been continuously improved and validated by the RDFMG group at PSU. TRACE is a reactor systems code developed by US NRC to analyze transient and steady-state thermal-hydraulic behavior in LWRs and it has been designed to perform best-estimate analyses of LOCA, operational transients, and other accident scenarios in PWRs and BWRs. The paper presents CTF and TRACE models for the PSBT void distribution exercises. Code-to-code and code-to-data comparisons are provided along with a discussion of the void generation and void distribution models available in the two codes.

  13. Essential and non-essential DNA replication genes in the model halophilic Archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DasSarma Shiladitya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information transfer systems in Archaea, including many components of the DNA replication machinery, are similar to those found in eukaryotes. Functional assignments of archaeal DNA replication genes have been primarily based upon sequence homology and biochemical studies of replisome components, but few genetic studies have been conducted thus far. We have developed a tractable genetic system for knockout analysis of genes in the model halophilic archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and used it to determine which DNA replication genes are essential. Results Using a directed in-frame gene knockout method in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, we examined nineteen genes predicted to be involved in DNA replication. Preliminary bioinformatic analysis of the large haloarchaeal Orc/Cdc6 family, related to eukaryotic Orc1 and Cdc6, showed five distinct clades of Orc/Cdc6 proteins conserved in all sequenced haloarchaea. Of ten orc/cdc6 genes in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, only two were found to be essential, orc10, on the large chromosome, and orc2, on the minichromosome, pNRC200. Of the three replicative-type DNA polymerase genes, two were essential: the chromosomally encoded B family, polB1, and the chromosomally encoded euryarchaeal-specific D family, polD1/D2 (formerly called polA1/polA2 in the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome sequence. The pNRC200-encoded B family polymerase, polB2, was non-essential. Accessory genes for DNA replication initiation and elongation factors, including the putative replicative helicase, mcm, the eukaryotic-type DNA primase, pri1/pri2, the DNA polymerase sliding clamp, pcn, and the flap endonuclease, rad2, were all essential. Targeted genes were classified as non-essential if knockouts were obtained and essential based on statistical analysis and/or by demonstrating the inability to isolate chromosomal knockouts except in the presence of a complementing plasmid copy of the gene. Conclusion The results showed that ten

  14. Effects of student participation in school health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griebler, Ursula; Rojatz, Daniela; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize systematically the existing evidence for the effects of student participation in designing, planning, implementing and/or evaluating school health promotion measures. The focus was on the effects of participation in school health promotion measur...

  15. Discounting health effects in pharmacoeconomic evaluations : Current controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Postma, MJ; Annemans, L

    2005-01-01

    Currently, much debate still surrounds the discounting of health effects: Most general consensus statements have argued for the same discount rate for health and money; however, this practice has been questioned by several authors. The choice of discount rate can have varying effects on intervention

  16. Health Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter Trace Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG GAO; QI YU; LI-MIN CHEN

    2005-01-01

    The effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) trace elements on health are widely concerned nowadays. Many achievements have been made while many unknowns exist. This article reports the recent research progresses, describes the effects of exposure to PM trace elements on health epidemiological evidence, toxicology findings, and raises some questions for future studies.

  17. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…

  18. Health-Related Effects of Creative and Expressive Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some health-related effects of creative and expressive writing. Design/methodology/approach: Reviews some of the main research studies exploring links between expressive writing and aspects of health, including two new experimental studies showing effects of poetry on mood and immune…

  19. Health education: Effect on knowledge and practice of workplace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health education: Effect on knowledge and practice of workplace personal ... using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 and P-value of ... of participants (P < 0.001), whereas work experience had no effect (P = 0.285).

  20. Internal migration, area effects and health: Does where you move to impact upon your health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mark A; Subramanian, S V; Vickers, Daniel; Dorling, Danny

    2015-07-01

    Evidence surrounding the importance of neighbourhood on health has been mostly restricted to observational data analyses. However, observational data are often the only source of information available to test this association and can fail to accurately draw out casual effects. This study employs a pseudo-experimental design to provide a novel test for the evidence of neighbourhood effects on health, using migration as a mechanism for assessing the role of neighbourhood. Coarsened exact matching was employed on the British Household Panel Survey (2006-2008) to analyse the association between migration (by area type, measured using a classification of mortality patterns) and health. Although an overall significant positive association between migration and health was observed, once the effect was disaggregated by location and destination it disappeared. Rather, evidence of health selective migration was found whereby individuals of poorer health migrated to areas that displayed poorer health and social characteristics (and vice versa). Migration is an important process that through the social sorting of individuals in terms of their health, contributes to the growing polarisation and inequality in health patterns. The study helps to build upon previous research through providing a new and stronger form of analysis that reduces the influence of bias on results. Incorporating this under-utilised methodology and research design in future studies could help develop public health and geographical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low health literacy: a barrier to effective patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seurer, Andrea C; Vogt, H Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Health literacy is defined in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services initiative Healthy People 2010 as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions." It is estimated that 48.8 million Americans are functionally illiterate, making health literacy a major obstacle for providing health care. Although communicating with physicians is a small component of the tasks that are incorporated in a definition of health literacy, it remains the most important aspect of this concept contributing to personal health. Primary care clinics within the Sioux Falls area were provided with both English and Spanish patient education brochures on communicating with physicians. A survey was then distributed to determine how low health literacy was affecting physician practices and what they were doing to remove the obstacles that health literacy presented. Physicians were asked to evaluate the multiple skills and competencies required by patients to access health care services and resources they use to assist patients. A total of 77 surveys were distributed. Twenty-two (28.6 percent) were returned. Of the physicians who returned the survey, the majority (77 percent) thought that low health literacy is a moderate obstacle in their practices. Several physicians stated that their offices had at least one method in place to assist those with low health literacy, but none of them were using a formal test of health literacy. Only six physicians could name a community resource to assist patients with low health literacy. Low health literacy is an unavoidable barrier to effective patient care for physicians across the country. If the full spectrum definition of health literacy is understood by physicians and carefully considered in the context of their own practices, it is likely they would come to the realization that health literacy is a greater obstacle to

  2. Effect of Health Services Quality to Inpatient Satisfaction in Health Centre of Jayapura Regency, Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik A AWibowo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To measure the quality of health care using five dimensions of service quality that is direct evidence (Tangibles responsiveness (responsiveness, reliability (realibility, security (assurance, and empathy. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the quality of inpatient health care with patient satisfaction in the health center Jayapura district. Survey method with cross sectional analytic study population in this study that all patients hospitalized at the health center during the month of August to September 2016. Sampling was conducted with a total sampling technique with a number of 106 respondents. Sources of primary data obtained from questionnaires and secondary data from six health centers in the county inpatient Jayapura. Analysis of data using multiple linear regression. The results showed that the most dominant variables linked to patient satisfaction compared with other variable is direct evidence (tangibles. The quality of health services at the health center Jayapura district has a significant relationship to the direct evidence (tangibles with patient satisfaction. Jayapura Regency Government through the Department of Health to maintain and continuously improve the quality of health care is the most basic health centers by strengthening institutions, infrastructure, and financing of adequate health centers so as to improve the quality of health centers and satisfaction to the patient.

  3. Living in poverty and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnerton, Sally

    2006-07-01

    Poverty has been identified as the greatest threat to health. Generally speaking, poor people are sick more often than wealthier people, and poor people die younger due to poorer economic, social, political and physical conditions. The article explains the difference between relative poverty and absolute poverty, before going on to explore various reasons why people living in relative poverty are more susceptible to ill health than their wealthier counterparts. The article delves into how poverty contributes to ill health by the effects of low income and poor health behaviours, with cigarette smoking being identified as the health behaviour with the largest negative impact on people living in relative poverty.

  4. The Effect of parent's socioeconomic status on Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shahraki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child health is one of the main indicators of economic development so that four objectives of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are directly referred to children's health and nutritional status. Due to increase in mothers' employment and parent education as well as children's malnutrition, the effects of parent's socioeconomic status on children's health were analyzed in this paper. statistics in health case of families from health centers of five areas in Tehran were gathered. Research model were estimated by Probit and Ordered Probit methods in STATA software. The mean for mother's education is 3.76 it is more than diploma and less than associate's degree. The average mothers' age for normal, stunting, and severe stunting children is 32.25, 32.92, and 34.20, respectively. "Being twin" has a negative effect on the possibility of children's health it decreases this possibility as 89 percent. Also, if children do not have jaundice, the probability of their health will increase as much as 72 percent. The result shown that mothers' employment has a negative effect on children's health i.e. mothers' employment increases the possibility of stunting due to children's malnutrition. Also, increasing education of working mothers can lead to stunting in children. Family size, being twin, and jaundice have negative effect and father's education has positive effect on children's health.

  5. Effect of motivational interviewing-based health coaching on employees' physical and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Susan; Linden, Ariel; McClay, Wende; Leo, Michael C

    2006-10-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) based health coaching is a relatively new behavioral intervention that has gained popularity in public health because of its ability to address multiple behaviors, health risks, and illness self-management. In this study, 276 employees at a medical center self-selected to participate in either a 3-month health coaching intervention or control group. The treatment group showed significant improvement in both SF-12 physical (p = .035) and mental (p = .0001) health status compared to controls. Because of concerns of selection bias, a matched case-control analysis was also performed, eliciting similar results. These findings suggest that MI-based health coaching is effective in improving both physical and mental health status in an occupational setting.

  6. Effects of donor proliferation in development aid for health on health program performance: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2017-02-01

    Development aid for health increased dramatically during the past two decades, raising concerns about inefficiency and lack of coherence among the growing number of global health donors. However, we lack a framework for how donor proliferation affects health program performance to inform theory-based evaluation of aid effectiveness policies. A review of academic and gray literature was conducted. Data were extracted from the literature sample on study design and evidence for hypothesized effects of donor proliferation on health program performance, which were iteratively grouped into categories and mapped into a new conceptual framework. In the framework, increases in the number of donors are hypothesized to increase inter-donor competition, transaction costs, donor poaching of recipient staff, recipient control over aid, and donor fragmentation, and to decrease donors' sense of accountability for overall development outcomes. There is mixed evidence on whether donor proliferation increases or decreases aid volume. These primary effects in turn affect donor innovation, information hoarding, and aid disbursement volatility, as well as recipient country health budget levels, human resource capacity, and corruption, and the determinants of health program performance. The net effect of donor proliferation on health will vary depending on the magnitude of the framework's competing effects in specific country settings. The conceptual framework provides a foundation for improving design of aid effectiveness practices to mitigate negative effects from donor proliferation while preserving its potential benefits.

  7. Review of decision methodologies for evaluating regulatory actions affecting public health and safety. [Nuclear industry site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; McDonald, C.L.; Schilling, A.H.

    1976-12-01

    This report examines several aspects of the problems and choices facing the governmental decision maker who must take regulatory actions with multiple decision objectives and attributes. Particular attention is given to the problems facing the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and to the decision attribute of chief concern to NRC, the protection of human health and safety, with emphasis on nuclear power plants. The study was undertaken to provide background information for NRC to use in refining its process of value/impact assessment of proposed regulatory actions. The principal conclusion is that approaches to rationally consider the value and impact of proposed regulatory actions are available. These approaches can potentially improve the decision-making process and enable the agency to better explain and defend its decisions. They also permit consistent examination of the impacts, effects of uncertainty and sensitivity to various assumptions of the alternatives being considered. Finally, these approaches can help to assure that affected parties are heard and that technical information is used appropriately and to the extent possible. The principal aspects of the regulatory decision problem covered in the report are: the legal setting for regulatory decisions which affect human health and safety, elements of the decision-making process, conceptual approaches to decision making, current approaches to decision making in several Federal agencies, and the determination of acceptable risk levels.

  8. Workplace health promotion: participation and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLifestyle factors are an important determinant of health. The prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviours is high, most notably low physical activity and poor nutrition (e.g. low fruit and vegetable consumption and high saturated fat intake). In the Netherlands, 56% engage in sufficient

  9. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  10. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter

    In this paper we estimate the causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health. To handle the selection bias problem, we use longitudinal data for deployed and non-deployed eligible men in a difference-in-differences setting. Using pair-wise matching, we impute deployment dates...... for important variables like intelligence tests and family background. We find significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use. Highlights: - Causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ use of mental health service - Using a difference-in-differences approach...... - First evidence relying on administrative records of measures of mental health service use - Significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use....

  11. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter

    In this paper we estimate the causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health. To handle the selection bias problem, we use longitudinal data for deployed and non-deployed eligible men in a difference-in-differences setting. Using pair-wise matching, we impute deployment dates...... for important variables like intelligence tests and family background. We find significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use. Highlights: - Causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ use of mental health service - Using a difference-in-differences approach...... - First evidence relying on administrative records of measures of mental health service use - Significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use....

  12. Components of the CCR4-NOT complex function as nuclear hormone receptor coactivators via association with the NRC-interacting Factor NIF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapaty, Shivani; Mahajan, Muktar A; Samuels, Herbert H

    2008-03-14

    CCR4-NOT is an evolutionarily conserved, multicomponent complex known to be involved in transcription as well as mRNA degradation. Various subunits (e.g. CNOT1 and CNOT7/CAF1) have been reported to be involved in influencing nuclear hormone receptor activities. Here, we show that CCR4/CNOT6 and RCD1/CNOT9, members of the CCR4-NOT complex, potentiate nuclear receptor activity. RCD1 interacts in vivo and in vitro with NIF-1 (NRC-interacting factor), a previously characterized nuclear receptor cotransducer that activates nuclear receptors via its interaction with NRC. As with NIF-1, RCD1 and CCR4 do not directly associate with nuclear receptors; however, they enhance ligand-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear hormone receptors. CCR4 mediates its effect through the ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors and small interference RNA-mediated silencing of endogenous CCR4 results in a marked decrease in nuclear receptor activation. Furthermore, knockdown of CCR4 results in an attenuated stimulation of RARalpha target genes (e.g. Sox9 and HoxA1) as shown by quantitative PCR assays. The silencing of endogenous NIF-1 also resulted in a comparable decrease in the RAR-mediated induction of both Sox9 and HoxA1. Furthermore, CCR4 associates in vivo with NIF-1. In addition, the CCR4-enhanced transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors is dependent on NIF-1. The small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of NIF-1 blocks the ligand-dependent potentiating effect of CCR4. Our results suggest that CCR4 plays a role in the regulation of certain endogenous RARalpha target genes and that RCD1 and CCR4 might mediate their function through their interaction with NIF-1.

  13. The effects of school poverty on adolescents' sexual health knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole

    2012-06-01

    Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students' sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment.

  14. The effects of Ghana's national health insurance scheme on maternal and infant health care utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna); Breebaart, L. (Lyn); De Poel, E.V. (Ellen Van)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIncreasing equitable access to health care is a main challenge African policy makers are facing. The Ghanaian government implemented the National Health Insurance Scheme in 2004 and the aim of this study is to evaluate its early effects on maternal and infant healthcare use. We exploit d

  15. Effectiveness of a Multilevel Workplace Health Promotion Program on Vitality, Health, and Work-Related Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Snoijer, M.; Kok, B.P. de; Vlisteren, J. van; Hofstetter, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a workplace health promotion program on employees’ vitality, health, and work-related outcomes, and exploring the influence of organizational support and the supervisors’ role on these outcomes. Methods: The 5-month intervention included activities at

  16. The positive and negative health effects of alcohol- and the public health implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the negative and the positive effects of alcohol on health are reviewed. It is first of all established facts that a high alcohol intake implies an increased risk of a large number of health outcomes, such as dementia, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cirrhosis, upper digestive...

  17. The effect of floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital in older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition...

  18. The differentiated effects of health on political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Jérôme; Breux, Sandra

    2017-01-19

    Several studies have shown that an individual's state of health can significantly affect their decision to vote, but analysis is often only done on a single level of government; the national level. However, prior research has shown that the determining factors for voting can differ according to the level of government being considered. Our analysis is the first attempt to take a comprehensive look at the magnitude of health and political participation in a same country on different levels. Based on Canadian General Social Survey-Social Identity (2013; N = 27 695), we examined both the direct and indirect effect of self-rated health and self-rated mental health on (1) national voter turnout; (2) local voter turnout and (3) other forms of political participation. The results show that health has a different effect on turnout depending the level of government. While health certainly affects participation on both levels of government, general health significantly affects national electoral participation levels while mental health more significantly affects electoral participation on the municipal level. Additionally, people who consider their mental health to be poorer, are more likely to sign an online petition. These elements highlight the necessity of questioning the cost of voting according to the level of government, and that further research into the potential offered by Internet and remote voting, is worthwhile-despite the opinions of critics who eschew these means of voting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Address Health Equity Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard; Mirelman, Andrew J; Griffin, Susan; Asaria, Miqdad; Dawkins, Bryony; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Verguet, Stéphane; J Culyer, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    This articles serves as a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to address health equity concerns. We first introduce the "equity impact plane," a tool for considering trade-offs between improving total health-the objective underpinning conventional CEA-and equity objectives, such as reducing social inequality in health or prioritizing the severely ill. Improving total health may clash with reducing social inequality in health, for example, when effective delivery of services to disadvantaged communities requires additional costs. Who gains and who loses from a cost-increasing health program depends on differences among people in terms of health risks, uptake, quality, adherence, capacity to benefit, and-crucially-who bears the opportunity costs of diverting scarce resources from other uses. We describe two main ways of using CEA to address health equity concerns: 1) equity impact analysis, which quantifies the distribution of costs and effects by equity-relevant variables, such as socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, sex, and severity of illness; and 2) equity trade-off analysis, which quantifies trade-offs between improving total health and other equity objectives. One way to analyze equity trade-offs is to count the cost of fairer but less cost-effective options in terms of health forgone. Another method is to explore how much concern for equity is required to choose fairer but less cost-effective options using equity weights or parameters. We hope this article will help the health technology assessment community navigate the practical options now available for conducting equity-informative CEA that gives policymakers a better understanding of equity impacts and trade-offs.

