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Sample records for nr2b par tomographie

  1. Development of radiotracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography; Developpement de radiotraceurs pour la visualisation des recepteurs NMDA de sous-type NR2B par tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labas, R

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop new radioactive tracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography. Several compounds including 4-(4-fluoro-benzyl)piperidine and presenting interesting in vivo biological properties were the object of a labelling with a positrons emitter atom ({sup 11}C or {sup 18}F)

  2. Development of radiotracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labas, R.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop new radioactive tracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography. Several compounds including 4-(4-fluoro-benzyl)piperidine and presenting interesting in vivo biological properties were the object of a labelling with a positrons emitter atom ( 11 C or 18 F)

  3. Memory Enhancement by Targeting Cdk5 Regulation of NR2B

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    Plattner, Florian; Hernandéz, Adan; Kistler, Tara M.; Pozo, Karine; Zhong, Ping; Yuen, Eunice Y.; Tan, Chunfeng; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Cooke, Sam F.; Nishi, Akinori; Guo, Ailan; Wiederhold, Thorsten; Yan, Zhen; Bibb, James A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Many psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by learning and memory deficits, for which cognitive enhancement is considered a valid treatment strategy. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a prime target for the development of cognitive enhancers due to its fundamental role in learning and memory. In particular, the NMDAR subunit NR2B improves synaptic plasticity and memory when over-expressed in neurons. However, NR2B regulation is not well understood and no therapies potentiating NMDAR function have been developed. Here, we show that serine 1116 of NR2B is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Cdk5-dependent NR2B phosphorylation is regulated by neuronal activity and controls the receptor’s cell surface expression. Disrupting NR2B-Cdk5 interaction using a small interfering peptide (siP) increases NR2B surface levels, facilitates synaptic transmission, and improves memory formation in vivo. Our results reveal a novel regulatory mechanism critical to NR2B function that can be targeted for the development of cognitive enhancers. PMID:24607229

  4. genetic overexpression of NR2B subunit enhances social recognition memory for different strains and species.

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    Jacobs, Stephanie A; Tsien, Joe Z

    2012-01-01

    The ability to learn and remember conspecifics is essential for the establishment and maintenance of social groups. Many animals, including humans, primates and rodents, depend on stable social relationships for survival. Social learning and social recognition have become emerging areas of interest for neuroscientists but are still not well understood. It has been established that several hormones play a role in the modulation of social recognition including estrogen, oxytocin and arginine vasopression. Relatively few studies have investigated how social recognition might be improved or enhanced. In this study, we investigate the role of the NMDA receptor in social recognition memory, specifically the consequences of altering the ratio of the NR2B:NR2A subunits in the forebrain regions in social behavior. We produced transgenic mice in which the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor was overexpressed postnatally in the excitatory neurons of the forebrain areas including the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. We investigated the ability of both our transgenic animals and their wild-type littermate to learn and remember juvenile conspecifics using both 1-hr and 24-hr memory tests. Our experiments show that the wild-type animals and NR2B transgenic mice preformed similarly in the 1-hr test. However, transgenic mice showed better performances in 24-hr tests of recognizing animals of a different strain or animals of a different species. We conclude that NR2B overexpression in the forebrain enhances social recognition memory for different strains and animal species.

  5. SRC Inhibition Reduces NR2B Surface Expression and Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala

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    Sinai, Laleh; Duffy, Steven; Roder, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Src protein tyrosine kinase plays a central role in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by regulating NMDAR subunit 2B (NR2B) surface expression. In the amygdala, NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity resulting from convergent somatosensory and auditory inputs contributes to emotional memory; however, the role of Src…

  6. Uso de una conantokina y anticuerpos policlonales para identificar la subunidad NR2B del receptor

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    Leonardo Lareo,†

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Proponer una metodología de identificación de la subunidad NR2B, mediante el uso de conantokina G, así como una adecuada extracción de la subunidad NR2B. Materiales y métodos. Se ensayaron dos metodologías para la extracción de la subunidad NR2B de cerebro de rata adulta, la primera buscó la extracción de la subunidad a partir de la membrana mediante la utilización del detergente deoxicolato de sodio y la segunda, garantizó primero la solubilización y eliminación de proteínas citoplasmáticas para luego realizar la extracción de la subunidad mediante el uso del mismo detergente, a partir del pellet generado en la centrifugación del extracto obtenido. Adicionalmente se biotiniló la conantokina G para evaluar su eficiencia en la identificación de la subunidad y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos por metodologías tradicionales como DOT-BLOT, WESTERN-BLOT, ELISA e Inmunohistoquímica. Resultados. La segunda metodología mostró mayor extracción de NR2B por lo que se seleccionó para la realización de los extractos posteriores. Los ensayos de identificación con la conantokina biotinilada evidenciaron interferencia en el reconocimiento, haciéndose necesaria la identificación de la presencia de la subunidad NR2B mediante el uso de anticuerpos policlonales en los ensayos mencionados. Conclusiones. Se propone que hay un impedimento de tipo estérico en el marcaje de la conantokina con la biotina lo que no favorece la interacción de este péptido con la subunidad.

  7. IGF-1-Involved Negative Feedback of NR2B NMDA Subunits Protects Cultured Hippocampal Neurons Against NMDA-Induced Excitotoxicity.

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    Li, Yun; Sun, Wei; Han, Song; Li, Jianing; Ding, Shu; Wang, Wei; Yin, Yanling

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in neuronal polarity and axonal guidance. In our previous study, it was discovered that IGF-1 alleviated 50-μM NMDA-induced excitotoxicity against neuronal autophagy via depression of NR2B p-Ser1303 activation. However, it was found that NMDA at a higher dose did not cause neuronal autophagy. And, the performance of IGF-1 under severe excitotoxicity still needs to be clarified. In this study, we observed that IGF-1 can salvage the hippocampal neurons in an autophagy-independent manner after 150-μM NMDA exposure using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, over-activation of post-synaptic NMDARs was found with the whole-cell patch clamp recording method. In order to explore whether there is a positive feedback way for post-synaptic NMDARs and the different pathway caused by 150 μM NMDA, the phosphorylation level of Fyn and the phosphorylation site of NR2B were investigated. It was observed that NR2B p-Tyr1472 was increased by the activation of Fyn after 150-μM NMDA exposure. When the neutralizing antibody against NR2B p-Ser1303 was added into the medium, both the activations of Fyn and NR2B p-Tyr1472 were blocked, suggesting NR2B p-Ser1303 may be the initial step of NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. In addition, since IGF-1 can block the initial step of NR2B activation, its effect is concluded to continue with the development of excitotoxicity. Overall, this study strongly indicates that the relationship between different phosphorylation sites of NR2B should be laid more emphasis on, which may be a vital target for the NR2B-involved excitotoxicity.

  8. Kalirin Binds the NR2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor, Altering Its Synaptic Localization and Function

    KAUST Repository

    Kiraly, D. D.

    2011-08-31

    The ability of dendritic spines to change size and shape rapidly is critical in modulating synaptic strength; these morphological changes are dependent upon rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor localized to the postsynaptic density (PSD), modulates dendritic spine morphology in vitro and in vivo. Kal7 activates Rac and interacts with several PSD proteins, including PSD-95, DISC-1, AF-6, and Arf6. Mice genetically lacking Kal7 (Kal7KO) exhibit deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as behavioral abnormalities in models of addiction and learning. Purified PSDs from Kal7KO mice contain diminished levels of NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit that plays a critical role in LTP induction. Here we demonstrate that Kal7KO animals have decreased levels of NR2B-dependent NMDA receptor currents in cortical pyramidal neurons as well as a specific deficit in cell surface expression of NR2B. Additionally, we demonstrate that the genotypic differences in conditioned place preference and passive avoidance learning seen in Kal7KO mice are abrogated when animals are treated with an NR2B-specific antagonist during conditioning. Finally, we identify a stable interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain of Kal7 and the juxtamembrane region of NR2B preceding its cytosolic C-terminal domain. Binding of NR2B to a protein that modulates the actin cytoskeleton is important, as NMDA receptors require actin integrity for synaptic localization and function. These studies demonstrate a novel and functionally important interaction between the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and Kalirin, proteins known to be essential for normal synaptic plasticity.

  9. Kalirin Binds the NR2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor, Altering Its Synaptic Localization and Function

    KAUST Repository

    Kiraly, D. D.; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Levine, E. S.; Mains, R. E.; Eipper, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of dendritic spines to change size and shape rapidly is critical in modulating synaptic strength; these morphological changes are dependent upon rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor localized to the postsynaptic density (PSD), modulates dendritic spine morphology in vitro and in vivo. Kal7 activates Rac and interacts with several PSD proteins, including PSD-95, DISC-1, AF-6, and Arf6. Mice genetically lacking Kal7 (Kal7KO) exhibit deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as behavioral abnormalities in models of addiction and learning. Purified PSDs from Kal7KO mice contain diminished levels of NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit that plays a critical role in LTP induction. Here we demonstrate that Kal7KO animals have decreased levels of NR2B-dependent NMDA receptor currents in cortical pyramidal neurons as well as a specific deficit in cell surface expression of NR2B. Additionally, we demonstrate that the genotypic differences in conditioned place preference and passive avoidance learning seen in Kal7KO mice are abrogated when animals are treated with an NR2B-specific antagonist during conditioning. Finally, we identify a stable interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain of Kal7 and the juxtamembrane region of NR2B preceding its cytosolic C-terminal domain. Binding of NR2B to a protein that modulates the actin cytoskeleton is important, as NMDA receptors require actin integrity for synaptic localization and function. These studies demonstrate a novel and functionally important interaction between the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and Kalirin, proteins known to be essential for normal synaptic plasticity.

  10. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of carbon-11 labelled N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-[11C]methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine as a PET tracer for NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiaans, Johannes A.M.; Klein, Pieter J.; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kooijman, Esther J.M.; Schuit, Robert C.; Leysen, Josée E.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Berckel, Bart N.M. van; Windhorst, Albert D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in learning and memory. Overactivation is thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Currently, it is not possible to assess N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) bio-availability in vivo. The purpose of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for the NR2B binding site of the NMDA receptor. Methods: N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine was radiolabelled with carbon-11 in the phenyl moiety. Biodistribution and blocking studies were carried out in anaesthetized mice and in non-anaesthetized rats. Results: N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine was prepared in 49 ± 3% (decay-corrected) yield, affording 4.1 ± 0.3 GBq of formulated product at the end of synthesis with a radiochemical purity of > 99% and with a specific activity of 78 ± 10 GBq/μmol. Conclusion: A new NR2B PET ligand was developed in high yield. [ 11 C]4 readily enters the brain and binds to the NR2B subunit-containing NMDAr in the rodent brain. High sigma-1 receptor binding may, however, limit its future application as a PET probe for imaging the NR2B subunit-containing NMDAr. Anaesthesia has an effect on NMDAr function and therefore can complicate interpretation of preclinical in vivo results. In addition, effects of endogenous compounds cannot be excluded. Despite these potential limitations, further studies are warranted to investigate the values of [ 11 C]4 as an NR2B PET ligand

  11. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

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    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  12. Co-Application of Corticosterone and Growth Hormone Upregulates NR2B Protein and Increases the NR2B:NR2A Ratio and Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus

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    Ghada S. Mahmoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of growth hormone (GH on hippocampal function during periods of heightened glucocorticoid exposure. Methods: This study was conducted between January and June 2005 at the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, in Huntington, West Virginia, USA. The effects of the co-application of GH and corticosterone (CORT were tested at different concentrations on the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs of the hippocampal slices of rats in two different age groups. Changes in the protein expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2B and NR2A were measured in hippocampal brain slices treated with either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF, low doses of CORT alone or both CORT and GH for three hours. Results: The co-application of CORT and GH was found to have an additive effect on hippocampal synaptic transmission compared to either drug alone. Furthermore, the combined use of low concentrations of GH and CORT was found to have significantly higher effects on the enhancement of fEPSPs in older rats compared to young ones. Both GH and CORT enhanced the protein expression of the NR2A subunit. Simultaneous exposure to low concentrations of GH and CORT significantly enhanced NR2B expression and increased the NR2B:NR2A ratio. In contrast, perfusion with CORT alone caused significant suppression in the NR1 and NR2B protein expression and a decrease in the NR2B:NR2A ratio. Conclusion: These results suggest that NMDARs provide a potential target for mediating the GH potential protective effect against stress and age-related memory and cognitive impairment.

  13. Down-regulation of NR2B receptors partially contributes to analgesic effects of Gentiopicroside in persistent inflammatory pain.

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    Chen, Lei; Liu, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Xiao-nan; Guo, Yan-yan; Xu, Zhao-hui; Cao, Wei; Sun, Xiao-li; Sun, Wen-ji; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2008-06-01

    Gentiopicroside is one of the secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea. It exhibits analgesic activities in the mice. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a forebrain structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Painful stimuli potentiate the prefrontal synaptic transmission and induce glutamate NMDA NR2B receptor expression in the ACC. But little is known about Gentiopicroside on the persistent inflammatory pain and chronic pain-induced synaptic transmission changes in the ACC. The present study was undertaken to investigate its analgesic activities and central synaptic modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Gentiopicroside produced significant analgesic effects against persistent inflammatory pain stimuli in mice. Systemic administration of Gentiopicroside significantly reversed NR2B over-expression during the chronic phases of persistent inflammation caused by hind-paw administration of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) in mice. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed that Gentiopicroside significantly reduced NR2B receptors mediated postsynaptic currents in the ACC. Our findings provide strong evidence that analgesic effects of Gentiopicroside involve down-regulation of NR2B receptors in the ACC to persistent inflammatory pain.

  14. NR2B Expression in Rat DRG Is Differentially Regulated Following Peripheral Nerve Injuries That Lead to Transient or Sustained Stimuli-Evoked Hypersensitivity.

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    Norcini, Monica; Sideris, Alexandra; Adler, Samantha M; Hernandez, Lourdes A M; Zhang, Jin; Blanck, Thomas J J; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Following injury, primary sensory neurons undergo changes that drive central sensitization and contribute to the maintenance of persistent hypersensitivity. NR2B expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) has not been previously examined in neuropathic pain models. Here, we investigated if changes in NR2B expression within the DRG are associated with hypersensitivities that result from peripheral nerve injuries. This was done by comparing the NR2B expression in the DRG derived from two modalities of the spared nerve injury (SNI) model, since each variant produces different neuropathic pain phenotypes. Using the electronic von Frey to stimulate the spared and non-spared regions of the hindpaws, we demonstrated that sural-SNI animals develop sustained neuropathic pain in both regions while the tibial-SNI animals recover. NR2B expression was measured at Day 23 and Day 86 post-injury. At Day 23 and 86 post-injury, sural-SNI animals display strong hypersensitivity, whereas tibial-SNI animals display 50 and 100% recovery from post-injury-induced hypersensitivity, respectively. In tibial-SNI at Day 86, but not at Day 23 the perinuclear region of the neuronal somata displayed an increase in NR2B protein. This retention of NR2B protein within the perinuclear region, which will render them non-functional, correlates with the recovery observed in tibial-SNI. In sural-SNI at Day 86, DRG displayed an increase in NR2B mRNA which correlates with the development of sustained hypersensitivity in this model. The increase in NR2B mRNA was not associated with an increase in NR2B protein within the neuronal somata. The latter may result from a decrease in kinesin Kif17, since Kif17 mediates NR2B transport to the soma's plasma membrane. In both SNIs, microglia/macrophages showed a transient increase in NR2B protein detected at Day 23 but not at Day 86, which correlates with the initial post-injury induced hypersensitivity in both SNIs. In tibial-SNI at Day 86, but not at Day 23

  15. Involvement of spinal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in rats

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    Yano Takahisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug characterized by the development of acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. The chronic neuropathy is a dose-limiting toxicity. We previously reported that repeated administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hyperalgesia in the early phase and mechanical allodynia in the late phase in rats. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in rats. Results Repeated administration of oxaliplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p., twice a week caused mechanical allodynia in the fourth week, which was reversed by intrathecal injection of MK-801 (10 nmol and memantine (1 μmol, NMDA receptor antagonists. Similarly, selective NR2B antagonists Ro25-6981 (300 nmol, i.t. and ifenprodil (50 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the oxaliplatin-induced pain behavior. In addition, the expression of NR2B protein and mRNA in the rat spinal cord was increased by oxaliplatin on Day 25 (late phase but not on Day 5 (early phase. Moreover, we examined the involvement of nitric oxide synthase (NOS as a downstream target of NMDA receptor. L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor, and 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal NOS (nNOS inhibitor, significantly suppressed the oxaliplatin-induced pain behavior. The intensity of NADPH diaphorase staining, a histochemical marker for NOS, in the superficial layer of spinal dorsal horn was obviously increased by oxaliplatin, and this increased intensity was reversed by intrathecal injection of Ro25-6981. Conclusion These results indicated that spinal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors are involved in the oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia.

  16. NR2B antagonist CP-101,606 abolishes pitch-mediated deviance detection in awake rats

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    Siva eDigavalli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients exhibit a decreased ability to detect change in their auditory environment as measured by auditory event related potentials such as mismatch negativity. This deficit has been linked to abnormal NMDA neurotransmission since, among other observations, non-selective channel blockers of NMDA reliably diminish deviance detection in human subjects as well as in animal models. Recent molecular and functional evidence link NR2B receptor subtype to aberrant NMDA transmission in schizophrenia. However, it is unknown if NR2B receptors participate in pre-attentive deviance detection. We recorded event related potentials from the vertex of freely behaving rats in response to frequency mismatch protocols. We saw a robust increase in N1 response to deviants compared to standard as well as control stimuli indicating true deviance detection. Moreover, the increased negativity was highly sensitive to deviant probability. Next, we tested the effect of a non-selective NMDA channel blocker (ketamine, 30 mg/kg and a highly selective NR2B antagonist, CP-101,606 (10 or 30 mg/kg on deviance detection. Ketamine attenuated deviance mainly by increasing the amplitude of the standard ERP. Amplitude and/or latency of several ERP components were also markedly affected. In contrast, CP-101,606 robustly and dose-dependently inhibited the deviant’s N1 amplitude and as a consequence, completely abolished deviance detection. No other ERPs or components were affected. Thus, we report first evidence that NR2B receptors robustly participate in processes of automatic deviance detection in a rodent model. Lastly, our model demonstrates a path forward to test specific pharmacological hypotheses using translational endpoints relevant to aberrant sensory processing in schizophrenia.

  17. Estradiol-induced increase in novel object recognition requires hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

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    Vedder, Lindsey C; Smith, Caroline C; Flannigan, Alaina E; McMahon, Lori L

    2013-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2), at high circulating levels, enhances learning and memory in many women, making it a clinical treatment for hormone-related cognitive decline in aging. However, the mechanisms stimulated by E2, which are responsible for its cognitive enhancing effects, remain incompletely defined. Using an ovariectomized rat model, we previously reported that increasing plasma E2 enhances the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, which is caused by a selective increase in current mediated by NR2B-containing NMDARs, leading to an increase in the NMDAR/AMPAR ratio. Whether the increase in NR2B current is causally related to the ability of E2 to enhance hippocampal dependent learning and memory has yet to be tested. Here, we find that E2 enhances performance in the novel object recognition (NOR) task with the same time course we previously showed E2 enhances the LTP magnitude, temporally linking the increase in LTP to enhanced learning and memory. Furthermore, using the selective NR2B subunit antagonist Ro25-6981, we find that the E2-enhanced NOR, like the enhanced LTP, requires hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDARs, specifically in area CA1. Finally, using whole-cell recordings and the phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate, we investigated whether the E2-induced increase in NMDAR current is caused by an increase in the density of synaptic NMDARs and/or an increase in NMDAR subunit phosphorylation. We find that both mechanisms are responsible for the enhanced NMDAR current in E2-treated rats. Our results show that the E2-enhanced NOR requires a functional increase in NR2B-containing NMDARs, a requirement shared with the E2-enhanced LTP magnitude at CA3-CA1 synapses, supporting the hypothesis that the increase in LTP likely contributes to the enhanced learning and memory following an increase in plasma E2 levels. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. GLYX-13 Ameliorates Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype Induced by MK-801 in Mice: Role of Hippocampal NR2B and DISC1

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    Zhou, Dongsheng; Lv, Dan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Yanhua; Chen, Zhongming; Wang, Chuang

    2018-01-01

    Background: Evidence supports that the hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and downregulation of disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-Methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B)-containing NMDAR are associated with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. GLYX-13 is an NMDAR glycine-site functional partial agonist and cognitive enhancer that does not induce psychotomimetic side effects. However, it remains unclear whether NR2B plays a critical role in the GLYX-13-induced alleviation of schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice. Methods: The effect of GLYX-13 was tested by observing changes in locomotor activity, novel object recognition ability, and prepulse inhibition (PPI) induced by dizocilpine (known as MK-801) in mice. Lentivirus-mediated NR2B knockdown in the hippocampus was assessed to confirm the role of NR2B in GLYX-13 pathophysiology, using Western blots and immunohistochemistry. Results: The systemic administration of GLYX-13 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) ameliorates MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion, deficits in memory, and PPI in mice. Additionally, GLYX-13 normalized the MK-801-induced alterations in signaling molecules, including NR2B and DISC1 in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found that NR2B knockdown produced memory and PPI deficits without any changes in locomotor activity. Notably, DISC1 levels significantly decreased by NR2B knockdown. However, the effective dose of GLYX-13 did not alleviate the memory and PPI dysfunctions or downregulation of DISC1 induced by NR2B knockdown. Conclusion: Our results suggest GLYX-13 as a candidate for schizophrenia treatment, and NR2B and DISC1 in the hippocampus may account for the molecular mechanisms of GLYX-13. PMID:29695955

  19. Contribution de la tomographie par coherence optique au diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution de la tomographie par coherence optique au diagnostic de la neuropathie optique toxique. C.O.A. Abouki, S Alamou, C.R.A. Assavedo, L Odoulami-Yehouessi, I Sounouvou, S Hounnou-Tchabi ...

  20. Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation through activating the NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors

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    Shi, Wen-Zhu [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Hainan 572013 (China); Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Miao, Yu-Liang [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Wen-Zhi [Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Military General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100700 (China); Wu, Wei, E-mail: wwzwgk@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Li, Bao-Wei [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); An, Li-Na [Department of Anesthesiology, Armed Police General Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Fang, Wei-Wu [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Mi, Wei-Dong, E-mail: elite2005gg@163.com [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Leptin promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells isolated from embryonic mouse hippocampus. • Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. • The effects of leptin are partially mediated by upregulating NR2B subunits. - Abstract: Corticosterone inhibits the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The removal of corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation has been reported to contribute to neural regeneration. Leptin has been shown to regulate brain development, improve angiogenesis, and promote neural regeneration; however, its effects on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation remain unclear. Here we reported that leptin significantly promoted the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs in a concentration-dependent pattern. Also, leptin efficiently reversed the inhibition of NSCs proliferation induced by corticosterone. Interestingly, pre-treatment with non-specific NMDA antagonist MK-801, specific NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NR2B, significantly blocked the effect of leptin on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. Furthermore, corticosterone significantly reduced the protein expression of NR2B, whereas pre-treatment with leptin greatly reversed the attenuation of NR2B expression caused by corticosterone in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our findings demonstrate that leptin reverses the corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. This process is, at least partially mediated by increased expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors.

  1. The effect of NMDA-NR2B receptor subunit over-expression on olfactory memory task performance in the mouse.

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    White, Theresa L; Youngentob, Steven L

    2004-09-17

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the forebrain is thought to modulate some forms of memory formation, with the NR2B subunit being particularly relevant to this process. Relative to wild-type mice, transgenic animals in which the NR2B subunit was over-expressed demonstrate superior memory in a number of behavioral tasks, including object recognition [Nature 401 (1999) 63]. The purpose of the present study was to explore the generality of such phenomena, interpreted as the effect of increasing NR2B expression on the retention of other types of sensory-related information. To accomplish this, we focused our evaluation on the highly salient sensory modality of olfaction. In the first experiment, mice performed both a novel-object-recognition task identical to that performed by Tang et al. [Nature 401 (1999) 63] and a novel-odor-recognition task analogously constructed. Although the results of the object recognition task were consistent with the previous literature, there was no evidence of an effect of NR2B over-expression on the retention of odor recognition memory in the specific task performed. As it was possible that, unlike object recognition memory, novel odor recognition is not NMDA-receptor-dependent, a second task was designed using the social transmission of food preference paradigm. In contrast to the foregoing olfactory task, there is evidence that the latter procedure is, indeed, NMDA-dependent. The results of the second study demonstrated that transgenic mice with NR2B over-expression had a clear memory advantage in this alternative odor memory paradigm. Taken together, these results suggest the NR2B subunit is an important component in some but not all forms of olfactory memory organization. Moreover, for those functions that are NMDA-receptor-dependent, these data support the growing literature demonstrating the importance of the NR2B subunit.

  2. Postsynaptic density protein 95-regulated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat models

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    Ba M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maowen Ba,1,* Min Kong,2,* Guozhao Ma3 1Department of Neurology, Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai City, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurology, Yantaishan Hospital, Yantai City, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Context: Abnormality in interactions between N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor and its signaling molecules occurs in the lesioned striatum in Parkinson’s disease (PD and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. It was reported that Fyn-mediated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation, can enhance NMDA receptor function. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, one of the synapse-associated proteins, regulates interactions between receptor and downstream-signaling molecules. In light of the relationship between PSD-95, NR2B, and Fyn kinases, does PSD-95 contribute to the overactivity of NMDA receptor function induced by dopaminergic treatment? To further prove the possibility, the effects of regulating the PSD-95 expression on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and on the interactions of Fyn and NR2B in LID rat models were evaluated.Methods: In the present study, parkinsonian rat models were established by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine. Subsequently, valid PD rats were treated with levodopa (50 mg/kg/day with benserazide 12.5 mg/kg/day, twice daily intraperitoneally for 22 days to create LID rat models. Then, the effect of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of the PSD-95mRNA antisense oligonucleotides (PSD-95 ASO on the rotational response to levodopa challenge was assessed. The effects of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of PSD-95 ASO on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in the LID rat models were detected by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Results: Levodopa

  3. Estradiol-induced increase in the magnitude of long-term potentiation is prevented by blocking NR2B-containing receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline C; McMahon, Lori L

    2006-08-16

    Estradiol, through activation of genomic estrogen receptors, induces changes in synaptic morphology and function in hippocampus, a brain region important for memory acquisition. Specifically, this hormone increases CA1 pyramidal cell dendritic spine density, NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission, and the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 synapses. We recently reported that the estradiol-induced increase in LTP magnitude occurs only when there is a simultaneous increase in the fractional contribution of NMDAR-mediated transmission relative to AMPA receptor transmission, suggesting a direct role for the increase in NMDAR transmission to the heightened LTP magnitude. Estradiol has been shown to increase expression of the NMDAR subunit NR2B, but whether this translates into an increase in function of NR2B-containing receptors remains to be determined. Here we show that not only is the estradiol-induced increase in NMDAR transmission mediated by NR2B-containing receptors, but blocking these receptors using RO25-6981 [R-(R,S)-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperidine propranol] (0.5 microM), an NR2B selective antagonist, prevents the estradiol-induced increase in LTP magnitude. Thus, our data show a causal link between the estradiol-induced increase in transmission mediated by NR2B-containing NMDARs and the increase in LTP magnitude.

  4. Differential functions of NR2A and NR2B in short-term and long-term memory in rats.

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    Jung, Ye-Ha; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2010-08-23

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate receptors implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory function. The specific functions of NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B have not yet been fully determined in the different types of memory. Nine Wistar rats (8-weeks-old) were subjected to the Morris water maze task to evaluate the memory behaviorally. Quantitative analysis of NR1, NR2A, and NR2B levels in the right and left forebrain of rats was performed and subunit associations with different types of memory were investigated using the Morris water maze task. Right forebrain NR2A expression was significantly increased and correlated with faster escape time onto a hidden platform, indicating involvement of short-term memory, because of the training time interval. Right forebrain NR2B expression was positively associated with long-term memory lasting 24-h (h). In the left forebrain, NR2B expression was positively related to 72-h long-term memory. In conclusion, the functions of NR2A and NR2B receptors were differentially specialized in short-term and long-term memory, depending on the right or left forebrain.

  5. Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside Inhibits the Expression of p-CREB and NR2B in the Auditory Cortex in Rats with Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus.

