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Sample records for nra

  1. Surface analysis by RBS and NRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for surface analysis is discussed. For the RBS technique, emphasis is laid on cases which are not discussed in existing review articles of the subject. The present work intends to describe a calculation procedure with the aid of which it is possible to obtain the depth distribution of a high concentration and non-homogeneously binary compound sample. This complicates the determination of the stopping and scattering cross-sections of the incoming particles at a certain depth below the surface. In addition, a method is described by which the thickness and composition of a two-element film, deposited on a single-element substrate, can be determined by RBS. One advantage with the method presented here is that it is not necessary to detect any signals from the lighter component of the film, in order to determine the composition. This improves the RBS technique to study light elements in connection with thin layers. Finally, the NRA method to measure concentration distributions of deuterium beneath a surface is presented. In the case discussed here, the analysis is done by the D( 3 He, H) 4 He nuclear reaction. (author)

  2. Overview of NRA Human Resource Development Center and NRA Cooperation and Support for IAEA/ANSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shohei

    2014-01-01

    Vision: • Development and training of NRA employees: → To achieve and maintain nuclear regulation based on a high level of expertise; → To abide by the plan over a long period of time; → To recognize that such workforce is the most valuable asset of the regulatory body. • Establishment of safety culture: → To continuously master specialized knowledge and skills on nuclear safety; → To implement constant thorough review of the safety improvement. • Enhancement of international cooperation: → Cooperation with foreign nuclear regulatory organizations; → Cooperation with emerging nuclear power countries; → Special emphasis on sharing lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident. Mission: • Design, develop and implement training programs for NRA employees; • Promote knowledge transfer from experienced expert to young staff; • Strengthen international cooperation with other nuclear regulatory organizations; • Implement national examinations and develop nuclear safety experts at large etc.; • Continuously improve training programs by implementing a PDCA cycle

  3. External-RBS, PIXE and NRA analysis for ancient swords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Hellen C., E-mail: hellencsa@gmail.com; Added, Nemitala; Silva, Tiago F.; Rodrigues, C.L.

    2015-02-15

    Elemental composition of the steel of two ancient swords (Japanese and Damascus from a private collection) was characterized using in air IBA techniques. Our results contribute for the understanding the processes of manufacturing (hammering and quenching) and surface treatments applied in these swords. The Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements along the Damascus blade allowed to identify and to trace a superficial concentration profile for the elements such Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As, while results for the Japanese blade showed only the presence of iron. The carbon content on the surface was also investigated using a resonant region in the Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) measurements and the results have shown a slightly difference between the surfaces under investigation. In order to investigate the nitrogen content on surface, that could explain the hardening process, we used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and the results shown that nitrogen content was under our detection limit for the technique (0.3% in mass). The measurements of PIXE, NRA and EBS were taken using the external beam setup installed at Lamfi – São Paulo/Brazil, the latter being successfully implemented for the first time in this facility.

  4. External-RBS, PIXE and NRA analysis for ancient swords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hellen C.; Added, Nemitala; Silva, Tiago F.; Rodrigues, C. L.

    2015-02-01

    Elemental composition of the steel of two ancient swords (Japanese and Damascus from a private collection) was characterized using in air IBA techniques. Our results contribute for the understanding the processes of manufacturing (hammering and quenching) and surface treatments applied in these swords. The Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements along the Damascus blade allowed to identify and to trace a superficial concentration profile for the elements such Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As, while results for the Japanese blade showed only the presence of iron. The carbon content on the surface was also investigated using a resonant region in the Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) measurements and the results have shown a slightly difference between the surfaces under investigation. In order to investigate the nitrogen content on surface, that could explain the hardening process, we used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and the results shown that nitrogen content was under our detection limit for the technique (0.3% in mass). The measurements of PIXE, NRA and EBS were taken using the external beam setup installed at Lamfi - São Paulo/Brazil, the latter being successfully implemented for the first time in this facility.

  5. External-RBS, PIXE and NRA analysis for ancient swords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Hellen C.; Added, Nemitala; Silva, Tiago F.; Rodrigues, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Elemental composition of the steel of two ancient swords (Japanese and Damascus from a private collection) was characterized using in air IBA techniques. Our results contribute for the understanding the processes of manufacturing (hammering and quenching) and surface treatments applied in these swords. The Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements along the Damascus blade allowed to identify and to trace a superficial concentration profile for the elements such Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As, while results for the Japanese blade showed only the presence of iron. The carbon content on the surface was also investigated using a resonant region in the Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) measurements and the results have shown a slightly difference between the surfaces under investigation. In order to investigate the nitrogen content on surface, that could explain the hardening process, we used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and the results shown that nitrogen content was under our detection limit for the technique (0.3% in mass). The measurements of PIXE, NRA and EBS were taken using the external beam setup installed at Lamfi – São Paulo/Brazil, the latter being successfully implemented for the first time in this facility

  6. ONO structures investigated by SIMS, RBS, and NRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iberl, F.; Ramm, P.; Lang, W.

    1992-01-01

    Reoxidized nitrided oxides (ONO) will be used in ULSI technology to improve the properties of thin gate dielectrics as high breakdown fields, radiation resistance, and diffusion barriers. The ONO structures analyzed in our study are fabricated in a rapid thermal processing reactor (RTP) using oxygen and ammonium ambients. Typical data for the sequential processing mode are: rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) in oxygen atmosphere at 1100degC and rapid thermal nitridation in ammonium atmosphere (RTN) at 1050degC followed by RTO at 1150degC. Due to the complexity of the growth process it is very important to verify the resulting layers with analytical methods. The whole structure is only about 250 A thick. To analyse the sequence, composition and thickness of the layers, the depth resolution of SIMS is necessary. On the other hand, for quantification, RBS and NRA can be used. When the bulk signal is suppressed by channelling, the signal of oxygen, and in special cases nitrogen, can be evaluated from the He + backscattering spectrum. For nuclear reaction analysis, the reactions of nitrogen with deuterium are used. The combination of SIMS and the accelerator techniques allow quantitative analysis and depth profiling of this structure. (orig.)

  7. RBS/NRA/channeling analysis of implanted immiscible species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naramoto, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Narumi, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ion implantation of immiscible elements was performed to prepare supersaturated substance for further heat treatment. 63 Cu ion implantation was made at low temperature into Nb(1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) single crystal films on sapphire, and the induced lattice damage and the lattice location of implanted Cu atoms were analyzed by 2.7 MeV 4 He + RBS/channeling. The coherent segregation of 63 Cu atoms with specific crystallographic orientations was found in the near surface region (Cu(1 0 0)/Nb(1 0 0), Cu(1 1 1)/Nb(1 1 0) and Cu(1 1 0)/Nb(1 1 1)). The same kind of study was also made in Ir(1 0 0)/MgO(1 0 0) implanted with 50 keV 12 C + ions. In addition to 2 MeV 4 He + RBS/channeling, 1.22 MeV d + RBS/NRA/channeling was employed to detect implanted 12 C atoms. The results suggest that 12 C atoms are aligned along Ir direction at least by low temperature implantation followed by thermal annealing

  8. Application of RBS and NRA in the fabrication of carbon based devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Maleki, H.; Evelyn, A.L.; Poker, D.B.

    1995-06-01

    We have used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) as well as resonant backscattering as analytical tools in fabricating carbon based drug delivery bio-implants, electrodes for batteries, and devices to entrap or filter specific toxins. Precursor is resol C 7 H 8 O 2 liquid, which converts to fully cured phenolic resin C 7 H 6 O (sp gr 1.25) on heating at 170 C. This resin further transforms with no change in shape to glassy carbon (sp gr 1.45) on heating to 1000 C. Final product consists of long ribbon-like molecules of sp2 carbon atoms aggregated locally to form subcrystalline domains arranged randomly in space. RBS and NRA were used in measuring the porosity before and after activation, in concentration profiling of stored drugs before and after leaching, in detecting low level light element impurities, and in detecting changes in the structure of the device due to fabrication

  9. The role of micro-NRA and micro-PIXE in carbon mapping of organic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niekraszewicz, L.A.B.; Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M.; Jobim, P.F.C.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the work developed in the Ion Implantation Laboratory (Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil) in order to implement the micro-NRA technique for the study of light elements in organic tissues. In particular, the work was focused on nuclear reactions employing protons and alphas with carbon. The (p,p) resonances at 0.475 and 1.734 were investigated. The (α,α) resonance at 4.265 MeV was studied as well. The results indicate that the yields for the 0.475 and 1.734 MeV resonances are similar. Elemental maps of different structures obtained with the micro-NRA technique using the 1.734 MeV resonance were compared with those obtained with micro-PIXE employing a SDD detector equipped with an ultra-thin window. The results show that the use of micro-NRA for carbon at 1.734 MeV resonance provides good results in some cases at the expense of longer beam times. On the other hand, micro-PIXE provides enhanced yields but is limited to surface analysis since soft X-rays are greatly attenuated by matter

  10. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T. F. (Tai-Sen F.); Kwan, T. J. T. (Thomas J. T.)

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype. The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use an accelerator and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the requirements on the storage ring(s) with external gamma-ray-production target for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scatters with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron-cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reasonable parameter values indicate that it is possible to use no more than a few storage rings per inspection station in a practical NRA luggage inspection complex having more than ten inspection stations.

  11. Purification and Characterization of a Thermostable Lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IBRL-nra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermostable lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IBRL-nra was purified and characterized. The production of thermostable lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IBRL-nra was carried out in a shake-flask system at 65°C in cultivation medium containing; glucose 1.0% (w/v; yeast extract 1.25% (w/v; NaCl 0.45% (w/v olive oil 0.1% (v/v with agitation of 200 rpm for 24 hours. The extracted extracellular crude thermostable lipase was purified to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration, Heparin-affinity chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 gel-filtration chromatography by 34 times with a final yield of 9%. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 30 kDa after SDS-PAGE analysis. The optimal temperature for thermostable lipase was 65°C and it retained its initial activity for 3 hours. Thermostable lipase activity was highest at pH 7.0 and stable for 16 hours at this pH at 65°C. Thermostable lipase showed elevated activity when pretreated with BaCl2, CaCl2, and KCl with 112%, 108%, and 106%, respectively. Lipase hydrolyzed tripalmitin (C16 and olive oil with optimal activity (100% compared to other substrates.

  12. RBS and NRA of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Huerta, L.; Pineda, J.C.; Zavala, E.P.; Barrera, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Vargas, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    This work presents a study of cobalt oxide thin films produced by the sol-gel process on aluminum and glass substrates. These films have been analyzed using two ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: a) a standard RBS 4 He 2 MeV and b) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using a 1 MeV deuterium beam. The 12 C(d,p 0 ) 13 C nuclear reaction provides information that carbon is incorporated into the film structure, which could be associated to the sinterization film process. Other film measurements such as optical properties, XRD, and SEM were performed in order to complement the IBA analysis. The results show that cobalt oxide film coatings prepared by this technique have good optical properties as solar absorbers and potential uses in solar energy applications

  13. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tai-Sen

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reas...

  14. 76 FR 37059 - Siuslaw National Forest; Oregon; Oregon Dunes NRA Management Area 10 (C) Route and Area Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Siuslaw National Forest; Oregon; Oregon Dunes NRA Management Area 10 (C) Route and Area Designation AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to... (C) today are not designated routes. This has in turn led to greater and unnecessary impacts to...

  15. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA in the invasive alien Fallopia japonica: seasonal variation, differences among habitats types, and comparison with native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Chmura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase activity (NRA was studied in the invasive alien plant F. japonica (Japanese knotweed during the vegetation season and among natural, semi-natural, and human-made habitats and compared with NRA in selected native species. NRA was measured directly in the field from the beginning of May until the beginning of October. NRA was much higher than in the plant’s native range, i.e., East Asia, and showed a high degree of variation over time with the highest values being reached at the stage of fast vegetative growth and at the beginning of fruiting. NRA was highest on dumping sites probably due to the high nitrogen input into soils and near traffic and the emission of NOx by vehicles. A comparison of the enzyme activity in four selected native plant species indicated that NRA in F. japonica was the highest with the exception of Urtica dioica, which exhibited a similar activity of the enzyme. A detailed comparison with this species showed that differences between these species on particular dates were influenced by differences in the phenology of both plants. The initial results that were obtained suggest that nitrogen pollution in an environment can contribute to habitat invasibility and a high level of NRA, which in addition to the many plant traits that are commonly accepted as characteristic of invasiveness features, may be an important factor that enhances invasion success.

  16. Nuclear resonance absorption (NRA): method and application to detection of contraband in a baggage, cargo and vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, M.B.; Vartsky, D.; Engler, G.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Resonance Absorption (NRA) has played a prominent role in nuclear spectroscopy for almost 5 decades, but found only few and marginal applications outside the laboratory before 1985. In that year the situation changed markedly when scientists from this laboratory proposed to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the U.S. to study its suitability for detecting explosives in passenger baggage via nitrogen-specific radiographic imaging (explosives, as a category, have inordinately high nitrogen densities). Following a basic feasibility study and the first laboratory demonstration of explosives detection in 1989, this project has attained the stage of a pre-industrial prototype that exhibited excellent performance characteristics in a 1993 blind test conducted by the FAA. In terms of NRA operational system concept, data taking methodology, development of dedicated detectors and image analysis algorithms, the Soreq group has made a major, if not exclusive, contribution over the years. (authors)

  17. The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) as a means for detecting carbon in GaAs and in source materials and additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Mader, A.; Michelmann, R.; Krauskopf, J.; Thee, P.; Meyer, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear reaction ananlysis (NRA) on the basis of the reaction 12 C (d,p) 13 C is a method allowing the detection and description of both lateral and depth profiles of the presence of carbon in GaAs and in the source materials and additives. The NRA is an absolute method with a detection limit for C of approx. 4x10 15 cm 3 . The achievable detection range in depth under the experimental conditions goes from the surface down to 6 μm. Combined with channeling measurements, NRA is capable of identifying the position of carbon in the GaAs crystal lattice, and thus permits to examine the mobility of C in GaAs. (BBR) With 11 refs [de

  18. Micro-NRA and micro-3HIXE with He-3 microbeam on samples exposed in ASDEX Upgrade and Pilot-PSI machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelemen, M.; Zaloznik, A.; Vavpetic, P.; Pecovnik, M.; Pelicon, P.; Hakola, A.; Lahtinen, A.; Karhunen, J.; Piip, K.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Paris, P.; Laan, M.; Krieger, K.; Oberkofler, M.; Markelj, S.; ASDEX Upgrade team,

    2017-01-01

    Micro nuclear reaction analysis (micro-NRA) exploiting the nuclear reaction D(He-3,p)He-4 was used for post-mortem analyses of special marker samples, exposed to deuterium plasma inside ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak and to the deuterium plasma jet in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma gun. Lateral

  19. The Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M49 Nra-Ralp3 Transcriptional Regulatory Network and Its Control of Virulence Factor Expression from the Novel eno ralp3 epf sagA Pathogenicity Region▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Nakata, Masanobu; Köller, Thomas; Hildisch, Hendrikje; Kourakos, Vassilios; Standar, Kerstin; Kawabata, Shigetada; Glocker, Michael O.; Podbielski, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Many Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) virulence factor- and transcriptional regulator-encoding genes cluster together in discrete genomic regions. Nra is a central regulator of the FCT region. Previous studies exclusively described Nra as a transcriptional repressor of adhesin and toxin genes. Here transcriptome and proteome analysis of a serotype M49 GAS strain and an isogenic Nra mutant of this strain revealed the complete Nra regulon profile. Nra is active in all growth phases tested, with the largest regulon in the transition phase. Almost exclusively, virulence factor-encoding genes are repressed by Nra; these genes include the GAS pilus operon, the capsule synthesis operon, the cytolysin-mediated translocation system genes, all Mga region core virulence genes, and genes encoding other regulators, like the Ihk/Irr system, Rgg, and two additional RofA-like protein family regulators. Surprisingly, our experiments revealed that Nra additionally acts as a positive regulator, mostly for genes encoding proteins and enzymes with metabolic functions. Epidemiological investigations revealed strong genetic linkage of one particular Nra-repressed regulator, Ralp3 (SPy0735), with a gene encoding Epf (extracellular protein factor from Streptococcus suis). In a serotype-specific fashion, this ralp3 epf gene block is integrated, most likely via transposition, into the eno sagA virulence gene block, which is present in all GAS serotypes. In GAS serotypes M1, M4, M12, M28, and M49 this novel discrete genetic region is therefore designated the eno ralp3 epf sagA (ERES) pathogenicity region. Functional experiments showed that Epf is a novel GAS plasminogen-binding protein and revealed that Ralp3 activity counteracts Nra and MsmR regulatory activity. In addition to the Mga and FCT regions, the ERES region is the third discrete chromosomal pathogenicity region. All of these regions are transcriptionally linked, adding another level of complexity to the known

  20. The Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M49 Nra-Ralp3 transcriptional regulatory network and its control of virulence factor expression from the novel eno ralp3 epf sagA pathogenicity region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Nakata, Masanobu; Köller, Thomas; Hildisch, Hendrikje; Kourakos, Vassilios; Standar, Kerstin; Kawabata, Shigetada; Glocker, Michael O; Podbielski, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    Many Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) virulence factor- and transcriptional regulator-encoding genes cluster together in discrete genomic regions. Nra is a central regulator of the FCT region. Previous studies exclusively described Nra as a transcriptional repressor of adhesin and toxin genes. Here transcriptome and proteome analysis of a serotype M49 GAS strain and an isogenic Nra mutant of this strain revealed the complete Nra regulon profile. Nra is active in all growth phases tested, with the largest regulon in the transition phase. Almost exclusively, virulence factor-encoding genes are repressed by Nra; these genes include the GAS pilus operon, the capsule synthesis operon, the cytolysin-mediated translocation system genes, all Mga region core virulence genes, and genes encoding other regulators, like the Ihk/Irr system, Rgg, and two additional RofA-like protein family regulators. Surprisingly, our experiments revealed that Nra additionally acts as a positive regulator, mostly for genes encoding proteins and enzymes with metabolic functions. Epidemiological investigations revealed strong genetic linkage of one particular Nra-repressed regulator, Ralp3 (SPy0735), with a gene encoding Epf (extracellular protein factor from Streptococcus suis). In a serotype-specific fashion, this ralp3 epf gene block is integrated, most likely via transposition, into the eno sagA virulence gene block, which is present in all GAS serotypes. In GAS serotypes M1, M4, M12, M28, and M49 this novel discrete genetic region is therefore designated the eno ralp3 epf sagA (ERES) pathogenicity region. Functional experiments showed that Epf is a novel GAS plasminogen-binding protein and revealed that Ralp3 activity counteracts Nra and MsmR regulatory activity. In addition to the Mga and FCT regions, the ERES region is the third discrete chromosomal pathogenicity region. All of these regions are transcriptionally linked, adding another level of complexity to the known

  1. The Effects of Dose Rhizoctonia Binucleat (BNR and Phosphorus to Nitrate Reductase Activity (NRA and Chlorophyll of Vanilla Seedling (Vanilla planifolia Andrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryuni Haryuni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews is one of the important exported commodities in Indonesia. Indonesia is one of top five major vanilla exporters in the world, that produce the high quality of Indonesian vanilla with high vanillin content (2.75%. The aims of this research were to determine the effects of dose binukleat Rhizoctonia (BNR and phosphorus as well as the interaction of the nitrate reductase activity (NRA and chlorophyll of the vanilla seedling (Vanilla planifolia Andrew. Method in this research used completely randomized factorial design, by involving two factors (dose of BNR inoculation and Phosphor. The first factor is without inoculation and inoculation BNR (M0, M1, M2, M3 wich consists of (0,5, 10, 15 g/polybag, the second factor is the dose of phosphorus fertilizer (P0, P1, P2, P3 which consists of (0, 3, 6, 9 g/polibag. The results showed that the inoculation dose of BNR and doses of phosphorus not significant and lower levels of NRA and chlorophyll while the interaction dose of BNR and phosphorus significantly and increase levels of NRA and chlorophyll of vanilla seedling. Nitrate Reductase Activity and chlorophyll has important role in metabolism process as a plant growth indicator.How to CiteHaryuni, H., & Dewi, T. S. K. (2016. The Effects of Dose Rhizoctonia Binucleat (BNR and Phosphorus to Nitrate Reductase Activity (NRA and Chlorophyll of Vanilla Seedling (Vanilla planifolia Andrews. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 141-147.

  2. Micro-NRA and micro-3HIXE with 3He microbeam on samples exposed in ASDEX Upgrade and Pilot-PSI machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Mitja; Založnik, Anže; Vavpetič, Primož; Pečovnik, Matic; Pelicon, Primož; Hakola, Antti; Lahtinen, Aki; Karhunen, Juuso; Piip, Kaarel; Paris, Peeter; Laan, Matti; Krieger, Karl; Oberkofler, Martin; van der Meiden, Hennie; Markelj, Sabina

    2017-08-01

    Micro nuclear reaction analysis (micro-NRA) exploiting the nuclear reaction D(3He,p)4He was used for post-mortem analyses of special marker samples, exposed to deuterium plasma inside ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak and to the deuterium plasma jet in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma gun. Lateral concentration profiles of deuterium and erosion/deposition profiles of the marker materials were obtained by a combination of micro-NRA and particle induced X-ray emission by 3He beam (3HIXE). In the case of AUG samples, where 25 nm thick W marker layers had been deposited on unpolished and polished graphite substrates, the effect of surface roughness on local erosion and deposition was also investigated. The lateral distribution of W concentration showed that erosion is much more distinct in the case of polished samples and the resulting surface shows a ;leopard; skin pattern of W accumulated on carbon aggregates left on the surface from polishing. The Pilot-PSI samples indicated preferential accumulation of deuterium a few mm off from the centre of the region affected by the plasma beam. This is connected with the largest surface modifications while the thick deposited layers at the centre do not favour deuterium retention per se. The results were cross correlated with those obtained using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). With its quantitative abilities, micro-NRA provided essential calibration data for in situ LIBS operation, as well as for complementary post mortem Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS).

  3. Analyses of hydrogen in quartz and in sapphire using depth profiling by ERDA at atmospheric pressure: Comparison with resonant NRA and SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Ina; Castaing, Jacques; Calligaro, Thomas; Salomon, Joseph; Aucouturier, Marc; Reinholz, Uwe; Weise, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is present in anhydrous materials as a result of their synthesis and of their environment during conservation. IBA provides techniques to measure H concentration depth profiles allowing to identify various aspects of the materials including the history of objects such as gemstones used in cultural heritage. A newly established ERDA set-up, using an external microbeam of alpha particles, has been developed to study hydrated near-surface layers in quartz and sapphire by non-destructive H depth profiling in different atmospheres. The samples were also analysed using resonant NRA and SIMS

  4. Analyses of hydrogen in quartz and in sapphire using depth profiling by ERDA at atmospheric pressure: Comparison with resonant NRA and SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Ina [Laboratoire du Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), UMR 171 CNRS, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Castaing, Jacques [Laboratoire du Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), UMR 171 CNRS, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)]. E-mail: jacques.castaing@culture.fr; Calligaro, Thomas [Laboratoire du Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), UMR 171 CNRS, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Salomon, Joseph [Laboratoire du Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), UMR 171 CNRS, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Aucouturier, Marc [Laboratoire du Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), UMR 171 CNRS, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Reinholz, Uwe [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Weise, Hans-Peter [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Hydrogen is present in anhydrous materials as a result of their synthesis and of their environment during conservation. IBA provides techniques to measure H concentration depth profiles allowing to identify various aspects of the materials including the history of objects such as gemstones used in cultural heritage. A newly established ERDA set-up, using an external microbeam of alpha particles, has been developed to study hydrated near-surface layers in quartz and sapphire by non-destructive H depth profiling in different atmospheres. The samples were also analysed using resonant NRA and SIMS.

  5. Development of micro-beam NRA for 3D-mapping of hydrogen distribution in solids: Application of tapered glass capillary to 6 MeV 15N ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiba, D.; Yonemura, H.; Nebiki, T.; Wilde, M.; Ogura, S.; Yamashita, H.; Matsumoto, M.; Kasagi, J.; Iwamura, Y.; Itoh, T.; Matsuzaki, H.; Narusawa, T.; Fukutani, K.

    2008-01-01

    A micro-beam NRA system, by means of a resonant nuclear reaction 1 H( 15 N, αγ) 12 C, has been developed for the purpose of the 3D mapping of the hydrogen distribution in solids. To obtain the tens μm size of the beam spot, the combination of the newly proposed tapered glass capillary and a conventional quadrupole magnetic lens is employed. An Y patterned film on a substrate is prepared as an application of the developed system. The 6 MeV 15 N beam focused by glass capillaries down to 50 μm successfully shows the hydrogen distribution. The in-plane NRA profile implies that the beam emitted from the glass capillary outlet is parallel, although the original beam has a considerable divergence. The NRA measurements in the 10 3 Pa N 2 atmosphere due to the low gas conductance of the glass capillary is also demonstrated

  6. XPS and NRA investigations during the fabrication of gold nanostructured functionalized screen-printed sensors for the detection of metallic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasmin, Jean-Philippe; Miserque, Frédéric; Dumas, Eddy; Vickridge, Ian; Ganem, Jean-Jacques; Cannizzo, Caroline; Chaussé, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Functionalized nanostructured SPEs were made by multi-step diazonium salt chemistry. • Investigation of SPEs surface by XPS and NRA shows monolayer coverage by aminobenzyl groups. • Complete conversion of aminobenzyl groups into diazonium functions was also evidenced. • Covalent grafting of AuNPs onto SPEs lead to an unusual modification of Au-4f core level spectrum. • Ligand and lead signals showed the interest of nanostructurated SPEs for trace metals detection. - Abstract: An all covalent nanostructured lead sensor was built by the successive grafting of gold nanoparticles and carboxylic ligands at the surface of self-adhesive carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Surface analysis techniques were used in each step in order to investigate the structuration of this sensor. The self-adhesive surfaces were made from the electrochemical grafting of p-phenylenediamine at the surface of the SPEs via diazonium salts chemistry. The quantity of grafted aniline functions, estimated by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) performed with p-phenylenediamine labelled with "1"5N isotope, is in agreement with an almost complete coverage of the electrode surface. The subsequent diazotization of the aniline functions at the surface of the SPEs was performed; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) allowed us to consider a quantitative conversion of the aniline functions into diazonium moieties. The spontaneous grafting of gold nanoparticles on the as-obtained reactive surfaces ensures the nanostructuration of the material, and XPS studies showed that the covalent bonding of the gold nanoparticles at the surface of the SPEs induces a change both in the Au-4f (gold nanoparticles) and Cl-2p (carbon ink) core level signals. These unusual observations are explained by an interaction between the carbon ink constituting the substrate and the gold nanoparticles. Heavy and toxic metals are considered of major environmental concern because of their non

  7. XPS and NRA investigations during the fabrication of gold nanostructured functionalized screen-printed sensors for the detection of metallic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasmin, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire Analyse et Modélisation pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, UMR 8587, CNRS-Université Evry Val d’Essonne-CEA, 1 rue du père Jarlan, 91025 Evry Cedex (France); Miserque, Frédéric [Den-Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Matériaux dans leur Environnement (SCCME), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dumas, Eddy [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180, CNRS-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 78035 Versailles (France); Vickridge, Ian; Ganem, Jean-Jacques [INSP, UMR 7588, CNRS- Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, boîte courrier 840 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Cannizzo, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.cannizzo@univ-evry.fr [Laboratoire Analyse et Modélisation pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, UMR 8587, CNRS-Université Evry Val d’Essonne-CEA, 1 rue du père Jarlan, 91025 Evry Cedex (France); Chaussé, Annie [Laboratoire Analyse et Modélisation pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, UMR 8587, CNRS-Université Evry Val d’Essonne-CEA, 1 rue du père Jarlan, 91025 Evry Cedex (France)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Functionalized nanostructured SPEs were made by multi-step diazonium salt chemistry. • Investigation of SPEs surface by XPS and NRA shows monolayer coverage by aminobenzyl groups. • Complete conversion of aminobenzyl groups into diazonium functions was also evidenced. • Covalent grafting of AuNPs onto SPEs lead to an unusual modification of Au-4f core level spectrum. • Ligand and lead signals showed the interest of nanostructurated SPEs for trace metals detection. - Abstract: An all covalent nanostructured lead sensor was built by the successive grafting of gold nanoparticles and carboxylic ligands at the surface of self-adhesive carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Surface analysis techniques were used in each step in order to investigate the structuration of this sensor. The self-adhesive surfaces were made from the electrochemical grafting of p-phenylenediamine at the surface of the SPEs via diazonium salts chemistry. The quantity of grafted aniline functions, estimated by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) performed with p-phenylenediamine labelled with {sup 15}N isotope, is in agreement with an almost complete coverage of the electrode surface. The subsequent diazotization of the aniline functions at the surface of the SPEs was performed; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) allowed us to consider a quantitative conversion of the aniline functions into diazonium moieties. The spontaneous grafting of gold nanoparticles on the as-obtained reactive surfaces ensures the nanostructuration of the material, and XPS studies showed that the covalent bonding of the gold nanoparticles at the surface of the SPEs induces a change both in the Au-4f (gold nanoparticles) and Cl-2p (carbon ink) core level signals. These unusual observations are explained by an interaction between the carbon ink constituting the substrate and the gold nanoparticles. Heavy and toxic metals are considered of major environmental concern because of their non

  8. Determination and theoretical analysis of the differential cross sections of the 2H(d,p) reaction at energies and detection angles suitable for NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paneta, V.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Gastis, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Vlastou, R.; Kontos, A.; Mayer, M.; Misaelides, P.; Perdikakis, G.

    2014-01-01

    The accurate determination of deuteron depth profile presents a strong analytical challenge for all the principal IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) techniques. As far as NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) is concerned, the 2 H(d,p) reaction, seems to be a promising candidate, especially in the case of complex matrices, or for the study of deep-implanted deuteron layers. In the present work differential cross-section values for the 2 H(d,p) reaction have been determined at 140, 160 and 170 degrees, for E d (lab) = 900-1600 keV, with an energy step of 50 keV, using a well-characterized, thin C:D target deposited on a polished Si wafer. The detection system consisted of 3 silicon surface barrier (SSB) detectors (thickness of 1000 μm) placed at a distance of about 11-13 cm from the target, at the appropriate angles. The experimental results were analyzed using the R-matrix calculations code AZURE. The results, in graphical and tabular form, will soon be available to the scientific community through IBANDL

  9. XPS and NRA investigations during the fabrication of gold nanostructured functionalized screen-printed sensors for the detection of metallic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Jean-Philippe; Miserque, Frédéric; Dumas, Eddy; Vickridge, Ian; Ganem, Jean-Jacques; Cannizzo, Caroline; Chaussé, Annie

    2017-03-01

    An all covalent nanostructured lead sensor was built by the successive grafting of gold nanoparticles and carboxylic ligands at the surface of self-adhesive carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Surface analysis techniques were used in each step in order to investigate the structuration of this sensor. The self-adhesive surfaces were made from the electrochemical grafting of p-phenylenediamine at the surface of the SPEs via diazonium salts chemistry. The quantity of grafted aniline functions, estimated by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) performed with p-phenylenediamine labelled with 15N isotope, is in agreement with an almost complete coverage of the electrode surface. The subsequent diazotization of the aniline functions at the surface of the SPEs was performed; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) allowed us to consider a quantitative conversion of the aniline functions into diazonium moieties. The spontaneous grafting of gold nanoparticles on the as-obtained reactive surfaces ensures the nanostructuration of the material, and XPS studies showed that the covalent bonding of the gold nanoparticles at the surface of the SPEs induces a change both in the Au-4f (gold nanoparticles) and Cl-2p (carbon ink) core level signals. These unusual observations are explained by an interaction between the carbon ink constituting the substrate and the gold nanoparticles. Heavy and toxic metals are considered of major environmental concern because of their non-biodegradability. In a final step, the grafting of the carboxylic ligands at the surface of the SPEs and an accumulation step in the presence of lead(II) cations allowed us to evidence the interest of nanostructured materials as metallic pollutants sensors.

  10. OECD/NEA International Conference on Global Nuclear Safety Enhancement Organised in co-operation with the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan On the Occasion of the 50. Anniversary of Japan Joining the OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shunichi; Oshima, Kenzo; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Echavarri, Luis E.; ); Ostendorff, William C.; Viktorovich Ferapontov, Alexey; Lachaume, Jean-Luc; Yoo, Guk Hee; Lyons, James E.; ); Weightman, Mike; ); Gurria, Angel; ); Ishihara, Hirotaka

    2014-04-01

    On 8 April 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, an international conference on enhancing global nuclear safety was held by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD), in co-operation with the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan. This document brings together the 12 presentations (slides) given at this conference organized in 3 sessions: 1 - Opening Session: Opening Remarks (S. Tanaka); Statement by L.E. Echavarri; Session 1 - Global Safety Enhancements: USNRC Actions in Response to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (W.C. Ostendorff); Synergy of National and International Regulatory Efforts to Enhance Global Nuclear Safety (A. Viktorovich Ferapontov); Global Safety Enhancements, The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN)'s position (J.L. Lachaume); Nuclear Safety and Security Commission builds up safety and security (G.H. Yoo); Session 2 - Learning from Experience to Improve Safety: Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident and Responses in New Regulatory Requirements (T. Fuketa); NEA Activities to Enhance the Nuclear Regulatory Framework (L.E. Echavarri); Learning from Experience to Improve Safety - its importance, its mechanisms and its challenges (J.E. Lyons); Learning from Experience to Improve Nuclear Safety - A Perspective from the UK (M. Weightman); Conclusions and Closing Remarks (A. Gurria, H. Ishihara)

  11. XPS, TEM and NRA investigations of Zn(Se,OH)/Zn(OH){sub 2} films on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} substrates for highly efficient solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisele, W.; Ennaoui, A.; Schubert-Bischoff, P.; Giersig, M.; Pettenkofer, C.; Krauser, J.; Lux-Steiner, M. [Hahn-Meitner Inst., Berlin (Germany); Zweigart, S.; Karg, F. [Siemens and Shell Solar, Munich (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Structural and compositional properties of Zn(Se,OH)/Zn(OH){sub 2} buffer layers deposited by chemical bath deposition(CBD) on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGSS) absorbers are investigated. Due to the aqueous nature of the CBD process, oxygen and hydrogen were incorporated into the 'ZnSe' buffer layer mainly in the form of Zn(OH){sub 2} as is shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) measurements leading to the nomenclature 'Zn(Se,OH)'. Prior to the deposition of Zn(Se,OH), a zinc treatment of the absorber was performed. During that treatment a layer mainly consisting of Zn(OH){sub 2} grew to a thickness of several nanometer. The whole buffer layer therefore consists of a Zn(Se,OH)/Zn(OH){sub 2} structure on CIGSS. Part of the Zn(OH){sub 2} in both layers (i.e. the Zn(Se,OH) and the Zn(OH){sub 2} layer) might be converted into ZnO during measurements or storage. Scanning electron microscopy pictures showed that a complete coverage of the absorber with the buffer layer was achieved. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the different regions of the buffer layer: An amorphous area (possibly Zn(OH){sub 2}) and a partly nanocrystalline area, where lattice planes of ZnSe could be identified. Solar cell efficiencies of ZnO/Zn(Se,OH)/Zn(OH){sub 2}/CIGSS devices exceed 14% (total area).(author)

  12. NRaD Writing and Editorial Guidelines. Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    shall" and "The government will." THAT, WHICH That is the defining or restrictive pronoun, which is nondefining or nonrestrictive. The lawn mower that is...broken is in the garage. (tells which one) The lawn mower , which is broken, is in the garage. (used simply as a parenthetical expression between

  13. Optimizing Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using Bayesian Experimental Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Udo von; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Gori, Silvio

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear Reaction Analysis with 3 He holds the promise to measure Deuterium depth profiles up to large depths. However, the extraction of the depth profile from the measured data is an ill-posed inversion problem. Here we demonstrate how Bayesian Experimental Design can be used to optimize the number of measurements as well as the measurement energies to maximize the information gain. Comparison of the inversion properties of the optimized design with standard settings reveals huge possible gains. Application of the posterior sampling method allows to optimize the experimental settings interactively during the measurement process.

  14. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  15. Detection of beryllium treatment of natural sapphires by NRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.e [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.-D.; Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musees de France C2RMF, CNRS-UMR171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Since the 1990's, artificial treatment of natural sapphires (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals coloured by impurities) by diffusion of beryllium at high temperature has become a growing practice. This process permits to enhance the colour of these gemstones, and thus to increase their value. Detection of such a treatment - diffusion of tens of {mu}g/g of beryllium in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals - is usually achieved using high sensitivity techniques like laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP/MS) or laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) which are unfortunately micro-destructive (leaving 50-100-{mu}m diameter craters on the gems). The simple and non-destructive alternative method proposed in this work is based on the nuclear reaction {sup 9}Be({alpha}, n{gamma}){sup 12}C with an external helium ion beam impinging on the gem directly placed in air. The 4439 keV prompt {gamma}-ray tagging Be atoms are detected with a high efficiency bismuth germanate scintillator. Beam dose is monitored using the 2235 keV prompt {gamma}-ray produced during irradiation by the aluminium of the sapphire matrix through the {sup 27}Al({alpha}, p{gamma}){sup 30}Si nuclear reaction. The method is tested on a series of Be-treated sapphires previously analyzed by LA-ICP/MS to determine the optimal conditions to obtain a peak to background appropriate to reach the required {mu}g/g sensitivity. Using a 2.8-MeV external He beam and a beam dose of 200 {mu}C, beryllium concentrations from 5 to 16 {mu}g/g have been measured in the samples, with a detection limit of 1 {mu}g/g.

  16. PIXE and NRA environmental studies by means of lichen indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrynkiewicz, A.Z.; Szymczyk, S.; Kajfosz, J.; Olech, M.

    1980-01-01

    The trace element accumulating and integrating properties of epiphytic lichens were used for the study of air pollutions in Southern Poland. For the investigation of fluorine pollution by an aluminium plant the 19 F(p, p'γ) 19 F nuclear reaction, whereas for Pb and Br traffic pollution and heavy elements industrial pollution the PIXE method was used. The applicability of the lichen indicator method in environmental studies is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Report on the NRA workshop ''investing in trust, nuclear regulators and the public''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The workshop was held in Paris on the 29. November - 1. December 2000. Its objective was well captured in the title: Investing in Trust, Nuclear Regulators and the Public. The general public is concerned with the risks involved in the use of nuclear power, and has a legitimate desire for reliable and impartial information. The nuclear regulators have answers, but in order to fulfill the information needs of the general public and their elected representatives, they need to be regarded trustworthy. Most of the about 80 participants were from nuclear regulatory bodies and radiation protection agencies. The discussions gave regulators an opportunity to change views and experiences on how to gain trust in their openness and honesty, and in their will and capability to protect public interests. The weight given to the topic was indicated by participation of nine heads of national regulatory bodies, among them top regulators from four countries with largest nuclear programmes: the USA, Japan, France, and the UK. The number of papers presented was 33, and their topics were considered well chosen by the organizing committee. Throughout the workshop 'posters' were available; these were electronic links to the web sites of the attending regulatory bodies. Proceedings of the workshop will be published during the first half of 2001. (author)

  18. Nitrogen in biogenic and abiogenic minerals from Paleozoic black shales: an NRA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, J.-P.; Orberger, B.; Daudin, L.; Pinti, D.L.; Pasava, J.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear reaction analyses were performed on feldspars, quartz, abiogenic and biogenic sulfides and phosphates in organic matter-rich black shales. The goal was to study N-fractionation in black shales during diagenesis and contemporaneous hydrothermalism. Light elements (N, C) together with heavier ones (K, Ca, Ni, Fe, Zn) were analyzed by PIXE. Due to the heterogeneous sample composition, a scanning mode was used. Each phase was identified before extracting the corresponding spectra for quantification. Six phases, carrying nitrogen (and C), have been identified. K-feldspars are the richest in N (1.0-2.4 wt.%), followed by organic carbon (0.67 wt.%). Quartz, biogenic and abiogenic sulfides and phosphates contain N in the range of 0.56-1.08 wt.%. The present N-distribution in the black shales is explained by a two-step nitrogen release: (1) organic matter decay produces N, P, S nutriments for the development of a hydrothermal vent fauna and (2) biomineralization of this vent fauna liberates nitrogen to early diagenetic fluids. The extreme N enrichment of feldspars is related to its crystal structure, favoring the potassium substitution by NH 4 + , and the N-uptake during organic matter replacement

  19. Lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident and responses in NRA regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The author would like to present significant lessons learned from the TEPCO’s Fukushima Dai-ichi accident and responses in regulatory requirements developed by the Nuclear Regulation Authority for power-producing light water reactors. The presentation will cover prevention of structures, systems and components failures, measures to prevent common cause failures, prevention of core damage, mitigation of severe accidents, emergency preparedness, continuous improvement of safety, use of probabilistic risk assessment, and post-accident regulation on the Fukushima Dai-ichi. (author)

  20. RBS and NRA damage analysis on PFA films bombarded with hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parada, Marco A.; Petchevist, Paulo C.D.; Minamisawa, Renato A.; Almeida, Adelaide de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: dalmeida@ffclrp.usp.br; Muntele, Claudiu I.; Zimmerman, Robert L.; Ila, Daryush [A and M University, Normal, AL (United States). Center for Irradiation of Materials]. E-mail: ila@cim.aamu.edu

    2005-07-01

    The fluoropolymer PFA (Tetrafluoroethylene-per-fluoromethoxy ethylene) is a conventional thermoplastic used in civil engineering applications such as anti-adherent coatings and concrete additives. It is also candidate materials for radiation dosimetry with applications in medical physics. When such a polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, it can suffers damages that depend on the type, energy, and intensity of the radiation. We present results on the damage caused by 1 MeV protons at fluences of 10{sup 13}, 10{sup 14}, 10{sup 15}, and 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2}. The energy deposited during such hydrogen bombardment breaks the polymeric chains with the release of fluorine in amounts directly proportional to the amount of deposited energy. Virgin samples were first analyzed by RBS. Subsequent damage was then profiled by monitoring the alpha emission spectrum, resulting from the nuclear reaction: {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O induced by 1.38 MeV protons on the remaining fluorine content of damaged polymer samples. (author)

  1. RBS and NRA damage analysis on PFA films bombarded with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parada, Marco A.; Petchevist, Paulo C.D.; Minamisawa, Renato A.; Almeida, Adelaide de; Muntele, Claudiu I.; Zimmerman, Robert L.; Ila, Daryush

    2005-01-01

    The fluoropolymer PFA (Tetrafluoroethylene-per-fluoromethoxy ethylene) is a conventional thermoplastic used in civil engineering applications such as anti-adherent coatings and concrete additives. It is also candidate materials for radiation dosimetry with applications in medical physics. When such a polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, it can suffers damages that depend on the type, energy, and intensity of the radiation. We present results on the damage caused by 1 MeV protons at fluences of 10 13 , 10 14 , 10 15 , and 10 16 protons/cm 2 . The energy deposited during such hydrogen bombardment breaks the polymeric chains with the release of fluorine in amounts directly proportional to the amount of deposited energy. Virgin samples were first analyzed by RBS. Subsequent damage was then profiled by monitoring the alpha emission spectrum, resulting from the nuclear reaction: 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O induced by 1.38 MeV protons on the remaining fluorine content of damaged polymer samples. (author)

  2. A potato tuber-expressed mNRA with homology to steroid dehydrogenases affects gibberellin levels and plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachem, C.W.B.; Horvath, B.M.; Trindade, L.M.; Claassens, M.M.J.; Davelaar, E.; Jordi, W.J.R.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP RNA fingerprinting throughout potato tuber development, we have isolated a transcript-derived fragment (TDF511) with strong homology to plant steroid dehydrogenases. During in vitro tuberization, the abundance profile of the TDF shows close correlation to the process of tuber

  3. Iron site location in Fe-diffused lithium niobate crystals by combined RBS-PIXE-NRA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltron, A. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Argiolas, N., E-mail: nicola.argiolas@unipd.it [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); De Salvador, D.; Bazzan, M. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Ciampolillo, M.V.; Bacci, L.; Sada, C. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    Iron diffused x-cut lithium niobate samples have been studied from a structural point of view by ion beam analysis techniques in channeling conditions. The aim of this work is to determine the most probable position of iron atoms after high temperature diffusion treatment in pure oxygen atmosphere and to verify their location after an additional full reducing annealing at low temperature. The results are compared with the bulk doping case that can be considered the final equilibrium state of the diffusion process. By comparing the iron signal with niobium and lithium counterparts in angular scans along proper crystallographic directions, we demonstrate that iron occupies in any case the lithium site or a very close position regardless of the reduction degree, just as in the case of bulk doped samples.

  4. A Microfabricated Segmented-Involute-Foil Regenerator for Enhancing Reliability and Performance of Stirling Engines. Phase III Final Report for the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Gedeon, David; Wood, Gary; McLean, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Under Phase III of NASA Research Announcement contract NAS3-03124, a prototype nickel segmented-involute-foil regenerator was microfabricated and tested in a Sunpower Frequency-Test-Bed (FTB) Stirling convertor. The team for this effort consisted of Cleveland State University, Gedeon Associates, Sunpower Inc. and International Mezzo Technologies. Testing in the FTB convertor produced about the same efficiency as testing with the original random-fiber regenerator. But the high thermal conductivity of the prototype nickel regenerator was responsible for a significant performance degradation. An efficiency improvement (by a 1.04 factor, according to computer predictions) could have been achieved if the regenerator was made from a low-conductivity material. Also, the FTB convertor was not reoptimized to take full advantage of the microfabricated regenerator s low flow resistance; thus, the efficiency would likely have been even higher had the FTB been completely reoptimized. This report discusses the regenerator microfabrication process, testing of the regenerator in the Stirling FTB convertor, and the supporting analysis. Results of the pre-test computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the effects of the regenerator-test-configuration diffusers (located at each end of the regenerator) are included. The report also includes recommendations for further development of involute-foil regenerators from a higher-temperature material than nickel.

  5. Stakeholder involvement activities in Slovakia. NRA's Commitment to Transparent Regulatory Process. Stakeholder Involvement in the French Regulatory Process - From Public Information to Public Participation. Stakeholder involvement in nuclear decision making in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziakova, Marta Chairperson; Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic; Nuclear Regulation Authority - NRA; Ferapontov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Session 2 focused on the regulatory perspectives related to stakeholder involvement in the regulatory decision-making process. Presentations provided the audience with information regarding the international and national legal framework implemented in the Slovak Republic, in France, in Japan and in Russia. Examples of stakeholder involvement, as well as some tools used for this purpose, were presented and discussed. The value of consistency and complementarity between international and national requirements was highlighted. Presentations and discussion confirmed the very close tie between the way the stakeholder involvement process is conducted and the public confidence and perception of reliability the regulatory body may gain, or lose. The four presentations confirmed that stakeholder involvement is a key challenge for maintaining regulatory body credibility, independence and legitimacy. All countries confirmed their commitment to trying to make their stakeholder involvement processes as open, visible, transparent and comprehensive as possible. Involvement represents a long and permanent process which requires investment of time, human resources and money, as well as the ability to reach out, to listen, to share, and to take input into account, while keeping in view the goal of delivering decisions that are as rational and objective as possible. Involving stakeholders is more than informing or communicating. The earlier the stakeholders are involved in the decision-making process, the greater the chance of success. If losing credibility is easy, all regulatory bodies agreed on the long process needed to recover it

  6. CAUDAL MEDULLARY PATHWAYS TO LUMBOSACRAL MOTONEURONAL CELL GROUPS IN THE CAT - EVIDENCE FOR DIRECT PROJECTIONS POSSIBLY REPRESENTING THE FINAL COMMON PATHWAY FOR LORDOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHORST, VGJM; HOLSTEGE, G

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to distinct brainstem and cervical and thoracic cord motoneuronal cell groups. The present paper describes NRA projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement. Lumbosacral injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase

  7. Caudal Medullary Pathways To Lumbosacral Motoneuronal Cell Groups In The Cat; Evidence For Direct Projections Possibly Representing The Final Common Pathway For Lordosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, Veronique G.J.M.; Holstege, Gert

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to distinct brainstem and cervical and thoracic cord motoneuronal cell groups. The present paper describes NRA projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement. Lumbosacral injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase

  8. National Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, C.; Smith, S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Prather, J. (Linfield Coll., McMinnville, OR (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This User's Manual describes installation and use of the National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) Distributed Access package. The package consists of a distributed subset of information representative of the NRA databases and database access software which provide an introduction to the scope and style of the NRA Information Systems.

  9. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic - information to the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliga, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the communication programme in the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR), internal communication within NRA SR, handling the media, the media documents, the emergency preparedness and media as well as the activities of the NRA SR in last period are discussed

  10. National Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.; Smith, S.; Prather, J.

    1991-11-01

    This User's Manual describes installation and use of the National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) Distributed Access package. The package consists of a distributed subset of information representative of the NRA databases and database access software which provide an introduction to the scope and style of the NRA Information Systems

  11. American River Watershed Investigation, California. Volume 8. Appendix T

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Upper American; NRA holl Clint 1405 400-Year Alternative 85 Last Contr name First name Numbe Subjects Shuman Todd 1730 NRA; 100-Year (FEMA) Levee...100-Year (FEMA) Levee/Storage Summers Edwin/Lois 763 Common Form Comment Sundeen Stacy 190 No Dam; NRA; Cost; Project Purpose Sutherland David 1272 No

  12. Resinas alquídicas altamente ramificadas obtenidas sin compuestos orgánicos volátiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Rangel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperbranched alkyd resins have usually been obtained from hyperbranched polyester polyols (HBP of second, third and fourth generations. Objectives: In this work the influence of the proportion of TOFA on the structural, thermal, and rheological and films properties of hyperbranched alkyd resins (NRA were evaluated. Methodology: In order to obtain the NRA, the respective amount of HBP of fifth generation (HBP1G, tall oil fatty acids (TOFA and p-toluenesulphonic acid (0.1wt%, were taken to the reactor. The temperature was kept at 200 °C. The system was kept under mechanical stirring (200 rpm and the conversion of the reaction was evaluated by measurement of acid value (VA. The molar ratios of HBP:TOFA were as follows; 1:3 (NRA1, 1:4 (NRA2, 1:5 (NRA3 y 1:6 (NRA4. Results: VA of the NRA was lower than that of TOFA, the hydroxyl value (VOH was minor compared to that of HBP1G. This is an indication that the esterification reaction between TOFA and HBP1G was carried out. The reaction conversion for obtaining the conversion to NRA was higher than 90 %. By nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis, the signals of the methylene protons joined to OH groups of the HBP1G were evidenced and decreased in their intensity in the NRA1, due to the reaction between HBP1G and TOFA. The hydrodynamic dimensions of the NRA1, NRA2 and NRA3 were nanometrics. Conclusions: The NRA presented the lowest viscosity. Furthermore all NRA, exhibited OH groups and double bonds, which allow that these materials be employed for obtaining hybrid materials and also as crosslinking agents. The NRA showed good film properties.

  13. Correlative study between myopia and ocular relative accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Ya Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To research the characteristics of positive relative accommodation(PRA, negative relative accommodation(NRAand PRA/NRA ratio in myopes. To analyze the relationship among PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, spherical equivalent degree, years and habbits of wearing glasses, myopia development, and pupil diameter.METHODS: Aretrospective study of ninety eyes in the 180th Hospital of Quanzhou from August 2014 to December 2014. PRA, NRA and PRA/NRA ratio were compared among low, moderate, high myopes and emmetropes. The correlation were analyzed among PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, spherical equivalent degree, years and habbits of wearing glasses, myopia development and pupil diameter. PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, years and habbits of wearing glasses and pupil diameter were compared between progress group and non-progress group.RESULTS:(1Without statistical differences in age, sex and intraocular pressure, PRA and PRA/NRA ratio of myopes were lower than emmetropes, while NRA was higher.(2Without statistical differences in age, sex and intraocular pressure, PRA, PRA/NRA ratio and NRA had no statistical differences while years and habbits of wearing glasses had statistical differences among low, moderate, high myopes.(3With longer years of wearing glasses, PRA, PRA/NRA ratio were larger and NRA, pupils were smaller.(4Without statistical differences in age, diopter and intraocular pressure, one group which were not easy to deepen degree had more often-wear-glasses myopia patiens and longer years of wearing glasses, the other group which were easy to deepen degree had more seldom-wear-glasses myopia patiens and shorter years of wearing glasses.CONCLUSION: PRA and PRA/NRA ratio of myopes were lower than emmetropes, while NRA was higher. No correlated relation was detected among PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, spherical equivalent degree and myopia development. It suggests the onset and progress of myopia are related to many factors. Wearing-glass timely and accurately can

  14. Public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) started building up a broad information publicity conception resulting in NRA SR Information Centre establishment in 1995. The Centre provides information on the NRA SR activities. The Authority's speaker provides information about NRA SR domestic and foreign activities for TASR, newspapers, Slovak radio and television. Information on nuclear energy facilities situation is given to state authorities, organizations as well as to domestic and foreign mass-media on request. 41 press releases, 3 radio interviews and 5 television records providing information on some important NRA SR events was worked out in 1996. 4 basic NRA SR document have been presented by the Slovak Information Agency, consequently 3 press-conferences were held. Concerning some less frequent communication activities, NRA SR can present the NRA SR annual report in three versions (for the Slovak Government, for public and detailed report for experts). NRA SR and State Authority for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic issue together Nuclear Energy Safety News every two months. NRA SR activities Bulletin started issuing in 1996 3 to 4 volumes per year. Newspaper, radio and television news monitoring is performed for Bratislava and Trnava offices providing interesting papers or important events records and photos of NRA SR visits. Practical experience of the information activities performance in connection with the Authority mission and liability was obtained last year. Methodical and organizational guidelines to adjust the state regulatory authority activities in this field have been prepared

  15. Public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) laid the foundation of a policy of keeping the public informed about the activities and the safety of nuclear installations in the SR already in its origins by opening the NRA Information Centre. The NRA SR issues the Bulletin on NRA SR for domestic and foreign use, the bilingual Annual report on NRA activities for domestic and foreign public - detailed report for the specialists and a version for the Slovak Republic state authorities. On the occasion of the anniversary of the IAEA a special publication on the IAEA was prepared. Forty-nine contributions on NRA national and foreign activities were trans-missed to the Press Agency of the SR (TASR) over the course of 1997. In the journal Safety of Nuclear Energy the column 'Information' periodically carries the briefs on NRA activities. Four essential articles on NRA mission and responsibility in the are of peaceful uses of atomic energy were published in the Newsletter of the Slovak Information Agency (SIA). Contributions on NRA activities and international co-operation are periodically put out in the 'Slovenske elektrarne' Newsletter, the Slovak Nuclear Society Bulletin. Report on the Safety of NPPs in the Slovak Republic is annually published in the Journal European Nuclear Society - Nuclear Europe Worldscan. Some articles on NRA activities were published in the world information agency NucNet. The NRA issued in 1997 four editions of the internal Bulletin on the NRA's national and foreign activities and personnel. Three press conferences were held and six events were arranged in radio broadcasting in 1997

  16. Public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    At Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR), the public relations belongs to the secretariat of the Chairman, and are a part of the policy of carefully planned and purposeful efforts to establish mutual relations between the authority and the public. A spokesmen of NRA SR is in charge of the public relations. The spokesman is ready, without a useless filibuster and based on a particular requirement, to inform governmental bodies, other national bodies and organizations, embassies and international organizations, the public and news media in case of an event at a nuclear installation. To provide for communications activities, NRA SR constructed and opened the Information centre with a particular equipment in autumn 1995, that has already started communications with some dailies, broadcasting, television and Press Agency SR. It has been envisaged that there will be press conferences held in the Information centre a few times a year, or NRA SR senior staff may be interviewed here on extraordinary events at NPPs, or on some other important occasions in NRA SR. In 1995, NRA Sr issued the Annual report in a few variants - each suitable for different use - on NRA SR activities and nuclear safety of Slovak nuclear power plants as of 1994. The NRA SR's Bulletin has started to be published with periodicity of 3 times a year, focusing on NRA SR activities both in Slovakia and abroad. NRA SR Information centre provides foreign visitors with independent propagation and information materials about the issue of nuclear safety enhancement at operational Slovak NPPs. Furthermore, the Information centre provides both the NRA SR's residences in Bratislava and Trnava with daily press monitoring of topical news

  17. Foreword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The year 1997 marked a minor jubilee for the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR), five years of its existence and activities in the area of nuclear safety of nuclear installations in the Slovak Republic. The main activities of the NRA SR are reviewed

  18. Operational Issues in the Development of a Cost-Effective Reusable LOX/LH2 Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: SLI initiated under NASA Research Announcement (NRA) 8-30. Strategic Objectives. Make spaceflight safer (1 in 10000 mission LOV). Make spaceflight cheaper ($1000/lb payload). Two prototype LOX/LH2 engine systems funded under Cycle-1 of NRA8-30. COBRA (Pratt & Whitney / Aerojet). RS-83 (Rocketdyne).