  20. Bioactive Components of Soybeans and Their Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Özcan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depending on scientific developments and advancement in consumer awareness differences in types of nutrition and choice of foods resulted in increment on tendance to functional foods which have favorable effects on human health. The occurrence of positive effects on human health and inclusion of functional characteristics of the bioactive components in soybean compound has made possible adding of these soybean components in to the foods. In this compilation the importance of soybean active components in food are mentioned and along with this their positive effects on human health are introduced.

  1. The effectiveness of M-health technologies for improving health and health services: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of mobile computing and communication technology is rapidly expanding in the fields of health care and public health. This systematic review will summarise the evidence for the effectiveness of mobile technology interventions for improving health and health service outcomes (M-health around the world. Findings To be included in the review interventions must aim to improve or promote health or health service use and quality, employing any mobile computing and communication technology. This includes: (1 interventions designed to improve diagnosis, investigation, treatment, monitoring and management of disease; (2 interventions to deliver treatment or disease management programmes to patients, health promotion interventions, and interventions designed to improve treatment compliance; and (3 interventions to improve health care processes e.g. appointment attendance, result notification, vaccination reminders. A comprehensive, electronic search strategy will be used to identify controlled studies, published since 1990, and indexed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, or the UK NHS Health Technology Assessment database. The search strategy will include terms (and synonyms for the following mobile electronic devices (MEDs and a range of compatible media: mobile phone; personal digital assistant (PDA; handheld computer (e.g. tablet PC; PDA phone (e.g. BlackBerry, Palm Pilot; Smartphone; enterprise digital assistant; portable media player (i.e. MP3 or MP4 player; handheld video game console. No terms for health or health service outcomes will be included, to ensure that all applications of mobile technology in public health and health services are identified. Bibliographies of primary studies and review articles meeting the inclusion criteria will be searched manually to identify further eligible studies. Data on objective and self-reported outcomes and study quality will

  2. Mental Health Service Providers: College Student Perceptions of Helper Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ashley M.; Wantz, Richard A.; Firmin, Michael W; Poindexter, Dawn C.; Pujara, Amita L.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate perceptions of the overall effectiveness of six types of mental health service providers (MHSPs) were obtained with a survey. Although many mental health services are available to consumers in the United States, research has indicated that these services are underutilized. Perceptions have been linked to therapeutic outcomes and may…

  3. Effect of Sexual Education on Sexual Health in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnam, Farnaz; Pakgohar, Minoo; Mirmohamadali, Mandana; Mahmoodi, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a special sex education program in sexual health on Iranian newly-wed couples. A sample of 64 couples referred to three health centers of Tehran Medicine University, a few months prior to their marriage, were divided into case and control groups. The case group received three lecture sessions…

  4. PFOA and possible health effects : A review of scientific literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs KJ; Bogers RP; M&G; M&V

    2017-01-01

    Associations were found between blood concentrations of PFOA in humans and possible health effects and functioning of the body. This is the result of a review of previously performed reviews of the scientific literature on studies conducted among humans by the National Institute for Public Health

  5. Effect of Sexual Education on Sexual Health in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnam, Farnaz; Pakgohar, Minoo; Mirmohamadali, Mandana; Mahmoodi, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a special sex education program in sexual health on Iranian newly-wed couples. A sample of 64 couples referred to three health centers of Tehran Medicine University, a few months prior to their marriage, were divided into case and control groups. The case group received three lecture sessions…

  6. Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school…

  7. Older and Younger Workers: The Equalling Effects of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Vanessa; Quinn, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the statistical evidence on the effects that ill health has on labour market participation and opportunities for younger and older workers in the East Midlands (UK). Design/methodology/approach: A statistical analysis of Labour Force Survey data was undertaken to demonstrate that health issues…

  8. Heterologous overexpression, purification and characterisation of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2) from Halobacterium sp. NRC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliensiek, Ann-Kathrin; Cassidy, Jennifer; Gucciardo, Gabriele; Whitely, Cliadhna; Paradisi, Francesca

    2013-10-01

    Replacement of chemical steps with biocatalytic ones is becoming increasingly more interesting due to the remarkable catalytic properties of enzymes, such as their wide range of substrate specificities and variety of chemo-, stereo- and regioselective reactions. This study presents characterisation of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from the halophilic archaeum Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 (HsADH2). A hexahistidine-tagged recombinant version of HsADH2 (His-HsADH2) was heterologously overexpressed in Haloferax volcanii. The enzyme was purified in one step by immobilised Ni-affinity chromatography. His-HsADH2 was halophilic and mildly thermophilic with optimal activity for ethanol oxidation at 4 M KCl around 60 °C and pH 10.0. The enzyme was extremely stable, retaining 80 % activity after 30 days. His-HsADH2 showed preference for NADP(H) but interestingly retained 60 % activity towards NADH. The enzyme displayed broad substrate specificity, with maximum activity obtained for 1-propanol. The enzyme also accepted secondary alcohols such as 2-butanol and even 1-phenylethanol. In the reductive reaction, working conditions for His-HsADH2 were optimised for acetaldehyde and found to be 4 M KCl and pH 6.0. His-HsADH2 displayed intrinsic organic solvent tolerance, which is highly relevant for biotechnological applications.

  9. NRC-interacting factor directs neurite outgrowth in an activity-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X-S; Fu, W-Y; Hung, K-W; Chien, W W Y; Li, Z; Fu, A K; Ip, N Y

    2015-03-19

    Nuclear hormone receptor coregulator-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1) is a zinc finger nuclear protein that was initially identified to enhance nuclear hormone receptor transcription via its interaction with nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC). NIF-1 may regulate gene transcription either by modulating general transcriptional machinery or remodeling chromatin structure through interactions with specific protein partners. We previously reported that the cytoplasmic/nuclear localization of NIF-1 is regulated by the neuronal Cdk5 activator p35, suggesting potential neuronal functions for NIF-1. The present study reveals that NIF-1 plays critical roles in regulating neuronal morphogenesis at early stages. NIF-1 was prominently expressed in the nuclei of developing rat cortical neurons. Knockdown of NIF-1 expression attenuated both neurite outgrowth in cultured cortical neurons and retinoic acid (RA)-treated Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, activity-induced Ca(2+) influx, which is critical for neuronal morphogenesis, stimulated the nuclear localization of NIF-1 in cortical neurons. Suppression of NIF-1 expression reduced the up-regulation of neuronal activity-dependent gene transcription. These findings collectively suggest that NIF-1 directs neuronal morphogenesis during early developmental stages through modulating activity-dependent gene transcription.

  10. Evaluation of free and immobilized Aspergillus niger NRC1ami pectinase applicable in industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esawy, Mona A; Gamal, Amira A; Kamel, Zeinat; Ismail, Abdel-Mohsen S; Abdel-Fattah, Ahmed F

    2013-02-15

    The Aspergillus niger NRC1ami pectinase was evaluated according to its hydrolysis efficiency of dry untreated orange peels (UOP), HCl-treated orange peels and NaOH-treated orange peels (HOP and NOP). Pectinase was entrapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge and the optimum pH and temperature of the free and immobilized enzymes were shifted from 4, 40 °C to 6, 50 °C respectively. The study of pH stability of free and immobilized pectinase showed that the immobilization process protected the enzyme strongly from severe alkaline pHs. The immobilization process improved the enzyme thermal stability to great instant. The unique feature of the immobilization process is its ability to solve the orange juice haze problem completely. Immobilized enzyme was reused 12 times in orange juice clarification with 9% activity loss from the original activity. Maximum reaction rate (V(max)) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) of the partially purified form were significantly changed after immobilization.

  11. LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E. [Westinghouse Nuclear Technology Division, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.

  12. Data Quality Assurance Program Plan for NRC Division of Risk Analysis Programs at the INL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, Martin B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wierman, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vedros, Kurt G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Germain, Shawn W. St. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Eide, Steven A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sant, Robert L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The Division of Risk Analysis (DRA), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), must ensure that the quality of the data that feed into its programs follow Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidelines and possibly other standards and guidelines used in nuclear power plant risk analyses. This report documents the steps taken in DRA’s Data Quality Improvement project (Job Control Number N6145) to develop a Data Quality Assurance Program Plan. These steps were 1. Conduct a review of data quality requirements 2. Review current data programs, products, and data quality control activities 3. Review the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation (INPO) Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX) data quality programs and characterize the EPIX data quality and uncertainty 4. Compare these programs, products, and activities against the requirements 5. Develop a program plan that provides assurance that data quality is being maintained. It is expected that the Data Quality Assurance Program Plan will be routinely implemented in all aspects of future data collection and processing efforts and that specific portions will be executed annually to provide assurance that data quality is being maintained.

  13. Evaluation Between Existing and Improved CCF Modeling Using the NRC SPAR Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Knudsen

    2010-06-01

    Abstract: The NRC SPAR models currently employ the alpha factor common cause failure (CCF) methodology and model CCF for a group of redundant components as a single “rolled-up” basic event. These SPAR models will be updated to employ a more computationally intensive and accurate approach by expanding the CCF basic events for all active components to include all terms that appear in the Basic Parameter Model (BPM). A discussion is provided to detail the differences between the rolled-up common cause group (CCG) and expanded BPM adjustment concepts based on differences in core damage frequency and individual component importance measures. Lastly, a hypothetical condition is evaluated with a SPAR model to show the difference in results between the current adjustment method (rolled-up CCF events) and the newer method employing all of the expanded terms in the BPM. The event evaluation on the SPAR model employing the expanded terms will be solved using the graphical evaluation module (GEM) and the proposed method discussed in Reference 1.

  14. A regulator`s perspective on NRC`s participation in the operations & maintenance committees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessman, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    As a regulator fairly new to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Committee process, the author does not have a personal historical perspective as do many of the longer-term, and highly respected, members of the O&M Committee. However, as Branch Chief of the Mechanical Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering, in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation at the NRC for just over two years, he has responsibility for the regulatory agency`s review of licensee actions involving the products that come from the efforts of the O&M Committee, as well as responsibility for portions of the activities of interest to other ASME Code groups such as Section III, Section XI, and Qualification of Mechanical Equipment. As a result, the author has learned a great deal about the code process in a short time. Here he gives his perspectives on the process and provides a few thoughts on the direction for the future.

  15. Estimated long-term health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, F. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Okeanov, A.E. [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk (Belarus); Likthariev, I.; Prisyazhniuk [All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Anspaugh, L.R. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States) Lawrence Livermore Lab.; Mabuchi, K. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Ivanov, V.K. [MRRC of RAMS, Obninsk (Russia)

    1996-04-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact of the radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries. Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported, these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population to which they are compared. If the experience of atomic bomb survivors and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cancer and the total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the liquidators and among the residents of contaminated territories, of the order of 2,000 to 2,500. These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41,500 and 433,000 respectively (size of the exposed populations: 200,000 and 3,700,000, respectively). It is noted, however, that the exposures received by populations exposed as a result of Chernobyl are different (in type and pattern) from those of atomic bomb survivors. Predictions derived from these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, the extent of the increase in thyroid cancer incidence in persons exposed as children was not foreseen. In addition, only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential therefore that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if, apart from leukemia among liquidators, little detectable increase of cancers due to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is expected.

  16. Health effects of synfuels technology: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanathanan, L.P.; Reilly, C.A.; Marshall, S.A.; Wilzbach, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    This document contains annotated synopses of available information pertinent to health impacts of synthetic fuel technologies under development, and identifies needs for further information. The report focuses on carcinogenesis, which appears to be a special problem with coal conversion technologies. This review is intended to serve as a reference for the NEPA Affairs Division of DOE in its evaluation of the overall synthetic fuel program and specific projects in the program. Updated versions of this document are expected to be prepared annually or semiannually as new information becomes available.

  17. Effects of child and adolescent health on educational progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Félice; Diez Roux, Ana; Morgenstern, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how childhood and adolescent health may affect schooling is important for understanding the socioeconomic ramifications of poor early-life health as well as the relations between schooling and adult health. Using three waves of U.S. longitudinal data with extensive covariate information on a national sample of 2368 American children aged 5-14 at baseline, we used regression methods to investigate how patterns of general health status over a 10-year period relate to completed years of schooling at the end of follow-up. As a sensitivity analysis, we used sibling fixed effects models to help control for differences stemming from familial or community factors shared between siblings. The effect of health on years of completed schooling appeared to accumulate over time, and was more evident among children who were older at baseline. Among participants aged 5-7, 8-10, and 11-14 at baseline, average differences in years of completed schooling between participants with poor health in all 3 waves and those with good health in all 3 waves were 0.02 ([95% confidence interval] -0.31, 0.35), -0.50 (-0.88, -0.12), and -1.28 (-1.78, -0.78), respectively. Point estimates from fixed effects models were very similar. Our results document the emergence and compounding over time of health-related disparities in schooling at young ages, suggesting a vicious cycle between poor health and educational outcomes. Future research better characterizing how early-life health affects educational progress will ultimately be necessary for developing effective interventions to reduce educational and health disparities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Costs and net health effects of contraceptive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Frank A; Burkman, Ronald T; Hagerty, C Greg; Speroff, Leon; Speroff, Theodore

    2004-06-01

    Pregnancy and contraceptive methods both have important health effects that include risks and benefits. The net impact of contraception on women's health has not been reported previously. This is a cost-utility analysis using a Markov model evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation using the societal perspective for costs. The analysis compared 13 methods of contraception to nonuse of contraception with respect to healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Discounting was applied for future costs and health effects. The base-case analysis applies to women of average health and fertility, ranging from 15 to 50 years of age, who are sexually active in a mutually monogamous relationship; smoking rates observed in women of reproductive age were used. Sensitivity analysis extended the analysis to nonmonogamous status and smoking status. Compared with use of no contraception, contraceptive methods of all types result in substantial cost savings over 2 years, ranging from US$5907 per woman for tubal sterilization to US$9936 for vasectomy and health gains ranging from 0.088 QALYs for diaphragm to 0.147 QALYs for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. Compared with nonuse, even with a time horizon as short as 1 year, use of any method other than sterilization results in financial savings and health gains. Most of the financial savings and health gains were due to contraceptive effects. In a population of patients, even modest increases in the use of the most effective methods result in financial savings and health gains. Every method of contraception dominates nonuse in most clinical settings. Increasing the use of more effective methods even modestly at the expense of less effective methods will improve health and reduce costs. Methods that require action by the user less frequently than daily are both less costly and more effective than methods requiring action on a daily basis. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Effects of Migration on Women Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Tuzcu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available People leave their habitats and go to different regions of the world due to various reasons, which is defined as migration. One of the most important changes that have been experienced in migration in the last half century is the increase in women's migration. Women are among the risk groups that are affected by the process of migration at most. A particular attention is attracted to the special requirements of women among groups that are obliged to migrate due to the crisis in their countries. Different lifestyles in the migrated social environment, difficult economic and working conditions, language barrier and relevant adaptation problems all negatively affect the mental health of these women. In order to protect and develop the mental health of migrant women from different cultural groups, it is important to approach these groups as primary risk groups and start multi-directional interventions aimed at their areas required. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 56-67

  1. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury Quick Facts Health Effects of Mercury Exposure What is Elemental Mercury? Elemental (metallic) mercury is the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other ...

  2. Effects of Self Esteem, Emotional Health and Social Competence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Self Esteem, Emotional Health and Social Competence on ... Two hundred and eighty-five adolescents who are undergraduate students of Ekiti State ... among others, that parents, especially, should make efforts to ensure that the ...

  3. Effect of climate change on human health and some adaptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of climate change on human health and some adaptive strategies – a review. ... The impact of human-induced climate change and ozone depletion are now ... and death that is more premature and disease related to air pollution.

  4. Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis ... should be directed to school students and Specific risk practices such as unsafe sexual ... an adequate management plan for those who tested positive and vaccination of ...

  5. Famine and its effects on health in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... MAIN ARTICLE. Famine and its effects on health in South Sudan. A Commentary ... World Food Programme (WFP), UNICEF and the Food and Agriculture .... increased risk of psychological disorders [11]. There are likely to be ...