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    Song, Rui-Biao; Lou, Wei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) on the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) and phosphorylated (p)-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the auditory cortex of rats with tinnitus. Tinnitus-like behavior in rats was tested with the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle paradigm. We then investigated the NR2B mRNA and protein and p-CREB protein levels in the auditory cortex of tinnitus rats compared with normal rats. Rats treated for 4 days with salicylate exhibited tinnitus. NR2B mRNA and protein and p-CREB protein levels were upregulated in these animals, with expression returning to normal levels 14 days after cessation of treatment; baseline levels of NR2B and p-CREB were also restored by GM1 administration. These data suggest that chronic salicylate administration induces tinnitus via upregulation of p-CREB and NR2B expression, and that GM1 can potentially be used to treat tinnitus.

  6. Effects of a NR2B Selective NMDA Glutamate Antagonist, CP-101,606, on Dyskinesia and Parkinsonism

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    Nutt, John G.; Gunzler, Steven A; Kirchhoff, Trish; Hogarth, Penelope; Weaver, Jerry L.; Krams, Michael; Jamerson, Brenda; Menniti, Frank S.; Landen, Jaren W.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate antagonists decrease dyskinesia and augment the antiparkinsonian effects of levodopa in animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial we investigated the acute effects of placebo and two doses of a NR2B subunit selective NMDA glutamate antagonist, CP-101,606, on the response to two-hour levodopa infusions in 12 PD subjects with motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Both doses of CP-101,606 reduced the maximum severity of levodopa-induced dyskinesia approximately 30% but neither dose improved parkinsonism. CP-101,606 was associated with a dose-related dissociation and amnesia. These results support the hypothesis that glutamate antagonists may be useful antidyskinetic agents. However, future studies will have to determine if the benefits of dyskinesia suppression can be achieved without adverse cognitive effects. PMID:18759356

  7. Antagonism at the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors induces increased connectivity of the prefrontal and subcortical regions regulating reward behavior.

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    Gass, Natalia; Becker, Robert; Sack, Markus; Schwarz, Adam J; Reinwald, Jonathan; Cosa-Linan, Alejandro; Zheng, Lei; von Hohenberg, Christian Clemm; Inta, Dragos; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Gass, Peter; Sartorius, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    Evidence indicates that ketamine's rapid antidepressant efficacy likely results from its antagonism of NR2B-subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Since ketamine equally blocks NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDAR, and has affinity to other receptors, NR2B-selective drugs might have improved therapeutic efficiency and side effect profile. We aimed to compare the effects of (S)-ketamine and two different types of NR2B-selective antagonists on functional brain networks in rats, in order to find common circuits, where their effects intersect, and that might explain their antidepressant action. The experimental design comprised four parallel groups of rats (N = 37), each receiving (S)-Ketamine, CP-101,606, Ro 25-6981 or saline. After compound injection, we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging time series. We used graph theoretical approach to calculate brain network properties. Ketamine and CP-101,606 diminished the global clustering coefficient and small-worldness index. At the nodal level, all compounds induced increased connectivity of the regions mediating reward and cognitive aspects of emotional processing, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex, septal nuclei, and nucleus accumbens. The dorsal hippocampus and regions involved in sensory processing and aversion, such as superior and inferior colliculi, exhibited an opposite effect. The effects common to ketamine and NR2B-selective compounds were localized to the same brain regions as those reported in depression, but in the opposite direction. The upregulation of the reward circuitry might partially underlie the antidepressant and anti-anhedonic effects of the antagonists and could potentially serve as a translational imaging phenotype for testing putative antidepressants, especially those targeting the NR2B receptor subtype.

  8. Chronic Administration of Benzo(apyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation.

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    Wenping Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(apyrene (BaP induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance.C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions.Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain.

  9. [Effect of electroacupuncture on phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the spinal dorsal horn of CFA rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Fang, Jun-Fan; Du, Jun-Ying; Qiu, Yu-Jie; Liu, Jin

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on phosphorylation of spinal NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammatory pain rats. METHods Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group (N group, n = 10), the model group (CFA group, n = 15), and the EA group (n = 15). The inflammatory pain model was established by subcutaneous injecting CFA (0.1 mL per rat) into the right hind paw. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were measured before CFA injection (as the base), as well as at 24 h, 25 h, 3rd day, and 7th day after CFA injection. Phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn at the 3rd day post-injection were detected using immunohistochemical assay. PWTs in the CFA group were significantly lower than those of the N group at every detective time point post-injection (P CFA group at 25 h and 3rd day post-injection (P CFA group was up-regulated. Compared with the CFA group, the ratio of p-NR2B positive cells in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn of rats showed a decreasing tendency in the EA group. EA might effectively inhibit CFA-induced inflammatory pain possibly associated with down-regulating phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn.

  10. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B bind to the SH2 domains of phospholipase C-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurd, J W; Bissoon, N

    1997-08-01

    The NMDA receptor has recently been found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine. To assess the possible connection between tyrosine phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor and signaling pathways in the postsynaptic cell, we have investigated the relationship between tyrosine phosphorylation and the binding of NMDA receptor subunits to the SH2 domains of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma). A glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein containing both the N- and the C-proximal SH2 domains of PLC-gamma was bound to glutathione-agarose and reacted with synaptic junctional proteins and glycoproteins. Tyrosine-phosphorylated PSD-GP180, which has been identified as the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, bound to the SH2-agarose beads in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific for individual NMDA receptor subunits showed that both NR2A and NR2B subunits bound to the SH2-agarose. No binding occurred to GST-agarose lacking an associated SH2 domain, indicating that binding was specific for the SH2 domains. The binding of receptor subunits increased after the incubation of synaptic junctions with ATP and decreased after treatment of synaptic junctions with exogenous protein tyrosine phosphatase. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that NR2A and NR2B were phosphorylated on tyrosine and further that tyrosine phosphorylation of each of the subunits was increased after incubation with ATP. The results demonstrate that NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B will bind to the SH2 domains of PLC-gamma and that isolated synaptic junctions contain endogenous protein tyrosine kinase(s) that can phosphorylate both NR2A and NR2B receptor subunits, and suggest that interaction of the tyrosine-phosphorylated NMDA receptor with proteins that contain SH2 domains may serve to link it to signaling pathways in the postsynaptic cell.

  11. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction and enhances expression of the hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDA receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Morinobu, Shigeru; Takei, Shiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-05-01

    Histone acetylation, which alters the compact chromatin structure and changes the accessibility of DNA to regulatory proteins, is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for regulating gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase histone acetylation and enhance fear extinction. In this study, we examined whether vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction, using a contextual fear conditioning (FC) paradigm, in Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that vorinostat facilitated fear extinction. Next, the levels of global acetylated histone H3 and H4 were measured by Western blotting. We also assessed the effect of vorinostat on the hippocampal levels of NMDA receptor mRNA by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and protein by Western blotting. 2 h after vorinostat administration, the levels acetylated histones and NR2B mRNA, but not NR1 or NR2A mRNA, were elevated in the hippocampus. The NR2B protein level was elevated 4 h after vorinostat administration. Last, we investigated the levels of acetylated histones and phospho-CREB (p-CREB) binding at the promoter of the NR2B gene using the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay followed by RT-PCR. The ChIP assay revealed increases in the levels of acetylated histones and they were accompanied by enhanced binding of p-CREB to its binding site at the promoter of the NR2B gene 2 h after vorinostat administration. These findings suggest that vorinostat increases the expression of NR2B in the hippocampus by enhancing histone acetylation, and this process may be implicated in fear extinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. H2O2 attenuates IGF-1R tyrosine phosphorylation and its survival signaling properties in neuronal cells via NR2B containing NMDA receptor.

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    Zeng, Zhiwen; Wang, Dejun; Gaur, Uma; Rifang, Liao; Wang, Haitao; Zheng, Wenhua

    2017-09-12

    Impairment of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling plays an important role in the development of neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of H 2 O 2 on the survival signaling of IGF-1 and its underlying mechanisms in human neuronal cells SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that IGF-1 promoted cell survival and stimulated phosphorylation of IGF-1R as well as its downstream targets like AKT and ERK1/2 in these cells. Meanwhile, these effects of IGF-1 were abolished by H 2 O 2 at 200μM concentration which did not cause any significant toxicity to cells itself in our experiments. Moreover, studies using various glutamate receptor subtype antagonists displayed that N-methyl-D -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) blocked the effects of H 2 O 2 , whereas other glutamate receptor subtype antagonists, such as non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), metabolic glutamate receptor antagonists LY341495 and CPCCOEt, had no effect. Further studies revealed that NR2B-containing NMDARs are responsible for these effects as its effects were blocked by pharmacological inhibitor Ro25-698 or specific siRNA for NR2B, but not NR2A. Finally, our data also showed that Ca 2+ influx contributes to the effects of H 2 O 2 . Similar results were obtained in primary cultured cortical neurons. Taken together, the results from the present study suggested that H 2 O 2 attenuated IGF-1R tyrosine phosphorylation and its survival signaling properties via NR2B containing NMDA receptors and Ca 2+ influx in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, NMDAR antagonists, especially NR2B-selective ones, combined with IGF-1 may serve as an alternative therapeutic agent for oxidative stress related neurodegenerative disease.

  13. Dexmedetomidine attenuates neuropathic pain in chronic constriction injury by suppressing NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS activation

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    Feng Liang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effective treatment of patients suffering from neuropathic pain remains challenging. Dexmedetomidine (DEX possesses anti-inflammatory activity. However, the role of DEX in neuropathic pain is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine DEX an α2-adrenoceptor agonist could improve pain hypersensitivity and reduce inflammatory in a chronic constriction injury (CCI model of the sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. Dex was intrathecally administrated 1-h after operation. The paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL were measured on day 1 before operation and on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 after operation, respectively. On day 21, all the rats were decapitated to collect the L4-6 segments of the spinal cord to examine IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS mRNA levels using RT-PCR. The postoperative MWT and PWTL were significantly decreased in CCI, and DEX groups as compared to those before surgery and Sham group (P < 0.05. And DEX reversed this trend (P < 0.05. Interleukin 1 (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, IL-6 mRNA expression significantly increased postsurgery in CCI group as compared to that of Sham group (P < 0.05; DEX blocked increased IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, and inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS mRNA levels (P < 0.05. DEX may alleviate neuropathic hypersensitivity and inflammation partially by inhibiting NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS expression in the spinal cord of rats with neuropathic pain resulting from CCI of the sciatic nerve.

  14. NMDAR NR2A and NR2B specific PKC-dependent regulation of mGluR is defective in the Fragile X Syndrome mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Tue G.; Toft, Anna Karina; Lundbye, Camilla Johanne

    The Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) animal model, the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mouse, has demonstrated an increased mGluR5-mediated long-term depression (LTD). However, surprisingly little information exists about other ion channels/receptors and their effects on FXS, including NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Here we....... Furthermore, in this model it appears that NR2B activation stimulates PKC, while NR2A activation halts or reverses this effect. In addition, in the KO mice, the coupling between specific NMDAR subunits and mGluR-LTD activity through PKC seems defective in an age-dependent manner. These findings suggest strong...

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) contributes to neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion via NR2B receptors.

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    Zhang, Le; Wang, Gongming; Ma, Jinben; Liu, Chengxiao; Liu, Xijiang; Zhan, Yufeng; Zhang, Mengyuan

    2016-10-01

    The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) plays an important role in pain affect. Previous investigations have reported that the rACC mediates the negative affective component of inflammatory pain and contributed to the aversive state of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent neuromodulator in the adult brain, is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. However, whether and how BDNF in the rACC regulates pain-related aversion due to peripheral nerve injury is largely unknown. Behaviorally, using conditioned place preference (CPP) training in rats, which is thought to reveal spontaneous pain-related aversion, we found that CPP was acquired following spinal clonidine in rats with partial sciatic nerve transection. Importantly, BDNF was upregulated within the rACC in of rats with nerve injury and enhanced the CPP acquisition, while a local injection of a BDNF-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) antagonist into the rACC completely blocked this process. Finally, we demonstrated that the BDNF/TrkB pathway exerted its function by activating the NR2B receptor, which is widely accepted to be a crucial factor contributing to pain affect. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the BDNF/TrkB-mediated signaling pathway in the rACC is involved in the development of neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion and that this process is dependent upon activation of NR2B receptors. These findings suggest that suppression of the BDNF-related signaling pathway in the rACC may provide a novel strategy to overcome pain-related aversion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Blockade of NMDA receptor subtype NR2B prevents seizures but not apoptosis of dentate gyrus neurons in bacterial meningitis in infant rats

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    Täuber Martin G

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitotoxic neuronal injury by action of the glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA subtype have been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis. The most potent and selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit is (R,S-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl-1-piperid inepropanol (RO 25-6981. Here we evaluated the effect of RO 25-6981 on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in an infant rat model of meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Animals were randomized for treatment with RO 25-6981 at a dosage of either 0.375 mg (15 mg/kg; n = 28 or 3.75 mg (150 mg/kg; n = 15 every 3 h or an equal volume of sterile saline (250 μl; n = 40 starting at 12 h after infection. Eighteen hours after infection, animals were assessed clinically and seizures were observed for a period of 2 h. At 24 h after infection animals were sacrificed and brains were examined for apoptotic injury to the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Results Treatment with RO 25-6981 had no effect on clinical scores, but the incidence of seizures was reduced (P Conclusions Treatment with a highly selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit failed to protect hippocampal neurons from injury in this model of pneumococcal meningitis, while it had some beneficial effect on the incidence of seizures.

  17. Blockade of NMDA receptor subtype NR2B prevents seizures but not apoptosis of dentate gyrus neurons in bacterial meningitis in infant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarova, Anna; Ringer, Ralph; Täuber, Martin G; Leib, Stephen L

    2003-01-01

    Background Excitotoxic neuronal injury by action of the glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype have been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis. The most potent and selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit is (R,S)-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperid inepropanol (RO 25-6981). Here we evaluated the effect of RO 25-6981 on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in an infant rat model of meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Animals were randomized for treatment with RO 25-6981 at a dosage of either 0.375 mg (15 mg/kg; n = 28) or 3.75 mg (150 mg/kg; n = 15) every 3 h or an equal volume of sterile saline (250 μl; n = 40) starting at 12 h after infection. Eighteen hours after infection, animals were assessed clinically and seizures were observed for a period of 2 h. At 24 h after infection animals were sacrificed and brains were examined for apoptotic injury to the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Results Treatment with RO 25-6981 had no effect on clinical scores, but the incidence of seizures was reduced (P < 0.05 for all RO 25-6981 treated animals combined). The extent of apoptosis was not affected by low or high doses of RO 25-6981. Number of apoptotic cells (median [range]) was 12.76 [3.16–25.3] in animals treated with low dose RO 25-6981 (control animals 13.8 [2.60–31.8]; (P = NS) and 9.8 [1.7–27.3] (controls: 10.5 [2.4–21.75]) in animals treated with high dose RO 25-6981 (P = NS). Conclusions Treatment with a highly selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit failed to protect hippocampal neurons from injury in this model of pneumococcal meningitis, while it had some beneficial effect on the incidence of seizures. PMID:13129439

  18. INTRAHIPPOCAMPAL ADMINISTRATION OF IBOTENIC ACID INDUCED CHOLINERGIC DYSFUNCTION via NR2A/NR2B EXPRESSION: IMPLICATIONS OF RESVERATROL AGAINST ALZHEIMER DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

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    Chennakesavan eKarthick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although several drugs revealed moderate amelioration of symptoms, none of them have sufficient potency to prevent or reverse the progression towards Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology. Resveratrol (RSV, a polyphenolic compound has shown an outstanding therapeutic effect on a broad spectrum of diseases like age-associated neurodegeneration, inflammation etc. The present study was thus conducted to assess the therapeutic efficacy of RSV in ameliorating the deleterious effects of Ibotenic acid (IBO in male Wistar rats. Stereotactic intrahippocampal administration of IBO (5µg/µl lesioned rats impairs cholinergic transmission, learning and memory performance that is rather related to AD and thus chosen as a suitable model to understand the drug efficacy in preventing AD pathophysiology. Since IBO is an agonist of glutamate, it is expected to exhibit an excitotoxic effect by altering glutamatergic receptors like NMDA receptor. The current study displayed significant alterations in the mRNA expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors, and further it is surprising to note that cholinergic receptors decreased in expression particularly α7-nAChR with increased m1AChR. RSV administration (20mg/kg body weight, i.p significantly reduced these changes in IBO induced rats. Glutamatergic and cholinergic receptor alterations were associated with significant changes in the behavioral parameters of rats induced by IBO. While RSV improved spatial learning performance, attenuated immobility and improvised open field activity in IBO induced rats. NR2B activation in the present study might mediate cell death through oxidative stress that form the basis of abnormal behavioral pattern in IBO induced rats. Interestingly, RSV that could efficiently encounter oxidative stress have significantly decreased stress markers viz., nitrite, PCO, and MDA levels by enhancing antioxidant status. Histopathological analysis displayed significant reduction in the

  19. Distinct expression of synaptic NR2A and NR2B in the central nervous system and impaired morphine tolerance and physical dependence in mice deficient in postsynaptic density-93 protein

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    Johns Roger A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postsynaptic density (PSD-93, a neuronal scaffolding protein, binds to and clusters N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B at cellular membranes in vitro. However, the roles of PSD-93 in synaptic NR2A and NR2B targeting in the central nervous system and NMDAR-dependent physiologic and pathologic processes are still unclear. We report here that PSD-93 deficiency significantly decreased the amount of NR2A and NR2B in the synaptosomal membrane fractions derived from spinal cord dorsal horn and forebrain cortex but did not change their levels in the total soluble fraction from either region. However, PSD-93 deficiency did not markedly change the amounts of NR2A and NR2B in either synaptosomal or total soluble fractions from cerebellum. In mice deficient in PSD-93, morphine dose-dependent curve failed to shift significantly rightward as it did in wild type (WT mice after acute and chronic morphine challenge. Unlike WT mice, PSD-93 knockout mice also showed marked losses of NMDAR-dependent morphine analgesic tolerance and associated abnormal sensitivity in response to mechanical, noxious thermal, and formalin-induced inflammatory stimuli after repeated morphine injection. In addition, PSD-93 knockout mice displayed dramatic loss of jumping activity, a typical NMDAR-mediated morphine withdrawal abstinence behavior. These findings indicate that impaired NMDAR-dependent neuronal plasticity following repeated morphine injection in PSD-93 knockout mice is attributed to PSD-93 deletion-induced alterations of synaptic NR2A and NR2B expression in dorsal horn and forebrain cortex neurons. The selective effect of PSD-93 deletion on synaptic NMDAR expression in these two major pain-related regions might provide the better strategies for the prevention and treatment of opioid tolerance and physical dependence.

  20. Caloric restriction increases learning consolidation and facilitates synaptic plasticity through mechanisms dependent on NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontán-Lozano, Angela; Sáez-Cassanelli, José Luis; Inda, Mari Carmen; de los Santos-Arteaga, Mercedes; Sierra-Domínguez, Sergio Antonio; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Delgado-García, José María; Carrión, Angel Manuel

    2007-09-19

    One of the main focal points of aging research is the search for treatments that will prevent or ameliorate the learning and memory deficiencies associated with aging. Here we have examined the effects of maintaining mature mice on a long-term intermittent fasting diet (L-IFD). We found that L-IFD enhances learning and consolidation processes. We also assessed the long-term changes in synaptic efficiency in these animals. L-IFD mice showed an increase in low-theta-band oscillations, paired-pulse facilitation, and facilitation of long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus with respect to mice fed ad libitum. In addition, we found an increase in the expression of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in some brain areas of L-IFD mice. Specific antagonism of this subunit in the hippocampus reversed the beneficial effects of L-IFD. These data provide a molecular and cellular mechanism by which L-IFD may enhance cognition, ameliorating some aging-associated cognitive deficits.

  1. Pharmacological isolation of postsynaptic currents mediated by NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Xiaoyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NMDA receptors (NMDARs are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with a variety of brain functions, from memory formation to chronic pain. Subunit-selective antagonists for NMDARs provide powerful tools to dissect NMDAR functions in neuronal activities. Recently developed antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, NVP-AAM007, triggered debates on its selectivity and involvement of the NMDAR subunits in bi-directional synaptic plasticity. Here, we re-examined the pharmacological properties of NMDARs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC using NVP-AAM007 as well as ifenprodil, a selective antagonist for NR2B-containing NMDARs. By alternating sequence of drug application and examining different concentrations of NVP-AAM007, we found that the presence of NVP-AAM007 did not significantly affect the effect of ifenprodil on NMDAR-mediated EPSCs. These results suggest that NVP-AAM007 shows great preference for NR2A subunit and could be used as a selective antagonist for NR2A-containing NMDARs in the ACC.

  2. Dopamine receptor D5 deficiency results in a selective reduction of hippocampal NMDA receptor subunit NR2B expression and impaired memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; González, Hugo; Ugalde, Valentina; Donoso-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Lara, Marcelo; Morales, Bernardo; Rojas, Patricio; Pacheco, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacological evidence associates type I dopamine receptors, including subtypes D1 and D5, with learning and memory. Analyses using genetic approaches have determined the relative contribution of dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) in cognitive tasks. However, the lack of drugs that can discriminate between D1R and D5R has made the pharmacological distinction between the two receptors difficult. Here, we aimed to determine the role of D5R in learning and memory. In this study we tested D5R knockout mice and wild-type littermates in a battery of behavioral tests, including memory, attention, locomotion, anxiety and motivational evaluations. Our results show that genetic deficiency of D5R significantly impairs performance in the Morris water maze paradigm, object location and object recognition memory, indicating a relevant role for D5R in spatial memory and recognition memory. Moreover, the lack of D5R resulted in decreased exploration and locomotion. In contrast, D5R deficiency had no impact on working memory, anxiety and depressive-like behavior, measured using the spontaneous alternation, open-field, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test. Electrophysiological analyses performed on hippocampal slices showed impairment in long-term-potentiation in mice lacking D5R. Further analyses at the molecular level showed that genetic deficiency of D5R results in a strong and selective reduction in the expression of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate the relevant contribution of D5R in memory and suggest a functional interaction of D5R with hippocampal glutamatergic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiosynthesis of (E)-N-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxybenzyl)-3-phenyl-acrylamidine, a novel subnanomolar NR2B subtype-selective NMDA receptor antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thominiaux, Cyrille [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Bruin, Beatrice de [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Bramoulle, Yann [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Hinnen, Francoise [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Demphel, Stephane [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Valette, Heric [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Bottlaender, Michel [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Besret, Laurent [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Departement de Recherche Medicale, URA CEA/CNRS 2210, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DSV, 4 Place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Kassiou, Michael [Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW 2050 (Australia); Department of Pharmacology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Dolle, Frederic [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France)]. E-mail: frederic.dolle@cea.fr

    2006-03-15

    Recently, a novel series of amidines has been described, exhibiting high NR2B-subtype selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity with nanomolar or subnanomolar affinity. Within the styrylamidine subclass (E)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-3-phenyl-acrylamidine (1), displayed the highest affinity (Ki=0.7nM versus [{sup 3}H]ifenprodil) and was considered an appropriate candidate for isotopic labelling with carbon-11 (T{sub 1/2}: 20.38min) at its methoxy group for imaging of NMDA receptors with PET. Derivative 1 has been labelled from the corresponding nor-analogue using [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate and the following experimental conditions : (1) trapping at -10{sup o}C of [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate in 300{mu}L of acetone containing 0.6-0.8mg of precursor 5 (2.4-3.2{mu}mol) and 5{mu}L of a 3M solution of NaOH in water (about 5eq.); (2) concentration to dryness of the reaction mixture (at 110{sup o}C, using a helium stream for 1-2min); (3) taking up the residue with 0.5mL of the HPLC mobile phase and (4) purification using semi-preparative HPLC (SymmetryPrep{sup (}R) C-18, Waters, 300x7.8mm). Typically, starting from a 1.5 Ci (55.5GBq) [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production batch, 120-240m Ci (4.44-8.88GBq) of [{sup 11}C]-1 (20-40% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, n=5) was obtained within a total synthesis time of 25-30min. Specific radioactivities ranged from 0.8 to 1.2Ci/{mu}mol (29.6-44.4GBq/{mu}mol) at the end of radiosynthesis. No attempts were made to further optimise these reactions, as sufficient material was obtained to allow for preliminary pharmacological characterisation.

  4. EARLY SIMULTANEOUS FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FEATURES AFTER PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY FOR PRIMARY RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellʼomo, Roberto; Mura, Marco; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y.; Bijl, Heico; Tan, H. Stevie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of the macula after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Methods: Thirty-three eyes of 33 consecutive patients with repaired rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with or without the

  5. NR2B subunit-dependent long-term potentiation enhancement in the rat cortical auditory system in vivo following masking of patterned auditory input by white noise exposure during early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsden, Jennifer L; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2009-08-01

    The composition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits influences the degree of synaptic plasticity expressed during development and into adulthood. Here, we show that theta-burst stimulation of the medial geniculate nucleus reliably induced NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of field postsynaptic potentials recorded in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of urethane-anesthetized rats. Furthermore, substantially greater levels of LTP were elicited in juvenile animals (30-37 days old; approximately 55% maximal potentiation) than in adult animals (approximately 30% potentiation). Masking patterned sound via continuous white noise exposure during early postnatal life (from postnatal day 5 to postnatal day 50-60) resulted in enhanced, juvenile-like levels of LTP (approximately 70% maximal potentiation) relative to age-matched controls reared in unaltered acoustic environments (approximately 30%). Rats reared in white noise and then placed in unaltered acoustic environments for 40-50 days showed levels of LTP comparable to those of adult controls, indicating that white noise rearing results in a form of developmental arrest that can be overcome by subsequent patterned sound exposure. We explored the mechanisms mediating white noise-induced plasticity enhancements by local NR2B subunit antagonist application in A1. NR2B subunit antagonists (Ro 25-6981 or ifenprodil) completely reversed white noise-induced LTP enhancement at concentrations that did not affect LTP in adult or age-matched controls. We conclude that white noise exposure during early postnatal life results in the maintenance of juvenile-like, higher levels of plasticity in A1, an effect that appears to be critically dependent on NR2B subunit activation.

  6. Positron emission tomography and migraine. Tomographie par emission de positons et migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabriat, H. (CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot)

    1992-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a brain imaging technique that allows in vivo studies of numerous physiological parameters. There have been few PET studies in migraine patients. Cerebral blood flow changes with no variations in brain oxygen consumption have been reported in patients with prolonged neurologic manifestations during migraine attacks. Parenteral administration of reserpine during migraine headache has been followed by a fall in the overall cerebral uptake of glucose. The small sample sizes and a number of methodologic problems complicate the interpretation of these results. Recent technical advances and the development of new PET tracers can be expected to provide further insight into the pathophysiology of migraine. Today cerebral cortex 5 HT{sub 2} serotonin receptors can be studied in migraine patients with PET.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE REMNANT EDGE BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AFTER PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Raouf; You, Qi Sheng; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Alam, Mostafa; Tsai, Frank F; Mendoza, Nadia; Freeman, William R

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the incidence, characteristics, and the progression of epiretinal membrane (ERM) remnant edge seen by optical coherence tomography after ERM peeling. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 86 eyes of 85 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with ERM and underwent pars plana vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane peeling between 2013 and 2014. Data collected and analyzed included age, gender, preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, use of indocyanine green dye to stain internal limiting membrane, tamponade used after vitrectomy, ERM edge boundaries, presence of cystoid macular edema, and central foveal thickness. An ERM remnant edge was detected in 33/86 study eyes (38.4%) at the first postoperative optical coherence tomography scan. Compared with those without an ERM remnant, patients with an ERM remnant after surgery were significantly older at baseline and had a higher incidence of ERM recurrence at their last visit. They were not significantly different in terms of gender, preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, reduction of central foveal thickness from baseline, proportion of eyes with preoperative ERM elevation on optical coherence tomography, presence of macular edema before surgery, intraoperative use of indocyanine green staining for ILM peeling, or tamponade used. Based on the edge morphology, we classified the ERM remnant into three types: Type 1 was flat and blended with the retina (14/33 eyes, 42.4%), Type 2 was flat but stepped (17/33 eyes, 51.5%), and Type 3 was elevated (2/33 eyes, 6.0%). A significantly higher risk of ERM recurrence was seen in Type 2 and Type 3 ERM remnants (75% and 100%, respectively) than Type 1 ERM remnants (10%). An ERM remnant edge was detected by optical coherence tomography after ERM peeling in 38.4% of eyes. The presence of a postoperative ERM edge was associated with a higher risk of ERM recurrence, particularly in Type 2 and Type 3 ERM remnants.