  19. The Namibia bridge management system: a tool for preservation of structures on the road network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a bridge management system (BMS) for the Namibia Roads Authority (NRA). Namibia is a vast country (825 420 km2) with a very low population density and the NRA is currently responsible...

  20. Pontine and medullary projections to the nucleus retroambiguus : A wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase and autoradiographic tracing study in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Holstege, Gert

    1996-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the caudal medulla oblongata plays a role in expiration, vocalization, vomiting, and possibly lordosis. The present study tried to determine which structures, in turn, control the NRA. One cell group is the periaqueductal gray (FAG), which is considered to be the

  1. Descending Projections From The Nucleus Retroambiguus To The Iliopsoas Motoneuronal Cell Groups In The Female Golden Hamster : Possible role in reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Holstege, Gert

    1999-01-01

    In the cat, the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to expiratory motoneurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the NRA sends fibers to a specific set of motoneurons in the lumbosacral cord, which pathway is thought to play a crucial role in mating behavior.

  2. Retroambiguus projections to the cutaneus trunci motoneurons may form a pathway in the central control of mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Vodde, Chris; Holstege, Gert

    Our laboratory has proposed that the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) generates the specific motor performance displayed by female cats during mating and that it uses direct pathways to the motoneurons of the lower limb muscles involved in this activity. In the hamster a similar NRA-projection system

  3. Nucleus retroambiguous projections to lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups in the male cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderhorst, VGJM; Holstege, G

    1997-01-01

    Recently, in the female cat, nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projections have been described as distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement, possibly involved in lordosis behavior. The present study deals with the NRA-lumbosacral pathway in the male cat, Lumbosacral injections of wheat

  4. Nucleus retroambiguus projections to the periaqueductal gray in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, EM; Mouton, LJ; Holstege, G

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) of the caudal medulla is a relay nucleus by which neurons of the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG) reach motoneurons of pharynx, larynx, soft palate, intercostal and abdominal muscles, and several muscles of the hindlimbs. These PAG-NRA-motoneuronal projections

  5. Direct projections from the nucleus retroambiguus to cricothyroid motoneurons in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, J.; Klop, E.M.; Hulshoff, A.C.; Weerd, H. de; Holstege, G.

    2002-01-01

    Vocalization can be elicited by stimulation in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Light-microscopical tracing and physiological studies have revealed that the PAG uses the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) as a relay to excite the vocalization muscle motoneurons. Direct NRA projections have been demonstrated

  6. 77 FR 23658 - Six Rivers National Forest, Gasquet Ranger District, California, The Smith River National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... National Forest, Gasquet Ranger District, California, The Smith River National Recreation Area [email protected] . Please insure that ``Smith River NRA Restoration and Motorized Travel Management'' occurs... UARs totaling 80 miles. The project encompasses the Smith River NRA and Gasquet Ranger District...

  7. Axonal sprouting of a brainstem-spinal pathway after estrogen administration in the adult female rhesus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderhorst, VGJM; Terasawa, E; Ralston, HJ

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is located in the caudal medulla oblongata and contains premotor neurons that project to motoneuronal cell groups in the brainstem and spinal cord. NRA projections to the lumbosacral cord are species specific and might be involved in mating behavior. In the female

  8. Clone-Specific Response in Leaf Nitrate Reductase Activity among Unrelated Hybrid Poplars in relation to Soil Nitrate Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fortier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this field study, we used in vivo NRA activity in hybrid poplar leaves as an indicator of NO3- assimilation for five unrelated hybrid poplar clones. We also examined if leaf NRA of these clones is influenced to the same extent by different levels of soil NO3- availability in two riparian agroforestry systems located in pastures. Leaf NRA differences of more than one order of magnitude were observed between the clones, clearly showing their different abilities to reduce NO3- in leaves. Clone DxN-3570, a P. deltoides x P. nigra hybrid (Aigeiros intrasectional hybrid, always had the highest leaf NRA during the field assays. This clone was also the only one to increase its leaf NRA with increasing NO3- soil availability, which resulted in a significant Site x Clone interaction and a positive relationship between soil NO3- concentration and NRA. All of the four other clones studied had one or both parental species from the Tacamahaca section. They had relatively low leaf NRA and they did not increase their leaf NRA when grown on the NO3- rich site. These results provide evidence that NO3- assimilation in leaves varies widely among hybrid poplars of different parentages, suggesting potential preferences for N forms.

  9. Elastic-Plastic Finite-Difference Analysis of Unidirectional Composites Subjected to Thermomechanical Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    HH(201) REAL QQ(201), PLAS(201), PP(201) REAL AMAT(NRA,NRA), BMAT (NRA), XSOL(NRA) REAL SR(201), ST(201), SZ(201), SEFF(201) NNRA = NRA IF (JAR.EQ.0...VMU(I-1)) 30 CONTINUE C - - - Initialize A and B DO 51 I=1,2*NTOT DO 52 J-1,2*NTOT AMAT(I,J)= 0.0 52 CONTINUE BMAT (I) = 0.0 51 CONTINUE C...1))’J**2 -GG(INT+1) D0 66 I=1,NTOI AMAT(I,NTOT+I) = AA(I+l) !upvci right AMAT(NTOT+I,NTOT+I) = -FF(I±1) !lower right BMAT (I) = 0. BMAT (NTOT+I) = QQ(I

  10. Latent nitrate reductase activity is associated with the plasma membrane of corn roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. R.; Grimes, H. D.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Latent nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was detected in corn (Zea mays L., Golden Jubilee) root microsome fractions. Microsome-associated NRA was stimulated up to 20-fold by Triton X-100 (octylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol) whereas soluble NRA was only increased up to 1.2-fold. Microsome-associated NRA represented up to 19% of the total root NRA. Analysis of microsomal fractions by aqueous two-phase partitioning showed that the membrane-associated NRA was localized in the second upper phase (U2). Analysis with marker enzymes indicated that the U2 fraction was plasma membrane (PM). The PM-associated NRA was not removed by washing vesicles with up to 1.0 M NACl but was solubilized from the PM with 0.05% Triton X-100. In contrast, vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was not solubilized from the PM by treatment with 0.1% Triton X-100. The results show that a protein capable of reducing nitrate is embedded in the hydrophobic region of the PM of corn roots.

  11. Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the conduct of a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) in 2012 and 2013, the Mosaic ATM team first developed the Strategic Arrivals Recommendation Tool concept, or...

  12. Anatomical study of the final common pathway for vocalization in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented of an anatomical study of the neuronal pathways in the cat, via which the periaqueductal gray (PAG) produces excitation of motoneurons involved in vocalization. It is shown that a specific cell group in the lateral part of the caudal PAG and in the tegmentum just lateral to it projects bilaterally to the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the caudal medulla oblongata. Neurons in the NRA in turn project, via a contralateral pathway through the ventral funiculus of the spinal cord, to the motoneuronal cell groups innervating intercostal and abdominal muscles. In the brainstem, the NRA neurons project to the motoneuronal cell groups innervating mouth-opening and perioral muscles as well as to motoneurons innervating the pharynx, soft palate, and tongue. These results indicate that the projections from PAG via NRA to vocalization motoneurons form the final common pathway in vocalization.

  13. 2000 Annual report: synthesis; 2000 Resenia de actividades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000.

  14. National radiobiology archives Dr. J. Newell Stannard Collection Inventory Listing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.R.; Ligotke, E.K.; Smith, S.K.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) J. Newell Stannard Collection. Items in the Stannard Collection are available upon written request. The written correspondence should identify specific items, or the topic of the items, to be retrieved from the NRA holdings. The NRA is a Department of Energy Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER) funded project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Dr. Charles R. Watson, telephone (509) 376-3483, is the project director. The NRA project is a comprehensive effort to gather, organize, and catalog data, tissues, and documents related to radiobiology studies. This archiving activity will provide future researchers with information for statistical analyses to compare results of these and other studies and materials for analysis and application of advanced molecular biology techniques

  15. Nitrate and sulfate reducers-retrievable number of bacteria and their activities in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    Culturable heterotrophic, nitrate reducing and sulfate reducing bacteria (HB, NRB and SRB) were enumerated from 25, 50, 100 and 200 m depths at 15 stations and their potential activities viz. Nitrate reducing (NRA) and Sulfate reducing (SRA) were...

  16. 76 FR 81962 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Ross Lake National Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... soundscapes, and scenery through traditional outdoor activities. The NPS would actively manage to reduce... Ross Lake NRA in order to protect and enhance soundscapes and wilderness character, experience, and...

  17. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  18. Emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, major efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) were focused on tasks associated with completion and incorporation of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of NRA SR in emergency planning and crisis management. Construction of the ERC had begun based on NRA SR's knowledge, as well as recommendations of Regulatory Assistance Management Group (RAMG) International Mission in 1993 and follow-up missions in 1994. Early in 1994, re-construction of selected rooms had been done and early in 1995, supported by the UK and U.S.A. Government's funding, technical equipment was purchased. The equipment was necessary for ERC operation as tools to improve NRA SR readiness for the management of emergency situations at nuclear installations. NRA SR commenced operation of the Centre in April 1995. The Centre has been on-line connected to a teledosimetric system of Radiation Monitoring Laboratory in Trnava. The basic software for assessment of radiation consequences of a NPP accident was supplied were also focused on cooperation with state administration authorities and organizations which were involved in an emergency planning structure. In September 1995, staffing of the ERC was completed and parallel, the first document concerning the ERC prime task, i.e. activities and procedures of of NRA SR Crisis crew in case of an accident at a nuclear installation on the territory of the Slovak Republic, was approved by the NRA SR's Management. In the period that is being assessed, NRA SR made significant progress in events classification and emergency planning terminology in order to unify the above between both the Slovak NPPs

  19. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) developed a methodology and the NRA SR Chairman's Regulation that sets out a uniform administration procedure in collecting administration fees, for the purpose of applying the Act of the National council of the Slovak Republic on Administration Fees. Pursuant to the Act on Czech-Slovak technical standards, NRA SR has a function of an uneglectable participant in commenting on draft Slovak technical standards (STN). A total of 101 drafts were reviewed. The standard drafts in most cases concerned taking European standards and international standards over into the STN system, with respect to the Slovak Republic integration into the European Union. Coordination of technical standardization is assessed by the Council for Technical Standardization that is established at the Slovak Institute of Technical Standardization. The NRA SR's staff member takes part at meetings of the Council. In the third year of their existence, NRA SR started to issue their own publications that should provide legal and qualified information about peaceful use of nuclear power. NRA SR in co-operation with VUJE a.s. Trnava issued the first publication 'Selected legal documents on peaceful use of nuclear power (general binding legal regulations)'. The publication contains texts or extracts from 21 regulations

  20. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The main efforts of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) was focused on support of quality assurance programmes development at responsible organizations Bohunice V-1 and V-v and Mochovce NPPs and their inspection. Development of the level two documentation of a partial quality assurance programme for NPP operation continued at Mochovce NPP. Most of documentation has been submitted to NRA SR for comments and approval. NRA SR invited a mission of French experts to Mochovce NPP to review preparation and performance of internal audits that would be beneficial for improvement in this kind activities at the NPP. Bohunice NPP continued in development of a partial quality assurance programme for operation. The Quality Assurance Programme submitted to NRA SR for approval. Based on a request of Bohunice NPPs, NRA SR consulted the draft quality assurance programme developed by Siemens for stage of the 'Basic Design' of V-1 NPP upgrading. The programme had not been submitted for approval to NRA SR prior to completion of works by Siemens. Based on an internal audit that had been performed, corrective measures were proposed to meet requirements on review and approval of suppliers quality assurance programmes. Requirements related to the quality assurance at nuclear installations were prepared to be incorporated into principles of a act on peaceful use of nuclear power in Slovak Republic

  1. Direct nitrate reductase assay versus microscopic observation drug susceptibility test for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Bwanga

    Full Text Available The most common method for detection of drug resistant (DR TB in resource-limited settings (RLSs is indirect susceptibility testing on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ which is very time consuming with results available only after 2-3 months. Effective therapy of DR TB is therefore markedly delayed and patients can transmit resistant strains. Rapid and accurate tests suitable for RLSs in the diagnosis of DR TB are thus highly needed. In this study we compared two direct techniques--Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS for rapid detection of MDR-TB in a high burden RLS. The sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of interpretable results were studied. Smear positive sputum was collected from 245 consecutive re-treatment TB patients attending a TB clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Samples were processed at the national reference laboratory and tested for susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid with direct NRA, direct MODS and the indirect LJ proportion method as reference. A total of 229 specimens were confirmed as M. tuberculosis, of these interpretable results were obtained in 217 (95% with either the NRA or MODS. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa agreement for MDR-TB diagnosis was 97%, 98% and 0.93 with the NRA; and 87%, 95% and 0.78 with the MODS, respectively. The median time to results was 10, 7 and 64 days with NRA, MODS and the reference technique, respectively. The cost of laboratory supplies per sample was low, around 5 USD, for the rapid tests. The direct NRA and MODS offered rapid detection of resistance almost eight weeks earlier than with the reference method. In the study settings, the direct NRA was highly sensitive and specific. We consider it to have a strong potential for timely detection of MDR-TB in RLS.

  2. Regulatory aspects of the radioactive waste management in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraky, Graciela

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the legislative and regulatory framework in which the radioactive waste management is carried out in Argentina. The activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) and the applied approaches in relation to inspection of facilities, safety assessments of associated systems and collaboration in the matter with international agencies are also exposed. The 'National Law of the Nuclear Activity' (No. 24804), in force since April 1997, assigns to NRA the following functions: to regulate and to inspect nuclear activities regarding radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection of nuclear materials, in order to verify that such materials are used exclusively with peaceful purposes and also, to advise the National Executive Power in matters of its competence. For the fulfilment of these functions the Law grants to NRA the necessary legal competence to develop, to establish and to apply a regulatory system to all nuclear activities carried out in Argentina. The activity of NRA is carried out in the framework of a regulatory system whose fundamental aspect in the approach adopted to establish the requirements of safety, which is know as 'of performance'. This system has a group of rules known as 'AR Standards' (AR: abbreviation of Regulatory Authority) that, among other requirements, establish that the construction, operation and decommissioning of a nuclear installation can not start without the corresponding construction, operation or decommissioning license. In that sense, besides having the legal competence in the topic, NRA has developed its necessary technical competence to evaluate, with own criteria, all radiological and nuclear safety aspects involved in the grant of licenses and to guarantee an appropriate level of control in the facilities. In relation to the radioactive waste management, NRA has developed some basic criteria. These criteria underline the requirements put to the 'Responsible Entity' that generates or manages

  3. A fresh start of nuclear safety regulation and international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    It should be explained more to the outside modestly the Fukushima nuclear accident would be a man-made complex disaster, which might be reluctant to do but not be neglected. Utmost efforts to change inward-looking attitude and reform safety culture should be done so as to prevent superficial reflection of the Fukushima nuclear accident. Since all nuclear regulatory functions ('3S': safety, security, safeguards) were integrated in Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA), NRA and secretariat of NRA became more responsible for international response, and strengthening of organization system and human resources development would be an urgent necessity. This article described present stage of NRA focusing on international dimension including personal views. Overseas strong concern over the Fukushima nuclear accident and international communications were reviewed. The Fukushima nuclear accident started from natural disaster and enlarged as a man-made complex disaster with many human factors (mainly inaction, wilful negligence) overlapping and safety culture flawed. Examples of overseas and Japanese action plan to learn and absorb lessons from the Fukushima accident were introduced. NRA's started activities on inviting IAEA's IRRS and OPPAS as soon as ready, strengthening nuclear security measures, safeguards to prevent nuclear proliferation, bilateral cooperation and international advisors were also presented. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Rheological behavior of raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests of the strain sweep, frequency sweep and stress relaxation for raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms (NR-m and raw natural rubber coagulated by acid (NR-a were carried out with the use of a rubber process analyzer (RPA. The results showed that the storage torque, complex viscosity of NR-m were higher than those of NR-a while the loss factor was lower. The effect of temperature on viscosity of raw NR was studied following the Arrhenious-Frenkel-Eyring model. The viscous flow behavior of NR-m was poorer than those of NR-a. Furthermore, stress relaxation measurements of raw NR showed a longer period of relaxation for NR-m.

  5. Public Discussion about Completion of Mochovce Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2014-01-01

    After the introduction of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) reopened NRA, the participants familiarised themselves with the history of M.I.5 (1980-2008), with the decisions of the NRA issued in 2008, with the law-suit and the judgement of the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic, with the course of the procedure after the judgement, and with the comments, proposals and suggestions of the procedure participants delivered to the Authority within the specified period. The public hearing of the comments was followed by technical comments of the procedure participants focused on events at one unit that can affect the neighbouring unit, containment concept, seismic threat and accidents with fuel melting, which were fully answered by the competent persons. The hearing ended with a discussion.

  6. Duty and role of Nuclear Regulation Authority facing a crucial moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Mie

    2013-01-01

    Duty of Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) was to restore public trust on nuclear regulation spoiled by the Fukushima nuclear accident. How applied such regulation as mandatory back-fitting based on latest knowledge and 40 year operational limit in principle became of great concern. Active faults issue on existing nuclear power station could be a touchstone. Safety side judgment and electric utilities side's proof responsibilities were required as more stringent criteria for active faults. The expert group had been working on assessment of fracture zones under the field survey. Reform of safety regulations should be done based on three important standpoints: (1) not business easiness but public safety was first (2) NRA keeping stance to judge its own safety standard and how NRA ought to be and (3) importance of public disclosure of information and participation in decision-making judging from greatness of public effects caused by nuclear disaster. (T. Tanaka)

  7. The National Radon Archive as a useful tool for developing and updating the National Radon Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, F.; Antignani, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Ampollini, M.; Caccia, B.; Pozzi, S.; Venoso, G.

    2017-01-01

    International recommendations and regulations require developing of National Radon Action Plans (NRAPs) to effectively manage the protection of workers and population from radon exposure. In Italy, a NRAP was published in 2002 and several activities have been carried out in this framework. Information and data regarding these and previous activities have been collected in a National Radon Archive (NRA). Activities carried out by institutionally involved institutes and agencies include several national and regional surveys, involving more than 50 000 indoor environments (dwellings, schools and workplaces), and remedial actions performed in ∼350 buildings, largely in schools. Data collected in the NRA allowed also to estimate that lung cancer deaths attributable to radon exposure in Italy are ∼3400 per year. On-going developments of the Italian NRA finalized to effectively use it as tool for developing, monitoring and updating the NRAP are also described. (authors)

  8. Charge collection efficiency recovery in heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Da Vià, C; Berglund, P; Borchi, E; Borer, K; Bruzzi, Mara; Buontempo, S; Casagrande, L; Chapuy, S; Cindro, V; Dimcovski, Zlatomir; D'Ambrosio, N; de Boer, Wim; Dezillie, B; Esposito, A P; Granat, V; Grigoriev, E; Heijne, Erik H M; Heising, S; Janos, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Konotov, I; Li, Z; Lourenço, C; Mikuz, M; Niinikoski, T O; Pagano, S; Palmieri, V G; Paul, S; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Ropotar, I; Ruggiero, G; Salmi, J; Seppä, H; Suni, I; Smith, K; Sonderegger, P; Valtonen, M J; Zavrtanik, M

    1998-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) of high resistivity silicon detectors, previously neutron irradiated up to 2*10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/, was measured at different cryogenic temperatures and different bias voltages. In order to $9 study reverse annealing (RA) effects, a few samples were heated to 80 degrees C and kept at room temperature for several months after irradiation. For comparison other samples (NRA) where kept at -10 C after irradiation. The RA and $9 NRA samples, measured at 250 V forward and reverse bias voltage, present a common temperature threshold at 150 K. Below 120 K the CCE is constant and ranges between 55and 65 0.000000or the RA and NRA sample respectively. Similar CCE $9 was measured for a device processed with low resistivity contacts (OHMIC), opening the prospect for a consistent reduction of the cost of large area particle tracking. (7 refs).

  9. Strengthening of the nuclear safety regulatory body. Field evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    As a result of a request from the Preparation Committee of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) in 1992, and as recommended by the CEC/RAMG (Commission of European Communities/Regulatory Assistance Management Group) and the Agency mission in July 1993 to the Slovak Republic, the project SLR/9/005 was approved in 1993 as a model project for the period 1994-1996. Current budge is $401,340 and disbursements to date amount to $312,873. The project time schedule has been extended to 1997. The major conclusions of this evaluation are as follows: The project responded to an urgent national need, as well as to a statutory mandate of the Agency, and was adequately co-ordinated with other international assistance programmes to NRA. The project was designed as a structured programme of assistance by means of expert missions, scientific visits and a limited amount of equipment, acting upon several key areas of NRA regulatory responsibilities. Agency assistance was provided in a timely manner. A high concentration of expert missions was noticed at the initial stages of the project, which posed some managements problems. This was corrected to some extent in the course of implementation. Additionally, some overlapping of expert mission recommendations suggests that improvements are needed in the design of such missions. The exposure to international regulatory practice and expertise has resulted in substantial developments of NRA, both in organizational and operational terms. The project can claim to have contributed to NRA having gained governmental and international confidence. NRA's role in the safety assessment of Bohunice V1 reconstruction, as well as in Bohunice V2 safety review, Bohunice A1 decommissioning and in informing the public, also points at the success achieved by the project. The institutional and financial support of the Government contributed decisively to the project achievements. (author). Figs, tabs

  10. Scanning ion micro-beam techniques for measuring diffusion in heterogeneous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenneson, P.M.; Clough, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    A raster scanning MeV micro-beam of 1 H + or 3 He + ions was used to study the diffusion of small molecules in heterogeneous materials. The location of elemental contaminants (heavier than Lithium) in polymer insulated cables was studied with 1 H micro-Particle Induced X-ray Emission (μPIXE). Concentration profiles of a deuterated molecule in a hair fibre were determined with 3 He micro-Nuclear Reaction Analysis (μNRA). Chlorine and heavy water (D 2 0) diffusion into cement pastes were profiled using a combination of 3 He μPIXE and μNRA. (authors)

  11. Participation of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the uranium urinalysis intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, Nestor O.; Palacios, Miguel A.; Serdeiro, Nelida H.

    1999-01-01

    In the present work the results of the participation of Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) Argentina, in the Uranium Urinalysis Intercomparison Program administered by the National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay, Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, are detailed. This work is referred to the three participations of NRA in 1995, 1996, and 1997. The number of laboratories that have participated was 14, 12 and 12. A statistical analysis is presented. The performance criteria used for assessing the acceptability of results are those given in the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) 1989, N13.30. In addition, the applied radiochemical technique and the methodology are described. (author)

  12. Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Summary of activities: (1) FYO1 NRA - Model development and data mining. (2) FY03 NRA - Flight investigations. (3) SET carrier development. (4) Study for accommodation of SET carrier to support advanced detectors. (5) Collaboration with other programs: LWS TR&T to maximize synergy between TR&T space environment research and SET space environment effects research. LWS Data System to optimize dissemination of SET data. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program to leverage ground testing of technologies. Defense Threat Reduction Agency to leverage ground testing and common interests in advanced detectors. and Air Force Research Laboratory to leverage flight opportunities. (6) Education and Public Outreach.

  13. Technical memory 1999; Memoria tecnica 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The technical memory 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, and presented in congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 1999.

  14. Brain circuits for mating behavior in cats and brain activations and de-activations during sexual stimulation and ejaculation and orgasm in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Gert; Huynh, Hieu K.

    In cats, there exists a descending system that controls the posture necessary for mating behavior. A key role is played by the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG), which maintains strong specific projections to the nucleus retroambiguus located laterally in the most caudal medulla. The NRA, in

  15. Career Progression Systems in the Internal Labor Market of the Foodservice Industry and the Role of the National Restaurant Association. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leonard; Pezzullo, Caroline

    The lack of visible career paths was universally recognized as a major factor leading to the extraordinarily high rate of turnover and absenteeism in the foodservice industry. The report evaluates the potential of a National Trade Association as a vehicle for improvements in this area and focuses on National Restaurant Association (NRA) efforts in…

  16. A Process Perspective on Regulation: A Grounded Theory Study into Regulatory Practice in Newly Liberalized Network-Based Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubacht, J.

    The transition from a former monopolistic towards a more competitive market in
    newly liberalized network-based markets raises regulatory issues. National Regulatory Authorities (NRA) face the challenge to deal with these issues in order to guide the transition process. Although this transition

  17. Monosynaptic projections from the lateral periaqueductal gray to the nucleus retroambiguus in the rhesus monkey : Implications for vocalization and reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, VGJM; Terasawa, E; Ralston, HJ; Holstege, G

    2000-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is known to be essential for vocalization and reproductive behavior. The PAG controls components of these behaviors by means of projections to the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA), a group of premotor neurons in the caudal medulla oblongata. In the accompanying study

  18. Possibility of analysis using RBS, PIXE and nuclear reaction on the electrostatic Pelletron accelerator 5SDH-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen The Nghia; Bui Van Loat; Le Hong Khiem

    2011-01-01

    The electrostatic Pelletron accelerator 5SDH-2 is installing at Hanoi University of Sciences. This accelerator will be the first tandem electrostatic accelerator installed in Vietnam. The schematic structure, principle of operation of the machine and its application for analysis using Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS), Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) will be presented. (author)

  19. Operational experiences feedback in Bohunice NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betak, A [NPP Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1997-10-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: OEF team in Bohunice NPP - structure; training and qualification: ASSET seminars on Prevention of incidents - INES manual handling, NRA-NRC the training on event investigation methods, NU - the training on HPES; legislation - documentation prepared in the frame of QA programme; results of OEF team activities; ASSET mission Dukovany - Experiences; the perspective activities.

  20. The nitrate reductase activity of some root and stem parasites and their hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    This investigation surveyed the nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of some South African root and stem parasites, as well as their hosts. Fourteen species - five stem and nine root parasites, representative of seven families - and eleven different hosts from eight families, were studied. Two methods were applied in the determination of the NRA of parasite and host, namely the in vivo and in vitro methods. Because of the limited literature on the NRA of parasitic flowering plants both the in vivo and in vitro methods were developed for the host species and subsequently applied to that specific species of parasite as well. Parasites and hosts were also investigated in their natural habitat. The NRA of the roots could, however, only be increased providing phorsynthetic products as a source of NADH, were available. By using [U- 14 C]-Sucrose it was confirmed that the parasite could have fulfilled this need. Generally, the investigation showed that the parasites that were studied, have not altogether lost their ability to reduce nitrate. However, it would appear that the host is used as a source of reduced nitrogen, rather than nitrate, under natural conditions

  1. Estrogen induces axonal outgrowth in the nucleus retroambiguus-lumbosacral motoneuronal pathway in the adult female cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, VGJM; Holstege, G

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, we discovered a new pathway in the cat, which originates from the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) and terminates in a distinct set of lumbosacral hindlimb, axial, and pelvic floor motoneuronal cell groups [VanderHorst VG.JM, Holstege G (1995) Caudal medullary pathways to lumbosacral

  2. Technical memory 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The technical memory 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, and presented in congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 1999

  3. 76 FR 80866 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...: Notice of Inquiry. SUMMARY: The Federal Maritime Commission is issuing this Notice of Inquiry seeking... surcharges, and are required to make their rules tariffs available to shippers free of charge; (2) NRA rates... in response to the Notice of Inquiry that contain confidential information, the confidential copy of...

  4. Sub-Saharan Africa Report Tables of Contents JPRS-SSA-86-096, 17 September 1986-JPRS-SSA-86-125, 30 December 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-21

    wide German Activity in Water Supply Development (W. An.; FRANKFURTER ZEITUNG/BLICK DURCH DIE WIRTSCHAFT, 18 Aug 86) •• ■ European Fiscal , Technical...Sep 86) 31 - b - 126 Briefs Escudo Zone Studied 33 UGANDA Politicizations Exercises for NRA (THE EQUATOR, 15 Oct 86) . 34 Soviet

  5. Career Focus: Culinary Arts--Education for a Taste of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Career and technical education is serving up great opportunities for students in culinary arts programs across the country. According to the National Restaurant Association (NRA), it is estimated that a total of 13.5 million workers will be needed for the rapidly growing restaurant and food-service industry by the year 2014. This article provides…

  6. ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.

  7. Accurate stopping power determination of 15N ions for hydrogen depth profiling by a combination of ion beams and synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, M.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Radtke, M.; Munnik, F.

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen analysis is of particular importance in thin film technology and it is often necessary to obtain a depth profile. The method with the best depth resolution is NRA using the 6385 keV resonance of the 1H( 15N,αγ) 12C nuclear reaction. The correct quantification of the depth and concentration scales in the measured hydrogen profiles relies on accurate stopping power values. We present a method to deduce these values from a combination of two techniques: NRA and X-ray reflectometry (XRR). This method is applied to the determination of the stopping power of ˜6.4 MeV 15N ions in H-containing amorphous Si-layers (a-Si:H). Density-independent stopping powers at different H concentrations are determined by combining the results from NRA and XRR with an overall uncertainty of 3.3%, showing good agreement with SRIM values. This work shows exemplary the methodology for future evaluation of stopping powers for quality assurance in NRA.

  8. Hydrogen-Induced Plastic Deformation in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukáč, F.; Čížek, J.; Vlček, M.; Procházka, I.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Traeger, F.; Rogalla, D.; Becker, H.-W.

    In the present work hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals covered with Pd over-layer were electrochemically loaded with hydrogen and the influence of hydrogen on ZnO micro structure was investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) was employed for determination of depth profile of hydrogen concentration in the sample. NRA measurements confirmed that a substantial amount of hydrogen was introduced into ZnO by electrochemical charging. The bulk hydrogen concentration in ZnO determined by NRA agrees well with the concentration estimated from the transported charge using the Faraday's law. Moreover, a subsurface region with enhanced hydrogen concentration was found in the loaded crystals. Slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) investigations of hydrogen-loaded crystal revealed enhanced concentration of defects in the subsurface region. This testifies hydrogen-induced plastic deformation of the loaded crystal. Absorbed hydrogen causes a significant lattice expansion. At low hydrogen concentrations this expansion is accommodated by elastic straining, but at higher concentrations hydrogen-induced stress exceeds the yield stress in ZnO and plastic deformation of the loaded crystal takes place. Enhanced hydrogen concentration detected in the subsurface region by NRA is, therefore, due to excess hydrogen trapped at open volume defects introduced by plastic deformation. Moreover, it was found that hydrogen-induced plastic deformation in the subsurface layer leads to typical surface modification: formation of hexagonal shape pyramids on the surface due to hydrogen-induced slip in the [0001] direction.

  9. Nitrogen-Utilization by Plant-Species from Acid Heathland Soils .2. Growth and Shoot/Root Partitioning of No3- Assimilation at Constant Low Ph and Varying No3-/Nh4+ Ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, S.R.; Wagenaar, R.; Smant, W.

    1995-01-01

    The growth of four heathland species, two grasses (D. flexuosa, M. caerulea) and two dwarf shrubs (C. vulgaris, E. tetralix), was tested in solution culture at pH 4.0 with 2 mol m(-3) N, varying the NO3-/NH4+ ratio up to 40% nitrate. In addition, measurements of NRA, plant chemical composition, and

  10. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  11. The role of the nucleus retroambiguus in the neural control of respiration, vocalization and mating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, José

    2005-01-01

    In de hersenstam bevindt zich een groep zenuwcellen die betrokken is bij de regulatie van de druk in de buikholte. Dit is van belang voor processen als de ademhaling, het maken van geluid en braken. Ook speelt dit specifieke hersengebied, de NRA (nucleus retroambiguus), een rol bij paringsgedrag.

  12. Lattice location of helium in uranium dioxide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, F.; Nowicki, L. E-mail: lech.nowicki@fuw.edu.pl; Sattonnay, G.; Sauvage, T.; Thome, L

    2004-06-01

    Lattice location of {sup 3}He atoms implanted into UO{sub 2} single crystals was performed by means of the channeling technique combined with nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He reaction was used. The experimental angular scans show that helium atoms occupy octahedral interstitial positions.

  13. Impact of Noise Reduction Algorithm in Cochlear Implant Processing on Music Enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Mancuso, Dean M; Griffin, Brianna M; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Lalwani, Anil K

    2016-06-01

    Noise reduction algorithm (NRA) in speech processing strategy has positive impact on speech perception among cochlear implant (CI) listeners. We sought to evaluate the effect of NRA on music enjoyment. Prospective analysis of music enjoyment. Academic medical center. Normal-hearing (NH) adults (N = 16) and CI listeners (N = 9). Subjective rating of music excerpts. NH and CI listeners evaluated country music piece on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version and 20 modified, less complex versions created by including subsets of musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments through CI simulation and CI listeners listened to the segments with their usual speech processing strategy, with and without NRA. Decreasing the number of instruments was significantly associated with increase in the pleasantness and naturalness in both NH and CI subjects (p  0.05): this was true for the original and the modified music segments with one to three instruments (p > 0.05). NRA does not affect music enjoyment in CI listener or NH individual with CI simulation. This suggests that strategies to enhance speech processing will not necessarily have a positive impact on music enjoyment. However, reducing the complexity of music shows promise in enhancing music enjoyment and should be further explored.

  14. For the Love of Our Children: Hannah Arendt, the Limits of Freedom and the Role of Education in a Culture of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    This essay critically examines the underlying assumptions about freedom and democracy at the basis of those like the NRA who argue that the United States does not have a gun problem and that the second amendment protects citizens' rights to own any gun they wish. Inspired by Hannah Arendt's political philosophy, the author first discusses three…

  15. The Large Scale Magnetic Field and Sunspot Cycles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Financial support for this work comes from the Russian Fund Basic Research, Grant. 99 02 16200 and 00 02 16355, INTAS 98 1088 and NRA 98 OSS 08. References. Makarov, V. I., Tlatov, A. G. 1999, in Proceedings of the 9th Meeting on Solar Physics (Italy),. 125. Makarov, V. I., Tlatov, A. G. 2000, Astron. Rep., (in press).

  16. Activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and safety of nuclear facilities in the Slovak Republic in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report summarizes activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) in 1994 and briefly presents results of the national expert supervision over nuclear safety facilities in the SR in 1994. In 1994, the NRA SR have performed a national supervision of following organizations: SE, a.s. - Jaslovske Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (V-1 Nuclear Power Plant (V-1 NPP), V-2 Nuclear Power Plant (V-2 NPP), A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (A-1 NPP)); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant; Radioactive waste repository, Mochovce); Organizations providing a specialized training of NPP personnel; Organizations providing specific deliveries and activities for the nuclear power industry; Organizations having an owner of nuclear materials; Organizations providing activities related to import of radioactive sources; Organizations using radioactive sources. Organization structure of the NRA SR is explained. In the presented Chapter 1 - Safety of nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic - safety aspects of the Slovak NPPs are reported. The next activities are reported: nuclear materials and safeguards; radioactive waste; emergency planning and NRA SR's control and crisis centre; international activities to improve the national surveillance quality; other activities

  17. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    According the conception of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA), and the obtained experience from exercises, and as well as on the basis of recommendations of international missions, the NRA SR started, in 1997 the ERC extension. The new room enable the work for radiation protection group, reactor safety and logistic group separately. At the same time special room was build for work of the NECRA Technical Support Group of the Emergency Commission for Radiation Accidents of the SR.This group co-operates closely with ERC while evaluation the situation, and by using the information system of the NRA and database of ERC to generate the conditions of nuclear facilities in once of emergency. Extension of the mentioned rooms was carried out. The financing by the European Union helped to build the project RAMG. In this way the NRA gained a working site which, with its equipment and parameters belongs to the top working sites of regulatory bodies of developed European countries. The NRA preparation of exercise and special staff education was carried out in 1997, for employees of the NRA and members of Emergency Headquarters (EH) for work in ERC in case of nuclear installation accident. The task of education of member of EH was their preparation for carrying out three exercises. These exercises are described. In the area of emergency preparedness, in accordance with inspection plan of the Office, 7 team inspections were carried out in individual localities; in NPP Bohunice, two in NPP Mochovce and one in Bohunice Conditioning Centre for radioactive wastes. Solution of the task of development of science and technology in the area of 'Development of technical and programme means for analyses of accidents and solutions of crisis situations'continued in 1997. Another regulations were elaborated for activity of members of EH of the NRA. The following was was carried out: selection of data for transfer and the

  18. Rad-waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel coming from Slovak NPPs have partially been transported to the former Soviet Union, and a part of it is stored in an interim spent fuel wet storage. In compliance with the worldwide practices, further medium-term possibilities of storing in dry storages are under preparation. Disposal of a spent fuel and other high-level active wastes in a deep geological formation repository is the final solution. At present, there are geological investigations of possible sites in progress in Slovakia. Mochovce repository is a factory for a final disposal of compacted low and intermediate level radioactive wastes coming from the Slovak NPPs. This is a near-surface facility of a construction similar to the one used for disposal of radioactive wastes in France, Spain, Japan, Czech Republic, U.S.A, etc. Quality of the design, construction and functioning of the Mochovce's repository was assessed by an international team of experts within a special IAEA programme (WATRP). Having familiarized with the final report of the IAEA mission, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) issued its position early in 1995, in which NRA SR required additional adjustment of the repository itself. Based on the NRA SR's position, Mochovce NPP invited experts from a number of institutions in September 1995 to discuss the NRA SR's requirements. Following was recommended by the experts: (1) to perform a complementary engineering-geological investigation on the site, (2) to use geophysical methods to verify existence of geological faults. In the next part a radioactive wastes that were treated at radioactive waste treatment lines in 1995 are listed. In 1995, the Chief Inspector of NRA SR issued an instruction that radioactive waste department should start inspections of radioactive waste treatment right in hospitals, research institutes and industries. Therefore, a total of 14 such workplaces were incorporated into a plan of inspections in 1995

  19. A new direction for water management? Indigenous nation building as a strategy for river health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Hemming

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous involvement in Australian water management is conventionally driven by a top-down approach by nonIndigenous government agencies, that asks "how do we engage Indigenous people?" and has culminated in the ineffective "consult" and "service delivery" processes evident in mainstream water management planning. This is a hopeful paper that identifies the critical importance of a "nation-based" approach for effective Indigenous engagement in water planning and policy through the work undertaken by the Ngarrindjeri Regional Authority (NRA in the Murray Futures program. The NRA is an Indigenous government in the "settled-south" of Australia. Over past decades, the NRA has developed a range of political technologies that act as tools for redeveloping Ngarrindjeri Nationhood after colonial disempowerment and dispossession. These tools enable better collaboration with nonIndigenous governments, especially in natural resource management policy and practice. In turn, this has better enabled the NRA to exercise a decision-making and planning authority over the lands and waters in its jurisdiction, therefore, more effectively exercising its ongoing duty of care as Country. This paper presents a case study of the Sugar Shack Complex Management Plan, codeveloped by the NRA and the South Australian Government in 2015, to demonstrate the benefits that accrue when Indigenous nations are resourced as authorities responsible for reframing water management and planning approaches to facilitate the equitable collaboration of Indigenous and nonIndigenous worldviews. As a marker of the success of this strategy, the Ngarrindjeri Yarluwar-Ruwe Program, in partnership with the South Australian government, recently won the Australian Riverprize 2015 for delivering excellence in Australian river management.

  20. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Actions Taken and Challenges Ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    On 19 September, 2012, the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) was established in light of lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident of 11 March 2011, to ensure that such accidents never happen again, to restore public trust in regulator both in Japan and abroad and to rebuild and foster a genuine safety culture by placing the highest priority on public safety. The NRA, an independent administrative commission of the Ministry of the Environment, is organized to separate the regulatory functions from the promotional functions of the use of nuclear energy within the government, and to independently implement its duties from the perspectives of neutrality and fairness based on its expertise. Having learned the lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi accident and with reference to IAEA safety standards, since its establishment, the NRA has endeavored to strengthen the regulatory requirements, in particular, for hazards such as tsunamis and earthquakes which may lead to common cause failures, and countermeasures against severe accidents. Under the new regulatory scheme, a back-fitting system was introduced. Emergency preparedness and response measures for nuclear facilities were also enhanced. As of end of March 2016, five reactors received NRA’s permission for changing their reactor installations based on the new regulatory requirements, and two nuclear power reactors have restarted their operations. In January 2016, at the request of Japan, the IAEA sent the IRRS mission team to Japan to assess the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety. Through the self-assessment prior to the mission, the NRA has developed 22 action plans, including a) improvement of regulatory inspection, b) capacity building, and c) strengthening of safety research capability. The mission team has found that Japan’s nuclear regulator has demonstrated independence and transparency since it was set up in 2012. The team also noted that the NRA needs to improve the inspection

  1. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1998, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) performed 38 inspections, 25 of them were performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. There is no fresh nuclear fuel at Bohunice A-1 NPP at present. Fresh fuel of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs is inspected in the fresh fuel storage.There are 327 fresh fuel assemblies in Mochovce NPP fresh fuel storage. In addition to that, are also 71 small users of nuclear materials in Slovakia. In most cases they use: covers made of depleted uranium for non-destructive works, detection of level in production plants, covers for therapeutical sources at medical facilities. In. 1995, NRA SR issued 4 new licences for nuclear material withdrawal. In the next part manipulation with nuclear materials, spent fuel stores and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials are reported

  2. Obtention of differential sections in nuclear reactions using a thick target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez R, R.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique is used mainly for detecting the presence and concentration of light elements of great importance such as: carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. This work has the objective to obtain the differential sections of 16 O and 14 N starting from the irradiation with deuterons of TiSrO 3 samples, of AIN and AIN 2 at energies of 2000 KeV and 1800 KeV respectively. The present work have four chapters; chapter 1 is focused to the physical aspects which takes part in the NRA technique. The technical requirements as well as the necessary equipment for developing the techniques are described in the chapter 2. In chapter 3 it is described the algorithm developed for to obtain the differential sections starting from experimental data, and finally, in chapter 4 are given the results and conclusions. (Author)

  3. Safety requirements expected to the prototype fast breeder reactor 'Monju'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    In July 2013, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) has enforced new regulatory requirements in consideration of severe accidents for the commercial light water reactors (LWR) and also prototype power generation reactors such as the sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) of 'Monju' based on TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (hereinafter referred to as '1F accident') occurred in March 2011. Although the regulatory requirements for SFR will be revised by NRA with consideration for public comments, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) set up 'Advisory Committee on Monju Safety Requirements' consisting of fast breeder reactor (FBR) and safety assessment experts in order to establish original safety requirements expected to the prototype FBR 'Monju' considering severe accidents with knowledge from JAEA as well as scientific and technical insights from the experts. This report summarizes the safety requirements expected to Monju discussed by the committee. (author)

  4. Hydrocarbon isotope detection by elastic peak electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostanovskiy, I.A., E-mail: kostanovskiyia@gmail.com [National Research University MPEI, Krasnokazarmennaya 14, 111250 Moscow (Russian Federation); Afanas’ev, V.P. [National Research University MPEI, Krasnokazarmennaya 14, 111250 Moscow (Russian Federation); Naujoks, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • PCVD hydrocarbon coatings containing protium or deuterium are analyzed via NRA, ERD, XPS and EPES. • EPES analysis with modern electron energy analyzer SPECS Phoibos 225 shows a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes. • Different primary energies and scattering angles help to quantify isotope content from EPES spectra. - Abstract: Experimental results on the hydrocarbon isotope analysis by elastic peak electron spectroscopy are presented. Amorphous hydrocarbon samples (a-C:H, a-C:D) are prepared by PCVD and analyzed by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES). Electron energy spectra show a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and protium. Different incident energies and scattering geometries help to resolve plasmon and elastic energy losses.

  5. Hydrocarbon isotope detection by elastic peak electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostanovskiy, I.A.; Afanas’ev, V.P.; Naujoks, D.; Mayer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PCVD hydrocarbon coatings containing protium or deuterium are analyzed via NRA, ERD, XPS and EPES. • EPES analysis with modern electron energy analyzer SPECS Phoibos 225 shows a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes. • Different primary energies and scattering angles help to quantify isotope content from EPES spectra. - Abstract: Experimental results on the hydrocarbon isotope analysis by elastic peak electron spectroscopy are presented. Amorphous hydrocarbon samples (a-C:H, a-C:D) are prepared by PCVD and analyzed by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES). Electron energy spectra show a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and protium. Different incident energies and scattering geometries help to resolve plasmon and elastic energy losses

  6. Educational, research and implementation activities in the Department of Atomic Physics at Plovdiv University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabanov, N.; Antonov, A.; Hristov, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Physics at Plovdiv University has 40 year long experience in educating students in Atomic and Subatomic Physics. We aim at making the knowledge gained in nuclear physics part of the culture of our students. At the core of our educational activities lies our long and successful experience in studying the characteristics of atomic nuclei. In cooperation with JINR-Dubna we have studied the nuclei of approximately 40 percent of the periodic table elements. These studies also serve as a basis for the diverse implementation activities of the Department, which have an impressive geographical spread. In recent years our research has been focusing more specifically on radio-ecological issues with the valuable support of the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA). Future more intense support on behalf of NRA's together with more dynamic links with other specialized units, such as the Kozloduy NPP in the first place, would considerably contribute to optimizing the effect of our overall activity. (authors)

  7. Japan Reports New Water Leak at Fukushima Daiichi; IAEA Sees No Danger to Public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that a leak from an overflowing water storage tank at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was detected in the late evening of 19 February 2014. About 100 cubic metres of radioactive water leaked to the ground adjacent to the tank storage area before the leak was stopped about six hours later. Based on the information provided, IAEA experts consider that the leak poses no danger to the public. IAEA experts also consider actions taken by Japan's Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) following the leak to be appropriate. These include an NRA recommendation that TEPCO remove soil contaminated by the leaked water, which will reduce the risk that contaminated water will be spread further through rain and groundwater. Japan has not asked the IAEA for any assistance in connection with the leak from the tank. The IAEA will continue monitoring developments. (IAEA)

  8. National Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access User`s Manual, Version 1.1. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.K.; Prather, J.C.; Ligotke, E.K.; Watson, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    This supplement to the NRA Distributed Access User`s manual (PNL-7877), November 1991, describes installation and use of Version 1.1 of the software package; this is not a replacement of the previous manual. Version 1.1 of the NRA Distributed Access Package is a maintenance release. It eliminates several bugs, and includes a few new features which are described in this manual. Although the appearance of some menu screens has changed, we are confident that the Version 1.0 User`s Manual will provide an adequate introduction to the system. Users who are unfamiliar with Version 1.0 may wish to experiment with that version before moving on to Version 1.1.

  9. National Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access User's Manual, Version 1. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.K.; Prather, J.C.; Ligotke, E.K.; Watson, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    This supplement to the NRA Distributed Access User's manual (PNL-7877), November 1991, describes installation and use of Version 1.1 of the software package; this is not a replacement of the previous manual. Version 1.1 of the NRA Distributed Access Package is a maintenance release. It eliminates several bugs, and includes a few new features which are described in this manual. Although the appearance of some menu screens has changed, we are confident that the Version 1.0 User's Manual will provide an adequate introduction to the system. Users who are unfamiliar with Version 1.0 may wish to experiment with that version before moving on to Version 1.1.

  10. Obtention of differential sections in nuclear reactions using a thick target; Obtencion de secciones diferenciales en reacciones nucleares usando un blanco grueso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez R, R

    2000-07-01

    The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique is used mainly for detecting the presence and concentration of light elements of great importance such as: carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. This work has the objective to obtain the differential sections of {sup 16} O and {sup 14} N starting from the irradiation with deuterons of TiSrO{sub 3} samples, of AIN and AIN{sub 2} at energies of 2000 KeV and 1800 KeV respectively. The present work have four chapters; chapter 1 is focused to the physical aspects which takes part in the NRA technique. The technical requirements as well as the necessary equipment for developing the techniques are described in the chapter 2. In chapter 3 it is described the algorithm developed for to obtain the differential sections starting from experimental data, and finally, in chapter 4 are given the results and conclusions. (Author)

  11. Hydrogen diffusion between plasma-deposited silicon nitride-polyimide polymer interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, S.V.; Kerbaugh, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports a nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for hydrogen technique used to analyze the hydrogen concentration near plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride-polyimide interfaces at various nitride-deposition and polyimide-polymer-curing temperatures. The CF 4 + O 2 (8% O 2 ) plasma-etch-rate variation of PECVD silicon nitride films deposited on polyimide appeared to correlate well with the variation of hydrogen-depth profiles in the nitride films. The NRA data indicate that hydrogen-depth-profile fluctuation in the nitride films is due to hydrogen diffusion between the nitride-polyimide interfaces during deposition. Annealing treatment of polyimide films in a hydrogen atmosphere prior to the nitride film deposition tends to enhance the hydrogen-depth-profile uniformity in the nitride films, and thus substantially reduces or eliminates variation in the nitride plasma-etch rate

  12. Safety technical investigation activities for shipment of damaged spent fuels from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization(JNES) carries out the investigation for damaged fuel transportation from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station(1F) under safety condition to support Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA). In 2012 fiscal year, JNES carried out the investigation of spent fuel condition in unit 4 of 1F and actual result of leak fuel transport in domestic /other countries. From this result, Package containing damaged fuel from unit 4 in 1F were considered. (author)

  13. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  14. Shielding of medically used proton accelerators; Abschirmung von medizinisch genutzten Protonenbeschleunigern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewen, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    In several standards of the standards committee radiology (NRA) the shielding of proton accelerators (cyclotrons) for medical utilization is described. Proton beams can be used in nuclear medicine for PET (proton emission tomography) isotope production or for radiotherapeutic use. The dominating radiation from proton induced nuclear reactions is fast neutron radiation. The calculation procedure for appropriate shielding measures according to the NAR standards is described step-by-step. AN adequate shielding of fast neutrons is also sufficient for the generated gamma radiation.

  15. Ni nanoparticles@Ni-Mo nitride nanorod arrays: a novel 3D-network hierarchical structure for high areal capacitance hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yunjun; Lv, Lin; Li, Zhishan; Wang, Chundong; Jiang, Jianjun

    2017-11-23

    Because of the advanced nature of their high power density, fast charge/discharge time, excellent cycling stability, and safety, supercapacitors have attracted intensive attention for large-scale applications. Nevertheless, one of the obstacles for their further development is their low energy density caused by sluggish redox reaction kinetics, low electroactive electrode materials, and/or high internal resistance. Here, we develop a facile and simple nitridation process to successfully synthesize hierarchical Ni nanoparticle decorated Ni 0.2 Mo 0.8 N nanorod arrays on a nickel foam (Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF) from its NiMoO 4 precursor, which delivers a high areal capacity of 2446 mC cm -2 at a current density of 2 mA cm -2 and shows outstanding cycling stability. The superior performance of the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF can be ascribed to the metallic conductive nature of the Ni-Mo nitride, the fast surface redox reactions for the electrolyte ions and electrode materials, and the low contacted resistance between the active materials and the current collectors. Furthermore, a hybrid supercapacitor (HSC) is assembled using the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the negative electrode. The optimized HSC exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 40.9 W h kg -1 at a power density of 773 W kg -1 and a retention of 80.1% specific capacitance after 6000 cycles. These results indicate that the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF have a promising potential for use in high-performance supercapacitors.

  16. Stilwell’s North Burma campaign: a case study in multinational mission command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    senior leaders to communicate how they envision the Army operating in 2025 and beyond.28 During the fall of 2015, Perkins told an audience at the US...Mission to China, 140-41; 192. 48 Romanus and Sunderland, Stillwellʼs Mission to China, 213. 22 medical reception of Chinese soldiers. Dr. Seagrave... reception for NRA soldiers after the First Burma Campaign. He repeated the process when he assigned the hospital unit to Maingkwan to conduct medical

  17. Azospirillum Inoculation Alters Nitrate Reductase Activity and Nitrogen Uptake in Wheat Plant Under Water Deficit Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Aliasgharzad, N. Aliasgharzad; Heydaryan, Zahra; Sarikhani, M.R

    2014-01-01

    Water deficit stress usually diminishes nitrogen uptake by plants. There are evidences that some nitrogen fixing bacteria can alleviate this stress by supplying nitrogen and improving its metabolism in plants. Four Azospirillum strains, A. lipoferum AC45-II, A. brasilense AC46-I, A. irakense AC49-VII and A. irakense AC51-VI were tested for nitrate reductase activity (NRA). In a pot culture experiment using a sandy loam soil, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Sardari) were inoculated with...