  6. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  7. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  8. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  9. Respiratory health effects in relation to crystalline silica

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hnizdo, E

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to establish the feasibility of conducting such a prospective study of respiratory health effect in gold miners. In particular, the objectives were: (1) to establish whether routinely collected lung function...

  10. Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The main objectives of the proposed Center are: 1) to investigate the acute and chronic health effects across life stages of six exposure metrics (short- and long-...

  11. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  12. Veterans Health Administration Timely and Effective Care Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with timely and effective care (process of care) measure data. VHA collects this information through a Quality Improvement Organization...

  13. Risky business: effectiveness of state market-based health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream, Christopher; Myers, Nathan

    2010-02-01

    Since the 1990s, state governments have been leaders of health care reform. Today, approximately 47 million people are without health insurance. As health care costs and uninsurance levels continue to rise, states are pursuing a variety of government- and market-based strategies to address this growing social problem. Health care research has indicated that state-based programs have proven to be successful in extending access to coverage. However, the question remains as to whether the market-based programs have had a positive impact on state health care. Advocates for market-based state health programs argue that the reforms benefit the greater good because they serve an economic development function by improving the economic productivity and overall health of state citizens. Whether market-based policies are accomplishing these goals is a matter of debate. This study examines the effects of the various market-based state policies. The evidence generated by this research sheds light on the societal effectiveness of market-based health care strategies used by state governments. The results of our analysis indicate that programs enacted by states to promote increased access to medical care have developmental effects beyond the client population directly served.

  14. Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

  15. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose.

  16. Summary of Information Presented at an NRC-Sponsored Low-Power Shutdown Public Workshop, April 27, 1999, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Lois, Erasmia

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes a public workshop that was held on April 27, 1999, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop was conducted as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts to further develop its understanding of the risks associated with low power and shutdown operations at US nuclear power plants. A sufficient understanding of such risks is required to support decision-making for risk-informed regulation, in particular Regulatory Guide 1.174, and the development of a consensus standard. During the workshop the NRC staff discussed and requested feedback from the public (including representatives of the nuclear industry, state governments, consultants, private industry, and the media) on the risk associated with low-power and shutdown operations.

  17. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W

    2016-06-14

    In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: "Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century". We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson's statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.

  18. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard W. Mielke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: “Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century”. We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson’s statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.

  19. Workplace mobbing and effects on workers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; Soler Sánchez, María Isabel; Sáez Navarro, María Concepción; García Izquierdo, Mariano

    2008-05-01

    In this work, we analyze various consequences of the phenomenon of mobbing on the health of a work sector with special characteristics: the agro fruit sector. For this purpose, we collected data from a sample of 396 workers (61 men and 331 women) belonging to this sector in the Region of Murcia (Spain). A questionnaire with the following measurement instruments was administered: a Spanish adaptation of the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (Sáez, García, & Llor, 2003), the Psychosomatic Problems Questionnaire (Hock, 1988), and a measure of absenteeism. The results revealed a significant and positive relation between workplace mobbing and psychosomatic symptoms, but not with absenteeism. The implications of the results for future research are discussed.

  20. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  1. Comparative Analysis of CTF and Trace Thermal-Hydraulic Codes Using OECD/NRC PSBT Benchmark Void Distribution Database

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The international OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark has been established to provide a test bed for assessing the capabilities of thermal-hydraulic codes and to encourage advancement in the analysis of fluid flow in rod bundles. The benchmark was based on one of the most valuable databases identified for the thermal-hydraulics modeling developed by NUPEC, Japan. The database includes void fraction and departure from nucleate boiling measurements in a representative PWR fuel assembly. On behalf of the be...

  2. The cobY gene of the archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 is required for de novo cobamide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, J D; Peck, R F; Krebs, M P; Escalante-Semerena, J C

    2003-01-01

    Genetic and nutritional analyses of mutants of the extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 showed that open reading frame (ORF) Vng1581C encodes a protein with nucleoside triphosphate:adenosylcobinamide-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase enzyme activity. This activity was previously associated with the cobY gene of the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain DeltaH, but no evidence was obtained to demonstrate the direct involvement of this protein in cobamide biosynthesis in archaea. Computer analysis of the Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 ORF Vng1581C gene and the cobY gene of M. thermoautotrophicum strain DeltaH showed the primary amino acid sequence of the proteins encoded by these two genes to be 35% identical and 48% similar. A strain of Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 carrying a null allele of the cobY gene was auxotrophic for cobinamide-GDP, a known intermediate of the late steps of cobamide biosynthesis. The auxotrophic requirement for cobinamide-GDP was corrected when a wild-type allele of cobY was introduced into the mutant strain, demonstrating that the lack of cobY function was solely responsible for the observed block in cobamide biosynthesis in this archaeon. The data also show that Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 possesses a high-affinity transport system for corrinoids and that this archaeon can synthesize cobamides de novo under aerobic growth conditions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first genetic and nutritional analysis of cobalamin biosynthetic mutants in archaea.

  3. Online health information, situational effects and health changes among e-patients in Israel: A 'push/pull' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Access and use of online health information become increasingly important to health-oriented individual that may have implication for their health and wellness. The phenomenon of e-patients suggests that e-patients use the internet to increase health literacy and achieve health information about diagnosis, treatments, specialists and well-being before undergoing a health changes. Online health information may not 'fit' consultations with providers mainly when online source of information is trusted mainly when e-patients express lack of satisfaction with health-care providers. The strain between the two becomes evident when e-patients consider health changes. We examine health changes among e-patients. We assess the relationship between (a) trust in online health information and (b) satisfaction with health-care provider to predict two types of health changes: (a) well-being and (b) health-care changes. We also control for 'situational' effects including socio-economic and chronic illness variations. A telephone survey was conducted in 2010 in Israel among approximately 4000 individuals. Two-thousand individuals completed interviews (54% response rate). Seventy percentage were Internet users (n = 1371). Well-being health changes; health-care changes; satisfaction with institutional health-care provider; chronic illness: socio-economic: age; gender; marital status; education. Socio-economic and health status differences generate variations in use of online health information; trusting online health positively affects well-being - not health-care - changes but satisfaction with health-care provider positively improves the likelihood for health-care changes. The results indicate that (a) e-patients use online health information to make well-being health changes - starting a diet or physical activity programme - but not health-care changes - in medication or in health-care provider - (b) satisfaction with institutional health provider has a significant effect on health

  4. Potential Health Effects from Groundwater Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the growing awareness of potential toxicological effects of synthetic organic chemicals contaminating groundwater. Problems concerning pesticides, chlorination, epidemiologic studies, cancer, nephrotoxicity, and considerations of risk are addressed. Additional research in this area is advocated. (DH)

  5. Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... database Top of Page Effects of Other Mercury Compounds High exposure to inorganic mercury may result in damage to the gastrointestinal tract, the nervous system, and the kidneys. Both inorganic and organic mercury are absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and ...

  6. Poorly conserved ORFs in the genome of the archaea Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 correspond to expressed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmuely, H; Dinitz, E; Dahan, I; Eichler, J; Fischer, D; Shaanan, B

    2004-05-22

    A large fraction of open reading frames (ORFs) identified as 'hypothetical' proteins correspond to either 'conserved hypothetical' proteins, representing sequences homologous to ORFs of unknown function from other organisms, or to hypothetical proteins lacking any significant sequence similarity to other ORFs in the databases. Elucidating the functions and three-dimensional structures of such orphan ORFs, termed ORFans or poorly conserved ORFs (PCOs), is essential for understanding biodiversity. However, it has been claimed that many ORFans may not encode for expressed proteins. A genome-wide experimental study of 'paralogous PCOs' in the halophilic archaea Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 was conducted. Paralogous PCOs are ORFs with at least one homolog in the same organism, but with no clear homologs in other organisms. The results reveal that mRNA is synthesized for a majority of the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 paralogous PCO families, including those comprising relatively short proteins, strongly suggesting that these Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 paralogous PCOs correspond to true, expressed proteins. Hence, further computational and experimental studies aimed at characterizing PCOs in this and other organisms are merited. Such efforts could shed light on PCOs' functions and origins, thereby serving to elucidate the vast diversity observed in the genetic material.

  7. Genomic perspective on the photobiology of Halobacterium species NRC-1, a phototrophic, phototactic, and UV-tolerant haloarchaeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassarma, S; Kennedy, S P; Berquist, B; Victor Ng, W; Baliga, N S; Spudich, J L; Krebs, M P; Eisen, J A; Johnson, C H; Hood, L

    2001-01-01

    Halobacterium species display a variety of responses to light, including phototrophic growth, phototactic behavior, and photoprotective mechanisms. The complete genome sequence of Halobacterium species NRC-1 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 12176-12181, 2000), coupled with the availability of a battery of methods for its analysis makes this an ideal model system for studying photobiology among the archaea. Here, we review: (1) the structure of the 2.57 Mbp Halobacterium NRC-1 genome, including a large chromosome, two minichromosomes, and 91 transposable IS elements; (2) the purple membrane regulon, which programs the accumulation of large quantities of the light-driven proton pump, bacteriorhodopsin, and allows for a period of phototrophic growth; (3) components of the sophisticated pathways for color-sensitive phototaxis; (4) the gas vesicle gene cluster, which codes for cell buoyancy organelles; (5) pathways for the production of carotenoid pigments and retinal, (6) processes for the repair of DNA damage; and (7) putative homologs of circadian rhythm regulators. We conclude with a discussion of the power of systems biology for comprehensive understanding of Halobacterium NRC-1 photobiology.

  8. Overview and Discussion of the OECD/NRC Benchmark Based on NUPEC PWR Subchannel and Bundle Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Avramova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pennsylvania State University (PSU under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC has prepared, organized, conducted, and summarized the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (OECD/NRC benchmark based on the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC pressurized water reactor (PWR subchannel and bundle tests (PSBTs. The international benchmark activities have been conducted in cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA of OECD and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES, Japan. The OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark was organized to provide a test bed for assessing the capabilities of various thermal-hydraulic subchannel, system, and computational fluid dynamics (CFDs codes. The benchmark was designed to systematically assess and compare the participants’ numerical models for prediction of detailed subchannel void distribution and department from nucleate boiling (DNB, under steady-state and transient conditions, to full-scale experimental data. This paper provides an overview of the objectives of the benchmark along with a definition of the benchmark phases and exercises. The NUPEC PWR PSBT facility and the specific methods used in the void distribution measurements are discussed followed by a summary of comparative analyses of submitted final results for the exercises of the two benchmark phases.

  9. Effects of Indoor Air Pollution on Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, B.; Brunekreef, B.; Knöppel, H.

    1992-01-01

    This article contains a summary discussion of human health effects linked to indoor air pollution (UP) in homes and other non-industrial environments. Rather than discussing the health effects of the many different pollutants which can be found in indoor air, the approach has been to group broad...... the number of people contracting resparatory disease or alhgies, or experiencing irritative effects due to exposure to indoor pollution. The effects of IAP on reproduction, cardiovascular disease and on other systems and organs have not been well documented to date. To a certain extent, this may mean...

  10. [Earthquakes--a historical review, environmental and health effects, and health care measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Žuškin, Eugenija; Kratohvil, Mladen

    2013-06-01

    Earthquakes are natural disasters that can occur at any time, regardless of the location. Their frequency is higher in the Circum-Pacific and Mediterranean/Trans-Asian seismic belt. A number of sophisticated methods define their magnitude using the Richter scale and intensity using the Mercani-Cancani-Sieberg scale. Recorded data show a number of devastating earthquakes that have killed many people and changed the environment dramatically. Croatia is located in a seismically active area, which has endured a series of historical earthquakes, among which several occurred in the Zagreb area. The consequences of an earthquake depend mostly on the population density and seismic resistance of buildings in the affected area. Environmental consequences often include air, water, and soil pollution. The effects of this kind of pollution can have long-term health effects. The most dramatic health consequences result from the demolition of buildings. Therefore, quick and efficient aid depends on well-organized health professionals as well as on the readiness of the civil defence, fire department, and Mountain Rescue Service members. Good coordination among these services can save many lives Public health interventions must include effective control measures in the environment as secondary prevention methods for health problems caused by unfavourable environmental factors. The identification and control of long-term hazards can reduce chronic health effects. The reduction of earthquake-induced damages includes setting priorities in building seismically safe buildings.

  11. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S. Karnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man--‐made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post--‐traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  12. Permanently effective in health development. JICA Reproductive Health Project. Nghi Loc district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Huy Huyen

    1999-01-01

    The most common health problems in Nghi Trong in Vietnam include reproductive tract infections, children's diseases such as diarrhea, and acute bronchitis. Reproductive tract infections take place because of unsanitary water and acute bronchitis is rampant because of the cold weather. Although no HIV/AIDS cases have been reported in the commune, the Nghi Trong Commune Health Center (CHC) is making every effort to prevent HIV infection while providing other services. Under the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) project, information, education and communication activities have been implemented in the district. These activities are important because they have been helping commune people identify and understand common health problems, how to prevent them, and how to get timely treatment. It is not only temporary, but it is permanently effective in health development. In addition, health staff workers at the CHCs are benefiting from the training program provided by the JICA project. More commune people are also visiting the CHCs for examination and treatment.

  13. Health Effects of Waterpipe Tobacco Use: Getting the Public Health Message Just Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed; Jawad, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Many public health messages benchmark the harms of waterpipe tobacco against those of cigarettes, usually using numerical magnitudes of risk. This approach, although well intentioned, could be perceived as alarmist, damaging scientific credibility, and giving an unintended impression that one tobacco product is less harmful than the other. This commentary makes clear the harm waterpipe tobacco smoking poses to public health by describing its mechanism of use, consumption uptake, toxicologic profile, and documented health outcomes, as well as challenge existing thinking that toxicologic assessments are the most appropriate way to frame waterpipe tobacco health promotion messages. How can we describe the health effects of waterpipe tobacco without undermining its toxicity nor falling into the temptation of alarmist messaging? Several recommendations are provided.

  14. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  15. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  16. Effectiveness of health and wellness initiatives for seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coberley, Carter; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Pope, James E

    2011-02-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and lifestyle-related chronic diseases in the United States and abroad, senior wellness initiatives have emerged as a means to stem the troubling trends that threaten the well-being and the economy of many nations. Seniors are an important demographic for such programs because this age group is growing, both as a proportion of the overall population and as a contributor to health care cost escalation. The goal of senior wellness programs is to improve the overall health of seniors through a variety of approaches, including increased physical activity, better nutrition, smoking cessation, and support of other healthy behaviors. Outcome metrics of particular interest are the effects of participation in these programs on health care utilization and expenditures. This review describes several studies that demonstrate reduced inpatient admissions and health care costs, as well as improved health-related quality of life as a direct result of participation in large-scale senior wellness programs. Programs that effectively engage seniors in, and change behavior as a direct result of, participation provide strong evidence that health improvements and decreased health care expenditures can be achieved. However, solutions to the challenges of broader enrollment and sustained participation in these programs would increase the impact of their outcomes and health-related benefits.

  17. Effect of health system reforms in Turkey on user satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Stokes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, the Turkish government introduced major health system changes, the Health Transformation Programme (HTP, to achieve universal health coverage (UHC. The HTP leveraged changes in all parts of the health system, organization, financing, resource management and service delivery, with a new family medicine model introducing primary care at the heart of the system. This article examines the effect of these health system changes on user satisfaction, a key goal of a responsive health system. Utilizing the results of a nationally representative yearly survey introduced at the baseline of the health system transformation, multivariate logistic regression analysis is used to examine the yearly effect on satisfaction with health services. During the 9–year period analyzed (2004–2012, there was a nearly 20% rise in reported health service use, coinciding with increased access, measured by insurance coverage. Controlling for factors known to contribute to user satisfaction in the literature, there is a significant (P < 0.001 increase in user satisfaction with health services in almost every year (bar 2006 from the baseline measure, with the odds of being satisfied with health services in 2012, 2.56 (95% Confidence Interval (CI of 2.01–3.24 times that in 2004, having peaked at 3.58 (CI, 2.82–4.55 times the baseline odds in 2011. Additionally, those who used public primary care services were slightly, but significantly (P < 0.05 more satisfied than those who used any other services, and increasingly patients are choosing primary care services rather than secondary care services as the provider of first contact. A number of quality indicators can probably help account for the increased satisfaction with public primary care services, and the increase in seeking first–contact with these providers. The implementation of primary care focused UHC as part of the HTP has improved user satisfaction in Turkey.