  8. Traxoprodil, a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, potentiates the antidepressant-like effects of certain antidepressant drugs in the forced swim test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleszak, Ewa; Stasiuk, Weronika; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wyska, Elżbieta; Serefko, Anna; Oniszczuk, Anna; Wośko, Sylwia; Świąder, Katarzyna; Wlaź, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    One of the newest substances, whose antidepressant activity was shown is traxoprodil, which is a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of traxoprodil on animals' behavior using the forced swim test (FST), as well as the effect of traxoprodil (10 mg/kg) on the activity of antidepressants, such as imipramine (15 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), escitalopram (2 mg/kg) and reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg). Serotonergic lesion and experiment using the selective agonists of serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 was conducted to evaluate the role of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant action of traxoprodil. Brain concentrations of tested agents were determined using HPLC. The results showed that traxoprodil at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg exhibited antidepressant activity in the FST and it was not related to changes in animals' locomotor activity. Co-administration of traxoprodil with imipramine, fluoxetine or escitalopram, each in subtherapeutic doses, significantly affected the animals' behavior in the FST and, what is important, these changes were not due to the severity of locomotor activity. The observed effect of traxoprodil is only partially associated with serotonergic system and is independent of the effect on the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 serotonin receptors. The results of an attempt to assess the nature of the interaction between traxoprodil and the tested drugs show that in the case of joint administration of traxoprodil and fluoxetine, imipramine or escitalopram, there were interactions in the pharmacokinetic phase.

  9. Optical coherence tomography imaging of chorioretinal folds associated with hypotony maculopathy following pars plana vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Jr BK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Basil K Williams Jr, Jonathan S Chang, Harry W Flynn Jr Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Chorioretinal folds may occur as a consequence of hypotony and can be a cause of vision loss when associated with macular involvement. In this report, the spectral domain ocular coherence tomography imaging of three patients with chorioretinal folds before and after management are presented. The cases had unique presentations and each underwent different management approaches, but the results included improved visual acuities and lessened chorioretinal folds. Keywords: hypotony, chorioretinal folds, ocular coherence tomography

  10. Auscultation of concrete hydraulic dams by sonic tomography; Auscultation des structures hydrauliques en beton par tomographie sonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharrat, Y.; Rhazi, J.; Ballivy, G. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Civil; Cote, P. [Centre de Nantes, Bouguenais (France)

    1995-12-31

    Sonic tomography, a new nondestructive testing method, was described to document the aging and internal degradation of concrete structures. The method is based on the transmission of sonic waves through concrete structures. New tomographic methodology similar to that used in medical or geophysical imaging was applied to existing sonic auscultation techniques used in civil engineering. In the process the speed of propagation of sonic waves in structures is measured with arrays of detectors. Fissures or zones of degradation can be spatially localized and an internal image of the structure can be constructed. Case studies of two hydraulic dams, one from France, the other in Quebec were presented as illustrations. . The theory and experimental procedures involved were described. 16 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  11. Positron emission tomography: Which indications, which benefits?; Tomographie par emission de positons (TEP): quelles indications, quels benefices?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassoux, F. [Ctr Hosp St Anne, Serv Neurochirurg, F-75014 Paris (France); Chassoux, F.; Chiron, C. [CEA, I2BM, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, F-91 Orsay (France); Chiron, C. [Hop Necker Enfants Malad, INSERM, U663, F-75015 Paris (France); Chassoux, F.; Chiron, C. [Univ Paris 06, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is currently used in the pre-surgical workup for drug-resistant partial epilepsies in addition to MRI. Inter-ictal metabolism is studied in clinical practice using {sup 18}fluoro-desoxy-glucose ({sup 18}FDG). In medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis, hypo-metabolism ipsilateral to the epileptogenic focus is found in 70-90% of cases. However, hypo-metabolism is larger than the structural lesion observed on MRI and includes the epileptogenic zone and ictal discharge spread areas. Hypo-metabolism is related to surgical outcome and cognitive disturbances in MTLE. Although the usefulness of PET appears less well-established in extra-temporal lobe epilepsy and in children, its sensitivity may be improved by co-registration and superimposition of PET on MRI at any age. Focal hypo-metabolism can be easily detected by visual analysis, allowing detection of minor gyral abnormalities that may correspond to focal cortical dysplasias. Moreover, in cases of negative MRI, focal hypo-metabolism findings may help invasive monitoring planning and deep electrode placement for SEEG, and finally improve surgical outcome. (authors)

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with 3D T1 VIBE versus computer tomography in pars stress fracture of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, E.C.; Robertson, A.F.; Malara, F.A.; O' Shea, T.; Roebert, J.K.; Rotstein, A.H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Schneider, M.E. [Monash University, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE sequence to 128-slice computer tomography (CT) in pars stress fractures of the lumbar spine. 3-T MRI and CT of 24 patients involving 70 pars interarticularis were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded radiologists. The fracture morphology (complete, incomplete, or normal) was assessed on MRI and CT at different time points. Pars interarticularis bone marrow edema (present or absent) was also evaluated on MRI. In total, 14 complete fractures, 31 incomplete fractures and 25 normal pars were detected by CT. Bone marrow edema was seen in seven of the complete and 25 of the incomplete fractures. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI in detecting fractures (complete and incomplete) were 97.7, 92.3, and 95.7 %, respectively. MRI was 100 % accurate in detecting complete fractures. For incomplete fractures, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI were 96.7, 92.0, and 94.6 %, respectively. 3-T MRI with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE is 100 % accurate in diagnosing complete pars fractures and has excellent diagnostic ability in the detection and characterization of incomplete pars stress fractures compared to CT. MRI has the added advantages of detecting bone marrow edema and does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with 3D T1 VIBE versus computer tomography in pars stress fracture of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, E.C.; Robertson, A.F.; Malara, F.A.; O'Shea, T.; Roebert, J.K.; Rotstein, A.H.; Schneider, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE sequence to 128-slice computer tomography (CT) in pars stress fractures of the lumbar spine. 3-T MRI and CT of 24 patients involving 70 pars interarticularis were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded radiologists. The fracture morphology (complete, incomplete, or normal) was assessed on MRI and CT at different time points. Pars interarticularis bone marrow edema (present or absent) was also evaluated on MRI. In total, 14 complete fractures, 31 incomplete fractures and 25 normal pars were detected by CT. Bone marrow edema was seen in seven of the complete and 25 of the incomplete fractures. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI in detecting fractures (complete and incomplete) were 97.7, 92.3, and 95.7 %, respectively. MRI was 100 % accurate in detecting complete fractures. For incomplete fractures, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI were 96.7, 92.0, and 94.6 %, respectively. 3-T MRI with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE is 100 % accurate in diagnosing complete pars fractures and has excellent diagnostic ability in the detection and characterization of incomplete pars stress fractures compared to CT. MRI has the added advantages of detecting bone marrow edema and does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  14. Early simultaneous fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography features after pars plana vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mura, Marco; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Bijl, Heico; Tan, H Stevie

    2012-04-01

    To describe fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of the macula after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Thirty-three eyes of 33 consecutive patients with repaired rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with or without the involvement of the macula were prospectively investigated with simultaneous fundus autofluorescence and OCT imaging using the Spectralis HRA+OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) within a few weeks after the operation. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the macula showed lines of increased and decreased autofluorescence in 19 cases (57.6%). On OCT, these lines corresponded to the following abnormalities: outer retinal folds, inner retinal folds, and skip reflectivity abnormalities of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment band. Other OCT findings, not related to abnormal lines on fundus autofluorescence, consisted of disruption of photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment band and collection of intraretinal or subretinal fluid. The presence of outer retinal folds significantly related to metamorphopsia but did not relate to poor postoperative visual acuity. Partial-thickness retinal folds occur commonly after vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair and may represent an important anatomical substrate for postoperative metamorphopsia. Fundus autofluorescence and OCT are both sensitive techniques for the detection of these abnormalities.

  15. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography in macula involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair with pars plana vitrectomy and perfluoron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toygar, O; Riemann, C D

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo investigate microanatomical relationships during surgical repair of macula involving retinal detachment with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and perfluoron (PFO) with a microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) device.Patients and methodsThis consecutive case series included nine eyes of nine patients with macula involving retinal detachment operated by a single surgeon at the Cincinnati Eye Institute. All patients underwent PPV, PFO injection, endolaser, and air-fluid exchange. The macula was imaged with iOCT before PFO injection, after PFO injection, and after air-fluid exchange in all eyes.ResultsiOCT imaging was ergonomically easy to obtain in all eyes. iOCT clearly demonstrated submacular fluid (SMF) at the beginning of the surgery, macular flattening under PFO in all eyes, small residual SMF under PFO in six of nine eyes, and increased occult SMF following air-fluid exchange in all eyes.ConclusionMicroscope-integrated iOCT is a versatile and powerful imaging modality that holds a great deal of promise in the future. Its confirmation of persistent occult SMF in this small series of macular involving retinal detachment repair with PFO, may inform surgical decision making, and demonstrates a pathophysiological rationale for initial face-down positioning after retinal detachment repair.

  16. Improved positron emission tomography imaging of glioblastoma cancer using novel 68Ga-labeled peptides targeting the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Mathias Dyrberg; Sun, Yao; Liu, Changhao

    2017-01-01

    for non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of uPAR. Despite the optimal physical properties of68Ga for peptide-based PET imaging, low tumor uptakes have previously been reported using68Ga-labeled AE105-NH2-based tracers. In an attempt to optimize the tumor uptake, we developed three novel...... to the non-spacer version, NODAGA-AE105-NH2. Following radiolabeling with68Ga, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo performance in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors derived from the uPAR-expressing human GBM cell line U87MG. In vivo PET/CT imaging showed that introduction of PEG spacers more than doubled...... confirmed the improved tumor uptakes of the PEG-modified tracers.68Ga-NODAGA-PEG8-AE105-NH2is thus a promising candidate for human translation for PET imaging of GBM....

  17. Facture of the Pars Interarticularis with or without Spondylolisthesis in an Adult Population in a Developing Country: Evaluation by Multidetector Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sohail Ahmed; Sattar, Amjad; Khanzada, Usman; Adil, Syed Omair; Hussain, Munawar

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Descriptive cross-sectional study. Purpose To determine the prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in a general adult population unrelated to lower back pain as evaluated by multidetector computed tomography. Overview of Literature There is a significant paucity of information related to the prevalence of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis and its degenerative changes in a general adult population unrelated to lower back pain in developing countries. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scans performed between January 1st 2015 and December 31st 2015 for various clinical indications. Patients with lower back pain, with a history of trauma or road traffic accident, or referred from orthopedic or neurosurgery departments were excluded to avoid any bias. CT scans were reviewed in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes using bone window settings for evaluating spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Results Of 4,348 patients recruited, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis were identified in 266 (6.1%) and 142 (3.3%) patients, respectively. Age was significantly higher in both spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis patients than in those without spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis (47.19±15.45 vs. 42.5±15.96, pspondylolysis. Of patients who were >60 years old, both spondylolysis (p=0.018) and spondylolisthesis (p=0.025) were significantly more prevalent in females. Conclusions The prevalence of pars interarticularis fracture observed higher with gradual increase in the prevalence with advancing age. In particular, preponderance was significantly higher among older females. PMID:28670412

  18. Non-oncological positron emission tomography (PET): brain imaging; La tomographie par emission de positons (TEP) hors oncologie: l'exploration du cerveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomena, F. [Centro de Diagnostico por la imagen (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Servicio de medicina nuclear, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows evaluation of the central nervous system function. Imaging of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, and of several neurotransmission systems may be obtained using PET. PET quantification is accurate and has good test-retest reliability. For research purposes, PET has been used to study brain physiology, to explore neurological and psychiatric diseases pathophysiology and for the new drugs research and development. F.D.G. is the only PET radioligand with clinical application. Following criteria of evidence-based medicine, the clinical indications of F.D.G.-PET are: evaluation of treated gliomas, pre surgical study of partial refractory epilepsy and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease when it is impossible to differentiate clinically from fronto-temporal dementia.

  19. Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Already widely accepted in medicine, tomography can also be useful in industry. The theory behind tomography and a demonstration of the technique to inspect a motorcycle carburetor is presented. To demonstrate the potential of computer assisted tomography (CAT) to accurately locate defects in three dimensions, a sectioned 5 cm gate valve with a shrink cavity made visible by the sectioning was tomographically imaged using a Co-60 source. The tomographic images revealed a larger cavity below the sectioned surface. The position of this cavity was located with an in-plane and axial precision of approximately +-1 mm. The volume of the cavity was estimated to be approximately 40 mm 3

  20. Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.; Gordon, S.; Swindell, W.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for generating a two-dimensional back-projected image of a slice of an object in tomography. The apparatus uses optical techniques to perform the functions of filtering and back projection. Central to the technique is a cylindrical drum which rotates at a fast rate and whose rotational axis tilts at a slower rate. The novel method overcomes the problem of image blurring due to motion which occurs in many tomographic techniques. It also has the advantages of being less expensive and simpler compared to tomography using digital processing techniques which require fast computers. (UK)

  1. Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Keller, N.A.; Lupton, L.R.; Taylor, T.; Tonner, P.D.

    1984-10-01

    Tomography is a non-intrusive imaging technique being developed at CRNL as an industrial tool for generating quantitative cross-sectional density maps of objects. Of most interest is tomography's ability to: distinguish features within complex geometries where other NDT techniques fail because of the complexity of the geometry; detect/locate small density changes/defects within objects, e.g. void fraction measurements within thick-walled vessels, shrink cavities in castings, etc.; provide quantitative data that can be used in analyses, e.g. of complex processes, or fracture mechanics; and provide objective quantitative data that can be used for (computer-based) quality assurance decisions, thereby reducing and in some cases eliminating the present subjectivity often encountered in NDT. The CRNL program is reviewed and examples are presented to illustrate the potential and the limitations of the technology

  2. Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.H.; Barber, D.C.; Freeston, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    Tomography images of a body are constructed by placing a plurality of surface electrodes at spaced intervals on the body, causing currents to flow in the body (e.g. by applying a potential between each pair of electrodes in turn, or by induction), and measuring the potential between pairs of electrodes, calculating the potential expected in each case on the assumption that the body consists of a medium of uniform impedance, plotting the isopotentials corresponding to the calculated results to create a uniform image of the body, obtaining the ratio between the measured potential and the calculated potential in each case, and modifying the image in accordance with the respective ratios by increasing the assumed impedance along an isopotential in proportion to a ratio greater than unity or decreasing the assumed impedance in proportion to a ratio less than unity. The modified impedances along the isopotentials for each pair of electrodes are superimposed. The calculations are carried out using a computer and the plotting is carried out by a visual display unit and/or a print-out unit. (author)

  3. Gated blood-pool SPECT assessment of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndromes before and after radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways; Evaluation fonctionnelle par tomographie cavitaire du syndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White, avant et apres traitement par radiofrequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontemps, L.; Ben Brahim, H.; Kraiem, T.; Chevalier, P.; Kirkorian, G.; Touboul, P.; Itti, R. [Hopital Cardiologique de Lyon, 69 (France)

    1997-08-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of accessory pathways in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is supposed to be less aggressive than fulguration while providing excellent results. The aims of our study were therefore the evaluation of the functional results of this therapy in terms of left or right ejection fractions and its effects on the contraction synchronism between both ventricular chambers, derived from bi-ventricular Fourier phase histograms. A consecutive series of 44 patients has been investigated within 48 hours before and after RF therapy: 14 patients had right sided WPW and 30 patients left sided WPW. Only patients for whom RF treatment was considered as a success have been included in the study. Gated blood pool tomography has been performed in order to localize the site of pre-excitation and to build-up the phase histograms for both ventricles, and planar gated imaging has been used for right and left ejection fraction determination. Functional results demonstrate the absence of deleterious effect of RF on ventricular contraction and rather a slight increase of ejection fractions, with a more statistically significant difference for left WPW (LVEF = 62.2 % before RF vs 64.4 % after RF; p = 0.02) than for right WPW (RVEF = 36.3 % before RF vs 39.7 after RF; p = 0.16). Phase analysis, on the contrary, show only significant differences for right WPW, with a noticeable decrease of the pre-excitation (left-to-right phase difference 14.4 deg before RF vs 7.5 deg after RF; p = 0.03) and a significant reduction of the right ventricular phase dispersion (right phase standard deviation 26.5 deg before RF vs 19.0 deg after RF; p = 0.03). For left WPW no measurable differences can be demonstrated in the basal state and it is suggested to use stimulation techniques in order to enhance the competition between the normal and accessory conduction pathways. (authors). 17 refs.

  4. Positron emission tomography in the management of cervix cancer patients; Tomographie par emission de positons dans la prise en charge des cancers du col de l'uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonardel, G.; Gontier, E.; Soret, M.; Dechaud, C.; Fayolle, M.; Foehrenbach, H. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Chargari, C.; Bauduceau, O. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-10-15

    Since its introduction in clinical practice in the 1990 s, positron emission tomography (PET), usually with {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-F.D.G.), has become an important imaging modality in patients with cancer. For cervix carcinoma, F.D.G.-PET is significantly more accurate than computed tomography (CT) and is recommended for loco-regional lymph node and extra pelvic staging. The metabolic dimension of the technique provides additional prognostic information. Ongoing studies now concentrate on more advanced clinical applications, such as the planning of radiotherapy, the response evaluation after the induction of therapy, the early detection of recurrence. Technical innovations, such as PET cameras with better spatial resolution and hybrid positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT), available now on the whole territory, provide both anatomic and metabolic information in the same procedure. From the point of view of biological metabolism, new radiopharmaceutical probes are being developed. Those hold promise for future refinements in this field. This article reviews the current applications of F.D.G.-PET in patients with cervix cancer. (authors)

  5. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study; Dysfonctionnement bitemporal dans l'autisme infantile: etude en tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, N; Poline, J B; Brunelle, F; Zilbovicius, M [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, ER-M INSERM 0205, DSV, DRM CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Brunelle, F [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, 75 - Paris (France); Chabane, N [Hopital Robert-Debre, Service de Pedopsychiatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Barthelemy, C; Zilbovicius, M [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bretonneau, INSERM Unite 316, 37 - Tours (France); Bourgeois, M [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, Dept. de Pediatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Samson, Y [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitie-Salpetriere, Service des Urgences Cerebraux Vasculaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-12-01

    Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuro-anatomical or neuro-physiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in 21 primary autistic children and 10 age-matched non autistic children. A statistical parametric analysis of rCBF images revealed significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in the associative auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) and in the multimodal cortex (superior temporal sulcus) in the autistic group (p<0.001). In addition, temporal hypoperfusion was detected individually in 77% of autistic children. These findings provide robust evidence of well localized functional abnormalities in autistic children located in the superior temporal lobe. Such localized abnormalities were not detected with the low resolution PET camera (14-22). This study suggests that high resolution PET camera combined with statistical parametric mapping is useful to understand developmental disorders. (authors)

  6. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study; Dysfonctionnement bitemporal dans l'autisme infantile: etude en tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, N.; Poline, J.B.; Brunelle, F.; Zilbovicius, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, ER-M INSERM 0205, DSV, DRM CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Brunelle, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, 75 - Paris (France); Chabane, N. [Hopital Robert-Debre, Service de Pedopsychiatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Barthelemy, C.; Zilbovicius, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bretonneau, INSERM Unite 316, 37 - Tours (France); Bourgeois, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, Dept. de Pediatrie, 75 - Paris (France); Samson, Y. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitie-Salpetriere, Service des Urgences Cerebraux Vasculaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-12-01

    Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuro-anatomical or neuro-physiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in 21 primary autistic children and 10 age-matched non autistic children. A statistical parametric analysis of rCBF images revealed significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in the associative auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) and in the multimodal cortex (superior temporal sulcus) in the autistic group (p<0.001). In addition, temporal hypoperfusion was detected individually in 77% of autistic children. These findings provide robust evidence of well localized functional abnormalities in autistic children located in the superior temporal lobe. Such localized abnormalities were not detected with the low resolution PET camera (14-22). This study suggests that high resolution PET camera combined with statistical parametric mapping is useful to understand developmental disorders. (authors)

  7. Determination of anisotropic velocity model by reflection tomography of compression and shear modes; Determination de modele de vitesse anisotrope par tomographie de reflexion des modes de compression et de cisaillement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopin, A.

    2001-12-01

    As the jump from 2D to 3D, seismic exploration lives a new revolution with the use of converted PS waves. Indeed PS converted waves are proving their potential as a tool for imaging through gas; lithology discrimination; structural confirmation; and more. Nevertheless, processing converted shear data and in particular determining accurate P and S velocity models for depth imaging of these data is still a challenging problem, especially when the subsurface is anisotropic. To solve this velocity model determination problem we propose to use reflection travel time tomography. In a first step, we derive a new approximation of the exact phase velocity equation of the SV wave in anisotropic (TI) media. This new approximation is valid for non-weak anisotropy and is mathematically simpler to handle than the exact equation. Then, starting from an isotropic reflection tomography tool developed at Lt-'P, we extend the isotropic bending ray tracing method to the anisotropic case and we implement the quantities necessary for the determination of the anisotropy parameters from the travel time data. Using synthetic data we then study the influence of the different anisotropy parameters on the travel times. From this analysis we propose a methodology to determine a complete anisotropic subsurface model (P and S layer velocities, interface geometries, anisotropy parameters). Finally, on a real data set from the Gulf of Mexico we demonstrate that this new anisotropic reflection tomography tool allows us to obtain a reliable subsurface model yielding kinematically correct and mutually coherent PP and PS images in depth; such a result could not be obtained with an isotropic velocity model. Similar results are obtained on a North Sea data set. (author)

  8. Determination of anisotropic velocity model by reflection tomography of compression and shear modes; Determination de modele de vitesse anisotrope par tomographie de reflexion des modes de compression et de cisaillement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopin, A

    2001-12-01

    As the jump from 2D to 3D, seismic exploration lives a new revolution with the use of converted PS waves. Indeed PS converted waves are proving their potential as a tool for imaging through gas; lithology discrimination; structural confirmation; and more. Nevertheless, processing converted shear data and in particular determining accurate P and S velocity models for depth imaging of these data is still a challenging problem, especially when the subsurface is anisotropic. To solve this velocity model determination problem we propose to use reflection travel time tomography. In a first step, we derive a new approximation of the exact phase velocity equation of the SV wave in anisotropic (TI) media. This new approximation is valid for non-weak anisotropy and is mathematically simpler to handle than the exact equation. Then, starting from an isotropic reflection tomography tool developed at Lt-'P, we extend the isotropic bending ray tracing method to the anisotropic case and we implement the quantities necessary for the determination of the anisotropy parameters from the travel time data. Using synthetic data we then study the influence of the different anisotropy parameters on the travel times. From this analysis we propose a methodology to determine a complete anisotropic subsurface model (P and S layer velocities, interface geometries, anisotropy parameters). Finally, on a real data set from the Gulf of Mexico we demonstrate that this new anisotropic reflection tomography tool allows us to obtain a reliable subsurface model yielding kinematically correct and mutually coherent PP and PS images in depth; such a result could not be obtained with an isotropic velocity model. Similar results are obtained on a North Sea data set. (author)

  9. Access to the kinematic information for the velocity model determination by 3-D reflexion tomography; Acces a l'information cinematique pour la determination du modele de vitesse par tomographie de reflexion 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broto, K.

    1999-04-01

    The access to a reliable image of the subsurface requires a kinematically correct velocity depth model.Reflection tomography allows to meet this requirement if a complete and coherent pre-stack kinematic database can be provided. However, in case of complex sub-surfaces, wave propagation may lead to hardly interpretable seismic events in the time data. The SMART method is a sequential method that relies on reflection tomography for updating the velocity model and on the pre-stack depth migrated domain for extracting kinematic information that is not readily accessible in the time domain. For determining 3-D subsurface velocity models in case of complex structures, we propose the seriated SMART 2-D method as an alternative to the currently inconceivable SMART 3-D method. In order to extract kinematic information from a 3-D pre-stack data set, we combine detours through the 2-D pre-stack depth domain for a number of selected lines of the studied 3-D survey and 3-D reflection tomography for updating the velocity model. The travel-times from the SMART method being independent of the velocity model used for passing through the pre-stack depth migrated domain, the access to 3-D travel-times is ensured, even if they have been obtained via a 2-D domain. Besides, we propose to build a kinematical guide for ensuring the coherency of the seriated 2-D pre-stack depth interpretations and the access to a complete 3-D pre-stack kinematic database when dealing with structures associated with 3-D wave propagation. We opt for a blocky representation of the velocity model in order to be able to cope with complex structures. This representation leads us to define specific methodological rules for carrying out the different steps of the seriated SMART 2-D method. We also define strategies, built from the analysis of first inversion results, for an efficient application of reflection tomography. Besides, we discuss the problem of uncertainties to be assigned to travel-times obtained

  10. Lesões traumáticas do parênquima pulmonar: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada Traumatic lung lesions: computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Severo Alves de Melo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available As lesões pulmonares são achados freqüentes no trauma torácico, sendo cada vez mais diagnosticadas pela tomografia computadorizada, em especial pelo rápido tempo de aquisição decorrente da técnica helicoidal, que permite a avaliação de pacientes em estado grave, possibilitando a adoção de conduta terapêutica eficiente. Os autores estudaram 150 pacientes vítimas de trauma torácico submetidos a tomografia computadorizada, que apresentaram lesões pulmonares, representadas por contusões, atelectasias, lacerações e hematomas pulmonares. As contusões pulmonares se caracterizaram por consolidações e atenuação em vidro fosco, sendo as lesões pulmonares mais comuns. As atelectasias foram observadas com os padrões subsegmentar e compressiva, e foram a segunda lesão mais comum. As lacerações se apresentaram como consolidações com ar ou nível líquido no interior. Os hematomas pulmonares representaram a lesão pulmonar mais rara, presentes em apenas cinco casos, caracterizados por opacidades arredondadas. Neste trabalho o trauma torácico fechado predominou, com 120 casos, enquanto o trauma aberto ocorreu em 30 casos. As causas de trauma fechado, em ordem decrescente de freqüência, foram: colisão automobilística, atropelamento, queda de altura, acidente de motocicleta e espancamento. A forma penetrante de traumatismo torácico decorreu de duas causas de agressão: lesão por arma de fogo e lesão por arma branca.Traumatic lesions of the lung are common findings in patients with thoracic trauma. These lesions are increasingly diagnosed using computed tomography, mostly due to the fast acquisition time helical techniques that allow evaluation of critically ill patients and an efficient therapeutic management. The authors studied 150 patients with thoracic trauma submitted to computed tomography that demonstrated lung contusions, atelectasies, lacerations and hematomas. Lung contusions were the most frequent lesions

  11. Mechanical behaviour and rupture in clayey rocks studied by x-ray micro tomography; Comportement mecanique et rupture dans les roches argileuses etudies par micro tomographie a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, N

    2006-03-15

    Within the framework of feasibility studies of underground repositories for radioactive waste, the study of permeability evolution with damage of the host layer is crucial. The goals of this work were: (i) to characterize experimentally the damage of two clayey rocks (BEAUCAIRE MARL and EAST SHALE) with x-ray micro tomography, (ii) to develop a high pressure triaxial set-up adapted to permeability measurement on very low permeability rocks.A number of original triaxial devices have been realised to characterize damage of clayey rocks, under deviatoric loading, with x-ray micro tomography on a synchrotron beamline at the ESRF (Grenoble). Localized damage and its evolution have been characterized at a fine scale (of order of ten microns). Digital image correlation techniques, extended to 3d images, have been used to measure incremental strain fields from tomographic images. we demonstrated that these techniques are very useful in the study of the localized damage of geo-materials and especially for the initiation. A high pressure triaxial device has been realised to measure permeability evolution of the east shale as a function of applied stress (isotropic and deviatoric). The particularity of this set-up is the small size of the test specimen (cylinder of 10 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height) which allows significant reduction of test duration. (author)

  12. Vasculitis assessment with [{sup 18}F]F.D.G. positron emission tomography; Place de la tomographie par emission de positons (TEP) au [{sup 18}F]FDG dans l'exploration des vascularites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liozon, E. [CHU Dupuytren, Services de Medecine Interne A, 87 - Limoges (France); Monteil, J. [CHU Dupuytren, Services de Medecine Nucleaire, 87 - Limoges (France)

    2008-10-15

    [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F.D.G.) positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive metabolic imaging modality that is well suited to the assessment of activity and extent of large vessel vasculitis, such as giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. PET could be more effective than magnetic resonance imaging in detecting the earliest stages of vascular wall inflammation. The visual grading of vascular [{sup 18}F]F.D.G. uptake makes it possible to discriminate arteritis from atherosclerosis, providing therefore high specificity. High sensitivity can be achieved provided scanning is performed during active inflammatory phase, preferably before starting corticosteroid treatment. Large scale prospective studies are needed to determine the exact value of PET imaging in assessing the large vessel vasculitis outcome and response to immunosuppressive treatment.