  18. Continuous neutron slowing down theory applied to resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, M.

    1977-01-01

    Neutronic formalisms that discretize the neutron slowing down equations in large numerical intervals currently account for the bulk effect of resonances in a given interval by the narrow resonance approximation (NRA). The NRA reduces the original problem to an efficient numerical formalism through two assumptions: resonance narrowness with respect to the scattering bands in the slowing down equations and resonance narrowness with respect to the numerical intervals. Resonances at low energies are narrow neither with respect to the slowing down ranges nor with respect to the numerical intervals, which are usually of a fixed lethargy width. Thus, there are resonances to which the NRA is not applicable. To stay away from the NRA, the continuous slowing down (CSD) theory of Stacey was invoked. The theory is based on a linear expansion in lethargy of the collision density in integrals of the slowing down equations and had notable success in various problems. Applying CSD theory to the assessment of bulk resonance effects raises the problem of obtaining efficient quadratures for integrals involved in the definition of the so-called ''moderating parameter.'' The problem was solved by two approximations: (a) the integrals were simplified through a rationale, such that the correct integrals were reproduced for very narrow or very wide resonances, and (b) the temperature-broadened resonant line shapes were replaced by nonbroadened line shapes to enable analytical integration. The replacement was made in such a way that the integrated capture and scattering probabilities in each resonance were preserved. The resulting formalism is more accurate than the narrow-resonance formalisms and is equally as efficient

  19. Life sciences recruitment objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. Richard

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995

  20. Advanced Small Free-Piston Stirling Convertors for Space Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Lane, Neill

    2004-02-01

    This paper reports on the current status of an advanced 35 We free-piston Stirling convertor currently being developed under NASA SBIR Phase II funding. Also described is a further advanced and higher performance ~80 watt free-piston convertor being developed by Sunpower and Boeing/Rocketdyne for NASA under NRA funding. Exceptional overall convertor (engine plus linear alternator) thermodynamic performance (greater than 50% of Carnot) with specific powers around 100 We /kg appear reasonable at these low power levels.

  1. Accelerator mass spectrometry at the Rossendorf 5 MV tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.; Buerger, W.; Curian, H.; Hartmann, B.; Hentschel, E.; Matthes, H.; Probst, W.; Seidel, M.; Turuc, S.; Hebert, D.; Rothe, T.; Stolz, W.

    1992-01-01

    The Rossendorf electrostatic accelerators (5 MV tandem accelerator and single ended 2 MV van de Graaff accelerator) are already used for ion beam analysis. The existing methods (RBS, PIXE, ERDA, NRA, nuclear microprobe and external beam) will be completed by introduction of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). A short description of the Rossendorf AMS system is given and first experimental results are presented. (R.P.) 4 refs.; 6 figs

  2. GlobalTrust: An Attack Resilient Reputation System for Tactical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-03

    MSA): Some malicious nodes misbehave while other malicious nodes, called malicious spies, behave normally by providing proper services. These...disseminate conflicting (or inconsistent) LTOs. For example, they may misbehave only to a subset of honest nodes (referred to as target nodes) to... misbehaving with prob. α honestly reporting LTOs NRA misbehaving with prob. α reporting opposite LTOs, 1− α CRA misbehaving with prob. α reporting

  3. IUE Data Analysis Software for Personal Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.; Caplinger, J.; Taylor, L.; Lawton , P.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program titled, "IUE Data Analysis Software for Personal Computers" awarded under Astrophysics Data Program NRA 92-OSSA-15. The work performed was completed over a 2-year period starting in April 1994. As a result of the project, 450 IDL routines and eight database tables are now available for distribution for Power Macintosh computers and Personal Computers running Windows 3.1.

  4. Use of a Microprocessor to Implement an ADCCP Protocol (Federal Std-1003) Operating in the Unbalanced Normal Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    andcoptrpormigfrteublne nra ls fpoeue nacrac with Federal Standard 1003 fTelecommunications: Synchronous Bit Oriented Data Link Control Procedures...and the higher level user. The solution to the producer/consumer problem involves the use of PASS and SICHAL primitives and event variables or... semaphores . The event variables have been defined for the LS-microprocessor interface as part of I-1 the internal registers that are included in the F6856

  5. Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir, Missouri, Holocene Adaptations Within the Lower Pomme de Terre River Valley, Missouri. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Kucera and Martin 1957). The primary tree species in the seedling-sapling stage (Table 2.6) are white oak and slippery elm with some black oak, hackberry...i’lnius rubra ( slippery elm ) ."ilirz americana (basswood) * HERBS * Arbrosiu artersiifolia (ragweed) Antena*a neglecta (pussytoes) ,Im4nra sp. (sandwort...basswood, and American elm , and slightly higher, increasing amounts of hackberry, slippery elm , and white ash. The undergrowth of the bottomlands is pri

  6. An Institutional Analysis of the Lower Sheyenne River Basin, North Dakota: Sheyenne River Valley from Baldhill Dam to the Red River of the North, North Dakota,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-30

    When bonds to mature-- Callable before maturity 48 Commission to determine interest rate, form, denomina- tion, and execution of bonds 49 Officers whose...are limited in th:ir activity, however, sirce -hey nra without taxing, bonding , or assessment piwers (DeKrey, 1977). Soil conservation districts are...Qualification 04 Appointive members to qualify--Terms of office--Filling S vacancy 05 Officers--Office 06 Secretary-treasurer bond 07 Compensation and

  7. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  8. Investigation of Chemically Vapor Deposited Tantalum for Medium Caliber Gun Barrel Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    New Jersey Institute of Technology NH3 Ammonia gas NRA Nuclear reaction analysis O Atomic oxygen O2 Oxygen gas O.D. Outside diameter OEM...coatings. These CVD TaNx coatings were synthesized with the use of precursors consisting of either nitrogen (N2) or ammonia (NH3) in the presence of...the condensation of the precursor within the line. The experiments were conducted with the use of an inorganic scrubber system (Harrington

  9. On development and improvement of evaluation techniques for seismic ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Issues regarding evaluation of active fault and ground motion for formulation of design basis ground motion (Ss) were prescribed in 'NSC seismic and tsunami safety reviewing manual' in 2012. Moreover, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) is establishing the new seismic safety guideline. In this theme following four subjects were investigated to resolve the important problems for ground motion evaluation, (1) advanced evaluation of ground motion using fault model and uncertainty; (2) improving evaluation of ground motion using attenuation relation of response spectrum; (3) development of advanced and generic techniques for ground motion observation and observation tool in deep borehole; (4) improving the evaluation of site effect and seismic wave propagation characteristics. In addition as emergency requirements from NRA following two subjects were also investigated; (5) hazard evaluation development on fault displacement; (6) ground motion evaluation at near-by source location. Obtained results will be reflected not only in the domestic guideline established by NRA but in the national safety review and also in the safety standard guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through its Extra-Budgetary Program (EBP), thereby contributing to technical cooperation in global nuclear seismic safety. (author)

  10. Influence of temperature and plasma composition on deuterium retention in refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, E.; Alves, L.C.; Barradas, N.P.; Mateus, R.; Carvalho, P.A.; Wright, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Refractory materials are being considered potential candidates to build the first wall of the fusion reactor chamber. This work reports on the results of the study of tungsten and molybdenum metals exposed to high flux densities (∼10 24 D/m 2 s) and low temperature (T e ∼ 3 eV) deuterium plasmas in Pilot-PSI irradiation facility. The hydrogenic retention in poly-crystalline W and Mo targets was studied with 3 He nuclear reaction analyses (NRA). The NRA results clearly show a two-dimensional radial distribution of the deuterium with a minimum at the center and a maximum close to the edge. These distribution correlates well with the thermal profile of the sample surface, where a maximum of ∼1600 K was measured at the center decreasing to ∼1000 K in the edges. A maximum deuterium fluence retention of 5 x 10 15 D/cm 2 was measured. The values of the retained fractions ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -6 D retained /D incident were measured with thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and compares well with IBA results. Moreover, the presence of C in the plasma and its co-deposition increases the D retention in the region where a C film is formed. Both NRA and TDS results show no clear dependence of retention on incident fluence suggesting the absence of plasma related traps in W under these conditions.

  11. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) continued in systematic development of its activities in the field of emergency planning according to the concept adopted by the Authority and according to the concept for building Emergency headquarters (EH) adopted after establishing of Emergency Response Centre (ERC). Major efforts were focused not only on building up a quality EH, but also tasks associated with completion and incorporation of ERC into emergency planning and emergency managing. An important role in building ERC was played by international missions. Significant position among these missions was taken by missions from Great Britain, which in the past years made a significant contribution to building up ERC. These missions focused on review of newly created standard procedures, preparation and implementation of first emergency exercises of the EH. The emergency exercises in which NRA SR took place in 1996 are reviewed. In order to make the co-operation of the Authority with the selected Army units of SR more effective in solving extraordinary situations in nuclear energy, an agreement was signed between NRA SR and the Headquarters of the Army of SR, which will help significantly to the objective

  12. Training of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Selected staffs (in the area of NPPs) are examined by the State Examining Committee established by Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR's) chairman. The committee consists of representatives of NRA SR , Bohunice NPPs, Mochovce NPP, Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and experts from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology of the Slovak Technical University. The review of selected personnel of NPP V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPP which passed exams in 1996 is given. NRA SR paid attention to the upgrading training process of individual categories of staff for V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPPs, simulator training and training with computerized simulation system according to the United criteria of nuclear installation personnel training that started in 1992. During the year, an inspection was performed focused on examination of technical equipment of the simulator of Mochovce NPP, professional eligibility and overall preparation of simulator training including simulator software. Throughout the year launching works continued at the simulator with the deadline of commissioning to trial use operation in the first half of 1997

  13. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  14. Utilization pattern and survival outcomes of adjuvant therapies in high-grade nonretroperitoneal abdominal soft tissue sarcoma: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William Ross; Chokshi, Ravi; Jabbour, Salma K; DeLaney, Thomas F; Mahmoud, Omar

    2018-02-01

    Nonretroperitoneal abdominal soft tissue sarcoma (NRA-STS) is a rare disease with limited data supporting its management. Our study aimed to reveal the utilization patterns of adjuvant therapy and its potential survival benefits using the National Cancer Data Base. The analysis included patients with resected high-grade NRA-STS. Chi-square analysis was used to evaluate distribution of patient and tumor-related factors within treatment groups. The Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards model were utilized to evaluate overall survival according to treatment approach. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the impact of these factors on patients' outcome. Matched propensity score analysis was implemented to control for imbalance of confounding variables. At median follow-up of 49 months, 5-year overall survival improved from 46% without adjuvant radiation therapy to 52% (P = 0.009) with radiotherapy delivery with a 30% reduction in hazard of death (95% confidence interval = 0.58-0.84). On multivariate analysis, age <50, tumor <8 cm, negative margins and radiotherapy delivery were significant predictors of improved survival. Chemotherapy was not associated with significant survival improvement (Hazard Ratios [HR]: 0.89, P = 0.28). Adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with improved survival in high-grade NRA-STS. Chemotherapy was not associated with a survival improvement; however, further studies are needed to refine treatment strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Effects of elevated CO2 on the photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) grown at different nutrient levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxiang; Zou, Dinghui

    2015-03-01

    Pyropia haitanensis, a commercially important species, was cultured at two CO2 concentrations (390×10-6 and 700×10-6 (parts per million)) and at low and high nutrient levels, to explore the effect of elevated CO2 on the species under nutrient enrichment. Results show that in CO2-enriched thalli, relative growth rate (RGR) was enhanced under nutrient enrichment. Elevated CO2 decreased phycobiliprotein (PB) contents, but increased the contents of soluble carbohydrates. Nutrient enrichment increased the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and PB, while soluble carbohydrate content decreased. CO2 enrichment enhanced the relative maximum electronic transport rate and light saturation point. In nutrient-enriched thalli the activity of nitrate reductase (NRA) increased under elevated CO2. An instantaneous pH change in seawater (from 8.1 to 9.6) resulted in reduction of NRA, and the thalli grown under both elevated CO2 and nutrient enrichment exhibited less pronounced reduction than in algae grown at the ambient CO2. The thermal optima of NRA under elevated CO2 and/or nutrient enrichment shifted to a lower temperature (10-15°C) compared to that in ambient conditions (20°C). We propose that accelerated photosynthesis could result in growth increment. N assimilation remained high in acidified seawater and reflected increased temperature sensitivity in response to elevated CO2 and eutrophication.

  16. The Difference in Translaminar Pressure Gradient and Neuroretinal Rim Area in Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Siaudvytyte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess differences in translaminar pressure gradient (TPG and neuroretinal rim area (NRA in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, high tension glaucoma (HTG, and healthy controls. Methods. 27 patients with NTG, HTG, and healthy controls were included in the prospective pilot study (each group consisted of 9 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP, intracranial pressure (ICP, and confocal laser scanning tomography were assessed. TPG was calculated as the difference of IOP minus ICP. ICP was measured using noninvasive two-depth transcranial Doppler device. The level of significance P 0.05. The difference between TPG for healthy (5.4(7.7 mmHg and glaucomatous eyes (NTG 6.3(3.1 mmHg, HTG 15.7(7.7 mmHg was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Higher TPG was correlated with decreased NRA (r = −0.83; P = 0.01 in the NTG group. Conclusion. Translaminar pressure gradient was higher in glaucoma patients. Reduction of NRA was related to higher TPG in NTG patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate the involvement of TPG in glaucoma management.

  17. Radioisotope power sources in the terrestrial and marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleman, T.J.; Wahlquist, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    In response to user agency needs, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), Division of Nuclear Research and Applications (NRA), has undertaken a variety of research and development efforts to insure the availability of highly reliable, long-lived nuclear power sources for special purpose terrestrial missions planned for the late 1970's and early 1980's. One such effort currently being pursued is the development of a 1kW(e) Stirling Radioisotope Power System for integration into an Unmanned Free Swimming Submersible (UFSS) demonstration vehicle now under development by the Naval Research Laboratory. Another important effort which NRA has undertaken is a study to evaluate both isotope fueled and non-isotope fueled unattended power systems in the 2kW(e) range for application in cold regions. In the lower power ranges of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators, NRA continues to support new development efforts and new application areas. The Division is providing assistance to the Navy on a 1 / 2 W(e) RTG for use in various underwater applications. The various efforts are briefly discussed

  18. Nitrate reductase and nitrogenase activities in relation to N-uptake from soil, 15N-fertilizer and symbiotic fixation in soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Saito, S.M.T.; Vose, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrogenase (ARA) activities were evaluated in relation to nitrogen in the plant from soil (NFS), fertilizer (NFF) and symbiotic fixation (NFN 2 ) to study the pattern of utilization of nitrogen in nodulated and non nodulated soybean, 35, 55 and 75 days after planting. Three levels of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 - added to soil were used (0 - 25 and 50 kg N/ha), being the experiment conducted in the greenhouse, with a split plot statistical design and 4 replications. Maximum levels of RNA and ARA occurred 55 days after planting. Addition of 50 kg N/ha decreased NRA at all harvesting time studied; and nodule ARA only 75 days after planting. By that time the nodulated isoline showed higher NRA than the non nodulated one, the NFS and NFF of the isolines were not different 35 and 55 days after planting, but decreased at the last harvest, especially in nodulated soybean. Symbiotic N 2 -fixation increased plant-N after 55 days growth, contribution about 65% of plant-N in the period between 55 and 75 days after planting. Nodulated plant showed higher N than non nodulated, a sinergistic effect of the three sources of N studied on N increase of nodulated plants was observed. (Author) [pt

  19. Safety research activities for Japanese regulations of spent fuel interim storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) carries out (a) preparation of technical documents, (b) technical evaluations of standards (prepared by academic societies), etc. and (c) other R and D activities, to support Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA: which controls the regulations for Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facilities). In 2012 fiscal year, JNES carried out dynamic test of spent fuel to examine the integrity of spent fuel under cask drop accidents, and preparation for PWR spent fuel storage test to prove long term integrity of spent fuel and cask itself. Some of these tests will be also carried out in 2013 fiscal year and after. (author)

  20. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  1. 2000 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000. The following activities and developed topic in this report describe: the Argentine regulatory system; the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activities in the Argentina since the beginnings in the National Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) of Argentina; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the safeguards and inspection of the nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants; the radiological emergency systems; the environmental monitoring; the institutional relations with national and international organizations; the biological and physics dosimetry; the training courses and meetings; the economic and human recourses

  2. Atomic and nuclear analytical methods. XRF, Moessbauer, XPS, NAA and ion-beam spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories. (orig.)

  3. Technical Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The technical memory 2000 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, and presented in congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 2000. In this edition the documents are presented on: Nuclear safety; Radiobiology; Occupational doses; Radiochemical; Environmental studies; Emergency plans; Radiation accidents; and International safeguards. Some of them are realized by agreements between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, universities and other national and international organizations

  4. Technical Report 2000; Memoria Tecnica 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The technical memory 2000 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, and presented in congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 2000. In this edition the documents are presented on: Nuclear safety; Radiobiology; Occupational doses; Radiochemical; Environmental studies; Emergency plans; Radiation accidents; and International safeguards. Some of them are realized by agreements between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, universities and other national and international organizations.

  5. Present and future role of ion beam analysis in the study of cultural heritage materials: The example of the AGLAE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, J.; Dran, J.-C.; Guillou, T.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Walter, P.; Mathis, F.

    2008-01-01

    The application of IBA to cultural heritage mostly relies on the use of PIXE because of its high sensitivity and its ease of implementation at atmospheric pressure. The need for depth information not easily available with this technique has conducted to associate RBS also in external beam mode. We have progressively developed a set-up that permits such a combination of techniques either simultaneously or sequentially. The set-up is currently further improved to permit NRA measurement (depth profiles of light elements) in addition to PIXE and RBS. The coupling of all these techniques provides a wealth of information on cultural heritage objects, not easily attainable with any other single method

  6. Development of the evaluation methods in reactor safety analyses and core characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    In order to support the safety reviews by NRA on reactor safety design including the phenomena with multiple failures, the computer codes are developed and the safety evaluations with analyses are performed in the areas of thermal hydraulics and core characteristics evaluation. In the code preparation of safety analyses, the TRACE and RELAP5 code were prepared to conduct the safety analyses of LOCA and beyond design basis accidents with multiple failures. In the core physics code preparation, the functions of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis were incorporated in the lattice physics code CASMO-4. The verification of improved CASMO-4 /SIMULATE-3 was continued by using core physics data. (author)

  7. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  8. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  9. Oxide layers of Zr-1% Nb under PWR primary circuit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Gabor; Kerner, Zsolt; Battistig, Gabor; Pinter-Csordas, Anna; Balogh, Janos; Pajkossy, Tamas

    2001-01-01

    Oxide layers were grown on Zr-1% Nb under conditions simulating those in VVER-type pressurised water reactors (PWRs), viz. in borate solutions in an autoclave at 290 deg. C. The layers were characterised by various methods: their respective thickness values were determined by weight gain measurements, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the electrical properties were tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the oxide layer on Zr-1% Nb is homogeneous and somewhat thicker than that on Zircaloy-4

  10. Improvements in technique for determining the surfactant penetration in hair fibres using scanning ion beam analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollands, R.; Clough, A.S.; Meredith, P.

    1999-01-01

    The penetration abilities of surfactants need to be known by companies manufacturing hair-care products. In this work three complementary techniques were used simultaneously - PIXE, NRA and RBS - to measure the penetration of a surfactant, which had been deuterated, into permed hair fibres. Using a scanning micro-beam of 2 MeV 3 He ions 2-dimensional concentration maps were obtained which showed whether the surfactant penetrated the fibre or just stayed on the surface. This is the first report of the use of three simultaneous scattering techniques with a scanning micro-beam. (author)

  11. Report of the peer review mission of national operational safety experience feedback process to the Ukraine 11-15 November 1996 Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    At the invitation of the Nuclear Regulatory Administration of Ukraine (NRA), the IAEA carried out a Peer review mission of national operational safety experience feedback process at Kiev from 11 to 15 November 1996. The objective of this mission was to provide the host country, represented by the regulatory body, with independent and comprehensive review of current status of operational safety experience feedback (OSEF) process with respect to the IAEA's recommendations and international practices. The mission concluded that principal arrangements of operational feedback process in Ukraine are, at present, in force and brought positive results since their introduction. The mission also noted several good practices in these activities. 1 tab

  12. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T.; Sood, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs

  13. Outline of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Lessons Learned and Safety Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masashi

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) was established on September 19, 2012. The NRA very urgently developed and issued the new regulatory requirements on July 8, 2014, taking into the account the lessons learned from the accident. It is noted that the NRA issued the Statement of Nuclear Safety Culture on May 27, 2015 which clearly expressed the NRA's commitment to break with the safety myth. This paper briefly presents the outline of the Fukushima Daiichi accident and summarizes the major lessons learned having been drawn and safety enhancements having been done in Japan for the purpose of giving inputs to the discussions to be taken place in the Special Invited Session "Fukushima, 5 years after".

  14. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P J; Chu, J W; Johnson, E P; Noorman, J T [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D K [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Simultaneous Analysis of Multiple Elements by Combined Ion-Beam Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Weilin; Weber, William J.; Thevuthasan, Theva; Shutthanandan, Shuttha; J. L. Duggan and I.L. Morgan

    2001-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) in channeling geometry have been combined to study the accumulation and recovery of Au2+-induced disorder on both sublattices in 6H-SiC. Conventional He+ RBS/channeling is used to analyze the Ga disorder and Au profiles in Au2+-implanted GaN and the disorder on both the Sr and Ti sublattices in Au2+-implanted SrTiO3. Results on the disorder accumulation in these materials, disorder recovery in 6H-SiC, as well as the mobility of Au implants in GaN are presented and discussed

  16. Direct electroplating of copper on tantalum from ionic liquids in high vacuum: origin of the tantalum oxide layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaltin, Stijn; D'Urzo, Lucia; Zhao, Qiang; Vantomme, André; Plank, Harald; Kothleitner, Gerald; Gspan, Christian; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2012-10-21

    In this paper, it is shown that high vacuum conditions are not sufficient to completely remove water and oxygen from the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. Complete removal of water demands heating above 150 °C under reduced pressure, as proven by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). Dissolved oxygen gas can only be removed by the use of an oxygen scavenger such as hydroquinone, despite the fact that calculations show that oxygen should be removed completely by the applied vacuum conditions. After applying a strict drying procedure and scavenging of molecular oxygen, it was possible to deposit copper directly on tantalum without the presence of an intervening oxide layer.

  17. Identification and Analysis of Future Aeronautical Communications Candidates: A Study of Concepts and Technologies to Support the Aeronautical Communications Needs in the NextGen and Beyond National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichgers, Joel M.; Mitchell, James P.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results of future aeronautical communications research conducted by Rockwell Collins employees under NRA contract to NASA. The overall goal of this research was to identify and begin to evaluate communication technology candidates expected to meet the long-term aircraft-to-aircraft and aircraft-to-ground data communications needs of Air Traffic Management in the NextGen and beyond National Airspace System (NAS), considering how the NAS and communications technologies will evolve during a 50-year modernization time horizon.

  18. International Benchmarking of Electricity Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Electricity transmission system operators (TSO) in Europe are increasing subject to high-powered performance-based regulation, such as revenue-cap regimes. The determination of the parameters in such regimes is challenging for national regulatory authorities (NRA), since there is normally a single...... TSO operating in each jurisdiction. The solution for European regulators has been found in international regulatory benchmarking, organized in collaboration with the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) in 2008 and 2012 for 22 and 23 TSOs, respectively. The frontier study provides static cost...... weight restrictions and a correction method for opening balances....

  19. Specification of a VVER-1000 SFAT device prototype. Interim report on Task FIN A 1073 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkinen, M.; Tiitta, A.; Iievlev, S.; Dvoeglazov, M.; Lopatin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The project to specify the optimal design of the Spent Fuel Attribute Tester (SFAT) for Ukrainian VVER-1000 facilities was run under Finnish Support Programme for IAEA Safeguards under the task FIN A1073. This document illustrates the optimum design and takes into account the special conditions at the Ukrainian facilities. The requirement presented here takes into account the needs of the user (IAEA), nuclear safety authority (NRA) and facilities. This document contains the views of these parties. According to this document, the work to design the optimal SFAT device can be started. This document contains also consideration for the operational procedures, maintenance and safety. (orig.)

  20. The chemical structure of DNA sequence signals for RNA transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. G.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed recognition sites for RNA transcription for E. coli NRA polymerase, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, and eukaryotic RNA polymerase Pol II are evaluated in the light of the requirements for efficient recognition. It is shown that although there is good experimental evidence that specific nucleic acid sequence patterns are involved in transcriptional regulation in bacteria and bacterial viruses, among the sequences now available, only in the case of the promoters recognized by bacteriophage T7 polymerase does it seem likely that the pattern is sufficient. It is concluded that the eukaryotic pattern that is investigated is not restrictive enough to serve as a recognition site.

  1. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Evaluation of the hydrological cycle of MATCH driven by NCEP reanalysis data: comparison with GOME water vapor measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines two key parameters of the hydrological cycle, water vapor (WV and precipitation rates (PR, as modelled by the chemistry transport model MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry driven by National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis data (NRA. For model output evaluation we primarily employ WV total column data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME on ERS-2, which is the only instrument capable measuring WV on a global scale and over all surface types with a substantial data record from 1995 to the present. We find that MATCH and NRA WV and PR distributions are closely related, but that significant regional differences in both parameters exist in magnitude and distribution patterns when compared to the observations. We also find that WV residual patterns between model and observations show remarkable similarities to residuals observed in the PR when comparing MATCH and NRA output to observations comprised by the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP. We conclude that deficiencies in model parameters shared by MATCH and NRA, like in the surface evaporation rates and regional transport patterns, are likely to lead to the observed differences. Monthly average regional differences between MATCH modelled WV columns and the observations can be as large as 2 cm, based on the analysis of three years. Differences in the global mean WV values are, however, below 0.1 cm. Regional differences in the PR between MATCH and GPCP can be above 0.5 cm per day and MATCH computes on average a higher PR than what has been observed. The lower water vapor content of MATCH is related to shorter model WV residence times by up to 1 day as compared to the observations. We find that MATCH has problems in modelling the WV content in regions of strong upward convection like, for example, along the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, where it appears to be generally too dry as compared to the observations. We

  3. Ion beam analysis of thin films. Applications to porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, C.; Grosman, A.; Morazzani, V.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1)- to present a summary of the fundamental interactions between ion beam (such as proton, deuteron or helium) of MeV energy and solids, interactions that are used in material analysis techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), and (2)- to illustrate the use of these techniques to determine the composition of the surface and outer microns of material. Some examples will be given concerning porous silicon layers. (authors). 38 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  4. 2000 Annual report; 2000 Informe anual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report presents information of the main activities on the scope of radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000. The following activities and developed topic in this report describe: the Argentine regulatory system; the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activities in the Argentina since the beginnings in the National Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) of Argentina; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the safeguards and inspection of the nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants; the radiological emergency systems; the environmental monitoring; the institutional relations with national and international organizations; the biological and physics dosimetry; the training courses and meetings; the economic and human recourses.

  5. Hydrogen release from irradiated elastomers measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagielski, J., E-mail: jacek.jagielski@itme.edu.pl [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland); Ostaszewska, U. [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials & Dyes, Division of Elastomers & Rubber Technology, Harcerska 30, 05-820 Piastow (Poland); Bielinski, D.M. [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Polymer & Dye Technology, Stefanowskiego 12/16, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Grambole, D. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, PO Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Romaniec, M.; Jozwik, I.; Kozinski, R. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); Kosinska, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    Ion irradiation appears as an interesting method of modification of elastomers, especially friction and wear properties. Main structural effect caused by heavy ions is a massive loss of hydrogen from the surface layer leading to its smoothening and shrinking. The paper presents the results of hydrogen release from various elastomers upon irradiation with H{sup +}, He{sup +} and Ar{sup +} studied by using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that the hydrogen release is controlled by inelastic collisions between ions and target electrons. The last part of the study was focused on preliminary analysis of mechanical properties of irradiated rubbers.

  6. Helium behaviour in UO{sub 2} through low fluence ion implantation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, P., E-mail: philippe.garcia@cea.fr [CEA – DEN/DEC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gilabert, E. [Centre d’Et' udes Nucleáires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan (France); Martin, G.; Carlot, G.; Sabathier, C. [CEA – DEN/DEC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Sauvage, T.; Desgardin, P.; Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS-CEMHTI, UPR3079, 45071 Orleáns (France)

    2014-05-01

    In this work we focus on experiments involving implantation of 500 keV {sup 3}He ions in sintered polycrystalline material. Samples are implanted at low fluences (∼2 ×10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) and subsequently isothermally annealed in a highly sensitive thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) device PIAGARA (Plateforme Interdisciplinaire pour l’Analyse des GAz Rares en Aquitaine). The helium fluencies studied are two to three orders of magnitude lower than previous Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) experiments carried out on identical samples implanted at identical energies. The fractional release of helium obtained in the TDS experiments is interpreted using a three-dimensional axisymmetric diffusion model which enables results to be quantitatively compared to previous NRA data. The analysis shows that helium behaviour is qualitatively independent of ion fluency over three orders of magnitude: helium diffusion appears to be strongly inhibited below 1273 K within the centre of the grains presumably as a result of helium bubble precipitation. The scenario involving diffusion at grain boundaries and in regions adjacent to them observed at higher fluencies is quantitatively confirmed at much lower doses. The main difference lies in the average width of the region in which uninhibited diffusion occurs.

  7. Foliar-applied urea modulates nitric oxide synthesis metabolism and glycinebetaine accumulation in drought-stressed maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Tian, L.; Lai, J.; Zheng, P.; Liang, Z.; Alva, A

    2014-01-01

    Foliar urea has been proved to play a better positive role in enhancing accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) and glycinebetaine (GB) in maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress (DS). However, it is unclear how foliar urea affects biosynthetic metabolism of NO and its relationship with GB accumulation. This study was on investigating the effect of foliar- applied urea on seedlings of maize cultivar Zhengdan 958 grown in a hydroponic medium under DS or No DS. Contents of NO and GB and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity increased and peaked 12 h after the treatment. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) followed the similar pattern 6h after the treatment. Under DS foliar urea application increased NR and NOS activity and, thereby, increased NO formation. Therefore, enhancement in activities of both NRA and NOS resulted in an increase of NO accumulation. Foliar- applied urea could induce an increased NO burst by enhanced NO synthesis metabolism as a nitrogen signal, possibly resulting in GB accumulation under DS. (author)

  8. Effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in safflower (carthamus tinctorius l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.; Bukhari, S.A.; Mahmood, S.; Iftikhar, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present project is to investigate the effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in six varieties of safflower as well as identification of stress tolerant variety under saline (8 d Sm-1) condition. It was observed that salinity significantly decreased the dry weight and fresh weight of safflower varieties. Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrite reductase (NiRA) activities were also reduced in response to salinity in all safflower genotypes but Thori-78 and PI-387820 showed less reduction which could be a useful marker for selecting salt tolerant varieties. Under salinity stress, total free amino acids, reducing, non reducing sugars and total sugars increased in all varieties. Accumulation of sugars and total free amino acids might reflect a salt protective mechanism and could be a useful criterion for selecting salt tolerant variety. Comparison among safflower genotypes indicated that Thori-78 and PI-387820 performed better than the others and successful in maintaining higher NRA, NiRA and other metabolites thus were tolerant to salinity. Differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under salinity stress but PI-170274 and PI-387821 varieties better maintained their fatty acid composition. It can be concluded from present studies that biochemical markers can be used to select salinity tolerant safflower varieties. (author)

  9. Multidisciplinary response for a radiological accident developed in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Tadic, Matilde; Vazquez, Marina; Cateriano, Miguel; Jordan, Osvaldo; Rojas, Carlos A.; Portas, M.; Coppola, A.; De Lellis, M. del C.; Dovasio, F.

    2010-01-01

    In January 2009 during an oil well logging task in Rincon de los Sauces, Province of Neuquen, Argentina, and, as a result of the temporary loss of control of a 137 Cs sealed source of 92,5 GBq (2,5 Ci), two workers were allegedly exposed to ionizing radiation. The Health Emergency Coordination System in Neuquen activated the Radiological Emergency Intervention System of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA). An initial assessment of the accident scenario and the involved persons was performed. Two workers were were transfer to Buenos Aires for a biodosimetry evaluation. In Buenos Aires, the Burn Hospital performed the first diagnostic and therapeutic approach of the radioinduced skin injuries. The NRA estimated the biological absorbed doses and the studies of telethermography. The Italian Hospital was in charge of the studies using ultrasonography and Eco- Doppler. As a result of the multidisciplinary evaluation performed, one of the workers was diagnosed with superficial radioinduced dermatitis. The mentioned intervention highlighted the importance of multidisciplinary and multiparametric work for the evaluation of a radiological accident, as well as for the diagnosis and early treatment of the exposed persons. (authors) [es

  10. Method to measure composition modifications in polyethylene terephthalate during ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdesselam, M.; Stoquert, J. P.; Chami, S.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A. C.; Siad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Matter losses of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, Mylar) films induced by 1600 keV deuteron beams have been investigated in situ simultaneously by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), deuteron forward elastic scattering (DFES) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (HERD) in the fluence range from 1 × 10 14 to 9 × 10 16 cm -2. Volatile degradation products escape from the polymeric film, mostly as hydrogen-, oxygen- and carbon-containing molecules. Appropriate experimental conditions for observing the composition and thickness changes during irradiation are determined. 16O(d,p 0) 17O, 16O(d,p 1) 17O and 12C(d,p 0) 13C nuclear reactions were used to monitor the oxygen and carbon content as a function of deuteron fluence. Hydrogen release was determined simultaneously by H(d,d)H DFES and H(d,H)d HERD. Comparisons between NRA, DFES and HERD measurements show that the polymer carbonizes at high fluences because most of the oxygen and hydrogen depletion has already occured below a fluence of 3 × 10 16 cm -2. Release curves for each element are determined. Experimental results are consistent with the bulk molecular recombination (BMR) model.

  11. Origins of low resistivity in Al ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2011-06-01

    The origins of low resistivity in Al ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals are studied by combining Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Al-ion implantation (peak concentration: 2.6 × 1020cm-3) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The resistivity decreases from ˜104 Ω cm for un-implanted ZnO to 1.4 × 10-1 Ω cm for as-implanted, and reaches 6.0 × 10-4 Ω cm for samples annealed at 1000 °C. RBS and NRA measurements for as-implanted ZnO suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of Zn (Zni) and O (Oi), respectively. After annealing at 1000 °C, the Zni related defects remain and the Oi related defects disappear. The origin of the low resistivity in the as-implanted sample is attributed to the Zni (˜30 meV [Look et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552 (1999)]). In contrast, the origin of the low resistivity in the sample annealed at 1000 °C is assigned to both of the Zni related defects and the electrically activated Al donor. A new PL emission appears at around 3.32 eV after annealing at 1000 °C, suggesting electrically activated Al donors.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT USED IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BULGARIA AND COUNTRIES WORLDWIDE AND OPTIMIZATION AIMED AT IMPROVING THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the current condition of medical equipment in Bulgaria related to those major groups of socially significant diseases and to make an attempt to define guidelines for its optimization in view of improving the functioning and management of the healthcare system in this field. Material and methods: The following research methods have been applied: 1. Document review method – research, processing and analysis of medical statistical information taken from data from WHO and annual reports of NRA. The study includes data from 2009 - 2015. 2. Graphical method – summarizing data in relevant tables and diagram presentations. Results: The article analyzes the condition of medical equipment in the field of oncologic and cardiologic medical aid in Bulgaria based on data taken from WHO (World Health Organization and annual reports of NRA (Nuclear Regulatory Agency. Six types of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy devices have been studied: Magnetic Resonance Imaging units (MRI; Computed Tomography Scanners (CT, Positron Emission Tomography Scanners, Mammographs, Linear accelerators and Telecobalt units (Cobalt-60. The condition of medical equipment since 2009 has been analyzed, results have been reported and trends - studied. Conclusion: The oncologic and cardiologic medical equipment in Bulgaria has been gradually improving in the last seven years, but quantitative indicators regarding the devices studied are still far away from the figures recommended by WHO with one single exception, i.e. Computed Tomography Scanners.

  13. Nitrogen nutrition of Salvinia natans: Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, nitrate reductase activity and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans

    2009-01-01

    In this study we assessed the growth, morphological responses, and N uptake kinetics of Salvinia natans when supplied with nitrogen as NO3-, NH4+, or both at equimolar concentrations (500 μM). Plants supplied with only NO3- had lower growth rates (0.17 ± 0.01 g g-1 d-1), shorter roots, smaller...... leaves with less chlorophyll than plants supplied with NH4+ alone or in combination with NO3- (RGR = 0.28 ± 0.01 g g-1 d-1). Ammonium was the preferred form of N taken up. The maximal rate of NH4+ uptake (Vmax) was 6-14 times higher than the maximal uptake rate of NO3- and the minimum concentration...... for uptake (Cmin) was lower for NH4+ than for NO3-. Plants supplied with NO3- had elevated nitrate reductase activity (NRA) particularly in the roots showing that NO3- was primarily reduced in the roots, but NRA levels were generally low (NH4...

  14. Activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority and safety of nuclear facilities in the Slovak Republic in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) in 1993 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Regulatory activities at nuclear power plants units in operation; (2.1) Nuclear power plant SEP-EBO V-1; (4) Selected operation events and safety assessment in NPP SEP-EBO V-1; (2.2) Safety assessment of NPP SEP-EBO V-2; (3) Results of regulatory activities at the decommissioning of NPP A-1; (4) Regulatory activities at units under construction SEP-EMO - NPP Mochovce; (5) Further regulatory activities. (5.1) Preparation of designated personnel; (5.2) Inspection and accountancy of nuclear material; (5.3) Security provisions; (5.4) Accounted items and double use items; (5.5) Problem of radioactive wastes; (6.1) International co-operation activities of NRA; (6.2) Emergency planning; (6.3) International activities for quality enhancement of national supervision; (7) Conclusion [sk

  15. Presentation of a reference material for the spatially resolved hydrogen analytics in near-surface layers by means of nuclear-reaction analysis; Darstellung eines Referenzmaterials fuer die ortsaufgeloeste Wasserstoffanalytik in oberflaechennahen Schichten mittels Kernreaktionsanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinholz, U.

    2005-10-03

    The object of the thesis is the presentation of the theory of the {sup 15}N-reaction analysis (NRA), the experiemental construction of the corresponding beam pipe at the ion accelerator of the BAM and the evaluation of the measurement results. The aim is the first characterization of a reference material for the H analytics on the base of amorphous silicon (aSi) on a Si[100] substrate. The homogeneity of the aSi:H layers deposited by means of CVD was studied. For this pro substrate for about 30 samples the hydrogen depth profiles were measures, folded by means of a program created within the thesis and subjected to a statistical evaluation. The result were mean value ans standard deviation of the hydrogen concentration as well as an estimator for the contribution of the inhomogeneity to the measurement uncertainty. The stability of the potential reference material was proved by the constancy of result of repeated measurements of the hydrogen concentration during the application of a large dose of {sup 15}N ions. In an international ring experiment the reproducibility of the measurement results was proved. For the characterization of the aSi:H layers beside the NRA the white-light interferometry, ellipsometry, profilometry, and X-ray reflectometry, as well as the IR and Raman spectroscopy were used. The stoichiometry of the applied standard material kapton was checked by means of NMR spectroscopy and CHN analysis.

  16. Confusion surrounding the concept of nuclear 'security'. 'Preventing Japan from going nuclear contributes to Japan's national security'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    A law enacted on June 20 to establish a new Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) fully separated from the nuclear promotional authorities. It added the provision, which says nuclear safety should be guaranteed not only to defend lives, people's health and the environment but also to 'contribute to Japan's national security', to Article 2 of the Atomic Energy Basic Law. NRA integrated the existing regulatory authorities for safety, security and safeguards, into one. Supporters of an amendment quietly slipped into the law were denying it could provide cover for military use of nuclear technology, but arouse international concern about recycling program of extracting plutonium from spent fuels. Nuclear policy minister said: 'The safeguards are in place to prevent nuclear proliferation. The world 'security' precisely means the prevention of nuclear proliferation.' If not used explicitly about safeguards, they left room for stretched interpretation. The author recommended the world' contribute to Japan's national security' should be deleted instead of explaining appropriately, both at home and abroad, the use of nuclear power in Japan limited to peaceful purposes. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Effect of high flux plasma exposure on the micro-structural and -mechanical properties of ITER specification tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinko, A., E-mail: adubinko@sckcen.be [Institute for Nuclear Material Sciences, SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Terentyev, D. [Institute for Nuclear Material Sciences, SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bakaeva, A. [Institute for Nuclear Material Sciences, SCK-CEN, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Pardoen, T. [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2 L5.02.02, 1348 Louvain‐la‐Neuve (Belgium); Zibrov, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Plasma exposure induces dislocation-dominated microstructure. • The exposure-induced changes in microstructure vanish beyond a depth of 12–15 μm. • Surface hardness after the plasma exposure increases significantly in the sub-surface region of 1.5–3 μm. - Abstract: We have performed a combined study using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and nano-indentation (NI) techniques to reveal the impact of high flux plasma exposure on the properties of a sub-surface region of the commercially available pure tungsten fabricated following the ITER specification. TEM examination revealed the formation of a dense dislocation network and dislocation tangles, resulting in a strong increase in the dislocation density by at least one order of magnitude as compared to the bulk density. The plasma-induced dislocation microstructure vanishes within a depth of about 10–15 μm from the top of the exposed surface. Surface hardness after the plasma exposure was characterized by NI and was found to increase significantly in the sub-surface region of 1.5–3 μm. That was attributed to the resistance of the plasma-induced dislocation networks and deuterium-induced defects, whose presence within a depth of ∼1 μm was unambiguously detected by the NRA measurements as well.

  18. Conception and activity directions of journal ''Nuclear and radiation safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olena, M.; Volodymyr, S.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the State Scientific and Technical Centre onr Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SSTC NRA) and Odessa State Polytechnic University the journal 'Nuclear and Radiation Safety' was established in 1998. In Ukraine many people are interested in nuclear energy problems. The accident in Chernobyl NPP unit 4 touches all Ukrainians and brings about strong and regular attention to nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear installations and nuclear technology, on the other side more than 50 per cent of electric power is produced in 5 NPPs and as following national power supply depends on stability of NPPs work. Main goals of the journal are: Support to Nuclear Regulatory Administration (NRA) of MEPNS of Ukraine, creation of information space for effective exchange of results of scientific, scientific and technical, scientific and analytical work in the field of Nuclear and Radiation Safety, assistance in integrated development of research for Nuclear and Radiation Safety by publication in a single issue of scientific articles, involvement of state scientific potential in resolving actual problems, participation in international collaboration in the framework of agreements, programs and plans. (orig.)

  19. Hydrogen depth resolution in multilayer metal structures, comparison of elastic recoil detection and resonant nuclear reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S. E-mail: leszekw@optushome.com.au; Grambole, D.; Kreissig, U.; Groetzschel, R.; Harding, G.; Szilagyi, E

    2002-05-01

    Four different metals: Al, Cu, Ag and Au have been used to produce four special multilayer samples to study the depth resolution of hydrogen. The layer structure of each sample was analysed using 2 MeV He Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, 4.5 MeV He elastic recoil detection (ERD) and 30 MeV F{sup 6+} HIERD. Moreover the hydrogen distribution was analysed in all samples using H({sup 15}N, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with resonance at 6.385 MeV. The results show that the best depth resolution and sensitivity for hydrogen detection are offered by resonance NRA. The He ERD shows good depth resolution only for the near surface hydrogen. In this technique the depth resolution is rapidly reduced with depth due to multiple scattering effects. The 30 MeV F{sup 6+} HIERD demonstrated similar hydrogen depth resolution to He ERD for low mass metals and HIERD resolution is substantially better for heavy metals and deep layers.

  20. High-resolution hydrogen profiling in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by different epitaxial methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Posada Flores, F; Redondo-Cubero, A; Bengoechea, A; Brana, A F; Munoz, E [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia (ISOM) and Dpto. IngenierIa Electronica (DIE), ETSI de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Gago, R [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A [Dpto. Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, E-28805 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Grambole, D, E-mail: fposada@die.upm.e [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF 51019, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-03-07

    Hydrogen (H) incorporation into AlGaN/GaN heterostructures used in high electron mobility transistors, grown by different methods, is studied by high-resolution depth profiling. Samples grown on sapphire and Si(1 1 1) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy and metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy; involving H-free and H-containing precursors, were analysed to evaluate the eventual incorporation of H into the wafer. The amount of H was measured by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using the {sup 1}H({sup 15}N,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction up to a depth of {approx}110 nm into the heterostructures. Interestingly, the H profiles are similar in all the samples analysed, with an increasing H content towards the surface and a negligible H incorporation into the GaN layer (0.24 {+-} 0.08 at%) or at the AlGaN/GaN interface. Therefore, NRA shows that H uptake is not related to the growth process or technique employed and that H contamination may be due to external sources after growth. The eventual correlation between topographical defects on the AlGaN surface and the H concentration are also discussed.

  1. Deuterium depth profiling in JT-60U W-shaped divertor tiles by nuclear reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Ochiai, K.; Masaki, K.; Gotoh, Y.; Kutsukake, C.; Arai, T.; Nishitani, T.; Miya, N.

    2006-01-01

    Deuterium concentrations and depth profiles in plasma-facing graphite tiles used in the divertor of JAERI Tokamak-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) were investigated by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The highest deuterium concentration of D/ 12 C of 0.053 was found in the outer dome wing tile, where the deuterium accumulated probably through the deuterium-carbon co-deposition. In the outer and inner divertor target tiles, the D/ 12 C data were lower than 0.006. Additionally, the maximum (H + D)/ 12 C in the dome top tile was estimated to be 0.023 from the results of NRA and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Orbit following Monte-Carlo (OFMC) simulation showed energetic deuterons caused by neutral beam injections (NBI) were implanted into the dome region with high heat flux. Furthermore, the surface temperature and conditions such as deposition and erosion significantly influenced the accumulation process of deuterium. The deuterium depth profile, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and OFMC simulation indicated the deuterium was considered to accumulate through three processes: the deuterium-carbon co-deposition, the implantation of energetic deuterons and the deuterium diffusion into the bulk

  2. Assessment of the effectiveness of the Hungarian nuclear safety regulatory authority by international expert teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeroess, L.; Lorand, F.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the role nuclear regulatory authorities (NRA) have to fulfil and the new challenges affecting them, in the paper an overview is made on how the Hungarian NRA has evaluated and utilised the results of different international efforts in the enhancement of its effectiveness and efficiency. The reviews have been conducted by different groups of experts organised by highly recognised international organisations (e.g. IAEA, EC) and highly competent foreign regulatory bodies. The different reviews of activities and working conditions of the HAEA NSD have resulted in a generally positive picture, however, it also revealed weaknesses as well. They recognised the developments made in recent years and also appreciated the overall favourable level of nuclear safety in Hungary, identified 'good practices' and made recommendations and suggestions for the most important and most efficient ways for future improvements. These are cited or referenced in the paper. At the end, some recommendations have been formed based on the experiences gained from the review missions and from our self-assessment. (author)

  3. Applications of High Energy Ion Beam Techniques in Environmental Science: Investigation Associated with Glass and Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Shutthanandan, V; Zhang, Yanwen

    2006-02-01

    High energy ion beam capabilities including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) have been very effectively used in environmental science to investigate the ion exchange mechanisms in glass waste forms and the effects of irradiation in glass and ceramic waste forms in the past. In this study, RBS and NRA along with SIMNRA simulations were used to monitor the Na depletion and D and 18O uptake in alumina silicate glasses, respectively, after the glass coupons were exposed to aqueous solution. These results show that the formation of a reaction layer and an establishment of a region where diffusion limited ion exchange occur in these glasses during exposure to silica-saturated solutions. Different regions including reaction and diffusion regions were identified on the basis of the depth distributions of these elements. In the case of ceramics, damage accumulation was studied as a function of ion dose at different irradiation temperatures. A sigmoidal dependence of relative disorder on the ion dose was observed. The defect dechanneling factors were calculated for two irradiated regions in SrTiO? using the critical angles determined from the angular yield curves. The dependence of defect dechanneling parameter on the incident energy was investigated and it was observed that the generated defects are mostly interstitial atoms and amorphous clusters. Thermal recovery experiments were performed to study the damage recovery processes up to a maximum temperature of 870 K.

  4. Campylobacter jejuni induces diverse kinetics and profiles of cytokine genes in INT-407 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amri, Ahlam I.; Bakhiet, Moiz O.; Botta, Giuseppe A.; Tabbara, Khaled S.; Ismaeel, Abdelrahman Y.; Al-Mahmeed, Ali E.; Bin Danya, Khalid M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to examine the kinetic ability of embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells to express messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for various cytokines and chemokines in response to Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) stimulation. In an experimental single-blind study, cultured embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells were treated with different concentrations of viable C. jejuni, its sonicated and filtered supernatant. A modified non-radioactive in situ hybridization using probe cocktails was used to measure mRNA levels for the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and IL-8 and the anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10. The study was carried out from September 2005 to March 2007 at the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Viable C. jejuni sonicated bacteria and filtered supernatant induced high mRNA expression for the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6, IFN-gama, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta and IL-8 which peaked at the 12 hours post stimulation. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 and IL-10 mNRA expression were induced maximally at 3 hours post stimulation mainly by sonicated bacteria and filtrated supernatant, however, not with living bacteria and filtrated supernatant, however, not with living bacteria. Untreated embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells expressed low amount of mNRA for the various cytokines and chemokines at all time points. For each cytokine, 4 samples were used per time hour. This study demonstrated that embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells in response to viable C. jejuni or its cytotxins can alter cytokine and chemokine mNRA expression patterns and kinetics suggesting a potential role for these mediators in the immunopathogenesis of the infection caused by this pathogen, which might be relevant for future immunotherapeutic

  5. Thalli Growth, Propagule Survival, and Integrated Physiological Response to Nitrogen Stress of Ramalina calicaris var. japonica in Shennongjia Mountain (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hua Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of nitrogen (N availability on growth, survival of Ramalina calicaris var. japonica, and whether it respond nitrogen stress in an integrated physiological way was evaluated. Thalli growth and propagule survival, thalli N and phosphorus (P content, and activity of phosphomonoesterase (PME of R. calicaris var. japonica were determined in a field experiment. Its differentiate adsorption in ammonia and nitrate, the activity of glutamine synthetase (GSA and nitrate reductase (NRA also were investigated in a series of indoor experiments. The results showed that N deposition significantly decreased the growth and survival of this lichen, and the N sensitivity threshold was suggested at 6.0 kg N⋅ha-1⋅y-1. When the N deposition increased from 8.59 kg N⋅ha-1⋅y-1 to 14.24, 20.49, 32.99 and 57.99 kg N⋅ha-1⋅y-1, the growth rates of lichen thalli decreased by 26.47, 39.01, 52.18 and 60.3%, respectively; Whereas the survival rate of the lichen propagules decreased from 92.8% of control (0.0 kg N⋅ha-1⋅y-1 to 10.7% of 50.0 kg N⋅ha-1⋅y-1, when they were treated with 0.00, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 kg N⋅ha-1⋅y-1 deposition. Compared with an adequate adsorption of ammonium N, no nitrate adsorption occurred when thalli was submerged in solution lower than 0.4 mM. Our results also suggested that thalli total nitrogen, N:P ratio increased with N availability, and the activity of PME was significantly correlated with thalli total nitrogen. These all indicated that phosphorus limitation occurred when R. calicaris var. japonica treated with higher nitrogen deposition. Compared with slightly effects of NRA, GSA of R. calicaris var. japonica responded nitrogen availability significantly; In addition, GSA and NRA negatively correlated with thalli growth rate and propagule survival significantly. These results indicated that nitrogen stress do decrease growth and survival of R. calicaris var. japonica, and lichen would be

  6. GIS Application in Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant Exercise Argentina, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaniowski, I.V.; Telleria, D.M.; Jordan, O.D.; Boutet, L.I.; Kunst, J.J.; Bruno, H.A.; Hernandez, D.G.; Rodriguez, M.; Cateriano, M.A.; Rey, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are tools applied to assist in the assessment and solution of many geographical related issues. Recently, their applications have been extended to the areas of disasters and environmental emergencies. GIS not only could be used as a diagnostic tool. Combined with adequate information and other tools capable to predict the transfer of pollutants in the environment and the associated impacts to the public, GIS could be used to support emergency planning and response. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of Argentina has incorporated in 2003 the GIS technology like an innovative resource for its preparation and response activities in emergencies. For this, the NRA acquired the necessary technology (hardware and software) and the technical specialist who were joined to expert's team in the nuclear and radiological emergencies field. The GIS stays operative as support tool in the Emergencies Control Center of NRA. In this paper, the use of GIS as a tool for analysis and advice is presented. The GIS is being used for preparation and development of nuclear emergencies trials and exercises, carried out on-site and off-site at the Nuclear Power Plant Atucha I Buenos Aires, Argentina, in cooperation with civil defense, national and state security and army forces and intensive public involvement. The databases were conformed with information from different sources, including the result of interviews to different actors, as well as other local and national government agencies and forces. Also, educational institutions, local medical centers, etc., were consulted. The information was enriched with outings to field in the surroundings of nuclear power plant. The scope and the detail of the information for this exercise covers 30 kilometers surroundings the nuclear power plant, with a range of significantly different geographical and population conditions. When loading the information in the GIS, a classification scheme is applied and

  7. Ocorrência de reflexo acústico alterado em desordens do processamento auditivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meneguello Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O limiar do reflexo acústico corresponde à menor intensidade de um som capaz de desencadear o mecanismo de proteção da orelha média frente a sons intensos (Metz, 1952; Jerger, 1970, sendo necessária a integridade estrutural e funcional do sistema auditivo periférico e central em nível de tronco encefálico. Algumas dessas estruturas são também responsáveis pelo processamento central da informação auditiva. Objetivo: Procuramos verificar se alterações do reflexo acústico também estariam presentes na Desordem do Processamento Auditivo Central (DPA, levando a queixas relacionadas aos distúrbios da comunicação. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo randomizado. Material e método: Foram analisados cem protocolos de avaliações do Processamento Auditivo Central (PAC, realizadas segundo Pereira (1997, de indivíduos dos sexos masculino e feminino, de 7 a 18 anos, com limiares de audibilidade normais e timpanograma tipo A. A diferença entre os limiares do reflexo acústico e os de audibilidade forneceu os níveis de reflexos acústicos (NRA, considerados normais entre 70-90dB e alterados quando acima deste intervalo ou quando ocorreu ausência em uma ou mais freqüências (Carvallo, 1996; 1997; Metz, 1952. Resultados: Das crianças avaliadas 97% apresentaram algum tipo de DPA. Destas, 62% tiveram NRA alterados, numa relação estatisticamente significante. Além disso, pacientes com DPA mostraram NRA alterados, mais freqüentemente, nas desordens de grau severo, naquelas com prejuízos gnósicos auditivos combinados e naquelas com mais de uma habilidade auditiva alterada. Conclusão: Assim, indivíduos com alterações no reflexo acústico e sem alterações audiométricas devem submeter-se a provas de PAC, já que esses sintomas podem ser manifestações patológicas do sistema nervoso central.