  18. Effects of martial arts on health status: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Bin; Haijun, Han; Yong, Liu; Chaohui, Zhang; Xiaoyuan, Yang; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2010-11-01

    To systematically summarize the evidence for the effects of martial arts on health and fitness, to show the strengths of different types of martial arts, and to get a more complete picture of the impacts of martial arts on health, and also to provide a basis for future research on martial arts as an exercise prescription in exercise therapy. We searched for "martial arts"health" and "random" in eight databases (n= 5432). Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials on the health effects of martial arts were included in the study. The final analysis included 28 papers (one general martial arts, one kung fu, sixteen tai chi, six judo, three karate, and one taekwondo). Among the disciplines of martial arts, tai chi was the most well-studied, followed by judo, karate, and taekwondo. Research topics varied widely, and included health, injuries, competition, morals and psychology, and herbal medicine. Most found positive effects on health. Tai chi is no-contact, low-impact, soft body and mindfulness exercise, which has been widely adopted by elderly people and proven to be a beneficial health promotion exercise. Research on judo, karate, and taekwondo mainly focused on improvements to athletes' competitive abilities, rather than on health effects. We did not find any published randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials on aikido, kendo, sumo, kyudo, qi gong, or other disciplines. Since martial arts are widely practiced, their effects on physiology, morphology, immunology, and neurology should be further studied in order to help people to select the best discipline or style to accomplish their purposes. This necessitates categorizing and classifying the disciplines and styles according to their effects on different body systems and levels of contact, as well as standardizing evaluation criteria for martial arts. Martial arts as an exercise prescription can then move from an experience-based to an evidence-based treatment. © 2010 Blackwell

  19. EPRI/NRC-RES fire PRA guide for nuclear power facilities. Volume 1, summary and overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-09-01

    This report documents state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) application. The methods have been developed under the Fire Risk Re-quantification Study. This study was conducted as a joint activity between EPRI and the U. S. NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) under the terms of an EPRI/RES Memorandum of Understanding [RS.1] and an accompanying Fire Research Addendum [RS.2]. Industry participants supported demonstration analyses and provided peer review of this methodology. The documented methods are intended to support future applications of Fire PRA, including risk-informed regulatory applications. The documented method reflects state-of-the-art fire risk analysis approaches. The primary objective of the Fire Risk Study was to consolidate recent research and development activities into a single state-of-the-art fire PRA analysis methodology. Methodological issues raised in past fire risk analyses, including the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) fire analyses, have been addressed to the extent allowed by the current state-of-the-art and the overall project scope. Methodological debates were resolved through a consensus process between experts representing both EPRI and RES. The consensus process included a provision whereby each major party (EPRI and RES) could maintain differing technical positions if consensus could not be reached. No cases were encountered where this provision was invoked. While the primary objective of the project was to consolidate existing state-of-the-art methods, in many areas, the newly documented methods represent a significant advancement over previously documented methods. In several areas, this project has, in fact, developed new methods and approaches. Such advances typically relate to areas of past methodological debate.

  20. The effect of health benefit information on consumers health value, attitudes and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudoran, Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Dopico, Domingo C

    2009-06-01

    This research explored the effect of health benefit information on individuals' stated health value, attitudes towards functional/enriched foods, expectations, perceptions, and intentions to purchase a new fibre-enriched fish product. The study used a randomized design involving an experimental group receiving fibre and health information on the product and a control group who did not receive such information. The results indicated that consumers in the experimental group scored higher on the average attitudes towards functional/enriched foods than did consumers in the control group. No significant differences were observed for other variables. Following a value-attitude-behaviour approach, the study proposed a model relating consumers' health value to their attitudes towards functional/enriched foods, attitudes towards the new functional product and intention to purchase the product, and tested how information affected the structural model. Four of the seven relationships in the structural model proved to be moderated by information. For example, the results indicated that information constrained the association between the health value and product-related health perceptions or hedonic expectations, when individuals had negative attitudes towards the functional/enriched food products. Overall, the study advances the existing literature on the effects of information on consumer behaviour by adding insights into how information simultaneously influenced the mean values and the relationships among the health value, attitudinal factors and intention.

  1. Cadmium and children : Exposure and health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis

  2. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17-β-oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is to

  3. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17-β-oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is

  4. Cadmium and children : Exposure and health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis whi

  5. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-03-27

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  6. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT and construal level theory (CLT. We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  7. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  8. The effect of gender based sexual health education in promoting adolescent girls sexual health attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Ika Parmawati; Ova Emilia; Wenny Artanty Nisman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent development affects the sexual desire and acitivity. Gender inequality may lead to discrimination and an increase in the vulnerability of adolescent girls to sexual coercion. Meanwhile, gender-sensitive reproductive health education is known to be able to decrease such vulnerability. Researcher wants to find the effects of gender-sensitive reproductive health education towards the adolescent girls' attitude improvements. Methods: This study was quasi experiment resea...

  9. Hass avocado composition and potential health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Mark L; Davenport, Adrienne J

    2013-01-01

    Hass avocados, the most common commercial avocado cultivars in the world, contain a variety of essential nutrients and important phytochemicals. Although the official avocado serving is one-fifth of a fruit (30 g), according to NHANES analysis the average consumption is one-half an avocado (68 g), which provides a nutrient and phytochemical dense food consisting of the following: dietary fiber (4.6 g), total sugar (0.2 g), potassium (345 mg), sodium (5.5 mg), magnesium (19.5 mg), vitamin A (43 μg), vitamin C (6.0 mg), vitamin E (1.3 mg), vitamin K1 (14 μg), folate (60 mg), vitamin B-6 (0.2 mg), niacin (1.3 mg), pantothenic acid (1.0 mg), riboflavin (0.1 mg), choline (10 mg), lutein/zeaxanthin (185 μg), phytosterols (57 mg), and high-monounsaturated fatty acids (6.7 g) and 114 kcals or 1.7 kcal/g. The avocado oil consists of 71% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 16% saturated fatty acids (SFA), which helps to promote healthy blood lipid profiles and enhance the bioavailability of fat soluble vitamins and phytochemicals from the avocado or other fruits and vegetables, naturally low in fat, which are consumed with avocados. There are eight preliminary clinical studies showing that avocado consumption helps support cardiovascular health. Exploratory studies suggest that avocados may support weight management and healthy aging.

  10. Hydrography - RIVERS_OUTSTANDING_NRC_IN: Outstanding Rivers in Indiana Listed by the Natural Resource Commission (Bernardin-Lochmueller and Associates, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RIVERS_OUTSTANDING_NRC_IN represents river and stream segments on the NRC’s Outstanding Rivers list for Indiana. The source data was last updated in October 1997....

  11. Hydrography - RIVERS_OUTSTANDING_NRC_IN: Outstanding Rivers in Indiana Listed by the Natural Resource Commission (Bernardin-Lochmueller and Associates, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — RIVERS_OUTSTANDING_NRC_IN represents river and stream segments on the NRC’s Outstanding Rivers list for Indiana. The source data was last updated in October 1997....

  12. Investigating the Effect of Implementing the School Based Health Promotion Program on Students’ Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollatif Esmaeili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The “school- based health program” is implemented in schools all over the country with the purpose of preventing substance abuse, high-risk behaviors, and violence. The current study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of this program in enhancing some of the health indicators of the students participating in this program. Methods: In this cross- sectional study, based on the Krejcie and Morgan table, 400 students (4 groups- 2cases and 2 controls- each including 100 people from both male and female genders were selected through stratified and stage random sampling. The data gathering tools were the “General Health Questionnaire”, Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Satisfied with Life Scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS 13 software and through descriptive statistics and paired t test. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between General Health, Self esteem, Happiness and Satisfied with Life mean scores of case and control groups. However, the differences between the mean scores of the two groups in educational performance were significant (P=0.005. Conclusion: General findings of this study indicate that education presented to students via school-based health program has not been effective in enhancing their mental health. Therefore, to improve the effectiveness of this program, it is suggested that the educational methods of this program be revised.

  13. Nutrition attributes and health effects of pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulló, M; Juanola-Falgarona, M; Hernández-Alonso, P; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological and/or clinical trials have suggested that nut consumption has a beneficial impact on health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, CVD, cancer, other inflammatory conditions and total mortality. Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with a healthy fatty acid profile, as well as provide other bioactive compounds with recognised health benefits. Among nuts, pistachios have a lower fat and energy content and the highest levels of K, γ-tocopherol, vitamin K, phytosterols, xanthophyll carotenoids, certain minerals (Cu, Fe and Mg), vitamin B₆ and thiamin. Pistachios have a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. The aforementioned characteristics and nutrient mix probably contribute to the growing body of evidence that consumption of pistachios improves health. The present review examines the potential health effects of nutrients and phytochemicals in pistachios, as well as epidemiological and clinical evidence supporting these health benefits.

  14. The problems related to confidentiality and effectiveness of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, J R

    1983-08-01

    The problem of the impact of confidentiality on health effectiveness is discussed along five points: (1) Communication facilities between health departments are main features of health information systems. (2) Efforts, costs, limits of data protection. The privacy violation risks have to be related to the data protection costs. (3) Paradox of the fundamental rights to confidentiality regarding privacy of the individual and the preponderant interest of the State. (4) Facing the increasing health costs, the need for medical and hospital control systems is assessed. (5) New benefits in medicine and in the quality of care are partly the results of more or less extensive studies in epidemiology at national levels. The general conclusion is concerned with the risks that the computer could become an instrumental substitute for human reason with the progressive drop out of responsibility of health officers.

  15. NTP monograph on health effects of low-level lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Although reductions in lead (Pb) exposure for the U.S. population have resulted in lower blood Pb levels over time, epidemiological studies continue to provide evidence of health effects at lower and lower blood Pb levels. Low-level Pb was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of (1) the availability of a large number of epidemiological studies of Pb, (2) a nomination by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for an assessment of Pb at lower levels of exposure, and (3) public concern for effects of Pb in children and adults. This evaluation summarizes the evidence in humans and presents conclusions on health effects in children and adults associated with low-level Pb exposure as indicated by less than 10 micrograms of Pb per deciliter of blood (Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. The document and appendices are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/evals. This document provides background on Pb exposure and includes a review of the primary epidemiological literature for evidence that low-level Pb is associated with neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, renal, and/or reproductive and developmental effects. The NTP Monograph presents specific conclusions for each health effect area. Overall, the NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence that blood Pb levels Monograph on November 17-18, 2011 (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/37090.

  16. Health Effects of Embedded Depleted Uranium Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    formation; however, there is little information Several important unanswered questions can be ad- regarding DU exposure and DNA damage. A deter- dressed ...the human maternal weight gain and fetal body weights at GD 18 placenta, little correlation has been shown be- [I]. Soft tissue and skeletal examination...nium on prenatal development, several studies have equal to or greater than the maternal liver concen- been conducted to evaluate the effects of

  17. Are the arts an effective setting for promoting health messages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christina; Knuiman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee

    2013-03-01

    Individuals can contribute to their own well-being through the adoption of positive health behaviours and the avoidance of negative health behaviours. The promotion of health messages is a cognitive strategy used to influence the adoption of health-enhancing behaviours. Since 1991, arts organizations have been sponsored by the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation (Healthway) to promote anti-smoking, safe alcohol consumption, physical activity, sun protection and nutrition messages to the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of arts sponsorship to promote health messages and therefore gauge the effectiveness of the arts as a communication channel to promote health to the general population. A secondary analysis of the Healthway Survey of Community Recreation and Health data was conducted. The data were collected via a telephone survey of Western Australian adults aged 16-69 years. Overall, 1997 respondents participated in this study, a response rate of 59%. The analysis included a descriptive investigation, followed by logistic regression analyses of message awareness by those engaged and not engaged in the arts for sponsored anti-smoking, safe alcohol consumption, physical activity, sun protection and nutrition messages. Overall, 68% of those surveyed were classified as engaged in the arts, either as a participant, attendee or member of an arts organization. In general, those engaged in the arts were significantly more likely to recall health messages relating to physical activity (adjusted OR = 1.9), sun protection (OR = 1.8) nutrition (OR = 1.5), safe alcohol consumption (OR = 1.5) and anti-smoking (adjusted OR = 1.3) than those not engaged in the arts. Findings from this study suggest the arts have merit beyond intrinsic artistic value and are a viable means of promoting health messages to the general population.

  18. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S

    2006-01-01

    effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross......-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts...... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors...

  19. The Health Effects of Income Inequality: Averages and Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Beth C; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Although most theories imply long and variable lags between changes in income inequality and changes in health, empirical evidence is confined largely to short-term effects. Rising income inequality can affect individuals in two ways. Direct effects change individuals' own income. Indirect effects change other people's income, which can then change a society's politics, customs, and ideals, altering the behavior even of those whose own income remains unchanged. Indirect effects can thus change both average health and the slope of the relationship between individual income and health.

  20. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    on specific diagnoses such as PTSD. Another challenge is that the differences between soldiers and non-soldiers are not necessarily causal, instead possibly reflecting an underlying propensity towards active military service. Using the objective measures of hospitalizations and the purchase of mental health...... medication, this paper is the first to investigate the effect of recent military deployments on a broader measure of mental health, for a full population of Danish soldiers and a comparison group of eligible men. We exploit a panel of Danish health administrative records and use propensity score matching...... for time trends and other omitted variables affecting both groups. Overall, we find a significant and long-lasting adverse effect of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health, regardless of the comparison groups and underlying assumptions....

  1. The effect of exercise on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrea L; Jewell, Jennifer S

    2010-01-01

    Including exercise for the prevention and treatment of mental disorders is a promising area of research for exercise scientists since data indicate that many of these disorders are not treated at all, and there is a significant delay in treatment. This review provides an appraisal of the recent use of exercise to prevent and treat specific mental disorders and provides a recommended framework for future progress of this research. More research is needed to overcome methodological issues to demonstrate the efficacy and effectiveness of exercise and to integrate mental and physical healthcare for widespread dissemination.

  2. Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, George L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) disturb cell homeostasis at very low intensities by influencing discrete intracellular magnetic fields. The article reviews current research about the health effects of EMF, examining historical implications, childhood studies, adult studies, and popular press reports, and…

  3. Team effectiveness in academic primary health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Dianne; Jamieson, Margaret; Lemieux, Melissa

    2008-12-01

    Primary health care is undergoing significant organizational change, including the development of interdisciplinary health care teams. Understanding how teams function effectively in primary care will assist training programs in teaching effective interprofessional practices. This study aimed to explore the views of members of primary health care teams regarding what constitutes a team, team effectiveness and the factors that affect team effectiveness in primary care. Focus group consultations from six teams in the Department of Family Medicine at Queen's University were recorded and transcribed and qualitative analysis was used to identify themes. Twelve themes were identified that related to the impact of dual goals/obligations of education and clinical/patient practice on team relationships and learners; the challenges of determining team membership including nonattendance of allied health professionals except nurses; and facilitators and barriers to effective team function. This study provides insight into some of the challenges of developing effective primary care teams in an academic department of family medicine. Clear goals and attention to teamwork at all levels of collaboration is needed if effective interprofessional education is to be achieved. Future research should clarify how best to support the changes required for increasingly effective teamwork.

  4. Effects of office innovation on office workers' health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2009-09-01

    The implementation of an innovative office concept (e.g. open-plan, flexible workplaces and a paperless office concept) on health and productivity among office workers was evaluated with questionnaires of 138 workers at baseline and 6 and 15 months afterwards. Work-related fatigue, general health, change in health status, upper extremity complaints and perceived productivity were outcomes. No short-term significant differences were found in most outcomes except for quantity of performed work (decrease from 96% to 92%, p = 0.008). In the long-term, no significant differences were found in most outcomes except for an increase in general health (p = 0.011) and a decrease in prevalences of upper extremity complaints (33% to 22%, p = 0.021). Perceived productivity increased significantly 15 months after the implementation. It is concluded that innovative office concepts had no or limited effects on work-related fatigue, health changes and productivity but some positive effects on workers' general health and upper extremity complaints in the long term. Office innovation is being administered often but up to now seldom evaluated on workers' health and productivity.

  5. Effects of information and communication technology on youth's health knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nahid R; Heidari, Rosemarie N

    2011-05-01

    Information technology (IT) has produced a deep impact on human lives, and the most important aspect of its effect is on education and learning. This study was done for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of electronic health information on our Web site http://www.teen.hbi.ir in the promotion of health education and in increasing the capabilities of the students in the use of the Internet. This study was performed on the basis of the information obtained from the questionnaires on selected health issues from 649 students from 3 high schools. Information was collected in 2 steps (pretest and posttest). The t test and Leven's test were used in the statistical analysis of data. Results of the t test showed that educating students through health information Web sites has increased their knowledge by at least 14.5% on environmental health and 48.9% on nutrition and was statistically meaningful in all fields (P=.000) with the exception of mental health. The fact is that the use of IT has become a part of our society and is perhaps the most promising medium for achieving health promotion initiatives.

  6. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNabb Scott JN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1 adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]; 2 maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3 consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers. To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners. We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it’s needed, where it’s needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities

  7. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Scott J N

    2010-12-03

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources.Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1) adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]); 2) maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3) consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers.To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners.We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it's needed, where it's needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities to the ownership and stewardship

  8. [The paradoxical effect of persuasive communication in health education sessions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperini, Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the communication dynamics leading to the adoption of new attitudes and cognitions in health education sessions. We examined the verbal interactions at work in persuasive communication in 16 health education sessions. The study found that the medical expertise of the educator and the initial level of commitment of the participants had a positive effect on adherence to recommendations. However, persuasive communication in health education sessions appears to involve a paradoxical process in which criticism of the message can go hand in hand with the expression of an intention to implement new risk-reducing behaviors.