  13. Usefulness of positron emission tomography (TEP) in the assessment of osteo-articular prosthesis; Utilite de la tomographie par emission de positons (TEP) dans l'etude des protheses osteo-articulaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, A.; Suarez, J.P.; Dominguez, M.L. [Centro PET Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-12-15

    Joint arthroplasty is performed with increasing frequency as the population ages. Loosening or infection of the prosthesis is a relatively common event that can limit the lifetime of a prosthesis. Accuracy differentiation between aseptic and septic loosening of the prosthesis remains a challenge because of the consequences for patient management. Moreover, an early diagnosis of infected hip prosthesis is very important for optimal and cost-effective management. Various approaches have developed to visualize infection and inflammation by nuclear medicine techniques. Recently positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-l8 labelled 2 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) has been shown to delineate infectious and inflammatory foci with high sensitivity owing to the increased glucose metabolism in inflammatory cells. In this paper we review the role of FDG-PET in this common differential diagnosis in patients with total knee and hip prostheses. Different patterns of FDG-PET interpretation have been described as wed as methodological aspects. (author)

  14. Bayesian methods to restore and re build images: application to gamma-graphy and to photofission tomography; Methodes bayesiennes pour la restauration et la reconstruction d`images application a la gammagraphie et a la tomographie par photofissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawinski, G

    1998-10-26

    Bayesian algorithms are developed to solve inverse problems in gamma imaging and photofission tomography. The first part of this work is devoted to the modeling of our measurement systems. Two models have been found for both applications: the first one is a simple conventional model and the second one is a cascaded point process model. EM and MCMC Bayesian algorithms for image restoration and image reconstruction have been developed for these models and compared. The cascaded point process model does not improve significantly the results previously obtained by the classical model. To original approaches have been proposed, which increase the results previously obtained. The first approach uses an inhomogeneous Markov Random Field as a prior law, and makes the regularization parameter spatially vary. However, the problem of the estimation of hyper-parameters has not been solved. In the case of the deconvolution of point sources, a second approach has been proposed, which introduces a high level prior model. The picture is modeled as a list of objects, whose parameters and number are unknown. The results obtained with this method are more accurate than those obtained with the conventional Markov Random Field prior model and require less computational costs. (author)

  15. Non-destructive analysis and detection of internal characteristics of spruce logs through X computerized tomography; Detection et analyse non destructive de caracteristiques internes de billons d'epicea commun (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST) par tomographie a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longuetaud, F

    2005-10-15

    Computerized tomography allows a direct access to internal features of scanned logs on the basis of density and moisture content variations. The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of an automatic detection of internal characteristics with the final aim of conducting scientific analyses. The database is constituted by CT images of 24 spruces obtained with a medical CT scanner. Studied trees are representative of several social status and are coming from four stands located in North-Eastern France, themselves are representative of several age, density and fertility classes. The automatic processing developed are the following. First, pith detection in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence and ring eccentricity. The accuracy of the localisation was less than one mm. Secondly, the detection of the sapwood/heart-wood limit in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence (main source of difficulty). The error on the diameter was 1.8 mm which corresponds to a relative error of 1.3 per cent. Thirdly, the detection of the whorls location and comparison with an optical method. Fourthly the detection of individualized knots. This process allows to count knots and to locate them in a log (longitudinal position and azimuth); however, the validation of the method and extraction of branch diameter and inclination are still to be developed. An application of this work was a variability analysis of the sapwood content in the trunk: at the within-tree level, the sapwood width was found to be constant under the living crown; at the between-tree level, a strong correlation was found with the amount of living branches. A great number of analyses are possible from our work results, among others: architectural analysis with the pith tracking and the apex death occurrence; analysis of radial variations of the heart-wood shape; analysis of the knot distribution in logs. (author)

  16. Non-destructive analysis and detection of internal characteristics of spruce logs through X computerized tomography; Detection et analyse non destructive de caracteristiques internes de billons d'epicea commun (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST) par tomographie a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longuetaud, F

    2005-10-15

    Computerized tomography allows a direct access to internal features of scanned logs on the basis of density and moisture content variations. The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of an automatic detection of internal characteristics with the final aim of conducting scientific analyses. The database is constituted by CT images of 24 spruces obtained with a medical CT scanner. Studied trees are representative of several social status and are coming from four stands located in North-Eastern France, themselves are representative of several age, density and fertility classes. The automatic processing developed are the following. First, pith detection in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence and ring eccentricity. The accuracy of the localisation was less than one mm. Secondly, the detection of the sapwood/heart-wood limit in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence (main source of difficulty). The error on the diameter was 1.8 mm which corresponds to a relative error of 1.3 per cent. Thirdly, the detection of the whorls location and comparison with an optical method. Fourthly the detection of individualized knots. This process allows to count knots and to locate them in a log (longitudinal position and azimuth); however, the validation of the method and extraction of branch diameter and inclination are still to be developed. An application of this work was a variability analysis of the sapwood content in the trunk: at the within-tree level, the sapwood width was found to be constant under the living crown; at the between-tree level, a strong correlation was found with the amount of living branches. A great number of analyses are possible from our work results, among others: architectural analysis with the pith tracking and the apex death occurrence; analysis of radial variations of the heart-wood shape; analysis of the knot distribution in logs. (author)

  17. Methods of X-ray CT image reconstruction from few projections; Methodes de reconstruction d'images a partir d'un faible nombre de projections en tomographie par rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.

    2011-10-24

    systeme de la tomographie par rayons X (CT), on cherche a reconstruire une image de haute qualite avec un faible nombre de projections. Les algorithmes classiques ne sont pas adaptes a cette situation: la reconstruction est perturbee par artefacts donc instable. Une nouvelle approche basee sur la theorie recente du 'Compressed Sensing' (CS) fait l'hypothese que l'image inconnue est 'parcimonieuse' ou 'compressible', et formule la reconstruction en un probleme d'optimisation (minimisation de la norme TV/l1) afin de promouvoir la parcimonie. Pour appliquer CS en CT avec le pixel (ou le voxel en 3D) comme la base de representation, il necessite une transformation de parcimonie, de plus il faut la combiner avec le 'projecteur du rayon X' qui applique sur une image pixelisee. Dans cette these, on a adapte une base radiale de famille Gaussienne nommee 'blob' a la reconstruction en CT par CS. Le blob a une meilleure localisation spatiofrequentielle que le pixel, et des operations comme la transformee en rayons X, peuvent etre evaluee analytiquement et elles sont facilement parallelisables (sur le plate-forme GPU). Compare au blob classique du Kaisser-Bessel, la nouvelle base a une structure multi-echelle: une image est la somme des translations et des dilatations d'un chapeau Mexicain radial. Les images medicales typiques sont compressibles sous cette base, ce qui entraine que le systeme de la representation parcimonieuse intervenu dans les algorithmes ordinaires de CS n'y est plus necessaire. Des simulations numeriques en 2D ont montre que, compare a l'approche equivalente basee sur la base de pixel ou d'ondelette, les algorithmes du TV et du l1 existantes sont plus efficaces et les reconstructions ont de meilleures qualites visuelles. Cette nouvelle approche a ete egalement validee sur des donnees experimentales bi-dimensionelles, ou on a observe que le nombre de projection peut etre reduit

  18. First-in-human uPAR PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive...... for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment...... of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with (64)Cu...

  19. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental role of inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted interest in numerous biomarkers that detect subclinical levels of inflammation. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker that correlates significantly with cardiovascular events ...... comprehensive review of suPAR in CVD and explore its function and usefulness in predicting cardiovascular events....

  20. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  1. FooPar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, F. P.; Merkle, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present FooPar, an extension for highly efficient Parallel Computing in the multi-paradigm programming language Scala. Scala offers concise and clean syntax and integrates functional programming features. Our framework FooPar combines these features with parallel computing techniques. Foo......, results based on a empirical analysis on two supercomputers are given. We achieve close-to-optimal performance wrt. theoretical peak performance. Based on this result we conclude that FooPar allows programmers to fully access Scalas design features without suffering from performance drops when compared...

  2. First (18)F-labeled ligand for PET imaging of uPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Liu, Hongguang; Madsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer and uPAR has been found to be associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis. AE105 is a small linear peptide with high binding affinity to uPAR. We synthesized an N-terminal NOTA......-conjugated version (NOTA-AE105) for development of the first (18)F-labeled uPAR positron-emission-tomography PET ligand using the Al(18)F radiolabeling method. In this study, the potential of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-AE105 to specifically target uPAR-positive prostate tumors was investigated....

  3. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a promising new imaging target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    modalities such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) and positron emission topography (PET). In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted imaging ligands according to imaging modality. In addition, we...... will discuss the potential future clinical application for uPAR imaging as a new imaging biomarker....

  4. It's quicker "Par Avignon"!

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    For a few years, the CERN Library has been receiving books from the University of Hanover sent via Avignon, at least that's what it says on the envelope. Such a detour would mean that parcels were travelling 720 km more than the distance separating Geneva and Hanover, which would be a very strange state of affairs. The explanation lies in a spelling mistake. The sender has been stamping parcels with a stamp that says "Par Avignon prioritaire" (first-class via Avignon) instead of "Par Avion prioritaire" (First Class Air Mail), a source of much amusement to the librarians!

  5. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  6. Corrosion mechanism of T91 steel by Pb-Bi eutectic used as spallation target:importance for accelerator driven system; Caracterisation de l'endommagement de parois de galeries par tomographie electrique: application en laboratoire souterrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grislin-Mouezy, A

    2005-07-01

    The electrical tomography monitoring is one of the basic technique used in applied geophysics. This method allows to obtain the electrical resistivity distribution from the electrical potential measurements. The excavation of a new gallery in the underground rock laboratory at Mont Terri offers the possibility to follow and characterize the damaged zone in a spatial and temporal way. Successive acquired data sets have been carried out during several months and the results have been compared with the geological observations and the studies of the stress field. These results show that the resistivity changes are correlated with the local tectonics, the bedding and the stress field near the barriers. On account of the cylindrical geometry of the gallery, a modelling program has been developed in cylindrical co-ordinates. A program of inversion by simulated annealing has been developed too and tested on synthetical data sets. (O.M.)

  7. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of biomarkers that can promptly predict unfavourable outcome of critically illness is an emerging necessity taking into consideration the need for early intervention, the shortage of available beds in intensive care units and the considerable cost of hospitalisation. The most...... promising biomarker is soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). Three studies in large populations of critically ill patients and patients admitted to the emergency department have shown that concentrations >12ng/mL can safely predict unfavourable outcome. This review presents...

  8. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  9. Methodology of the individual detection of cerebral activations by positrons emission tomography: statistical characterization of noise images and introduction of anatomical information; Methodologie de la detection individuelle d`activations cerebrales en tomographie par emission de positons: caracterisation statistique des images de bruit et introduction d`information anatomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine, M J

    1996-10-23

    The work that presented here has been done in the context of non invasive study of human brain, with metabolism images techniques ( positrons emission tomography or P.E.T.) and anatomy images techniques (imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance or MRI). The objective of this thesis was to use jointly, the information given by these two ways, in the aim of improving the individual detection of cerebral activation. (N.C.)

  10. Comparative study and implementation of images re processing methods for the tomography by positrons emission: interest of taking into account a priori information; Etude comparative et implementation de methodes de reconstruction d`images pour la tomographie par emission de positons: interet de la prise en compte d`informations a priori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, F.

    1996-09-25

    The tomography by positron emission has for aim to explore an organ by injection of a radiotracer and bidimensional representation with processing techniques. The most used in routine is the filtered retro projection that gives smoothed images. this work realizes a comparative study of new techniques. The methods of preservations of contours are studied here, the idea is to use NMR imaging as a priori information. Two techniques of images construction are viewed more particularly: the resolution by pseudo inverse and the Bayesian method. (N.C.).

  11. Interest of positron emission tomography with [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-misonidazole within the frame of a dose escalation for glioblastomas; Interet de la tomographie par emission de positrons au [{sup 18}F]-fluoromisonidazole dans le cadre d'une escalade de dose pour les glioblastomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Benech, J.; Maire, J.P.; Trouette, R.; Galland-Girodet, S. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Lamare, F.; Mella, C.; Clermont, H. de; Fernandez, P. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Loiseau, H. [Service de neurochirurgie, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2011-10-15

    Eleven patients suffering from an unresectable glioblastoma have been treated by positron emission tomography (PET) with [{sup 18}F]-FMiso and submitted to a MRI before treatment. Gross target volumes (GTV) have been determined, as well as hypoxic fraction within the tumours. A complication probability calculation has been performed. It appears that the PET-[{sup 18}F]-FMiso allows a smaller volume than MRI to be defined. A Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) modelling shows that this volume limits the complication risk increase due to dose escalation. Intensity modulation allows a better taking into account of these potential benefits of this biological target volume definition. Short communication

  12. Computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubashov, I.B.

    1985-01-01

    Operating principle is described for the devices of computerized tomography used in medicine for diagnosis of brain diseases. Computerized tomography is considered as a part of computerized diagnosis, as a part of information science. It is shown that computerized tomography is a real existed field of investigations in medicine and industrial production

  13. Elusloom lennukiga puhkusele / Inge Parring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parring, Inge

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. okt. lk. 13. Air Cargo Estonia/ACE Logisticsi müügijuht Inge Parring tutvustab elusloomade transpordivõimalusi. Vt. samas: Loomade transportimiseks vajalikud dokumendid

  14. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  15. Evaluation of contrast reproduction method based on the anatomical guidance of the cerebral images reconstruction in positron emission tomography; Evaluation d'une methode de restitution de contraste basee sur le guidage anatomique de la reconstruction des images cerebrales en tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, F

    2007-04-15

    Positron emission tomography is a medical imaging modality providing in-vivo volumetric images of functional processes of the human body, which is used for the diagnosis and the following of neuro degenerative diseases. PET efficiency is however limited by its poor spatial resolution, which generates a decrease of the image local contrast and leads to an under-estimation of small cerebral structures involved in the degenerative mechanism of those diseases. This so-called partial volume effect degradation is usually corrected in a post-reconstruction processing framework through the use of anatomical information, whose spatial resolution allows a better discrimination between functional tissues. However, this kind of method has the major drawback of being very sensitive to the residual mismatches on the anatomical information processing. We developed in this thesis an alternative methodology to compensate for the degradation, by incorporating in the reconstruction process both a model of the system impulse response and an anatomically-based image prior constraint. This methodology was validated by comparison with a post-reconstruction correction strategy, using data from an anthropomorphic phantom acquisition and then we evaluated its robustness to the residual mismatches through a realistic Monte Carlo simulation corresponding to a cerebral exam. The proposed algorithm was finally applied to clinical data reconstruction. (author)

  16. Evaluation of contrast reproduction method based on the anatomical guidance of the cerebral images reconstruction in positron emission tomography; Evaluation d'une methode de restitution de contraste basee sur le guidage anatomique de la reconstruction des images cerebrales en tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, F

    2007-04-15

    Positron emission tomography is a medical imaging modality providing in-vivo volumetric images of functional processes of the human body, which is used for the diagnosis and the following of neuro degenerative diseases. PET efficiency is however limited by its poor spatial resolution, which generates a decrease of the image local contrast and leads to an under-estimation of small cerebral structures involved in the degenerative mechanism of those diseases. This so-called partial volume effect degradation is usually corrected in a post-reconstruction processing framework through the use of anatomical information, whose spatial resolution allows a better discrimination between functional tissues. However, this kind of method has the major drawback of being very sensitive to the residual mismatches on the anatomical information processing. We developed in this thesis an alternative methodology to compensate for the degradation, by incorporating in the reconstruction process both a model of the system impulse response and an anatomically-based image prior constraint. This methodology was validated by comparison with a post-reconstruction correction strategy, using data from an anthropomorphic phantom acquisition and then we evaluated its robustness to the residual mismatches through a realistic Monte Carlo simulation corresponding to a cerebral exam. The proposed algorithm was finally applied to clinical data reconstruction. (author)

  17. Vote par sondage uniforme incorruptible

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Introduit en 2012 par David Chaum, le vote par sondage uniforme (random-sample voting) est un protocole de vote basé sur un choix d'une sous-population représentative , permettant de limiter les coûts tout en ayant de nombreux avantages, principalement lorsqu'il est couplé a d'autres techniques comme ThreeBallot. Nous analysons un problème de corruptibilité potentielle où les votants peuvent vendre leur vote au plus offrant et proposons une variation du protocole reméd...

  18. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Iinuma, Toshitaka.

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author)

  19. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  20. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  1. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  3. Illustrated computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, S.

    1983-01-01

    This book provides the following information: basic aspects of computed tomography; atlas of computed tomography of the normal adult; clinical application of computed tomography; and radiotherapy planning and computed tomography

  4. Recherche documentaire par titrage automatique

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez , Cédric; Prince , Violaine; Roche , Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Nous proposons dans cet article un système facilitant la recherche d'information dans un ensemble de documents textuels, basé sur le titrage (et sous-titrage) automatique. Ce dernier peut se révéler crucial, par exemple, dans le cadre de la problématique de l'accessibilité des pages web (norme W3C). Notre processus de titrage automatique consiste à extraire des syntagmes nominaux pertinents dans les textes, pouvant constituer des titres ou sous-titres candidats. Une approche originale combina...

  5. Positron emission tomography (PET) and pancreatic tumours; Tomographie par emission de positons (TEP) et tumeurs pancreatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montravers, F.; Kerrou, K.; Grahek, D.; Gutman, F.; Beco, V. de; Talbot, J.N. [Hopital Tenon, Service de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-15

    Neoplasms of the pancreas may originate front both exocrine and endocrine cells but in 90% of the cases, they correspond to ductal adenocarcinomas. For adenocarcinomas, the major indication of FDG-PET corresponds to the pre-operative staging because unexpected distant metastases can be detected by FDG-PET in about 20 to 40% of the cases, which results in avoidance of unnecessary surgical procedures. FDG PET is also useful in evaluation of the treatment effect, monitoring after the operation and detection of recurrent pancreatic cancers. For the characterisation of the pancreatic tumour, the performance of FDG-PET is sometimes limited due to poor cellularity, hyperglycemia or inflammatory processes. especially for large tumours and is indicated only in cases of doubtful results of CT or MRI. For endocrine pancreatic tumours, FDG-PET is useful only in case of poorly-differentiated and aggressive tumours. F-DOPA PET can he useful, complementary to pentetreotide scintigraphy, in well-differentiated endocrine tumours. (authors)

  6. Optical tomography of tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimnyakov, D A; Tuchin, Valerii V

    2002-01-01

    Methods of optical tomography of biological tissues are considered, which include pulse-modulation and frequency-modulation tomography, diffusion tomography with the use of cw radiation sources, optical coherent tomography, speckle-correlation tomography of nonstationary media, and optoacoustic tomography. The method for controlling the optical properties of tissues is studied from the point of view of increasing a probing depth in optical coherent tomography. The modern state and prospects of the development of optical tomography are discussed. (review)

  7. Evaluation of the macular architecture of patients operated on from macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment using optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Lopez, Meisy; Obret Mendive, Isabel; Hernandez Silva, Juan Raul

    2010-01-01

    With the support of optical coherence tomography, to evaluate the macular condition of the patients operated on from rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, with detached macula, who underwent buckling surgery and pars plana vitrectomy

  8. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.; Davis, J.; Morgan, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray or gamma-ray transmission computed tomography (CT) is a powerful non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that produces two-dimensional cross-sectional images of an object without the need to physically section it. CT is also known by the acronym CAT, for computerised axial tomography. This review article presents a brief historical perspective on CT, its current status and the underlying physics. The mathematical fundamentals of computed tomography are developed for the simplest transmission CT modality. A description of CT scanner instrumentation is provided with an emphasis on radiation sources and systems. Examples of CT images are shown indicating the range of materials that can be scanned and the spatial and contrast resolutions that may be achieved. Attention is also given to the occurrence, interpretation and minimisation of various image artefacts that may arise. A final brief section is devoted to the principles and potential of a range of more recently developed tomographic modalities including diffraction CT, positron emission CT and seismic tomography. 57 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs

  9. Doppler Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T. R.

    I review the method of Doppler tomography which translates binary-star line profiles taken at a series of orbital phases into a distribution of emission over the binary. I begin with a discussion of the basic principles behind Doppler tomography, including a comparison of the relative merits of maximum entropy regularisation versus filtered back-projection for implementing the inversion. Following this I discuss the issue of noise in Doppler images and possible methods for coping with it. Then I move on to look at the results of Doppler Tomography applied to cataclysmic variable stars. Outstanding successes to date are the discovery of two-arm spiral shocks in cataclysmic variable accretion discs and the probing of the stream/magnetospheric interaction in magnetic cataclysmic variable stars. Doppler tomography has also told us much about the stream/disc interaction in non-magnetic systems and the irradiation of the secondary star in all systems. The latter indirectly reveals such effects as shadowing by the accretion disc or stream. I discuss all of these and finish with some musings on possible future directions for the method. At the end I include a tabulation of Doppler maps published in refereed journals.

  10. SECHAGE DE PRODUITS GRANULAIRES PAR DESHYDRATATION PAR DETENTES SUCCESSIVES (DDS)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla , Galal; Mellouk , Hamid; Belghit , Abdelhamid; Allaf , Karim

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Dans cette étude, nous avons évalué les performances d'un nouveau procédé de séchage dans le cas du liège en granulés. Ce procédé (La déshydratation par détentes successives : DDS) consiste à soumettre le matériau liège dans une chambre hermétique aux variations cycliques de la pression. Chaque cycle est composé d'une compression et d'une décompression. La phase de compression est réalisée en injectant de l'air comprimé à température ambiante provenant d'un compresseur...

  11. First-in-human uPAR PET: Imaging of Cancer Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Christensen, Camilla; Madsen, Jacob; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Thurison, Tine; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Holm, Søren; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Ploug, Michael; Pappot, Helle; Brasso, Klaus; Kroman, Niels; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with 64Cu for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment with laboratory blood screening tests was performed before and after PET ligand injection. In a subgroup of the patients, the in vivo stability of our targeted PET ligand was determined in collected blood and urine. No adverse or clinically detectable side effects in any of the 10 patients were found. The ligand exhibited good in vivo stability and fast clearance from plasma and tissue compartments by renal excretion. In addition, high uptake in both primary tumor lesions and lymph node metastases was seen and paralleled high uPAR expression in excised tumor tissue. Overall, this first-in-human study therefore provides promising evidence for safe use of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 for uPAR PET imaging in cancer patients. PMID:26516369

  12. Rhynchophylline suppresses soluble Aβ1-42-induced impairment of spatial cognition function via inhibiting excessive activation of extrasynaptic NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ji, Wei-Gang; Zhu, Zhi-Ru; Wu, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Yang; Qu, Shao-Chen

    2018-06-01

    Rhynchophylline (RIN) is a significant active component isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla. The overproduction of soluble amyloid β protein (Aβ) oligomers in the hippocampus is closely involved in impairments in cognitive function at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Growing evidences show that RIN possesses neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, whether RIN can prevent soluble Aβ 1-42 -induced impairments in spatial cognitive function and synaptic plasticity is still unclear. Using the combined methods of behavioral tests, immunofluorescence and electrophysiological recordings, we characterized the key neuroprotective properties of RIN and its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms against soluble Aβ 1-42 -related impairments in rats. Our findings are as follows: (1) RIN efficiently rescued the soluble Aβ 1-42 -induced spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze test and prevented soluble Aβ 1-42 -induced suppression in long term potentiation (LTP) in the entorhinal cortex (EC)-dentate gyrus (DG) circuit. (2) Excessive activation of extrasynaptic GluN2B-NMDAR and subsequent Ca 2+ overload contributed to the soluble Aβ 1-42 -induced impairments in spatial cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. (3) RIN prevented Aβ 1-42 -induced excessive activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs by reducing extrasynaptic NMDARs -mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and down regulating GluN2B-NMDAR expression in the DG region, which inhibited Aβ 1-42 -induced Ca 2+ overload mediated by extrasynanptic NMDARs. The results suggest that RIN could be an effective therapeutic candidate for cognitive impairment in AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. La preuve par le nombre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available S’il en était besoin, la question des usages et de la finalité des résultats de l’inventaire général pourrait être abordée par le nombre : nombre d’œuvres répertoriées, de communes inventoriées, de clichés photographiques réalisés, de dossiers, de consultations des notices dans les bases de données… Les additions aujourd’hui sont éloquentes, mais elles laissent dans l’ombre le rôle de l’inventaire qui, en mettant en œuvre une démarche systématique de connaissance, participe à l’ identificatio...

  14. uPAR Targeted Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTA-AE105 Inhibits Dissemination of Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Juhl, Karina; Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is implicated in cancer invasion and metastatic development in prostate cancer and provides therefore an attractive molecular target for both imaging and therapy. In this study, we provide the first in vivo data on an antimetastatic effect...... of uPAR radionuclide targeted therapy in such lesions and show the potential of uPAR positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for identifying small foci of metastatic cells in a mouse model of disseminating human prostate cancer. Two radiolabeled ligands were generated in high purity and specific...... value of 100 nM in a competitive binding experiment. In vivo, uPAR targeted radionuclide therapy significantly reduced the number of metastatic lesions in the disseminated metastatic prostate cancer model, when compared to vehicle and nontargeted 177Lu groups (p

  15. Computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caille, J.M.; Salamon, G.

    1980-01-01

    As X-ray Ct becomes more commonplace, other techniques of investigation using roughly comparable hardware and software have appeared. Positron-Emission Tomography already provides indispensable physiological and physio-pathological information. Similarly, in the histo-chemical field, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance seems very promising. Some of these new techniques will no doubt shortly be considered as essential as CT in establishing accurate diagnoses non-invasively. (orig./VJ) [de

  16. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Resnick, D.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has matured into a reliable and prominent tool for study of the muscoloskeletal system. When it was introduced in 1973, it was unique in many ways and posed a challenge to interpretation. It is in these unique features, however, that its advantages lie in comparison with conventional techniques. These advantages will be described in a spectrum of important applications in orthopedics and rheumatology

  17. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  18. ¡París!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Caballero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El día no le alcanzaba para caminarlo. Conocía cada puente, cada calle,plaza, museo, rincón, iglesia, café, y la mesa con el mejor ángulo para mirar siempre una iglesia, ojalá Saint-Germain-des-Pres, o Notre-Dame. Siempre contaba la impresión que le había causado a Bolívar ver allí cuando el papa coronó a Napoleón. Él se iba para la oficina todos los días, Luis a un taller a pintar, Antonio a estudiar ciencias políticas, yo al colegio y mamá hacía las cosas prácticas. Aprendíamos francés todos al tiempo y por la noche nos contábamos lo nuevo que cada uno había aprendido. Mamá después, cuando ya se quería volver, decía que París nos había maleado a todos. Estaba en pleno furor el cine francés de la "nueva ola", pero ella sólo me llevaba a ver películas de vaqueros pues no se fiaba de la clasificación de los periódicos.

  19. C9.A/14 steelwork joints de poutres par plaque frontale : assemblages par gousset

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Les Tables de résistances ultimes des assemblages boulonnés par plaque frontale et par gousset, complétées par une description des modèles de calcul et des exemples d’application, ont pour but de faciliter la tâche de l'ingénieur et du constructeur. Cette première partie C9.A/14 contient les chapitres suivants: - Joints de poutres par plaque frontale en acier S235 et S355 - Assemblages par gousset en acier S235 et S355 Les Tables contiennent des données relatives à la géométrie ainsi que les valeurs de calcul correspondantes des résistances ultimes des assemblages ; elles remplacent le chapitre « Assemblages par plaques frontales et boulons HR » des anciennes Tables C9.1 de 1983 / 2002. Le calcul de ces assemblages par plaque frontale est basé sur les hypothèses du modèle de la méthode des composants décrite dans la norme SN EN 1993-1-8. Les vérifications sont effectuées selon la norme SIA 263:2013. Les assemblages par gousset remplacent les assemblages par double cornière, (telle...