  8. Quantification of Hydrogen Concentrations in Surface and Interface Layers and Bulk Materials through Depth Profiling with Nuclear Reaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Markus; Ohno, Satoshi; Ogura, Shohei; Fukutani, Katsuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-29

    Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) via the resonant (1)H((15)N,αγ)(12)C reaction is a highly effective method of depth profiling that quantitatively and non-destructively reveals the hydrogen density distribution at surfaces, at interfaces, and in the volume of solid materials with high depth resolution. The technique applies a (15)N ion beam of 6.385 MeV provided by an electrostatic accelerator and specifically detects the (1)H isotope in depths up to about 2 μm from the target surface. Surface H coverages are measured with a sensitivity in the order of ~10(13) cm(-2) (~1% of a typical atomic monolayer density) and H volume concentrations with a detection limit of ~10(18) cm(-3) (~100 at. ppm). The near-surface depth resolution is 2-5 nm for surface-normal (15)N ion incidence onto the target and can be enhanced to values below 1 nm for very flat targets by adopting a surface-grazing incidence geometry. The method is versatile and readily applied to any high vacuum compatible homogeneous material with a smooth surface (no pores). Electrically conductive targets usually tolerate the ion beam irradiation with negligible degradation. Hydrogen quantitation and correct depth analysis require knowledge of the elementary composition (besides hydrogen) and mass density of the target material. Especially in combination with ultra-high vacuum methods for in-situ target preparation and characterization, (1)H((15)N,αγ)(12)C NRA is ideally suited for hydrogen analysis at atomically controlled surfaces and nanostructured interfaces. We exemplarily demonstrate here the application of (15)N NRA at the MALT Tandem accelerator facility of the University of Tokyo to (1) quantitatively measure the surface coverage and the bulk concentration of hydrogen in the near-surface region of a H2 exposed Pd(110) single crystal, and (2) to determine the depth location and layer density of hydrogen near the interfaces of thin SiO2 films on Si(100).

  9. GIS application in Atucha I nuclear power plant exercise Argentina, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaniowski, Ivana; Jordan, Osvaldo; Boutet, Luis; Kunst, Juan; Bruno, Hector; Hernandez, Daniel; Rodriguez, Monica; Cateriano, Miguel; Rey, Hugo; Telleria, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are tools applied to assist in the assessment and solution of many geographical related issues. Recently, their applications have been extended to the areas of disasters and environmental emergencies. GIS not only could be used as a diagnostic tool. Combined with adequate information and other tools capable to predict the transfer of pollutants in the environment and the associated impacts to the public, GIS could be used to support emergency planning and response. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of Argentina has incorporated in 2003 the GIS technology like an innovative resource for its preparation and response activities in emergencies. For this, the NRA acquired the necessary technology (hardware and software) and the technical specialist who were joined to expert's team in the nuclear and radiological emergencies field. The GIS stays operative as support tool in the Emergencies Control Center of NRA. In this paper, the use of GIS as a tool for analysis and advice is presented. The GIS is being used for preparation and development of nuclear emergencies trials and exercises, carried out on-site and off-site at the Nuclear Power Plant Atucha I Buenos Aires, Argentina, in cooperation with civil defense, national and state security and army forces and intensive public involvement. The databases were conformed with information from different sources, including the result of interviews to different actors, as well as other local and national government agencies and forces. Also, educational institutions, local medical centers, etc., were consulted. The information was enriched with outings to field in the surroundings of nuclear power plant. The scope and the detail of the information for this exercise covers 30 kilometers surroundings the nuclear power plant, with a range of significantly different geographical and population conditions. When loading the information in the GIS, a classification scheme is applied

  10. Hydrogen transport behavior of beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Hankins, M.R.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. (Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Beryllium is being evaluated for use as a plasma-facing material in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). One concern in the evaluation is the retention and permeation of tritium implanted into the plasma-facing surface. We performed laboratory-scale studies to investigate mechanisms that influence hydrogen transport and retention in beryllium foil specimens of rolled powder metallurgy product and rolled ingot cast beryllium. Specimen characterization was accomplished using scanning electron microscopy. Auger electron spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) techniques. Hydrogen transport was investigated using ion-beam permeation experiments and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Results indicate that trapping plays a significant role in permeation, re-emission, and retention, and that surface processes at both upstream and downstream surfaces are also important. (orig.).

  11. Nuclear reaction analysis of Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: The evaluation of the displacement in oxygen lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y. [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kuriyama, K., E-mail: kuri@ionbeam.hosei.ac.jp [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kushida, K. [Department of Arts and Science, Osaka Kyouiku University, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Kinomura, A. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    The displacement of oxygen lattices in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals is studied by nuclear reaction analysis (NAR), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Ge ion-implantation (net concentration: 2.6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The high resistivity of ∼10{sup 3} Ω cm in un-implanted samples remarkably decreased to ∼10{sup −2} Ω cm after implanting Ge-ion and annealing subsequently. NRA measurements of as-implanted and annealed samples suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of O atoms acting as acceptor defects. As O related defects still remain after annealing, these defects are not attributed to the origin of the low resistivity in 800 and 1000 °C annealed ZnO.

  12. Energye and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, I. N.

    2013-01-01

    Energy production and environmental consequences are the border topics in frame of the satisfaction of the energy needs of the society and their use. The present paper discusses only the energy sources and the correspondent processes to obtain energy and mainly electricity. The human health and all elements of the environment are studied in connection with some waste production or their influences. Nevertheless the main energy source for our Earth is the Sun and the exotic processes connected with energy production as well their spatial influence to the Earth are not taken into account. The terrestrial energy is only partly analyzed and hazards excluded. The basic information used are based on publications of IAE, NRA, and the position paper of NPB of EPS[1

  13. Sharp Nose Lens Design Using Refractive Index Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    guided munitions infrared optics gunsunhe ramjet A AT(CaN011m0. = reerfse aide It nRa6"uWF 4191 #ifaU~ IV Week an For infrared sensors located at the...014-6601 uii THIS PAaE(Uha D heem ABSTRACT For infrared sensors located at the nose of a missile or a projectile, an age-olQ problem occurs. A conflict...JalA..... IaW3. *a aaa a w o. a 0 % a * J. 4 a N N.t 6 N6 N16 N6 vN6 36 ,43NNh 3..~. N N."J2SO N N 3j61 ~N N 2N N N.a~w3 W ww2 .~ w2fw W N

  14. U.S. Materials Science on the International Space Station: Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Kelton, Kenneth F.; Matson, Douglas M.; Poirier, David R.; Trivedi, Rohit K.; Su, Ching-Hua; Volz, Martin P.; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current status and NASA plans for materials science on the International Space Station. The contents include: 1) Investigations Launched in 2009; 2) DECLIC in an EXPRESS rack; 3) Dynamical Selection of Three-Dimensional Interface Patterns in Directional Solidification (DSIP); 4) Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR); 5) Materials Science Laboratory; 6) Comparison of Structure and Segregation in Alloys Directionally Solidified in Terrestrial and Microgravity Environments (MICAST/CETSOL); 7) Coarsening in Solid Liquid Mixtures 2 Reflight (CSLM 2R); 8) Crystal Growth Investigations; 9) Levitator Investigations; 10) Quasi Crystalline Undercooled Alloys for Space Investigation (QUASI); 11) The Role of Convection and Growth Competition in Phase Selection in Microgravity (LODESTARS); 12) Planned Additional Investigations; 13) SETA; 14) METCOMP; and 15) Materials Science NRA.

  15. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Igor O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holesinger, Terry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foltyn, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Depaula, Raymond F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  16. A new scanning proton microprobe with long focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jieqing; Li Minqian; Mao Yu; Chen Hanmin; Gu Yingmei; Yang Changyi; Sheng Kanglong

    1991-01-01

    A new scanning proton microprobe equipped with a long focus Russian magnetic quadruplet is set up. With excellent performances of ion optics, it can be used to do experiments of PIXE, RBS, RFS, NRA and channelling simultaneously within a micron-region. The power supplies for quadruplet and scanning coils are controlled by an IBM-PC computer and a scanning graphical monitor based on an Apple IIe microcomputer provides convenience of searching for an interesting area to scan. The advanced modes of the fast random scan and the event-by-event data collection make it possible to treat the multi-parameter and multi-detector data by means of the strategy of TQSA (Total quantitative scanning analysis). There are three types of graphical display including the innovation of three dimensional contour mapping

  17. LESPRO - an expert system for the decision support in determination and suggestion of protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunova, J.; Duranova, T.; Hatar, E.

    2000-01-01

    A prototype expert system for advising emergency procedures for nuclear regulatory authority has been developed. The expert system ESPRO is known as goal oriented rule-based knowledge system. The system is based on emergency procedures developed in VUJE Trnava, Inc. for use by the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA). The operation interpretation module uses the knowledge base of emergency procedures for the evaluation of source term and determination and suggestion of protective measures which is represented in the form of a Petri net model. Its verification and validation was done on the basis of the results of two exercises: joint exercise of ERC staff with Slovak Army Headquarters and full scale Mochovce NPP emergency exercise with use of the Mochovce NPP simulator. (author)

  18. Study of the initial stages of oxidation of stainless steels in high temperature water; Etude des premiers stades d'oxydation d'alliages inoxydables dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A

    2004-06-15

    Steam Generator tubes (alloys 600, 690 and 800) are protected against corrosion by an oxide layer. The release of corrosion products into the primary water of the Pressurised Water Reactor is limited by this layer. Activation of these products increases the radioactivity. Breakdown of the passive film can lead to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). The aim of this study is to understand the early stages of passivation of these alloys, in high temperature and high pressure water. A new micro-autoclave was developed to achieve short time exposures (from several seconds to 10 minutes). The surfaces were characterised by XPS, NRA, STM and SEM and a kinetic model is proposed for the alloy 600. Longer oxidation times were studied (up to 400 hours). The kinetics obtained for short time oxidations were used to fit the long oxidation time behaviour. This reveals that the initial stages of oxidation are essential in the passive films growth in such conditions. (author)

  19. Applications of Nuclear Reaction Analysis for Semiconductor Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luncun

    2003-01-01

    Many thin film samples used in the semiconductor industry contain C, N and O. The detection limits and accuracy obtained by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) measurement are limited due to the small cross section values. High energy non-Rutherford backscattering is often used to enhance the sensitivities. But non-Rutherford cross section values are irregular and can not be calculated as normal Rutherford backscattering values. It is also difficult to find an appropriate energy window that for all these elements, and high-energy ions are needed. In this paper, the Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method is used to simultaneously measure C, N and O. several applications in the semiconductor research, development, and manufacturing areas are presented

  20. Ion beam analysis of multi-layered structure in Nb/Cu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Shunya; Goppelt-Langer, P; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasushi; Takeshita, Hidefumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The dependence of H concentration on the layer thickness in H charged Nb/Cu multilayer samples has been studied using {sup 15}N resonance nuclear reaction analysis({sup 15}N-NRA) and high energy elastic recoil detection analysis(HE-ERDA). Also a simulation code has been developed for accurate simulation of the {sup 1}H({sup 15}N,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C4.43 MeV {gamma}-yields at 6.385 MeV and 13.365 MeV reaction energy. The simulation are in good agreement with the experimental results. The present results show smooth increase of the H concentrations in Nb layers with increasing layer thickness. (author)

  1. Time resolved observation of the erosion of boron containing protective coatings on wall elements of TEXTOR-94 by means of colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienhold, P.; Esser, H.G.; Winter, J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the investigation of the progressive erosion of an a-B:D coated test piece during 22 pulses in the SOL of TEXTOR-94. Time resolved observations by colorimetry reveal that the erosion proceeds in steps: during an intermediate phase the rates do not exceed ∼-1.5 nm/s. Thereafter they jump to about -6 nm/s. This is due to carbon incorporation and triggered when the concentration approaches ∼40%. The changing composition may influence the ratio of the BII/CII emission near the surface. The process ends with a carbon rich layer on the remnants of the boron film. Combination of different investigations (AES, NRA, EPMA) results in a preliminary model description. (orig.)

  2. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.

    1993-10-01

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  3. Current status and future of MALT, The University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, H.; Tsuchiya, Y.S.; Nakano, C.

    2013-01-01

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) is designed for highly sensitive and precise elemental and isotopic microanalysis system using ion beam generated by MC-SNICSTM solid state ion sources and Pelletron TM 5UD tandem accelerator. Currently multi-nuclide AMS ( 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 129 I) system and other beam analysis techniques (PIXE, NRA, ERDA) are available and show good performance. After the 2011 earthquake-disaster and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, investigation of 129 I distribution and behavior in the environment originated the accident has come to be an important mission at MALT as well as many collaborating scientific projects such as 'Study on natural and anthropogenic iodine isotope system', 'Application of in situ cosmogenic radio nuclides to the geomorphologic processes', and 'Analysis of cosmogenic radio nuclides in the Antarctic ice core', so on. (author)

  4. SURFAN, a programme for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negoita, F.; Borcan, C.; Pantelica, D.

    1997-01-01

    Possible alternatives to Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) method of material analysis, overcoming the poor sensitivity to light elements of RBS, are the nuclear resonant reaction analysis (NRA) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). The last one is especially useful in surface and thin film analysis. To simulate the spectra obtained with any of these methods a programme SURFAN was worked out. In comparison with the code RUMP, published by Doolittle, it allows to simply change the charge of the projectile nature, implies no limitation to the energy of incident projectiles and permits the use of any depth profile function. The basic ideas and the structure of SURFAN are presented. Its application to ERDA and RBS methods resulted in important information on the processes implied in special materials obtained by advanced technologies

  5. IBA analysis of some precolumbian gilded-copper samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E.; Murillo, G.; Policroniades, R.; Acosta, L.; Zavala, E. P.; Rocha, M. F.; Centeno, S. A.

    2005-10-01

    The elemental composition and depth profiles obtained by IBA techniques on some gilded-copper fragments from the Moche site of Loma Negra, in the Piura Valley, on the Northern Coast of Perú are presented in this article. A previous radiocarbon dating of a wooden fragment indicated that Loma Negra was occupied around 295 AD. A PIXE analysis using a 2.6 MeV external proton beam, was used to obtain the concentration of trace elements in the samples. RBS analyses using 2.72 MeV 4He+ and 12.0 MeV 12C3+ were used to obtain the Au, Ag, Cu atomic profiles. NRA with a 1.02 MeV deuteron beam was used to measure the oxygen and carbon concentrations through the 16O(d,p) 17O, 16O(d,α) 14N and 12C(d,p0) 13C reactions.

  6. Creation of oxygen-enriched layers at the surface of GaAs single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, M.; Maczka, D.; Kobzev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The optical properties and the element depth profiles at the (100) plane high resistant and noncomposite GaAs single crystals implanted with In ions were investigated. The results have been compared with those obtained for virgin samples. The optic properties for all of the samples (implanted and not implanted, annealed and not annealed) have been measured using the ellipsometric method. The element depth profiles for the same samples have been obtained by the RBS and NRA techniques. It has been shown that the post-implantation annealing at a temperature more than 600 deg C leads to a ten time increase in contents of oxygen atoms in the implanted layer with respect to the not annealed sample. The thickness of the transparence layer at the surface of GaAs single crystal increases also after implantation with In ions and subsequent annealing

  7. Decommissioning/closeout of Malargue site: measurement of radon daughter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Cadena, Guadalberto

    2000-01-01

    In Malargue complex there are about 700,000 mt of uranium tailings disposed off during 32 years of operation of the Malargue facility. The objective of the Malargue Site is to undertake the necessary actions to execute remediation programs. A summary of measurements of concentrations of radon daughter taken in different buildings of the city and in the field shows the influence of radon source. The results obtain for concentrations of radon daughter indicate that they do not differ significantly between each others. The environmental remediation of uranium mill tailings at Malargue Site is a requirement of Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) and of the Mendoza province and a commitment to reduce the doses as low as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account (ALARA concept). (author)

  8. IAEA-RML-2014-01 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a proficiency test was organized at the request of the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support laboratories in seawater analyses of tritium, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  9. Present state of nuclear regulation organizations of main countries in the world. Importance of regulation staffs and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    After Fukushima accident, NRA (Nuclear Regulation Authority) was established in Japan as an independent organization from promotion. In order to perform effective and reliable nuclear regulation, it was important management organization such as nuclear regulation commission worked efficiently, and also requirements for nuclear regulation staffs engaged in actual regulatory works were of importance so as for appropriate decision making or judgments of management organization. Since regulation staffs needed professional expertise and technical judgment capabilities in wide areas including other than nuclear energy, various efforts had been done to get able regulation staffs in US, France and UK nuclear regulation organizations concerned, which became clarified after overseas investigation for this article. Since knowledge in nuclear industry could be used for effective regulation, mid-career recruitment had been employed in regulation organization of each country so as to take such knowledge and so it was important how to utilize industrial knowledge under appropriate conditions compatible with independence of regulation organization. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Simulating Wake Vortex Detection with the Sensivu Doppler Wind Lidar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan; Nguyen, Chi

    2014-01-01

    In support of NASA's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies NRA research topic on Wake Vortex Hazard Investigation, Aerospace Innovations (AI) investigated a set of techniques for detecting wake vortex hazards from arbitrary viewing angles, including axial perspectives. This technical report describes an approach to this problem and presents results from its implementation in a virtual lidar simulator developed at AI. Threedimensional data volumes from NASA's Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) containing strong turbulent vortices were used as the atmospheric domain for these studies, in addition to an analytical vortex model in 3-D space. By incorporating a third-party radiative transfer code (BACKSCAT 4), user-defined aerosol layers can be incorporated into atmospheric models, simulating attenuation and backscatter in different environmental conditions and altitudes. A hazard detection algorithm is described that uses a twocomponent spectral model to identify vortex signatures observable from arbitrary angles.

  11. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques; Proyecto Incremento de infraestructura: 'Establecimiento de un laboratorio para estudios de contaminantes en aire, agua y suelo mediante tecnicas atomicas y nucleares'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-10-15

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  12. Ion beam studies of archaeological gold jewellery items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical work on material of archaeological interest performed at LARN mainly concerns gold jewellery, with an emphasis to solders on the artefacts and to gold plating or copper depletion gilding. PIXE, RBS but also PIGE and NRA have been applied to a large variety of items. On the basis of elemental analysis, we have identified typical workmanship of ancient goldsmiths in various regions of the world: finely decorated Mesopotamian items, Hellenistic and Byzantine craftsmanship, cloisonne of the Merovingian period, depletion gilding on Pre-Colombian tumbaga. This paper is some shortening of the work performed at LARN during the last ten years. Criteria to properly use PIXE for quantitative analysis of non-homogeneous ancient artefacts presented at the 12th IBA conference in 1995 are also shortly discussed. (orig.)

  13. Ion beam studies of archaeological gold jewellery items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demortier, G [Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium). Lab. d` Analyses par Reactions Nucleaires

    1996-06-01

    Analytical work on material of archaeological interest performed at LARN mainly concerns gold jewellery, with an emphasis to solders on the artefacts and to gold plating or copper depletion gilding. PIXE, RBS but also PIGE and NRA have been applied to a large variety of items. On the basis of elemental analysis, we have identified typical workmanship of ancient goldsmiths in various regions of the world: finely decorated Mesopotamian items, Hellenistic and Byzantine craftsmanship, cloisonne of the Merovingian period, depletion gilding on Pre-Colombian tumbaga. This paper is some shortening of the work performed at LARN during the last ten years. Criteria to properly use PIXE for quantitative analysis of non-homogeneous ancient artefacts presented at the 12th IBA conference in 1995 are also shortly discussed. (orig.).

  14. Analysis of hydrogen isotopes in materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry and nuclear microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Only two techniques are really appropriate for the depth profiling of hydrogen isotopes: nuclear microanalysis (NMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The intent of this paper is to give an up to date review of both techniques and to show how they can be used in conjunction. Both techniques (SIMS and NMA) will be described briefly. NMA will divided into two different categories: nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and elastic recoil detection (ERD). Both techniques (SIMS and NMA) will be discussed in terms of sensitivity, resolution, probing depth, quantitative measurement, generality and selectivity, beam induced effects and surface roughness effects. The principal advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques will be specified, supporting the contention that SIMS and NMA are complementary and should be used in conjunction. Finally, some examples of, and perspectives for, the complementary use of both techniques will be presented. (Author)

  15. Nuclear reaction analysis of Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: The evaluation of the displacement in oxygen lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2014-08-01

    The displacement of oxygen lattices in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals is studied by nuclear reaction analysis (NAR), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Ge ion-implantation (net concentration: 2.6 × 1020 cm-3) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The high resistivity of ∼103 Ω cm in un-implanted samples remarkably decreased to ∼10-2 Ω cm after implanting Ge-ion and annealing subsequently. NRA measurements of as-implanted and annealed samples suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of O atoms acting as acceptor defects. As O related defects still remain after annealing, these defects are not attributed to the origin of the low resistivity in 800 and 1000 °C annealed ZnO.

  16. Quantitative surface analysis using deuteron-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afarideh, Hossein

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique consists of looking at the energies of the reaction products which uniquely define the particular elements present in the sample and it analysis the yield/energy distribution to reveal depth profiles. A summary of the basic features of the nuclear reaction analysis technique is given, in particular emphasis is placed on quantitative light element determination using (d,p) and (d,alpha) reactions. The experimental apparatus is also described. Finally a set of (d,p) spectra for the elements Z=3 to Z=17 using 2 MeV incident deutrons is included together with example of more applications of the (d,alpha) spectra. (author)

  17. Characterization of ZnO nanostructures: A challenge to positron annihilation spectroscopy and other methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Gerhard; Anwand, Wolfgang; Grambole, Dieter; Skorupa, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Egger, Werner; Sperr, Peter [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Fakultaet fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Neubiberg (Germany); Beinik, Igor; Wang, Lin; Teichert, Christian [Institut fuer Physik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria); Kuriplach, Jan; Lang, Jan [Department of Low Temperature Physics, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Zviagin, Sergei; Cizmar, Erik [Institut Hochfeld-Magnetlabor, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ling, Chi Chung; Hsu, Yuk Fan; Xi, Yan Yan; Chen, Xinyi; Djurisic, Aleksandra B. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2009-11-15

    ZnO nanostructures are of special interest for device applications. However, their structural characterization remains an ongoing challenge. This paper reviews recent efforts and latest achievements in this direction. Results comprise PAS in the form of Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS) and Pulsed Low Energy Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLEPS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), conductive AFM (C-AFM), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and latest theoretical investigations of structure-related and positron properties of selected defects. The fundamental importance of a relationship between fabrication conditions, native defect formation, and resulting optical and electronic properties is demonstrated by getting either inferior (nanorods) or significantly improved (tetrapods) optical properties compared to single crystal samples, depending on the nanostructure fabrication method. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Characterization of natural and modified zeolites using ion beam analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico)], E-mail: andrade@fisica.unam.mx; Solis, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico); Aceves, J.M.; Miranda, R. [Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlan Itzcalli, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 1 de Mayo S/N, Cuatitlan Itzcalli, Edo. de Mexico, C.P. 74540 (Mexico); Cruz, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico); Rocha, M.F. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, U.P. ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' , Zacatenco, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Zavala, E.P. [Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    Zeolites are very important materials in catalytic and industrial processes. Natural, modified and synthetic zeolites have a wide range of uses because of their good adsorption, ion exchange capacity and catalytic properties. Mexico is an import source of natural zeolites, however their utilization in the natural form is limited due to the presence of trace metallic impurities. For example, metals such as vanadium and chromium inhibit the elimination of sulfur in hydrocarbons. Therefore, it is important to know the precise composition of the zeolite material. In this work, we report the elemental characterization of zeolites using various IBA techniques. {sup 3}He{sup +} and {sup 2}H{sup +} beams were used to measure the major element concentrations (Si, Al, O, C) by RBS and NRA. PIXE and SEM-EDS were used to measure the total trace element content (V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb, etc). Additionally, XRD was used to study the zeolite crystal structure.

  19. Noise Prediction Module for Offset Stream Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2011-01-01

    A Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) analysis of data acquired for an offset stream technology was presented. The data acquisition and concept development were funded under a Supersonics NRA NNX07AC62A awarded to Dimitri Papamoschou at University of California, Irvine. The technology involved the introduction of airfoils in the fan stream of a bypass ratio (BPR) two nozzle system operated at transonic exhaust speeds. The vanes deflected the fan stream relative to the core stream and resulted in reduced sideline noise for polar angles in the peak jet noise direction. Noise prediction models were developed for a range of vane configurations. The models interface with an existing ANOPP module and can be used or future system level studies.

  20. Project Increase of infrastructure: 'Establishment of a laboratory for studies of pollutants in air, water and soil through atomic and nuclear techniques; Proyecto Incremento de infraestructura: 'Establecimiento de un laboratorio para estudios de contaminantes en aire, agua y suelo mediante tecnicas atomicas y nucleares'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-10-15

    In this report there are the guidelines of this project as well as the goals, activities and costs. The general objectives were: 1. A laboratory that allows to analyze with efficiency samples of air, water and soil pollutants using atomic and nuclear origin techniques as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission, NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) as well as auxiliary and/or complementary techniques. 2. To obtain indicators of the influence of the pollution of the Valley of Mexico about the ecology and the health of the inhabitants of Mexico City with perspectives of carrying out studies in other cities. 3. To develop an appropriate technology for the realization of those studies and to generate human resources in this area. (Author)

  1. MeV ion-beam analysis of optical data storage films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, J. A.; Mcintyre, L. C., Jr.; Lin, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives are threefold: (1) to accurately characterize optical data storage films by MeV ion-beam analysis (IBA) for ODSC collaborators; (2) to develop new and/or improved analysis techniques; and (3) to expand the capabilities of the IBA facility itself. Using H-1(+), He-4(+), and N-15(++) ion beams in the 1.5 MeV to 10 MeV energy range from a 5.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, film thickness (in atoms/sq cm), stoichiometry, impurity concentration profiles, and crystalline structure were determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), high-energy backscattering, channeling, nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Most of these techniques are discussed in detail in the ODSC Annual Report (February 17, 1987), p. 74. The PIXE technique is briefly discussed in the ODSC Annual Report (March 15, 1991), p. 23.

  2. Study of structural differences between stoichiometric and congruent lithium niobate

    CERN Document Server

    Kling, A; Correia, J G; Da Silva, M F A; Diéguez, E; Agulló-López, F; Soares, J C

    1996-01-01

    The structural differences between stoichiometric and congruent (lithium deficient) lithium niobate single crystals were studied by RBS- and NRA-channeling as well as perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements. The d-PAC111Cd-PAC investigations point out that a second Li site can be detected in congruent material, while only one is present in stoichiometric. Channeling studies of different axes and the comparison of the results with computer simulations corroborated former indications that this additional lattice site can be attributed to the formation of ilmenite type stacking faults. A comparative study of the energy dependence of the dechanneling showed that a remarkable disorder is also present in the Nb sublattice of the congruent crystals and that these defects have a point-like character.

  3. Norm in the matter of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra, Analia; Maceiras, Elena; Valentino, Lucia; Chiliutti, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA), through its norm, establishes requirements in the matter of safeguards that allow him to control the fulfillment of the objectives established at national level and the international commitments that the Argentine Republic has assumed in the scope of Nuclear Non-proliferation. The measures of fortification of the safeguards proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), will imply new obligations for the country and consequently it will require the update of the effective norm in the matter. The objective of this work is to describe the reach of the update of the norm in the matter of safeguards and their relation with some procedures of application in the scope of the radiological protection and the nuclear security

  4. Tailoring of SiC nanoprecipitates formed in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velisa, G., E-mail: gihan.velisa@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Trocellier, P. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomé, L. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, UMR8609, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bordas, É. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Meslin, E. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mylonas, S. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, UMR8609, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay (France); Coulon, P.E. [Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CEA/DSM/IRAMIS-CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Leprêtre, F.; Pilz, A.; Beck, L. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-07-15

    The SiC synthesis through single-beam of C{sup +}, and simultaneous-dual-beam of C{sup +} and Si{sup +} ion implantations into a Si substrate heated at 550 °C has been studied by means of three complementary analytical techniques: nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), Raman, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that a broad distribution of SiC nanoprecipitates is directly formed after simultaneous-dual-beam (520-keV C{sup +} and 890-keV Si{sup +}) and single-beam (520-keV C{sup +}) ion implantations. Their shape appear as spherical (average size ∼4–5 nm) and they are in epitaxial relationship with the silicon matrix.

  5. Study of ionic movements during anodic oxidation of nitrogen-implanted aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwagne, G.; Lucas, S.; Bodart, F.; Sorensen, G.; Jensen, H.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable interest in synthesizing aluminium nitrides by ion implantation in order to modify the tribological properties of aluminium. The growth of an oxide layer by anodic process on these synthesized aluminium nitrides gives an interesting oxide-on-semiconductor material with surprising dynamic and decorative properties. During the anodic oxidation, ionic movements are involved in the near-surface region of the aluminium material; these ionic movements have been studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) on thin aluminium foils (7000 A) preimplanted with nitrogen and post-oxidized in an ammonium pentaborate solution. The growth of the oxide layer is reduced when the aluminium is preimplanted with nitrogen: the speed of oxidation depends on the implantation conditions (energy and fluence). Moreover, the aluminium nitride can be dissolved when all metallic aluminium staying between the surface and the AlN are consumed by the anodic process. (orig.)

  6. Investigation of aluminised steel as a barrier to tritium using accelerator-based and hydrogen permeation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhi, R S; Forcey, K S; Ross, D K; Earwaker, L G [Birmingham Univ. (UK). School of Physics and Space Research

    1989-04-01

    Aluminised steel has been proposed as a barrier to tritium permeation in fusion reactors. The properties of these materials as tritium barriers have been studied using accelerator-based techniques and hydrogen permeation methods. The aluminide layers has been characterised by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) techniques using the 3 MV Dynamitron accelerator based at the School of Physics and Space Research Radiation Centre. The effectiveness of the aluminide layer as a tritium barrier has been measured directly by a conventional permeation apparatus over a range of temperatures. The effect of high temperatures on the structure of the aluminide layer has been examined. Any correlation between the composition of the layer and its effectiveness as a tritium barrier is also discussed. (orig.).

  7. Towards a new system of accounting of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maceiras, Elena; Fernandez Moreno, Sonia; Castro, Laura B.; Saavedra, Analia D.; Mairal, M.L.; Valentino, Lucia I.; Vicens, Hugo E.; Llacer, Carlos D.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of Argentina has, among other functions, to ensure the fulfilment of national nuclear regulatory standards and all international safeguards commitments assumed by Argentina, particularly those related to the accounting and control of nuclear materials. To fulfil this responsibility, national inspections and audits of the operator's accounting and measurement systems are carried out, generating a great deal of data to be processed and evaluated. To manage this information in an efficient way, the RNA has implemented a control system composed by three database: SCMN, SIS and SOP, which interact amongst them. The objectives and functions of this integrated system and the achieved results to date are described in the present paper. (author)

  8. Specificity in the licensing process of reduced enrichment in the Bulgarian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkova, Marietta; Gorinov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The presented paper considers some specific questions of the licensing process regarding the reconstruction of the Bulgarian IRT-2000 research reactor, which includes conversion to the low enriched fuel. This specificity has risen as a result of two facts. The design of the reactor reconstruction was made on the basis of the existing fresh 36% highly enriched fuel. But after finishing of the design process, this fresh highly enriched fuel was shipped back to Russia in the framework of the RERTR program. These facts have involved some changes in both - in the licensing and the design processes. Re-analysis of the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations is required to be made on the base of the technical specifications of the new LEU fuel. To facilitate the licensing process the NRA has adopted regulatory acceptance criteria for approval of the reactor core design with LEU fuel. (author)

  9. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  10. Important points not mentioned in 'interim report' of nuclear regulation authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) published the investigation and examination report on the unexplained issues raised by the National Diet Investigation Commission; 'Analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS Accident-Interim Report' in October 2014. The NRA had analyzed seven unexplained issues raised in the National Diet Investigation Commission report, and compiled the results. The author insisted the report should include related views and lessons learned and not just explain investigated and examined phenomena in order to contribute to ensuring nuclear safety in the world. As an example, the author selected the fifth of seven issues; 'operating status of the Isolation Condenser of Unit 1 (IC)'. The report concluded 'the AC-driven valve was closed since the AC power supply kept working even after DC power supply for the IC rupture detection circuit was lost. The isolation valves (2A and 2B) outside the PCV were closed, but isolation valves (1B and 4B) of the IC (system 'B') in the PCV remained open. However, the operating status (open/close) of isolation valves (1A and 4A) of the IC (system 'A') in the PCV is not clear. It is therefore necessary to continue analyses of this issue.' As related important points not mentioned in the report, the author described five points; (1) timing of functional losses of IC system, (2) obsolete aspect of equipment arrangement design (system separation), (3) single failure vulnerability, (4) rolling out issue of IC system to RCIC system (horizontal deployment) and (5) lessons learned from risk-informed 'black swan event'. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in soybean varieties after exclusion of the UV-B and UV-A/B components of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh Baroniya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of the exclusion of the solar UV components on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in soybean (Glycine max varieties PK-472, Pusa-24, JS 71-05, JS-335, NRC-7 and Kalitur. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers wrapped with filters to exclude UV-B or UV-A/B and transmitted all UV. Exclusion of UV significantly enhanced the growth of the aerial parts as well as the growth of the below ground parts in all of the six soybean varieties. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA was significantly reduced, whereas leghemoglobin (Lb content, total soluble protein, net photosynthesis (Pn and α-tocopherol content were enhanced after UV exclusion. The exclusion of solar UV-A/B enhanced all parameters to a larger extent than the exclusion of solar UV-B in four of the six varieties of soybean except for NRC-7 and Kalitur. These two varieties responded more to UV-B exclusion compared to UV-A/B exclusion. A significant inverse correlation between the NRA and the number of nodules per plant was observed. The extent of response in all parameters was greater in PK-472 and JS71-05 than that in Kalitur and JS-335 after UV exclusion. The exclusion of UV augmented the growth of nodules, Lb content and α-tocopherol levels and conferred higher rates of Pn to support better growth of nodules. Control plants (+ UV-A/B seemed to fulfill their N demand through the assimilation of NO3− resulting in lower symbiotic nitrogen fixation and higher NR activity.

  12. The Economic Costs of a Shrinking Lake Mead: a Spatial Hedonic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Saphores, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Persistent arid conditions and population growth in the Southwest have taken a toll on the Colorado River. This has led to substantial drawdowns of many water reservoirs around the Southwest, and especially of Lake Mead, which is Las Vegas' main source of drinking water. Due to its importance, Lake Mead has received a great deal of media attention about its "bathtub ring" and the exposure of rock that used to be underwater. Drops in water levels have caused some local marinas to close, thereby affecting the aesthetic and recreational value of Lake Mead, which is located in the country's largest National Recreation Area (NRA), and surrounded by protected land. Although a rich literature analyzes how water quality impacts real estate values, relatively few studies have examined how dropping water levels are capitalized in surrounding residential properties. In this context, the goal of this study is to quantify how Lake Mead's water level changes are reflected in changes in local property values, an important source of tax income for any community. Since Lake Mead is the primary attraction within its recreation area, we are also concerned with how this recreation area, which is a few miles southeast of Las Vegas, is capitalized in real estate values of the Las Vegas metropolitan area as few valuation studies have examined how proximity to national parks influences residential property value. We estimate spatial hedonic and geographically weighted regression models of single family residences to delineate the value of proximity to the Lake Mead NRA and to understand how this value changed with Lake Mead's water levels. Our explanatory variables include common structural characteristics, fixed effects to account for unobserved locally constant characteristics, and specific variables such as distance to the Las Vegas strip and to downtown casinos. Because the sharpest declines in Lake Mead water levels happened in 2010 (NASA, 2010) and winter 2016 saw an unexpected

  13. Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  14. Assessment guide for tornado effect on Nuclear Power Plants (draft) with its commentaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroto; Fukunishi, Shiro; Suzuki, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    In the context of a severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) was established on September 19, 2012 under the relevant law. After that NRA organized a task force for studying new regulatory standards for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in consideration of lessons learned from the severe accident at Fukushima. In the task force open meeting, through discussing about design basis external natural events which should be considered in the new regulatory standards, tornado was newly introduced into new regulatory standards as an external natural event. Based on the decision that tornado was newly introduced into new regulatory standards, the Secretariat of the Nuclear Regulation Authority (SNRA) commissioned the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) to study an assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs intended to be used for an official safety review for a NPP construction. JNES organized Sectional Committee for Tornado Effect Assessment Guide consisting of experts in meteorology and wind engineering fields, discussing about assessment methods for tornado effect on NPPs, draft version of the assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs was completed on April 4, 2013, and JNES submitted the draft guide to SNRA on the same date. After that NRA called for public comments for the draft version of the assessment guide, the draft version of the assessment guide was partly amended taking posted public comments account, and tornado effect assessment guide was officially released on June 19, 2013. Contents in this paper are as follows, assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs (Draft version on April 4, 2013), supplementary documents, calculation examples, and future tasks for further improved reliability of tornado effect assessment on NPPs. This draft guide consists of six chapters

  15. Assessment guide for tornado effect on Nuclear Power Plants (draft) with its commentaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroto; Fukunishi, Shiro; Suzuki, Tetsuo [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Seismic Safety Department, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    In the context of a severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) was established on September 19, 2012 under the relevant law. After that NRA organized a task force for studying new regulatory standards for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in consideration of lessons learned from the severe accident at Fukushima. In the task force open meeting, through discussing about design basis external natural events which should be considered in the new regulatory standards, tornado was newly introduced into new regulatory standards as an external natural event. Based on the decision that tornado was newly introduced into new regulatory standards, the Secretariat of the Nuclear Regulation Authority (SNRA) commissioned the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) to study an assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs intended to be used for an official safety review for a NPP construction. JNES organized Sectional Committee for Tornado Effect Assessment Guide consisting of experts in meteorology and wind engineering fields, discussing about assessment methods for tornado effect on NPPs, draft version of the assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs was completed on April 4, 2013, and JNES submitted the draft guide to SNRA on the same date. After that NRA called for public comments for the draft version of the assessment guide, the draft version of the assessment guide was partly amended taking posted public comments account, and tornado effect assessment guide was officially released on June 19, 2013. Contents in this paper are as follows, assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs (Draft version on April 4, 2013), supplementary documents, calculation examples, and future tasks for further improved reliability of tornado effect assessment on NPPs. This draft guide consists of six chapters

  16. Estimation de l'exhaustivité des données de facturation des médecins pour la détermination des cas de diabète au moyen des données sur les médicaments d'ordonnance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Lix

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Les changements dans les politiques de remboursement des médecins peuvent faire obstacle à la collecte des données administratives de facturation des médecins, ce qui pourrait mener à des estimations biaisées de la prévalence et de l'incidence des maladies. L'ampleur de cette perte potentielle de données demeure cependant largement inconnue. Notre étude vise à estimer l'exhaustivité de la couverture des cas de maladie pour le Manitoba par les médecins rémunérés à l'acte (RA et par les médecins non rémunérés à l'acte (NRA. Méthodes : Les données administratives du Manitoba ont servi à créer une cohorte dont les membres (20 ans et plus devaient avoir pris un nouveau médicament pour le diabète entre le 1er avril 2007 et le 31 mars 2009. Ces membres ont été classés par mode de paiement du médecin prescripteur (c'est-à-dire rémunérés à l'acte ou non rémunérés à l'acte, puis selon s'ils avaient ou non reçu de diagnostic de diabète d'après les données de facturation des médecins et des dossiers d'hôpitaux. On a utilisé des analyses statistiques χ2 pour tester les différences de caractéristiques entre les deux groupes. Résultats : La cohorte se composait de 12 394 individus, dont 86,4 % avaient reçu une ordonnance de médicament pour le diabète d'un médecin RA. Au total, 1 172 médecins (81,8 % RA ont prescrit ce type de médicaments pour la cohorte. Les membres de la cohorte ayant reçu une ordonnance d'un médecin RA étaient plus âgés et plus susceptibles de résider dans la région sanitaire de Winnipeg que ceux qui avaient reçu une ordonnance d'un médecin NRA. Un plus grand pourcentage de cas traités par des médecins NRA n'avait pas reçu de diagnostic de diabète (18,7 %, contre 14,9 % pour les médecins RA. Conclusion : Les résultats suggèrent une perte minimale de données de facturation des médecins associée aux politiques de rémunération au Manitoba. Cette m

  17. Licensing of nuclear facilities according to the Bulgarian Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova-Todorova, P.

    2004-01-01

    The new Bulgarian Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy /Nuclear Act/ has replaced the former Act on the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes. The new Nuclear Act covers the activities involving nuclear energy and sources of ionising radiation mainly by establishing a consistent licensing regime. About 13 regulations specifying the provisions of the Nuclear Act have been recently adopted by the Council of Ministers, the most important one being the Regulation on the Procedure for Issue of Licenses and Permits for the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy. The Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA) is authorised by the law to consider any application for issue of a license or a permit under the Bulgarian Nuclear Act. The procedure starts with an application, filed with the NRA, and continues about nine months. The final decision could be for issuing of the license or permit or a refusal for issuing the claimed document. The denial must be grounded and is subject to appeal. The Nuclear Act prescribes the conditions for issuing of two types of licensing documents (authorisations): licenses and permits. From a legal point of view the two types of licensing documents have one and the same nature - they are individual administrative acts according to the Bulgarian law. That is why there is no difference between them in terms of the issuing procedure. The difference between licenses and permits could be explained as follows: while a license is issued for reiterated activities, a permit is issued for non-reoccurring activities, this division being a specific feature of the Bulgarian Nuclear Act. In the field of nuclear facilities usage only one type of license is provided for by the Nuclear Act - a license for operation of a nuclear facility unit. For the rest of the activities issuing of permits is envisaged, those permits being in compliance with the main stages of the authorisation process formulated by the IAEA, following the step-by-step approach - siting, design

  18. Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting 2 (SERT TIM 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Sanders, Clark W.

    2000-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting TIM) 2 in Huntsville, Alabama December 7-10. 1999 with 126 people in attendance. The SERT program includes both competitively procured activities. which are being implemented through a portfolio of focused R&D investments--with the maximum leveraging of existing resources inside and outside NASA. and guided by these system studies. Axel Roth. Director of the Flight Projects Directorate NASA MSFC, welcomed the SERT TIM 2 participants and challenged them to develop the necessary technologies and demonstrations that will lead to Space Solar Power (SSP) International implementation. Joe Howell, NASA MSFC, reiterated the SERT TIM 2 objectives: 1) Refining and modeling systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging, from the near-term e.g. for space science, exploration and commercial space applications to the far-term (e. g. SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, technology, infrastructure (i.g., transportation), and economics. 2) Conducting technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof- of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both the nearer and farther-term applications. 3) Initiating partnerships Nationality and Internationally that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications (e.g., space science. colonization, etc.). Day one began with the NASA Centers presenting their SERT activities summary since SERT TIM 1 and wound up with a presentation by Masahiro Mori, NASDA titled "NASDA In-house Study for SSP". Demonstration for the Near-Term. Day two began with the SERT Systems Studies and Analysis reports resulting from NRA 8-23 followed by presentations of SERT Technology Demonstrations reports resulting from NRA 8-23. Day two closed with John Mankins presentation

  19. Deuterium behavior in first-wall materials for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, E.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-wall interactions play an important part while choosing materials for the first wall in future fusion reactors. Moreover, the use of tritium as a fuel will impose safety limits regarding the total amount present in the tokamak. Previous analyses of first-wall samples exposed to fusion plasma highlighted an in-bulk migration of deuterium (as an analog to tritium) in carbon materials. Despite its limited value, this retention is problematic: contrary to co-deposited layers, it seems very unlikely to recover easily the deuterium retained in such a way. Because of the difficult access to in situ samples, most published studies on the subject were carried out using post-mortem sample analysis. In order to access to the dynamic of the phenomenon and come apart potential element redistribution during storage, we set up a bench intended for simultaneous low-energy ion implantation, reproducing the deuterium interaction with first-wall materials, and high-energy micro beam analysis. Nuclear reaction analysis performed at the micrometric scale (μNRA) allows to characterize deuterium repartition profiles in situ. This analysis technique was confirmed to be non-perturbative of the mechanisms studied. We observed on the experimental data set that the material surface (0-1 μm) display a high and nearly constant deuterium content, with a uniform distribution. On the contrary, in-bulk deuterium (1-11 μm) localizes in preferential trapping sites related to the material microstructure. In-bulk deuterium inventory seems to increase with the incident fluence, in spite of the wide data scattering attributed to the structure variation of studied areas. Deuterium saturation at the surface as well as in-depth migration are instantaneous; in-vacuum storage leads to a small deuterium global desorption. Observations made via μNRA were coupled with results from other characterization techniques. X-ray μtomography allowed to identify porosities as the preferential trapping sites

  20. Deuterium/hydrogen isotope exchange on beryllium and beryllium nitride; Deuterium/Wasserstoff-Isotopenaustausch an Beryllium und Berylliumnitrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollase, Petra; Eichler, Michael; Koeppen, Martin; Dittmar, Timo; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the fusion experiments JET and ITER, the first wall is made up of beryllium. The use of nitrogen is discussed for radiative cooling in the divertor. This can react with the surface of the first wall to form beryllium nitride (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}). The hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, which react in the fusion reaction to helium and a neutron, are used as fuel. Since the magnetic confinement of the plasma is not perfect, deuterium and tritium ions are also found on the beryllium wall and can accumulate there. This should be avoided due to the radioactivity of tritium. Therefore the isotope exchange with deuterium is investigated to regenerate the first wall. We investigate the isotopic exchange of deuterium and protium in order to have not to work with radioactive tritium. The ion bombardment is simulated with an ion source. With voltages up to a maximum of 5 kV, deuterium and protic hydrogen ions are implanted in polycrystalline Be and Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}. The samples are then analyzed in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Subsequently, samples prepared under the same conditions are characterized ex-situ by means of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). [German] In den Fusionsexperimenten JET und ITER besteht die erste Wand im Hauptraum aus Beryllium (Be). Zur Strahlungskuehlung im Divertor wird der Einsatz von Stickstoff diskutiert. Dieser kann mit der Oberflaeche der ersten Wand zu Berylliumnitrid (Be{sub 3}N{sub 2}) reagieren. Als Brennstoff werden die Wasserstoffisotope Deuterium und Tritium eingesetzt, die in der Fusionsreaktion zu Helium und einem Neutron reagieren. Da der magnetische Einschluss des Plasmas nicht perfekt ist, treffen auch Deuterium- und Tritiumionen auf die Berylliumwand auf und koennen sich dort anreichern. Das soll aufgrund der Radioaktivitaet von Tritium unbedingt vermieden werden. Daher wird zur Regenerierung der ersten Wand der Isotopenaustausch mit Deuterium untersucht. Wir

  1. Rupture of DN 500 - design basic accident at units 3 and 4 of Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruchev, V.; Vassilev, P.; Ivanova, A.; Sartmadjiev, A.

    2005-01-01

    The original design of Kozloduy NPP Units 3 and 4 assumes as Design Basis Accident (DBA) the rupture of DN 32 mm primary pipeline, while an initial event of double-sided guillotine break of primary pipeline with maximal diameter is not considered. In the course of units modernization it have been demonstrated once and again that both the emergency core cooling systems and the localization systems can cope with larger and larger primary circuit leaks. After the installation of a Jet-Vortex Condenser (JVC) at Units 3 and 4 it was substantiated that, the integrity of the hermetic rooms is ensured even in case of double-sided guillotine break of a primary circuit pipeline with maximal diameter (DEGB). The technical justification of the jet-vortex condenser, elaborated by VNIAEC, contains calculations determining both the source term and the doses obtained outside the NPP site after LOCA DN 500. LOCA DN 500 is considered in these analyses as a beyond design basis accident and it is so included in the SAR and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA). The thermo-hydraulic calculations performed later on show that the emergency core cooling systems can cope with this initial event at conservative assumptions. In order to classify this initiating event as a design basis accident it is necessary to demonstrate that the core cooling criteria are fulfilled and the internal and external doses outside the NPP site are within the permissible limits fixed for design basis accident by the Bulgarian regulatory body (NRA), when using conservative assumptions. For this purpose two consecutive studies were performed - evaluation of the DEGB probability and categorization of the initial event according to the contemporary regulations acting in Republic of Bulgaria. The presented report summarizes the results of the performed conservative analyses of double-sided guillotine break accident of main circulation line taking into account the probability of rupture of large diameter

  2. Monitoring and operation system for severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki; Niida, Shinji; Kato, Yumeto

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and operation system for Severe Accidents (SA-MOS) is a compact Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and certificated by the Japanese Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA) as a design application for Japanese existing PWR nuclear power plants. The system is tailored to provide monitoring and operation for Severe Accident (SA) conditions, and consists of digitalized I and C System, Human Systems Interface (HSI) system and Power Supply (PS) system as further improvement of reliability and safety. This design plans to be applied to the next Japanese PWR plants. In accordance with the new regulatory standards that NRA has established corresponding to the Fukushima accident, a long-term Station Black Out (SBO) scenario and 24-hours power supply by the storage battery in case of SA has been required. In order to address 24-hours power supply requirement in SA condition, the storage battery volume shall be increased. However, it may be difficult to introduce additional batteries to the existing plant site because of room space constraints, etc. Therefore, power distributions for the facilities which are only used for Design Basis Accident (DBA), are shut down in order to secure 24-hours operations of facilities for SA conditions including SA-MOS. That enables efficient battery resource operations as well as optimizes room space factors shared by battery cabinets. Another benefit is to introduce dedicate HSI system for SA condition and operators shift their operations using that dedicated HSI system to cope with SA events. That can reduce operator workload which forces operators to verify or choose which controllers and indicators are available in SA conditions. Furthermore, application of SA-MOS, secures the independence of the layers (DBA⇔SA) as well as secures the plant data transfer for SA conditions outside of plant. Those plant data assets can be shared by plant operation supporting personnel and

  3. The European Radiobiology Archives (ERA) - Content, structure and use illustrated by an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G. B.; Wick, R. R.; Kellerer, A. M.; Hopewell, J. W.; Di Majo, V.; Dudoignon, N.; Goessner, W.; Stather, J.

    2006-01-01

    The European Radiobiology Archives (ERA), supported by the European Commission and the European Late Effect Project Group (EULEP), together with the US National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) and the Japanese Radiobiology Archives (JRA) have collected all information still available on long-term animal experiments, including some selected human studies. The archives consist of a database in Microsoft Access, a web site, databases of references and information on the use of the database. At present, the archives contain a description of the exposure conditions, animal strains, etc. from ∼350,000 individuals; data on survival and pathology are available from ∼200,000 individuals. Care has been taken to render pathological diagnoses compatible among different studies and to allow the lumping of pathological diagnoses into more general classes. 'Forms' in Access with an underlying computer code facilitate the use of the database. This paper describes the structure and content of the archives and illustrates an example for a possible analysis of such data. (authors)

  4. Severe accident tests and development of domestic severe accident system codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    According to lessons learned from Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, the safety evaluation will be started based on the NRA's New Safety Standards. In parallel with this movement, reinforcement of Severe Accident (SA) Measures and Accident Managements (AMs) has been undertaken and establishments of relevant regulations and standards are recognized as urgent subjects. Strengthening responses against nuclear plant hazards, as well as realistic protection measures and their standardization is also recognized as urgent subjects. Furthermore, decommissioning of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit1 through Unit4 is promoted diligently. Taking into account JNES's mission with regard to these SA Measures, AMs and decommissioning, movement of improving SA evaluation methodologies inside and outside Japan, and prioritization of subjects based on analyses of sequences of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, three viewpoints was extracted. These viewpoints were substantiated as the following three groups of R and D subjects: (1) Obtaining near term experimental subjects: Containment venting, Seawater injection, Iodine behaviors. (2) Obtaining mid and long experimental subjects: Fuel damage behavior at early phase of core degradation, Core melting and debris formation. (3) Development of a macroscopic level SA code for plant system behaviors and a mechanistic level code for core melting and debris formation. (author)

  5. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R. L.

    2012-02-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14C dating.

  6. Structural and tribological properties of carbon steels modified by plasma pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartowska, B.; Walis, L.; Piekoszewski, J.; Senatorski, J.; Stanislawski, J.; Nowicki, L.; Ratajczak, R.; Barlak, M.; Kopcewicz, M.; Kalinowska, J.; Prokert, F.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon steels with different concentration of carbon and heat (Armco-iron, steels 20, 45, 65 and N9) were treated according to the standard procedures: they were irradiated with five intense (about 5 J/cm 2 ), short (μs range) argon or nitrogen plasma pulses generated in a rod plasma injector (RPI) type of plasma generator. Samples were characterized by the following methods: nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) 14 N(d,α) 12 C , scanning electron microscopy (SEM), conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), X-ray diffraction analysis (GXRD), and Amsler wear tests. SEM observations shown that the morphology of the pulse treated samples, both argon and nitrogen plasma are identical. It has been found, that nitrogen is much more efficient than argon in ausenitization of carbon steel. The craters and droplets are uniformly distributed over the surface, which is typical of melted and rapidly recrystallized top layers. The thickness of the modified layers is in the range of 1.2-1.6 μm

  7. High-energy elastic recoil detection heavy ions for light element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goppelt-Langer, P.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Naramoto, H.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of light and medium heavy elements in not homogeneous solids is a severe problem in ion beam analysis. Heavy elements can be detected by the well established Rutherford backscattering technique (RBS). In a homogeneous host material most impurities can be easily analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Some isotopes ( 3 He, 6 Li, 10 B) can be measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using thermal neutrons inducing (n, p) or (n, α) reactions. Others can be detected by energetic ion beams by nuclear reactions (e.g. 15 N( 1 H, αγ) 12 C for analysis of hydrogen). A high content of H, D or T can be also determined by elastic recoil detection using an energetic He beam. The latter technique has been developed to a universal method for detection of light and heavy elements in any target, using a high energetic heavy ion beam and a detector system, which is able to identify the recoils and delivers energy and position of the particles. (author)

  8. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  9. Hydrogen incorporation and radiation induced dynamics in metal-oxide-silicon structures. A study using nuclear reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briere, M.A.