  9. The Effect of Holy Quran Voice on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoob, Monireh; Nejati, Jalil; Hosseini, Alireaza; Bakhshani, Noor Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Quran listening without its musical tone (Tartil) on the mental health of personnel in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, southeast of Iran. The results showed significant differences between the test and control groups in their mean mental health scores after Quran listening (P = 0.037). No significant gender differences in the test group before and after intervention were found (P = 0.806). These results suggest that Quran listening could be recommended by psychologists for improving mental health and achieving greater calm.

  10. ROMANIAN FOOD CONSUMPTION AND ITS EFFECTS ON POPULATION'S HEALTH CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CONSTANDACHE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Public health is a top priority for the European Union. The main factor in ensuring population health is food consumption and in particular food quality. The present paper aims at analyzing Romanian population food consumption during the 1990-2012 periods, its evolution in time; it identifies its main features and their effects on population health. Amid the economic crisis the purchasing power of population is impaired leading to insufficient consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and a low intake of vitamins, calcium, phosphorous and iron (especially in children, women and elderly people, which could be an important risk factor in the development of chronic diseases.

  11. Acute health effects of the Sea Empress oil spill

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, R. A.; Temple, J. M.; Evans, D; Fone, D. L.; Palmer, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether residents in the vicinity of the Sea Empress tanker spill suffered an increase in self reported physical and psychological symptoms, which might be attributable to exposure to crude oil. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study; postal questionnaire including demographic details, a symptom checklist, beliefs about health effects of oil and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression and SF-36 mental health scales. SETTING: Populations living in four coastal tow...

  12. Opinion on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In January 2015, the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) published its final opinion on "Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields." The purpose of this document was to update previous SCENIHR opinions in the light of recently available information since then, and to give special consideration to areas that had not been dealt with in the previous opinions or in which important knowledge gaps had been identified.

  13. The Effect of Adolescent Training Program on Risky Health Behaviours and Health Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KÜRTÜNCÜ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the risky health behaviors and to raise the awareness of adolescents (attending high school education about prevention of risky behaviors and solutions by the effect of module-based training courses (about reproductive health and birth control, sexually transmitted infections, harmful habits, psychosocial behavior. Being planned as cross-sectional, this study was performed between September 2013-June 2014 in three states and a private high school in Zonguldak and conducted with a group of students aged between 14 and 19.926 students have participated before the training and 534 students have participated after training. It was seen that the mean scores of ‘The Adolescent Risk-Taking Questionnaire', ‘The Adolescent's Attitudes Towards Violence Scale' and ‘taking risk about social status', ‘traffic', ‘subtance use' subscales have decreased after the risk prevention trainings. The means scores of ‘Adolescent Coping with Problems Scale', ‘Nutrition Behaviour Scale' and ‘Nutrition Attitude Scale' have raised. Hence, the scores of domains reflecting adolescent health perception such as hygiene, sleep and exercise have raised while the scores of somatic symptoms domain, such as abdominal pain, headache, and fatigue have been failed. Consequently, it was determined that the training courses about risky health behaviours were effective in preventing risky health behaviors and creating positive health perceptions of adolescents.

  14. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  15. 'Side effects' of health promotion: an example from Austrian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugglberger, Lisa; Flaschberger, Edith; Teutsch, Friedrich

    2014-07-04

    While the existence of side effects of medical interventions is common knowledge and widely investigated, possible unintended effects of health promotion (HP) interventions are only sparsely discussed in the HP literature. Drawing on qualitative evaluation data generated within an on-going process evaluation of a regional health-promoting schools network in Austria, we demonstrate which desirable and undesirable effects HP practice can have for teachers. Thirteen group discussions with teachers (n = 63) and headteachers (n = 9) acting as health coordinators in the network schools were conducted between 2010 and 2013. These data were analysed using systems and thematic analyses. In our example, desirable side effects included health coordinators gaining new relationships, new skills and benefiting from improved infrastructure. The undesirable side effects centred on stress, work overload and frustration, due to the additional work brought about by HP practice, negative reactions by colleagues as well as by technicalities of the network. The undesirable side effects of HP predominated in our study, pointing to several implications like the need to accommodate the concept of HP in the teachers' core responsibilities; the participation of all staff members and students in a whole-school approach toward SHP, and the need for changes on an organizational level. Based on this study, we come to the conclusion that a systematic approach to investigating and analysing side effects of HP is currently lacking in HP research and suggest that theoretical examination and more empirical research is needed.

  16. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-06-11

    Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed-methods design, beginning with a

  17. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  18. Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools (HESPERUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Frederiksen, Marie;

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) were introduced in the late 1920s and used until the 1970s when they were banned in most countries due to evidence of environmental build-up and possible adverse health effects. However they still persist in the environment, indoors and in humans. Indoor air...... in contaminated buildings may confer airborne exposure markedly above background regional PCB levels. To date, no epidemiological studies have assessed the health effects from exposure to semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. Indoor air PCBs are generally less chlorinated than PCBs that are absorbed via...... the diet, or via past occupational exposure; therefore their health effects require separate risk assessment. Two separate cohorts of individuals who have either attended schools (n = 66,769; 26% exposed) or lived in apartment buildings (n = 37,185; 19% exposed), where indoor air PCB concentrations have...

  19. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  20. The Health Effects and Keep Down of Whole Body Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibration was defined that oscillation of the body according to the reference point. The tools that are used in industry and are the source of vibration cause diseases. For this reason, the vibration has been one of the factors that affect the health and of the most widely researched in the field of ergonomics. The perceived intensity and health effects of vibration depend on the vibration frequency, intensity, direction, acceleration, duration of exposure, vibration affects the region, age, gender, posture, distance from the source person, activity, time of day and the person\\s overall health condition. The one of the most common health effects of whole body vibration is impact on musculoskeletal system. In many studies, indicated that whole-body vibration effect waist, back, shoulder and neck especially. There were varied studies that hormone levels were not changed as well there were varied studies that hormone levels were increased or decreased. There were varied studies about the digestive and circulatory system. In these studies, digestive system complaints, peptic ulcer, gastritis, varicose veins and hemorrhoids were determined frequently. For protection the health effect of vibration, Directives of the European Commission, Turkish Standards, Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise and Vibration Regulations were published. For the control of vibration are need technical and medical measures and education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(2.000: 177-186

  1. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  2. Effects of health decentralization, financing and governance in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the effects of decentralization on health financing and governance policies in Mexico from the perspective of users and providers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in four states that were selected according to geopolitical and administrative criteria. Four indicators were assessed: changes and effects on governance, financing sources and funds, the final destination of resources, and fund allocation mechanisms. Data collection was performed using in-depth interviews with health system key personnel and community leaders, consensus techniques and document analyses. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed by thematic segmentation. RESULTS: The results show different effectiveness levels for the four states regarding changes in financing policies and community participation. Effects on health financing after decentralization were identified in each state, including: greater participation of municipal and state governments in health expenditure, increased financial participation of households, greater community participation in low-income states, duality and confusion in the new mechanisms for coordination among the three government levels, absence of an accountability system, lack of human resources and technical skills to implement, monitor and evaluate changes in financing. CONCLUSIONS: In general, positive and negative effects of decentralization on health financing and governance were identified. The effects mentioned by health service providers and users were related to a diversification of financing sources, a greater margin for decisions around the use and final destination of financial resources and normative development for the use of resources. At the community level, direct financial contributions were mentioned, as well as in-kind contributions, particularly in the form of community work.

  3. RADIOFREQUENCY AND MICROWAVE RADIATION HEALTH EFFECTS AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Damnjanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there have been considerable discussion and concern about the possible hazards of RF/MW radiation. More recently, the growth and development in personal mobile communications have focused attention on the frequencies associated with this technology. A number of studies have examined the health effects of RF/MW electromagnetic fields (EMFs, originating from occupational exposure, hobbies, or residence near the radio or television transmitters. Particularly controversial are the biophysical mechanisms by which these RF fields may affect biological systems. General health effects reviews explore possible carcinogenic, reproductive and neurological effects. Health effects by exposure source have been observed in radar traffic devices, wireless communications with cellular phones, radio transmission, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Several epidemiological surveys have suggested associations with non-specific complaints such as headache, tiredness, sleep disturbance, loss of memory, and dizziness. These findings, which echo reports of illness associated with other types of radiofrequency (RF radiation, relate not only to the use of mobile phones, but also to residence near the mobile phone base stations and other settings involving occupational exposure. The biological effects suggest that some precautions are necessary, and preventive approaches are highly recommended. Further researches are required to give more information about the effects of microwave radiation on our health, especially in occupational setting and professionally exposed workers.

  4. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  5. Uptake of chemicals from indoor air: Pathways and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Building occupants are exposed to manufactured chemicals. Exposure in the indoor environment can occur via non-dietary ingestion (e.g. indoor dust), inhalation and dermal absorption including dermal uptake directly from air. The extent of dermal uptake from air has been previously studied...... intake from inhalation. Further experiments have been conducted with nicotine and the results are similar. Some of the SVOCs present indoors may have adverse health effects or are categorized as potential endocrine-disrupting compounds. It has been suggested that the health effects of a chemical may...

  6. Effects of Minerals on Human Health and Their Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Kavak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Health effects of minerals depend on mineralogical structure and dimension ofinhaled dust. Diseases caused by minerals were known as only occupational diseases upto recently. However, many researchers pointed out that many diseases at various partsof body resulted from minerals. Minerals are naturally occurred solid particles whichhave a determined chemical and physical structure properties and interior crystalstructure. In mineral analyses basic disciplines such as chemistry, physics andmathematics are used. In this study, especially minerals that effect human health andtheir mineralogical analyses will be considered.

  7. On the health effects of transported and resuspended dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Yinon

    2017-04-01

    In the Mediterranean area people are often exposed to high levels of both transported mineral dust and to resuspended urban dust. High exposure to particulate matter is a known risk factor to exposed population, but the detailed understanding of how these dusts affect health remain elusive. In this talk I will describe two aspects of how dust may impact health. First, transport of bacteria by desert dust and its effects on the local microbiome will be described. Then, we will describe the biological effects due to exposing water soluble extracts of fresh and aged dust particles from the Israeli Negev Desert to alveolar macrophages.

  8. The Effects of Ventilation in Homes on Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that people in the developed world spend more than 85-90% of their time indoors. Of this, most is spent in homes. To minimize health risks from pollutants occurring in homes, exposures should be controlled. The most effective way to achieve this is to control sources of pollutants...... is needed in existing homes to reduce health risks. This is achieved by reviewing the published scientific literature investigating the association between measured ventilation rates and the measured and observed health problems. The paper concludes that, generally, there are very few studies on this issue...... in existing homes. No data were found indicating that buildings having dedicated natural ventilation systems perform less well than the dwellings in which mechanical ventilation systems are installed. Newly installed mechanical ventilation systems were observed to improve health conditions. In homes...

  9. Alcoholism and its Effects: an Approach Based on Health Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de las Mercedes Pretel Olite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a complex biopsychosocial disorder that requires a specialised and multidisciplinary approach focusing on both the patient and the family. Alcohol consumption is the most important addiction worldwide due to its prevalence and impact. Therefore, the main objective of a primary care physician should be to facilitate the referral of patients and their families to a structured treatment, support and guidance program during the whole detoxification process. In every health area in Cienfuegos, there are community mental health centers with a staff trained to deal with these disorders in addicts and their family. A literature review was conducted to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and its harmful effects on health, family and society, using an approach based on Health Psychology.

  10. Leveraging "big data" to enhance the effectiveness of "one health" in an era of health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V; Asokan, Vanitha

    2015-12-01

    Zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases. The major obstacles to control zoonoses include insensitive systems and unreliable data. Intelligent handling of the cost effective big data can accomplish the goals of one health to detect disease trends, outbreaks, pathogens and causes of emergence in human and animals.

  11. The effects of poverty on children's development and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Marcio A

    2012-01-01

    According to the US Census Bureau, the poverty rate for children under 18 years of age increased to 22% in 2010. Poverty leads to adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents such as harmful effects on learning, psychosocial development, physical health, productivity and family life. Because the citizens and residents of a country are its most valuable assets, it is unwise to allow housing instability, food insecurity and hunger to continue to exist at its current levels. Reducing poverty is likely to prevent illnesses, decrease hospitalizations, and lead to lower health care costs. There is also a need for intervention strategies to ensure equitable access to healthy foods across the world. Children who are food insecure are more likely to be in poor health and to have poor nutritional outcomes. Poverty may lead to poor dental health due to malnutrition or incorrect diet and it may also have an effect on the child's behavior in the dental office. An understanding of poverty will lessen the anger, frustration and prejudice that pediatric dentists may feel when working with low-income families. This manuscript presents a concise overview of the effects of poverty in children's lives.

  12. Healthy happiness: Effects of happiness on physical health and the consequences for preventive health care

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIs happiness good for your health? This common notion is tested in a synthetic analysis of 30 follow-up studies on happiness and longevity. It appears that happiness does not predict longevity in sick populations, but that it does predict longevity among healthy populations. So, happiness does not cure illness but it does protect against becoming ill. The effect of happiness on longevity in healthy populations is remarkably strong. The size of the effect is comparable to that of s...

  13. Community health worker training for infant hearing health: effectiveness of distance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Eliene Silva; de Freitas Alvarenga, Kátia; Urnau, Daniele; Pagnossin, Débora Frizzo; Wen, Chao Lung

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a distance training program in infant hearing health to community health workers (CHWs). Pre- and post- tests were administered to two groups of subjects following the use of an interactive CD-ROM for tele-educational training. Two groups of subjects were used: Group I (GI) consisted of 43 CHWs who had previously participated in at least one training activity involving hearing health, and Group II (GII) were 47 CHWs who had received no prior training in hearing health. CHWs retained a significant amount of training content. There was not significant correlation between the global post-training questionnaire score and performance on the simulation activity (GI: r = 0.11, p = 0.698 and GII: r = 0.29, p = 0.074), and the simulation activity performance was significantly better among GI CHWs (p = 0.05). The CHWs' training in infant hearing health using an interactive tele-educational tool was effective, as the CHW demonstrated significant short-term information retention and applied such data in hypothetical situations representative of their daily activities.

  14. Perceptions of the health effects of stoves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joanna K; Emmel, Nick D; Manaseki, Semira; Chambers, Jacky

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the views of stove users in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on how stoves affect their health. In this paper focus groups were conducted with improved stove users; traditional stove users; and a mix of traditional and improved stove users. Individual interviews were also held with various types of stove users. A translator moderated all discussions with a questioning route. All discussions were fully transcribed and translated. The transcripts were analysed by identifying common themes in responses to form an emerging theory. The findings in the paper are that all stove users recognised respiratory symptoms caused by stove smoke and other health effects such as warmth, dirt and workload, which they perceived to be important. Stove users had a lack of knowledge about the diseases caused by the smoke. Public health was a key driver for the improved stove project, yet has been neglected in improved stove marketing. The study used in this paper was limited by the language barrier. Some of the meanings of participants' responses may have been lost in translation. This paper has highlighted the importance of the health effects of stove smoke to stove users. Uptake of the improved stoves has been low. Public health should be included in marketing strategies for improved stoves to increase their uptake. The paper shows that acute respiratory infections are a major cause of mortality world-wide. Indoor air pollution from burning biomass fuels in household stoves causes a significant proportion of respiratory infections. No qualitative research has been published exploring stove users' views on the health effects of stoves. This paper provides an insight into stove users' perceptions for those interested in people-centred approaches to tackling international health issues.

  15. Effects of Oral Health Training on Dental Plaque Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M amiri

    2016-02-01

    3- oral health training (control group . Two weeks and two months after the intervention, plaque index was measured. Positive and negative changes were recorded over time, and then, the study data were analyzed using Chi-square (bonferroni adjustment, McNemar, Kruskal-Wallis  and Paired t-Test. Results: The study results revealed no significant differences between the  halitosis group and the traditional group, though both had a significant difference with the control group. Positive changes in halitosis group especially within girls were held to be more durable compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Oral health training accompanging training of oral malodor, tooth decay and periodontal disease seems to be more effective on health promotion of senior high school students in Yazd. Furthermore, oral malodor training produces more durable effects. As a result, this training style is recommended in regard with eductional programs of schools.

  16. Review of health effects models for Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seok Jung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Many international organizations have developed health risk models. Especially, as radiation-induced cancer is an important part among health effects, development has been focused on cancer risk model. This paper reviewed the cancer risk models of international agencies; United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Moreover, as pre-research for improving the health risk model in Korea, this paper analyzed the three methodologies and specific details in modeling. International agencies have developed radiation-induced cancer risk model reflecting the recent A-bomb survivor LSS data. This paper reviewed the recent cancer risk model of UNSCEAR, NAS and ICRP. All three models were based on ERR and EAR model in the form of a multiplication of dose-response model and modification function. Lifetime risk was calculated as a function of exposure age and gender.

  17. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used...... in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were...... published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its...