  20. Photoacoustic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong V.

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) refers to imaging that is based on the photoacoustic effect. Although the photoacoustic effect as a physical phenomenon was first reported on by Alexander Graham Bell in 1880 [1], PAT as an imaging technology was developed only after the advent of ultrasonic transducers, computers, and lasers [2-31]. A review on biomedical photoacoustics is available [32]. The motivation for PAT is to combine optical-absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution for deep imaging in the optical quasi-diffusive or diffusive regime. In PAT, the tissue is irradiated by usually a short-pulsed laser beam to achieve a thermal and acoustic impulse response (Fig. 19.1). Locally absorbed light is converted into heat, which is further converted to a pressure rise via thermo-elastic expansion. The initial pressure rise - determined by the local optical absorption coefficient (μ â ), fluence (ψ) and other thermal and mechanical properties - propagates as an ultrasonic wave, which is referred to as a photoacoustic wave.

  1. Axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, K.A.; Lewis, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to axial tomography, sometimes referred to as cross-sectional x-ray. The apparatus described may utilize the conventional x-ray or ultrasonic source and detector and scanning mechanism for producing the plurality of sets of radiation detector output signals. It has the means for storing the detector output signals in analog form with the signals of one set overlying the signals of another set so that signals resulting from radiation through a zone of the object being examined are summed at a corresponding zone in the storage device, typically an electronic storage tube. The summed signals are read from the storage device with a radially inversely proportional reader producing a second signal for storage, again typically in an electronic storage tube. These signals stored in the second storage device are read with Laplacian relation, with the resultant sigal being a video signal that may be connected to a TV monitor for display of the sectional image. In alternative embodiments, optical film systems and electrostatic systems are utilized. (JTA)

  2. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced

  3. Dosimetry of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105, a PET tracer for uPAR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; El Ali, Henrik H.; Binderup, Tina

    2014-01-01

    64Cu-DOTA-AE105 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer specific to the human urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). In preparation of using this tracer in humans, as a new promising method to distinguish between indolent and aggressive cancers, we have performed PET...... studies in mice to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution and estimate human dosimetry of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105. MethodsFive mice received iv tail injection of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 and were PET/CT scanned 1, 4.5 and 22h post injection. Volume-of-interest (VOI) were manually drawn on the following organs: heart, lung......Favorable dosimetry estimates together with previously reported uPAR PET data fully support human testing of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105....

  4. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA, early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP. Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] and CDVA (logMAR was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061 and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 mm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8% case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7% cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate.

  5. 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F.D.G.-PET) can identify chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (C.L.L.) stage A et stage B patients; La tomographie par emission de positons au 2-[{sup 18}F] fluoro-2-desoxy-D-glucose (TEP-FDG) permet d'identifier les stades A et B des leucemies lymphoides chroniques (LLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthelot, C.; Vervueren, L.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Couturier, O. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 49 - Angers (France); Truchan-Graczyk, M.; Genevieve, F.; Ifrah, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service d' Hematologie, 49 - Angers (France); Poirier, A.L. [BEC, centre Paul-Papin, 49 -Angers (France); Artur-Guillemette, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Radiologie, 49 - Angers (France)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: There is no data in the literature concerning the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (F.D.G.-PET) in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (C.L.L.), except for the diagnosis of Richter's transformations. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential role of F.D.G.-PET in C.L.L. stages A and B. Materials and methods Thirty-five patients (61 {+-} 9 years; 11 women, 24 men; 8 B and 27 A) have benefited of a F.D.G.-PET scan at baseline, for example, before an eventual treatment. F.D.G.-PET scans were analyzed visually and the maximum values of the Standardised Uptake Value (S.U.V.{sub max}) were measured in the main lymph nodes areas. The ability of F.D.G.-PET to differentiate stages A and B patients was evaluated by Student's tests and Receiver Operating Characteristics (R.O.C.) analysis. Results All patients with a normal F.D.G.-PET (n = 18) were stages A. The remaining 17 patients (9 A and 8 B) showed hyper metabolisms in nodal areas above (n = 17) and below (n = 9) the diaphragm, and no visceral involvement. The lymph nodes hyper metabolisms were always bilateral, and of low intensity (= mediastinum; 9 A), or of higher intensity (= liver, 8 B). The S.U.V.{sub max} of stage B (n = 8) were significantly higher than those of the 27 stages A, in all lymph nodes areas except in mediastinum. The highest intensity of F.D.G. uptake was observed in axillary area in stages B patients (S.U.V.max = 2.74 {+-} 1.03). An axillary S.U.V.{sub max} of 1.33 is the most suitable value for the discrimination between stages A and B patients (R.O.C.; AUC = 0.968; sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.91). Conclusion Lymph nodes hyper metabolisms are constant in the B stage, and more intense than in stage A. These anomalies are always bilateral, unlike what is observed in Richter's transformation. The intensity of axillary lymph nodes F.D.G. uptake can distinguish C.L.L. stages A and B. (authors)

  6. Algorithmic fundamentals of computerized tomography and of transverse analogue tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    Computerized tomography and transverse analogue tomography are two different approaches to the same goal, namely, transverse tomography. The algorithm is discussed and compared. Transverse tomography appears capable of further development, judging by this comparison. (orig.) [de

  7. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  8. Comparison of Direct Pars Repair Techniques of Spondylolysis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients: Pars Compression Screw Versus Pedicle Screw-Rod-Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ali F; Dede, Ozgur; Atanda, Alfred A; Holmes, Larry; Rogers, Kenneth; Gabos, Peter; Shah, Suken A

    2016-08-01

    Retrospective clinical cohort study. To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients who were treated with intrasegmental pars fixation by either laminar compression screw (LS) or a pedicle screw, rod, and laminar hook (PSRH) construct. Spondylolysis is a nonunion defect of the pars interarticularis. In symptomatic spondylolysis, direct repair of the pars interarticularis defect can preserve motion and prevent abnormal stresses at the adjacent levels. Sixteen patients who failed nonoperative treatment and underwent direct pars repair by using LS (n=9) or PSRH (n=7) constructs were included in the study. Clinical outcome was assessed by using the MacNab criteria. Radiologic fusion and complications were evaluated using plain radiographs or computed tomography images and patient charts. The healing rate was 100% after 6 months. The healing time was similar in both the groups: LS, 6.5 months; PSRH, 6.2 months. Patients with PSRH (5.9 mo) were more likely to return to sports earlier relative to patients with LS (7.7 mo). There were no complications in the LS group; in the PSRH group, 1 patient had mild sensory deficit and 2 had superficial wound infections. The MacNab criteria for pain assessment showed an excellent or good outcome in 8 of 9 patients in LS group and 6 of 7 patients in PSRH group. Relative to LS patients, there was a significant increase in surgical time and estimated blood loss among PSRH patients. Either of the mentioned 2 techniques appears to produce acceptable results. Biplanar fluoroscopy and navigation systems could minimize the risk of screw misplacement with LS construct. Familiarity with the various fixation techniques will allow the surgeon to select the most appropriate surgical technique.

  9. Contamination potentielle des aliments par des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARA Computers

    la notion de la pollution et de l'exposition aux PCBs, lorsque 77% n'ont pas conscience de cette situation de risque ... 2018). Quoique la contamination par les. PCBs soit de faible niveau, elle est ...... Université Paris-Est, Paris, France ; 183.

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  11. What is Computed Tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging What is Computed Tomography? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Chest X ray Image back to top Computed Tomography (CT) Although also based on the variable absorption ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  13. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kweonha, E-mail: khpark@kmou.ac.kr [Division of Mechanical and Energy systems Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Khor, Chong Lee, E-mail: itachi_829@hotmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  14. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kweonha; Khor, Chong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  15. Review of muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Hanliang; Jiao Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    As a new detection technology, Muon tomography has some potential benefits, such as being able to form a three- dimensional image, without radiation, low cost, fast detecting etc. Especially, muon tomography will play an important role in detecting nuclear materials. It introduces the theory of Muon tomography, its advantages and the Muon tomography system developed by decision sciences corporation and Los Alamos national laboratory. (authors)

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  17. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Emission Computed Tomography is a technique used for producing single or multiple cross-sectional images of the distribution of radionuclide labelled agents in vivo. The techniques of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are described with particular regard to the function of the detectors used to produce images and the computer techniques used to build up images. (UK)

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  20. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 24 selections. Some of the titles are: Positron Emission Tomography Instrumentation, Generator Systems for Positron Emitters, Reconstruction Algorithms, Cerebral Glucose Consumption: Methodology and Validation, Cerebral Blood Flow Tomography Using Xenon-133 Inhalation: Methods and Clinical Applications, PET Studies of Stroke, Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography, and Use of PET in Oncology

  1. ({sup 18}F)-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in cervix cancer: Lymph node assessment and prognostic/predictive value of primary tumour analysis; Tomographie par emission de positons au ({sup 18}F)-fluorodesoxyglucose dans les cancers du col uterin: evaluation ganglionnaire et valeur pronostique/predictive des donnees de la tumeur primitive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leseur, J.; Williaume, D.; Le Prise, E.; De Crevoisier, R. [Departement des radiations, centre Eugene-Marquis, rue de la Bataille-Flandres-Dunkerque, CS 44229, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Devillers, A.; Garin, E. [Service de medecine nucleaire, centre Eugene-Marquis, rue de la Bataille-Flandres-Dunkerque, CS 44229, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Fougerou, C. [Service de pharmacologie, CHU de Rennes, 35033 Rennes cedex 09 (France); Inserm 0203, centre d' investigations cliniques, CHU de Rennes, 35033 Rennes cedex 09 (France); Universite de Rennes 1, CS 46510, 35065 Rennes cedex (France); Bouriel, C. [Service de radiologie, centre Eugene-Marquis, rue de la Bataille-Flandres-Dunkerque, CS 44229, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Leveque, J. [Departement de gynecologie et obstetrique, CHU Anne-de-Bretagne, 16, boulevard de Bulgarie, 35203 Rennes cedex 2 (France); Monpetit, E. [Departement des radiations, clinique Oceane, 11, rue du Docteur-Joseph-Audic, Le Tenenio, BP 50020, 56001 Vannes cedex (France); Blanchot, J. [Departement de gynecologie et obstetrique, clinique mutualiste La Sagesse, 4, place Saint-Guenole, CS 44345, 35043 Rennes cedex (France)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose. - In cervix carcinoma: (a) to evaluate the ability of ({sup 18}F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the lymph node detection; (b) to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of the primary cervical PET parameters. Patients and methods. - Ninety patients treated for cervix carcinoma and evaluated initially by MRI and FDG PET were included. The performances of FDG-PET for lymph node detection (relatively to the lymph node dissection) have been described (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value). PET tumour parameters analyzed were: maximum standard uptake value (SUV{sub max}), the volume and the maximum diameter. The prognostic and predictive values of these parameters were investigated. The tumour response was evaluated on surgical specimens. Results. - PET detected the cervical tumour with a sensitivity of 97% (mean values: SUV{sub max} = 15.8, volume = 27 mm{sup 3}, maximum diameter = 47). For the detection of the lymph nodes, the values of sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were: 86, 56, 69 and 78% in the pelvic, and 90, 67, 50 and 95% for the para-aortic area, respectively. The SUV{sub max} was correlated with histologic response (P = 0.04). The frequency of partial histological response was significantly higher for tumour SUV{sub max}> 10.9 (P = 0.017). The maximum PET diameter and pathologic response had an impact on disease-free survival and overall survival in multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusion. - PET has high sensitivity in detecting pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Some primary cervical tumour PET parameters are useful as prognostic and predictive factors. (authors)

  2. SAFARI 2000 PAR Measurements, Kalahari Transect, Botswana, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceptometer data from a Decagon AccuPAR (Model PAR-80) were collected at four sites in Botswana during the SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect Wet Season Campaign (March,...

  3. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable inflammatory biomarker. In patients, suPAR is a marker of disease presence, severity and prognosis. In the general population, suPAR is predictive of disease development, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease a...

  4. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  5. The inflammatory marker suPAR after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rundgren, Malin; Lyngbaek, Stig; Fisker, Helle

    2015-01-01

    . This pilot study aimed at investigating suPAR levels in relation to outcome after CA and mild induced hypothermia. METHODS: suPAR levels were measured at 6, 36, and 72 hours in patients treated with hypothermia after CA. suPAR levels were analyzed in relation to survival after 6 months. Receiver operating...

  6. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  7. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Baronian

    Full Text Available Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  8. [Ambroise Paré in French literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaitre, P

    1995-01-01

    The 16th century by its passionate side has been the favourite one of authors of historical novels in which among the heroes of "cloak and dagger stories" appears sometime Ambroise Paré. Alexandre Dumas (the father) has shown him at the court of Charles IX in La Reine Margot (1845) where he does not however play a great role. On the contrary, Balzac in Le Martyr calviniste (1842) has given him a capital part close to the dying François II, whom he intended to trepanize but had to give up this idea as a consequence of the opposition of the queen-mother Catherine de Médicis. In the present century, Robert Merle in Paris ma bonne ville (Fortune de France, 3, 1980) shows Paré at the time of the Saint Barthélemy.

  9. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  10. Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Löwe, Jan; Gerdes, Kenn

    2007-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes two trans-acting proteins, ParA and ParB, and two cis-acting sites, parC1 and parC2, to which ParB binds cooperatively. ParA is related to MinD and oscillates in helical structures and thereby positions ParB/parC-carrying plasmids regularly......, hence identifying the N terminus of ParB as a requirement for ParB-mediated centromere pairing. These observations suggest that centromere pairing is an important intermediate step in plasmid partitioning mediated by the common type I loci....

  11. Turbocharging Quantum Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gamble, John King [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nielsen, Erik [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scholten, Travis L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Quantum tomography is used to characterize quantum operations implemented in quantum information processing (QIP) hardware. Traditionally, state tomography has been used to characterize the quantum state prepared in an initialization procedure, while quantum process tomography is used to characterize dynamical operations on a QIP system. As such, tomography is critical to the development of QIP hardware (since it is necessary both for debugging and validating as-built devices, and its results are used to influence the next generation of devices). But tomography suffers from several critical drawbacks. In this report, we present new research that resolves several of these flaws. We describe a new form of tomography called gate set tomography (GST), which unifies state and process tomography, avoids prior methods critical reliance on precalibrated operations that are not generally available, and can achieve unprecedented accuracies. We report on theory and experimental development of adaptive tomography protocols that achieve far higher fidelity in state reconstruction than non-adaptive methods. Finally, we present a new theoretical and experimental analysis of process tomography on multispin systems, and demonstrate how to more effectively detect and characterize quantum noise using carefully tailored ensembles of input states.

  12. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography is regarded by many as a complicated union of sophisticated x-ray equipment and computer technology. This book overcomes these complexities. The rigid technicalities of the machinery and the clinical aspects of computed tomography are discussed including the preparation of patients, both physically and mentally, for scanning. Furthermore, the author also explains how to set up and run a computed tomography department, including advice on how the room should be designed

  13. Meaning of Interior Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2013-01-01

    The classic imaging geometry for computed tomography is for collection of un-truncated projections and reconstruction of a global image, with the Fourier transform as the theoretical foundation that is intrinsically non-local. Recently, interior tomography research has led to theoretically exact relationships between localities in the projection and image spaces and practically promising reconstruction algorithms. Initially, interior tomography was developed for x-ray computed tomography. Then, it has been elevated as a general imaging principle. Finally, a novel framework known as “omni-tomography” is being developed for grand fusion of multiple imaging modalities, allowing tomographic synchrony of diversified features. PMID:23912256

  14. Single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  15. Childhood Pars Planitis; Clinical Features and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoon Nikkhah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the demographic and clinical features of childhood pars planitis, and to determine the therapeutic and visual outcomes of the disease. Methods: Medical records of pediatric patients (less than 16 years of age at diagnosis with pars planitis and at least 6 months of follow-up who were referred to Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran over a 22 year period were reviewed. Results: Overall, 117 eyes of 61 patients including 51 (83.6% male subjects were included. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 7.8΁3.2 (range, 3-16 years. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.88΁0.76 logMAR at presentation which improved to 0.39΁0.51 logMAR at final visit (P<0.001. Endotheliitis was present in 23 (19.6% eyes and was significantly more prevalent in subjects younger than 9 years (P=0.025. Cataract formation (41.9% and cystoid macular edema (19.7% were the most prevalent complications. Univariate regression analysis showed that better baseline visual acuity (OR=0.38, 95%CI 0.21-0.70, P=0.002, age older than 5 years at disease onset (OR=0.36, 95%CI 0.14-0.9, P=0.029, absence of endotheliitis (OR=0.39, 95%CI 0.15-0.99, P=0.047 and female gender (OR=3.77, 95%CI 1.03-13.93, P=0.046 were significantly associated with final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusion: Childhood pars planitis was much more common among male subjects. Endotheliitis may be a sign of inflammation spillover and is more prevalent in younger patients. Visual prognosis is favorable in most patients with appropriate treatment.

  16. Borehole radar diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seong Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Tomography is widely used as imaging method for determining subsurface structure. Among the reconstruction algorithms for tomographic imaging, travel time tomography is almost applied to imaging subsurface. But isolated small body comparable with the wavelength could not be well recognized by travel time tomography. Other tomographic method are need to improve the imaging process. In the study of this year, diffraction tomography was investigated. The theory for diffraction tomography is based on the 1st-order Born approximation. Multisource holography, which is similar to Kirchihoff migration, is compared with diffraction tomography. To improve 1st-order Born diffraction tomography, two kinds of filter designed from multisource holography and 2-D green function, respectively, applied on the reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested for the numerical modeling data of which algorithm consists of the analytic computation of radar signal in transmitter and receiver regions and 2-D FDM scheme for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in media. The air-filled cavity model to show a typical diffraction pattern was applied to diffraction tomography imaging, and the result shows accurate location and area of cavity. But the calculated object function is not well matched the real object function, because the air-filled cavity model is not satisfied week scattered inhomogeneity for 1st born approximation, and the error term is included in estimating source wavelet from received signals. In spite of the object function error, the diffraction tomography assist for interpretation of subsurface as if conducted with travel time tomography. And the fracture model was tested, 1st born diffraction tomographic image is poor because of limited view angle coverage and violation of week scatter assumption, but the filtered image resolve the fracture somewhat better. The tested diffraction tomography image confirms effectiveness of filter for enhancing resolution. (author). 14

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses special ... the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) ... are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  19. Gamma tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Span, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a gamma tomography apparatus for medical diagnosis. The apparatus comprises a gamma scintillation camera head and a suspension system for supporting and positioning the camera head with respect for the patient. Both total body scanning and single photon emission tomography can be carried out with the apparatus. (U.K.)

  20. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Gullberg, G.T.; Huesman, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the methods of computer assisted tomography for determination of the three-dimensional distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the human body. The major applications of emission computed tomography are in biological research and medical diagnostic procedures. The objectives of these procedures are to make quantitative measurements of in vivo biochemical and hemodynamic functions

  1. Tomography of nonclassical states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    A review of the symplectic tomography method is presented. Superpositions of different types of photon states are considered within the framework of the tomography approach. Such nonclassical photon states as even and odd coherent states, crystallized Schrodinger cat states, and other superposition

  2. Accouchement par forceps: indications et pronostic materno-foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'accouchement par voie basse, peut être parfois compromis par des facteurs maternels, foetaux ou materno-foetaux nécessitant des moyens thérapeutiques comme le forceps pour achever l'accouchement par voie naturelle. Le forceps, une méthode qui n'est pas sans risque pour la mère et le nouveau-né. Nous avons ...

  3. Painful spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis studied by radiography and single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, B.D.; Johnson, R.P.; Carrera, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    Planar bone scintigraphy (PBS) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were compared in 19 adults with radiographic evidence of spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis. SPECT was more sensitive than PBS when used to identify symptomatic patients and sites of painful defects in the pars interarticularis. In addition, SPECT allowed more accurate localization than PBS. In 6 patients, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis was unrealted to low back pain, and SPECT images of the posterior neural arch were normal. The authors conclude that when spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis is the cause of low back pain, pars defects are frequently heralded by increased scintigraphic activity which is best detected and localized by SPECT

  4. Painful spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis studied by radiography and single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, B.D.; Johnson, R.P.; Carrera, G.F.; Meyer, G.A.; Schwab, J.P.; Flatley, T.J.; Isitman, A.T.; Hellman, R.S.; Zielonka, J.S.; Knobel, J.

    1985-01-01

    Planar bone scintigraphy (PBS) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were compared in 19 adults with radiographic evidence of spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis. SPECT was more sensitive than PBS when used to identify symptomatic patients and sites of painful defects in the pars interarticularis. In addition, SPECT allowed more accurate localization than PBS. In 6 patients, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis was unrealted to low back pain, and SPECT images of the posterior neural arch were normal. The authors conclude that when spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis is the cause of low back pain, pars defects are frequently heralded by increased scintigraphic activity which is best detected and localized by SPECT.

  5. PAR1 activation affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Elena; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Somma, Francesca; Correani, Virginia; Maras, Bruno; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Ciraci, Viviana; Artico, Marco; Fornai, Francesco; Fumagalli, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier. Schwann cells are the principal population of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system which myelinate axons playing an important role during axonal regeneration and remyelination. The present study was undertaken in order to determine if the activation of PAR1 affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that the stimulation of PAR1 could potentiate the Schwann cell ability to favour nerve regeneration. In fact, the conditioned medium obtained from Schwann cell cultures challenged with a specific PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1 AP) displays increased neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties with respect to the culture medium from untreated Schwann cells. The proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in untreated and PAR1 AP-treated Schwann cells allowed the identification of factors differentially expressed in the two samples. Some of them (such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, decorin, syndecan 4, complement C1r subcomponent, angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1) appear to be transcriptionally regulated after PAR1 AP treatment as shown by RT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  7. Quantification in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena 2 - Main problems impacting quantification in PET and SPECT: problems, consequences, correction methods, results (Attenuation, scattering, partial volume effect, movement, un-stationary spatial resolution in SPECT, fortuitous coincidences in PET, standardisation in PET); 3 - Synthesis: accessible efficiency, know-how, Precautions, beyond the activity measurement

  8. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienhard, K.; Heiss, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and selected clinical applications of positron emission tomography are described. In this technique a chemical compound is labeled with a positron emitting isotope and its biochemical pathway is traced by coincidence detection of the two annihilation photons. The application of the techniques of computed tomography allows to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the radioactivity within a subject. The 18 F-deoxyglucose method for quantitative measurement of local glucose metabolism is discussed in order to illustrate the possibilities of positron emission tomography to record physiological processes in vivo. (orig.) [de

  9. Dosimetry of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105, a PET tracer for uPAR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; El Ali, Henrik H.; Binderup, Tina

    2014-01-01

    64Cu-DOTA-AE105 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer specific to the human urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). In preparation of using this tracer in humans, as a new promising method to distinguish between indolent and aggressive cancers, we have performed PET......, liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, muscle, bone and bladder. The activity concentrations in the mentioned organs [%ID/g] were used for the dosimetry calculation. The %ID/g of each organ at 1, 4.5 and 22h was scaled to human value based on a difference between organ and body weights. The scaled values...

  10. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-04-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations.

  11. Soudage de bois feuillus par friction rotationnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Belleville, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    Les différentes colles utilisées actuellement par l’industrie du meuble au Canada nécessitent des temps de polymérisation constituant un goulot dans la production des meubles et limitant l’atteinte de la production unitaire. Ces adhésifs synthétiques généralement issus de la pétrochimie nécessitent énormément d’énergie lors de leur confection. L’utilisation de connecteurs métalliques ou plastiques, quant à elle, limite les phases de découpage et sablage subséquentes. La présence d’adhésifs et...

  12. TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm2 area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions. PMID:21864891

  13. ParABS system in chromosome partitioning in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A Iniesta

    Full Text Available Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster.

  14. Concerning the dynamic instability of actin homolog ParM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, David; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Narita, Akihiro; Maeda, Kayo; Maeda, Yuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Using in vitro TIRF- and electron-microscopy, we reinvestigated the dynamics of native ParM, a prokaryotic DNA segregation protein and actin homolog. In contrast to a previous study, which used a cysteine ParM mutant, we find that the polymerization process of wild type ATP-ParM filaments consists of a polymerization phase and a subsequent steady state phase, which is dynamically unstable, like that of microtubules. We find that the apparent bidirectional polymerization of ParM, is not due to the intrinsic nature of this filament, but results from ParM forming randomly oriented bundles in the presence of crowding agents. Our results imply, that in the bacterium, ParM filaments spontaneously form bipolar bundles. Due to their intrinsic dynamic instability, ParM bundles can efficiently 'search' the cytoplasmic lumen for DNA, bind it equally well at the bipolar ends and segregate it approximately symmetrically, by the insertion of ParM subunits at either end

  15. The protein kinase SIK downregulates the polarity protein Par3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanlandewijck, Michael; Dadras, Mahsa Shahidi; Lomnytska, Marta

    2018-01-01

    on Par3. Functionally, this mechanism impacts on tight junction downregulation. Furthermore, SIK contributes to the loss of epithelial polarity and examination of advanced and invasive human cancers of diverse origin displayed high levels of SIK expression and a corresponding low expression of Par3...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  18. Cardiac positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Ejmalian, G.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is an intrinsically tool that provide a unique and unparalleled approach for clinicians and researchers to interrogate the heart noninvasively. The ability to label substances of physiological interest with positron-emitting radioisotopes has permitted insight into normal blood flow and metabolism and the alterations that occur with disease states. Positron emission tomography of the heart has evolved as a unique, noninvasive approach for the assessment of myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and function. Because of the intrinsic quantitative nature of positron emission tomography measurements as well as the diverse compounds that can be labeled with positron- emitting radioisotopes, studies with positron emission tomography have provided rich insight into the physiology of the heart under diverse conditions

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  20. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, Masahiro

    1982-01-01

    Utilization of positron emission tomography was reviewed in relation to construction and planned construction of small-size medical cyclotrons, planned construction of positron cameras and utilization of short-lived radionuclides. (Chiba, N.)

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed ... nasal cavity by small openings. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  9. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Sotomi, Yohei

    2017-01-01

    By providing valuable information about the coronary artery wall and lumen, intravascular imaging may aid in optimizing interventional procedure results and thereby could improve clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT...

  10. Computer tomography in otolaryngology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradzki, J.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of design and the action of computer tomography which was applied also for the diagnosis of nose, ear and throat diseases are discussed. Computer tomography makes possible visualization of the structures of the nose, nasal sinuses and facial skeleton in transverse and eoronal planes. The method enables an accurate evaluation of the position and size of neoplasms in these regions and differentiation of inflammatory exudates against malignant masses. In otology computer tomography is used particularly in the diagnosis of pontocerebellar angle tumours and otogenic brain abscesses. Computer tomography of the larynx and pharynx provides new diagnostic data owing to the possibility of obtaining transverse sections and visualization of cartilage. Computer tomograms of some cases are presented. (author)

  11. Tomography in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi de Cabrejas, Mariana

    1999-01-01

    This book is a contribution to the training and diffusion of the tomography method image diagnosis in nuclear medicine, which principal purpose is the information to professionals and technical personnel, specially for the spanish speaking staff

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, air-filled spaces within the bones of the face surrounding the ...

  15. Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal for the Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology (EITT) project is to develop a reliable portable, lightweight device providing two-dimensional...

  16. Introduction to Seismic Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Charlotte Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Tomography is a method of obtaining an image of a 3d object by observing the behavior of energy transmissions through the object. The image is obtained by Interrogating the object with Energy sources at a variety of Locations and observing the Object’s effects on the energy at a Variety of sensors. Tomography was first Used to build 3-dimensional Scans through Human bodies. These Are called computed Tomographic (ct) scans.

  17. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, O.

    1989-01-01

    The principle is briefly described of positron emission tomography, and its benefits and constraints are listed. It is emphasized that positron emission tomography (PET) provides valuable information on metabolic changes in the organism that are otherwise only very difficult to obtain, such as brain diagnosis including relationships between mental disorders and the physiology and pathophysiology of the brain. A PET machine is to be installed in Czechoslovakia in the near future. (L.O.)

  18. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali G Hinch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The pseudoautosomal region (PAR is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome.

  19. Late-Onset Inadvertent Bleb Formation following Pars Plana M3 Molteno Implant Tube Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar M. Abdul-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of inadvertent bleb formation presenting 18 months after pars plana M3 Molteno implant tube obstruction in a patient with mixed mechanism glaucoma. Materials and Methods: An 84-year-old Caucasian male with mixed mechanism glaucoma underwent slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, colour anterior segment photography and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Results: An inadvertent bleb developed 18 months after pars plana implant tube re-positioning with a 6/0 Vicryl tie ligature. The bleb was located in the area anterior to the implant plate; it was characterised by a thin, transparent, avascular and multi-cystic wall, with a visible stoma at the posterior edge of the bleb. The bleb was functioning as demonstrated by an intraocular pressure of 6 mm Hg at presentation and a punctate fluorescein uptake pattern of the bleb wall. The bleb over the plate of the Molteno implant was non-functioning, likely secondary to tube obstruction by vitreous in the early postoperative period. AS-OCT showed a tract from the anterior chamber commencing at an entry wound through a corneal tunnel to the posterior stoma at the base of the inadvertent bleb. Conclusions: We hypothesise that the pathophysiologic factors resulting in an inadvertent bleb are a result of a combination of apoptosis, late-onset wound dehiscence and internal gaping of a centrally placed corneal wound. In addition, aqueous hydrodynamic factors may play a role.