    1993-07-01

    Resonant nuclear reaction analysis, using the 1 H( 15 N, αγ) 12 C reaction at 6.4 MeV, has been successfully applied to the investigation of hydrogen incorporation and radiation induced migration in metal-oxide-silicon structures. A preliminary study of the influence of processing parameters on the H content of thermal oxides, with and without gate material present, has been performed. It is found that the dominant source of hydrogen in Al gate devices and dry oxides is often contamination, likely in the form of adsorbed water vapor, formed upon exposure to room air after removal from the oxidation furnace. Concentrations of hydrogen in the bulk oxide as high as 3 10 20 cm -3 (Al gate), and as low as 1 10 18 cm -3 (poly Si-gate) have been observed. Hydrogen accumulation at the Si-SiO 2 interface has been reproducibly demonstrated for as-oxidized samples, as well as for oxides exposed to H 2 containing atmospheres during subsequent thermal processing. The migration of hydrogen, from the bulk oxide to the silicon-oxide interface during NRA, has been observed and intensively investigated. A direct correlation between the hydrogen content of the bulk oxide and the radiation generated oxide charges and interface states is presented. These data provide strong support for the important role of hydrogen in determining the radiation sensitivity of electronic devices. (orig.)

  10. Present status of tandem accelerator research facility (MALT) in University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Hatori, Satoshi; Nakano, Chuichiro; Sunohara, Yoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    1996-12-01

    The tandem accelerator in University of Tokyo, which was renewed from 1991 to March, 1994 started the joint utilization within the University since April, 1995 after about one year of the period of adjustment. The time of operation exceeding 3500 hours in one year was recorded. This facility is that for carrying out the minute analysis such as AMS, PIXE, NRA and others and the research of atomic and molecular physics, and called microanalysis laboratory-tandem accelerator (MALT). Support has been done by placing emphasis on the development of AMS measurement which enables the microanalysis of {sup 14}C,{sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al, but the accuracy of {sup 14}C AMS did not attain the practical level. {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al AMS reached almost the practical level, and the measurement of actual samples has been carried out. The state of operation and utilization of the MALT is reported. As to the recent troubles and the countermeasures in the MALT, the voltage instability of the accelerator, the unstable ion source support mechanism and the poor transmissivity of beam in the accelerator are described. (K.I.)

  11. ERDA with an external helium ion micro-beam: Advantages and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calligaro, T.; Castaing, J.; Dran, J.-C.; Moignard, B.; Pivin, J.-C.; Prasad, G.V.R.; Salomon, J.; Walter, P.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary ERDA experiments at atmospheric pressure have been performed with our external microprobe set-up currently used for the analysis of museum objects by PIXE, RBS and NRA. The objective was to check the feasibility of hydrogen (and deuterium) profiling with an external beam of 3-MeV helium ions. The standard scattering geometry (incident beam at 15 deg. with respect to sample surface and emerging protons or deuterons at 15 deg. in the forward direction) was kept, but the thin foil absorber was replaced by helium gas filling the space between the beam spot and the detector over a distance of about 84 mm. Several standards prepared by ion implantation, with well known H or D depth profiles, were first analysed, which indicated that the analytical capability was as good as under vacuum. A striking feature is the much lower surface peak than under vacuum, a fact that enhances the sensitivity for H analysis near the surface. The same type of measurement was then performed on different materials to show the usefulness of the technique. As a first example, we have checked that the incorporation of H or D into sapphire crystals during mechanical polishing is below the detection limit. Another example is the measurement of the H content in emeralds which can be used as an additional compositional criterion for determining the provenance of emeralds set in museum jewels. The advantages and limitations of our set-up are discussed and several possible applications in the field of cultural heritage are described

  12. Proposal of methodology of tsunami accident sequence analysis induced by earthquake using DQFM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muta, Hitoshi; Muramatsu, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Since the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station accident, the Japanese regulatory body has improved and upgraded the regulation of nuclear power plants, and continuous effort is required to enhance risk management in the mid- to long term. Earthquakes and tsunamis are considered as the most important risks, and the establishment of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies for these events is a major issue of current PRA. The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) addressed the PRA methodology for tsunamis induced by earthquakes, which is one of the methodologies that should be enhanced step by step for the improvement and maturity of PRA techniques. The AESJ standard for the procedure of seismic PRA for nuclear power plants in 2015 provides the basic concept of the methodology; however, details of the application to the actual plant PRA model have not been sufficiently provided. This study proposes a detailed PRA methodology for tsunamis induced by earthquakes using the DQFM methodology, which contributes to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, this study also states the issues which need more research. (author)

  13. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, James Patton

    2012-01-01

    The microgravity materials program was nearly eliminated in the middle of the aughts due to budget constraints. Hardware developments were eliminated. Some investigators with experiments that could be performed using ISS partner hardware received continued funding. Partnerships were established between US investigators and ESA science teams for several investigations. ESA conducted peer reviews on the proposals of various science teams as part of an ESA AO process. Assuming he or she was part of a science team that was selected by the ESA process, a US investigator would submit a proposal to NASA for grant funding to support their part of the science team effort. In a similar manner, a US materials investigator (Dr. Rohit Trivedi) is working as a part of a CNES selected science team. As funding began to increase another seven materials investigators were selected in 2010 through an NRA mechanism to perform research related to development of Materials Science Research Rack investigations. One of these has since been converted to a Glovebox investigation.

  14. PIXE and light element analysis (C,N) in glass inclusions trapped in meteorites with the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.E.; Mosbah, M.; Metrich, N.; Duraud, J.P.; Kurat, G.

    1999-01-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and light element analysis have been performed with the nuclear microprobe at the Laboratoire Pierre Suee (Saclay-France) in glass inclusions of the carbonaceous chondrites: Allende, Kaba and Renazzo, and in the achondrite meteorite: Chassigny. Carbon contents in olivine of chondrules are below the nuclear reactions analysis (NRA) detection limit, however, glasses from glass inclusions hosted by these grains, contain an appreciable and highly variable quantities of carbon (200-1600 ppm). This could indicate variable amounts of C trapped during glass inclusion formation. On the other hand, nitrogen is present in highly variable amounts in glasses of both, chondrites and achondrites minerals. Its abundance, correlated with depth from the section surface which suggests loss of N during analyses and therefore the possible existence of a very mobile (volatile?) species. A chondritic Rb/Sr and K/Rb ratio obtained by PIXE analyses in the glass-bearing inclusions of the Chassigny meteorite points towards a primitive source for the glass precursor of Chassigny inclusions

  15. Necessity of countermeasures for hurricane, typhoon and cyclone in accordance with the progress of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Sugiyama, Kenichiro

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, according to the progress of global warming, hurricanes and typhoons getting bigger and bigger, about 20% increase per decade. Hurricanes and typhoons are given thermal energy from vaporizing steam from surface of sea water. Hurricane Sandy attacked New York on 22-29, Oct. 2012. Typhoon 26th attacked Ohshima, Oct. 2013, and Typhoon 30th attacked Philippine on Nov. 4-11. Tropical cyclone Phailin attacked India on Oct. 12, 2013. Its diameter was 2300km. They were all category 5. Human beings are now on the front of the natural disasters. We think the risk is higher than active faults that moves only several thousand years period. In the US, a nuclear power plant stopped its operation when a category 5 hurricane arrived nearby, which was monitored from a weather satellite. The countermeasures for tornado and tsunami will be effective for typhoon. NRA found the lack of description in the new regulatory guideline and they said the management plan should be considered by licensees. The Japan Society of Maintenology will start preparing the guideline for typhoon. (author)

  16. Severe accident tests and development of domestic severe accident system codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    According to lessons learned from Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, the safety evaluation will be started based on the NRA's New Safety Standards. In parallel with this movement, reinforcement of Severe Accident (SA) Measures and Accident Managements (AMs) has been undertaken and establishments of relevant regulations and standards are recognized as urgent subjects. Strengthening responses against nuclear plant hazards, as well as realistic protection measures and their standardization is also recognized as urgent subjects. Furthermore, decommissioning of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit1 through Unit4 is promoted diligently. Taking into account JNES's mission with regard to these SA Measures, AMs and decommissioning, movement of improving SA evaluation methodologies inside and outside Japan, and prioritization of subjects based on analyses of sequences of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, three viewpoints was extracted. These viewpoints were substantiated as the following three groups of R and D subjects: (1) Obtaining near term experimental subjects: Containment venting, Seawater injection, Iodine behaviors. (2) Obtaining mid and long experimental subjects: Fuel damage behavior at early phase of core degradation, Core melting and debris formation. (3) Development of a macroscopic level SA code for plant system behaviors and a mechanistic level code for core melting and debris formation. (author)

  17. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cuif, J.-P. [UMR IDES 8148, Universite Paris XI-Orsay, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dambricourt Malasse, A. [Departement de Prehistoire, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, UMR 7194 - CNRS, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, 1, rue Rene Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Abel, R.L. [The Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by {sup 14}C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before {sup 14}C dating.

  18. NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project Battery Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    Technical Interchange Meeting was held at Saft America s Research and Development facility in Cockeysville, Maryland on Sept 28th-29th, 2010. The meeting was attended by Saft, contractors who are developing battery component materials under contracts awarded through a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), and NASA. This briefing presents an overview of the components being developed by the contractor attendees for the NASA s High Energy (HE) and Ultra High Energy (UHE) cells. The transition of the advanced lithium-ion cell development project at NASA from the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project to the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, changes to deliverable hardware and schedule due to a reduced budget, and our roadmap to develop cells and provide periodic off-ramps for cell technology for demonstrations are discussed. This meeting gave the materials and cell developers the opportunity to discuss the intricacies of their materials and determine strategies to address any particulars of the technology.

  19. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14 C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon–Hydrogen–Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14 C dating.

  20. Consecutive collection of new finding and knowledge on science and technology to be reflected to seismic safety assessment for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Iijima, Toru

    2013-05-01

    JNES had been collecting and analyzing new finding and knowledge on science and technology to be reflected to seismic safety assessment for nuclear facilities, which was updated so as to develop a system to organize and disseminate such information in response to Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA)'s policy on new safety regulations requesting enhanced protective measures against extreme natural hazards. The tasks were as follows; (1) collection of new finding and knowledge from seismic safety research of JNES, (2) constructing database of seismic safety research from documents published by committees and including the Great East Japan Earthquake and (3) dissemination of information related to seismic research. As for JFY 2012 activities, collecting and analyzing new finding and knowledge were on three areas such as active fault, seismic source/ground motion and tsunami. 4 theme related with the Great East Japan Earthquake, 7 items not related with the Great East Japan Earthquake and one item on external event were collected and analyzed whether incorporating in seismic safety research important for regulation to increase seismic safety of nuclear facilities, with no such theme confirmed. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Development of a versatile user-friendly IBA experimental chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad

    2016-03-15

    Reliable performance of the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques is based on the accurate geometry of the experimental setup, employment of the reliable nuclear data and implementation of dedicated analysis software for each of the IBA techniques. It has already been shown that geometrical imperfections lead to significant uncertainties in quantifications of IBA measurements. To minimize these uncertainties, a user-friendly experimental chamber with a heuristic sample positioning system for IBA analysis was recently developed in the Van de Graaff laboratory in Tehran. This system enhances IBA capabilities and in particular Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) techniques. The newly developed sample manipulator provides the possibility of both controlling the tilt angle of the sample and analyzing samples with different thicknesses. Moreover, a reasonable number of samples can be loaded in the sample wheel. A comparison of the measured cross section data of the {sup 16}O(d,p{sub 1}){sup 17}O reaction with the data reported in the literature confirms the performance and capability of the newly developed experimental chamber.

  2. Development of a versatile user-friendly IBA experimental chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Reliable performance of the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques is based on the accurate geometry of the experimental setup, employment of the reliable nuclear data and implementation of dedicated analysis software for each of the IBA techniques. It has already been shown that geometrical imperfections lead to significant uncertainties in quantifications of IBA measurements. To minimize these uncertainties, a user-friendly experimental chamber with a heuristic sample positioning system for IBA analysis was recently developed in the Van de Graaff laboratory in Tehran. This system enhances IBA capabilities and in particular Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) techniques. The newly developed sample manipulator provides the possibility of both controlling the tilt angle of the sample and analyzing samples with different thicknesses. Moreover, a reasonable number of samples can be loaded in the sample wheel. A comparison of the measured cross section data of the 16O(d,p1)17O reaction with the data reported in the literature confirms the performance and capability of the newly developed experimental chamber.

  3. Thermal Protective Coating for High Temperature Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Andrew R.

    1999-01-01

    The central theme of this research is the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticles as precursors to thermally protective coatings for high temperature polymer composites. In addition, we will investigate the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticle as a component to polymer composites. The objective of this research was the high temperature protection of polymer composites via novel chemistry. The significance of this research is the development of a low cost and highly flexible synthetic methodology, with a compatible processing technique, for the fabrication of high temperature polymer composites. We proposed to accomplish this broad goal through the use of a class of ceramic precursor material, alumoxanes. Alumoxanes are nano-particles with a boehmite-like structure and an organic periphery. The technical goals of this program are to prepare and evaluate water soluble carboxylate-alumoxane for the preparation of ceramic coatings on polymer substrates. Our proposed approach is attractive since proof of concept has been demonstrated under the NRA 96-LeRC-1 Technology for Advanced High Temperature Gas Turbine Engines, HITEMP Program. For example, carbon and Kevlar(tm) fibers and matting have been successfully coated with ceramic thermally protective layers.

  4. RODOS System in the Slovak Republic - its Implementation and Adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.; Bohun, L; Metke, E.; Janko, K.

    2003-01-01

    With support of the European Commission's (EC) ECHO programme 'Implementation of the RODOS Decision Support System for Off-Site Emergency Preparation and response in the Emergency centres in Poland and the Slovak Republic', RODOS system version 3.13 was implemented in the Slovak Republic with main objective to accelerate the implementation of the system within national emergency preparedness arrangements. Within the ECHO project, the National Centre of RODOS was established at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR). VUJE was established as technical support organization and interactive user. As a data supplier and passive user were established the Slovak Centre for Radiation Monitoring, Slovak Hydro-Meteorological Institute (SHMI), Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce NPP's. As RODOS could become a standard tool for emergency preparedness in the European Union and CEE region lessons learned within projects mentioned in the paper were valuable contribution to other similar international and national projects. Effective working arrangements and links have been established between some institutes having competence in various aspects of emergency preparedness and response in about 20 European countries, with Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe as main responsible institute for system development and DSSNET project co-ordination. This network contributes to the more cost-effective use of resources for the further improvement of decision support for nuclear emergencies. More importantly, it will enhance trust and confidence between people, which is essential for responding effectively and coherently to any future nuclear accident that may have implications on a European scale. (authors)

  5. Round robin analyses of hydrogen isotope thin films standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, J.C. E-mail: jcbanks@sandia.gov; Browning, J.F.; Wampler, W.R.; Doyle, B.L.; LaDuca, C.A.; Tesmer, J.R.; Wetteland, C.J.; Wang, Y.Q

    2004-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope thin film standards have been manufactured at Sandia National Laboratories for use by the materials characterization community. Several considerations were taken into account during the manufacture of the ErHD standards, with accuracy and stability being the most important. The standards were fabricated by e-beam deposition of Er onto a Mo substrate and the film stoichiometrically loaded with hydrogen and deuterium. To determine the loading accuracy of the standards two random samples were measured by thermal desorption mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques with a stated combined accuracy of {approx}1.6% (1{sigma}). All the standards were then measured by high energy RBS/ERD and RBS/NRA with the accuracy of the techniques {approx}5% (1{sigma}). The standards were then distributed to the IBA materials characterization community for analysis. This paper will discuss the suitability of the standards for use by the IBA community and compare measurement results to highlight the accuracy of the techniques used.

  6. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase synthesis during heat shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierling, E.; Key, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) was chosen as a model protein to study how heat shock (HS) affects both chloroplast protein synthesis and the nuclear-chloroplast interaction in production of chloroplast proteins. Experiments were performed using highly chlorophyllous, soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. var Corsoy) cell suspension cultures active in chloroplast protein synthesis. Synthesis of RuBPCase large (L) and small (S) subunits was followed by in vivo labeling, and corresponding mRNA levels were examined by Northern and dot hybridization analyses. Results demonstrate that L and S synthesis declines with increasing HS temperatures (33-40 0 C) and reaches minimum levels (20-30% of control) at temperatures of maximum HS protein synthesis (39-40 0 C). Recovery of L and S synthesis following a 2-hour HS at 38 or 40 0 C was also studied. The changes in S synthesis during HS and recovery correlate with the steady state levels of S mRNA. In contrast, changes in L synthesis show little relationship to the corresponding mRNA levels; levels of L mRNA remain relatively unchanged by HS. The authors conclude that chloroplast protein synthesis shows no greater sensitivity to HS than is observed for cytoplasmic protein synthesis and that transport of proteins into the chloroplast (e.g.,S subunit) continues during HS. Furthermore, there is no apparent coordination of L and S subunit mNRA levels under the conditions examined

  7. PECVD-ONO: A New Deposited Firing Stable Rear Surface Passivation Layer System for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hofmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD stack layer system consisting of a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOx:H is presented for silicon solar cell rear side passivation. Surface recombination velocities below 60 cm/s (after firing and below 30 cm/s (after forming gas anneal were achieved. Solar cell precursors without front and rear metallisation showed implied open-circuit voltages Voc values extracted from quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC measurements above 680 mV. Fully finished solar cells with up to 20.0% energy conversion efficiency are presented. A fit of the cell's internal quantum efficiency using software tool PC1D and a comparison to a full-area aluminium-back surface field (Al-BSF and thermal SiO2 is shown. PECVD-ONO was found to be clearly superior to Al-BSF. A separation of recombination at the metallised and the passivated area at the solar cell's rear is presented using the equations of Fischer and Kray. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA has been used to evaluate the hydrogen depth profile of the passivation layer system at different stages.

  8. Scientific-technical cooperation with foreign (esp. Europe and INSC partner countries) nuclear regulatory authorities and their technical support organizations in the fields of nuclear safety of operating nuclear power plants and on the concept evaluation of generation 3+ plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Holger

    2016-09-01

    The BMUB/BfS-Project 3614I01512 forms the frame of the GRS for the scientific-technical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety in operating NPPs and for the concept evaluation of generation 3 + plants in Europe and INSC Partner Countries. In the present final project report results are described which were gained within the project duration 15.10.2014 up to the 30.09.2016 in the following working packages: Investigations following the catastrophe of Fukushima Daiichi, Evaluation of selected National Action Plans, DBA and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000), cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3 + and building NRA and safety evaluation capacities and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste. The results are preceded by an outline on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  9. High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Aircraft Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.; Kenway, Gaetan K. W.; Burdette, David; Jonsson, Eirikur; Kennedy, Graeme J.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate new airframe technologies we need design tools based on high-fidelity models that consider multidisciplinary interactions early in the design process. The overarching goal of this NRA is to develop tools that enable high-fidelity multidisciplinary design optimization of aircraft configurations, and to apply these tools to the design of high aspect ratio flexible wings. We develop a geometry engine that is capable of quickly generating conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations including the internal structure. This geometry engine features adjoint derivative computation for efficient gradient-based optimization. We also added overset capability to a computational fluid dynamics solver, complete with an adjoint implementation and semiautomatic mesh generation. We also developed an approach to constraining buffet and started the development of an approach for constraining utter. On the applications side, we developed a new common high-fidelity model for aeroelastic studies of high aspect ratio wings. We performed optimal design trade-o s between fuel burn and aircraft weight for metal, conventional composite, and carbon nanotube composite wings. We also assessed a continuous morphing trailing edge technology applied to high aspect ratio wings. This research resulted in the publication of 26 manuscripts so far, and the developed methodologies were used in two other NRAs. 1

  10. Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in many years, the NASA budget presented to congress calls for a focused effort on the verification and validation (V&V) of complex systems. This is mostly motivated by the results of the VVFCS (V&V of Flight-Critical Systems) study, which should materialize as a a concrete effort under the Aviation Safety program. This talk will present the results of the study, from requirements coming out of discussions with the FAA and the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) to technical plan addressing the issue, and its proposed current and future V&V research agenda, which will be addressed by NASA Ames, Langley, and Dryden as well as external partners through NASA Research Announcements (NRA) calls. This agenda calls for pushing V&V earlier in the life cycle and take advantage of formal methods to increase safety and reduce cost of V&V. I will present the on-going research work (especially the four main technical areas: Safety Assurance, Distributed Systems, Authority and Autonomy, and Software-Intensive Systems), possible extensions, and how VVFCS plans on grounding the research in realistic examples, including an intended V&V test-bench based on an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture and hosted by Dryden.

  11. IBA analysis of some precolumbian gilded-copper samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E. [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: andrade@fisica.unam.mx; Murillo, G. [Departamento del Acelerador Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares Apartado postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Policroniades, R. [Departamento del Acelerador Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares Apartado postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Acosta, L. [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Zavala, E.P. [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rocha, M.F. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, IPN, CP 07738 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Centeno, S.A. [Department of Scientific Research, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10028 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    The elemental composition and depth profiles obtained by IBA techniques on some gilded-copper fragments from the Moche site of Loma Negra, in the Piura Valley, on the Northern Coast of Peru are presented in this article. A previous radiocarbon dating of a wooden fragment indicated that Loma Negra was occupied around 295 AD. A PIXE analysis using a 2.6 MeV external proton beam, was used to obtain the concentration of trace elements in the samples. RBS analyses using 2.72 MeV {sup 4}He{sup +} and 12.0 MeV {sup 12}C{sup 3+} were used to obtain the Au, Ag, Cu atomic profiles. NRA with a 1.02 MeV deuteron beam was used to measure the oxygen and carbon concentrations through the {sup 16}O(d,p) {sup 17}O, {sup 16}O(d,{alpha}) {sup 14}N and {sup 12}C(d,p{sub 0}) {sup 13}C reactions.

  12. Quantitative analysis of hydrogen and of its isotopes at the surface of the solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocellier, P.

    2007-01-01

    For analyzing the hydrogen isotopes, the nature of the probe which allows to excite the considered material and to give the hydrogen answer is multiple and is supported by various physical principles. The different available techniques are presented and several examples are given. To conclude, it is possible to determine the superficial or volume distribution of hydrogen or of one of its two heavy isotopes in choosing the most physico-chemical method. The choice of the technique to use depends of the wanted performance. In order to simplify, we can associate: 1)the sensitivity with mass spectrometry; 2)the depth resolution with the glow discharge, the SIMS and the resonant nuclear reaction; 3)the studied depth with the accelerated ions beams and the AMS; 4)the distribution image with the electrons stimulated desorption, the beta autoradiography and the ERDA; 5)the quantitative profile with the accelerated ions beams techniques; 6)the isotopic analysis with mass spectrometry and the accelerated ions beams. In order to be sure of the relevance of the measurements result, it is indicated to combine the advantages and the performances of several techniques as SIMS and NRA or FTIR and ERDA for instance. (O.M.)

  13. The formation of hydrogen permeation barriers on steels by aluminising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, K. S.; Ross, D. K.; Wu, C. H.

    1991-06-01

    An extensive investigation has been carried out into the effectiveness of aluminised layers as permeation barriers on AISI 316L stainless and DIN 1.4914 martensitic steels. The study involved measurement of the hydrogen permeation rate through commercially aluminised steel discs of thicknesses in the range 1-1.6 mm, at temperatures between 250 and 600 °C and for an upstream hydrogen pressure of 10 5 Pa. The composition and structure of the aluminide layers were investigated by a number of techniques such as SEM, electron beam microprobe and X-ray diffraction. Accelerator based techniques such as RBS and NRA were employed to study the top micron or so of the surfaces of the samples. By these techniques it was found that the effectiveness of the permeation barrier depended on the formation of a thin surface oxide layer consisting of Al 2O 3. It was found that the permeation rate through the aluminised steels could be reduced by 3-4 orders of magnitude by forming a surface oxide layer up to a micron or so in thickness.

  14. Nuclear risk assessment for the Mars 2020 mission environmental impact statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Daniel James; Bignell, John L.; Jones, Christopher Andrew; Rohe, Daniel Peter; Flores, Gregg J.; Bartel, Timothy James; Gelbard, Fred; Le, San; Morrow, Charles.; Potter, Donald L.; Young, Larry W.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2020, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch a spacecraft as part of the Mars 2020 mission. One option for the rover on the proposed spacecraft uses a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to provide continuous electrical and thermal power for the mission. An alternative option being considered is a set of solar panels for electrical power with up to 80 Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for local component heating. Both the MMRTG and the LWRHUs use radioactive plutonium dioxide. NASA is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The EIS will include information on the risks of mission accidents to the general public and on-site workers at the launch complex. This Nuclear Risk Assessment (NRA) addresses the responses of the MMRTG or LWRHU options to potential accident and abort conditions during the launch opportunity for the Mars 2020 mission and the associated consequences. This information provides the technical basis for the radiological risks of both options for the EIS.

  15. The role and application of ion beam analysis for studies of plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Marek, E-mail: Marek.Rubel@ee.kth.se [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fusion Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Petersson, Per [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Fusion Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Alves, Eduardo [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Brezinsek, Sebastijan [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Institut für Klima- und Energieforschung, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Coad, Joseph Paul [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Heinola, Kalle [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mayer, Matej [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85478 Garching (Germany); Widdowson, Anna [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    First wall materials in controlled fusion devices undergo serious modification by several physical and chemical processes arising from plasma–wall interactions. Detailed information is required for the assessment of material lifetime and accumulation of hydrogen isotopes in wall materials. The intention of this work is to give a concise overview of key issues in the characterization of plasma-facing materials and components in tokamaks, especially in JET with an ITER-Like Wall. IBA techniques play a particularly prominent role here because of their isotope selectivity in the low-Z range (1–10), high sensitivity and combination of several methods in a single run. The role of {sup 3}He-based NRA, RBS (standard and micro-size beam) and HIERDA in fuel retention and material migration studies is presented. The use of tracer techniques with rare isotopes (e.g. {sup 15}N) or marker layers on wall diagnostic components is described. Special instrumentation, development of equipment to enhance research capabilities and issues in handling of contaminated materials are addressed.

  16. Investigation of local carbon transport in the ASDEX Upgrade divertor using {sup 13}CH{sub 4} puffing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugno, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Roberto.Pugno@ipp.mpg.de; Krieger, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Airila, M.; Aho-Mantila, L. [Helsinki University of Technology, Association EURATOM-Tekes, P.O. Box 4100, FI-02015 TKK (Finland); Kreter, A.; Brezinsek, S. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Rohde, V.; Coster, D.; Chankin, A.; Wischmeier, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate the combined effect of re-deposition, re-erosion and local transport, known quantities of {sup 13}CH{sub 4} were puffed at the end of the 2007 experimental campaign in the ASDEX Upgrade outboard divertor. Exposed tiles were carefully removed for analysis. The amount of {sup 13}C locally deposited was measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and colorimetry. About 100% of injected carbon is deposited within a {+-} 15 cm extension in the toroidal direction. In contrast to H-mode results where re-deposition was exclusively downstream, in L-mode, more than one third of the injected hydrocarbon is found upstream. Colorimetric analysis of images taken with different lighting angles to the surface reveals a strong asymmetry in the carbon deposition pattern with respect to the injection facing/averting side of the surface roughness, with 4x thicker layers on the side facing the puffing location. The deposition pattern deviates clearly from the magnetic trajectories showing the effect of downward and radial drifts. ERO modelling of a similar experiment carried out in 2003 in H-mode background plasma can nicely reproduce the toroidal deposition pattern but drifts are not yet satisfactory described.

  17. Application of nuclear-physical methods for studies in the solid state physics area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlachrv, I.D.; Knyazev, B.B.; Platov, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    The set of nuclear-physical methods developed on the heavy ion accelerator at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan allows to conduct an examination of elementary content as well as to obtain the elements distribution in a sample in their depth and surface. This information could be very important for study of samples wide range integral parameters and the characteristics of sputtered layers and implanted films. The beam analysis methods, as well as Rutherford backscattering methods (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), proton-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE) are included in the complex structure. Besides for expand an analyzed elements range and precision increase for quantitative characteristics of elementarily content of samples the X-ray florescent analysis method with isotope excitation (RFA) is using in the capacity complementary PIXE method. Modernization of proton beam transportation system at the heavy ion accelerator allows to develop a new analytical trend - combination of the proton micro-probe with PIXE analysis. In this case the information about examined sample elementary content is within size field ∼10 μm. The beam scanning by the surface is allowing to obtain the elements distribution by the two spatial coordinates connected with the surface. This information may be useful in the case of an existence of a micro-inclusions in the sample

  18. Nuclear material accounting software for Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, M.; Ewing, T.; Lindley, R.; McWilliams, C.; Roche, C.; Sakunov, I.; Walters, G.

    1999-01-01

    Among the needs identified during initial surveys of nuclear facilities in Ukraine was improved accounting software for reporting material inventories to the regulatory body. AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application written in Microsoft Access that was jointly designed by an US/Ukraine development team. The design is highly flexible and configurable, and supports a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements including situations where networks are not available or reliable. AIMAS has both English and Russian-language options for displays and reports, and it operates under Windows 3.1, 95, or NT 4.0trademark. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration, security, data backup and recovery). Security measures include multilevel password access control, all transactions logged with the user identification, and system administration control. Interfaces to external modules provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. AIMAS has been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP), Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI), and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety/Nuclear Regulatory Administration (MEPNS/NRA). Facility specialists are being trained to use the application to track material movement and report to the national regulatory authority

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  20. Natural attenuation of petroleum products in soils. Examination in an exotoxicologic test battery; Natuerliches Abbaupotential von Mineraloelprodukten in Boeden. Pruefung in einer oekotoxikologischen Testbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann-Hensel, H. [Dr. Fintelmann und Dr. Meyer Handels- und Umweltschutzlaboratorien GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Ahlf, W.; Gerth, J.; Foerstner, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Umweltschutztechnik

    1999-07-01

    Contaminated soils require an environmental assessment on the maintenance of natural functions, especially for the protection of groundwater. In case of contamination the evaluation methods, which describe the natural mechanisms in soils (unsaturated zone) due to attenuation/intrinsic remediation of hazardous substances, obtain special importance. Natural attenuation - as a strategy of remediation - uses the process in the underground, which reduce hazardous effects of contaminants in soils. As a useful observation module a biological testset is presented to characterise the remaining ecotoxicologic risk due to mineral oil hydrocarbons (MCH) in soils. Examinations of an artificially MCH contaminated soil and a real abandoned hazardous waste site validated the usefullness of the testset. The selection of methods follows the criteria: sensitivity, practicability, time-demand and the capability of standardisation. (orig.) [German] Kontaminierte Boeden erfordern eine Umweltpruefung zum Erhalt ihrer natuerlichen Funktionen, insbesondere gilt dies fuer das Schutzgut Grundwasser. Bei Schadensfaellen bekommen dadurch Bewertungsmethoden, die die natuerlichen Mechanismen des Boden (ungesaettigte Zone) zum Schadstoffabbau bzw. -rueckhalt beschreiben, eine besondere Bedeutung. Natural Attenuation (NRA) als Sanierungsstrategie nutzt die natuerlicherweise im Untergrund ablaufenden Prozesse, die Schadstoffkonzentrationen oder -wirkungen im Boden vermindern. Als ein geeigneter Ueberwachungsbaustein kann ein oekotoxikologisches Testset eingesetzt werden, um das Abbaupotential und das oekotoxikologische Restristiko von Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffen (MKW) zu charakterisieren. Untersuchungsergebnisse an einem mit MKW kuenstlich kontaminierten Boden und an einer realen Altlast werden vorgestellt. Die Methodenauswahl des Testsets erfolgt nach den Kriterien: Sensitivitaet, Praktikabilitaet, Zeitbedarf und Standardisierbarkeit. (orig.)

  1. Brief review of 1995 events at Ukraine's NPPs. Report on the ChNPP unit 1 of November 27.1995 ''strict regime area premises contamination after reactor refuelling''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomakin, V.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 number of events at NPP had considerably decreased as compared with that for previous 1992-94, amounted in 87. In particular, as compared with 1994, events number had decreased by 36%. It characterizes a total improvement of current NPPs safety level during 1995. The most events number as recalculated per single unit was at the South Ukraine NPP - 8. The least - at the ChNPP - 4 in total, and 1,3 per unit. Decreasing of a total events number for 1995 did also accordingly reduce other quantitative system indices which reflect state of NPPs safety level. Among event root causes, as it was before, ''administrative management deficiencies'' and ''staff training deficiencies'' are still dominanting. ''Human factor'' issues are still pending for NPPs safety, despite of considerable efforts applied to improved efficiency of correcting measures aimed at their solution. Of sufficient importance for events system development in 1995 was the work implemented at the SSTC NRS/NRA as regards preparation of modern edition of the ''Regulation on order of NPP events investigation and account''. The IAEA/Nuclear Safety Division rendered a sufficient assistance for this work to be done through arrangement of advisory help to Ukrainian specialists from international experts. 2 figs, 8 diagrams

  2. Low energy accelerators for research and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Charged particle accelerators are instruments for producing a variety of radiations under controlled conditions for basic and applied research as well as applications. They have helped enormously to study the matter, atoms, nuclei, sub-nuclear particles and their constituents, forces involved in the related phenomena etc. No other man-made instrument has been so effective in such studies as the accelerator. The large accelerator constructed so far is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) housed in a tunnel of 27 km circumference, while a small accelerator can fit inside a room. Small accelerators accelerate charged particles such as electrons, protons, deuterons, alphas and, in general ions to low energy, generally, below several MeV. These particle beams are used for studies in nuclear astrophysics, atomic physics, material science, surface physics, bio sciences etc. They are used for ion beam analysis such as RBS, PIXE, NRA, AMS, CPAA etc. More importantly, the ion beams have important industrial applications like ion implantation, surface modification, isotope production etc. while electron beams are used for material processing, material modification, sterilization, food preservation, non destructive testing etc. In this talk, role of low energy accelerators in research and industry as well as medicine will be discussed. (author)

  3. Nuclear safety assessment of nuclear power plants and nuclear risk in Eastern Europe and other regions. Scientific-technical cooperation with nuclear regulatory authorities and technical support organizations (TSOs); Einschaetzung der nuklearen Sicherheit von Kernkraftwerken sowie nuklearer Risiken in Osteuropa und anderen Regionen. Wissenschaftlich-technische Zusammenarbeit mit atomrechtlichen Behoerden und deren Sachverstaendigenorganisationen (TSO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Holger

    2014-09-15

    The BMUB/BfS project 3611I01512 formed the frame of the GRS for the scientifictechnical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety of NPPs and for the evaluation of nuclear risks in Eastern Europe and other regions for the period from September 2011 till June 2014. In the present final report main results of the project are described. The project comprised the following technical topics: - Record status of NPP modernisation programs, Monitoring and evaluation of modernisation programs; - Design basis and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000); - Cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3+ and on building NRA and safety evaluation capacities; - Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste; - Evaluation of new reactor concepts and their safety design; Panels at regulatory level. The work results are preceded by a summary on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  4. The regulatory actions in the management of disuse radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppa, W.A.; Cordoba, M.F.; Poletti, M.; Calabria, M.A.; Pirez, C.

    2010-01-01

    During the last years, different incidents related to the discovery of inadvertent radioactive material have been reported through the international information systems available. From the analysis of the information received it can be concluded that those situations are derived from the inadequate application of concepts such as 'safety culture' and 'risk perception' or inadequate physical safety measures towards radioactive sources by the licensee. Among the activities that the regulators perform during the use of radioactive material, the most important are the ones related to avoiding the existence of disused radioactive sources. In this regard, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) has implemented, through its Standards, regulatory mechanisms to adequately control and dispose of radioactive material. Concerning this matter, actions were taken in Argentina with the aim of disposing or keeping the custody in an authorized long term storage of every radioactive source used to measure thickness, humidity, level, weight, etc. that remained within the facilities without use and/or a suitable program to be reutilized within a period larger than six months. The objective of the present piece of work is to present the analysis and results of the actions fulfilled between 2002 and 2009, giving details about the regulatory activities performed in relation to the disposal and withdrawal of radioactive sources and the physical safety measures taken. (authors) [es

  5. The role and application of ion beam analysis for studies of plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Marek; Petersson, Per; Alves, Eduardo; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Coad, Joseph Paul; Heinola, Kalle; Mayer, Matej; Widdowson, Anna

    2016-03-01

    First wall materials in controlled fusion devices undergo serious modification by several physical and chemical processes arising from plasma-wall interactions. Detailed information is required for the assessment of material lifetime and accumulation of hydrogen isotopes in wall materials. The intention of this work is to give a concise overview of key issues in the characterization of plasma-facing materials and components in tokamaks, especially in JET with an ITER-Like Wall. IBA techniques play a particularly prominent role here because of their isotope selectivity in the low-Z range (1-10), high sensitivity and combination of several methods in a single run. The role of 3He-based NRA, RBS (standard and micro-size beam) and HIERDA in fuel retention and material migration studies is presented. The use of tracer techniques with rare isotopes (e.g. 15N) or marker layers on wall diagnostic components is described. Special instrumentation, development of equipment to enhance research capabilities and issues in handling of contaminated materials are addressed.

  6. Advanced Stirling Convertor Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Matejczyk, Dan; Penswick, L. B.; Soendker, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the 88 We Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) currently being developed under Phase II of a NASA NRA program for possible use in advanced high specific power radioisotope space power systems. An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) which was built and tested in Phase I demonstrated 36% efficiency. The ASC-1 currently being developed under Phase II, uses a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C and is expected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (based on AC electrical out) at a temperature ratio of 3.1. The final lightweight ASC-2 convertor to be developed in Phase III is expected to have a mass of approximately 1 kg. The implementation of the ASC would allow for much higher specific power radioisotope power systems, requiring significantly less radioisotope fuel than current systems. The first run of the ASC-1 occurred in September 2005, and full temperature operation was achieved in early October 2005. Presented is an update on progress on the ASC program as well as the plans for future development. Also presented are efforts being performed to ensure the ASC has the required long life already demonstrated in free-piston Stirling cryocoolers.

  7. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  8. The status of the AMS system at MALT in its 20th year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hmatsu@um.u-tokyo.ac.jp [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakano, Chuichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoko S. [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ito, Seiji; Morita, Akira [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kusuno, Haruka [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Miyake, Yasuto [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Honda, Maki [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Bautista VII, Angel T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kawamoto, Marina; Tokuyama, Hironori [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) was designed for a ‘highly sensitive and precise elemental and isotopic microanalysis system’ using an ion-beam generated by a Pelletron™ 5UD tandem accelerator. Currently, a multi-nuclide AMS ({sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 129}I) system is available and shows good performance in both precision and sensitivity, and the accelerator serves for PIXE, NRA, ERDA/RBS measurements as well. The total operation time of the accelerator has been over 95,000 hours since the start of MALT, 20 years ago. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, many projects related to {sup 129}I have been conducted. The retrospective reconstruction of the {sup 131}I distribution at the accident from {sup 129}I is one of the most important missions for dose evaluation of the residents. The accident-derived {sup 129}I is also quite useful as a tracer for the general iodine dynamics in the environment. As a new tool for environmental assessment related to nuclear activity, including the global fallout from past atmospheric nuclear bomb testing, effects from the spent fuel reprocessing plant, and nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and FDNPP, a {sup 236}U-AMS system is now under development.

  9. Quantitative analysis of hydrogen and of its isotopes at the surface of the solids; Analyse quantitative de l'hydrogene et de ses isotopes a la surface des solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocellier, P. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    For analyzing the hydrogen isotopes, the nature of the probe which allows to excite the considered material and to give the hydrogen answer is multiple and is supported by various physical principles. The different available techniques are presented and several examples are given. To conclude, it is possible to determine the superficial or volume distribution of hydrogen or of one of its two heavy isotopes in choosing the most physico-chemical method. The choice of the technique to use depends of the wanted performance. In order to simplify, we can associate: 1)the sensitivity with mass spectrometry; 2)the depth resolution with the glow discharge, the SIMS and the resonant nuclear reaction; 3)the studied depth with the accelerated ions beams and the AMS; 4)the distribution image with the electrons stimulated desorption, the beta autoradiography and the ERDA; 5)the quantitative profile with the accelerated ions beams techniques; 6)the isotopic analysis with mass spectrometry and the accelerated ions beams. In order to be sure of the relevance of the measurements result, it is indicated to combine the advantages and the performances of several techniques as SIMS and NRA or FTIR and ERDA for instance. (O.M.)

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Romali, Noor Suraya; Osmi, Siti Fatimah Che; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu

    2013-01-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person −1 day −1 . Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  11. Edaiila area of interest non-renewable resource assessment (phase 1) Great Bear Lake area, Northwest Territories Parts of NTS 86 K, 86 L, 86 M, 86 N and 96 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, J.S.; Jackson, J.E.; O' Neil, C.E. [AMEC Americas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Earth and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    The Edaiila study area of interest is located in the Deline District of the Sahtu Settlement area in the Northwest Territories. It lies in the Proterozoic Bear geologic province of the Canadian Shield. The area is currently covered by prospecting claims and is likely undergoing exploration for uranium, precious metals, base metals and diamonds. This document presented a Phase 1 non-renewable resource assessment (NRA) of the area that was completed as part of the Northwest Territories Protect Area Strategy (PAS). It presented compiled historical information, provided a preliminary resource assessment and made recommendations for further Phase 2 studies. This region is within the continuous permafrost zone and is characterized by a high subarctic climate. The study area straddles the tree line and contains vegetation typical of taiga and tundra regions. The bedrock covering the flat to gently rolling topography is covered by undulating glacial drift, raised beaches and outwash deposits. About 25 per cent of the area is covered by wetlands. The Bear province is subdivided into two major domains, the Wopmay orogen and the Coppermine homocline. In the eastern portion of the study area, basement rocks are part of the Great Bear magmatic zone and are locally exposed in the Fault River area. Although basement rocks in the western portion of the study area are not exposed, they are assumed to be composed of the Hottah terrane. 86 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs., 4 appendices.

  12. High sensitivity boron quantification in bulk silicon using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, Marcos V.; Silva, Tiago F. da; Added, Nemitala; Rizutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neira, John B.; Neto, Joao B. F. [Institute of Research Tecnology, Cidade Universitaria, SP, 05508-091 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    There is a great need to quantify sub-ppm levels of boron in bulk silicon. There are several methods to analyze B in Si: Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be reaction exhibits a quantification limit of some hundreds ppm of B in Si. Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis offers a detection limit of 5 to 10 at. ppm. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is the method of choice of the semiconductor industry for the analysis of B in Si. This work verifies the use of NRA to quantify B in Si, and the corresponding detection limits. Proton beam with 1.6 up to 2.6 MeV was used to obtain the cross-section of the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction at 170 Degree-Sign scattering angle. The results show good agreementwith literature indicating that the quantification of boron in silicon can be achieved at 100 ppm level (high sensitivity) at LAMFI-IFUSP with about 16% uncertainty. Increasing the detection solid angle and the collected beam charge, can reduce the detection limit to less than 100 ppm meeting present technological needs.

  13. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The NEA has updated, in coordination with the Permanent Delegation of Japan to the OECD, the report on the Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities in Japan. This country report provides comprehensive information on the regulatory and institutional framework governing nuclear activities in Japan. It provides a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. Content: I - General Regulatory Regime: Introduction; Mining regime; Radioactive substances and equipment; Nuclear installations (Reactor Regulation, Emergency response); Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; Radiological protection; Radioactive waste management; Nuclear safeguards and nuclear security; Transport; Nuclear third party liability. II - Institutional Framework: Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Cabinet Office, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), The Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (ANRE), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)); Advisory bodies (Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), Reactor Safety Examination Committee, Nuclear Fuel Safety Examination Committee, Radiation Council, Other advisory bodies); Public and semi-public agencies (Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation (NDF), Nuclear Waste Management Organisation (NUMO))

  14. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  15. Deliberation of Post 3.11 Fast Reactor R&D Strategy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    • New nuclear energy strategy is still in the process of deliberation in Japan. Though many of idled plants will be restarted after renovation of their safety features in accordance with new safety rules set by the NRA, the contribution of nuclear power in Japan will probably not return to the level before 3.11. • Japan is in the process of reviewing its strategy for SFR R&D with a view to making it compatible with the new situation to be realized under new safety regulation as well as new energy strategy to be formulated within a year. • It is contemplated that major emphasis of the SFR R&D should be on a) the completion and use of MONJU, b) FR safety and c) waste minimization, not to mention the making effective use of our knowledge basis and research and engineering capabilities cultivated through the FaCT project in the development of sustainable nuclear energy systems worldwide for future generations of mankind. • Promotion of international cooperation should be an essential ingredient of the strategy

  16. High temperature oxidation resistance of magnetron-sputtered homogeneous CrAlON coatings on 430 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garratt, E; Wickey, K J; Nandasiri, M I; Moore, A; AlFaify, S; Gao, X [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Smith, R J; Buchanan, T L; Priyantha, W; Kopczyk, M; Gannon, P E [Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, 59717 (United States); Kayani, A, E-mail: asghar.kayani@wmich.ed

    2009-11-01

    The requirements of low cost and high-temperature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigated the performance of steel plates with homogenous coatings of CrAlON (oxynitrides). The coatings were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering, with Ar as a sputtering gas. Oxygen in these coatings was not intentionally added. Oxygen might have come through contaminated nitrogen gas bottle, leak in the chamber or from the partial pressure of water vapors. Nitrogen was added during the growth process to get oxynitride coating. The Cr/Al composition ratio in the coatings was varied in a combinatorial approach. The coatings were subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 {sup o}C. The composition of the coated plates and the rate of oxidation were characterized using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Surface characterization was carried out using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and surfaces of the coatings were found smooth on submicron scale. From our results, we conclude that Al rich coatings are more susceptible to oxidation than Cr rich coatings.

  17. In Situ Water Vapor Measurements Using Coupled UV Fragment Fluorescence/Absorption Spectroscopy in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the coupling of dynamics, chemistry, and radiation within the context of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and the national Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) requires, as a first-order priority, high spatial resolution, high-accuracy observations of water in its various phases. Given the powerful diagnostic importance of the condensed phases of water for dynamics and the impact of phase changes in water on the radiation field, the accurate, in situ observation of water vapor is of central importance to CRYSTAL FACE (CF). This is clear both from the defined scientific objectives of the NRA and from developments in the coupled fields of stratosphere/troposphere exchange, cirrus cloud formation/removal and mechanisms for the distribution of water vapor in the middle/upper troposphere. Accordingly, we were funded under NASA Grant NAG5-11548 to perform the following tasks for the CF mission: 1. Prepare the water vapor instrument for integration into the WB57F and test flights scheduled for Spring 2002. 2. Calibrate and prepare the water vapor instrument for the Summer 2002 CF science flights based in Jacksonville, Florida. 3. Provide both science and engineering support for the above-mentioned efforts. 4. Analyze and interpret the CF data in collaboration with other mission scientists. 5. Attend the science workshop in Spring 2003. 6. Publish the data and analysis in peer-reviewed journals.

  18. 3S-R10 automated RBS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, G.A.; Schroeder, J.B.; Klody, G.M.; Strathman, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The NEC 3S-R10 automated RBS spectrometer system includes the features required for routine application of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and related techniques for materials analysis in both research and industrial settings. The NEC Model 3SDH Pelletron accelerator system provides stable, monoenergetic beams of helium ions up to 3.3 MeV and protons to 2.2 MeV and has heavy ion capability. The analytical end station is the fully computerized Charles Evans and Associates Model RBS-400. Automated features include sample positioning (precision 4-axis goniometer), channeling alignment, polar plot generation, and data acquisition and reduction. Computer automation of accelerator and chamber functions includes storage and recall of operating parameters. Unattended data acquisition, e.g., overnight or over a weekend, is possible for up to 100 samples per batch for random orientation, rotating random or channeling analyses at any sample location. Single samples may be up to 50 cm in diameter. A laser for sample alignment and a TV for video monitoring are included. Simultaneous detection (up to 4 detectors) at normal and grazing angles, external control of grazing angle detector position, and transmission scattering capabiltiy enhance system flexibility. The system is also compatible with PIXE, NRA, and hydrogen forward-backscattering analyses. Data reduction is part of the computer system, which features displays (several formats) and manipulation of up to five spectra at one time using constant multipliers or point by point operations between spectra. (orig.)

  19. Application of the UKP-2-1 accelerator of heavy ions in the field of nuclear and radiation physics. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The UKP-2-1 accelerator is intended for research works conducting in the field of solid state physics, low energy nuclear physics, nuclear microanalysis, materials modification and others. The accelerator includes two autonomous beam transporting channels jointed by one accelerating potential. One of the channel is intended for hydrogen and inert gases' ions acceleration, obtained from duoplasmatron. The second one includes the source with cesium dispersion and it is intended for heavy ions acceleration. On the base of the accelerator the set of the analytical methods such as PIXE, RBS, NRA were developed allowing to study of samples element content, distribution of elements by depth, analysis of thin films thickness. The accelerator intensively using in the filed of inertial nuclear fusion and studies on Coulomb energy losses of plasma target fast protons. The experience of the accelerator in different environmental researches is gained as well. In particular of deuterium determination in the water samples by the nuclear reaction method and study of plutonium and uranium distribution in 'hot' particles by the proton-induced X-ray method are developed. Beginning of 1999 on the accelerator a new research activity trend related with nuclear physical analysis methods adaptation on charged particles beams for study of a biological objects has been developed. At present the accelerator hardware does not concedes to hardware of the best world laboratories

  20. Overview of NASA's Space Solar Power Technology Advanced Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Mankins, John C.; Davis, N. Jan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large solar power satellite (SPS) systems that might provide base load power into terrestrial markets were examined extensively in the 1970s by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Following a hiatus of about 15 years, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the 'fresh look' study, and during 1998 in an SSP 'concept definition study', and during 1999-2000 in the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program. As a result of these efforts, during 2001, NASA has initiated the SSP Technology Advanced Research and Development (STAR-Dev) program based on informed decisions. The goal of the STAR-Dev program is to conduct preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt to gigawatt-class space solar power (SSP) systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). Specific objectives include: (1) Release a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for SSP Projects; (2) Conduct systems studies; (3) Develop Component Technologies; (4) Develop Ground and Flight demonstration systems; and (5) Assess and/or Initiate Partnerships. Accomplishing these objectives will allow informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related research and development investments by both NASA management and prospective external partners. In particular, accomplishing these objectives will also guide further definition of SSP and related technology roadmaps including performance objectives, resources and schedules; including 'multi-purpose' applications (commercial, science, and other government).

  1. Study and simulation of the behaviour under irradiation of helium in uranium dioxide; Etude et modelisation du comportement sous irradiation de l'helium dans le dioxyde d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G

    2007-06-15

    Large quantities of helium are produced from {alpha}-decay of actinides in nuclear fuels during its in-pile operating and its storage. It is important to understand the behaviour of helium in these matrix in order to well simulate the evolution and the resistance of the fuel element. During this thesis, we have used nuclear reaction analyses (NRA) to follow the evolution of the helium implanted in polycrystalline and monocrystalline uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). An experimental rig was developed to follow the on-line helium release in UO{sub 2} and the evolution of {sup 3}He profiles as a function of annealing temperature. An automated procedure taking into account the evolution of the depth resolution was developed. Analyses performed with a nuclear microprobe allowed to characterise the spatial distribution of helium at the grain scale and to study the influence of the sample microstructure on the helium migration. This work put into evidence the particular role of grain boundaries and irradiation defects in the helium release process. The analyse of experimental results with a diffusion model corroborates these interpretations. It allowed to determine quantitatively physical properties that characterise the helium behaviour in uranium dioxide (diffusion coefficient, activation energy..). (author)

  2. Novel imaging techniques for the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint, A.

    1998-01-01

    Many of the developments of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been paralleled during the development of the scanning nuclear microprobe. Secondary electrons were used in the early development of both devices to provide specimen imaging due to the large numbers of secondaries produced per incident charged particle. Other imaging contrast techniques have also been developed on both machines. These include X-ray analysis, scattering contrast, transmission microscopy, channelling induced charge and others. The 'cross-section dependent' imaging techniques such as PIXE, RBS, NRA, etc., rely on the beam current on target for a given resolution. This has prompted research and development of brighter ion sources to maintain probe resolution at high beam current. Higher beam current bring problems with beam damage to the specimen. Low beam current techniques however rely on high countrate data collection systems, but this is only for spectroscopy. To produce an image we can increase beam currents to produce live-time images for specimen manipulation and observation. The work presented here will focus on some developments in live-time imaging with a nuclear micro probe that have taken place recently at the School of Physics, Microanalytical Research Centre (MARC), University of Melbourne

  3. Lithium analysis using a double-sided silicon strip detector at LIBAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Nathaly; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E. J. Charlotta; Ros, Linus; Elfman, Mikael; Pallon, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Quantification and mapping possibilities of lithium in geological material, by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), was evaluated at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). LiF and two Standard Reference Materials, (SRM 610 and SRM 612) were used in the investigation. The main part of the data was obtained at the beam energy 635 keV studying the high Q-value reaction 7Li(p, α)4He, but reaction yield and detection limits were also briefly investigated as a function of the energy. A double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) was used to detect the α -particles emitted in the reaction in the backward direction. The combination of the high Q-value, a reasonably good cross-section and the possibility to use a high beam current have been demonstrated to allow for measurement of concentrations down below 50 ppm. Proton energies below 800 keV were demonstrated to be appropriate energies for extracting lithium in combination with boron analysis.