  18. Effects of Training for Reproductive Health of Knowledge of Reproductive Health and Behaviour in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Bahar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period when physical, psychological and social maturity is achieved. Therefore, reproductive health in adolescence is of great importance.Aims: This study was performed to determine the effects of training for reproductive health and behavior on knowledge of reproductive health and reproductive behavior in adolescents.Methodology: This is a semi-experimental study and included 700 adolescent from the city of Sanlıurfa, Turkey. The participants were selected from volunteers and aged 15-24 years. A questionnaire composed of questions about demographic features and reproductive health and behavior. The dependent variables tested were mean scores of the participants on reproductive health, breast self-examination of the female participants, testicular self-examination and use of condoms by the male participants. The independent variable tested was training for reproductive health. T-test was used to analyze data about dependent groups and Chi-square test (McNemar was used to compare between two dependent groups.Results: The mean age of the participants was 18.80 ± 2.82 years and 51.0% of the participants secondary school graduates. The total score of the participants on knowledge of reproductive health increased from 6.48 before training to 15.80 after training, with a significant difference (p=0.000. While the percentage of the female participants performing breast self-examination was 22.9% before training, it increased to 71.2% after training, with a significant difference (p=0.000. However, the percentage of the male participants performing testicular self-examination only rose from 14.7% to 29.4% (p=0.000. The use of condoms by the male participants increased from 12.2% to 18.3%, with a significant difference (p=0.000.Conclusion: Training for reproductive health did not only increase knowledge of reproductive health but also promote reproductive health behavior. It can be recommended that nurses should

  19. Evaluations of organizational effectiveness in mental health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, T L; Greenley, J R

    1997-12-01

    We present a conceptual framework derived from organizational theory for understanding the evaluation of the effectiveness of mental health services. We postulate that organizations are deemed "successful" by their constituents when they conform to institutional demands and expectations that are both internally and externally generated. We empirically assess institutional conformity by examining evaluations of effectiveness by 269 mental health providers in 29 different mental health programs. Specialist programs responded to institutional demands by targeting services to those considered most in need: clients with severe mental illnesses. The formal structure and program philosophy of these programs clearly reflected this emphasis; consequently, levels of goal incongruence were low and evaluations of effectiveness were high. Generalist programs continued to provide care to diverse client groups, had more professionals, offered traditional services (such as psychotherapy), and exhibited higher levels of goal incongruence; these factors resulted in lower evaluations of effectiveness. This research is important because it demonstrates that organizational processes of institutional conformity (program objectives meet the demands of external constituents) and goal congruence (program objectives meet with expectations of internal constituents) are critical to positive evaluations of effectiveness. With the current institutional demand for effective, efficient services, it is critical that researchers have a conceptual framework for analyzing those factors which influence evaluations of effectiveness.

  20. Comparison between Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and National Research Council, Canada (NRC) of the absorbed dose in water using Fricke dosimetry; Comparacao entre o LCR/Brasil e o NRC/Canada da dose absorvida na agua usando a dosimetria Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salata, Camila; David, Mariano Gazineu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcom, E-mail: mila.salata@gmail.com [National Research Council, Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC), were compared. The two institutions have developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are significant differences between the two standards as far as the preparation and readout of the Fricke solution and irradiation geometry of the holder. Measurements were done at the NRC laboratory using a single Ir-192 source. The comparison of absorbed dose measurements was expressed as the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR), which was found to be 1.026. (author)

  1. Does income inequality have lasting effects on health and trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Rözer; B. Volker

    2016-01-01

    According to the income inequality hypothesis, income inequality is associated with poorer health. One important proposed mechanism for this effect is reduced trust. In this study, we argue that income inequality during a person's formative years (i.e., around age 16) may have lasting consequences f

  2. SOME HEALTH INDEXES OF CHERNOBYL LIQUIDATORS (DELAYED EFFECTS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. V. Baranova; T. M. Koroleva; V. M. Shubik

    2012-01-01

    .... Disorders of immunity and health of the liquidators in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is due to the combined effect of low radiation doses, psychological stress and other factors of non-radiation nature.

  3. Effect of Diuretics on Salivary Flow, Composition and Oral Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Evaluation of the effect of diuretics on oral health status with regard to SFRs (U and S), pH, buffering .... forward after an initial swallow, to allow saliva to collect in the mouth. .... from salivary glands leading to taste disturbance, bad breath.

  4. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  5. Adverse health effects of ethylene oxide and occupational exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, K

    1984-01-01

    The proposed revision of the US standard for occupational exposure to ethylene oxide has recently been topical and controversial. Most of the recent experimental and epidemiological evidence of health effects, which provoked lowering the permissible exposure limit, appears to be unreliable and insufficient for risk assessment.

  6. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  7. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  8. The Effectiveness of Health Disclosures Within Children's Television Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Ronald J.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on pronutrition messages in children's commercials and describes a study involving children ages 3 to 14 to test the effectiveness of incorporating health information disclosures into actual television commercials for highly sugared cereal and candy products. Results indicate most children were able to recall and make sense of…

  9. Effect of Health Lifestyle Pattern on Dietary Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Peggy; Lazovich, DeAnn; Patterson, Ruth E.; Harnack, Lisa; French, Simone; Curry, Sue J.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of lifestyle on the effectiveness of a low-intensity dietary intervention. Analysis of data from the Eating Patterns Study indicated that people who practiced certain combinations of health behaviors responded differently to the low-intensity dietary intervention. People with high-risk behaviors were the least successful in…

  10. Effectiveness of Social Media for Communicating Health Messages in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannor, Richard; Asare, Anthony Kwame; Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an in-depth understanding of the effectiveness, evolution and dynamism of the current health communication media used in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a multi-method approach which utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. In-depth interviews are…

  11. The Effectiveness of Health Disclosures Within Children's Television Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Ronald J.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on pronutrition messages in children's commercials and describes a study involving children ages 3 to 14 to test the effectiveness of incorporating health information disclosures into actual television commercials for highly sugared cereal and candy products. Results indicate most children were able to recall and make sense of…

  12. Does income inequality have lasting effects on health and trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rözer, J.J.; Volker, B.

    2016-01-01

    According to the income inequality hypothesis, income inequality is associated with poorer health. One important proposed mechanism for this effect is reduced trust. In this study, we argue that income inequality during a person's formative years (i.e., around age 16) may have lasting consequences f

  13. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, Marianne; Larsen, Poul Bo

    Based on an extensive literature survey the reports concludes that particles from wood smoke should be considered as harmful to health and that effects from these particles can not be considered as less severe compared to ambient air particles in general or diesel particles. In DK there is about...

  14. Work stress and health effects among university personnel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, N.C.G.M.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Furer, J.W.; Tax, L.C.M.M.; Roscam Abbing, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. (1) To investigate the contribution of job characteristics and personal characteristics to the explanation of health effects among university personnel; (2) to investigate the differences between scientific personnel (SP) and non-scientific personnel (NSP); (3) to investigate whether heal

  15. Reducing the health effect of natural hazards in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Richard A; Halder, Shantana R; Husain, Mushtuq; Islam, Md Sirajul; Mallick, Fuad H; May, Maria A; Rahman, Mahmudur; Rahman, M Aminur

    2013-12-21

    Bangladesh, with a population of 151 million people, is a country that is particularly prone to natural disasters: 26% of the population are affected by cyclones and 70% live in flood-prone regions. Mortality and morbidity from these events have fallen substantially in the past 50 years, partly because of improvements in disaster management. Thousands of cyclone shelters have been built and government and civil society have mobilised strategies to provide early warning and respond quickly. Increasingly, flood and cyclone interventions have leveraged community resilience, and general activities for poverty reduction have integrated disaster management. Furthermore, overall population health has improved greatly on the basis of successful public health activities, which has helped to mitigate the effect of natural disasters. Challenges to the maintenance and reduction of the effect of cyclones and floods include rapid urbanisation and the growing effect of global warming. Although the effects of earthquakes are unknown, some efforts to prepare for this type of event are underway.

  16. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  17. Buckwheat as a Functional Food and Its Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Bastida, Juan Antonio; Zieliński, Henryk

    2015-09-16

    Buckwheat (BW) is a gluten-free pseudocereal that belongs to the Polygonaceae family. BW grain is a highly nutritional food component that has been shown to provide a wide range of beneficial effects. Health benefits attributed to BW include plasma cholesterol level reduction, neuroprotection, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects, and improvement of hypertension conditions. In addition, BW has been reported to possess prebiotic and antioxidant activities. In vitro and animal studies suggest that BW's bioactive compounds, such as D-chiro-inositol (DCI), BW proteins (BWP), and BW flavonoids (mainly rutin and quercetin) may be partially responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research regarding the health benefits of BW, in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the specific role of its bioactive compounds and on the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted.

  18. [New welding processes and health effects of welding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, G Marina; Maestrelli, Piero

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent developments in the control technology to enhance capability of Pulse Gas Metal Arc Welding. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processing has been also considered. FSW is a new solid-state joining technique. Heat generated by friction at the rotating tool softens the material being welded. FSW can be considered a green and energy-efficient technique without deleterious fumes, gas, radiation, and noise. Application of new welding processes is limited and studies on health effects in exposed workers are lacking. Acute and chronic health effects of conventional welding have been described. Metal fume fever and cross-shift decline of lung function are the main acute respiratory effects. Skin and eyes may be affected by heat, electricity and UV radiations. Chronic effects on respiratory system include chronic bronchitis, a benign pneumoconiosis (siderosis), asthma, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Pulmonary infections are increased in terms of severity, duration, and frequency among welders.

  19. Effects of immigration on the health insurance status of natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylypchuk, Yuriy

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the paper is to estimate the effects of immigration on natives' probability of having private coverage and being uninsured. To examine whether immigrants affected employers' decisions to offer health benefits the study estimates immigration effects on natives' probability of being offered, eligible for, and a policy-holder of health insurance. Although in many cases the effects are statistically significant, most effects are very small. The increase in immigrant labor supply from 1995 to 2005 increases natives' uninsurance rates by about 0.7 percentage points and reduces the natives' probability of being offered and a holder of coverage by 0.8 and 1.9 percentage points, respectively. Immigrants' weaker preferences for coverage relative to natives' may be the key factor in this result.

  20. Effects of suicide bereavement on mental health and suicide risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Osborn, David; King, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Between 48 million and 500 million people are thought to experience suicide bereavement every year. Over the past decade, increased policy attention has been directed towards suicide bereavement, but with little evidence to describe the effect of exposure or to provide appropriate responses. We...... used a systematic approach to carry out a narrative review of studies of the effect of suicide bereavement on mortality, mental health, and social functioning, and compared them with effects from other bereavements. We found 57 studies that satisfied strict inclusion criteria. Results from...... these studies suggested that exposure to suicide of a close contact is associated with several negative health and social outcomes, depending on an individual's relationship to the deceased. These effects included an increased risk of suicide in partners bereaved by suicide, increased risk of required admission...

  1. Right time, right place: improving access to health service through effective retention and distribution of health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crettenden, Ian; Poz, Mario Dal; Buchan, James

    2013-11-25

    This editorial introduces the 'Right time, Right place: improving access to health service through effective retention and distribution of health workers' thematic series. This series draws from studies in a range of countries and provides new insights into what can be done to improve access to health through more effective human resources policies, planning and management. The primary focus is on health workforce distribution and retention.

  2. The effects of occupational health and safety management on work environment and health: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, S; Moen, B E

    2006-11-01

    According to Norway's Internal Control Regulation, all companies are required to have an occupational health and safety (H&S) management system. This study investigated the effects of implementing or improving occupational H&S management on the work environment, H&S-related behaviour and musculoskeletal health of workers in small and medium-sized companies. A one-year prospective cohort study, using self-administered questionnaires, was performed among the managers and blue-collar workers in 226 motor vehicle repair garages. Out of 1559 workers that responded at baseline 721 workers could be identified at follow-up. These 721 workers were included in the study. The workers in companies with improved H&S management from baseline to follow-up reported increased satisfaction with the H&S activities at the garage; improved support from management and colleagues; improved health-related support and control; and increased participation in H&S activities.

  3. Consumer perception of beneficial effects of probiotics for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, G T; Bimmel, D; Grevers, D; den Haan, N; Hristova, Y

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and buying behaviour of probiotics. 72 participants in Middelburg, the Netherlands, filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding probiotics and their customer and consumer behaviour. It can be concluded from this study that the concept of probiotics is generally poorly understood. Health-conscious consumers seem to be the group most aware of the correct meaning of the term probiotics. Almost 50% of the participants did not believe that probiotics had any health effect. Independent organisations and/or government agencies appeared to be the preferred source of information on the functionality of probiotics.

  4. Unraveling Uses and Effects of an Interactive Health Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong Yeob; Hawkins, Robert P.; Shaw, Bret R.; Pingree, Suzanne; McTavish, Fiona; Gustafson, David H.

    2012-01-01

    By developing a number of measures distinguishing amount, type of content, and when and how that content is used, the current study revealed effective patterns of use that are associated with quality of life benefits during an eHealth intervention. Results generally suggest that the benefits depend on how a patient uses the system, far more than on sheer amount of exposure or even what type of content is chosen. The next generation of eHealth system should focus on providing new and varying content over time, but even more on encouraging intensity of use and long-term commitment to the system. PMID:23172985

  5. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  6. Immunological Effects of Probiotics and their Significance to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Harsharn S.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.; Gill, Preet

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit upon the host (FAO/WHO, 2001). Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are commonly used as probiotics. Other less commonly used probiotics include the yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae and some non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Studies over the past 20 years have demonstrated that probiotic intake is able to confer a range of health benefits including modulation of the immune system, protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, lowering of blood cholesterol levels, attenuation of overt immuno-inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergies) and anti-cancer effects. However, the strongest clinical evidence for probiotics relates to their effectiveness in improving gut health and modulating (via stimulation or regulation) the host immune system. This chapter provides an overview of the current status of our knowledge regarding the immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory effects of probiotics on the immune system and their significance to human health.

  7. Health effects of soy protein and isoflavones in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chao Wu

    2008-06-01

    Epidemiological investigations suggest that soy consumption may be associated with a lower incidence of certain chronic diseases. Clinical studies also show that ingestion of soy proteins reduces the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This led to the approval of the food-labeling health claim for soy proteins in the prevention of coronary heart disease by the U.S. FDA in 1999. Similar health petitions for soy proteins have also been approved thereafter in the United Kingdom, Brazil, South Africa, the Philippines, Indonesia, Korea, and Malaysia. However, the purported health benefits are quite variable in different studies. The Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association has assessed 22 randomized trials conducted since 1999 and found that isolated soy protein with isoflavones (ISF) slightly decreased LDL cholesterol but had no effect on HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), or blood pressure. The other effects of soy consumption were not evident. Although the contributing factors to these discrepancies are not fully understood, the source of soybeans and processing procedures of the protein or ISF are believed to be important because of their effects on the content and intactness of certain bioactive protein subunits. Some studies have documented potential safety concerns on increased consumption of soy products. Impacts of soy products on thyroid and reproductive functions as well as on certain types of carcinogenesis require further study in this context. Overall, existing data are inconsistent or inadequate in supporting most of the suggested health benefits of consuming soy protein or ISF.

  8. Health effects and wind turbines: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollson Christopher A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wind power has been harnessed as a source of power around the world. Debate is ongoing with respect to the relationship between reported health effects and wind turbines, specifically in terms of audible and inaudible noise. As a result, minimum setback distances have been established world-wide to reduce or avoid potential complaints from, or potential effects to, people living in proximity to wind turbines. People interested in this debate turn to two sources of information to make informed decisions: scientific peer-reviewed studies published in scientific journals and the popular literature and internet. Methods The purpose of this paper is to review the peer-reviewed scientific literature, government agency reports, and the most prominent information found in the popular literature. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of KnowledgeSM and the internet search engine Google. The review was conducted in the spirit of the evaluation process outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Results Conclusions of the peer reviewed literature differ in some ways from those in the popular literature. In peer reviewed studies, wind turbine annoyance has been statistically associated with wind turbine noise, but found to be more strongly related to visual impact, attitude to wind turbines and sensitivity to noise. To date, no peer reviewed articles demonstrate a direct causal link between people living in proximity to modern wind turbines, the noise they emit and resulting physiological health effects. If anything, reported health effects are likely attributed to a number of environmental stressors that result in an annoyed/stressed state in a segment of the population. In the popular literature, self-reported health outcomes are related to distance from turbines and the claim is made that infrasound is the causative factor for the reported effects, even though sound pressure

  9. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

  10. Health effects of downsizing survival and job loss in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle

    2012-09-01

    The effects of job displacement (i.e. job loss due to downsizing or plant closure) and downsizing survival on different health outcomes (i.e. psychological distress, muscle-skeletal pain, and chest pain) were examined with annual panel data from the Norwegian Panel Survey of Living Conditions 1997-2003. The data were analyzed by means of dynamic panel data regression models, taking explicitly into account pre-downsizing health levels and unobserved heterogeneity. In contrast to some previous studies, but in line with theoretical expectations, no significant effect of downsizing survival was found. Job displacement was, however, found to lead to a significant increase in psychological distress, but even this effect seems transitory rather than long-lasting.