  20. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  1. uPAR as anti-cancer target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ida K; Illemann, Martin; Thurison, Tine

    2011-01-01

    , and a potential diagnostic and predictive impact of the different uPAR forms has been reported. Hence, pericellular proteolysis seems to be a suitable target for anti-cancer therapy and numerous approaches have been pursued. Targeting of this process may be achieved by preventing the binding of uPA to u...... using mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse uPA or uPAR. These reagents will target uPA and uPAR in both stromal cells and cancer cells, and their therapeutic potential can now be assessed in syngenic mouse cancer models....

  2. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem

  3. Protease-activated receptor (PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in collateral formation and anti-inflammatory monocyte polarization in a mouse hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G van den Hengel

    Full Text Available AIMS: In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis, mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-, PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/- and wild-type (WT mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. CONCLUSION: PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD patients.

  4. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease.

  5. The value of SPECT in the detection of stress injury to the pars interarticularis in patients with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Frederick D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The medical cost associated with back pain in the United States is considerable and growing. Although the differential diagnosis of back pain is broad, epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between adult and adolescent complaints. Injury of the pars interarticularis is one of the most common identifiable causes of ongoing low back pain in adolescent athletes. It constitutes a spectrum of disease ranging from bone stress to spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Bone stress may be the earliest sign of disease. Repetitive bone stress causes bone remodeling and may result in spondylolysis, a non-displaced fracture of the pars interarticularis. A fracture of the pars interarticularis may ultimately become unstable leading to spondylolisthesis. Results in the literature support the use of bone scintigraphy to diagnose bone stress in patients with suspected spondylolysis. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT provides more contrast than planar bone scintigraphy, increases the sensitivity and improves anatomic localization of skeletal lesions without exposing the patient to additional radiation. It also provides an opportunity for better correlation with other imaging modalities, when necessary. As such, the addition of SPECT to standard planar bone scintigraphy can result in a more accurate diagnosis and a better chance for efficient patient care. It is our expectation that by improving our ability to correctly diagnose bone stress in patients with suspected injury of the posterior elements, the long-term cost of managing this condition will be lowered.

  6. Antibody-based PET of uPA/uPAR signaling with broad applicability for cancer imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dongzhi; Severin, Gregory; Dougherty, Casey A.

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) play a central role in tumor progression. The goal of this study was to develop an 89Zr-labeled, antibody-based positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for quantitative imaging of the uPA/uPAR system....... An anti-uPA monoclonal antibody (ATN-291) was conjugated with a deferoxamine (Df) derivative and subsequently labeled with 89Zr. Flow cytometry, microscopy studies, and competitive binding assays were conducted to validate the binding specificity of Df-ATN-291 against uPA. PET imaging with 89Zr-Df-ATN-291...... was carried out in different tumors with distinct expression levels of uPA. Biodistribution, histology examination, and Western blotting were performed to correlate tumor uptake with uPA or uPAR expression. ATN-291 retained uPA binding affinity and specificity after Df conjugation. 89Zr-labeling of ATN-291...

  7. Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Nontractional Diabetic Macular Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Jan Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains the leading cause of blindness among working age Americans with diabetic macular edema being the most common cause for moderate and severe vision loss. To investigate the anatomical and visual benefits of pars plana vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane peeling in patients with nontractional diabetic macular edema as well as correlation of integrity of outer retinal layers on spectral domain optical coherence tomography to visual outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 42 diabetic patients that underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for nontractional diabetic macula edema. The integrity of outer retinal layers was evaluated and preoperative central macular thickness and visual acuity were compared with data at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The student t-test was used to compare the groups. 31 eyes were included. While no differences were seen at 1 and 3 months, there was significant improvement of both central macular thickness and visual acuity at the 6 months follow up visit compared to preoperatively (357, 427 microns; p=0.03. 20/49, 20/82; p=0.03) . Patients with intact external limiting membrane and ellipsoid zone had better preoperative vision than patients with outer retinal layer irregularities (20/54, 20/100; p=0.03) and greater visual gains postoperatively (20/33, ppeeling can improve retinal anatomy and visual acuity in patients with nontractional diabetic macular edema. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography may help identify patients with potential for visual improvement.

  8. 4D Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-06-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional (3D) imaging of noncrystalline and crystalline equilibrium structures, as well as elemental volume composition, of materials and biological specimens, including those of viruses and cells. We report the development of 4D electron tomography by integrating the fourth dimension (time resolution) with the 3D spatial resolution obtained from a complete tilt series of 2D projections of an object. The different time frames of tomograms constitute a movie of the object in motion, thus enabling studies of nonequilibrium structures and transient processes. The method was demonstrated using carbon nanotubes of a bracelet-like ring structure for which 4D tomograms display different modes of motion, such as breathing and wiggling, with resonance frequencies up to 30 megahertz. Applications can now make use of the full space-time range with the nanometer-femtosecond resolution of ultrafast electron tomography.

  9. Quantitative cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, M.; Dueber, C.; Wolff, P.; Erbel, R.; Hoffmann, T.

    1985-06-01

    The scope and limitations of quantitative cardiac CT have been evaluated in a series of experimental and clinical studies. The left ventricular muscle mass was estimated by computed tomography in 19 dogs (using volumetric methods, measurements in two axes and planes and reference volume). There was good correlation with anatomical findings. The enddiastolic volume of the left ventricle was estimated in 22 patients with cardiomyopathies; using angiography as a reference, CT led to systematic under-estimation. It is also shown that ECG-triggered magnetic resonance tomography results in improved visualisation and may be expected to improve measurements of cardiac morphology.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described as the o......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described...

  11. Digital multilayer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueber, C.; Klose, K.J.; Thelen, M.

    1991-01-01

    With digital multilayer tomography a sequence of projection images is recorded by an image intensifier television system and stored as digital data during a linear run of a layer sequence. Using this data record, tomograms of the examined body region can be computed for any layer thickness by shifts and superimposition of the single projections later at a digital workstation. The qualities of digital and conventional tomograms are basically comparable. A drawback of digital tomography is its lower local resolution (512 x 512 image matrix), advantages are a lower radiation exposure, a shorter patient examination time, and the facilities of digital image processing (later processing, archive setup, transmission). (orig.) [de

  12. Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120 degrees conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180 degrees apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter's thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop

  13. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical...... tumor resection. In the present study, a new uPAR-targeted fluorescent probe was developed and the in vivo applicability was evaluated in a human xenograft mouse model. Most human carcinomas express high level of uPAR in the tumor-stromal interface of invasive lesions and uPAR is therefore considered...... an ideal target for intra-operative imaging. Conjugation of the flourophor indocyanine green (ICG) to the uPAR agonist (AE105) provides an optical imaging ligand with sufficiently high receptor affinity to allow for a specific receptor targeting in vivo. For in vivo testing, human glioblastoma xenograft...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is ... a CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  15. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavien Pillet

    Full Text Available Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  16. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, Flavien; Passot, Fanny Marie; Pasta, Franck; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Bouet, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  17. Prise en charge des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les signes cliniques étaient dominés par les douleurs (98%) suivies des hémorragies (73,80%) pour les morsures de serpent, la douleur pour les piqures de scorpion (100%) et les oedèmes pour les piqures d'abeilles (100%). Les cas de morsure de serpent ont été traités par le sérum antivenimeux polyvalent. Conclusion: ...

  18. Intoxication par la paraphényléne-diamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    9 mars 2011 ... remède contre la douleur par Averbukh [8], ou contre la constipation par Schemesh [9], mais l´utilisation à des fins autolytique reste toujours prédominante. Le tableau clinique de l´intoxication à ... une anurie ayant nécessité le recours à l´hémodialyse. Ce taux de survenue d´IRA anurique est relativement ...

  19. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  20. Cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of mice express the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit NR2C and its replacement by the NR2B subunit enhances frontal and amygdaloid acetylcholine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza Silva, M. A.; Dolga, Amalia; Pieri, I.; Marchetti, L.; Eisel, U. L. M.; Huston, J. P.; Dere, E.

    2006-01-01

    It is known that glutamatergic and cholinergic systems interact functionally at the level of the cholinergic basal forebrain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) is a multiprotein complex composed of NR1, NR2 and/or NR3 subunits. The subunit composition of NMDA-R of cholinergic cells in the

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  2. Computed tomography in facial trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilkha, A.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), plain radiography, and conventional tomography were performed on 30 patients with facial trauma. CT demonstrated bone and soft-tissue involvement. In all cases, CT was superior to tomography in the assessment of facial injury. It is suggested that CT follow plain radiography in the evaluation of facial trauma

  3. Multislice computed tomography coronary angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Cademartiri (Filippo)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is also known as "CAT scanning" (Computed Axial Tomography). Tomography is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphia" meaning "describing". CT was invented in 1972 by British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related ...

  8. Computed tomography in traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Jend, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    This volume offers a critical review and assessment of new avenues opened up by computed tomography in traumatology. Over 200 illustrations, including numerous CT scans, aid the physician engaged emergency care and postoperative treatment of accident victims. Technical prerequisites, special techniques of investigation, pathomorphology of organ changes conditioned by trauma, diagnostic leading symptoms and signs, and diagnostics of iatrogenic injuries and lesions are presented

  9. Computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, T.W.; Blake, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to computed tomography and is particularly concerned with determining the CT numbers of zones of interest in an image displayed on a cathode ray tube which zones lie in the so-called level or center of the gray scale window. (author)

  10. Holography and tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This session includes a collection of outlines of pertinent information, diagrams, graphs, electron micrographs, and color photographs pertaining to historical aspects and recent advances in the development of X-ray Gabor Holography. Many of the photographs feature or pertain to instrumentation used in holography, tomography, and cryo-holography.

  11. Celebral computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofteroed, B.; Sortland, O.

    1985-01-01

    Indications for cerebral computerized tomography (CT) and the diagnostic results from this examination are evaluated in 127 children. Pathological changes were found in 31 children, mostly based on such indications as increasing head size, suspicion of brain tumor, cerebral paresis, delayed psychomotor development and epileptic seizures. A list of indications for CT in children is given

  12. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavuk, M.

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this project is to provide a simple summary of new trends in positron emission tomography and its basic physical principles. It provides thereby compendious introduction of the trends of the present development in diagnostics using PET systems. A review of available literature was performed. (author)

  13. Chest computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    are not suitable to study CF lung disease in young children. Chest computed tomography (CT) holds great promise for use as a sensitive surrogate endpoint in CF. A large body of evidence has been produced to validate the use of chest CT as primary endpoint to study CF lung disease. However, before chest CT can...

  14. Positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, AMJ

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a method for determining biochemical and physiological processes in vivo in a quantitative way by using radiopharmaceuticals labelled with positron emitting radionuclides as C-11, N-13, O-15 and F-18 and by measuring the annihilation radiation using a

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  17. Computed tomography for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is directed towards giving radiographers an introduction to and basic knowledge of computerized tomography. The technical section discusses gantries and x-ray production, computer and disc drive image display, storage, artefacts quality assurance and design of departments. The clinical section includes patient preparation, radiotherapy planning, and interpretation of images from various areas of the anatomy. (U.K.)

  18. Holography and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.

    1997-01-01

    This session includes a collection of outlines of pertinent information, diagrams, graphs, electron micrographs, and color photographs pertaining to historical aspects and recent advances in the development of X-ray Gabor Holography. Many of the photographs feature or pertain to instrumentation used in holography, tomography, and cryo-holography

  19. Preliminary optical coherence tomography investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărcăuteanu, Corina; Demjan, Enikö; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Motoc, Adrian; Lighezan, Rodica; Vasile, Liliana; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2010-02-01

    Aim and objectives. The morphology and position of the temporo-mandibular disc are key issues in the diagnosis and treatment of arthrogenous temporo-mandibular disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy are used today to identify: flattening of the pars posterior of the disc, perforation and/or adhesions in the pars intermedia of the disc and disc displacements. The present study proposes the investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and methods. 8 human temporo-mandibular joint discs were harvested from dead subjects, under 40 year of age, and conserved in formalin. They had a normal morphology, with a thicker pars posterior (2,6 mm on the average) and a thinner pars intermedia (1mm on the average). We investigated the disc samples using two different OCT systems: an en-face OCT (time domain (TD)-OCT) system, working at 1300 nm (C-scan and B-scan mode) and a spectral OCT system (a Fourier domain (FD)-OCT) system , working at 840 nm (B-scan mode). Results. The OCT investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint discs revealed a homogeneous microstructure. The longer wavelength of the TD-OCT offers a higher penetration depth (2,5 mm in air), which is important for the analysis of the pars posterior, while the FD-OCT is much faster. Conclusions: OCT is a promising imaging method for the microstructural characterization of the temporo-mandibular disc.

  20. Serum suPAR in patients with FSGS: trash or treasure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.J.H.; Deegens, J.K.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has important functions in cell migration. uPAR can be shed from the cell membrane resulting in soluble uPAR (suPAR). Further cleavage gives rise to shorter fragments with largely unknown functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that both

  1. Une terreur par l’image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie DULONG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Si d’autres événements — Hiroshima, la découverte des camps de concentration, la chute du mur de Berlin — ont, au cours du XXe siècle, marqué suffisamment l’imaginaire pour trouver leur réponse dans des œuvres d’art, le 11 septembre 2001 pose la question de la fictionnalisation autrement : il ne s’agit plus tant de combler les manques de la représentation, liés à l’absence d’images ou au délai dans leur dévoilement, mais bien de composer avec l’omniprésence d’une représentation martelée à la télévision et sur Internet. Que cette représentation soit partielle, tronquée et qu’il lui manque la présence des corps, ces grands absents des photographies et des images tournées par les journalistes, ne change rien au fait que c’est avec le trop-plein que les artistes doivent maintenant négocier.Cet article s’intéresse aux romans qui traitent l’événement de front au lieu de l’aborder sur un mode mineur, et a pour objectif de tracer un portrait de la représentation des médias dans les romans du 11 septembre 2001. Ces romans, outre le fait qu’ils traitent des événements de New York, ont comme point commun un personnage, ou décor : les médias, représentés par la télévision, l’Internet, les photographies de presse, interviennent dans les récits d’une manière significative et témoignent de la force brute des images. À travers une étude de certains des mécanismes à l’œuvre dans The Writing on the Wall (Lynne Sharon Schwartz, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close (Jonathan Safran Foer, Falling Man (Don DeLillo et A Disorder Peculiar to the Country (Ken Kalfus, il s’agira de proposer des réponses à ces quelques questions : quel rôle les médias jouent-ils, et comment participent-ils au récit ? Quelle pression les images exercent-elles sur les personnages ? Que révèlent les personnages enfants dans leur rapport aux médias ? Quelle critique, finalement, les romans

  2. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned

  3. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions. (BWU) [de

  4. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions.

  5. Mathematical Methods in Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Alfred; Natterer, Frank

    1991-01-01

    The conference was devoted to the discussion of present and future techniques in medical imaging, including 3D x-ray CT, ultrasound and diffraction tomography, and biomagnetic ima- ging. The mathematical models, their theoretical aspects and the development of algorithms were treated. The proceedings contains surveys on reconstruction in inverse obstacle scat- tering, inversion in 3D, and constrained least squares pro- blems.Research papers include besides the mentioned imaging techniques presentations on image reconstruction in Hilbert spaces, singular value decompositions, 3D cone beam recon- struction, diffuse tomography, regularization of ill-posed problems, evaluation reconstruction algorithms and applica- tions in non-medical fields. Contents: Theoretical Aspects: J.Boman: Helgason' s support theorem for Radon transforms-a newproof and a generalization -P.Maass: Singular value de- compositions for Radon transforms- W.R.Madych: Image recon- struction in Hilbert space -R.G.Mukhometov: A problem of in- teg...

  6. Neutron beam tomography software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbery, A.C.R.

    1988-05-01

    When a sample is traversed by a neutron beam, inhomogeneities in the sample will cause deflections, and the deflections will permit conclusions to be drawn concerning the location and size of the inhomogeneities. The associated computation is similar to problems in tomography, analogous to X-ray tomography though significantly different in detail. We do not have any point-sample information, but only mean values over short line segments. Since each mean value is derived from a separate neutron counter, the quantity of available data has to be modest; also, since each datum is an integral, its geometric precision is inferior to that of X-ray data. Our software is designed to cope with these difficulties. (orig.) [de

  7. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.L.; Thompson, C.J.; Diksic, M.; Meyer, E.; Feindel, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    One of the most exciting new technologies introduced in the last 10 yr is positron emission tomography (PET). PET provides quantitative, three-dimensional images for the study of specific biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. This approach is analogous to quantitative in-vivo autoradiography but has the added advantage of permitting non-invasive in vivo studies. PET scanning requires a small cyclotron to produce short-lived positron emitting isotopes such as oxygen-15, carbon-11, nitrogen-13 and fluorine-18. Proper radiochemical facilities and advanced computer equipment are also needed. Most important, PET requires a multidisciplinary scientific team of physicists, radiochemists, mathematicians, biochemists and physicians. The most recent trends are reviewed in the imaging technology, radiochemistry, methodology and clinical applications of positron emission tomography. (author)

  8. Reinforced concrete tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariscotti, M.A.J.; Morixe, M.; Tarela, P.A.; Thieberger, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) [es

  9. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    spectral measurements at several line-of-sights with a view to applications for tomographic measurements on full-scale industrial combustion systems. The system was successfully applied on industrial scale for simultaneous fast exhaust gas temperature measurements in the three optical ports of the exhaust......D project, it was also important to investigate the spectral properties of major combustion species such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the infrared range at high temperatures to provide the theoretical background for the development of the optical tomography methods. The new software....... JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  10. Spondylolysis studied with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, J.P.; Hemminghytt, S.; Williams, A.L.; Carrera, G.F.; Haughton, V.M.

    1982-12-01

    Spinal CT scans, plain radiographs, and medical records of 81 patients with an abnormal pars interarticularis were reviewed to define the CT criteria for spondylolysis. In many cases, it was difficult to detect because it simulated the adjacent facet joints; however, it could be differentiated by careful analysis of the section level and the contiguous facet joints, which usually had regular cortical surfaces (in contrast to the pars defects).Spondylolysis was evident on the lateral localizer image in most cases. In some patients the pars appeared abnormally narrow and elongated or sclerotic as well as interrupted. In a few cases, CT demonstrated a pars defect which was not effectively shown by the plain radiographs. In one patient, a herniated disk was also seen.

  11. Spondylolysis studied with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, J.P.; Hemminghytt, S.; Williams, A.L.; Carrera, G.F.; Haughton, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Spinal CT scans, plain radiographs, and medical records of 81 patients with an abnormal pars interarticularis were reviewed to define the CT criteria for spondylolysis. In many cases, it was difficult to detect because it simulated the adjacent facet joints; however, it could be differentiated by careful analysis of the section level and the contiguous facet joints, which usually had regular cortical surfaces (in contrast to the pars defects).Spondylolysis was evident on the lateral localizer image in most cases. In some patients the pars appeared abnormally narrow and elongated or sclerotic as well as interrupted. In a few cases, CT demonstrated a pars defect which was not effectively shown by the plain radiographs. In one patient, a herniated disk was also seen

  12. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  13. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  14. Computed Tomography. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleijns, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    After its clinical introduction in 1971, computed tomography (CT) developed from an X ray modality that was limited to axial imaging of the brain in neuroradiology into a versatile 3-D whole body imaging modality for a wide range of applications, including oncology, vascular radiology, cardiology, traumatology and interventional radiology. CT is applied for diagnosis and follow-up studies of patients, for planning of radiotherapy, and even for screening of healthy subpopulations with specific risk factors.

  15. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Preethi; Himabindu, Pucha

    2000-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive nuclear imaging technique used to study different molecular pathways and anatomical structures. PET has found extensive applications in various fields of medicine viz. cardiology, oncology, psychiatry/psychology, neuro science and pulmonology. This study paper basically deals with the physics, chemistry and biology behind the PET technique. It discusses the methodology for generation of the radiotracers responsible for emission of positrons and the annihilation and detection techniques. (author)

  16. Compton tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubsky, Victor; Romanoov, Volodymyr; Shoemaker, Keith; Patton, Edward Matthew; Jannson, Tomasz

    2016-02-02

    A Compton tomography system comprises an x-ray source configured to produce a planar x-ray beam. The beam irradiates a slice of an object to be imaged, producing Compton-scattered x-rays. The Compton-scattered x-rays are imaged by an x-ray camera. Translation of the object with respect to the source and camera or vice versa allows three-dimensional object imaging.

  17. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  18. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenkov, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    The foundations of the positron emission tomography (PET), widely used for the medical diagnostics, are considered. The brief description of the cyclotron for production of radionuclides, applied in the PET, the target devices for manufacturing the position emitters, the moduli for the radiopharmaceuticals synthesis (RPS) for the PET is presented. The necessity and concept of complete automation of the RPS for the PET are discussed [ru

  19. Computed Tomography Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansche, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a relatively new radiographic technique which has become widely used in the medical field, where it is better known as computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scanning. This technique is also being adopted by the industrial radiographic community, although the greater range of densities, variation in samples sizes, plus possible requirement for finer resolution make it difficult to duplicate the excellent results that the medical scanners have achieved.

  20. Coded aperture tomography revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizais, Y.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.; Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Coded aperture (CA) Tomography never achieved wide spread use in Nuclear Medicine, except for the degenerate case of Seven Pinhole tomagraphy (7PHT). However it enjoys several attractive features (high sensitivity and tomographic ability with a statis detector). On the other hand, resolution is usually poor especially along the depth axis and the reconstructed volume is rather limited. Arguments are presented justifying the position that CA tomography can be useful for imaging time-varying 3D structures, if its major drawbacks (poor longitudinal resolution and difficulty in quantification) are overcome. Poor results obtained with 7PHT can be explained by both a very limited angular range sampled and a crude modelling of the image formation process. Therefore improvements can be expected by the use of a dual-detector system, along with a better understanding of its sampling properties and the use of more powerful reconstruction algorithms. Non overlapping multipinhole plates, because they do not involve a decoding procedure, should be considered first for practical applications. Use of real CA should be considered for cases in which non overlapping multipinhole plates do not lead to satisfactory solutions. We have been and currently are carrying out theoretical and experimental works, in order to define the factors which limit CA imaging and to propose satisfactory solutions for Dynamic Emission Tomography

  1. Cardiac positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geltmann, E.M.; Roberts, R.; Sobel, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) performed after the administration of the positron-emitting radionuclides carbon-11 ( 11 C), nitrogen-13 ( 13 N), oxygen-15 ( 15 O) and fluorine-18 ( 18 F) has permitted the improved noninvasive assessment of the regional myocardial metabolism of normal physiologic substrates and intermediates and their cogeners. In experimental animals, the rate of oxidation of 11 C-palmitate correlates closely with other indexes of oxygen consumption, and the extraction of 11 C-palmitate (like that of 18 F-fatty acids and 18 F-fluoredoxyglucose) ist markedly diminished in regions of myocardial ischemia. In both experimental animals and in patients, myocardial infarct site and size, determined by positron emission tomography after the intravenous injection of 11 C-palmitate, correlate closely with the electrocardiographic infarct locus and enzymatically estimated infarct size as well as with the location and extent of regional left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. PET offers promise for assessment of flow as well despite the complexities involved. PET with 13 NH 3 appears to provide one useful qualitative index, although this tracer ist actively metabolized. Because of the quantitative capabilities of positron emission tomography and the rapid progress which is being made in the development of fast scan, multi-slice, and gated instrumentation, this technique is likely to facilitate improved understanding and characterization of regional myocardial metabolism and blood flow in man under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. (orig.) [de

  2. Mathematics of Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, William Grant

    A review of the applications of the Radon transform is presented, with emphasis on emission computed tomography and transmission computed tomography. The theory of the 2D and 3D Radon transforms, and the effects of attenuation for emission computed tomography are presented. The algebraic iterative methods, their importance and limitations are reviewed. Analytic solutions of the 2D problem the convolution and frequency filtering methods based on linear shift invariant theory, and the solution of the circular harmonic decomposition by integral transform theory--are reviewed. The relation between the invisible kernels, the inverse circular harmonic transform, and the consistency conditions are demonstrated. The discussion and review are extended to the 3D problem-convolution, frequency filtering, spherical harmonic transform solutions, and consistency conditions. The Cormack algorithm based on reconstruction with Zernike polynomials is reviewed. An analogous algorithm and set of reconstruction polynomials is developed for the spherical harmonic transform. The relations between the consistency conditions, boundary conditions and orthogonal basis functions for the 2D projection harmonics are delineated and extended to the 3D case. The equivalence of the inverse circular harmonic transform, the inverse Radon transform, and the inverse Cormack transform is presented. The use of the number of nodes of a projection harmonic as a filter is discussed. Numerical methods for the efficient implementation of angular harmonic algorithms based on orthogonal functions and stable recursion are presented. The derivation of a lower bound for the signal-to-noise ratio of the Cormack algorithm is derived.

  3. In Vivo Diffuse Optical Tomography and Fluorescence Molecular Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingze Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse optical tomography (DOT and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT are two attractive imaging techniques for in vivo physiological and psychological research. They have distinct advantages such as non-invasiveness, non-ionizing radiation, high sensitivity and longitudinal monitoring. This paper reviews the key components of DOT and FMT. Light propagation model, mathematical reconstruction algorithm, imaging instrumentation and medical applications are included. Future challenges and perspective on optical tomography are discussed.

  4. [Ambroise Paré, his death and his historians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaître, P

    2001-01-01

    Ambroise Paré died December the 20th., 1590. What happened after his death and what are we knowing about his life? Never forgotten, though a lack of care, we were waiting till the XIXth. century to get recollection upon a subject sustained only by accounts of his travels. After Percy, a surgeon who tried to write Paré's biography through the "Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne, de Michaud (1822)" and some second rank authors, Malgaigne is the first who inside a printing of the "Oeuvres complétes de Paré (1840-41)" has a fine look upon the question, though his work is incomplete and allows many mistakes. Doctors Chéreau and Jal, an historian, analysing civil status records, gave new information enlarged by doctors Le Paulmier, Turner and the U.S. native Janet Doe.

  5. Keratometric alterations following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Batman, Cosar; Bicer, Tolga; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2009-09-01

    To assess the alterations in keratometric astigmatism following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy. Sixteen consecutive patients were enrolled into the study. Conventional vitrectomy was applied to eight of the cases and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy was performed in eight patients. Keratometry was performed before and after the surgery. In the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were not observed in the corneal curvature in any post-operative follow-up measurement (p > 0.05); whereas in the conventional pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were observed in the first postoperative day (p = 0.01) and first postoperative month (p = 0.03). We noted that these changes returned to baseline in three months (p = 0.26). Both 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless and conventional pars plana vitrectomy are effective surgical modalities for selected diseases of the posterior segment. Surgical procedures are critical for the visual rehabilitation of the patients. The post-operative corneal astigmatism of the vitrectomised eyes can be accurately determined at least two months post-operatively.