  4. The status of the AMS system at MALT in its 20th year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Chuichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoko S.; Ito, Seiji; Morita, Akira; Kusuno, Haruka; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Kawamoto, Marina; Tokuyama, Hironori

    2015-10-01

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) was designed for a 'highly sensitive and precise elemental and isotopic microanalysis system' using an ion-beam generated by a Pelletron™ 5UD tandem accelerator. Currently, a multi-nuclide AMS (10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 129I) system is available and shows good performance in both precision and sensitivity, and the accelerator serves for PIXE, NRA, ERDA/RBS measurements as well. The total operation time of the accelerator has been over 95,000 hours since the start of MALT, 20 years ago. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, many projects related to 129I have been conducted. The retrospective reconstruction of the 131I distribution at the accident from 129I is one of the most important missions for dose evaluation of the residents. The accident-derived 129I is also quite useful as a tracer for the general iodine dynamics in the environment. As a new tool for environmental assessment related to nuclear activity, including the global fallout from past atmospheric nuclear bomb testing, effects from the spent fuel reprocessing plant, and nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and FDNPP, a 236U-AMS system is now under development.

  5. Thermal process induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S. C.; Fan, J. C.; Ling, C. C.

    2012-02-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method with different substrate temperature TS. Growing with the low substrate temperature of TS=200°C yielded n-type semi-insulating sample. Increasing the substrate temperature would yield p-type ZnO film and reproducible p-type film could be produced at TS~450°C. Post-growth annealing of the n-type As-doped ZnO sample grown at the low substrate temperature (TS=200°C) in air at 500°C also converted the film to p-type conductivity. Further increasing the post-growth annealing temperature would convert the p-type sample back to n-type. With the results obtained from the studies of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), we have proposed mechanisms to explain for the thermal process induced conduction type conversion as observed in the As-doped ZnO films.

  6. Materials research with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This report gives a series of helpful programs which are used in materials research with ion beams. In this context algorithms which can substitute table books are dealt with. This is true for the programs DEDX and PRAL; they are used in order to determine the energy loss of ions in solid bodies, their working range and straggling. Furthermore, simulator routines and analyzers are described. The program TRIM simulates the physical phenomena which occur with the penetration of high-energy ions into solid bodies. In this context electronic excitations, phonons and lattice distortions which are caused by the ions are dealt with. For the experimental ion implantation it is interesting to know the final distribution of the simulated ions in the solid body. The program RBS simulates the Rutherford spectrum of ions which are scattered from a solid body which may consist of up to nine elements and up to one hundred layers. The unknown composition of a solid body can be determined in direct comparison with the experimental spectrum. The program NRA determines concentration and penetrative distribution of an impurity by means of the experimental nuclear reaction spectrum of this impurity. All programs are written in FORTRAN 77. (orig./MM) [de

  7. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyukwang Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online.

  8. Scientific-technical cooperation with foreign (esp. Europe and INSC partner countries) nuclear regulatory authorities and their technical support organizations in the fields of nuclear safety of operating nuclear power plants and on the concept evaluation of generation 3+ plants. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit (WTZ) mit auslaendischen (insbesondere in Europa und INSC-Partnerstaaten) atomrechtlichen Behoerden und deren Sachverstaendigenorganisationen zur nuklearen Sicherheit in Betrieb befindlicher Kernkraftwerke und zur Konzeptbewertung von Generation-3+-Anlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Holger

    2016-09-15

    The BMUB/BfS-Project 3614I01512 forms the frame of the GRS for the scientific-technical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety in operating NPPs and for the concept evaluation of generation 3{sup +} plants in Europe and INSC Partner Countries. In the present final project report results are described which were gained within the project duration 15.10.2014 up to the 30.09.2016 in the following working packages: Investigations following the catastrophe of Fukushima Daiichi, Evaluation of selected National Action Plans, DBA and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000), cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3{sup +} and building NRA and safety evaluation capacities and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste. The results are preceded by an outline on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  9. Application of filtered containment venting system to the Shimane No.2 NPP, July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzawa, Katsunori; Usui, Toshimitsu; Naitou, Keita; Kashiwakura, Jun; Kushima, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Urgent safety measures which secure power supply and cooling function and prevent flood are being implemented promptly in Shimane nuclear power station to prevent damage of nuclear reactors and the spent fuel based on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident from tsunami caused by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake on March 11, 2011. In order to improve the safety of the power station furthermore, various safety measures such as enhancement of basic design facilities to prevent severe accident from happening and installation of additional facilities to prevent it from expanding are also being implemented earnestly with consideration for multiplicity and diversity of the measures to secure its safety. As for safety measures for Shimane No.2 nuclear power plant, the plan of the safety measures have been submitted to NRA as applications for Establishment Permission, Construction Permission and applications of amendments to be assessed on the basis of the New Regulation effectuated on July, 2013. The validity of the plan is now under review. This paper explains the outline of the safety measures of Shimane No.2 nuclear power plant and the design outline and current status of the installation of Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS). FCVS is one of the important facilities of all safety measures to prevent severe accident from expanding, and it is applied to Japanese nuclear power plant for the first time. (author)

  10. Solar driven electrochromic photoelectrochemical fuel cells for simultaneous energy conversion, storage and self-powered sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhu; Zhang, Lina; Cui, Kang; Xu, Caixia; Li, Hao; Liu, Hong; Yu, Jinghua

    2018-02-15

    One solar-driven electrochromic photoelectrochemical fuel cell (PFC) with highly efficient energy conversion and storage is easily constructed to achieve quantitative self-powered sensing. Layered bismuth oxyiodide-zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO@BiOI NRA) with a core/shell p-n heterostructure are fabricated as the photoanode with electrochromic Prussian blue (PB) as the cathode. The core/shell p-n heterostructure for the ZnO@BiOI photoanode can effectively boost the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance through the improvement of photon absorption and charge carrier separation. The optimal assembled PFC yields an open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.48 V with the maximum power output density (P max ) as high as 155 μW cm -2 upon illumination. Benefitting from the interactive color-changing behavior of PB, the cathode not only exhibits cathodic catalytic activity in the PFC but also serves as an electrochromic display for self-powered sensing. The as-constructed PFC possesses multiple readable signal output nanochannels through the maximum power output density (P max ) of the PFC or the color change of PB. Meanwhile, the dual-signal-output makes the as-constructed self-powered sensor highly available in various operations demands with the enhanced reliability. With the advantages of high efficiency of PFCs, unique assay ability, and broad environmental suitability, the constructed self-powered platform shows broad application prospects as an integrated smart analytical device.

  11. Behavior of liquid Li-Sn alloy as plasma facing material on ISTTOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J.P.S., E-mail: jpsloureiro@ipfn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Tabarés, F.L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Ciemat, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Gomes, R.; Alves, E.; Mateus, R.; Pereira, T.; Alves, H.; Figueiredo, H. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-04-15

    The high power loads impinging on the first wall and particularly the divertor of fusion reactors is a decisive factor to the success of nuclear fusion. An alternative to solid plasma facing components is the use of liquid metals such as lithium or tin due to the regenerative properties of the liquid surface. Another suitable candidate is the eutectic lithium tin alloy (30 at.% Li) which is suggested to display beneficial properties of both its constituent elements. The application of these materials as liquid metal plasma facing components depends on several factors such as their affinity to retain hydrogenic isotopes and the discharge performance degradation induced by the enhanced impurity contamination, among others. An experimental setup has been developed to produce and expose samples to ISTTOK plasmas on both liquid and solid states. Samples of Li-Sn alloy were exposed at ISTTOK to deuterium plasmas. Post-mortem analysis of the samples was performed by means of ion beam diagnostics. To quantify the fuel retention on the samples the nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique was applied. Complementary, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used for determination material composition, particularly of impurities, on the samples. Regardless of the high sensitivity of these techniques no deuterium was detected in the samples. Emission of the Li-I 670.7 nm line indicates that there was interaction of the plasma with the samples. Alternative reasons for the low retention of this material are discussed. Lithium segregation to the surface of the sample was observed.

  12. SIMS analyses of ultra-low-energy B ion implants in Si: Evaluation of profile shape and dose accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, C.W.; Hockett, R.S.; Bueyueklimanli, T.H.; Abdelrehim, I.; Marino, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous experimental studies for near-surface analyses of B in Si have shown that the B distribution within the top few nanometers is distorted by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiling with O 2 -flooding or normal incidence O 2 bombardment. Furthermore, the presence of surface oxide affects the X j determination as well as B profile shape when SIMS analyses are conducted while fully oxidizing the analytical area. Nuclear techniques such as elastic recoil detection (ERD), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (HR-RBS), are known to provide a profile shape near the surface that is free of artifacts. Comparisons with SIMS analyses have shown that SIMS analyses without fully oxidizing the analytical area agree well with these techniques at sufficiently high concentrations (where the nuclear techniques are applicable). The ability to measure both the B profile and an oxide marker with this non-oxidizing SIMS technique also allows accurate positioning of the B profile with respect to the SiO 2 /Si interface. This SIMS analysis protocol has been used to study the differences in near-surface dopant distribution for plasma-based implants. This study specifically focuses on measuring near-surface profile shapes as well as total implant doses for ultra-shallow B implants in Si especially those made with high peak B concentrations

  13. Hydrogen Charging Effects in Pd/Ti/TiO2/Ti Thin Films Deposited on Si(111 Studied by Ion Beam Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Drogowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and titanium dioxide thin films were deposited onto Si(111 substrates by magnetron sputtering from a metallic Ti target in a reactive Ar+O2 atmosphere, the composition of which was controlled by precision gas controllers. For some samples, 1/3 of the surface was covered with palladium using molecular beam epitaxy. Chemical composition, density, and layer thickness of the layers were determined by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS. The surface morphology was studied using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM. After deposition, smooth, homogenous sample surfaces were observed. Hydrogen charging for 5 hours under pressure of 1 bar and at temperature of 300°C results in granulation of the surface. Hydrogen depth profile was determined using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS and nuclear Reaction Analysis (N-15 method, using a 15N beam at and above the resonance energy of 6.417 MeV. NRA measurements proved a higher hydrogen concentration in samples with partially covered top layers, than in samples without palladium. The highest value of H concentration after charging was about 50% (in the palladium-covered part and about 40% in titanium that was not covered by Pd. These values are in good agreement with the results of SIMS measurements.

  14. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Andreas; Gupta, Prasanth; Mohr, Berit; Hübner, René; Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert; Becker, Hans-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N, αγ)12C (Eres = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0-10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp2 hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  15. High Energy Ion Beam Studies of Ion Exchange in a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutthanadan, Vaithiyalingam; Baer, Donald R.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Adams, Evan M.; Maheswaran, Saravanamuthu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, Bernard P.

    2002-01-01

    As part of understanding the processes leading to sodium release and ion exchange, the surface and near surface reaction regions on several specimens of a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass have been examined after exposures to isotopically labeled aqueous solutions. The majority of the analyses describe here have been carried out using energetic ion beam analysis. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been used to measure the overall glass composition and to determine the profiles and amounts of Na released from the surface. An important part of the ion exchange process is the uptake and incorporation of hydrogen and oxygen in the glass from the solution. To facilitate this analysis, the glasses were exposed to a solution containing 18O and deuterium and analyzed by accelerator based nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). To confirm some of the RBS depth profile data very near the surface, XPS depth profiles were collected on some samples. Although the Na concentration is decreased in the near surface region, it is not totally removed from the outer surface. In this same region, there is also a significant amount of 18O incorporated demonstrating considerable interaction between the water and the glass. Deeper into the material the amounts of deuterium and 18O are more consistent with water or H3O+ diffusion. These results suggest that there exist an outer reaction layer and an inner diffusion controlled layer in the surface region of the reacted glass

  16. Annual technical report of the prototype fast breeder reactor Monju. 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    The prototype fast breeder reactor Monju has accumulated technical achievements in order to establish the fast breeder reactor cycle technology in Japan using the operation and maintenance experience, etc. This annual report summarizes the principal achievements and the data related to the plant management in Monju in fiscal 2013. From the aspect of the management and design evaluation, the following items are summarized: 1) Current status of coping with the order from NRA to alter the safety regulations. 2) Implementation status of reformation of Monju. 3) Current status of the additional geological surveys of crush zones at the Monju site. 4) Development of core seismic assessment method for FBR. Then, from the aspect of the operation and maintenance technology, the following items are summarized: 1) Response to the administrative order to the defect of maintenance management (Part 2). 2) Performance confirmation of the failed fuel detection and location system. 3) Deviation from the limiting conditions for operation in the emergency diesel generator periodic test and so on. Furthermore, from the aspect of the plant management, this report summarizes the data related to the main topics, the history of plant condition, the sodium and water purity management, the radioactive waste management, the equipment inspection and so on. (author)

  17. The hydroxylation of passive oxide films on X-70 steel by dissolved hydrogen studied by nuclear reaction analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunsi; Luo Jingli; Munoz-Paniagua, David; Norton, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    Dissolved hydrogen is known to reduce the corrosion resistance of a passive oxide film on iron and its alloys, especially towards pitting corrosion. Electrochemical techniques have been used to show that the passive films are changed by dissolved hydrogen in an alloy substrate, but direct confirmation of the chemical and compositional profiles and changes has been missing. In this paper we report the direct profiling and compositional analysis of the 4 nm passive film on X-70 steel by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) while hydrogen (deuterium) is charged into the alloy samples from the reverse, unpassivated side. The only route for D to the passive film is therefore by dissolution and diffusion. We show that the original duplex structure of the passive film is converted to a more continuous film containing hydroxyl groups, by reaction with the dissolved hydrogen. This conversion of the oxide ions to hydroxyl groups can lead to more rapid reaction and replacement with (e.g.) Cl - , which is known to enhance pitting. These results are entirely consistent with previous electrochemical studies and provide the first direct confirmation of models on the formation and role of hydroxyl groups derived from these earlier studies

  18. Depth profile analysis of thin TiOxNy films using standard ion beam analysis techniques and HERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, A.; Dytlewski, N.; Cohen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Ion beam assisted deposition is used to fabricate thin titanium oxynitride films (TiO x N y ) at Industrial Research (typical film thickness 100nm). At the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, the thin films are analysed using non-destructive standard ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques. High-resolution titanium depth profiles are measured with RBS using 1.5MeV 4 He + ions. Non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is performed for investigating the amounts of O and N in the deposited films using the reactions 16 O(d,p) 17 O at 920 keV and 14 N(d,α) 12 C at 1.4 MeV. Using a combination of these nuclear techniques, the stoichiometry as well as the thickness of the layers is revealed. However, when oxygen and nitrogen depth profiles are required for investigating stoichiometric changes in the films, additional nuclear analysis techniques such as heavy ion elastic recoil detection (HERDA) have to be applied. With HERDA, depth profiles of N, O, and Ti are measured simultaneously. In this paper comparative IBA measurement s of TiO x N y films with different compositions are presented and discussed

  19. Measurement and Analysis of Composition and Depth Profile of H in Amorphous Si1−xCx:H Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hua; Shu-De, Yao; Kun, Wang; Zhi-Bo, Ding

    2008-01-01

    Composition in amorphous Si 1−X C x :H heteroepitaxial thin films on Si (100) by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is analysed. The unknown x (0.45–0.57) and the depth profile of hydrogen in the thin films are characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrum (RBS), resonance-nuclear reaction analysis (R-NRA) and elastic recoil detection (ERD), respectively. In addition, the depth profile of hydrogen in the unannealed thin films is compared to that of the annealed thin films with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or laser spike annealing (LSA) in nitrogen atmosphere. The results indicate that the stoichiometric amorphous SiC can be produced by PECVD when the ratio of CH 4 /SiH 4 is approximately equal to 25. The content of hydrogen decreases suddenly from 35% to 1% after 1150° C annealing. RTA can reduce hydrogen in SiC films effectively than LSA. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. IBA of ZrO2:Yb/Si thin films produced by the spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Ramirez, E.B.; Alonso, J.C.; Rocha, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    A spray pyrolysis method was used to produce thin films of ZrO 2 doped with different Yb concentrations on Si(1 0 0). The films of these ionic semiconductors have potential applications as solid electrolytes in modern ceramic fuel cells of second generation. The determination of the atomic composition of the films is very important because it strongly affects the chemical and thermal stability, as well as electrical properties of the films. A combination of two Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) methods was applied to obtain the atomic composition of the films. A nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) method using a low energy deuterium beam was applied to measure the oxygen content of the films. Heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HI-RBS) method using a 12 C 3+ beam was applied to measure the Yb and Zr atomic profiles of the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ellipsometry were also employed to determine structural properties and refractive index of the films, respectively. The IBA, XRD and the ellipsometry supply a wide range of information about the film layers, which can be used for qualification as well as for feedback to the films production

  1. Investigation of lithium PFC surface characteristics and low recycling at LTX/LTX-Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Anurag; Kaita, Robert; Elliott, Drew; Boyle, Dennis; Majeski, Richard; Donovan, David; Buzi, Luxherta; Koel, Bruce E.; Biewer, Theodore M.

    2017-10-01

    Lithium coatings on high-Z PFCs at LTX have led to improved plasma performance. The initial hypothesis was that lithium retains hydrogen by forming lithium hydride and thereby enabling low recycling in LTX. However, recent in-vacuo measurements indicate the presence of lithium oxide in deposited lithium coatings. Improved plasma performance continued to be observed in the presence of lithium oxide. These observations raise questions like what is the nature of the lithium oxide surface, whether the PFC is an amorphous mixture of lithium and lithium oxide or something more ordered like a lithium oxide layer growing on top of lithium, and whether lithium oxide is responsible for any retention of hydrogen from the plasma. To investigate the mechanism by which the LTX PFC might be responsible for low recycling, we discuss the results of deuterium retention measurements using NRA/RBS and sample characterization using high resolution XPS (HR-XPS) in bulk lithium samples. Baseline HR-XPS scans indicate the presence of Lithium Oxide on sputtered lithium samples. Status of related planned experiments at LTX- β will also be discussed. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 and DE-AC02-09CH11466. BEK acknowledges support of this work by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science/FES under Award Number DE-SC0012890.

  2. The investigation of structure, chemical composition, hydrogen isotope trapping and release processes in deposition layers on surfaces exposed to DIII-D divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzhinskij, O.I.; Opimach, I.V.; Barsuk, V.A.; Arkhipov, I.I.; Whyte, D.; Wampler, W.R.

    1998-05-01

    The exposure of ATG graphite sample to DIII-D divertor plasma was provided by the DiMES (Divertor Material Evaluation System) mechanism. The graphite sample arranged to receive the parallel heat flux on a small region of the surface was exposed to 600ms of outer strike point plasma. The sample was constructed to collect the eroded material directed downward into a trapping zone onto s Si disk collector. The average heat flux onto the graphite sample during the exposure was about 200W/cm 2 , and the parallel heat flux was about 10 KW/cm 2 . After the exposure the graphite sample and Si collector disk were analyzed using SEM, NRA, RBS, Auger spectroscopy. IR and Raman spectroscopy. The thermal desorption was studied also. The deposited coating on graphite sample is amorphous carbon layer. Just upstream of the high heat flux zone the redeposition layer has a globular structure. The deposition layer on Si disk is composed also from carbon but has a diamond-like structure. The areal density of C and D in the deposited layer on Si disk varied in poloidal and toroidal directions. The maximum D/C areal density ratio is about 0.23, maximum carbon density is about 3.8 x 10 18 cm -2 , maximum D area density is about 3 x 10 17 cm 2 . The thermal desorption spectrum had a peak at 1,250K

  3. Ion channeling study of defects in multicomponent semiconductor compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turos, A.; Nowicki, L.; Stonert, A.

    2002-01-01

    Compound semiconductor crystals are of great technological importance as basic materials for production of modern opto- and microelectronic devices. Ion implantation is one of the principal techniques for heterostructures processing. This paper reports the results of the study of defect formation and transformation in binary and ternary semiconductor compounds subjected to ion implantation with ions of different mass and energy. The principal analytical technique was He-ion channeling. The following materials were studied: GaN and InGaN epitaxial layers. First the semi empirical method of channeling spectra analysis for ion implanted multicomponent single crystal was developed. This method was later complemented by the more sophisticated method based on the Monte Carlo simulation of channeling spectra. Next, the damage buildup in different crystals and epitaxial layers as a function of the implantation dose was studied for N, Mg, Te, and Kr ions. The influence of the substrate temperature on the defect transformations was studied for GaN epitaxial layers implanted with Mg ions. Special attention was devoted to the study of growth conditions of InGaN/GaN/sapphire heterostructures, which are important component of the future blue laser diodes. In-atom segregation and tetragonal distortion of the epitaxial layer were observed and characterized. Next problem studied was the incorporation of hydrogen atoms in GaAs and GaN. Elastic recoil detection (ERDA) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) were applied for the purpose. (author)

  4. Deuterium Inventory in Tore Supra (DITS): 2nd post-mortem analysis campaign and fuel retention in the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmar, T.; Tsitrone, E.; Pegourie, B.; Cadez, I.; Pelicon, P.; Gauthier, E.; Languille, P.; Likonen, J.; Litnovsky, A.; Markelj, S.; Martin, C.; Mayer, M.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Pardanaud, C.; Philipps, V.; Roth, J.; Roubin, P.; Vavpetic, P.

    2011-01-01

    A dedicated study on fuel retention has been launched in Tore Supra, which includes a D wall-loading campaign and the dismantling of the main limiter (Deuterium Inventory in Tore Supra, DITS project). This paper presents new results from a second post-mortem analysis campaign on 40 tiles with special emphasis on the D retention in the gaps. SIMS analysis reveals that only 1/3 of the thickness of deposits in the plasma shadowed zones are due to the DITS wall-loading campaign. As pre-DITS deposits contain less D than DITS deposits, the contribution of DITS to the D inventory is about 30-50%. The new estimate for the total amount of D retained in the Tore Supra limiter is 1.7 x 10 24 atoms, close to the previous estimate, with the gap surfaces contributing about 33%. NRA measurements show a stepped decrease of D along the gap with strong asymmetries between different gap orientations.

  5. Surrey Ion Beam Centre: the EPSRC MRF for ion beam applications - 01002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The SIBC (Surrey Ion Beam Centre) is an element of the Virtual Ion Beam Centre that coordinates 3 U.K. experimental facilities: SIBC (University of Surrey) for implantation and ion beam applications, Miami and MEIS facility (University of Huddersfield) and gamma ray and neutron irradiation emulation facility (University of Manchester). The SIBC works actively with industry, developing bespoke processes and services, particularly for the photonics industry and provides ion beam facilities to about 20 companies across the world. It operates a stringent quality control program and is one of the few ion beam laboratories in the world to operate under ISO 9001 certification. The equipment of SIBC is presented and some applications of ion beam analysis concerning the identification of gunshot residues, the determination of the origin of a painting, the analysis of proteins are described. Different techniques such as PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy), NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis), SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) are also explained in the slides of the presentation that have been added at the end of the paper

  6. Lattice location of O{sup 18} in ion implanted Fe crystals by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, channeling and nuclear reaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vairavel, Mathayan; Sundaravel, Balakrishnan, E-mail: bsundar@igcar.gov.in; Panigrahi, Binaykumar

    2016-09-15

    There are contradictory theoretical predictions of lattice location of oxygen interstitial atom at tetrahedral and octahedral interstices in bcc Fe. For validating these predictions, 300 keV O{sup 18} ions with fluence of 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} are implanted into bcc Fe single crystals at room temperature and annealed at 400 °C. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA)/channeling measurements are carried out with 850 keV protons. The lattice location of implanted O{sup 18} is analysed using the α-particles yield from O{sup 18}(p,α)N{sup 15} nuclear reaction. The tilt angular scans of α-particle yield along 〈110〉 and 〈100〉 axial directions are performed at room temperature. Lattice location of O{sup 18} is found to be at tetrahedral interstitial site by comparing the experimental scan with simulated scans using FLUX7 software.

  7. Boron lattice location in room temperature ion implanted Si crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, A.M.; Romano, L.; Mirabella, S.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    The B lattice location in presence of a Si-self-interstitial (I Si ) supersaturation, controlled by energetic proton bombardment, has been studied by means of ion channelling and massive Monte Carlo simulations. B-doped layers of Si crystals with a B concentration of 1 x 10 2 B/cm 3 were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Point defect engineering techniques, with light energetic ion implants, have been applied to generate an I Si uniform injection in the electrically active layer. The displacement of B atoms out of substitutional lattice sites was induced by 650 keV proton irradiations at room temperature (R.T.) and the resultant defect configuration was investigated by ion channelling and Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques. Angular scans were measured both through and axes along the (1 0 0) plane using the 11 B(p,α) 8 Be nuclear reaction at 650 keV proton energy. Monte Carlo simulated angular scans were calculated considering a variety of theoretical defect configurations, supported by literature, and compared with experimental data. Our experimental scans can be fitted by a linear combination of small (0.3 A) and large B displacements (1.25 A) along the direction, compatible with the B-dumbbell oriented along as proposed by ab initio calculations

  8. Characteristics of Control Laws Tested on the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T) Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christhilf, David M.; Moulin, Boris; Ritz, Erich; Chen, P. C.; Roughen, Kevin M.; Perry, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Span Supersonic Transport (S4T) is an aeroelastically scaled wind-tunnel model built to test active controls concepts for large flexible supersonic aircraft in the transonic flight regime. It is one of several models constructed in the 1990's as part of the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. Control laws were developed for the S4T by M4 Engineering, Inc. and by Zona Technologies, Inc. under NASA Research Announcement (NRA) contracts. The model was tested in the NASA-Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) four times from 2007 to 2010. The first two tests were primarily for plant identification. The third entry was used for testing control laws for Ride Quality Enhancement, Gust Load Alleviation, and Flutter Suppression. Whereas the third entry only tested FS subcritically, the fourth test demonstrated closed-loop operation above the open-loop flutter boundary. The results of the third entry are reported elsewhere. This paper reports on flutter suppression results from the fourth wind-tunnel test. Flutter suppression is seen as a way to provide stability margins while flying at transonic flight conditions without penalizing the primary supersonic cruise design condition. An account is given for how Controller Performance Evaluation (CPE) singular value plots were interpreted with regard to progressing open- or closed-loop to higher dynamic pressures during testing.

  9. NASA's Plans for Materials Science on ISS: Cooperative Utilization of the MSRR-MSL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis; Szofran, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The ISS Research Project draws Life (non-human) and Physical Sciences investigations on the ISS, free flyer and ground-based into one coordinated project. The project has two categories: I. Exploration Research Program: a) Utilizes the ISS as a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) test bed for technology development, demonstration and problem resolution in the areas of life support, fire safety, power, propulsion, thermal management, materials technology, habitat design, etc.; b) Will include endorsement letters from other ETDP projects to show relevancy. II. Non-Exploration Research Program; a) Not directly related to supporting the human exploration program. Research conducted in the life (non-human) and physical sciences; b) The program will sustain, to the maximum extent practicable, the United States scientific expertise and research capability in fundamental microgravity research. Physical Sciences has about 44 grants, and Life Sciences has approximately 32 grants, mostly with universities, to conduct low TRL research; this includes grants to be awarded from the 2008 Fluid Physics and Life Science NRA's.

  10. Japan: Sendai, first reactor to restart. Sendai restart: how does it work? Japan: restart will be 'progressive'. 2015: which role for nuclear energy in Japan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris; Jouette, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    A set of articles addresses the restart of nuclear plants in Japan. The first one presents the Sendai nuclear plant, evokes the commitment of the Japanese nuclear safety authority (the NRA) at each step of the restart process, the agreement of local populations, the loading of the nuclear fuel, a successful crisis exercise, and the benefits expected from this restart. The second article addresses the restart process with its administrative aspects, the implication of local authorities, its technical aspects, and investments made to improve nuclear safety. The third article proposes an interview of the nuclear expert of the French embassy in Tokyo. He outlines that the restart of nuclear plants will be progressive, comments how Sendai restart has been commented in the Japanese press, evokes how this restart is part of the Japanese Prime Minister's policy, evokes the role and challenges of nuclear energy in Japan for the years to come, and the role France may play. The last article discusses the role of nuclear energy in Japan in 2015: importance of the old 3E policy (Energy, Environment, Economy) which is put into question again by the Fukushima accident, creation of a new nuclear safety authority as a first step before restarting nuclear reactors

  11. Preliminary results of oxygen isotope ratio measurement with a particle-gamma coincidence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiuk, Maciek, E-mail: maciek.borysiuk@pixe.lth.se; Kristiansson, Per; Ros, Linus; Abdel, Nassem S.; Elfman, Mikael; Nilsson, Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to study variations in the oxygen isotopic ratio with photon tagged nuclear reaction analysis (pNRA) is evaluated in the current work. The experiment described in the article was performed at Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF) with a 2 MeV deuteron beam. Isotopic fractionation of light elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen is the basis of many analytical tools in hydrology, geology, paleobiology and paleogeology. IBA methods provide one possible tool for measurement of isotopic content. During this experimental run we focused on measurement of the oxygen isotopic ratio. The measurement of stable isotopes of oxygen has a number of applications; the particular one driving the current investigation belongs to the field of astrogeology and specifically evaluation of fossil extraterrestrial material. There are three stable isotopes of oxygen: {sup 16}O, {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O. We procured samples highly enriched with all three isotopes. Isotopes {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O were easily detected in the enriched samples, but no significant signal from {sup 17}O was detected in the same samples. The measured yield was too low to detect {sup 18}O in a sample with natural abundances of oxygen isotopes, at least in the current experimental setup, but the spectral line from the reaction with {sup 16}O was clearly visible.

  12. Nuclear reaction data for IBA applications to cultural heritage diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maino, G.; Menapace, E.

    2008-01-01

    Main aspects are discussed concerning nuclear reaction cross-sections for PIXE and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission) analyses, especially referring to cultural heritage diagnostics, within the framework of ion beam analysis (IBA) methods, also reviewing recent results from international Conferences on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology and from NEANSC meetings and IAEA initiatives on the matter.To sum up this work, it is then worth remarking the following items: IBA techniques are powerful tools to derive unique information as for corrosion, degradation and, generally, conservation conditions of materials. Careful analyses of specific systems require accurate evaluations and establishment of complete databases, in particular for stopping powers and relevant cross sections. The physical parameters to be accurately determined are, therefore, nuclear reaction cross sections of importance for NRA analysis of light elements and stopping powers and ranges of light and heavy ions in various matrices. Light elements (H, Li, B, C, N, O, etc.) play an important role as constituents of many important organic as well inorganic materials in historical and artistic objects. To a large extent these materials occur in the near-surface area of a material with altered or degraded composition

  13. Nuclear reaction data for IBA applications to cultural heritage diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maino, G.; Menapace, E. [Bologna Univ., ENEA (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    Main aspects are discussed concerning nuclear reaction cross-sections for PIXE and PIGE (Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission) analyses, especially referring to cultural heritage diagnostics, within the framework of ion beam analysis (IBA) methods, also reviewing recent results from international Conferences on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology and from NEANSC meetings and IAEA initiatives on the matter.To sum up this work, it is then worth remarking the following items: IBA techniques are powerful tools to derive unique information as for corrosion, degradation and, generally, conservation conditions of materials. Careful analyses of specific systems require accurate evaluations and establishment of complete databases, in particular for stopping powers and relevant cross sections. The physical parameters to be accurately determined are, therefore, nuclear reaction cross sections of importance for NRA analysis of light elements and stopping powers and ranges of light and heavy ions in various matrices. Light elements (H, Li, B, C, N, O, etc.) play an important role as constituents of many important organic as well inorganic materials in historical and artistic objects. To a large extent these materials occur in the near-surface area of a material with altered or degraded composition.

  14. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, Andreas, E-mail: A.Markwitz@gns.cri.nz [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Gupta, Prasanth [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, Berit [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Hübner, René [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Becker, Hans-Werner [RUBION, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, αγ){sup 12}C (E{sub res} = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0–10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp{sup 2} hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  15. Investigation of hydrogen micro-kinetics in metals with ion beam implantation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.; Peng, H.B.; Lv, H.Y.; Han, Y.C.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important subjects in the fusion material research is to study the hydrogen and helium concentration, diffusion and evolution in the structure material of fusion reactor, since the hydrogen and helium can be continuously produced by the large dose fast neutron irradiation on material. Various analysis Methods can be used, but the ion beam analysis method has some advantages for studying the hydrogen behaviors in nano- or micrometer resolution. In this work, the hydrogen motion and three-dimensional distribution after implantation into metal has been studied by resonance NRA, micro-ERDA and XRD etc Methods. The resolution of the H-depth-profile is in nanometer level and the lateral resolution can be reached to 2 micrometers. The evolution of hydrogen depth-profile in a titanium sample has been studied versus the change of normal stress in samples. Evident hydrogen diffusion has been observed, while a normal stress is changed in the range of 107-963 MPa. A new phase transformation during the hydrogenation is observed by the in-situ XRD analysis. The further study on the hydrogen behaviors in the structure materials of fusion reactor is in plan. (authors)

  16. A new ion beam facility based on a 3 MV Tandetron™ at IFIN-HH, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Ghiță, D. G.; Moșu, D. V.; Călinescu, C. I.; Podaru, N. C.; Mous, D. J. W.; Ursu, I.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    A 3 MV Tandetron™ accelerator system has been installed and commissioned at the "Horia Hulubei" National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, Măgurele, Romania. The main purpose of this machine is to strengthen applied nuclear physics research ongoing in our institute for more than four decades. The accelerator system was developed by High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V. (HVE) and comprises three high energy beam lines. The first beam line is dedicated to ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry - RBS, Nuclear Reaction Analysis - NRA, Particle Induced X-ray and γ-ray Emission - PIXE and PIGE and micro-beam experiments - μ-PIXE. The second beam line is dedicated to high energy ion implantation experiments and the third beam line was designed mainly for nuclear cross-sections measurements used in nuclear astrophysics. A unique feature, the first time in operation at an accelerator facility is the Na charge exchange canal (CEC), which is used to obtain high intensity beams of He- of at least 3 μA. The results of the acceptance tests demonstrate the huge potential of this new facility in various fields, from IBA to radiation hardness studies and from medical or environmental applications to astrophysics. The main features of the accelerator are presented in this paper.

  17. Development of ΔE-E telescope ERDA with 40 MeV {sup 35}Cl{sup 7+} beam at MALT in the University of Tokyo optimized for analysis of metal oxynitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harayama, I.; Nagashima, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hirose, Y. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuzaki, H. [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Sekiba, D., E-mail: sekiba@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tandem Accelerator Complex, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a compact ΔE-E telescope elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) system, for the first time at Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem Accelerator (MALT) in the University of Tokyo, which consists of a gas ionization chamber and solid state detector (SSD) for the quantitative analysis of light elements. The gas ionization chamber is designed to identify the recoils of O and N from metal oxynitrides thin films irradiated with 40 MeV {sup 35}Cl{sup 7+}. The length of the electrodes along the beam direction is 50 mm optimized to sufficiently separate energy loss of O and N recoils in P10 gas at 6.0 × 10{sup 3} Pa. The performance of the gas ionization chamber was examined by comparing the ERDA results on the SrTaO{sub 2}N thin films with semi-empirical simulation and the chemical compositions previously determined by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). We also confirmed availability of the gas ionization chamber for identifying not only the recoils of O and N but also those of lithium, carbon and fluorine.

  18. Structure and properties of hybrid coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnjak, A.D.; Vasilyuk, V.V.; Kravchenko, Yu.A.; Tyurin, Yu.N.; Alontseva, D.L.; Ponaryadov, V.V.; Ruzimov, Sh.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This review report presents both the results obtained by the authors and those of other authors concerning investigations of structure and properties of hybrid coatings. Examples of such coatings as Al 2 O 3 /Cr/TiN/steel, TiC; TiN/Ti-V-Al; NiCr/steel; CrNiBSi/steel and others before and after electron beam irradiation had been considered. In these coatings the thickest layer was deposited using the high-velocity pulsed plasma jet, all others being deposited in vacuum by the vacuum-arc source or implanter. Advantages of the high-velocity pulsed plasma jet in comparison with other technologies had been demonstrated. A wide spectrum of analyzing methods had been applied for analyses: TEM, SEM with EDS, RBS, NRA, SIMS, XRD, tests for corrosion, wear, adhesion and hardness. The works had been funded by the Project 2M/03 54-2003 of the Ministry of Science and Education of Ukraine and STCU Project N3078

  19. A particle accelerator probes artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Dran, J C; Salomon, J

    2002-01-01

    The AGLAE system is made up of a 2 mega volts electrostatic accelerator and of 3 irradiation lines: one leads to a vacuum enclosure in which targets are irradiated and the 2 others lines are designed to irradiate targets under an air or helium atmosphere. The AGLAE system is located in the premises of the Louvre museum in Paris and is devoted to the study of cultural objects through ion beam analysis (IBA). 4 techniques are used: -) proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) -) proton-induced gamma ray (PIGE) -) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (NRS) and -) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). A decisive progress has permitted the direct analysis of artifacts without sampling. The object itself is set just a few millimeters away from the exit window of the beam in an air or helium atmosphere. The exit window must be resistant enough to bear the atmospheric pressure and the damages caused by the proton beam but must be thin enough to not deteriorate the quality of the beam. By using a 10 sup - sup 7 m thick exit w...

  20. SNODOG Glossary: Part 1, Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, C.R.

    1993-04-15

    The SNODOG Glossary is used by the DOE-supported life-span beagle studies to describe medical observations in a standardized format. It is an adaptation of the human medical glossary, SNOMED, which lists 107,165 terms. Each of the five laboratories, Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, the University of California at Davis, and the University of Utah, has selected an appropriate subset from the published SNOMED glossary and added beagle and research-specific terms. The National Radiobiology Archives is the coordinator of these enhancements, and periodically distributes SNODOG to the respective laboratories. Information donated by Colorado State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been related to SNODOG and is available in a standardized format. This document is designed for the database manager and the scientist who will be managing or coding medical observations. It is also designed for the scientist analyzing coded information. The document includes: an overview of the NRA and the SNODOG glossary, a discussion of hardware requirements, a review of the SNODOG code structure and printed lists of the 4,770 terms which have been used at least once. Instructions for obtaining electronic copies of the glossary and for nominating additional terms are provided. This document describes the origins and structure of the SNODOG codes, explains code usage at each participating institution, and presents a usage frequency tabulation of the terms for neoplasia. A diskette or magnetic tape containing 15,641 SNODOG codes and translations is available on request.

  1. On the Q-phase of carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vis, R.D.; Heymann, D.

    1999-01-01

    One of the unresolved puzzles of meteoritics is the nature of the carrier of the so-called heavy planetary gases. Apparently, these gases reside mainly in a minor fraction, which has been dubbed Q by Lewis et al. [R.S. Lewis, B. Srinivasan, E. Anders, Science 190 (1975) 1251] in analogy of the naming by Papanastasiou et al. [D.A. Papanastassiou, G.J. Wasserburg, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 11 (1971) 37] of a minor glassy phase in lunar rocks highly enriched in trace elements such as Pb and U. Q stands for the archaic term quintessence, the fifth or last and highest substance in ancient and medieval philosophy above fire, air, water and earth. In this contribution, an attempt is made to provide evidence that Q is carbonaceous, with carbon in the form of closed structures such as carbon nanotubes which serve as micro bottles for the heavy noble gases. To this end, Q was characterised with micro-PIXE and NRA, whereas HREM was used to search for nanotubes. Q itself was obtained as residue after chemical destruction of samples of Allende, Leoville and Vigarano

  2. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  3. Organization of nuclear regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blidaru, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the structure, missions and organizational aspects of the CNCAN, the National Commission for the control of nuclear activities in Romania. The paper addresses the following main issues: 1.General aspects; 2.Organizational structure of the NRA in Romania; 3.General description of the Division for Nuclear Safety Assessments; 4.Specific activities; 5.Regulatory approaches and practices. Under the title of 'General aspects' the following three basic statements are highlighted: 1.CNCAN is a governmental organization responsible for the development of the regulatory framework, the control of its implementation and the licensing of nuclear facilities; 2.CNCAN is the national authority competent in exercising the regulatory activity, authorization and control in the nuclear field provided by the law No. 111/ 1996 republished in 1998; 3.The Commission exercises its functions independently of the ministries and other authorities of the public control administration being subordinated to the Romanian Government. The organizational structure is as follows: - President, the Managerial Council and the Advisory Council coordinating the four General Divisions that are responsible for: - Nuclear Safety with Division of Nuclear Safety Assessment and Division of Nuclear Objectives Surveillance; - Radiological Safety with Division of Radiological Safety Assessment and Division of Operational Radiation Protection; - Surveillance of Environmental Radioactivity with Division of Assessment and Analysis and Division of National Network; - Development and Resource with the Division of Economy and Division of Human Resources. In addition under direct coordination of the President operate the Division of Radiation Protection, Transport and Radioactive Waste and the Division of International Cooperation and Communication. Specific activities are listed describing among others the issues of: - Safety of nuclear installation; - Evaluation relating to licensing of nuclear

  4. Life Sciences Accomplishments 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, Mary Lou (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Division (LBSAD) serves the Nation's life sciences community by managing all aspects of U.S. space-related life sciences research and technology development. The activities of the Division are integral components of the Nation's overall biological sciences and biomedical research efforts. However, NASA's life sciences activities are unique, in that space flight affords the opportunity to study and characterize basic biological mechanisms in ways not possible on Earth. By utilizing access to space as a research tool, NASA advances fundamental knowledge of the way in which weightlessness, radiation, and other aspects of the space-flight environment interact with biological processes. This knowledge is applied to procedures and technologies that enable humans to live and work in and explore space and contributes to the health and well-being of people on Earth. The activities of the Division are guided by the following three goals: Goal 1) Use microgravity and other unique aspects of the space environment to enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. Goal 2) Develop the scientific and technological foundations for supporting exploration by enabling productive human presence in space for extended periods. Goal 3) Apply our unique mission personnel, facilities, and technology to improve education, the quality of life on Earth, and U.S. competitiveness. The Division pursues these goals with integrated ground and flight programs involving the participation of NASA field centers, industry, and universities, as well as interactions with other national agencies and NASA's international partners. The published work of Division-sponsored researchers is a record of completed research in pursuit of these goals. During 1993, the LBSAD instituted significant changes in its experiment solicitation and peer review processes. For the first time, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released requesting

  5. Antifungal Bacteria on Woodland Salamander Skin Exhibit High Taxonomic Diversity and Geographic Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muletz-Wolz, Carly R; DiRenzo, Graziella V; Yarwood, Stephanie A; Campbell Grant, Evan H; Fleischer, Robert C; Lips, Karen R

    2017-05-01

    Diverse bacteria inhabit amphibian skin; some of those bacteria inhibit growth of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Yet there has been no systematic survey of anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria across localities, species, and elevations. This is important given geographic and taxonomic variations in amphibian susceptibility to B. dendrobatidis Our collection sites were at locations within the Appalachian Mountains where previous sampling had indicated low B. dendrobatidis prevalence. We determined the numbers and identities of anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria on 61 Plethodon salamanders (37 P. cinereus , 15 P. glutinosus , 9 P. cylindraceus ) via culturing methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We sampled co-occurring species at three localities and sampled P. cinereus along an elevational gradient (700 to 1,000 meters above sea level [masl]) at one locality. We identified 50 anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and found that the degree of B. dendrobatidis inhibition was not correlated with relatedness. Five anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial strains occurred on multiple amphibian species at multiple localities, but none were shared among all species and localities. The prevalence of anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria was higher at Shenandoah National Park (NP), VA, with 96% (25/26) of salamanders hosting at least one anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial species compared to 50% (7/14) at Catoctin Mountain Park (MP), MD, and 38% (8/21) at Mt. Rogers National Recreation Area (NRA), VA. At the individual level, salamanders at Shenandoah NP had more anti- B. dendrobatidis bacteria per individual (μ = 3.3) than those at Catoctin MP (μ = 0.8) and at Mt. Rogers NRA (μ = 0.4). All salamanders tested negative for B. dendrobatidis Anti- B. dendrobatidis bacterial species are diverse in central Appalachian Plethodon salamanders, and their distribution varied geographically. The antifungal bacterial species that we identified may play a

  6. Surface and Electrical Characterization of Conjugated Molecular Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Abel Tesfahun

    This thesis describes the surface and electrical characterization of ultrathin organic films and interfaces. These films were synthesized on the surface of gold by utilizing layer by layer synthesis via imine condensation. Film growth by imine click (condensation) chemistry is particularly useful for molecular electronics experiments because it provides a convenient means to obtain and extend ?-conjugation in the growth direction. However, in the context of film growth from a solid substrate, the reaction yield per step has not been characterized previously, though it is critically important. To address these issues, my research focused on a comprehensive characterization of oligophenyleneimine (OPI) wires via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). In addition, we had the unique opportunity of developing the first of its kind implementation of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to probe the intensity of carbon atoms after each addition step. Overall the combination of various techniques indicated that film growth proceeds in a quantitative manner. Furthermore, the NRA experiment was optimized to measure the carbon content in self-assembled monolayers of alkyl thiols. The results indicated well-resolved coverage values for ultrathin films with consecutive steps of 2 carbon atoms per molecule. Another fundamental problem in molecular electronics is the vast discrepancy in the values of measured resistance per molecule between small and large area molecular junctions. In collaboration with researchers at the National University of Singapore, we addressed these issues by comparing the electrical properties of OPI wires with the eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) junction (1000 mum2), and conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) junction (50 nm2). Our results showed that intensive (i.e., area

  7. Managing RTP Console Upgrading Project: Best Practice for Nuclear Malaysia as TSO in Supporting NPP Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Syahirah Abdul Rahman; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2011-01-01

    Human Resource Development (HRD) is required for Nuclear Power Programme (NPP). To be a Technical Support Organisation (TSO) for NPP, Nuclear Malaysia should be ready to take the responsibility in supporting Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA) and NPP Operators. In nurturing Nuclear Malaysia as TSO, the prime important and focus of HRD for the NPP is the reactor engineering technology. Nuclear Malaysia gives various phases of supports needed to build NPP such as during siting, design, planning, licensing, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance in its own way and capability. The current Nuclear Malaysia unique approach is the TRIGA PUSPATI reactor (RTP) upgrading project. Research reactor plays an important role in Research and Developpement organization as a nuclear facility to assist the development of NPP. Therefore, upgrading the research reactor is needed to build the skills and gain knowledge of workers to work safely. After 29 years of operation, the RTP system is facing aging problems due to many components in the reactor are outdated. Therefore, immediate action should be carried out to mitigate the aging factor of the reactor to prevent the worsening of the aging problem, and to prevent untoward incident from happening. Action should also cover short and long term planning to prevent current situation from recurring. Currently, RTP is upgrading its console from analog to digital system. One of the achievements in this console upgrading project is the development and implementation of project management. This paper comprises the overview on the RTP console upgrading project, the project management and how this project can lead Nuclear Malaysia to be a good TSO for the development of NPP. (author)

  8. Helium behaviour in implanted boron carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motte Vianney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When boron carbide is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants, large quantities of helium are produced. To simulate the gas behaviour, helium implantations were carried out in boron carbide. The samples were then annealed up to 1500 °C in order to observe the influence of temperature and duration of annealing. The determination of the helium diffusion coefficient was carried out using the 3He(d,p4He nuclear reaction (NRA method. From the evolution of the width of implanted 3He helium profiles (fluence 1 × 1015/cm2, 3 MeV corresponding to a maximum helium concentration of about 1020/cm3 as a function of annealing temperatures, an Arrhenius diagram was plotted and an apparent diffusion coefficient was deduced (Ea = 0.52 ± 0.11 eV/atom. The dynamic of helium clusters was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples implanted with 1.5 × 1016/cm2, 2.8 to 3 MeV 4He ions, leading to an implanted slab about 1 μm wide with a maximum helium concentration of about 1021/cm3. After annealing at 900 °C and 1100 °C, small (5–20 nm flat oriented bubbles appeared in the grain, then at the grain boundaries. At 1500 °C, due to long-range diffusion, intra-granular bubbles were no longer observed; helium segregates at the grain boundaries, either as bubbles or inducing grain boundaries opening.

  9. A particle accelerator probes artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dran, J.C.; Calligaro, Th.; Salomon, J.

    2002-01-01

    The AGLAE system is made up of a 2 mega volts electrostatic accelerator and of 3 irradiation lines: one leads to a vacuum enclosure in which targets are irradiated and the 2 others lines are designed to irradiate targets under an air or helium atmosphere. The AGLAE system is located in the premises of the Louvre museum in Paris and is devoted to the study of cultural objects through ion beam analysis (IBA). 4 techniques are used: -) proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) -) proton-induced gamma ray (PIGE) -) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (NRS) and -) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). A decisive progress has permitted the direct analysis of artifacts without sampling. The object itself is set just a few millimeters away from the exit window of the beam in an air or helium atmosphere. The exit window must be resistant enough to bear the atmospheric pressure and the damages caused by the proton beam but must be thin enough to not deteriorate the quality of the beam. By using a 10 -7 m thick exit window made of Si 3 N 4 we get a beam whose diameter is 10 -5 m. This new technology presents 4 main advantages: 1) any object of any shape can be studied without sampling, 2) the analysis of very fragile artifacts that might be damaged by the vacuum setting is now possible, 3) a reduction of the thermal side-effects of the beam, and 4) the absence of accumulation of charges in isolating material allows to rid of covering the object with a conducting coating before irradiating it. (A.C.)

  10. CFD Simulations for the Effect of Unsteady Wakes on the Boundary Layer of a Highly Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil (L1A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Samuel, J.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the third part of a three-part final report of research performed under an NRA cooperative Agreement contract. The first part was published as NASA/CR-2012-217415. The second part was published as NASA/CR-2012-217416. The study of the very high lift low-pressure turbine airfoil L1A in the presence of unsteady wakes was performed computationally and compared against experimental results. The experiments were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel under high (4.9%) and then low (0.6%) freestream turbulence intensity for Reynolds number equal to 25,000 and 50,000. The experimental and computational data have shown that in cases without wakes, the boundary layer separated without reattachment. The CFD was done with LES and URANS utilizing the finite-volume code ANSYS Fluent (ANSYS, Inc.) under the same freestream turbulence and Reynolds number conditions as the experiment but only at a rod to blade spacing of 1. With wakes, separation was largely suppressed, particularly if the wake passing frequency was sufficiently high. This was validated in the 3D CFD efforts by comparing the experimental results for the pressure coefficients and velocity profiles, which were reasonable for all cases examined. The 2D CFD efforts failed to capture the three dimensionality effects of the wake and thus were less consistent with the experimental data. The effect of the freestream turbulence intensity levels also showed a little more consistency with the experimental data at higher intensities when compared with the low intensity cases. Additional cases with higher wake passing frequencies which were not run experimentally were simulated. The results showed that an initial 25% increase from the experimental wake passing greatly reduced the size of the separation bubble, nearly completely suppressing it.

  11. Study of Physical modifications induced by chromium doping of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraczkiewicz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Improvement of nuclear fuel performances requires reducing fission gas release. Doping uranium dioxide with chromium is the improvement axis considered in this work. Indeed, chromium fastens crystal growth in UO 2 , and thus enables a significant increase of the grain size. This work aims at the identification of defects produced by chromium addition in UO 2 , and their impact on properties of interest of the material. First, defects existing in doped fuel directly after sintering have been studied. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy allowed the identification of the environment of solubilised chromium in UO 2 . Chromium atoms are roughly substituting for uranium atoms, but generate a complete reorganisation of neighbouring oxygen atoms, and distortion of uranium sublattice. Characterisation of transport properties (electrical conductivity and oxygen self-diffusion) have shown that because of charge balance, chromium plays a leading role on such properties. A model of point defects in UO 2 has been proposed, showing how complex the involved phenomena are. Observations by Transmission Electron Microscopy of ion-irradiated thin foils have shown that chromium makes the coalescence of irradiation defects easier. This behaviour can be explained by a stabilisation of defect clusters due to precipitation of chromium. Finally, study of thermal diffusion of helium in doped UO 2 , performed by Nuclear Reaction Analysis, has confirmed this interaction between chromium atoms and irradiation defects. Indeed, μ-NRA measures have shown no fast gas diffusion close to grain boundaries, in contrast with standard UO 2 behaviour, which is associated with defects recovery in grain boundaries. (author) [fr

  12. Development of a domestically-made system code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    According to lessons learned from the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP accidents, a new safety standard based on state-of-the-art findings has been established by the Japanese Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) and will soon come into force in Japan. In order to ensure a precise response to this movement from a technological point of view, it should be required for safety regulation to develop a new system code with much smaller uncertainty and reinforced simulation capability even in application to beyond-DBAs (BDBAs), as well as with the capability of close coupling to a newly developing severe accident code. Accordingly, development of a new domestically-made system code that incorporates 3-dimensional and 3 or more fluid thermal-hydraulics in tandem with a 3-dimensional neutronics has been started in 2012. In 2012, two branches of development activities, the development of 'main body' and advanced features have been started in parallel for development efficiency. The main body has been started from scratch and the following activities have therefore been performed: 1) development and determination of key principles and methodologies to realize a flexible, extensible and robust platform, 2) determination of requirements definition, 3) start of basic program design and coding and 4) start of a development of prototypical GUI-based pre-post processor. As for the advanced features, the following activities have been performed: 1) development of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) and model capability matrix from normal operations to BDBAs in order to address requirements definition for advanced modeling, 2) development of detailed action plan for modification of field equations, numerical schemes and solvers and 3) start of the program development of field equations with an interfacial area concentration transport equation, a robust solver for condensation induced water hammer phenomena and a versatile Newton-Raphson solver. (author)

  13. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumbu, K. [Department of Chemistry, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  14. Department of Nuclear Reactions - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the Department held a steady course. Topics of nuclear physics, atomic physics and materials research that started in previous years were continued. Although our team was smaller than years ago, the scientific activity, estimated by number of published papers is still very high. Scientists of the Department are co-authors or authors of more than 50 papers. Nuclear physics, which is our main-stream activity, covered a wide energy range. It started close to the Coulomb barrier, where 6 He breakup on heavy nuclei were studied, and ended at zones of tens of GeV; such high energies were used to investigate spin structure of deuterons and to explore hadron leptoproduction. Traditionally, experimental investigations in the fields of atomic physics and of physics of materials completed the scene. Our old Van de Graaff accelerator Lech was used for studies of M-shell ionisation of heavy elements, for hardening of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene and for characterisation of materials with RBS and NRA techniques. The VdG runs perfectly although it is over 40 years old. Two Ph.D. students finished their theses and were promoted. Izabela Fijal's work concerned multi-ionization and intrashell coupling effects for L-shell x-ray emission induced by heavy ions, while Sergiy Mezhevych showed studies on scattering of 11 B from carbon isotopes. It is obvious that contemporary works on physics do not arise in a single lab. Our contributions to many papers were possible due owing to collaborations involving many institutions. Some of them are listed: GSI, Darmstadt (PANDA Collaboration) DESY, Hamburg (HERMES Collaboration) Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich Forschungszentrum Rossendorf CSNSM, Orsay GANIL, Caen University of Huelva Institute of Nuclear Research, Kiev SLCJ, Warsaw ITME, Warsaw Some of our colleagues traditionally gave lectures and made physical demonstrations on Warsaw informal learning events: 9 th Science Picnic and 9 th Science Festival

  15. Measurements and Simulations of Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharges Used as Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    This report is a Ph.D. dissertation performed under NRA cooperative agreement and submitted as part of the final report. Asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have shown promise for use as aerodynamic actuators for active flow control. In this project we studied DBD actuators experimentally and numerically. Our DBDs used a symmetric triangular high voltage waveform to generate plasma in atmospheric pressure air. Time-averaged measurements indicated that the induced force of a single barrier actuator design (one electrode insulated from the plasma) can be increased exponentially above the results of previous studies by decreasing both the length and thickness of the electrode exposed to the plasma. This increased force may allow these devices to control flow separation in a wider range of flow environments. Experiments using an intensified digital camera to examine the plasma on time scales of a few nanoseconds showed that, in addition to the previously-observed filamentary and jet-like plasma structures, discharges with very thin exposed electrodes exhibited a weak but constant plasma immediately adjacent to those electrodes. In double-barrier actuators (both electrodes insulated), decreasing the diameter of the narrower electrode lead to increasing forces, and recorded images showed the simultaneous existence of both filamentary and jet-like plasma structures. The development and application of a time-dependent, two-dimensional computational fluid plasma model has aided in understanding the detailed physics of surface DBDs at all-time scales. For simulated single-barrier discharges, the model qualitatively reproduced the filamentary and jet-like micro-discharge structures. The model was somewhat successful in reproducing the observed characteristics of double-barrier actuators. For both actuator geometries, the model indicated that the majority of the forces induced on the neutral gas occur in between micro-discharges as the plasmas decay.