  11. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Steinemann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragranced consumer products—such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products— pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (n = 1098. Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1% could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  12. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products- pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (n = 1098). Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1%) could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  13. Health and environmental effects document for batteries: 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the ecological and health effects of the near-term electric storage batteries (lead/acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron) as related to electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The storage battery technology is considered in its totality, and emissions are estimated for the complete cycle. For estimating quantities of various emissions, the market penetration is assumed to be 3 x 10/sup 6/ Pb/acid battery-powered vehicles and 8 x 10/sup 6/ each of the Ni/Zn and Ni/Fe battery-powered vehicles on the road by the year 2000. Ecological effects are assessed using the Estimated Permissible Concentration (EPC) approach. Pb, S, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Sb appear to be the most hazardous emission constituents and exceed EPC values for protection of ecology in one or more of the battery-related industries. More definitive, quantitative estimates of damage to the biota and to the ecosystem are not feasible because of paucity of relevant information. Health effects as a result of increased levels of lead, arsenic, and cadmium in the environment and risks of exposure to arsine, stibine, and antimony trioxide released during charging are assessed. Health effects among the occupationally exposed are also assessed using the toxicological models. Acute and chronic effects of exposure to stibine, arsine, and antimony trioxide are described.

  14. Understanding the Adaptation of Halobacterium Species NRC-1 to Its Extreme Environment through Computational Analysis of Its Genome Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sean P.; Ng, Wailap Victor; Salzberg, Steven L.; Hood, Leroy; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2001-01-01

    The genome of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and predicted proteome have been analyzed by computational methods and reveal characteristics relevant to life in an extreme environment distinguished by hypersalinity and high solar radiation: (1) The proteome is highly acidic, with a median pI of 4.9 and mostly lacking basic proteins. This characteristic correlates with high surface negative charge, determined through homology modeling, as the major adaptive mechanism of halophilic proteins to function in nearly saturating salinity. (2) Codon usage displays the expected GC bias in the wobble position and is consistent with a highly acidic proteome. (3) Distinct genomic domains of NRC-1 with bacterial character are apparent by whole proteome BLAST analysis, including two gene clusters coding for a bacterial-type aerobic respiratory chain. This result indicates that the capacity of halophiles for aerobic respiration may have been acquired through lateral gene transfer. (4) Two regions of the large chromosome were found with relatively lower GC composition and overrepresentation of IS elements, similar to the minichromosomes. These IS-element-rich regions of the genome may serve to exchange DNA between the three replicons and promote genome evolution. (5) GC-skew analysis showed evidence for the existence of two replication origins in the large chromosome. This finding and the occurrence of multiple chromosomes indicate a dynamic genome organization with eukaryotic character. PMID:11591641

  15. Mold exposure and health effects following hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Deborah N; Grimsley, L Faye; White, LuAnn E; El-Dahr, Jane M; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    The extensive flooding in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created conditions ideal for indoor mold growth, raising concerns about the possible adverse health effects associated with indoor mold exposure. Studies evaluating the levels of indoor and outdoor molds in the months following the hurricanes found high levels of mold growth. Homes with greater flood damage, especially those with >3 feet of indoor flooding, demonstrated higher levels of mold growth compared with homes with little or no flooding. Water intrusion due to roof damage was also associated with mold growth. However, no increase in the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has been observed in published reports to date. This article considers reasons why studies of mold exposure after the hurricane do not show a greater health impact.

  16. The effective use of fluorides in public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research......, systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on...... and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher...

  17. Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid training in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kamilla B; Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Vendsborg, Per B;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of the Australian educational intervention Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) in a Danish context. Primary outcome was improvement concerning confidence in help-giving behavior towards people suffering from mental illness. Secondary outcomes were increased knowledge...... and ability to recognize mental illness and improved positive attitudes towards people suffering from mental health problems. METHOD: Study design was a randomized trial with a waitlist control group. The intervention group was compared with the control group at 6-month follow-up. Both groups completed......'s d 0.31) people suffering from a mental health illness. Further, participants improved in knowledge (Cohen's d depression vignette 0.40/Cohen's d schizophrenia vignette 0.32) and in the ability to recognize schizophrenia OR = 1.75 (95 % CI 1.00-3.05), p = 0.05. A significant difference between...

  18. The economic effect of Planet Health on preventing bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; Nichols, Lauren P; Austin, S Bryn

    2011-08-01

    To assess the economic effect of the school-based obesity prevention program Planet Health on preventing disordered weight control behaviors and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in terms of its combined effect on prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors. On the basis of the intervention's short-term effect on disordered weight control behaviors prevention, we projected the number of girls who were prevented from developing bulimia nervosa by age 17 years. We further estimated medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years gained by the intervention over 10 years. As a final step, we compared the intervention costs with the combined intervention benefits from both obesity prevention (reported previously) and prevention of disordered weight control behaviors to determine the overall cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Middle schools. A sample of 254 intervention girls aged 10 to 14 years. The Planet Health program was implemented during the school years from 1995 to 1997 and was designed to promote healthful nutrition and physical activity among youth. Intervention costs, medical costs saved, quality-adjusted life years gained, and cost-effectiveness ratio. An estimated 1 case of bulimia nervosa would have been prevented. As a result, an estimated $33 999 in medical costs and 0.7 quality-adjusted life years would be saved. At an intervention cost of $46 803, the combined prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors would yield a net savings of $14 238 and a gain of 4.8 quality-adjusted life years. Primary prevention programs, such as Planet Health, warrant careful consideration by policy makers and program planners. The findings of this study provide additional argument for integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders.

  19. Long-term health effects among testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashibe, Mia; Abdelaziz, Sarah; Al-Temimi, Mohammed; Fraser, Alison; Boucher, Kenneth M; Smith, Ken; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Rowe, Kerry; Rowley, Braden; Daurelle, Micky; Holton, Avery E; VanDerslice, James; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bishoff, Jay; Lowrance, Will; Stroup, Antoinette

    2016-12-01

    Testicular cancer is diagnosed at a young age and survival rates are high; thus, the long-term effects of cancer treatment need to be assessed. Our objectives are to estimate the incidence rates and determinants of late effects in testicular cancer survivors. We conducted a population-based cohort study of testicular cancer survivors, diagnosed 1991-2007, followed up for a median of 10 years. We identified 785 testicular cancer patients who survived ≥5 years and 3323 men free of cancer for the comparison group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to compare the hazard ratio between the cases and the comparison group and for internal analysis among case patients. Testicular cancer survivors experienced a 24 % increase in risk of long-term health effects >5 years after diagnosis. The overall incidence rate of late effects among testicular cancer survivors was 66.3 per 1000 person years. Higher risks were observed among testicular cancer survivors for hypercholesterolemia, infertility, and orchitis. Chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection appeared to increase the risk of late effects. Being obese prior to cancer diagnosis appeared to be the strongest factor associated with late effects. Testicular cancer survivors were more likely to develop chronic health conditions when compared to cancer-free men. While the late effects risk was increased among testicular cancer survivors, the incidence rates of late effects after cancer diagnosis was fairly low.

  20. 75 FR 5296 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; National Resource Centers (NRC) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... activities with professional schools such as Business, Law, Public Health, Public Policy, Environmental... professional studies students in fields such as Business, Law, Public Health, Public Policy, Environmental... receive this grant notification within 15 business days from the application deadline date, you...

  1. The coming health crisis: indirect health effects of global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S; Bernstein, Aaron

    2011-02-01

    Global climate change threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people. While much has been written about the direct impacts of climate change on health as a result of more severe storms, more intense heat stress, changes in the distribution of infectious disease, and reduced air quality, we are concerned that the indirect impacts of a disrupted climate system may be orders of magnitude more important in terms of the human suffering they cause. Because these indirect effects will result from changes in biophysical systems, which are inherently complex, there is significant uncertainty about their magnitude, timing, and location. However, the uncertainty that shrouds this issue should not be cause for complacency; rather it should serve as an organizing principle for adaptation to its ill effects.

  2. Effects of industrial wind turbine noise on sleep and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, Michael A; Aramini, Jeffery J; Hanning, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines (IWTs) are a new source of noise in previously quiet rural environments. Environmental noise is a public health concern, of which sleep disruption is a major factor. To compare sleep and general health outcomes between participants living close to IWTs and those living further away from them, participants living between 375 and 1400 m (n = 38) and 3.3 and 6.6 km (n = 41) from IWTs were enrolled in a stratified cross-sectional study involving two rural sites. Validated questionnaires were used to collect information on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - PSQI), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score - ESS), and general health (SF36v2), together with psychiatric disorders, attitude, and demographics. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the effect of the main exposure variable of interest (distance to the nearest IWT) on various health outcome measures. Participants living within 1.4 km of an IWT had worse sleep, were sleepier during the day, and had worse SF36 Mental Component Scores compared to those living further than 1.4 km away. Significant dose-response relationships between PSQI, ESS, SF36 Mental Component Score, and log-distance to the nearest IWT were identified after controlling for gender, age, and household clustering. The adverse event reports of sleep disturbance and ill health by those living close to IWTs are supported.

  3. Effects of ethnicity and gender on youth health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komalsingh Rambaree

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ethnicity and gender on the health of young people (14–25 years old living in Mauritius. Combinations of female and male by four ethnic groups—“Creole”, “Hindu”, “Muslim” and “Mixed”—were used for multivariate analysis of variances. “Mixed” ethnic group consumed most tobacco, alcohol and drugs compared to other ethnic groups. They were also the ones that mostly skipped breakfast and lunch and were found to eat most fast food. Moreover, “Mixed” ethnic group had heard most about HIV/AIDS programmes, but were least satisfied with such programmes and with public hospitals and health services. Females were shown to perceive more physical and mental health issues than did males; although males smoked more cigarettes and drunk more alcohol. However, females consumed more fast food and deep fries and rated public hospitals and sexual and reproductive health services as less good than did males. The findings call for further research on the health of young people living in Mauritius with respect to socio-economic variables in order to promote social justice in the Mauritian society. In addition, this article also emphasises on the need of having a new National Youth Policy for Mauritius, which is long overdue.

  4. Effects of industrial wind turbine noise on sleep and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nissenbaum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wind turbines (IWTs are a new source of noise in previously quiet rural environments. Environmental noise is a public health concern, of which sleep disruption is a major factor. To compare sleep and general health outcomes between participants living close to IWTs and those living further away from them, participants living between 375 and 1400 m (n = 38 and 3.3 and 6.6 km (n = 41 from IWTs were enrolled in a stratified cross-sectional study involving two rural sites. Validated questionnaires were used to collect information on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - PSQI, daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score - ESS, and general health (SF36v2, together with psychiatric disorders, attitude, and demographics. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the effect of the main exposure variable of interest (distance to the nearest IWT on various health outcome measures. Participants living within 1.4 km of an IWT had worse sleep, were sleepier during the day, and had worse SF36 Mental Component Scores compared to those living further than 1.4 km away. Significant dose-response relationships between PSQI, ESS, SF36 Mental Component Score, and log-distance to the nearest IWT were identified after controlling for gender, age, and household clustering. The adverse event reports of sleep disturbance and ill health by those living close to IWTs are supported.

  5. Societal Discounting of Health Effects in Cost-Effectiveness Analyses: The Influence of Life Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Polinder; Willem Jan Meerding; Job van Exel; Werner Brouwer

    2005-01-01

    Background: Increasing life expectancy and decreasing marginal valuation of additional QALYs over time may serve as a basis for discounting future health effects from a societal perspective. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that societal time preference for health is related to perceived future life expectancy. Methods: A sample of 223 people from the general population prioritised healthcare programmes with differential timing of health benefits and costs from a societal perspective. Furt...

  6. The Effect of Floorball Training on Health Status, Psychological Health and Social Capital in Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan M. Wikman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76 were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22 or a group playing petanque (n = 17 one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.

  7. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Stewart, Christine P.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences to the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanism and association research links antenatal multiple micronutrients to plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce risks of being born low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure may persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring. PMID:27032981

  8. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Haub

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.

  9. Effects of dietary fiber and its components on metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, James M; Haub, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.

  10. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  11. The Effect of Prayer on Patients’ Health: Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Prado Simão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest regarding prayer in healthcare. Prayer is an activity related to spirituality and religion. Positive outcomes have been identified regarding spirituality in health. This study aims to investigate the effects on patients’ health of using prayer. A systematic literature review was conducted in May 2015 and updated in November 2015. Electronic and international databases were searched and the inclusion criteria were based on PICOS: (Population patients of any age and any clinical situation, (Intervention all types of prayer, (Comparison ordinary care, (Outcomes any health change, (Study type randomized clinical trials. Neither timeframe nor limitation in language were considered. A total of 92 papers were identified and 12 were included in the review. Prayer was considered a positive factor in seven studies, and several positive effects of prayer on health were identified: reducing the anxiety of mothers of children with cancer; reducing the level of concern of the participants who believe in a solution to their problem; and providing for the improved physical functioning of patients who believe in prayer. Prayer is a non-pharmacological intervention and resource, and should be included in the nursing holistic care aimed at patients’ well-being.

  12. Strengthening Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louise B; Sinha, Anushua

    2016-05-01

    Although the U.S. spends more on medical care than any country in the world, Americans live shorter lives than the citizens of other high-income countries. Many important opportunities to improve this record lie outside the health sector and involve improving the conditions in which Americans live and work: safe design and maintenance of roads, bridges, train tracks, and airports; control of environmental pollutants; occupational safety; healthy buildings; a safe and healthy food supply; safe manufacture of consumer products; a healthy social environment; and others. Faced with the overwhelming array of possibilities, U.S. decision makers need help identifying those that can contribute the most to health. Cost-effectiveness analysis is designed to serve that purpose, but has mainly been used to assess interventions within the health sector. This paper briefly reviews the objective of cost-effectiveness analysis and its methodologic evolution and discusses the issues that arise when it is used to evaluate interventions that fall outside the health sector under three headings: structuring the analysis, quantifying/measuring benefits and costs, and valuing benefits and costs.

  13. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Schulze, Kerry J; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2016-05-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences for the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce risk of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanistic and association research links multiple antenatal micronutrients with plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and filling extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce the risks of being born with low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure might persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring.

  14. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, James M.; Haub, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health. PMID:22254008

  15. Effects of Racial Discrimination and Health Behaviors on Mental and Physical Health of Middle-Class African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L.; Bonham, Vence; Neighbors, Harold W.; Amell, James W.

    2009-01-01

    This research is an examination of the effects of racial discrimination and health-promoting behaviors on the physical and mental health of a sample of 399 well-educated African American men. One would think that the attainment of higher education would increase health-promoting behaviors and might decrease discriminatory experiences that impact…

  16. Updated Strategic Assessment of the U.S. NRC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Program and the new WCS Commercial Disposal Facility for LLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chang-Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to review the updated NRC low level radioactive waste regulatory strategy and also present an update on a significant change in the LLW disposal landscape in the U.S., the opening of a new commercial disposal facility, the Texas Compact Waste Facility (CWF) in Andrews, Texas. Operational since spring of 2012, the CWF is owned and licensed by the state of Texas and operated by Waste Control Specialists LLC (WCS). The WCS facility in western Andrews County is the only commercial facility in the United States licensed to dispose of Class A, B and C LLW in the U.S. in the past 40 years. Based on the observation that other suitable sites have been identified such as the Clive, Utah site that meet (almost) all of these criteria it would appear that the first and last factors in our list are the most problematic and it will require a change in the public acceptance and the political posture of states to help solve the national issue of safe and cost-effective LLW disposal.

  17. Effectiveness of computerized risk assessment system on enhancing workers' occupational health and attitudes towards occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wan-Yi; Sung, Connie Y Y; Yu, Qiu-Hua; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2014-01-01

    Efforts have been paid to lower the health risks associated with use of computers at the workplace. Computerized risk assessment systems are available in the market for adoption by companies. The Display Screen Equipment Risk Assessment and Management System was designed for conducting risk assessment and providing intelligent-driven solutions for DSE-related occupational health problems. This report summarizes two consecutive research work conducted on evaluating its effect in reducing body discomfort and mental fatigue, and enhancing sedentary workers' occupational health. Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit participants (111 participants for Study 1 and 75 participants for Study 2 who were randomly assigned to an immediate or a delayed intervention group. The intervention was using DSE RAM System to perform a risk assessment followed by an immediate modification of participant's workstation based on the recommendations generated by the System. Face to face interview was conducted and participants completed three sets of questionnaires right before the assessment and two weeks after the intervention. The results of Study 1 revealed that the DSE RAM System was effective for alleviating the discomfort and fatigue levels by rectifying the workstation-worker match. These mismatches were identified to be the heights of monitor, keyboard and chair with the workers. The results of Study 2 indicate that the System was specific for promoting participants to take more frequent rest breaks (OR: 3.65) and pay more attention to occupational safety and health information (OR: 3.90). In particular, the take frequent rest breaks behavior was found to predict decrease in discomfort in the eyes and mental fatigue (lack of energy). Nevertheless, there was no strong evidence on the use of the System can lead to immediate attitudinal changes towards occupational health and safety. The findings support the notion that workers' participation and integration of ergonomics into

  18. Societal discounting of health effects in cost-effectiveness analyses: The influence of life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Polinder (Suzanne); W.J. Meerding (Willem Jan); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Increasing life expectancy and decreasing marginal valuation of additional QALYs over time may serve as a basis for discounting future health effects from a societal perspective. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that societal time preference for health is related to percei

  19. Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren; Shields, Grant S; Dorn, Gabriel; Slavich, George M

    2016-06-01

    To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders.