  6. Cyclanthaceae no estado do Pará, Brasil Cyclanthaceae in Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Leal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclanthaceae apresenta distribuição exclusiva na região neotropical sendo bem diversificada nas terras baixas das florestas pluviais tropicais, ocorrendo do sul do México até a Mata Atlântica do sul do Brasil. Consistem de ervas terrestres, epífitas, hemiepífitas ou lianas. O tratamento taxonômico de Cyclanthaceae no Pará foi baseado em coleções de herbário, trabalhos de campo e consulta a bibliografia referente à família. Foram registradas 11 espécies: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. e Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações das espécies, além de comentários sobre distribuição geográfica, hábitat e período de floração e frutificação.Cyclanthaceae is a family with a distribution exclusively in the Neotropics and is well diversified in lowland rainforests, occurring from southern Mexico to the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The family consists of terrestrial herbs, epiphytes, hemiepiphytes and lianas. This taxonomic treatment of the Cyclanthaceae from the state of Pará was based on herbarium specimens, fieldwork, and the literature. Eleven species were recorded: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. and Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. An identification key, descriptions and illustrations of species are presented. Additional information on the geographic distribution, habitat, and flowering and

  7. Canning by the diffusion caused by a heated die; Gainage par diffusion par filiere chauffante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthron, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In this process, the uranium fuel is clad with a zirconium can by passing the element through a die. The operation takes place at a temperature varying between 500 and 1000 deg. C. The heating is obtained by passing low voltage electric current through the can. This process differs from the co-extrusion process in that the uranium is not deformed. The uranium is therefore machined to the final dimensions before canning, it can also be hollow. Two types of processes can be adopted for the extrusion: a) Process in which the binding of the can to the uranium is obtained without diffusion (here the can is at high temperature - subsequently cooled - and the uranium is at a low temperature); b) Process in which uranium-zirconium diffusion is initiated. No matter which process is adopted the element is subsequently heat treated in an over at 800 deg. C in order to obtain the final diffusion. The quality of this diffusion is dependent on the initial state of the surfaces and on the degree of vacuum maintained during the operation. (author) [French] Dans ce procede, la gaine zirconium est plaquee sur le combustible uranium par passage dans une filiere. L'operation a lieu a chaud, a une temperature variant entre 500 et 1000 deg. C. Le chauffage est assure par passage d'un courant basse tension dans la gaine. A la difference du procede de cofilage, l'uranium ne subit pas de deformation durant l'operation. Il est donc prealablement usine aux cotes definitives et peut etre creux. Deux processus sont possibles pendant le passage dans la filiere: a) Obtention d'un frettage de la gaine sur l'uranium sans diffusion (avec une gaine a haute temperature et un tube d'uranium a basse temperature, eventuellement refroidi); b) Obtention d'un commencement de diffusion uranium-zirconium. Quelque soit le processus adopte, la cartouche est ensuite traitee dans un four a 800 deg. C pour obtenir la diffusion definitive. La qualite de celle-ci depend essentiellement des etats de surface initiaux

  8. La projection par plasma : une revue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

    are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont pr

  9. Mesenteric panniculitis: computed tomography aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luiza Beatriz Melo; Alves, Jose Ricardo Duarte; Marchiori, Edson; Pinheiro, Ricardo Andrade; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Noro, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is an inflammatory process that represents the second stage of a rare progressive disease involving the adipose tissue of the mesentery. Imaging methods used in the diagnosis of mesenteric panniculitis include barium studies, ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Computed tomography is important for both, diagnosis and evaluation of the extension of the disease and treatment monitoring. Computed tomography findings may vary according to the stage of the disease and the amount of inflammatory material or fibrosis. There is also good correlation between the computed tomography and anatomical pathology findings. The authors studied 10 patients with mesenteric panniculitis submitted to computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging was also performed in one patient. In all patients, computed tomography revealed a heterogeneous mass in the mesentery with density of fat, interspersed with areas of soft tissue density and dilated vessels. (author)

  10. Scanning Microwave Induced Acoustic Tomography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Lihong V

    2002-01-01

    .... Specifically, our accomplishments include (1) an exact and an approximate time-domain reconstruction algorithm for thermoacoustic tomography in a spherical geometry was derived and published, (2...

  11. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs

  12. Computed tomography device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohhashi, A.

    1985-01-01

    A computed tomography device comprising a subtraction unit which obtains differential data strings representing the difference between each time-serial projection data string of a group of projection data strings corresponding to a prospective reconstruction image generated by projection data strings acquired by a data acquisition system, a convolution unit which convolves each time-serial projection data string of the group of projection data strings corresponding to the prospective reconstruction image, and a back-projection unit which back-projects the convolved data strings

  13. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  14. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  15. Recent RI tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuyama, Naofumi; Kawakami, Kenshi

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, new equipments for radionuclide tomography and recent radiopharmaceuticals with positron emission are described. Positron CT is very usefull for functional imaging. Those nucleides 11 C, 13 N and 15 O have been studied for their sake, but used as a usefull tool as tracer elements for the basic research in the fields of chemistry, bio-chemistry, biology and medicine. Also they have been utilized in the diagnosis of diseases, particularly in the non-invasive and dynamic assessment of metabolic and functional disorders in the patients. We will also describe the clinical usefullness of a commercial scanner such as the Anger multiplane tomographic scanner (PHO/CON). (author)

  16. Gantry for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, A.L.; Peterson, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    A novel design of gantry for use in computed tomography is described in detail. In the new gantry, curved tracks are mounted to the laterally spaced apart sides of the frame which rotates and carries the detector and X-ray source. This permits the frame to be tilted either side of vertical enabling angular slices of body layers to be viewed and allows simplification of the algorithm which the computer uses for image reconstruction. The tracks are supported on rollers which carry the substantial weight. Explicit engineering details are presented especially of the ball bearing races used in the rotation. (U.K.)

  17. Gantry for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.T.; Hein, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    A novel design of gantry for use in computed tomography is described in detail. In the new gantry, curved tracks are mounted to the laterally spaced apart sides of the frame which rotates and carries the detector and X-ray source. This permits the frame to be tilted either side of vertical enabling angular slices of body layers to be viewed and allows simplification of the algorithm which the computer uses for image reconstruction. The tracks are supported on rollers which carry the substantial weight. Explicit engineering details are presented. (U.K.)

  18. Method for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.

    1980-01-01

    In transversal computer tomography apparatus, in which the positioning zone in which the patient can be positioned is larger than the scanning zone in which a body slice can be scanned, reconstruction errors are liable to occur. These errors are caused by incomplete irradiation of the body during examination. They become manifest not only as an incorrect image of the area not irradiated, but also have an adverse effect on the image of the other, completely irradiated areas. The invention enables reduction of these errors

  19. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  20. Solar Stereoscopy and Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Aschwanden

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We review stereoscopic and tomographic methods used in the solar corona, including ground-based and space-based measurements, using solar rotation or multiple spacecraft vantage points, in particular from the STEREO mission during 2007--2010. Stereoscopic and tomographic observations in the solar corona include large-scale structures, streamers, active regions, coronal loops, loop oscillations, acoustic waves in loops, erupting filaments and prominences, bright points, jets, plumes, flares, CME source regions, and CME-triggered global coronal waves. Applications in the solar interior (helioseismic tomography and reconstruction and tracking of CMEs from the outer corona and into the heliosphere (interplanetary CMEs are not included.

  1. Radial reflection diffraction tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Sean K.

    2012-12-18

    A wave-based tomographic imaging method and apparatus based upon one or more rotating radially outward oriented transmitting and receiving elements have been developed for non-destructive evaluation. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, a predetermined transmitting element can launch a primary field and one or more predetermined receiving elements can collect the backscattered field in a "pitch/catch" operation. A Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm can construct images of the received scattered energy waves using operating modes chosen for a particular application. Applications include, improved intravascular imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts having existing access holes.

  2. Positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Paans, A M J

    2006-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a method for measuring biochemical and physiological processes in vivo in a quantitative way by using radiopharmaceuticals labelled with positron emitting radionuclides such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F and by measuring the annihilation radiation using a coincidence technique. This includes also the measurement of the pharmacokinetics of labelled drugs and the measurement of the effects of drugs on metabolism. Also deviations of normal metabolism can be measured and insight into biological processes responsible for diseases can be obtained. At present the combined PET/CT scanner is the most frequently used scanner for whole-body scanning in the field of oncology.

  3. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paans, A.M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals have special applications in in-vivo studies of biochemical processes. The combination of a cyclotron for the production of radionuclides and a positron emission tomograph for the registration of the distribution of radioactivity in the body enables the measurement of local radioactivity concentration in tissues, and opens up new possibilities in the diagnosis and examination of abnormalities in the metabolism. The principles and procedures of positron emission tomography are described and the necessary apparatus considered, with emphasis on the positron camera. The first clinical applications using 55 Co bloemycine for tumor detection are presented. (C.F.)

  4. Dynamic tomography in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    Dynamic tomography is a procedure in which a sandwich of eight underexposed radiographs is utilized to display sharp images of details lying in a thin layer at any chosen depth within a subject. When the sandwich of films is viewed by transmitted light, the location of this chosen layer can be moved up or down within the subject by simply mechanically moving the radiographs in a precise manner relative to each other. The amount of radiation used in exposing the eight radiographs is the same as would be used to fully expose two normal radiographs

  5. Dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzia, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The amount of computed tomography (CT) studies that are performed each year in the world is growing exponentially mainly due to the incorporation of multislice CT that allows studies in a few seconds. But, despite the benefit received by patients with the diagnosis, radiation dose is a concern in the professional community and it has be reduced as much as reasonably possible. This article describes the main dosimetric CT units used in order to work with this practice easily, using the values that provide modern equipment and internationally known reference levels. (authors) [es

  6. Practical adaptive quantum tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granade, Christopher; Ferrie, Christopher; Flammia, Steven T.

    2017-11-01

    We introduce a fast and accurate heuristic for adaptive tomography that addresses many of the limitations of prior methods. Previous approaches were either too computationally intensive or tailored to handle special cases such as single qubits or pure states. By contrast, our approach combines the efficiency of online optimization with generally applicable and well-motivated data-processing techniques. We numerically demonstrate these advantages in several scenarios including mixed states, higher-dimensional systems, and restricted measurements. http://cgranade.com complete data and source code for this work are available online [1], and can be previewed at https://goo.gl/koiWxR.

  7. Computed tomography of surface related radionuclide distributions ('BONN'-tomography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockisch, A.; Koenig, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method called the 'BONN' tomography is described to produce planar projections of circular activity distributions using standard single photon emission computed tomography. The clinical value of the method is demonstrated for bone scans of the jaw, thorax, and pelvis. Numerical or projection-related problems are discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre Tapinanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2013 ... Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre. Tapinanthus (Loranthaceae) et répartition de la myrmécofaune associée à Logbessou Plateau. (Douala, Cameroun). Massako F1*, Tchatat M2, Mony R3, Ladoh Yemeda CF1, Dibong SD1,4,5. 1Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie des Organismes ...

  9. Parasitisme des champs semenciers de cacaoyers par les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 janv. 2015 ... J. Appl. Biosci. Parasitisme des champs semenciers de cacaoyers par les loranthaceae dans la localité de Nkoemvone (sud Cameroun). 7795 to the various clones, Phragmanthera capitata was the most abundant Loranthaceae; the level of parasitism of cacao trees is more important at the cacao trees of ...

  10. Den eneste ene - hvordan etniske minoritetsunge i Danmark danner par

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Rapporten handler om etniske unges måde at danne par på. Rapporten er baseret på en større empirisk undersøgelse gennemført af forfatteren i 2003 og er desuden inspireret af forfatterens egen ph.d.-afhandling: "Ungdom, etnicitet og psychosocial intervention" (2000, Københavns Universitet). Rappor...

  11. Indications and visual outcome of first hundred pars plana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the indications and visual outcome of the first one hundred pars plana vitrectomies performed at the newly established surgical retina unit of Makkah Specialist Eye Hospital, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Aretrospective chart review was performed. Data recorded from the patient ...

  12. Epuration des effluents industriels par électroflottation Belkacem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    étudié la séparation de quelques métaux lourds tels que le fer, le nickel, ... the separation of some heavy metals such as iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead and ... généralement basées sur l'adsorption (par ... Différents essais de concentration en.

  13. Predicting spectral and PAR light attenuation in Greenlandic coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Markager, Stiig; Stedmon, Colin

    (CDOM), phytoplankton pigments and inorganic particles. These differences are due in part to hydrography and to the sources of meltwater: respectively, fjord-terminating and land-terminating glaciers. We present a model to explain the variation in spectral and PAR irradiance in terms of the variation...

  14. Priapisme induit par la chlorpromazine: A propos de deux cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Marrag

    2016-06-01

    Le priapisme veineux est une urgence urologique. Il constitue un des effets secondaires des neuroleptiques parmi les quels la chlorpromazine. Cet effet iatrogène, qui est rare mais grave, doit être connu par les cliniciens afin d’être mieux prévenu pour éviter les séquelles érectiles.

  15. La lecture de Merleau-Ponty par Renaud Barbaras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2015), s. 1-6 ISSN 1336-6556 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Merleau-Ponty * Husserl * phenomenology * linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.ostium.sk/sk/la-lecture-de-merleau-ponty-par-renaud-barbaras/

  16. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond

  17. fortification des farines tropicales par l'introduction de proteines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Université d'Abomey Calavy, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Bénin ... valeur recommandée par le Codex Alimentarius pour ce type de complément alimentaire destiné aux enfants. ..... neurotransmission, coagulation sanguine et.

  18. Auroral Tomography Workshop, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, Aa.

    1993-08-01

    In ionospheric and atmospheric physics the importance of multi-station imaging has grown as a consequence of the availability of scientific grade CCD cameras with digital output and affordable massive computing power. Tomographic inversion techniques are used in many different areas, e.g. medicine, plasma research and space physics. The tomography workshop was announced to gather a limited group of people interested in auroral tomography or tomographic inversion methods in general. ALIS (Auroral Large Imaging System) is a multi-station ground-based system developed primarily for three-dimensional auroral imaging, however other non-auroral objects can be studied with ALIS, e.g. stratospheric clouds. Several of the contributions in the workshop dealt with problems related to geometries similar to the ALIS-configuration. The Proceedings contain written contributions received either in abstract form or as full papers. The Proceedings also contain contributions intended for the Workshop but not presented due to the absence of the speaker. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 15 of the 17 papers

  19. Compressed sensing electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, Rowan; Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A.; Holland, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The recent mathematical concept of compressed sensing (CS) asserts that a small number of well-chosen measurements can suffice to reconstruct signals that are amenable to sparse or compressible representation. In addition to powerful theoretical results, the principles of CS are being exploited increasingly across a range of experiments to yield substantial performance gains relative to conventional approaches. In this work we describe the application of CS to electron tomography (ET) reconstruction and demonstrate the efficacy of CS–ET with several example studies. Artefacts present in conventional ET reconstructions such as streaking, blurring of object boundaries and elongation are markedly reduced, and robust reconstruction is shown to be possible from far fewer projections than are normally used. The CS–ET approach enables more reliable quantitative analysis of the reconstructions as well as novel 3D studies from extremely limited data. - Highlights: • Compressed sensing (CS) theory and its application to electron tomography (ET) is described. • The practical implementation of CS–ET is outlined and its efficacy demonstrated with examples. • High fidelity tomographic reconstruction is possible from a small number of images. • The CS–ET reconstructions can be more reliably segmented and analysed quantitatively. • CS–ET is applicable to different image content by choice of an appropriate sparsifying transform

  20. Positron emission tomography. Positronemisionstomografi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolwig, T G; Haunsoe, S; Dahlgaard Hove, J; Hesse, B; Hoejgard, L; Jensen, M; Paulson, O B; Hastrup Svendsen, J; Soelvsten Soerensen, S

    1994-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a method for quantitative imaging of regional physiological and biochemical parameters. Positron emitting radioactive isotopes can be produced by a cyclotron, eg. the biologically important carbon ([sup 11]C), oxygen ([sup 15]O), and nitrogen ([sup 13]N) elements. With the tomographic principles of the PET scanner the quantitative distribution of the administered isotopes can be determined and images can be provided as well as dynamic information on blood flow, metabolism and receptor function. In neurology PET has been used for investigations on numerous physiological processes in the brain: circulation, metabolism and receptor studies. In Parkinson's disease PET studies have been able to localize the pathology specifically, and in early stroke PET technique can outline focal areas with living but non-functioning cells, and this could make it possible to intervene in this early state. With positron emission tomography a quantitative evaluation of myocardial blood flow, glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be made as well as combined assessments of blood flow and metabolism. Combined studies of blood flow and metabolism can determine whether myocardial segments with abnormal motility consist of necrotic or viable tissue, thereby delineating effects of revascularisation. In the future it will probably be possible to characterize the myocardial receptor status in different cardiac diseases. The PET technique is used in oncology for clinical as well as more basic research on tumor perfusion and metabolism. Further, tumor uptake of positron labelled cytotoxic drugs might predict the clinical benefit of treatment. (au) (19 refs.).

  1. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  2. Transverse tomography and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leer, J.W.H.

    1982-01-01

    This study was intended to delineate the indications for radiotherapy treatment-planning with the help of computerized axial tomography (C.T.) and transverse analog tomography (T.A.T.). Radiotherapy localisation procedures with the conventional method (simulator), with the CT-scanner and with the transverse analog tomograph (T.A.T., Simtomix, Oldelft) were compared. As criterium for evaluation differences in reconstruction drawing based on these methods were used. A certain method was judged ''superior'' to another if the delineation of the target volume was more accurate, if a better impression was gained of the site of (for irradiation) organs at risk, or if the localisation could only be performed with that method. The selected group of patients consisted of 120 patients for whom a reconstruction drawing in the transverse plane was made according to the treatment philosophy. In this group CT-assisted localisation was judged on 68 occasions superior to the conventional method. In a number of cases it was found that a ''standard'' change in a standard target volume, on the base of augmented anatomical knowledge, made the conventional method sufficient. The use of CT-scanner for treatment planning was estimated. For ca. 270/1000 new patients a CT-scan is helpful (diagnostic scan), for 140 of them the scan is necessary (planning scan). The quality of the anatomical information obtained with the T.A.T. does not yet fall within acceptable limits, but progress has been made. (Auth.)

  3. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolwig, T.G.; Haunsoe, S.; Dahlgaard Hove, J.; Hesse, B.; Hoejgard, L.; Jensen, M.; Paulson, O.B.; Hastrup Svendsen, J.; Soelvsten Soerensen, S.

    1994-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a method for quantitative imaging of regional physiological and biochemical parameters. Positron emitting radioactive isotopes can be produced by a cyclotron, eg. the biologically important carbon ( 11 C), oxygen ( 15 O), and nitrogen ( 13 N) elements. With the tomographic principles of the PET scanner the quantitative distribution of the administered isotopes can be determined and images can be provided as well as dynamic information on blood flow, metabolism and receptor function. In neurology PET has been used for investigations on numerous physiological processes in the brain: circulation, metabolism and receptor studies. In Parkinson's disease PET studies have been able to localize the pathology specifically, and in early stroke PET technique can outline focal areas with living but non-functioning cells, and this could make it possible to intervene in this early state. With positron emission tomography a quantitative evaluation of myocardial blood flow, glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be made as well as combined assessments of blood flow and metabolism. Combined studies of blood flow and metabolism can determine whether myocardial segments with abnormal motility consist of necrotic or viable tissue, thereby delineating effects of revascularisation. In the future it will probably be possible to characterize the myocardial receptor status in different cardiac diseases. The PET technique is used in oncology for clinical as well as more basic research on tumor perfusion and metabolism. Further, tumor uptake of positron labelled cytotoxic drugs might predict the clinical benefit of treatment. (au) (19 refs.)

  4. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU

  5. Computer tomography of the neurocranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliequist, B; Forssell, A

    1976-07-01

    The experience with computer tomography of the neurocranium in 300 patients submitted for computer tomography of the brain is reported. The more appropriate projections which may be obtained with the second generation of scanners in combination with an elaborated reconstruction technique seem to constitute a replacement of conventional skull films.

  6. [Computed tomography of the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.S.; Kofoed, K.F.; der, Recke P. von

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of the coronary arteries by multi-detector row computed tomography is a promising new alternative to conventional invasive coronary angiography. This article describes the technical background, methods, limitations and clinical applications and reviews current literature...... that compares the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector row computed tomography with that of coronary angiography Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4/6...

  7. Pulmonary blood flow distribution measured by radionuclide computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, H.; Itoh, H.; Ishii, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Distributions of pulmonary blood flow per unit lung volume were measured in sitting patients with a radionuclide computed tomography (RCT) by intravenously administered Tc-99m macroaggregates of human serum albumin (MAA). Four different types of distribution were distinguished, among which a group referred as type 2 had a three zonal blood flow distribution as previously reported (West and co-workers, 1964). The pulmonary arterial pressure (Pa) and the venous pressure (Pv) were determined in this group of distribution. These values showed satifactory agreements with the pulmonary artery pressure (Par) and the capillary wedged pressure (Pcw) measured by Swan-Ganz catheter in eighteen supine patients. Those good correlations enable to establish a noninvasive methodology for measurement of pulmonary vascular pressures

  8. Bilateral optic neuropathy and intraretinal deposits after pars plana vitrectomy in amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossetti Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological examination of material from a nonextensive pars plana vitrectomy (PPV in the right eye provided a diagnosis of nonfamilial amyloidosis in a 68-year-old woman, who presented with bilateral glass wool-like vitreous opacities. Genetic testing revealed a Tyr114Cys mutation in the transthyretin gene. Six months after PPV, perimetry showed intense constriction with a temporal island and central scotoma in the right eye. An extensive PPV was performed in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography evidenced bilateral epimacular amyloid deposits and unreported reflective spots within the inner retina. One year later, visual acuity had decreased to 20/400 in the left eye, with mild vitreous opacity, pale cupped optic disc and inferior altitudinal field defect. Bilateral diurnal intraocular pressure, transiently increased after PPV, never exceeded 16 mmHg with medication. Our patient presented optic nerve blood supply impairment, due to amyloidosis, which caused optic atrophy. Epiretinal and intraretinal deposit detection could aid in diagnosing patients with suspected amyloidosis.

  9. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings.

  10. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton Johansen, Geir; Wang, Mi

    2008-09-01

    There has been tremendous development within measurement science and technology over the past couple of decades. New sensor technologies and compact versatile signal recovery electronics are continuously expanding the limits of what can be measured and the accuracy with which this can be done. Miniaturization of sensors and the use of nanotechnology push these limits further. Also, thanks to powerful and cost-effective computer systems, sophisticated measurement and reconstruction algorithms previously only accessible in advanced laboratories are now available for in situ online measurement systems. The process industries increasingly require more process-related information, motivated by key issues such as improved process control, process utilization and process yields, ultimately driven by cost-effectiveness, quality assurance, environmental and safety demands. Industrial process tomography methods have taken advantage of the general progress in measurement science, and aim at providing more information, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on multiphase systems and their dynamics. The typical approach for such systems has been to carry out one local or bulk measurement and assume that this is representative of the whole system. In some cases, this is sufficient. However, there are many complex systems where the component distribution varies continuously and often unpredictably in space and time. The foundation of industrial tomography is to conduct several measurements around the periphery of a multiphase process, and use these measurements to unravel the cross-sectional distribution of the process components in time and space. This information is used in the design and optimization of industrial processes and process equipment, and also to improve the accuracy of multiphase system measurements in general. In this issue we are proud to present a selection of the 145 papers presented at the 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography in Bergen

  11. Apoplejía pituitaria con parálisis del III par craneal: Reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pinto Valdivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de un varón de 65 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió a emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia por presentar cefalea intensa y ptosis palpebral izquierda. El examen físico mostró parálisis aislada del III par craneal izquierdo. Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron hiponatremia e hipopituitarismo y la resonancia magnética nuclear un adenoma pituitario con áreas de hemorragia e invasión de los senos cavernosos. El tratamiento incluyó glucocorticoides y descompresión quirúrgica transesfenoidal. La anatomía patológica confirmó el diagnóstico de infarto hemorrágico de un adenoma pituitario. El paciente fue dado de alta con terapia sustitutiva de levotiroxina y prednisona. La ptosis palpebral izquierda se recuperó en forma parcial. La apoplejía pituitaria es un síndrome clínico producido por un proceso expansivo dentro de la silla turca, secundario a hemorragia o infarto de un adenoma pituitario, que se caracteriza por cefalea, déficit visual, oftalmoplejía y alteración del nivel de conciencia. Este proceso expansivo puede comprimir los pares craneales en los senos cavernosos, produciendo diferentes grados de parálisis de los músculos oculomotores. La parálisis aislada del III par craneal es rara.(Rev Med Hered 2011;22:186-189.

  12. Épidémiologie de l'intoxication par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: L'intoxication par envenimation est l'ensemble des manifestations locales et générales induites par la pénétration dans l'organisme d'une substance toxique produite par un animal venimeux. Le but de notre travail était d'étudier les signes cliniques des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants de 0 à 15 ...

  13. INTRASURGICAL MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-ASSISTED MEMBRANE PEELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner-Radler, Christiane I; Glittenberg, Carl; Gabriel, Max; Binder, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate microscope-integrated intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography during macular surgery in a prospective monocenter study. Before pars plana vitrectomy and before, during, and after membrane peeling, 512 × 128 macular cube scans were performed using a Carl Zeiss Meditec Cirrus high-definition OCT system adapted to the optical pathway of a Zeiss OPMI VISU 200 surgical microscope and compared with retinal staining. The study included 51 patients with epiretinal membranes, with 8 of those having additional lamellar macular holes, 11 patients with vitreomacular traction, and 8 patients with full-thickness macular holes. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography allowed performing membrane peeling without using retinal dyes in 40% of cases (28 of 70 patients). No residual membranes were found in 94.3% of patients (66 of 70 patients) in intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography and subsequent (re)staining. In patients with vitreomacular traction, intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans facilitated decisions on the need for an intraocular tamponade after membrane peeling. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography was comparable with retinal dyes in confirming success after membrane peeling. However, the visualization of flat membranes was better after staining.

  14. Proton computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of protons or other heavy charged particles instead of x rays in computed tomography (CT) is explored. The results of an experimental implementation of proton CT are presented. High quality CT reconstructions are obtained at an average dose reduction factor compared with an EMI 5005 x-ray scanner of 10:1 for a 30-cm-diameter phantom and 3.5:1 for a 20-cm diameter. The spatial resolution is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering to about 3.7 mm FWHM. Further studies are planned in which proton and x-ray images of fresh human specimens will be compared. Design considerations indicate that a clinically useful proton CT scanner is eminently feasible

  15. The neutron computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, G.; Krata, S.

    1983-01-01

    The method of computer tomography (CT) was applied for neutrons instead of X-rays. The neutron radiography image of samples was scanned by microphotometer to get the transmission data. This process was so time-consuming that the number of incident angles to samples could not be increased. The transmission data was processed by FACOM computer and CT image was gained. In the experiment at the Japan Research Reactor No. 4 at Tokai-mura with 18 projection angles, the resolution of paraffin in the aluminum block was less than 0.8 mm. In the experiment at Van de Graaf accelerator of Nagoya University, this same resolution was 1.2 mm because of the angle distribution of neutron beam. This experiment is the preliminary one, the facility which utilizes neutron television and video-recorder will be necessary for the next stage. (Auth.)

  16. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    Although there are many common aspects to x-ray transmission and radionuclide emission (ECT) computerized tomography, there are added difficulties and a number of particular factors which form the basis of ECT. The relationship between the physical factors, system design, methodologic approach and assumptions of ECT is discussed. The instrumentation design and application strategies in ECT at this time are diverse and in a rapid stage of development. The approaches are divided into two major categories of Single Photon Counting (SPC) employing scanner and camera concepts with radionuclides of 99 /sup m/Tc, 201 Tl, 123 I etc., and Annihilation Coincidence Detection (ACD) of positron-emitting radionuclides. Six systems in the former and ten systems in the latter category, with examples of typical studies, illustrate the different approaches

  17. Tomography by positrons emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosconi, Sergio L.

    1999-01-01

    The tomography by positrons emission is a technology that allows to measure the concentration of positrons emission in a tri dimensional body through external measurements. Among the isotope emissions have carbon isotopes are ( 11 C), of the oxygen ( 15 O), of the nitrogen ( 13 N) that are three the element that constitute the base of the organic chemistry. Theses have on of the PET's most important advantages, since many biological interesting organic molecules can be tracer with these isotopes for the metabolism studies 'in vivo' through PET, without using organic tracers that modify the metabolism. The mentioned isotopes, also possess the characteristic of having short lifetime, that constitute on of PET's advantages from the dosimetric point of view. Among 11 C, 15 O, and 13 N, other isotopes that can be obtained of a generator as the 68 Ga and 82 Rb

  18. Positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, M.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Regional mycardial blood flow and substrate metabolism can be non-invasively evaluated and quantified with positron emission computed tomography (Positron-CT). Tracers of exogenous glucose utilization and fatty acid metabolism are available and have been extensively tested. Specific tracer kinetic models have been developed or are being tested so that glucose and fatty acid metabolism can be measured quantitatively by Positron-CT. Tracers of amino acid and oxygen metabolism are utilized in Positron-CT studies of the brain and development of such tracers for cardiac studies are in progress. Methods to quantify regional myocardial blood flow are also being developed. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of Positron-/CT to document myocardial infarction. Experimental and clinical studies have begun to identify metabolic markers of reversibly ischemic myocardium. The potential of Positron-CT to reliably detect potentially salvageable myocardium and, hence, to identify appropriate therapeutic interventions is one of the most exciting applications of the technique

  19. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector planes positioned side-by-side around a patient area to detect radiation. Each plane includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and at least two rows of scintillation crystals on each photomultiplier tube extend across to adjacent photomultiplier tubes for detecting radiation from the patient area. Each row of crystals on each photomultiplier tube is offset from the other rows of crystals, and the area of each crystal on each tube in each row is different than the area of the crystals on the tube in other rows for detecting which crystal is actuated and allowing the detector to detect more inter-plane slides. The crystals are offset by an amount equal to the length of the crystal divided by the number of rows. The rows of crystals on opposite sides of the patient may be rotated 90 degrees relative to each other

  20. Gantry for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, A.L.; O'Dell, W.R.; Brook, R.F.; Hein, P.W.; Brandt, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A novel design of gantry for use in computed tomography is described in detail. In the new gantry, curved tracks are mounted to the laterally spaced apart sides of the frame which rotates and carries the detector and X-ray source. This permits the frame to be tilted either side of vertical enabling angular slices of body layers to be viewed and allows simplification of the algorithm which the computer uses for image reconstruction. A failsafe, solenoid brake is described which can lock the shaft against rotation. The gantry also contains a hoist mechanism which aids maintenance of the heavy X-ray tube and/or detector arrays. Explicit engineering details are presented. (U.K.)