  16. Diffusive retention of atmospheric gases in chert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, E.; Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Schaller, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Throughout Earth's history, the volatile contents (N2, CO2, Ar) of both deep and shallow terrestrial reservoirs has been dynamic. Volatiles are important chemical constituents because they play a significant role in regulating Earth's climate, mediating the evolution of complex life, and controlling the properties of minerals and rocks. Estimating levels of atmospheric volatiles in the deep geological past requires interrogation of materials that have acquired and retained a chemical memory from that time. Cherts have the potential to trap atmospheric components during formation and later release those gases for analysis in the laboratory. However, cherts have been underexploited in this regard, partly because their ability to retain a record of volatile components has not been adequately evaluated. Before cherts can be reliably used as indicators of past levels of major atmospheric gases, it is crucial that we understand the diffusive retentiveness of these cryptocrystalline silica phases. As the first step toward quantifying the diffusivity and solubility of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in chert, we have performed 1-atmosphere diffusive-uptake experiments at temperatures up to 450°C. Depth profiles of in-diffusing gases are measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to help us understand the molecular-scale transport of volatiles and thus the validity of using chert-bound volatiles to record information about Earth history. Data collected to date suggest that at least some cherts are ideal storage containers and can retain volatiles for a geologically long time. In addition to these diffusion experiments, preliminary online-crush fast-scan measurements using a quadrupole mass spectrometer indicate that atmospheric volatiles are released upon crushing various chert samples. By coupling such volatile-release measurements made by mass spectrometry with diffusion experiments, we are uniquely able to address the storage and fidelity of volatiles bound in crustal

  17. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumbu, K.; Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  18. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S.; Wiest, Landon A.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2010-06-01

    We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO2 surfaces, which were characterized by SEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 μm) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas, and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 μm), normal and reversed phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates per meter for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes on a C18 adsorbent, and 54,800 plates per meter for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides.

  19. Core-shell diamond as a support for solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S; Wiest, Landon A; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L; Shutthanandan, V; Linford, Matthew R

    2010-06-01

    We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO(2) surfaces, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 microm) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 microm), normal and reversed-phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates/m for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes and 54,800 plates/m for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides on a C(18) adsorbent.

  20. Application of Deterministic and Probabilistic System Design Methods and Enhancements of Conceptual Design Tools for ERA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Schutte, Jeff S.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents work done by the Aerospace Systems Design Lab (ASDL) at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, Integrated System Research Program, Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. This report was prepared under contract NNL12AA12C, "Application of Deterministic and Probabilistic System Design Methods and Enhancement of Conceptual Design Tools for ERA Project". The research within this report addressed the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project goal stated in the NRA solicitation "to advance vehicle concepts and technologies that can simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise, and emissions." To identify technology and vehicle solutions that simultaneously meet these three metrics requires the use of system-level analysis with the appropriate level of fidelity to quantify feasibility, benefits and degradations, and associated risk. In order to perform the system level analysis, the Environmental Design Space (EDS) [Kirby 2008, Schutte 2012a] environment developed by ASDL was used to model both conventional and unconventional configurations as well as to assess technologies from the ERA and N+2 timeframe portfolios. A well-established system design approach was used to perform aircraft conceptual design studies, including technology trade studies to identify technology portfolios capable of accomplishing the ERA project goal and to obtain accurate tradeoffs between performance, noise, and emissions. The ERA goal, shown in Figure 1, is to simultaneously achieve the N+2 benefits of a cumulative noise margin of 42 EPNdB relative to stage 4, a 75 percent reduction in LTO NOx emissions relative to CAEP 6 and a 50 percent reduction in fuel burn relative to the 2005 best in class aircraft. There were 5 research task associated with this research: 1) identify technology collectors, 2) model

  1. Oxygen diffusion in monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2004-09-01

    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  2. Ion beam analysis and spectrometry techniques for Cultural Heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of experimental techniques for the characterisation of Cultural heritage materials has to take into account some requirements. The complexity of these past materials requires the development of new techniques of examination and analysis, or the transfer of technologies developed for the study of advanced materials. In addition, due to precious aspect of artwork it is also necessary to use the non-destructive methods, respecting the integrity of objects. It is for this reason that the methods using radiations and/or particles play a important role in the scientific study of art history and archaeology since their discovery. X-ray and γ-ray spectrometry as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) are analytical tools at the service of Cultural heritage. This report mainly presents experimental developments for IBA: PIXE, RBS/EBS and NRA. These developments were applied to the study of archaeological composite materials: layered materials or mixtures composed of organic and non-organic phases. Three examples are shown: evolution of silvering techniques for the production of counterfeit coinage during the Roman Empire and in the 16. century, the characterization of composites or mixed mineral/organic compounds such as bone and paint. In these last two cases, the combination of techniques gave original results on the proportion of both phases: apatite/collagen in bone, pigment/binder in paintings. Another part of this report is then dedicated to the non-invasive/non-destructive characterization of prehistoric pigments, in situ, for rock art studies in caves and in the laboratory. Finally, the perspectives of this work are presented. (author) [fr

  3. Characterization of transport properties in uranium dioxide: the case of the oxygen auto-diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraczkiewicz, M.; Baldinozzi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Point defects in uranium dioxide which control the transport phenomena are still badly known. The aim of this work is to show how in carrying out several experimental techniques, it is possible to demonstrate both the existence and to determine the nature (charge and localization) of predominant defects responsible of the transport phenomena in a fluorite-type structure oxide. The oxygen diffusion in the uranium dioxide illustrates this. In the first part of this work, the accent is put on the electric properties of uranium dioxide and more particularly on the variation laws of the electric conductivity in terms of temperature, of oxygen potential and of the impurities amounts present in the material. These evolutions are connected to point and charged complex defects models and the pertinence of these models is discussed. Besides, it is shown how the electric conductivity measurements can allow to define oxygen potential domains in which the concentrations in electronic carriers are controlled. This characterization being made, it is shown that the determination of the oxygen intrinsic diffusion coefficient and particularly its dependence to the oxygen potential and to the amount of impurity, allows to determine the main defect responsible to the atomic diffusion as well as its nature and its charge. In the second part, the experimental techniques to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficient are presented: there are the isotopic exchange technique for introducing the tracer in the material, and two techniques to characterize the diffusion profiles (SIMS and NRA). Examples of preliminary results are given for mono and polycrystalline samples. At last, from this methodology on uranium dioxide, studies considered to quantify the thermal and physicochemical effects are presented. Experiments considered with the aim to characterize the radiation diffusion in uranium dioxide are presented too. (O.M.)

  4. Photodynamic Effect of Ni Nanotubes on an HeLa Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hammad Aziz

    Full Text Available Nickel nanomaterials are promising in the biomedical field, especially in cancer diagnostics and targeted therapy, due to their distinctive chemical and physical properties. In this experiment, the toxicity of nickel nanotubes (Ni NTs were tested in an in vitro cervical cancer model (HeLa cell line to optimize the parameters of photodynamic therapy (PDT for their greatest effectiveness. Ni NTs were synthesized by electrodeposition. Morphological analysis and magnetic behavior were examined using a Scanning electron microscope (SEM, an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM analysis. Phototoxic and cytotoxic effects of nanomaterials were studied using the Ni NTs alone as well as in conjugation with aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA; this was performed both in the dark and under laser exposure. Toxic effects on the HeLa cell model were evaluated by a neutral red assay (NRA and by detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Furthermore, 10-200 nM of Ni NTs was prepared in solution form and applied to HeLa cells in 96-well plates. Maximum toxicity of Ni NTs complexed with 5-ALA was observed at 100 J/cm2 and 200 nM. Up to 65-68% loss in cell viability was observed. Statistical analysis was performed on the experimental results to confirm the worth and clarity of results, with p-values = 0.003 and 0.000, respectively. Current results pave the way for a more rational strategy to overcome the problem of drug bioavailability in nanoparticulate targeted cancer therapy, which plays a dynamic role in clinical practice.

  5. Bioavailability and Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Flynn, Chris; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) is often treated in space with promethazine (PMZ). Anecdotal reports indicate that the common side effects of drowsiness and decrements in cognitive performance that are associated with PMZ administration (50 mg IM on the ground, are absent or less pronounced in space suggesting I that-the bioavailability and/or pharmacodynamic behavior of PMZ may be altered during space flight. There are limited flight opportunities available for clinical research in space, the NRA-99, therefore, solicits research required to improve, or answer specific questions about in-flight diagnosis, therapy, and post-flight rehabilitation. We propose here, to establish a noninvasive method for pharmacodynamic and therapeutic assessment of PMZ. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to, 1. Establish a saliva to plasma ratio of PMZ after administration, 2. Estimate the relative bioavailability of the three flight-specific dosage forms of PMZ, and 3. Establish the dose-response relationship of PMZ. We will estimate the bioavailability of intramuscular injection (IM), oral tablets and rectal suppositories in normal subjects during ambulatory and antiorthostatic; bed rest (ABR) conditions using novel stable isotope techniques. Drowsiness, cognitive performance and salivary flow rate will be measured as a function of circulating drug concentrations after administration of three IM doses of PMZ. We will compare and contrast the bioavailability of PMZ during normal and ABR conditions to examine whether or not ABR can simulate changes in drug, absorption and availability similar to those anticipated in a microgravity environment. Results of this study will validate methods for an approved study with this medication awaiting a flight opportunity for manifestation. These data will also provide the much needed information on the dynamics and therapeutic index. of this medication and their implications on crew fatigue and performance in space. Key words

  6. Ion-materials interactions and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlow, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of energetic ions and other charged particles with solid matter leads to a wealth of physical processes. This thesis comprises a collection of papers and an introductory commentary, which explore some aspects of how these interactions may be used for: (i) Characterisation of thin surface layers of material, (ii) characterisation of energetic charged particles, and (iii) modification of materials by ion bombardment. In (i) Elastic Recoil Detection using a detector system for measurement of Time of Flight and kinetic energy of recoiling target atoms has been developed as a quantitative method for elemental depth profiling of thin (0.5-1 μm) surface layers. This method has been applied to the study of reactions of metal/III-V structures, which are of importance for the semiconductor industry. (ii) MeV-ion - materials interactions have been used as the basis for developing Si p-i-n detectors for the CHICSi programme which will undertake experimental studies of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. This involved development and testing of extremely thin (10-12 μm) Si ΔE detectors for characterising light- and intermediate mass charged particles as well as calibration of Si p-i-n detectors and their susceptibility to radiation damage. (iii) Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) with resonant nuclear reactions has been used to study modification of material with ion beams. In the first study, the accumulation of fluorine in BF 2 + ion implanted WSi 2 solid diffusion sources was investigated. The second study investigated if there was a correlation between photoluminescence and segregation of hydrogen to buried heterojunctions in plasma-etched III-V quantum-well structures. The ion bombardment in this case was during etching in an Ar+CH 4 plasma using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source. (author)

  7. Investigation of the Influence of Microgravity on Transport Mechanism in a Virtual Spaceflight Chamber: A Flight Definition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; Rangel, Roger; Witherow, William; Rogers, Jan; Lal, Ravindra B.

    1999-01-01

    in the ongoing ground-based NRA, which led to the "virtual spaceflight chamber" concept.

  8. Thermally-driven hydrogen interaction with single-layer graphene on SiO2/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijo, Tais Orestes; Rolim, Guilherme Koszeniewski; Radtke, Claudio; Soares, Gabriel Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Graphene is a monolayer of carbon with sp 2 hybridization and hexagonal structure. Since all its area is exposed to the atmosphere, it is important to understand how graphene interacts with elements present in the atmosphere, such as hydrogen, oxygen and water, to control the processes of manufacturing [1]. In addition, some studies show that graphene can allow storage of hydrogen for use in fuel cells, which would contribute to the use of clean energies. This study aims to understand the thermally-driven hydrogen interaction with graphene samples. We used samples of graphene deposited on SiO 2 (285 nm) films on Si and then annealed in controlled atmosphere of deuterium (D 2 , natural abundance of 0.15%) at temperatures between 200 and 1000°C. We also investigated hydrogen desorption from graphene using samples previously treated in deuterium at 600°C and afterwards annealed in nitrogen atmosphere between 200 and 1000°C. After annealings, Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was employed to quantify deuterium, where we observed a large increase in deuterium incorporation above 400°C, with an constant D incorporation until 1000°C. We also observed that the desorption of deuterium from graphene only occurred above 800°C, although D desorption from silicon oxide samples takes place already at 600°C. Raman spectroscopy analysis was performed after each thermal treatment. Results show that defects in the graphene structure increases for higher treatment temperatures in incorporation and in desorption steps. Characterization using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) will also be presented. [1] A. C. Ferrari, et al., Nanoscale 7 (2015). (author)

  9. Accelerator beam application in science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, M.

    1996-01-01

    Various accelerator beams are being used widely in science and industry. The area of their applications is so wide and rapidly expanding. This paper focuses on recent efforts made in the field of radiation chemistry, especially in materials development using electron and ion beams. Concerning the applications of electron beams, synthesis of SiC fibers, improvement of radiation resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and preparation of an adsorbent for uranium recovery from sea water were described. In the synthesis of SiC, the electron beams were used effectively to cross-link precursor fibers to prevent their deformation upon heating for their pyrolysis to SiC fibers. The improvement of radiation resistance of PTFE was resulted successfully by its crosslinking. As to the preparation of the adsorbent for uranium recovery, chelating resins containing amidoxime groups were shown to work as a good adsorbent of uranium from sea water. The Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of JAERI completed the accelerator facility named TIARA for R and D of ion beam applications three years ago. Some results were presented on the studies about radiation effects on solar cells and LSIs for space use and synthesis of functional materials. Radiation resistance of solar cells was tested with both electron and proton beams using a beam scanning technique for the irradiation to a wide area, and ultra-fast transient current induced by heavy ion microbeam was measured for studies on mechanisms of single event upset (SEU) in LSIs. In the synthesis of organic functional materials, a temperature responsive particle track membrane was developed. Techniques for RBS and NRA using heavy ion beams were established for analyzing structures of multi-layered materials. Single crystalline thin film of diamond was successfully formed on Si substrate under the deposition of mass separated C-12 ions of 100 eV. (author)

  10. Effects of eutrophic seawater and temperature on the physiology and morphology of Hypnea musciformis J. V. Lamouroux (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faveri, Caroline; Schmidt, Éder C; Simioni, Carmem; Martins, Cintia D L; Bonomi-Barufi, José; Horta, Paulo A; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2015-07-01

    As both food and source of a kappa-carrageenan, Hypnea musciformis represents a species of great economic interest. It also synthesizes substances with antiviral, anti-helminthic and anti-inflammatory potential and shows promise for use as a bioindicator of cadmium. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of seawater from three urbanized areas (area 1: natural runoff, NRA; area 2: urbanized runoff and sewage with treatment, RTA; area 3: urbanized runoff and untreated sewage, RUS) and three different temperatures (15, 25 and 30 °C) on the growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and cell morphology of H. musciformis. After 4 days (96 h) of culture, the biomass of H. musciformis showed differences that fluctuated among the areas and temperature treatments. Specifically, the specimens cultivated in 35 °C had low values of ETRmax, α(ETR), β(ETR), and Fv/Fm photosynthetic parameters, as well as changes in cell morphology, with reduction in photosynthetic pigments and drastic reduction in growth rates. When combined with the extreme temperatures, high concentrations of ammonium ion in seawater effluent caused an inhibition of photosynthetic activity, as well as significant variation in chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents. As observed by light microscopy, the synergism between different temperatures and pollutants found in eutrophic waters caused changes in cellular morphology with increased cell wall thickening and decreased floridean starch grains. H. musciformis also showed important changes in physiological response to each factor independently, as well as changes resulting from the synergistic interaction of these factors combined. Therefore, we can conclude that extreme temperature combined with the effect of eutrophic waters, especially RUS, caused distinct morphological and physiological changes in the red alga H. musciformis.

  11. Photodynamic Effect of Ni Nanotubes on an HeLa Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad Aziz, Muhammad; Fakhar-e-Alam, M.; Fatima, Mahvish; Shaheen, Fozia; Iqbal, Seemab; Atif, M.; Talha, Muhammad; Mansoor Ali, Syed; Afzal, Muhammad; Majid, Abdul; Shelih Al.Harbi, Thamir; Ismail, Muhammad; Wang, Zhiming M.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Alahmed, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel nanomaterials are promising in the biomedical field, especially in cancer diagnostics and targeted therapy, due to their distinctive chemical and physical properties. In this experiment, the toxicity of nickel nanotubes (Ni NTs) were tested in an in vitro cervical cancer model (HeLa cell line) to optimize the parameters of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for their greatest effectiveness. Ni NTs were synthesized by electrodeposition. Morphological analysis and magnetic behavior were examined using a Scanning electron microscope (SEM), an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. Phototoxic and cytotoxic effects of nanomaterials were studied using the Ni NTs alone as well as in conjugation with aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA); this was performed both in the dark and under laser exposure. Toxic effects on the HeLa cell model were evaluated by a neutral red assay (NRA) and by detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, 10–200 nM of Ni NTs was prepared in solution form and applied to HeLa cells in 96-well plates. Maximum toxicity of Ni NTs complexed with 5-ALA was observed at 100 J/cm2 and 200 nM. Up to 65–68% loss in cell viability was observed. Statistical analysis was performed on the experimental results to confirm the worth and clarity of results, with p-values = 0.003 and 0.000, respectively. Current results pave the way for a more rational strategy to overcome the problem of drug bioavailability in nanoparticulate targeted cancer therapy, which plays a dynamic role in clinical practice. PMID:26990435

  12. Dose evaluation and establishment of reference levels in activity for nuclear medicine; Avaliação de dose e estabelecimento de níveis de referência em atividade para a medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Julio Cesar de Souza

    2017-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has emphasized the importance of accurately determining the mean dose levels, or administered activity, received by the patients for each medical procedure that uses ionizing radiation. However, the number of bibliographic references addressing the need to know and optimize these levels is insufficient, or rather limited, which may lead to non-standardizes techniques, a lack of exposures control, and also the increase of associated radiological risks of these procedures. In this context, a software in Visual Basic® of Microsoft© language was developed whose function is to elaborate a method of obtaining the Reference Levels in Activity (RLA) for nuclear medicine patients by determining the third quartile of the examinations carried out. The program also allows obtaining absorbed dose values in critical organs based on patient specificities as age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) in order to evaluate the risk involved in each procedure. The main nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures were evaluated through the database of two public hospitals and a private clinic, obtaining the NRAs of each facility, where the software was validated by comparison with the traditionally accepted calculation methods. Due to the results obtained in each installation, in addition to NRA determination, gaps in treatment capacities and unjustified dose variations for the same procedure were identified, indicating the need for optimization. Thus, the developed program is able to provide the estimated values of effective and absorbed doses involved in each procedure, for each patient, providing reference values for nuclear medicine field, not available in the national scenario so far. (author)

  13. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  14. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutthanandan V

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia. The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA. Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400°C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and

  15. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, C V; Becker, U; Shutthanandan, V; Julien, C M

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia.The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA).Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400 degrees C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and significant

  16. Biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Hodge, Mary; Patel, Renu; Cheng, Ron; Abeyewardene, Manel; Chu, Cordia

    2012-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate insecticide registered for use in Vietnam and is widely used in agriculture, particularly rice farming. However, chlorpyrifos exposure to and adverse effects on farmers has not been evaluated. In this study, biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure in a group of rice farmers was conducted after a typical application event using back-pack spraying. Urine samples (24 h) were collected from the rice farmers before and post insecticide application. Samples were analysed for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP), the major urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, using an enzymatic pre-treatment before extraction followed by HPLC-MS/MS. Absorbed Daily Dose (ADD) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were then estimated from urinary TCP levels, expressed as μg g(-1)creatinine. The analytical method for urinary TCP had a low detection limit (0.6 μg L(-1)), acceptable recovery values (80-114%), and low relative percentage differences in duplicate and repeated samples. Post-application chlorpyrifos ADD of farmers varied from 0.4 to 94.2 μg kg(-1) (body weight) d(-1) with a mean of 19.4 μg kg(-1) d(-1) which was approximately 80-fold higher than the mean baseline exposure level (0.24 μg kg(-1) d(-1)). Hazard Quotients (ratio of the mean ADD for rice farmers to acute oral reference dose) calculated using acute oral reference doses recommended by United States and Australian agencies varied from 2.1 (Australian NRA), 4.2 (US EPA) to 6.9 (ATSDR). Biological monitoring using HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urinary TCP (24 h) was found to be an effective method for measuring chlorpyrifos exposure among farmers. This case study found that Vietnamese rice farmers had relatively high exposures to chlorpyrifos after application, which were likely to have adverse health effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies of Fundamental Particle Dynamics in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Roger; Trolinger, James D.; Coimbra, Carlos F. M.; Witherow, William; Rogers, Jan; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work summarizes theoretical and experimental concepts used to design the flight experiment mission for SHIVA - Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus. SHIVA is a NASA project that exploits a unique, holography-based, diagnostics tool to understand the behavior of small particles subjected to transient accelerations. The flight experiments are designed for testing model equations, measuring g, g-jitter, and other microgravity phenomena. Data collection will also include experiments lying outside of the realm of existing theory. The regime under scrutiny is the low Reynolds number, Stokes regime or creeping flow, which covers particles and bubbles moving at very low velocity. The equations describing this important regime have been under development and investigation for over 100 years and yet a complete analytical solution of the general equation had remained elusive yielding only approximations and numerical solutions. In the course of the ongoing NASA NRA, the first analytical solution of the general equation was produced by members of the investigator team using the mathematics of fractional derivatives. This opened the way to an even more insightful and important investigation of the phenomena in microgravity. Recent results include interacting particles, particle-wall interactions, bubbles, and Reynolds numbers larger than unity. The Space Station provides an ideal environment for SHIVA. Limited ground experiments have already confirmed some aspects of the theory. In general the space environment is required for the overall experiment, especially for cases containing very heavy particles, very light particles, bubbles, collections of particles and for characterization of the space environment and its effect on particle experiments. Lightweight particles and bubbles typically rise too fast in a gravitational field and heavy particles sink too fast. In a microgravity environment, heavy and light particles can be studied side-by-side for

  18. The V-1 NPP and V-2 NPP upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities in the V-1 NPP and V-2 NPP upgrading as well as maintenance carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. The V-1 NPP applied the so called 'Small Backfitting Programme'covering 81 points of the Czechoslovak Atomic energy Commission Decree No 5/91. Continual upgrading continued after the Backfitting Programme completion with the Safety Report and following Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic (NRA SR) Decrees No 1/94 and 110/94 setting spheres and procedure for adopting and implementation of measures enabling the units to operate further on. Results of expert missions, analyses and assessments of components identified by Basic Engineering became the basis for the development of the Gradual Reconstruction Programme. The Programme outputs underwent economic and probabilistic assessing their contribution to nuclear safety. This process resulted in finalizing the Gradual Reconstruction Programme which started to be implemented in 1996 and will be completed in 1999. It is implemented by the REKON consortium and covers 17 areas including Instrumentation and Control, self-consumption emergency supply, leakage monitoring, emergency core cooling system, seismic reinforcement and radioactivity localisation. Both units will reach internationally acceptable safety standards for the remaining life-time period. The V-2 NPP Upgrading and Safety Enhancement Programme includes results of activities performed in the course of last years to define all important activities leading to enhancement of nuclear safety and performance reliability and effectiveness within the plant life-time period and to establish conditions for extending the life-time of these units for 40 years. The V-2 NPP Upgrading and Safety Enhancement Programme aims to assure safe operation with a probability of the core damages less than 10 -4 /reactor · year

  19. Meteorology and dispersion forecast in nuclear emergency in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, Juan J.; Boutet, Luis I.; Jordan, Osvaldo D.; Hernandez, Daniel G.; Guichandut, M.E.; Chiappesoni, H.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) (ARN in Spanish)' and the 'National Meteorological Office (NMO) (SMN in Spanish)' of Argentine has been working together on the improvement of both meteorological forecasting and dispersion prediction. In the pre-release phase of a nuclear emergency, it is very important to know the wind direction and the forecast of it, to establish the area, around the installation, where the emergency state is declared and to foresee the modification of this area. Information is also needed about deterministic effects, to begin the evacuation. At this time, meteorological forecast of wind direction and speed, and the real time meteorological information is available in the nuclear power plant (NPP) and in the Nuclear Emergency Control Centre at the ARN headquarters, together with the short-range dose calculation provided by our dispersion code, SEDA. By means of the SEDA code, we can estimate the optimum place to measure the radioactive material concentration in air, needed do to reduce evaluation uncertainties due, among others, to poor knowledge of the source term. The SEDA code allows considering atmospheric condition, and the need to reduced doses of the measuring team in charge of the measurements. For the evaluation in the medium range, we participate in the project IXP, which provides four hours and about 50 kilometres forecast. In the long-range movement of air borne radioactivity, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), whose contact point in Argentina is the SMN, can assist us. We have developed together, with the SMN, a detailed procedure to request assistance from the WMO. In this work, we describe the combined tasks that were carried out with the SMN to define the procedures and the concepts for their application during a real emergency. The results of an application exercise carried out in 2006 are also described. (author)

  20. Clementine: An inexpensive mission to the Moon and Geographos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Nozette, Stewart

    1993-03-01

    The Clementine Mission, a joint project of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) and NASA, has been planned primarily to test and demonstrate a suite of lightweight sensors and other lightweight spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment. Although the primary objective of the mission is to space-qualify sensors for Department of Defense applications, it was recognized in 1990 that such a mission might also be designed to acquire scientific observations of the Moon and of Apollo asteroid (1620) Geographos. This possibility was explored jointly by SDIO and NASA, including representatives from NASA's Discovery Program Science Working Group, in early 1991. Besides the direct return of scientific information, one of the benefits envisioned from a joint venture was the development of lightweight components for possible future use in NASA's Discovery-class spacecraft. In Jan. 1992, SDIO informed NASA of its intent to fly a 'Deep Space Program Science Experiment,' now popularly called Clementine; NASA then formed an advisory science working group to assist in the early development of the mission. The Clementine spacecraft is being assembled at the Naval Research Laboratory, which is also in charge of the overall mission design and mission operations. Support for mission design is being provided by GSFC and by JPL. NASA's Deep Space Network will be utilized in tracking and communicating with the spacecraft. Following a recommendation of the COMPLEX committee of the Space Science Board, NASA will issue an NRA and appoint a formal science team in early 1993. Clementine is a 3-axis stabilized, 200 kg (dry weight) spacecraft that will be launched on a refurbished Titan-2G. One of the goals has been to build two spacecraft, including the sensors, for $100M. Total time elapsed from the decision to proceed to the launch will be two years.

  1. Structural characterisation of GaN and GaN:O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granville, S.; Budde, F.; Koo, A.; Ruck, B.J.; Trodahl, H.J.; Bittar, A.; Metson, J.B.; James, B.J.; Kennedy, V.J.; Markwitz, A.; Prince, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    In its crystalline form, the wide band-gap semiconductor GaN is of exceptional interest in the development of suitable materials for short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One of the barriers to its potential usefulness however is the large concentration of defects present even in MBE-grown material often due to the lattice mismatch of the GaN with common substrate materials. Calculations have suggested that GaN films grown with an amorphous structure retain many of the useful properties of the crystalline material, including the wide band-gap and a low density of states in the gap, and thus may be a suitable alternative to the single crystal GaN for a variety of applications. We have performed structural and compositional measurements on heavily disordered GaN thin films with and without measureable O and H concentrations grown using ion-assisted deposition. X-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption fine structure measurements show that stoichiometric films are composed of nanocrystallites of ∼3-4 nm in size and that GaN films containing O to 10 at % or greater are amorphous. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) was performed and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) measurements were made to determine the elemental composition of the films and elastic recoil detection (ERD) detected the hydrogen concentrations. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements were used to depth profile the films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements probed the bonding environment of the Ga in the films. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Dose evaluation and establishment of reference levels in activity for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Julio Cesar de Souza

    2017-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has emphasized the importance of accurately determining the mean dose levels, or administered activity, received by the patients for each medical procedure that uses ionizing radiation. However, the number of bibliographic references addressing the need to know and optimize these levels is insufficient, or rather limited, which may lead to non-standardizes techniques, a lack of exposures control, and also the increase of associated radiological risks of these procedures. In this context, a software in Visual Basic® of Microsoft© language was developed whose function is to elaborate a method of obtaining the Reference Levels in Activity (RLA) for nuclear medicine patients by determining the third quartile of the examinations carried out. The program also allows obtaining absorbed dose values in critical organs based on patient specificities as age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) in order to evaluate the risk involved in each procedure. The main nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures were evaluated through the database of two public hospitals and a private clinic, obtaining the NRAs of each facility, where the software was validated by comparison with the traditionally accepted calculation methods. Due to the results obtained in each installation, in addition to NRA determination, gaps in treatment capacities and unjustified dose variations for the same procedure were identified, indicating the need for optimization. Thus, the developed program is able to provide the estimated values of effective and absorbed doses involved in each procedure, for each patient, providing reference values for nuclear medicine field, not available in the national scenario so far. (author)

  3. Nanolaminated FeCoB/FeCo and FeCoB/NiFe soft magnetic thin films with tailored magnetic properties deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Rachid; Falub, Claudiu V.; Perraudeau, Sandrine; Morin, Christine; Favier, Sylvie; Mazel, Yann; Saghi, Zineb; Michel, Jean-Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Thin films based on layers of Fe52Co28B20 (at%), Fe65Co35 (at%), and Ni80Fe20 (at%) were deposited by sputtering on 8″ bare Si and Si/200 nm-thermal-SiO2 wafers by simultaneous use of two or more cathodes. Due to the continuous rotation of the substrate cage, such that the substrates faced different targets alternately, the multilayers consisted of stacks of alternating, nanometer-thick regular layers. The composition of the films was determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Nuclear Reactive Analysis (NRA), whereas Plasma Profiling Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (PP-TOFMS) analysis gave depth profile information about the chemical elements. The structural and magnetic properties of the films were investigated by X-ray Diffraction and by TEM analysis, B-H loop tracer and high frequency single coil technique permeametry, respectively. The linear dependence of the coercivity of these thin films versus the grain size can be explained by the random anisotropy model. These novel, composite soft magnetic multilayers, with tunable in-plane anisotropy, allow operation at tunable frequencies, as shown by broadband (between 100 MHz and 10 GHz) RF measurements that exhibit a classical Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert (LLG) behavior and, combine the magnetic properties of the individual materials in an advantageous way. This article presents a method to produce nanostructured soft magnetic multilayers, the properties of which can easily be tuned by choosing the ratio of the individual nanolayers. In this way it's possible to combine soft magnetic materials with complementary properties, e.g. high saturation magnetization, low coercivity, high specific resistivity and low magnetostriction

  4. Spatiotemporal Variations of Extreme Precipitation under a Changing Climate in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingquan Lü

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD is one of the largest hydroelectric projects in the world. Monitoring the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme precipitation offers valuable information for adaptation and mitigation strategies and reservoir management schemes. This study examined variations in extreme precipitation over the Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGRA in China to investigate the potential role of climate warming and Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR. The trends in extreme precipitation over the TGRA were investigated using the iterative-based Mann–Kendall (MK test and Sen’s slope estimator, based on weather station daily data series and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data series. The mean and density distribution of extreme precipitation indices between pre-dam and post-dam, pre-1985 and post-1985, and near and distant reservoir area were assessed by the Mann–Whitney test and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. The ratio of extreme precipitation to non-extreme precipitation became larger. The precipitation was characterized by increases in heavy precipitation as well as decreases in light and moderate rain. Comparing extreme precipitation indices between pre-1985 (cooling and post-1985 (warming indicated extreme precipitation has changed to become heavier. Under climate warming, the precipitation amount corresponding to more than the 95th percentile increased at the rate of 6.48%/°C. Results from comparing extreme precipitation for the pre- and post-dam, near reservoir area (NRA and away from the reservoir area (ARA imply an insignificant role of the TGR on rainfall extremes over the TGRA. Moreover, the impoundment of TGR did not exert detectable impacts on the surface relative humidity (RH and water vapor pressure (WP.

  5. VVER-1000 SFAT-specification of an industrial prototype. Interim report on Task FIN A 1073 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiitta, A. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Dvoyeglazov, A.M.; Iievlev, S.M. [State Scientific and Technical Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kiev (Ukraine); Tarvainen, M.; Nikkinen, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-05-01

    The project to develop a Spent Fuel Attribute Tester (SFAT) for Ukrainian VVER-1000 facilities is going on under the Task FIN A 1073 of the Finnish Support Programme to the IAEA safeguards. In the SFAT method the verification is based on an unambiguous detection of gamma radiation of the fission products. This is implemented by detecting the radiation emitted by a fuel assembly with a mobile gamma-spectroscopic instrument consisting of a collimator arrangement and a detector unit. The fuel assemblies stored in a wet storage are not moved during the verification measurement. The principal target is the radiation characteristic to {sup 137}Cs. For short cooled assemblies also {sup 144}Pr can be used as the target fission product nuclide. The generic IAEA SFAT concept has been adapted to the special conditions at the Ukrainian facilities. The requirements of the End User (IAEA), the State Nuclear Safety Authority (NRA) and the facilities have been taken into account and included in the specifications. Since the issuance of the first interim report, additional measurements were conducted at the Zaporozhye NPP to ensure the feasibility of the suggested measurement geometry and to test whether the SFAT device could be operated using the refuelling machine. A clear answer to the optimal measurement geometry and the detector choice was also obtained during this first phase of the task. Basing on the measurement results and the operational experience, the technical specifications for an industrial SFAT prototype are formulated. The technical specifications presented in this report and in the previous report have been approved by the Ukrainian State Authority and one of the facility operators, the Zaporozhye NPP. A procedure has been started for getting the approval of the other Ukrainian operators. (orig.)

  6. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S.; Wiest, Landon A.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO2 surfaces, which were characterized by SEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 ?m) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas, and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 ?m), normal and reversed phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates per meter for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes on a C18 adsorbent, and 54,800 plates per meter for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides.

  7. Mochovce site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme

  8. Long term corrosion of iron in concrete and in atmospheric conditions: a contribution of archaeological analogues to mechanism comprehension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, E.; Demoulin, A.; Dillman, Ph.; Neff, D.; Berge, P.; Burger, E.; Perrin, St.; L'hostis, V.; Dillman, Ph.; Millard, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The prediction of iron (or low alloy steel) corrosion on very long term period is necessary in two different purposes: (i) the preservation and conservation of cultural heritage and (ii) the French storage and repository concept for the radioactive wastes. In order to determine the evolution of corrosion processes for very long period, mechanistic models have been developed. In these models that are based on a phenomenological approach to evaluate the average corrosion rates, two different environments are considered: concrete (steel reinforcements) and atmospheric. The study of archaeological analogues is a very pertinent tool for the validation of these models. First, physico-chemical analysis on old corrosion layers lead to a precise localisation and identification of the phases present in the corrosion system. Moreover, experimental reinduced corrosions of ancient samples under controlled parameters (temperature, relative humidity) bring new insight on the mechanisms involved. In particular, one crucial question related to the wet-dry cycle is the localisation of oxygen reduction sites in the rust layer. For this purpose, specific experiments have been set up to re-corrode the ancient samples in marked medium (using 18 O 2 ). Samples were exposed to cycling between high and low relative humidity, produced by saline saturated solutions. Then cross-sections of samples obtained were investigated by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) 18 O(p,α) 15 N on the Pierre Sue Laboratory nuclear microprobe. In this presentation the 18 O distribution profiles are discussed and interpreted in order to bring new insight on corrosion mechanisms. A comparative interpretation is made for each medium (concrete and atmosphere)

  9. Measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coker, A.J.; Adesanmi, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Background Information - The concern worldwide over the dangers associated with illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources is shared by the Federal Government and people of Nigeria. In order to protect its territories, the government in the second quarter of 1998 gave a directive that Nigeria should be registered as a participating nation in the Illicit Trafficking Database Programme being organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Immediately, a National Committee (NC) was established comprising all relevant ministries and government agencies, particularly the ones involved in the control and use of radioactive materials, such as the Federal Radiation Protection Service (FRPS), Nuclear Research Centres, Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Energy Commission of Nigeria, the Nigerian Police Force, the Customs and the Ports Authority. By August 1998, the committee got Nigeria duly registered with the IAEA as a participating nation and presented a proposal to the Federal Government on how to monitor our ports of entry, borders and the entire country in order to participate effectively in the programme. In other to check illicit trafficking of nuclear materials effectively and efficiently within and across the Nigerian borders, the National Committee gave priority to proper organisational structure, manpower training and development, and the provision of adequate and necessary facilities and infrastructure for nationwide radiation monitoring programme. Organisational Structure - In Nigeria, there is the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Decree No. 19 of 1995 which established the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) and an Institute of Radiation Protection (IRP). The decree empowers the NRA to regulate the production, possession, transfer, import, export, trade, use, transportation, storage and disposal of radioactive materials and radiation equipment in order to ensure radiation

  10. Modelling deuterium release during thermal desorption of D{sup +}-irradiated tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, M. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T6 (Canada); Haasz, A.A. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T6 (Canada)], E-mail: tonyhaasz@utias.utoronto.ca; Davis, J.W. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T6 (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    Thermal desorption profiles were modelled based on SIMS measurements of implantation profiles and using the multi-trap diffusion code TMAP7 [G.R. Longhurst, TMAP7: Tritium Migration Analysis Program, User Manual, Idaho National Laboratory, INEEL/EXT-04-02352 (2004)]. The thermal desorption profiles were the result of 500 eV/D{sup +} irradiations on single crystal tungsten at 300 and 500 K to fluences of 10{sup 22}-10{sup 24} D{sup +}/m{sup 2}. SIMS depth profiling was performed after irradiation to obtain the distribution of trapped D within the top 60 nm of the surface. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was performed subsequently to obtain desorption profiles and to extract the total trapped D inventory. The SIMS profiles were calibrated to give D concentrations. To account for the total trapped D inventory measured by TDS, SIMS depth distributions were used in the near-surface (surface to 30 nm), NRA measurements [V.Kh. Alimov, J. Roth, M. Mayer, J. Nucl. Mater. 337-339 (2005) 619] were used in the range 1-7 {mu}m, and a linear drop in the D distribution was assumed in the intermediate sub-surface region ({approx}30 nm to 1 {mu}m). Traps were assumed to be saturated so that the D distribution also represented the trap distribution. Three trap energies, 1.07 {+-} 0.03, 1.34 {+-} 0.03 and 2.1 {+-} 0.05 eV were required to model the 520, 640 and 900 K desorption peaks, respectively. The 1.34 and 1.07 eV traps correspond to trapping of a first and second D atom at a vacancy, respectively, while the 2.1 eV trap corresponds to atomic D trapping at a void. A fourth trap energy of 0.65 eV was used to fit the 400 K desorption peak observed by Quastel et al. [A.D. Quastel, J.W. Davis, A.A. Haasz, R.G. Macaulay-Newcombe, J. Nucl. Mater. 359 (2006) 8].

  11. Update to the R33 cross section file format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickridge, I.C.

    2003-01-01

    In September 1991, in response to the workshop on cross sections for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) held in Namur (July 1991, Nuclear Instruments and Methods B66(1992)), a simple ascii format was proposed to facilitate transfer and collation of nuclear reaction cross section data for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) and especially for Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). Although intended only as a discussion document, the ascii format - referred to as the R33 (Report 33) format - has become a de facto standard. In the decade since this first proposal there have been spectacular advances in computing power and in software usability, however the cross-platform compatibility of the ascii character set has ensured that the need for an ascii format remains. Nuclear reaction cross section data for Nuclear Reaction analysis has been collected and archived on internet web sites over the last decade. This data has largely been entered in the R33 format, although there is a series of elastic cross sections that are expressed as the ratio to the corresponding Rutherford cross sections that have been entered in a format referred to as RTR (ratio to Rutherford). During this time the R33 format has been modified and added to - firstly to take into account angular distributions, which were not catered for in the first proposal, and more recently to cater for elastic cross sections expressed as the ratio-to- Rutherford, which it is useful to have for some elastic scattering programs. It is thus timely to formally update the R33 format. There also exists the large nuclear cross section data collections of the Nuclear Data Network - of which the core centres are the OECD NEA Nuclear Data Bank, the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, the Brookhaven National Laboratory National Nuclear Data Centre and CJD IPPE Obninsk, Russia. The R33 format is now proposed to become a legal computational format for the NDN. It is thus also necessary to provide an updated formal definition of the R33 format in order to provide

  12. Slovak Republic Act of 1 April 1998 on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and on alterations and amendments to Act No. 174/1968 Zb. on State supervision of work safety as amended by Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 256/1994 Z.z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This Act is a part of Report and contains: Part I. Chapter (Ch.) one: Basic provisions; Paragraph (P) 1: Subject of act; P2: Definition of certain terms; P3: Principles of peaceful use of nuclear energy; P4: Conditions for use of nuclear energy; P5: Conditions for issue of authorization; P6: Application for the issue of an authorization; P7: Issue of authorization; P8: Termination and limitation of authorization; P8: Termination and limitation of authorization. Ch.2: Nuclear materials; P9: Nuclear materials, special materials and equipment; P10: Procurement and use of nuclear materials (NM); P11: Transportation of NM; P12: Accounting and control of NM; Ch.3: Nuclear installations, management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel; P13: Nuclear installation (NI); P14: Construction of nuclear installations (NI); P15. Commissioning and operation of NI; P16. Extension of operational lifetime of NI; P17: Radioactive waste management; P18: Management of spent nuclear fuel; P19: Decommissioning of NIs; Ch.4. Nuclear safety and quality assurance; P20: Nuclear safety; P21: Professional qualification; P22: Quality assurance; P23: Physical protection of NIs and NMs; P24. Events at nuclear installations and accidents during transportation of NMs; P25: Emergency planning; Ch.5. P26: Nuclear damage and compensation for such damage; P27: Liability for nuclear damage; P28: Limitation of liability; P29: Meeting of claims for compensation for nuclear damage; P30: Financial cover for nuclear damage liability. Ch.6: NRA SR. P31: Competence of the Authority; P32: The Authority performs the State supervision; P33: The obligations of the authorized persons towards the authority and apprising by the authority of the national organs; P34: Nuclear safety inspectors; P35: Discontinuation of the operating of a NI or its construction. P36: Penalties. Ch.7. Common, temporary and concluding provisions. P37. Relation to administrative procedure; P38: Temporary provisions; P39: Abrogation

  13. Experience of Bohunice V-1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobik, Dobroslav

    2000-01-01

    Slovakia remains significantly dependent on imports of primary energy sources, which represent as much as 80% of the demand. Of the total consumption of electricity in Slovakia, 40% was generated in nuclear power plant units in 1998. Slovakia operates 6 units with WWER 440 nuclear reactors. Slovakia is the signatory of all important international agreements and conventions in the field of nuclear energy, and its legislation is in an advanced stage of approximation to European Union law. This is a very important aspect, showing Slovakia's approach to nuclear safety. In 1993 Slovakia accepted the commitments of the UN Convention on Climate Changes, including a reduction of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. Moreover, as an internal target Slovakia has set the reaching of the 'Toronto Objective', i.e. 20% reduction in CO x , emissions through the year 2005 as compared to 1988. In our opinion, this is not possible without nuclear energy. Time has shown, that the political aspects are more powerful, especially if you underestimate their importance over the than the technical ones. In the case of Bohunice V-1 NPP the political aspects were on the following levels: 1. Slovak republic (Czechoslovakia), political changes, decisions of the government; 2. European Union - Agenda 2000, Accession criteria, nuclear safety criteria, EBRD; 3. Austria as a neighbouring country. Starting with year 1990, 23 expert missions took place at Bohunice V-1 NPP by now. The only criteria for further operation should have been Nuclear safety, which is supervised by NRA SR. It was fully in compliance with EU policy, each country is solely responsible for its energy sector and for nuclear energy use. Our satisfaction lasted not too long. Following negotiation with EU on the highest political level, driven by willingness to be invited for negotiation of accession on the Helsinki Summit, the Slovak government decided on September 14th, on Bohunice V-1 Units shutdown in 2006 and 2008

  14. XPS study of the passive films formed on nitrogen-implanted austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, P.; Bussell, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels (304-type) have been implanted with nitrogen ions in order to investigate the effects of implanted nitrogen on their electrochemical behaviour and on the nature of the passive film formed on the steels in acid (0.5M H 2 SO 4 ). Alloys with two nitrogen doses have been prepared (2.5x10 16 and 2x10 17 N atoms/cm 2 ). The implanted alloys have been characterized by 15 N-NRA (nuclear reaction analysis) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Alloy surfaces with well-defined N concentrations were prepared, prior to the electrochemical measurements, by argon-ion sputtering of the implanted material for a fixed time in order to reach a well-defined point on the nitrogen depth profile. The samples were then transferred without exposure to air to an electrochemical cell mounted in an inert gas glove box. The implanted nitrogen modifies the electrochemical behaviour of the alloy. The anodic dissolution in the active state is enhanced, and the current density in the passive state is increased. Surface analysis of the alloys by XPS after passivation shows that implanted nitrogen is enriched on the surface during dissolution and passivation of the alloys. The process by which N is enriched on the surface is anodic segregation, which was first observed and characterized for S on Ni and Ni-Fe alloys. The passive films formed on both the unimplanted and implanted alloys have a bilayer structure with an inner oxide layer and an outer hydroxide layer, but on the nitrogen-implanted alloy, a chromium nitride phase is formed at the expense of the chromium oxide. After passivation of the implanted alloys, three chemical states of nitrogen are detected in the N 1s spectrum. The high binding energy (399.4 eV) peak corresponds to a nitrogen species located on the surface of the passive film, which is produced by reaction of the implanted nitrogen with the solution. (orig./WL)

  15. Utilization of the Space Vision System as an Augmented Reality System For Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technique whereby computer generated images are superimposed on live images for visual enhancement. Augmented reality can also be characterized as dynamic overlays when computer generated images are registered with moving objects in a live image. This technique has been successfully implemented, with low to medium levels of registration precision, in an NRA funded project entitled, "Improving Human Task Performance with Luminance Images and Dynamic Overlays". Future research is already being planned to also utilize a laboratory-based system where more extensive subject testing can be performed. However successful this might be, the problem will still be whether such a technology can be used with flight hardware. To answer this question, the Canadian Space Vision System (SVS) will be tested as an augmented reality system capable of improving human performance where the operation requires indirect viewing. This system has already been certified for flight and is currently flown on each shuttle mission for station assembly. Successful development and utilization of this system in a ground-based experiment will expand its utilization for on-orbit mission operations. Current research and development regarding the use of augmented reality technology is being simulated using ground-based equipment. This is an appropriate approach for development of symbology (graphics and annotation) optimal for human performance and for development of optimal image registration techniques. It is anticipated that this technology will become more pervasive as it matures. Because we know what and where almost everything is on ISS, this reduces the registration problem and improves the computer model of that reality, making augmented reality an attractive tool, provided we know how to use it. This is the basis for current research in this area. However, there is a missing element to this process. It is the link from this research to the current ISS video system and to

  16. Analysis of ion implanted doped insulators by nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheith, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear resonance reaction an6520750JOalysis (NRA), using a proton beam at 1350 KeV, and the complementary rutherford backscattering, using a 1.8 MeV helium beam, techniques were utilized to investigate the level of impurities and the influencs of structural defects created by an 40 Ar + beam irradation induced in single crysttalline pure, and 10 and 20 mole % Eu doped, CaF 2 targets. The energetic proton, helium and argon beams were all supplied from the Uniersity of Jordan Van De Graaff accelerator, JOVAC. The depth distribuation of intrinsic defecta altered by the radiation damage was determined, using the resonance(p,α reaction at 1350 KeV resulting, from the halogen with proton beams of incident energies above resonance. Results are compared with transport of ions in matter calculations (TRIM), using the computer code 'TRIM-89'. Results indicate that the influence of doping alters tje crystal structure by pbserving a Ca-surfaace rich layer. The Ca enrichment is explained based on the defect model of trivalent Eu occupying the divalent substitutional places of the Ca atoms. The extra positive charge is linked to a negative one available on the the neighbouring F in order to preserve charge neutrality. The Ar irradiation results on the other hand revealed that the low level Eu doping stabilizes hte crystal better than the higher doping level. Chanages in the Eu signal from uniformly even distribution to an enhancement below the surface art a depth that is correlated with the mean and straggling values of the Ar impurrity distribution, is observed. This is consistant with the calculated Ar impurity distributions in which the 250 KeV Ar irradiation results in narrow distributions gradient of defects, possibly by a radiation enhanced diffusion mechanism. Preferential sputtering of the halogen, being the lightest element in the matrix, was alos noted. Surface topographic changes due to formation of large complexes and cracks are found to distort a large volume of

  17. The Role of Advisory Committees on Regulatory functions: Argentine Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher, A. M.; Arias, C.; Kunst, J. J.; Perez, R. M.; Rudelli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) has appointed a consultants body that advises its Board of Directors on aspects related to authorization's granting to individuals for the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiation in medicine, research and industry. Such committee, whose existence goes back to the year 1958, is integrated by prominent professionals knowledgeable about ionizing radiation and radioisotopes applications in the medical, biomedical and industrial fields, representing important professional associations or institutions related to the practices in question. Originally, the committee was conceived as a consultation body to fulfil two important functions: To produce, in a regular way, authorized opinions at experts level to settle down questions relative to the regulation of practices, new at that time in the country, and To submit to a peer review applications for individual authorization for different uses of ionizing radiation previously it's granting by the Regulatory Authority. In this paper the role of the advisory council is analyzed from a historical perspective trying to emphasize an outstanding aspect not sufficiently analyzed linked to the capability that advisory bodies, with representative users' presence, can reach in the interpretation of regulatory standards based on a performance philosophy. Such approach outlines the permanent dilemma about the performance level of the licensee that should satisfy the Regulatory Authority. Once the broad objectives of radiation protection has been defined professional criteria is required for applying them to different practices. Balance between flexibility and avoidance of excessive uncertainty is desirable. In the authors' opinion the inclusion, inside the regulator's structure of consultants bodies giving direct participation to qualified stakeholders, far from harming the necessary independence that should characterize the regulator, on the contrary, allows to have an excellent social

  18. Effect of low temperature baking on the RF properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    2004-01-01

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some ''anomalous'' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' bake under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from ''anomalous'' losses (so-called ''Q-drop'') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37 K-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6 K-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models

  19. Deuterium migration in nuclear graphite: Consequences for the behavior of tritium in CO{sub 2}-cooled reactors and for the decontamination of irradiated graphite waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guillou, M. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon – 4, rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, DRD/CM – 1-7, rue Jean Monnet, Parc de la Croix-Blanche, F-92298 Châtenay-Malabry cedex (France); Toulhoat, N., E-mail: nelly.toulhoat@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon – 4, rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); CEA/DEN – Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Pipon, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon – 4, rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Institut Universitaire Technologique, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon – 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Moncoffre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Université de Lyon – 4, rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Khodja, H. [Laboratoire d’Etude des Eléments Légers, CEA/DSM/IRAMIS/NIMBE, UMR 3299 SIS2M – Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we aim at understanding tritium behavior in the graphite moderator of French CO{sub 2}-cooled nuclear fission reactors (called UNGG for “Uranium Naturel-Graphite-Gaz”) to get information on its distribution and inventory in the irradiated graphite waste after their dismantling. These findings should be useful both to improve waste treatment processes and to foresee tritium behavior during reactor decommissioning and waste disposal operations. The purpose of the present work is to elucidate the effects of temperature on the behavior of tritium during reactor operation. Furthermore, it aims at exploring options of thermal decontamination. For both purposes, annealing experiments were carried out in inert atmosphere as well as in thermal conditions as close as possible to those encountered in UNGG reactors and in view of a potential decontamination in humid gas. D{sup +} ions were implanted into virgin nuclear graphite in order to simulate tritium displaced from its original structural site through recoil during reactor operation. The effect of thermal treatments on the mobility of the implanted deuterium was then investigated at temperatures ranging from 200 to 1200 °C, in inert atmosphere (vacuum or argon), in a gas simulating the UNGG coolant gas (mainly CO{sub 2}) or in humid nitrogen. Deuterium was analyzed by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) both at millimetric and micrometric scales. We have identified three main stages for the deuterium release. The first one corresponds to deuterium permeation through graphite open pores. The second and third ones are controlled by the progressive detrapping of deuterium located at different trapping sites and its successive migration through the crystallites and along crystallites and coke grains edges. Extrapolating the thermal behavior of deuterium to tritium, the results show that the release becomes significant above the maximum UNGG reactor temperature of 500 °C and should be lower than 30% of the

  20. Basic concept of fuel safety design and assessment for sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakae, Nobuo; Baba, Toshikazu; Kamimura, Katsuichiro

    2013-03-01

    into account the fuel specification and design condition. IAEA safety standard commonly consists of fundamental, requirement and guide. The basic concept prepared here also consists of these three aspects for fuel safety design and assessment for sodium-cooled fast reactor. The outline is summarized in the following page. The items shown in the Annex are operational conditions defined by each country/organization, definitions of anticipated operational occurrences, practical criteria for fuel performance and safety design and list of abbreviations. In addition, the English version is attached for international use. This document has been developed under the current law system in Japan. Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) is now establishing the new guidelines. Therefore, it should be necessary that the document is revised based on the new guidelines. (author)

  1. Slovak Republic act of 1 April 1998 on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and on alterations and amendments to Act No. 174/1968 Collection of laws of CSSR on State supervision of work safety as amended by Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. 256/1994 of Collection of laws of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These act contains: Part I. Chapter (Ch.) one: Basic provisions; Paragraph (P) 1: Subject of act; P2: Definition of certain terms; P3: Principles of peaceful use of nuclear energy; P4: Conditions for use of nuclear energy; P5: Conditions for issue of authorization; P6: Application for the issue of an authorization; P7: Issue of authorization; P8: Termination and limitation of authorization; P8: Termination and limitation of authorization. Ch.2: Nuclear materials; P9: Nuclear materials, special materials and equipment; P10: Procurement and use of nuclear materials (NM); P11: Transportation of NM; P12: Accounting and control of NM; Ch.3: Nuclear installations, management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel; P13: Nuclear installation (NI); P14: Construction of nuclear installations (NI); P15. Commissioning and operation of NI; P16. Extension of operational lifetime of NI; P17: Radioactive waste management; P18: Management of spent nuclear fuel; P19: Decommissioning of NIs; Ch.4. Nuclear safety and quality assurance; P20: Nuclear safety; P21: Professional qualification; P22: Quality assurance; P23: Physical protection of NIs and NMs; P24. Events at nuclear installations and accidents during transportation of NMs; P25: Emergency planning; Ch.5. P26: Nuclear damage and compensation for such damage; P27: Liability for nuclear damage; P28: Limitation of liability; P29: Meeting of claims for compensation for nuclear damage; P30: Financial cover for nuclear damage liability. Ch.6: NRA SR. P31: Competence of the Authority; P32: The Authority performs the State supervision; P33: The obligations of the authorized persons towards the authority and apprising by the authority of the national organs; P34: Nuclear safety inspectors; P35: Discontinuation of the operating of a NI or its construction. P36: Penalties. Ch.7. Common, temporary and concluding provisions. P37. Relation to administrative procedure; P38: Temporary provisions; P39: Abrogation provision; P40: List of

  2. The Need to Increase Regulatory Controls on Imports and Exports came from the Detection of an Argentine Import Containing Exceeding Pellets of Ir-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsolo, N.A.; Vidal, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    In Argentina, radioactive sources for application in Industrial Gamma radiography are manufactured using small metallic discs called pellets of radioactive isotope Ir-192, that are imported. They have to be shipped in specially sealed recipients according to their high radioactive levels. These recipients are large enough to contain activities as high as 296 TBq and are therefore approved as Type B(U) packages. This paper thoroughly describes a particular import of this material in which an exceeding 220 ± 2 Pellets (75,62 TBq) was found. The total amount of activity had not been declared adequately by the consignor. The corresponding notification to the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) was made by the importer and national manufacturer at the moment these particular Pellets were to be used for source production. The exceeding material doubled that which had been authorized to be imported. After the notification and since the material had entered to the country illicitly, customs legislations were applied in a legal process in which the Nuclear Regulatory Authority participated as well. The decision of the judge was to ship the exceeding cargo again to its proceeding country. However, a significant time had passed since the cargo arrived and the pellets had stuck to each other due to high temperature. This made them impossible to handle in order to encapsulate them as special form radioactive material again for their shipment in the available Type B(U) package. In the outcome, the material was retained at the manufacturer facilities, in its original packaging, with suitable radiological and physical conditions to guarantee safety and security, waiting until its activity had decayed to acceptable levels for its shipment as Type A package. As a result, a need to require further technical specifications from the vendor was detected. These specifications should warn about the period in which these Pellets may be utilized for source production before

  3. Pick-and-Eat Salad-Crop Productivity, Nutritional Value, and Acceptability to Supplement the ISS Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hummerick, M. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Whitmire, A. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    treatments and one fertilizer treatment to test on ISS. Our work will help define light colors, levels, and horticultural best practices to achieve high yields of safe, nutritious leafy greens and tomatoes to supplement a space diet of prepackaged food. Our final deliverable will be the development of growth protocols for these crops in a spaceflight vegetable production system. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research to help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture to Mars and beyond. This research was co-funded by the Human Research Program and Space Biology (MTL1075) in the ILSRA 2015 NRA call.