  20. The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states: protocol for an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katie; Bambra, Clare; McNamara, Courtney; Huijts, Tim; Todd, Adam

    2016-04-08

    The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. The welfare state has three main policy domains: health care, social policy (e.g. social transfers and education) and public health policy. This is the protocol for an umbrella review to examine the latter; its aim is to assess how European welfare states influence the social determinants of health inequalities institutionally through public health policies. A systematic review methodology will be used to identify systematic reviews from high-income countries (including additional EU-28 members) that describe the health and health equity effects of upstream public health interventions. Interventions will focus on primary and secondary prevention policies including fiscal measures, regulation, education, preventative treatment and screening across ten public health domains (tobacco; alcohol; food and nutrition; reproductive health services; the control of infectious diseases; screening; mental health; road traffic injuries; air, land and water pollution; and workplace regulations). Twenty databases will be searched using a pre-determined search strategy to evaluate population-level public health interventions. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health and health inequalities. The review will document contextual information on how population-level public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. This information can be used to identify effective interventions that could be implemented to reduce health inequalities between and within European countries. PROSPERO CRD42016025283.

  1. Price and quality transparency: how effective for health care reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, John A; Li, Chia-Hsuan W

    2009-07-01

    Many in Minnesota and the United States are promoting price and quality transparency as a means for reforming health care. The assumption is that with such information, consumers and providers would be motivated to change their behavior and this would lead to lower costs and higher-quality care.This article attempts to determine the extent to which publicizing information about the cost and quality of medical care does, in fact, improve quality and lower costs, and thus should be included in any reform strategy. The authors reviewed a number of studies and concluded that there is a general lack of empirical evidence on the effect of price transparency on health care costs and that the evidence on the effectiveness of quality transparency is mixed.

  2. Effects of Heavy Metal Toxicity on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Ozbolat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are the elements that can be toxic even at low concentrations. It is often used as a group name for metals and semimetals (metalloids that have been associated with contamination and potential toxicity or ecotoxicity. Heavy metals are toxic to human health. Because it cannot be discarded with (kidney, liver intestine, skin, lung without special support from most of the body's normal excretion routes Therefore, a large part of the heavy metals accumulate in biological organisms. As a result of the accumulation of these metals that are focused within living things, when they have reached the effective dose severe diseases (such as autism neurological, thyroid and infertility even can cause death. In this review information about the properties and effects of some heavy metals that affects human health have been provided.. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 502-521

  3. Effectiveness of public health programs for decreasing alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly-Weeder S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Susan Kelly-Weeder, Kathryn Phillips, Shannon RounsevilleWilliam F Connell School of Nursing, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USAAbstract: Excessive alcohol consumption and the associated negative consequences are a major public health concern in the United States and throughout the world. Historically, there have been numerous attempts to develop policies and prevention programs aimed at decreasing high-risk alcohol use. Policy initiatives have demonstrated considerable effectiveness and include changes in the minimum legal drinking age, reductions in acceptable legal limits for blood alcohol concentration while operating a motor vehicle, as well as decreasing availability and access to alcohol for underage individuals. Primary prevention programs that have used exclusively educational approaches have received mixed results. Increasing effectiveness has been associated with prevention programs that have utilized a multi-component approach and have included educational initiatives with environmental changes.Keywords: alcohol abuse, underage, public health, programs, binge drinking

  4. Biological activities and health effects of terpenoids from marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed by the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical products due to their various health beneficial effects. Hence, it can be suggested that bioactive functional ingredients from marine bioresources and their by-products are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Marine-derived fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites including terpenes, steroids, polyketides, peptides, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. These secondary metabolites serve many biopharmaceutical purposes. This chapter discusses about marine fungi-derived terpenoids and presents an overview of their beneficial health effects.

  5. A review of the health effects of smoking shisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, Murtaza; Sweidan, Abed; Jaffery, Ali Emad; Al-Saadi, Adam; Madden, Brendan

    2015-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, although at early stages, of various detrimental health effects after smoking shisha. With regard to the cardiovascular system, there is a significant acute rise in cardiovascular markers, such as heart rate and blood pressure. The long-term effects on the cardiovascular system are yet to be established. Shisha smoking has also been significantly associated with lung cancer. Various other forms of cancer have also been documented, but have not reached statistical significance and require further research. Finally, shisha smoking increases the risk of infection and has been associated with outbreaks in the Middle East. Therefore, with the increasing consumption of shisha in Europe, especially in the UK, more research is required to tackle this potential public health threat.

  6. Determining the effective coverage of maternal and child health services in Kenya, using demographic and health survey data sets: tracking progress towards universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguhiu, Peter K; Barasa, Edwine W; Chuma, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Effective coverage (EC) is a measure of health systems' performance that combines need, use and quality indicators. This study aimed to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health system provides effective and equitable maternal and child health services, as a means of tracking the country's progress towards universal health coverage. The Demographic Health Surveys (2003, 2008-2009 and 2014) and Service Provision Assessment surveys (2004, 2010) were the main sources of data. Indicators of need, use and quality for eight maternal and child health interventions were aggregated across interventions and economic quintiles to compute EC. EC has increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 50.9% in 2014, but remains low for the majority of interventions. There is a reduction in economic inequalities in EC with the highest to lowest wealth quintile ratio decreasing from 2.41 in 2003 to 1.65 in 2014, but maternal health services remain highly inequitable. Effective coverage of key maternal and child health services remains low, indicating that individuals are not receiving the maximum possible health gain from existing health services. There is an urgent need to focus on the quality and reach of maternal and child health services in Kenya to achieve the goals of universal health coverage. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Health Effects Related to Wind Turbine Noise Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Klokker, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects thereof have attracted substantial attention. Various symptoms such as sleep-related problems, headache, tinnitus and vertigo have been described by subjects suspected of having been exposed to wind turbine noise...... existing statistically-significant evidence indicating any association between wind turbine noise exposure and tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo or headache. LIMITATIONS: Selection bias and information bias of differing magnitudes were found to be present in all current studies investigating wind turbine...

  8. An Update on the Health Effects of Tomato Lycopene

    OpenAIRE

    Story, Erica N.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Harris, G. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Lycopene is a non-provitamin A carotenoid that is responsible for the red to pink colors seen in tomatoes, pink grapefruit, and other foods. Processed tomato products are the primary dietary lycopene source in the United States. Unlike many other natural compounds, lycopene is generally stable to processing when present in the plant tissue matrix. Recently, lycopene has also been studied in relation to its potential health effects. Although promising data from epidemiological, as well as cell...

  9. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carri...

  10. Augmenting health care failure modes and effects analysis with simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staub-Nielsen, Ditte Emilie; Dieckmann, Peter; Mohr, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    This study explores whether simulation plays a role in health care failure mode and effects analysis (HFMEA); it does this by evaluating whether additional data are found when a traditional HFMEA is augmented with simulation. Two multidisciplinary teams identified vulnerabilities in a process...... for deeper analysis. The study indicates that simulation has a role in HFMEA. Both ways of using simulation seemed feasible, and our results are not conclusive in selecting one over the other....

  11. Health effects of sleep deprivation on nurses working shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Čedomirka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atypical work schedules cause reduced sleep, leading to drowsiness, fatigue, decline of cognitive performance and health problems among the members of the nursing staff. The study was aimed at reviewing current knowledge and attitudes concerning the impact of sleep disorders on health and cognitive functions among the members of the nursing staff. Sleep and Interpersonal Relations in Modern Society. The modern 24-hour society involves more and more employees (health services, police departments, public transport in non-standard forms of work. In European Union countries, over 50% of the nursing staff work night shifts, while in the United States of America 55% of nursing staff work more than 40 hours a week, and 30-70% of nurses sleep less than six hours before their shift. Cognitive Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Sleep deprivation impairs the performance of tasks that require intensive and prolonged attention which increases the number of errors in patients care, and nurses are subject to increased risk of traffic accidents. Sleep Deprivation and Health Disorders. Sleep deprived members of the nursing staff are at risk of obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and cardio­vascular disease. The risk factors for breast cancer are increased by 1.79 times, and there is a significantly higher risk for colorectal carcinoma. Conclusion. Too long or repeated shifts reduce the opportunity for sleep, shorten recovery time in nurses, thus endangering their safety and health as well as the quality of care and patients’ safety. Bearing in mind the significance of the problem it is necessary to conduct the surveys of sleep quality and health of nurses in the Republic of Serbia as well in order to tackle this issue which is insufficiently recognized.

  12. Effects of phthalic acid esters on fetal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajkin Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Phthalates are synthetic industrial compounds capable of disrupting endocrine system. Effects of phthalates depend on dosage, duration of action and stage of development of the individual, thus making the fetus, newborn, and children at puberty the most vulnerable groups. Metabolism of Phthalates: Metabolism of these compounds consists of at least two steps: hydrolysis and conjugation. They are mainly excreted in urine, with a low percent being excreted through feces. Exposure to Phthalates. Exposure to the effects of phthalates begins at the intrauterine stage since the phthalates pass through the placental barrier. Phthalates may be found in plastic products, toys, medical equipment, industrial materials, food, and clothes. Determination of Phthalate Levels in Humans. Urine is the best sample for evaluating phthalate levels in humans because of rapid phthalate metabolism and high concentrations of metabolites in the urine. Fetal Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome: Fetal testicular dysgenesis syndrome involves disorders of male genital tract such as shortened anogenital distance, hypospadia, cryptorchidism, malformations of seminal vesicles, prostate, epididymis and it results from the harmful effects of phthalates. Other Effects of Phthalates on Health. Negative effects of phthalates on female health are mostly reflected in anovulation, premature puberty, changes in duration of pregnancy. There is a possible effect on neurocognitive development, occurrence of allergies, asthma, testicular carcinoma, hepatic and renal damages, insulin resistance and obesity, thyroid dysfunction. Conclusion. Further studies are needed to establish the safe phthalate concentration in certain products and to determine more negative consequences of exposure to phthalate.

  13. "THE EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCTION IN PROMOTING HEALTH OF HAIRDRESSERS ABOUT HEPATITIS B BASED ON HEALTH BELIEF MODEL "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Baghiani Moghadam

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HB is an infectious disease occurring worldwide which can be transferred by some professions, including hairdressers. Health education is an essential component of public health campaign about this disease. The purpose of this study was to test the utility of the health belief model (HBM in understanding and predicating the intention of hairdressers in prevention of HB in their clients. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to 140 hairdressers (70 men and 70 women in Yazd, Iran. All subjects were divided into two groups: case group (35 men and 35 women and control group (35 men and 35 women. A researcher designed questionnaire according to the framework of HBM was developed, pilot-tested and then completed before and after intervention. There was significant difference between the mean grade scores of knowledge of case group before and after intervention (P < 0.0001. The perceived threat of case group were also increased from 9.8 to 10.61 after intervention, but the perceived threat of control group were decreased from 9.97 to 9. The HBM may offer an effective foundation for development of an educational intervention program in hairdressers for prevention of HB in their clients.

  14. Effects of health-care services and commodities cost on the patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of health-care services and commodities cost on the patients at the primary ... the monthly income of the clients and the experience of financial stress and a ... Commodities, National Health Act, primary health care, regulation, services ...

  15. Potential health effects of greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, C; Bryant, E A; Calvert, G D; Marthick, J; Condon-Paoloni, D

    1991-04-15

    To identify potential health effects of the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion in Australia. Data were derived from a number of sources: (i) published articles accessed from relevant databases in the disciplines of health, public health and climatology over the past 20 years; (ii) published conference proceedings, review monographs and government reports covering the topic; (iii) a survey of experts in public health and climatology/geography (150 individuals were surveyed in the first phase with a 63% response rate); and (iv) a consensus conference in which 22 invited experts reviewed the results of the literature review and survey and a second conference in which 18 senior members of the health bureaucracy and public health profession considered the implications of the findings. Over 200 published articles or monographs were reviewed. Criteria for selection were whether the papers contributed information to the objectives of the review. Because of the nature of the problem under investigation, predictions based on reasonable scientific assumptions were the major content of the review rather than conclusions based on scientific research. The major predicted health effects of long-term climatic change in Australia are skin and eye damage from increased ultraviolet radiation exposure, increased incidence of some respiratory diseases, vector-borne and water-borne diseases, and the social and physical effects of natural hazards and social and economic restructuring. The most vulnerable groups include the aged, the very young, the chronically ill, those living in poorly designed neighbourhoods and those working in outdoor occupations or heavy industry. The potential effects on health of long-term climatic change cover the broad spectrum of public health concerns. Detailed predictions of likely problems in specific geographic areas are not yet possible, but progressive development of such predictive capability is a high priority. Doctors will have an

  16. Are elected health boards an effective mechanism for public participation in health service governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Robin

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in the idea of elected members on health service governing boards as a means to induce public participation in planning and decision making, yet studies of elected boards are limited. Whether elected boards are an effective mechanism for public participation remains unclear. This article discusses the experiences of New Zealand where, since 2001, there have been three sets of elections for District Health Boards. Information on candidates and election results is presented along with data gathered via post-election voter surveys. The article also considers the broader regulatory context within which the elected boards must operate. The New Zealand experience illustrates that elected health boards may not be an effective mechanism for public participation. Voter turnout has declined since the inaugural elections of 2001, and non-voters form the majority. Reasons for not voting include failure to receive voting papers, a lack of interest, or no knowledge of elections. The elections have also failed to produce minority representation, while the capacity for elected members to represent their communities is subject to constraints. On the upside, elections have enabled public involvement in various dimensions of participation, including oversight and processes of governance. New Zealand's mixed performance suggests that elected boards may need to be complemented with other participatory channels, if increased public participation is the goal. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. MutS and MutL are dispensable for maintenance of the genomic mutation rate in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney R Busch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genome of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 encodes for homologs of MutS and MutL, which are key proteins of a DNA mismatch repair pathway conserved in Bacteria and Eukarya. Mismatch repair is essential for retaining the fidelity of genetic information and defects in this pathway result in the deleterious accumulation of mutations and in hereditary diseases in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated the spontaneous genomic mutation rate of H. salinarum NRC-1 using fluctuation tests targeting genes of the uracil monophosphate biosynthesis pathway. We found that H. salinarum NRC-1 has a low incidence of mutation suggesting the presence of active mechanisms to control spontaneous mutations during replication. The spectrum of mutational changes found in H. salinarum NRC-1, and in other archaea, appears to be unique to this domain of life and might be a consequence of their adaption to extreme environmental conditions. In-frame targeted gene deletions of H. salinarum NRC-1 mismatch repair genes and phenotypic characterization of the mutants demonstrated that the mutS and mutL genes are not required for maintenance of the observed mutation rate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established that H. salinarum NRC-1 mutS and mutL genes are redundant to an alternative system that limits spontaneous mutation in this organism. This finding leads to the puzzling question of what mechanism is responsible for maintenance of the low genomic mutation rates observed in the Archaea, which for the most part do not have MutS and MutL homologs.

  18. Exploring Spanish health social media for detecting drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Revert, Ricardo; Moreno-Schneider, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) cause a high number of deaths among hospitalized patients in developed countries. Major drug agencies have devoted a great interest in the early detection of ADRs due to their high incidence and increasing health care costs. Reporting systems are available in order for both healthcare professionals and patients to alert about possible ADRs. However, several studies have shown that these adverse events are underestimated. Our hypothesis is that health social networks could be a significant information source for the early detection of ADRs as well as of new drug indications. In this work we present a system for detecting drug effects (which include both adverse drug reactions as well as drug indications) from user posts extracted from a Spanish health forum. Texts were processed using MeaningCloud, a multilingual text analysis engine, to identify drugs and effects. In addition, we developed the first Spanish database storing drugs as well as their effects automatically built from drug package inserts gathered from online websites. We then applied a distant-supervision method using the database on a collection of 84,000 messages in order to extract the relations between drugs and their effects. To classify the relation instances, we used a kernel method based only on shallow linguistic information of the sentences. Regarding Relation Extraction of drugs and their effects, the distant supervision approach achieved a recall of 0.59 and a precision of 0.48. The task of extracting relations between drugs and their effects from social media is a complex challenge due to the characteristics of social media texts. These texts, typically posts or tweets, usually contain many grammatical errors and spelling mistakes. Moreover, patients use lay terminology to refer to diseases, symptoms and indications that is not usually included in lexical resources in languages other than English.

  19. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  20. The exposure to and health effects of antimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant...... death syndrome, current findings suggest no link. Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters. Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Conclusion: Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need...