  4. An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D.

    2013-07-01

    The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from ˜20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and

  5. An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Department of Physics, 1155 Union Circle 311427, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

    2013-07-03

    The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from {approx}20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and

  6. Advanced characterization of materials using swift ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabacniks, Manfredo H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Swift ion beams are powerful non destructive tools for material analysis especially thin films. In spite of their high energy, usually several MeV/u, little energy is deposited by the ion on the sample. Energetic ions also use to stop far away (or outside) the inspected volume, hence producing negligible damage to the sample. Ion beam methods provide quantitative trace element analysis of any atomic element (and some isotopes) in a sample and are able to yield elemental depth profiles with spatial resolution of the order of 10mm. Relying on nuclear properties of the atoms, these methods are insensitive to the chemical environment of the element, consequently not limited by matrix effects. Ion beam methods are multielemental, can handle insulating materials, are quick (an analysis usually takes less than 15 minutes), and need little (if any) sample preparation. Ion beams are also sensitive to surface roughness and sample porosity and can be used to quickly inspect these properties in a sample. The Laboratory for Ion Beam Analysis of the University of Sao Paulo, LAMFI, is a multi-user facility dedicated to provide Ion Beam Methods like PIXE, RBS, FRS and NRA techniques for the analysis of materials and thin films. Operating since 1994, LAMFI is being used mostly by many researchers from within and outside USP, most of them non specialists in ion beam methods, but in need of ion beam analysis to carry out their research. At LAMFI, during the last 9 years, more than 50% of the accelerator time was dedicated to analysis, usually PIXE or RBS. 21% was down time and about 14% of the time was used for the development of ion beam methods which includes the use of RBS for roughness characterization exploring the shading of the beam by structures on the surface and by modeling the RBS spectrum as the product of a normalized RBS spectrum and a height density distribution function of the surface. Single element thick target PIXE analysis is being developed to obtain the thin

  7. Safety of a novel botanical extract formula for ameliorating allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (also known as hay fever) is the most commonly occurring immunological disorder, and it affects 40 million men, women, and children in the United States. Symptomatically, it is an inflammation and irritation of the mucous membranes that line the nose. Allergy is defined as a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel botanical formulation, Aller-7/NR-A2, was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; it is a combination of medicinal plant extracts from Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. This novel formulation has demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell-stabilization activities. All of the doses for these toxicity studies were selected according to the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Health Organization, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Acute toxicity of Aller-7 was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg. After 15 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed. No histopathological changes were observed in major vital organs. A similar study was conducted in Albino Wistar rats, which were sacrificed at the end of 15 days. No histopathological changes or toxicity was observed at up to 2 g/kg body weight. Subacute toxicity was conducted in Albino Wistar rats at a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight for 3 days, then at 180 mg/kg for the next 3 days, and then at 270 mg/kg for 3 weeks. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and tested; no toxicity was observed. In a subchronic toxicity study, there was no observed adverse effect level at 1 g/kg body weight in rats. In a teratological assay, at doses of 3.0 g/kg (20 times the recommended dose) and 1.8 g/kg, respectively, no

  8. Safety of a Novel Botanical Extract Formula for Ameliorating Allergic rhinitis. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, A; Joshua, A J; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Each year more than 50 million Americans suffer from allergic rhinitis, which is a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity. Basically, allergic rhinitis is symptomatically recognized as the inflammation and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes; sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy; watery, and swollen eyes; and defined as a state of hypersensitivity/ hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular allergen (antigen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. Earlier studies in our laboratories have demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell stabilization activities of Aller-7 in addition to its efficacy in a clinical setting. A series of preliminary toxicological evaluations were also conducted in the past, which demonstrated its safety. In this study, we have conducted further safety studies on Aller-7, including acute oral, acute dermal, acute dermal irritation, eye irritation, and 90-day repeated dose toxicity studies. Acute oral toxicity of Aller-7 was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight in both male and female rats and no mortality or toxicity was observed at this dose, while the acute dermal toxicity was found to be greater than 2,000 mg/kg body weight. In the acute dermal irritation study, the skin irritancy index was found to be 0.0, which classifies Aller-7 as a nonirritant to rabbit skin. In the acute eye irritation study, Aller-7 was found to have minimal irritancy to eyes of rabbits. In the repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity study, Aller-7 was administered at dose levels of 100, 300, and 1,000 mg/kg rat body weight for 90

  9. Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, P; Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Stohs, S J

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men, women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy, watery and swollen eyes. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. In this study, the antioxidant efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated by various assays including hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The protective effect of Aller-7 on free radical-induced lysis of red blood cells and inhibition of nitric oxide release by Aller-7 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages were determined. Aller-7 exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically generated hydroxyl radicals (IC50 741.73 microg/ml); superoxide anion (IC50 24.65 microg/ml by phenazine methosulfate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [PMS-NADH] assay and IC50 4.27 microg/ml by riboflavin/nitroblue tetrazolium [NBT] light assay), nitric oxide (IC50 16.34 microg/ml); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 5.62 microg/ml); and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical (IC50 7.35 microg/ml). Aller-7 inhibited free radical-induced hemolysis in the concentration range of 20-80 microg/ml. Aller-7 also significantly inhibited nitric oxide release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine

  10. Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratibha, N; Saxena, V S; Amit, A; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of nasal mucosal membranes. Allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. Since inflammation is an integral mechanistic component of allergy, the present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Aller-7 in various in vivo models. The efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated in compound 48/80-induced paw edema both in Balb/c mice and Swiss Albino mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar Albino rats and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was also determined and compared with ovomucoid. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, Aller-7 demonstrated 62.55% inhibition against compound 48/80-induced paw edema in Balb/c mice, while under the same conditions prednisolone at an oral dose of 14 mg/kg exhibited 44.7% inhibition. Aller-7 significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced paw edema at all three doses of 175, 225 or 275 mg/kg in Swiss Albino mice, while the most potent effect was observed at 225 mg/kg. Aller-7 (120 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated 31.3% inhibition against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in Wistar Albino rats, while ibuprofen (50 mg/kg, p.o.) exerted 68.1% inhibition. Aller-7 also exhibited a dose-dependent (150-350 mg/kg) anti-inflammatory effect against Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats and an approximately 63% inhibitory effect was observed at a dose of 350 mg/kg. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined, using ovomucoid as a positive control. Ovomucoid and Aller-7 demonstrated

  11. Simultaneous Nuclear Reaction Analysis of Boron and Phosphorus in Thin Borophosphosilicate Glass Films Using (α,p) Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    A method combining (α,p) NRA and ellipsometry has been developed for measuring the Boron and Phosphorus content of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) used for interlevel dielectrics in integrated circuits. Yields from the 31 P(α,p 0 ) 34 S (Q = 0.63 MeV) and 10 B(α,p 0 ) 13 C (Q = 4.06 MeV) reactions are coupled with ellipsometry thickness measurements to calculate the average atomic percent of B and P in the film. Due to the relatively low Q value of the 31 P(α,p 0 ) 34 S reaction and the thickness range of the glass films (le 1.2 micrometers) they analyze, fairly high energy alpha particles, and Mylar range foils on the detector are required. Alpha energy, detector angle and range foil thickness were determined by reaction yields and the need to separate the yield peaks of interest from competing (α,p) reactions and backscattered alphas. They have determined that 6.0 MeV incident alphas with a detector angle of 135degree and about 100 micrometers of Mylar range foil are optimum for the system. The yield for the 10 B(α,p 0 ) 13 C reaction is quite constant in the energy range of interest (approximately 5.8 to 6 MeV) but the yield for the 31 P(α,p 0 ) 34 S is not. Consequently, a simple conversion from standard BPSG reference samples (independently quantified by ICP mass spectrometry) is adequate to calculate a film's %B content. The %P calculation is more complex, involving a three-dimensional fit of the P yield data and measured film thickness to the film %P content. This fit is based upon yield data from a matrix of standard film samples. The technique is sensitive to 0.1% with an accuracy of ±3 to ±10% depending on the sample. This measurement method is used routinely at Sandia National Laboratories in support of their fabrication process lines

  12. Ion Beam Analysis methods applied to the examination of Be//Cu joints in hipped Be tiles for ITER first wall mock- ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vito, E. de; Cayron, C.; Hicham Khodja; Lorenzetto, P.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed fabrication route for ITER first wall components implies a diffusion welding step of Be tiles onto a Cu-based substrate. However, Be has a tendency to form particularly brittle intermetallics with Cu and a lot of other elements. Insertion of interlayers may be a solution to increase bond quality. Applying traditional analyses to this study can be problematic because of Be toxicity and low atomic number Z. Ion Beam Analysis methods have thus been considered together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD) as complementary techniques. The following work aims at demonstrating how such techniques (used in micro-beam mode), and in particular NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) techniques, coupled with SEM/EBSD data, can bring valuable information in this area. Quantification of data allow to obtain concentration values (provided the hypotheses on the initial junction composition are valuable), then phase diagrams give clues about the composition and structure of the junction. SEM retro-diffused electrons chemical contrast images and EBSD allow to characterize the presence of the awaited intermetallics, and finally confirm or refine the conclusions of Ion Beam Analysis data quantification. A series of reference first wall mock-ups have been analysed. Interlayer-free mock-ups reveal intermetallics which are mainly BeCu (apparently mixed with lower quantities of BeCu 2 compound). While Cr or Ti interlayers seem to behave as good Be diffusion barriers in the sense that they prevent the formation of BeCu, they strongly interact with Cu to form CuTi 2 or Cr 2 Ti intermetallics. In the case of Cr, Be seems to be incorporated into the Cr layer. PIXE analysis has however been unable to characterize Al-based interlayers (Z=13, close to the lower PIXE sensibility limit) and emphasizes one limitation of Ion Beam Analysis methods for lighter metals, justifying the use of other

  13. Low energy implantation of boron with decaborane ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Maria Angela

    The goal of this dissertation was to determine the feasibility of a novel approach to forming ultra shallow p-type junctions (tens of nm) needed for future generations of Si MOS devices. In the new approach, B dopant atoms are implanted by cluster ions obtained by ionization of decaborane (B 10H14) vapor. An experimental ion implanter with an electron impact ion source and magnetic mass separation was built at the Ion Beam and Thin Film Research Laboratory at NJIT. Beams of B10Hx+ ions with currents of a few microamperes and energies of 1 to 12 keV were obtained and used for implantation experiments. Profiles of B and H atoms implanted in Si were measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). From the profiles, the junction depth of 57 nm (at 1018 cm-3 B concentration) was obtained with 12 keV decaborane ions followed by RTA. The dose of B atoms that can be implanted at low energy into Si is limited by sputtering as the ion beam sputters both the matrix and the implanted atoms. As the number of sputtered B atoms increases with the implanted dose and approaches the number of the implanted atoms, equilibrium of B in Si is established. This effect was investigated by comparison of the B dose calculated from the ion beam integration with B content in the sample measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). Maximum (equilibrium) doses of 1.35 x 1016 B cm -2 and 2.67 x 1016 B cm-2 were obtained at the beam energies of 5 and 12 keV, respectively. The problem of forming shallow p-type junctions in Si is related not only to implantation depth, but also to transient enhanced diffusion (TED). TED in Si implanted with B10Hx+ was measured on boron doping superlattice (B-DSL) marker layers. It was found that TED, following decaborane implantation, is the same as with monomer B+ ion implantation of equivalent energy and that it decreases with the decreasing ion energy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. ERYA (bulk)-finally available and ERYA profile-final adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedro de Jesus, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: It was announced and shown that the ERYA-bulk code for analysis of in-depth homogeneous samples is now available and may be downloaded from a web site, where a manual is available to explain how to use it. A tutorial on the code’s interface and capabilities was shown, namely the capability of calculating simultaneously the mass concentration of an arbitrary number of elements in a homogeneous sample (any thickness), with the additional capability of fitting the sample matrix composition. This may be done by using as an initial estimate either the results from another analytical technique such as PIXE (usually used as a complementary technique) or with prior knowledge of the main chemical composition. Regarding the development of a routine to perform depth profile measurements, the main aspects of what was already done were presented: 1. the routine was developed to be used interactively, as RUMP, or SigmaNRA, by comparing the calculated and experimental results for each concentration distribution given by the user; 2. the routine uses a division of the target into layers (as in the case of ERYA bulk) but within each layer the projectiles have an energy distribution and not a single energy value (as in the case of ERYA bulk); this implies that depth together with average energy must be calculated for every layer; 3. the energy distribution takes into account Beam Energy Resolution, Beam Energy Straggling and Doppler Broadening; 4. in order to implement energy straggling calculations, Landau, Vavilov and Gaussian distributions are used; 5. the resonant cross section function may be replaced by an ideal Breit-Wigner function; further efforts to implement the code to use resonance strengths are being developed; 6. the concentration may be given for any number of discrete layers or as a depth dependent continuous function. This profile routine is already working with a user-friendly interface, which was also presented. Further tests and improvements are

  15. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Material Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in materials science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was

  16. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Bennett, Nancy; McCauley, Dannah; Murphy, Karen; Poindexter, Samantha

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 3 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close

  17. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference %%,its to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance

  18. Advanced characterization of materials using swift ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabacniks, Manfredo H.

    2011-01-01

    Swift ion beams are powerful non destructive tools for material analysis especially thin films. In spite of their high energy, usually several MeV/u, little energy is deposited by the ion on the sample. Energetic ions also use to stop far away (or outside) the inspected volume, hence producing negligible damage to the sample. Ion beam methods provide quantitative trace element analysis of any atomic element (and some isotopes) in a sample and are able to yield elemental depth profiles with spatial resolution of the order of 10mm. Relying on nuclear properties of the atoms, these methods are insensitive to the chemical environment of the element, consequently not limited by matrix effects. Ion beam methods are multielemental, can handle insulating materials, are quick (an analysis usually takes less than 15 minutes), and need little (if any) sample preparation. Ion beams are also sensitive to surface roughness and sample porosity and can be used to quickly inspect these properties in a sample. The Laboratory for Ion Beam Analysis of the University of Sao Paulo, LAMFI, is a multi-user facility dedicated to provide Ion Beam Methods like PIXE, RBS, FRS and NRA techniques for the analysis of materials and thin films. Operating since 1994, LAMFI is being used mostly by many researchers from within and outside USP, most of them non specialists in ion beam methods, but in need of ion beam analysis to carry out their research. At LAMFI, during the last 9 years, more than 50% of the accelerator time was dedicated to analysis, usually PIXE or RBS. 21% was down time and about 14% of the time was used for the development of ion beam methods which includes the use of RBS for roughness characterization exploring the shading of the beam by structures on the surface and by modeling the RBS spectrum as the product of a normalized RBS spectrum and a height density distribution function of the surface. Single element thick target PIXE analysis is being developed to obtain the thin

  19. The need to increase regulatory controls on imports and exports came from the detection of an Argentine import containing exceeding pellets of Ir-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsolo, Nicolas; Vidal, Dora

    2008-01-01

    In Argentina, radioactive sources for application in industrial gamma radiography are manufactured using small metallic discs called pellets of radioactive isotope Ir-192, that are imported. They are to be shipped in specially sealed recipients according to their high radioactive levels. These recipients are large enough to contain activities as high as 296 TBq and are therefore approved as type B (U) packages. This paper thoroughly describes a particular import of this material in which an exceeding 220±2 pellets (75,62 TBq) was found. The total amount of activity had not been declared adequately by the consignor. The corresponding notification to the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) was made by the importer and national manufacturer at the moment these particular pellets were to be used for source production. The exceeding material doubled that which had been authorized to be imported. After the notification and since the material had entered to the country Illicitly, customs legislation were applied in a legal process in which the Nuclear regulatory Authority participated as well. The decision of the judge was to ship the exceeding cargo again to its proceeding country. However, a significant time had passed since the cargo arrived and the pellets has struck to each other due to high temperature. This made them impossible to handle in order to encapsulate them as special form radioactive material again for their shipment in the available Type B (U) package. In the outcome, the material was retained at the manufacturer facilities, in its original packaging, with suitable radiological and physical conditions to guarantee safety and security, waiting until its activity had decayed to acceptable levels for its shipments as type A package. As a result, a need to require further technical specifications from the vendor was detected. These specifications should warn about the period in which these pellets may be utilized for source production before

  20. The Regulatory Evaluation of Vaccines for Human Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Norman W

    2016-01-01

    A vaccine is an immunogen, the administration of which is intended to stimulate the immune system to result in the prevention, amelioration, or therapy of any disease or infection (US Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: content and format of chemistry, manufacturing, and controls information and establishment description information for a vaccine or related product). A vaccine may be a live attenuated preparation of microorganisms, inactivated (killed) whole organisms, living irradiated cells, crude fractions, or purified immunogens, including those derived from recombinant DNA in a host cell, conjugates formed by covalent linkage of components, synthetic antigens, polynucleotides (such as the plasmid DNA vaccines), living vectored cells expressing specific heterologous immunogens, or cells pulsed with immunogen. Vaccines are highly complex products that differ from small molecule drugs because of the biological nature of the source materials such as those derived from microorganisms as well as the various cell substrates from which some are derived. Regardless of the technology used, because of their complexities, vaccines must undergo extensive characterization and testing. Special expertise and procedures are needed for their manufacture, control, and regulation. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) in the United States responsible for assuring quality, safety, and effectiveness of all human medical products, including vaccines for human use.The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) within the US FDA is responsible for overseeing the regulation of therapeutic and preventative vaccines against infectious diseases. Authority for the regulation of vaccines resides in Section 351 of the Public Health Service Act and specific sections of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C). Vaccines are regulated as biologics and licensed based on the demonstration of safety and effectiveness. The

  1. North American Rendering: processing high quality protein and fats for feed North American Rendering: processamento de proteínas e gorduras de alta qualidade para alimentos para animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Meeker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One third to one half of each animal produced for meat, milk, eggs, and fiber is not consumed by humans. These raw materials are subjected to rendering processes resulting in many useful products. Meat and bone meal, meat meal, poultry meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, fish meal, and animal fats are the primary products resulting from the rendering process. The most important and valuable use for these animal by-products is as feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and companion animals. There are volumes of scientific references validating the nutritional qualities of these products, and there are no scientific reasons for altering the practice of feeding rendered products to animals. Government agencies regulate the processing of food and feed, and the rendering industry is scrutinized often. In addition, industry programs include good manufacturing practices, HACCP, Codes of Practice, and third-party certification. The rendering industry clearly understands its role in the safe and nutritious production of animal feed ingredients and has done it very effectively for over 100 years. The availability of rendered products for animal feeds in the future depends on regulation and the market. Regulatory agencies will determine whether certain raw materials can be used for animal feed. The National Renderers Association (NRA supports the use of science as the basis for regulation while aesthetics, product specifications, and quality differences should be left to the market place. Without the rendering industry, the accumulation of unprocessed animal by-products would impede the meat industries and pose a serious potential hazard to animal and human health.De um terço a metade da produção animal para carne, leite, ovos e fibra, não são consumidos pelos seres humanos. Estes materiais não consumidos são sujeitos a processamento em graxarias e indústrias de alimentos de origem animal, resultando em uma série de produtos

  2. The French wholesale electricity, natural gas and CO2 markets in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    have nevertheless fallen after the European Commission announced a planned directive on energy efficiency, in a context of growing uncertainty about economic activity. In total, the CO 2 quota price is now approaching euro 10 /t in October 2011, versus euro 14.3 /t on average for 2010. The adoption of the REMIT4 regulation by the European parliament in September 2011, then by the European Council in October 2011, paves the way for a harmonised framework for supervising the European energy markets. REMIT establishes a framework prohibiting market abuses in a way adapted to the electricity and gas markets, and takes account of the influence of the physical fundamentals of these markets. It entrusts ACER, the European regulator, with monitoring, in cooperation with national regulatory authorities (NRA). Investigations remain the responsibility of the NRA. Harmonised monitoring of European energy markets will, as a consequence, necessitate coordinated implementation among the sectoral and financial regulators, ACER and the European Securities and Markets Authority. In fact, the REMIT regulation is coordinated with financial regulations, which are themselves currently under revision. Finally, a European system for monitoring the secondary carbon market is also expected. The electricity and gas market monitoring mission carried out by CRE for five years and the framework established by the banking and financial regulation law constitute assets in efficient implementation at the national scale of the targeted monitoring architecture at the European level

  3. A new strategy for wear and corrosion measurements using ion beam based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudu, D.; Popa, V.; Racolta, P.M.; Voiculescu, Dana

    2001-01-01

    TLA lies under the limit considered to be safe from the point of view of radiation protection, industry hesitates to use this technique mainly due to psychological reasons with respect to the handling of radioactive material. Recognizing this problem we have decided to offer to industry wear/corrosion measurements using TLA and UTLA in the form of a c omplete package . This means that surface activation of components in our accelerators and the subsequent wear measurements in the engine test facility are performed on the same site without the need of transportation of activated components over long distances.. This enables industry to obtain reliable wear data in a short time without building on expensive test bed and without the need of handling radioactive materials. This objective will be performed in collaboration with the specialists from CNRS-CERI Orleans -France and JRC-IAM Ispra, Italy. Some experiments in order to develop the UTLA method for wear and corrosion studies have been started. The tandem Van de Graaff accelerator - 8 MV on terminal - will be used, in this project, in order to characterize the surface layers and tribological phenomena (Cu, Sn, Ce etc. migration ) by other ion beam based techniques (RBS, NRA, PIXE, CE, HICE and ERDA techniques). (authors)

  4. Gamma dose rate calculations for conceptual design of a shield system for spent fuel interim dry storage in CNA 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, A; Gomez S

    2012-01-01

    After completing the rearrangement of the Spent Fuel Elements (SFE) into a compact arrangement in the two storage water pools, Atucha Nuclear Reactor 1 (ANR 1) will leave free position for the wet storage of the SFE discharged until December 2014. Even, in two possible scenarios, such as extending operation from 2015 or the cessation of operation after that date, it will be necessary to empty the interim storage water pools transferring the SFE to a temporary dry storage system. Because the law 25.018 'Management of Radioactive Wastes' implies for the first scenario - operation beyond 2015 - that Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. will still be in charge of the dry storage system and for the second - the cessation of operation after 2015 - the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) will be in charge by the National Management Program of Radioactive Wastes, the interim dry storage system of SNF is an issue of common interest which justifies go forward together. For that purpose and in accordance with the criticality and shielding calculations relevant to the project, in this paper we present the dose rate calculations for shielding conceptual design of a system for dry interim storage of the SFE of ANR 1. The specifications includes that the designed system must be suitable without modification for the SFE of the ANR 2. The results for the calculation of the photon dose rate, in touch and at one meter far, for the Transport Module and the Container of the SFE, are presented, which are required and controlled by the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It was used the SAS4 module of SCALE5.1 system and MCNP5. As a design tool for the photon shielding in order to meet current standards for allowable dose rates, a radial and axial parametric analysis were developed based on the thickness of lead of the Transport Module. The results were compared and verified between the two computing systems. Before this

  5. A Global Spectral Study of Stellar-Mass Black Holes with Unprecedented Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garci, Javier

    project is a global spectroscopic studies of six bright black holes using our reflection models and new calibration tools. These synoptic studies will provide a panoramic view of black hole behavior and advance the measurement of black hole spin. The relevance of our proposed study to this NASA Research Announcement is clear because our work represents a vital use of NASA's High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC); conversely, it is the HEASARC that makes our work possible. In addition, our work naturally responds to the following words in the NRA: ``...the development of tools for mining the vast reservoir of information locked within [the HEASARC]...is also eligible for funding under the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.'' Specifically we will provide new data analysis tools to the community for the study of data collected by a wide range of past, current and future X-ray missions (e.g., RXTE, Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, Swift, NICER). Finally, we are responsive to Objective 1.6 in NASA's Strategic Plan for 2014 that calls for ``exploring the extreme conditions of the universe'' and the continuing aspiration to ``probe the origin and destiny of the universe, including the first moments of the Big Bang and the nature of black holes...''. The proposed program will be carried out over the course of three years.

  6. Application of accelerators in industry, medicine and for environmental research in Almaty Institute of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyssukhin, S.N.; Arzumanov, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    cyclotron - The variable energy isochronous cyclotron in Almaty is a compact low energy cyclotron, K=50 MeV. It generates different beams of light ions: protons 6-30 MeV, deuterons 12.5-25 MeV, helium-3 ions 18.5-62 MeV, alpha particles 25-50 MeV. In the last years the accelerator is rather intensively used for radioisotope production. For this purpose the cyclotron is equipped with two target systems: High power (up to 10 kW) internal target facility intended for irradiation of the surfaces with very good heat conductivity. Normally it is thin metal layers on the copper backing; External isotope target system for irradiation by low power ion beam ( 10 n.cm -2 .s -1 at the deuteron beam current of 12 μA and energy of 25 MeV. Heavy ion electrostatic tandem - Heavy ion electrostatic tandem with accelerating voltage range of 0.2-1 MV is mainly used as analytical instrument for material characterisation. Routine IBA techniques (RBS, NRA, PIXE) were developed to meet the needs of thin film technology, ecology, composite multi-layer targets technology for radioisotope production at the cyclotron. Micro beam facility is used in radio-ecological research for investigation of elements distribution in separate 'hot' radioactive particulates. (author)

  7. The CHARISMA project in ATOMKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, Z.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Kertesz, Zs.; Kiss, A.Z.; Uzonyi, I.; Simon, A.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. CHARISMA (Cultural Heritage Advanced Research Infrastructures: Synergy for a Multidisciplinary Approach to Conservation / Restoration) is an EU-funded integrating activity project carried out in the FP7 Capacities Specific Programme 'Research Infrastructures'. It started in 2009 and will end in 2013. The project provides transnational access (TNA) to advanced scientific instrumentations and knowledge allowing scientists, conservators-restorers and curators to enhance their research at the field forefront. ARCHLAB permits the access to the structured scientific information and analytical data, stored in the archives of the most prestigious European museums and conservation institutions. MOLAB offers access to a portable set of advanced analytical equipment, for in situ non-invasive measurements on artworks. FIXLAB provides access to large and medium scale European installations, including the beamlines of one synchrotron radiation, one neutron source and two ion-beam analytical facilities. Access to these facilities is offered free of charge to users working in the EC Member and Associated States, particularly to first time users, and granted on the basis of project proposals which are reviewed and evaluated through a Peer Review selection. Calls are published twice a year on the CHARISMA website and the local websites of the institutions. The Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications in ATOMKI-HAS is equipped with a 5 MV Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator, as well as ion beam analytical facilities and instruments. The assortment of ion beams and their energy range makes it possible to apply most of the non-invasive ion beam analytical techniques used for the study of cultural heritage. The following methods are available: Particle Induced X-ray Emission technique (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission technique (PIGE), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Elastic Recoil Detection

  8. Modification of IBANDL to Accommodate PIGE Data. Study of the Feasibility of Producing Evaluations for PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbich, A.

    2013-01-01

    According to the plan for special actions accepted at the 1st RCM the necessary changes were made in IBANDL and in the R33-format to accommodate PIGE data. The data to be included in IBANDL are differential cross sections and thick target yields. IBANDL was modified in order to enable it to deal with both kinds of data. The following change was made in the R33 format: for PIGE data an additional entry ''Egamma:'' which contains the gamma-ray energy in keV was inserted, the sign '+' being used between the energies for unresolved lines. This entry is used as a flag to identify PIGE data and to sort files in the table of the retrieved data according to the γ-ray energy. The γ-ray energy is also displayed in the table of retrieved data. A corresponding change was also made in the template used for the upload of the R33 files. The lines with PIGE data are placed at the bottom of the table after EBS and NRA data. A new unit 'yield' was introduced in the R33 format. The data presented in this unit should contain a thick target yield of gammas in Nγ / sr μC. The script producing IBANDL graphics was modified to plot the data in the 'yield' units. However, the possibility to compare the data presented in R33 files as cross-sections and yield in the same plot has not been implemented yet because of the lack of a light version of ERYA code which could be called by IBANDL to perform calculations of target yields using the differential cross section data. The work on transferring EXFOR files relevant to PIGE into IBANDL was hampered by the interruption of the remote access to the server due to computer security measures introduced in the IAEA. The feasibility of producing evaluations for PIGE was studied according to the plan of special actions. The gamma emission used in PIGE is of two kinds - primary γ-rays and cascade ones. For primary gammas the excitation function can be calculated using the R-matrix theory and a good agreement between theory and experiment can be

  9. Report on Transparency. Final version CWE. IG Transparency. Electricity Regional Initiative Central Western Regional Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The Central Western Electricity Regional Energy Market (REM), which is a part of ERGEG's Electricity Regional Initiative, is engaged in harmonizing congestion management and transparency in the Central Western electricity market consisting of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg and The Netherlands. his report contains transparency requirements based on the Congestion Management Guidelines (Commission Decision of 9 November 2006, 2006/770/EC, amending the Annex to Regulation (EC) 1228/2003 on conditions for access to transmission network for cross-border exchanges in electricity, hereinafter cited as CM Guidelines) but taking also into account ERGEG Guidelines of Good Practice on Information Management and Transparency (GGP-IMT). Generally, the basis for harmonization of the transparency rules within the Central Western REM is provided by this report. However, there are some restrictions, it has to be stressed that the report only refers to the information requirements set out in the CM Guidelines that are regularly updated. Also, national publication requirements which might go beyond what is prescribed here are not touched. Furthermore, the change of the market design or the legal background might require adoptions of the publication requirements foreseen in this report. One of the main impediments identified by the regulators was the data delivery from generation and consumption units located in the distribution grids. Market participants concerned (also generators and significant consumption units) are obliged to provide the TSOs responsible for publication of all relevant data concerning cross-border trade according to point 5.5 CM Guidelines, with the relevant data. Therefore, TSOs shall be able to get data from generators and significant consumption units connected to the transmission network. Consequently, it is proposed here that each NRA or other competent authority could oblige DSOs to provide data on generation connected to distribution grids to the TSOs

  10. Erosion behaviour of ultrathin carbon layers and hydrogen retention in beryllium; Untersuchungen zur Erosion ultraduenner Kohlenstoffschichten und Wasserstoffrueckhaltung in Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinelt, Matthias

    2008-04-16

    Plasma-wall-interaction plays an important role on the way to technical feasibility of thermonuclear fusion. In this context, the erosion behavior of few nanometer thin amorphous carbon layers on different metallic substrates by energetic deuterium and helium ions is investigated. Several aspects of the interaction are distinguishable by XPS. Ion induced carbide formation is governed by kinematic intermixing of carbon and metal substrate. Several methods of quantification of XPS measurements are developed and discussed. Comparison of results from these methods with NRA measurements show that surface roughness and implantation of particles into the carbon layer and intermixing zone influence the XPS measurements, which are sensitive to parameters such as material density. The retention of 1 keV deuterium ions implanted into single crystalline and cleaned beryllium at room temperature is investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The residual BeO coverage was 0.2 ML. The retention is 78% at low fluences and saturates above a bombardment with a fluence of 2.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The retained maximum areal density is 2.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. Above 900 K, no deuterium is retained in the sample. An onset of self diffusion is observed at this temperature and metallic beryllium from the bulk segregates though thin BeO layers on the surface. From deuterium desorption traces, retention mechanisms are obtained. The measured TPDspectra are modeled by TMAP7 and rate equations to obtain activation energies for the release processes. From these, binding energies for the system Be-D are derived. Up to a implantation fluence of 1.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, deuterium is trapped in ion induced defects in the beryllium lattice with binding energies of 1.69 eV and 1.86 eV and release temperatures of 770 K and 840 K, respectively. The occupation of these states shows a different isotope behavior for {sup 1}H and {sup 2}H. The states are filled by diffusion of deuterium at the

  11. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    uses of nuclear energy, signed on 1 September 2014, in Beijing; Nuclear security - Order No. 181/2014 for approval of norms regarding the protection of nuclear installation against cyber threats; Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Order No. 51/2015 for approval of the Nuclear Safety Guide regarding industrial codes and standards for nuclear power plants; Order No. 199/2015 for approval of the norms regarding nuclear safety policy and technical operation conditions for nuclear installations; Order No. 177/2015 for approval of norms regarding nuclear safety policy and independent assessment of nuclear safety; Order No. 180/2015 for approval of the guide regarding independent verification of the nuclear safety analyses and evaluation for nuclear installations; Order No. 198/2015 for approval of the guide regarding the framework and content of the nuclear safety final report for nuclear power plants; 7 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation - Details about international agreements concluded by the Slovak Republic; Liability and compensation - Regulation No. 170/2015 Establishing a List of Radioactive Materials, Their Quantities and Their Physical and Chemical Parameters Justifying the Low Risk of Nuclear Damage; General legislation - amendments to existing NRA regulations; 8 - Slovenia: General legislation - Amendments to the Ionising Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act; 9 - Switzerland: Radioactive waste management; Liability and compensation Obligation of insurance, risks not covered by private insurers - Partial revision of the Ordinance on Nuclear Third Party Liability (ORCN); 10 - USA: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Commission authorises issuance of combined licence for Fermi Nuclear Power Plant in Monroe County, Michigan; Radioactive waste management - NRC conducts final public meetings on Yucca Mountain Environmental Report Supplement

  12. Erosion behaviour of ultrathin carbon layers and hydrogen retention in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinelt, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Plasma-wall-interaction plays an important role on the way to technical feasibility of thermonuclear fusion. In this context, the erosion behavior of few nanometer thin amorphous carbon layers on different metallic substrates by energetic deuterium and helium ions is investigated. Several aspects of the interaction are distinguishable by XPS. Ion induced carbide formation is governed by kinematic intermixing of carbon and metal substrate. Several methods of quantification of XPS measurements are developed and discussed. Comparison of results from these methods with NRA measurements show that surface roughness and implantation of particles into the carbon layer and intermixing zone influence the XPS measurements, which are sensitive to parameters such as material density. The retention of 1 keV deuterium ions implanted into single crystalline and cleaned beryllium at room temperature is investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The residual BeO coverage was 0.2 ML. The retention is 78% at low fluences and saturates above a bombardment with a fluence of 2.10 17 cm -2 . The retained maximum areal density is 2.10 17 cm -2 . Above 900 K, no deuterium is retained in the sample. An onset of self diffusion is observed at this temperature and metallic beryllium from the bulk segregates though thin BeO layers on the surface. From deuterium desorption traces, retention mechanisms are obtained. The measured TPDspectra are modeled by TMAP7 and rate equations to obtain activation energies for the release processes. From these, binding energies for the system Be-D are derived. Up to a implantation fluence of 1.10 17 cm -2 , deuterium is trapped in ion induced defects in the beryllium lattice with binding energies of 1.69 eV and 1.86 eV and release temperatures of 770 K and 840 K, respectively. The occupation of these states shows a different isotope behavior for 1 H and 2 H. The states are filled by diffusion of deuterium at the end of its implantation trajectory

  13. Preparation for Pick-and-Eat Food Production on the International Space Station: Flight Definition for the VEG-04 and VEG-05 Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Romeyn, M. W.; Hummerick, M. E.; Spencer, L. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Burgner, S.; Whitmire, A. M.; Young, M. H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    -handling protocol is also being evaluated to support food safety. All harvests reserve a subset of samples for microbial analysis to determine baseline microbial levels and help establish critical control points for food safety. Testing was initially conducted in hardware analogs of the standard Veggie plant pillows. However, a new Veggie watering system, the Passive Orbital Nutrient Delivery System or PONDS, has been designed and is being prepared for future flight experiments. With the selection of this growth system, ground tests have shifted to analog PONDS systems. Crop tests on ISS, designated VEG-04 for mizuna and VEG-05 for tomato, are planned in 2018 to evaluate any additional impacts of spaceflight on the light and fertilizer conditions down-selected from ground tests. A set of Veggie-specific questions has been developed to characterize the psychological impacts of plant growth and plant-care activities during spaceflight. Organoleptic questionnaires have been developed to assess produce attributes in microgravity taste sessions. These tests for plants growing in the Veggie hardware on ISS will help to mitigate the risk of an inadequate food supply for long duration missions by developing methods and determining hardware requirements to integrate fresh vegetables as a dietary supplement. This research was co-funded by the Human Research Program and Space Biology (MTL1075) in the ILSRA 2015 NRA call.

  14. Simulator training and human factor reliability in Kozloduy NPP, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoychev, Kosta

    2007-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation. Situated in North Bulgaria, in the vicinity of the town of Kozloduy, near the Danube River bank, there is the Bulgarian Kozloduy Nuclear Power plant operating four WWER-440 and two WWER-1000 units. Units 1 and 2 were commissioned in July, 1974 and November, 1975, respectively. These were shut down at the end of 2003. Units 3 and 4 were commissioned in December, 1980 and May, 1982. They were shut down at the end of 2006 as a precondition for Bulgaria's accession to the European Union. The 1000 MW units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP were commissioned in September, 1988 and December, 1993, respectively. Large-scale modernization have been implemented and now the units meet all international safety standards. The paper describes the multifunctional simulator Kozloduy NPP for the operational staff training. The training stages are as follows: - Preparatory; -Theoretical studies; - Training at the Training Centre by means of technical devices; - Preparation and sitting for an exam before a Kozloduy NPP expert commission; - Simulator training ; - Preparation to obtain a permit for a license, corresponding to the position to begin work at the NPP; - Exams before the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA) and licensing; - Shadow training at the working place; - Permission for unaided operation. The following positions are addressed by the simulator training: - Chief Plant Supervisor; - Shift Unit Supervisor; - Senior Reactor Operator; - Simulator Instructor; - Controller physicist; -Senior Turbine Operator; - Senior Operator of Turbine Feedwater Pumps of Kozloduy NPP. Improving of training method led to a reduction of number of significant events while worldwide practice proves that improvement of engineering resulted in an increase in the percentage of events, related to human factor. Analysis of human reliability in 2005 and 2006 in cooperation with representatives from Great Britain and the Technical University in Sofia were worked on the DTI NSP B

  15. Laser induced desorption as hydrogen retention diagnostic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobinski, Miroslaw

    2016-07-15

    {sup 3}} and k{sub B}T{sub e} ∼ 60 eV close to the last closed flux surface. A measurement series shows good reproducibility of LIDS with a standard deviation of ±13%, while the estimated uncertainty of a single LIDS measurement is -47% to +43%. LIDS measurements are also in agreement with results from LID-QMS, slow thermal desorption (TDS) or nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The lower detection limit of LIDS is determined by the Ha background fluctuations in TEXTOR to 8.10{sup 20} {sup H}/{sub m{sup 2}} for ohmic and 5.10{sup 21} {sup H}/{sub m{sup 2}} for neutral beam heated plasmas for a diameter 2.6 mm laser spot. The upper measurement limit due to local plasma cooling by the cooler desorbed gas lies at ca. 6.10{sup 22} {sup H}/{sub m{sup 2}} for TEXTOR conditions.

  16. Laser induced desorption as hydrogen retention diagnostic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobinski, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    measurement series shows good reproducibility of LIDS with a standard deviation of ±13%, while the estimated uncertainty of a single LIDS measurement is -47% to +43%. LIDS measurements are also in agreement with results from LID-QMS, slow thermal desorption (TDS) or nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The lower detection limit of LIDS is determined by the Ha background fluctuations in TEXTOR to 8.10 20 H / m 2 for ohmic and 5.10 21 H / m 2 for neutral beam heated plasmas for a diameter 2.6 mm laser spot. The upper measurement limit due to local plasma cooling by the cooler desorbed gas lies at ca. 6.10 22 H / m 2 for TEXTOR conditions.

  17. Relaxometry in soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    -destructive way. Recent studies investigated wetting and swelling processes in soil samples, as well as the formation of microbial biofilms in soil the formation. This contribution gives an overview of current applications and the potential of NMR relaxometry in soil science with special emphasis on proton NMR relaxometry. References Bird, N.R.A., Preston, A.R., Randall, E.W., Whalley, W.R. & Whitmore, A.P. 2005. Measurement of the size distribution of water-filled pores at different matric potentials by stray field nuclear magnetic resonance. 56, 135-143. Bryar, T.R. & Knight, R.J. 2002. Sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Measurements to Changing Soil Redox Conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 50/1-50/4. Conte, P., Spaccini, R. & Piccolo, A. 2006. Advanced CPMAS-13C NMR techniques for molecular characterization of size-separated fractions from a soil humic acid. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 386, 382-390. Gunasekara, A.S., Simpson, M.I. & Xing, B. 2003. Identification and characterization of sorption domains in soil organic matter using strucuturally modified humic acids. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 852-858. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E., Boeckelmann, U. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. Microbial effects on 1H NMR Relaxometry in soil samples and glass bead reactors. In Humic Substances - Linking Structure to Functions. Proceedings of the 13th Meeting of the International Humic Substances Societyin Karlsruhe eds. F.H. Frimmel & G. Abbt-Braun), pp. 929-932. Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe. Hurraß, J. & Schaumann, G.E. 2007. Hydration kinetics of wettable and water repellent soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 280-288. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. 1H NMR Relaxometry in natural humous soil samples: Insights in microbial effects on relaxation time distributions. Plant and Soil, 280, 209-222. Jaeger, F., Rudolph, N., Lang, F. & Schaumann, G.E. 2008. Effects of soil solution's constituents on proton NMR

  18. IAEA Expert Remediation Mission to Japan Issues Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    food safety measures has protected consumers and improved consumer confidence in farm produce. A comprehensive programme to monitor fresh water sources such as rivers, lakes and ponds is ongoing, including extensive food monitoring of both wild and cultivated freshwater fish. The Mission encouraged the Japanese government to strengthen its efforts to explain to the public that an additional individual radiation dose of 1 millisievert per year (mSv/y), which it has announced as a long-term goal, cannot be achieved in a short time by decontamination work alone. In remediation situations, with appropriate consideration of the prevailing circumstances, any level of individual radiation dose in the range of 1 to 20 mSv/y is acceptable and in line with international standards and the recommendations of the relevant international organisations such as the IAEA, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and World Health Organisation (WHO). The Mission encouraged the relevant institutions in Japan to assess the role that the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) could play in the independent review of the remediation activities, particularly those required for the long term. The Mission also encouraged the relevant organisations to conduct safety assessments of the facilities and activities for the long-term management of contaminated materials, and to allow for their independent review. The Mission Team acknowledged that the Japanese authorities have implemented a practical option for remediating the region's extensive forest areas, taking a limited approach by removing material under the trees in a 20-meter buffer strip adjacent to residences, farmland and public spaces. It recommended concentrating efforts on areas that bring the greatest benefit in reducing doses to the public, while avoiding damage to the ecological functioning of the forest where possible. The 16-person team

  19. Presentation of the results for deuterium retention and thermal release in a new type of low activation ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER / Результаты исследования по удержанию дейтерия и термической десорбции в условиях низкой активации ферритно-мартенситной стали EUROFER / Rezultati zadržavanja i termalne desorpcije deuterijuma u EUROFER-u, novoj vrsti feritno-martenzitnog čelika niske aktivacije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lj. Korica

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the investigation into deuterium retention and thermal release in low activation ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER and its main components, Fe and Cr, using ion implantation, nuclear reaction depth profiling and the thermal desorption spectrometry technique. The samples were exposed to deuterium ECR plasma of 6.5*1024 Dm-2 fluence. Our NRA results show that, at 300 K, most of deuterium is trapped in the near-surface region. A part of the implanted deuterium diffuses into the bulk and is trapped by defects beyond the implantation range. The results of the TDS measurement of the Cr sample confirm the formation of an ordered Cr-hydride phase. / В данной статье приведены результаты исследований по удержанию и термической десорбции дейтерия в железе, хроме и сплаве EOROFER – представляющем новейший материал для фузионного (термоядерного реактора. Исследования показали следующие результаты: *Удержание дейтерия в хроме намного выше, чем в железе (из-за образования гибридов хрома *Удержание дейтерия в сплаве EUROFER выше на фактор 2, чем в железе *Выявлена специфиеская структура в концентрационном профиле железа и сплава EUROFER на глубине ~ 4 μm *Высокий уровень диффузии и удержания дейтерия свидетельствует о потенциальном применении Au в качестве диффузионного барьера в фузионном (термоядерном реакторе. / U ovom radu ispitivano je zadržavanje i termalna desorpcija deuterijuma u gvo

  20. Fundamental processes of plasma and reactive gas surface treatment for the recovery of hydrogen isotopes from carbon co-deposits in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Soeren

    2014-01-01

    experiments are conducted. Sets of a-C:D layers with different thickness and structure are exposed to TCR, using O 2 and NO 2 , at temperatures of 470 to 630 K and pressures of 2 and 20 kPa to investigate the strong impact of exposure and layer properties, as predicted by the model. Plasmas produced by electron (ECR) and ion cyclotron frequencies (ICWC) are investigated with several base gases in a compact toroidal plasma device and the tokamak TEXTOR. The ion fluxes of these plasmas are investigated with Langmuir probes to allow the model comparison. Pre/Post determination of the layers allows quantifying the removal rates of the tested methods. The areal density of deuterium and carbon is determined by nuclear reaction analysis and Rutherfordbackscattering-spectrometry (NRA/RBS). Layer thicknesses are measured with ellipsometry. The experiments are conducted using well defined, high purity a-C:D layers deposited by plasmachemical-vapour-deposition from CD 4 in a specifically adapted vacuum device to be able to separate the effects of layers properties and exposure parameters. The experiments demonstrate that a 95% removal of a-C:D layers with NO 2 -TCR at 630K is possible within 3min. The model's prediction of a linear relation between the TCR rate and the co-deposits inventory is experimentally approved, validating its volume effect. The experiments with plasma removal reveal D 2 with a removal rate of 5.7±0.9 * 10 15 D/(cm 2 s) as the fastest base gas in tokamaks. Comparisons with O 2 show that the higher sputtering yield of O is counteracted by an 11-fold lower ion surface flux density, introduced by fundamental properties of O 2 . Pumping speed and partial exhaust gas pressures are identified as limiting factors for the removal rate, explaining differences to non-local observations from the literature. Furthermore, it is possible to remove O stored in surfaces in TEXTOR in, for fusion plasma operation, detrimental amounts by D 2 -ICWC. The models are in agreement with

  1. Status of current developments and application of two accelerators at Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Valdivia, H.; Balcazar, M.; Moreno, J.; Tavera, L.; Segovia, N.; Valdovinos-Aguilar, M.; Hernandez-Magadan, V.; Carrasco-Abrego, H.; Colin-Cruz, A.; Vazquez-Polo, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) is the national laboratory of Mexico. Amongst the irradiation facilities there are three accelerators with the following characteristics: A home made electron accelerator Pelletron type, with a beam energy from 0.15 to I.I MeV, a maximum beam intensity of 50 μA, an scan beam system with a variable frequency from 0 to 200 Hz, which provides an electron beam size of 5 cm wide and 60 cm long; a mixture of 80% Nz and 20% CO 2 is used as dielectric gas. The accelerator has several experimental facilities some of them are an X ray Bremsstrahlung converter, a waste water and sewage sludge irradiation system, and a vertical conveyor system. There is a Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator with a SNICS ion source, a variable voltage at the central terminal from I to 6 MV, an external proton beam which allow PIXE analysis of large samples under atmospheric conditions, a versatile irradiation chamber with the associated electronics to perform RBS, PIGE, ERDA, NRA, a high energy neutron beam from (d,n) and (p,n) nuclear reactions and a micro-beam line. A multipurpose Tandetron accelerator with a maximum terminal voltage of 2 MV, a SNICS and a Duoplasmatron ion sources; at present a PIXE line is fully operating and in the near future all nuclear analytical techniques will be set up. The accelerators are used for biological, material, environmental and industrial applications. The research teams are multidisciplinary and the general objective is the applications on nuclear analytical techniques to the above fields. This paper presents a general panorama of two accelerators and some applications using the electron accelerator Pelletron type. Three studies are presented which were performed with the accelerator Pelletron type: 1) radiation effects on sewage sludge and waste water samples; 2) simulation of both heavy ions and gamma radiation; and 3) basic research in polymers. 1) Test runs were performed to evaluate

  2. Fundamental processes of plasma and reactive gas surface treatment for the recovery of hydrogen isotopes from carbon co-deposits in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Soeren

    2014-11-01

    experiments are conducted. Sets of a-C:D layers with different thickness and structure are exposed to TCR, using O{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, at temperatures of 470 to 630 K and pressures of 2 and 20 kPa to investigate the strong impact of exposure and layer properties, as predicted by the model. Plasmas produced by electron (ECR) and ion cyclotron frequencies (ICWC) are investigated with several base gases in a compact toroidal plasma device and the tokamak TEXTOR. The ion fluxes of these plasmas are investigated with Langmuir probes to allow the model comparison. Pre/Post determination of the layers allows quantifying the removal rates of the tested methods. The areal density of deuterium and carbon is determined by nuclear reaction analysis and Rutherfordbackscattering-spectrometry (NRA/RBS). Layer thicknesses are measured with ellipsometry. The experiments are conducted using well defined, high purity a-C:D layers deposited by plasmachemical-vapour-deposition from CD{sub 4} in a specifically adapted vacuum device to be able to separate the effects of layers properties and exposure parameters. The experiments demonstrate that a 95% removal of a-C:D layers with NO{sub 2}-TCR at 630K is possible within 3min. The model's prediction of a linear relation between the TCR rate and the co-deposits inventory is experimentally approved, validating its volume effect. The experiments with plasma removal reveal D{sub 2} with a removal rate of 5.7±0.9{sup *}10{sup 15} D/(cm{sup 2}s) as the fastest base gas in tokamaks. Comparisons with O{sub 2} show that the higher sputtering yield of O is counteracted by an 11-fold lower ion surface flux density, introduced by fundamental properties of O{sub 2}. Pumping speed and partial exhaust gas pressures are identified as limiting factors for the removal rate, explaining differences to non-local observations from the literature. Furthermore, it is possible to remove O stored in surfaces in TEXTOR in, for fusion plasma operation, detrimental