  1. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each ring contains a plurality of scintillation detectors which are positioned around an inner circumference with a septum ring extending inwardly from the inner circumference along each outer edge of each ring. An additional septum ring is positioned in the middle of each ring of detectors and parallel to the other septa rings, whereby the inward extent of all the septa rings may be reduced by one-half and the number of detectors required in each ring is reduced. The additional septa reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  2. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each detector ring or offset ring includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and a plurality of scintillation crystals are positioned relative to the photomultiplier tubes whereby each tube is responsive to more than one crystal. Each alternate crystal in the ring is offset by one-half or less of the thickness of the crystal such that the staggered crystals are seen by more than one photomultiplier tube. This sharing of crystals and photomultiplier tubes allows identification of the staggered crystal and the use of smaller detectors shared by larger photomultiplier tubes thereby requiring less photomultiplier tubes, creating more scanning slices, providing better data sampling, and reducing the cost of the camera. The offset detector ring geometry reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  3. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fercher, A.F.; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that is used to peer inside a body noninvasively. Tissue structure defined by tissue absorption and scattering coefficients, and the speed of blood flow, are derived from the characteristics of light remitted by the body. Singly backscattered light...... detected by partial coherence interferometry (PCI) is used to synthesize the tomographic image coded in false colors. A prerequisite of this technique is a low time-coherent but high space-coherent light source, for example, a superluminescent diode or a supercontinuum source. Alternatively, the imaging...... technique can be realized by using ultrafast wavelength scanning light sources. For tissue imaging, the light source wavelengths are restricted to the red and near-infrared (NIR) region from about 600 to 1300 nm, the so-called therapeutic window, where absorption (μa ≈ 0.01 mm−1) is small enough. Transverse...

  4. Projection radiography and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Benton, E.V.; Holley, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Our program on heavy-ion radiography began soon after heavy ions were accelerated to high energies. Heavy ions are capable of very high electron density discrimination combined with good radial image resolution and low dose. Since heavy-ion beams produce many secondries, plastic nuclear detectors have an advantage for recording heavy-ion images. Projection imaging is now a practical technique that can resolve density differences between normal tissue and tumor tissue in some cases in which X rays could not make a distinction. Initial attempts at heavy-ion tomography also indicate potential for high resolution in this field. The physical basis for heavy-ion radiography and tomographic reconstruction studies are discussed in detail

  5. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Ladelund, Steen; Haupt, Thomas Huneck

    2016-01-01

    for age, sex, Charlson score and C reactive protein. Area under the curve for receiver operating characteristics curve analysis of suPAR for 30-day mortality was 0.84 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.86). Furthermore, in the entire cohort, women had slightly higher suPAR compared with men, and suPAR was associated...

  6. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; van Zon, Jeroen; Howard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    , plasmids consistently migrate behind disassembling ParA cytoskeletal structures, suggesting that ParA filaments pull plasmids by depolymerization. The perpetual cycles of ParA assembly and disassembly result in continuous relocation of plasmids, which, on time averaging, results in equidistribution...

  7. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwibasira Rudinga, Gamariel; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Kong, Yi

    2018-02-14

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  8. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4: A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamariel Rwibasira Rudinga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs, including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  9. Par3L enhances colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taiyuan; Liu, Dongning; Lei, Xiong; Jiang, Qunguang

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning defective 3-like protein (Par3L) is a recently identified cell polarity protein that plays an important role in mammary stem cell maintenance. Previously, we showed that high expression of Par3L is associated with poor survival in malignant colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To this end, we established a Par3L knockout colorectal cancer cell line using the CRISPR/Cas system. Interestingly, reduced proliferation, enhanced cell death and caspase-3 activation were observed in Par3L knockout (KO) cells as compared with wildtype (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, we showed that Par3L interacts with a tumor suppressor protein liver kinase B1 (Lkb1). Moreover, Par3L depletion resulted in abnormal activation of Lkb1/AMPK signaling cascade. Knockdown of Lkb1 in these cells could significantly reduce AMPK activity and partially rescue cell death caused by Par3L knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that Par3L KO cells were more sensitive to chemotherapies and irradiation. Together, these results suggest that Par3L is essential for colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for CRC. - Highlights: • Par3L knockout using the CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. • Par3L interacts with Lkb1 and regulates the activity of AMPK signaling cascade. • Par3L knockout cells are more sensitive to treatment of different chemotherapy drugs and irradiation.

  10. Brésil : La contamination par le mercure en Amazonie | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... En tentant de déceler la source de la contamination de l'Amazone par le ... par Jean-Rémy Davy Guimaraes de l'Université fédérale de Rio de Janeiro ... ces mattes est circonscrite par la conservation et la restauration en rive.

  11. Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons

  12. Ocean acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornuelle, Bruce D; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was proposed in 1979 by Walter Munk and Carl Wunsch as an analogue to x-ray computed axial tomography for the oceans. The oceans are opaque to most electromagnetic radiation, but there is a strong acoustic waveguide, and sound can propagate for 10 Mm and more with distinct multiply-refracted ray paths. Transmitting broadband pulses in the ocean leads to a set of impulsive arrivals at the receiver which characterize the impulse response of the sound channel. The peaks observed at the receiver are assumed to represent the arrival of energy traveling along geometric ray paths. These paths can be distinguished by arrival time, and by arrival angle when a vertical array of receivers is available. Changes in ray arrival time can be used to infer changes in ocean structure. Ray travel time measurements have been a mainstay of long-range acoustic measurements, but the strong sensitivity of ray paths to range-dependent sound speed perturbations makes the ray sampling functions uncertain in real cases. In the ray approximation travel times are sensitive to medium changes only along the corresponding eigenrays. Ray theory is an infinite-frequency approximation, and its eikonal equation has nonlinearities not found in the acoustic wave equation. We build on recent seismology results (kernels for body wave arrivals in the earth) to characterize the kernel for converting sound speed change in the ocean to travel time changes using more complete propagation physics. Wave-theoretic finite frequency kernels may show less sensitivity to small-scale sound speed structure.

  13. La syphilis congenitale revelee par une fracture spontanee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Lakhdar Idrissi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alors qu�elle est actuellement oubliee dans les pays developpes, la syphilis congenitale se voit encore chez nous faute du depistage antenatal. Ses formes cliniques sont polymorphes et orientent a tord vers d�autres pathologies surtout en periode neonatale. Le diagnostic n�est donc pas toujours facile. La revelation d�une syphilis congenitale par une fracture spontanee est exceptionnellement decrite. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d�un nourrisson de 2 mois ramene en consultation pour limitation douloureuse des mouvements du bras droit. Le diagnostic est evoque sur les donnees radiologiques et confirme par la serologie syphilitique. Le traitement a repose essentiellement sur l�administration de la penicilline G avec une bonne evolution clinique.

  14. Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Chihyuan; Grelick, Arthur; Lumpkin, Alex H; Sereno, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns (rms) single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental rf system and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system are employed for initial beam capture and bunch length compression. Satellite bunches with very low charge form due to rf phase drifts or beam loading change. These satellites, when injected into the booster and then into the storage ring (SR), cause bunch impurity at three buckets from the target bucket. Storage ring and booster bunch cleaning was tried but proved to be difficult due to the top-up mode of operation in the storage ring and tune drift in the booster synchrotron. Recently we implemented a PAR bunch-cleaning system with tune-modulated harmonic rf knockout. Preliminary tests gave a measured SR bunch purity of better than 10

  15. Avis 6 sur la formation à et par la recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement

    2015-01-01

    La formation à et par la recherche s’appuie sur la démarche scientifique, les savoirs, les connaissances à transmettre, tout autant que l’acquisition de compétences en gestion de projet, de capacités au travail en équipe, d’une ouverture d’esprit qui favorisera la créativité. Elle doit permettre de prendre conscience de la responsabilité endossée par la communauté scientifique vis-à-vis de la société et de l’environnement, mais aussi préparer l’avenir professionnel de celle ou de celui qu...

  16. Evaluation of the Stability After Orthodontic Treatment Using PAR Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra Ramanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to establish the results using the scores obtained from the methodology that was applied for assessing the stability after 2 years post orthodontic treatment and stability in a sample of 69 individuals. After applying PAR index to the collected group of patients, a series of scores were obtained, which were then needed to be evaluated further to establish the results. The scores were evaluated using the nomogram. A comparison was done between the post treatment and the 2 years post treatment PAR weighting scores to determine if the results were stable after orthodontic treatment. The majority of the orthodontic patients were treated to a good standard and that the results appeared to be stable.

  17. Magnetic resonance tomography in syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, D.; Treisch, J.; Hertel, G.; Schoerner, W.; Fiegler, W.; Staedtisches Rudolf-Virchow Krankenhaus, Berlin

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of syringomyelia were examined by nuclear tomography (0.35 T magnet) in the spin-echo mode. In all thirteen patients, the T1 images (Se 400/35) showed a longitudinal cavity with a signal intensity of CSF. The shape and extent of the syrinx could be adequately demonstrated in 12 of the 13 examinations. Downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils was seen in eight cases. The examination took between half and one hour. Advantages of magnetic resonance tomography (nuclear tomography) include the absence of artifacts, images in the line of the lesion and its non-invasiveness. (orig.) [de

  18. Computed tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmannskog, F.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Aakhus, T.; Bergan, A.; Fausa, O.; Elgjo, K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings by computed tomography in 203 cases of suspected pancreatic tumours, pancreatitis or peripancreatic abnormalities were evaluated. The appearances of the normal and the diseased pancreas are described. Computed tomography is highly accurate in detecting pancreatic masses, but can not differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory disease. The only reliable signs of pancreatic carcinoma are a focal mass in the pancreas, together with liver metastasis. When a pancreatic mass is revealed by computed tomography, CT-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is recommended. Thus the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures and explorative laparotomy may be avoided in some patients. (Auth.)

  19. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in Disseminated Cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Tripathi, Madhavi; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.

  20. La parálisis cerebral en el contexto escolar /

    OpenAIRE

    González Vara, Azucena

    2012-01-01

    Se analiza el concepto de parálisis cerebral, los diferentes tipos y sus características. También las adaptaciones que se deben realizar a nivel de centro, de aula, y a nivel individual para estos alumnos, conocer los diferentes sistemas alternativos y aumentativos de comunicación y aplicar las ayudas técnicas que precisa este alumnado

  1. Tuberculose lymphonodale cervicale chez les enfants vaccines par ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La tuberculose ganglionnaire cervicale est une localisation extrapulmonaire relativement fréquente chez l'enfant. Elle pose essentiellement des difficultés de prévention. L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier les particularités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques chez des enfants vaccinés par le BCG. Matériel et méthodes: Nôtre ...

  2. Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L'oxyteTracycline Longe Action Et Transmission Experimentale de la Maladie A Partir de Bovins Traites. ... Tous les 14 animaux ont séroconverti et l'analyse post-mortem a montré la présence des lésions chroniques dont des séquestres pulmonaires chez 4 d'entre ...

  3. Adoption d'innovations agricoles par le truchement de services ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'agriculture est le fer de lance de nombreuses économies en développement, mais la capacité des petits agriculteurs privés de ressources à adopter des innovations agricoles est freinée par le manque d'accès à des services financiers adéquats. Des experts internationaux estiment qu'il existe un manque à gagner ...

  4. Candido: Uma Leitura Paródica de Candide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gloria Cusumano Mazzi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo estuda a leitura paródica que Leonardo Sciascia (1921-1989 faz de Voltaire (1694-1778 mediante o cotejo das obras: o hipertexto Candido ovvero Un sogno fatto in Sicilia (1977 e o hipotexto Candide ou l’optimisme (1759. Apresenta ainda outra possibilidade de leitura, ou seja, Candido como metáfora da própria intertextualidade.

  5. Solution volumes finis polynomiale par morceaux pour les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous présentons dans ce papier un concept de solution volumes finis continue pour des problèmes de diffusion-convection avec des données régulières. Nous comparons dans certains cas particuliers la solution proposée avec la solution volumes finis classiques (qui est une fonction constante par morceaux) et la ...

  6. Preliminary Analysis For Wolsong Par Effects Using ISACC Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yong Mann; Kim, Dong Ha

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, hydrogen control effects using PARs only are analyzed for severe SBO station blackout (SBO) sequences beyond the design basis accidents in WS-1 which are of CANDU6 type reactor. As a computational tool, the latest version of ISAAC4.3 (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis Code for CANDU), which is a fully integrated and lumped severe accident computer code, is used to simulate hydrogen generation and transport inside the reactor building (R/B) before its failure. For the performance of hydrogen removal, the depletion rate equation of K-PAR developed in Korea is applied. In a CANDU reactor, three areas are identified as sources of hydrogen under severe accidents: fuel-coolant interactions in intact channels, suspended fuel or debris interactions in-calandria tank and debris interactions in-calandria vault. The first two origins provide source for the late ('late' terminology is used because it takes more than one day before calandria tank failure) potential hydrogen combustion before calandria tank failure and all the three origins would provide source for the very late potential hydrogen combustion occurring at or after calaria tank failure. If the hydrogen mitigation system fails, the AICC (adiabatic isochoric complete combustion) burning of highly flammable hydrogen may cause Wolsong R/B failure. So hydrogen induced failure possibility is evaluated, using preliminary ISAAC calculations, under several SBO conditions with and without PAR for both late and very late accident periods

  7. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  8. A Bipolar Spindle of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. Using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture...... of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles....

  9. Intact and cleaved uPAR forms: diagnostic and prognostic value in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, M.G.; Lund, I.K.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.

    2008-01-01

    identified in tissue and body fluids. It is well-established, that the total amount of all uPAR forms is a strong prognostic marker in different types of cancer. Using immunoassays, measuring the individual uPAR forms, has revealed that the cleaved uPAR forms are even stronger prognostic markers and have...... diagnostic utility. This review will focus on the mechanism of uPAR cleavage and the functional consequences, as well as the clinical applicability of cleaved uPAR forms Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  10. Application of phantom type compensating filter in tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okayama, A.; Mukae, H.; Itoh, M. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-01-01

    We reported a new device of phantom type compensating filters for pulmonary hilar tomography with polytome U at the 35th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. This report is to show application of this compensated method to the head, the hip joint and the lower thoracic spine in tomography. Using the filters optimal density can be obtained in all area of aim part on a X-ray film, and thus makes to get more information. 1) In the head clear shadow of pars nasalis, sinus paranasales and sella turcica is obtained. Destruction or defect of bone contour is easily detected. It is also useful to differentiate the disorders and to determine the expansivity of the lesion. 2) In the hip joint this method has advantages over the ordinary method. There is a few misdiagnosis in trochanteric lesions such as tuberculosis or bone tumor, because of high density at the trochanteric region in ordinary method, but in this method optimal density can be obtained, and misdiagnosis is improved. Soft tissue is sharply visualized, indicating usefulness in diagnosis of existence of hematoma or abscess. 3) In the lower thoracic vertebra it is useful to diagnosis of the thoracic spondylosis, tuberculous spondylitis and compression fracture of the vertebral body, since optimal density of the spine can be obtained. It is also quite useful to detect small ossifications in the vertebral foraman in ossification of the flavum ligament.

  11. Application of phantom type compensating filter in tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okayama, Akio; Mukae, Hideki; Itoh, Mitsuo

    1981-01-01

    We reported a new device of phantom type compensating filters for pulmonary hilar tomography with polytome U at the 35th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. This report is to show application of this compensated method to the head, the hip joint and the lower thoracic spine in tomography. Using the filters optimal density can be obtained in all area of aim part on a X-ray film, and thus makes to get more information. 1) In the head clear shadow of pars nasalis, sinus paranasales and sella turcica is obtained. Destruction or defect of bone contour is easily detected. It is also useful to differentiate the disorders and to determine the expansivity of the lesion. 2) In the hip joint this method has advantages over the ordinary method. There is a few misdiagnosis in trochanteric lesions such as tuberculosis or bone tumor, because of high density at the trochanteric region in ordinary method, but in this method optimal density can be obtained, and misdiagnosis is improved. Soft tissue is sharply visualized, indicating usefulness in diagnosis of existence of hematoma or abscess. 3) In the lower thoracic vertebra it is useful to diagnosis of the thoracic spondylosis, tuberculous spondylitis and compression fracture of the vertebral body, since optimal density of the spine can be obtained. It is also quite useful to detect small ossifications in the vertebral foraman in ossification of the flavum ligament. (author)

  12. Parkinson disease and positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.

    1984-10-01

    Physiopathologic investigations of Parkinson disease and parkinsonian syndrome using positron tomography are briefly reviewed: study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism; effects of L-DOPA; study of dopaminergic receptors and of 18 F-Fluoro-L-DOPA incorporation [fr

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... is used to evaluate: complications from infections such as pneumonia a tumor that arises in the lung ...

  14. Computed tomography of drill cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.

    1985-08-01

    A preliminary computed tomography evaluation of drill cores of granite and sandstone has generated geologically significant data. Density variations as small as 4 percent and fractures as narrow as 0.1 mm were easily detected

  15. Computed tomography of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hajime; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Chikashi; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. CT was performed on 30 cases of solitary pulmonary nodules consisting of 17 primary lung cancers, 3 metastatic tumors and 10 benign nodules. The CT number was calculated for each lesion. Three benign nodules showed CT numbers well above the range of malignant nodules, and only in one of them was calcification visible on conventional tomography. In 6 benign nodules, the CT numbers overlapped those of malignant lesion and could not be differentiated. Thus the measurement of CT number can be useful to confirm the benign nature of certain nodules when calcification is unclear or not visible on conventional tomography. As for the morphological observation of the nodule, CT was not superior to conventional tomography and its value seems to be limited. (author)

  16. Parsimonious Refraction Interferometry and Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present parsimonious refraction interferometry and tomography where a densely populated refraction data set can be obtained from two reciprocal and several infill shot gathers. The assumptions are that the refraction arrivals are head waves

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  18. Dynamic Filament Formation by a Divergent Bacterial Actin-Like ParM Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Brzoska

    Full Text Available Actin-like proteins (Alps are a diverse family of proteins whose genes are abundant in the chromosomes and mobile genetic elements of many bacteria. The low-copy-number staphylococcal multiresistance plasmid pSK41 encodes ParM, an Alp involved in efficient plasmid partitioning. pSK41 ParM has previously been shown to form filaments in vitro that are structurally dissimilar to those formed by other bacterial Alps. The mechanistic implications of these differences are not known. In order to gain insights into the properties and behavior of the pSK41 ParM Alp in vivo, we reconstituted the parMRC system in the ectopic rod-shaped host, E. coli, which is larger and more genetically amenable than the native host, Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence microscopy showed a functional fusion protein, ParM-YFP, formed straight filaments in vivo when expressed in isolation. Strikingly, however, in the presence of ParR and parC, ParM-YFP adopted a dramatically different structure, instead forming axial curved filaments. Time-lapse imaging and selective photobleaching experiments revealed that, in the presence of all components of the parMRC system, ParM-YFP filaments were dynamic in nature. Finally, molecular dissection of the parMRC operon revealed that all components of the system are essential for the generation of dynamic filaments.

  19. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1 regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bäumer

    Full Text Available External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  20. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Köhler, Gabriele; Lettermann, Stephanie; Evers, Georg; Hascher, Antje; Bäumer, Sebastian; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Tickenbrock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  1. Computerized tomography in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellerich, I.; Mueller, D.; Koch, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Besides clinical symptoms, progress and electromyography computerized tomography improves the diagnostics of myotonic dystrophy. Even small changes in muscular structure are detectable and especially the musculus soleus exhibits early and pronounced alterations. By means of density distribution pattern an improved characterization of the disease is possible. Additional information is obtained by cerebral computerized tomography. Atrophy of brain tissue is to be expected in all patients with myotonic dystrophy. (author)

  2. Attenuation Correction Strategies for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and 4-Dimensional Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tinsu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses attenuation correction strategies in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and 4 dimensional PET/CT imaging. Average CT scan derived from averaging the high temporal resolution CT images is effective in improving the registration of the CT and the PET images and quantification of the PET data. It underscores list mode data acquisition in 4 dimensional PET and introduces 4 dimensional CT popular in thoracic treatment planning to 4 dimensional PET/CT. ...

  3. Neuroanatomy of cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Weinrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the fundamental structures visualized by means of computed tomography, the authors present the functional systems which are relevant in neurology by means of axial cross-sections. All drawings were prepared from original preparations by means of a new technique which is similar to the grey values of X-ray CT and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. A detailed description is given of the topics of neurofunctional lesions

  4. Dosimetry of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105, a PET tracer for uPAR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Morten; El Ali, Henrik H.; Binderup, Tina; Pfeifer, Andreas; Madsen, Jacob; Rasmussen, Palle; Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    64 Cu-DOTA-AE105 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer specific to the human urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). In preparation of using this tracer in humans, as a new promising method to distinguish between indolent and aggressive cancers, we have performed PET studies in mice to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution and estimate human dosimetry of 64 Cu-DOTA-AE105. Methods: Five mice received iv tail injection of 64 Cu-DOTA-AE105 and were PET/CT scanned 1, 4.5 and 22 h post injection. Volume-of-interest (VOI) were manually drawn on the following organs: heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, muscle, bone and bladder. The activity concentrations in the mentioned organs [%ID/g] were used for the dosimetry calculation. The %ID/g of each organ at 1, 4.5 and 22 h was scaled to human value based on a difference between organ and body weights. The scaled values were then exported to OLINDA software for computation of the human absorbed doses. The residence times as well as effective dose equivalent for male and female could be obtained for each organ. To validate this approach, of human projection using mouse data, five mice received iv tail injection of another 64 Cu-DOTA peptide-based tracer, 64 Cu-DOTA-TATE, and underwent same procedure as just described. The human dosimetry estimates were then compared with observed human dosimetry estimate recently found in a first-in-man study using 64 Cu-DOTA-TATE. Results: Human estimates of 64 Cu-DOTA-AE105 revealed the heart wall to receive the highest dose (0.0918 mSv/MBq) followed by the liver (0.0815 mSv/MBq), All other organs/tissue were estimated to receive doses in the range of 0.02–0.04 mSv/MBq. The mean effective whole-body dose of 64 Cu-DOTA-AE105 was estimated to be 0.0317 mSv/MBq. Relatively good correlation between human predicted and observed dosimetry estimates for 64 Cu-DOTA-TATE was found. Importantly, the effective whole body dose was predicted with very high

  5. Dosimetry of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105, a PET tracer for uPAR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Morten; El Ali, Henrik H; Binderup, Tina; Pfeifer, Andreas; Madsen, Jacob; Rasmussen, Palle; Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer specific to the human urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). In preparation of using this tracer in humans, as a new promising method to distinguish between indolent and aggressive cancers, we have performed PET studies in mice to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution and estimate human dosimetry of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105. Five mice received iv tail injection of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 and were PET/CT scanned 1, 4.5 and 22 h post injection. Volume-of-interest (VOI) were manually drawn on the following organs: heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, muscle, bone and bladder. The activity concentrations in the mentioned organs [%ID/g] were used for the dosimetry calculation. The %ID/g of each organ at 1, 4.5 and 22 h was scaled to human value based on a difference between organ and body weights. The scaled values were then exported to OLINDA software for computation of the human absorbed doses. The residence times as well as effective dose equivalent for male and female could be obtained for each organ. To validate this approach, of human projection using mouse data, five mice received iv tail injection of another (64)Cu-DOTA peptide-based tracer, (64)Cu-DOTA-TATE, and underwent same procedure as just described. The human dosimetry estimates were then compared with observed human dosimetry estimate recently found in a first-in-man study using (64)Cu-DOTA-TATE. Human estimates of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 revealed the heart wall to receive the highest dose (0.0918 mSv/MBq) followed by the liver (0.0815 mSv/MBq), All other organs/tissue were estimated to receive doses in the range of 0.02-0.04 mSv/MBq. The mean effective whole-body dose of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 was estimated to be 0.0317 mSv/MBq. Relatively good correlation between human predicted and observed dosimetry estimates for (64)Cu-DOTA-TATE was found. Importantly, the effective whole body dose was predicted with very high precision

  6. Computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    In fan-beam computed tomography apparatus, timing reference pulses, normally occurring at intervals t, for data transfer and reset of approx. 500 integrators in the signal path from the detector array, are generated from the scan displacement, e.g. using a graticule and optical sensor to relate the measurement paths geometrically to the body section. Sometimes, a slow scan rate is required to provide a time-averaged density image, e.g. for planning irradiation therapy, and then the sensed impulses will occur at extended intervals and can cause integrator overload. An improvement is described which provides a pulse generator which responds to a reduced scan rate by generating a succession of further transfer and reset pulses at intervals approximately equal to t starting a time t after each timing reference pulse. Then, using an adding device and RAM, all the transferred signals integrated in the interval t' between two successive slow scan reference pulses are accumulated in order to form a corresponding measurement signal. (author)

  7. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  8. Positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindback, Stig [GEMS PET Systems AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-07-15

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an advanced nuclear medicine technique used for research at major centres. Unique diagnostic information is obtained from tomographic measurements of the biochemistry and physiology of tissues and organs. In theory, diseases are related to biochemical changes and these can be observed with PET long before any anatomical changes are detectable. In PET the radioactive component is a positron-emitting isotope or 'tracer'. The positrons annihilate with electrons in the body to produce two gamma rays 180° apart; coincidence detection of these gammas provides a very efficient method of determining the spatial distribution of the radioisotope tracer. Because physiological measurements are usually required in a single imaging session, very short-lived isotopes are used to label the tracer molecules; isotope production and labelling is usually carried out in situ. The most commonly used radionuclides are carbon- 11 (half-life 20 minutes), nitrogen-13 (10 minutes), oxygen-15 (2 minutes), and fluorine-18 (110 minutes). A PET system has three major components: - a particle accelerator with targets for production of the positron-emitting isotopes; - chemistry modules for synthesis and labelling of the desired tracers; - and a PET camera for in-vivo measurements of the distribution of the tracer in the body.

  9. Positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindback, Stig

    1995-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an advanced nuclear medicine technique used for research at major centres. Unique diagnostic information is obtained from tomographic measurements of the biochemistry and physiology of tissues and organs. In theory, diseases are related to biochemical changes and these can be observed with PET long before any anatomical changes are detectable. In PET the radioactive component is a positron-emitting isotope or 'tracer'. The positrons annihilate with electrons in the body to produce two gamma rays 180° apart; coincidence detection of these gammas provides a very efficient method of determining the spatial distribution of the radioisotope tracer. Because physiological measurements are usually required in a single imaging session, very short-lived isotopes are used to label the tracer molecules; isotope production and labelling is usually carried out in situ. The most commonly used radionuclides are carbon- 11 (half-life 20 minutes), nitrogen-13 (10 minutes), oxygen-15 (2 minutes), and fluorine-18 (110 minutes). A PET system has three major components: - a particle accelerator with targets for production of the positron-emitting isotopes; - chemistry modules for synthesis and labelling of the desired tracers; - and a PET camera for in-vivo measurements of the distribution of the tracer in the body

  10. Computed tomography intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, S.; Murray, W.; Wilson, P.

    1997-01-01

    Indications for direct visualization of the bile ducts include bile duct dilatation demonstrated by ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scanning, where the cause of the bile duct dilatation is uncertain or where the anatomy of bile duct obstruction needs further clarification. Another indication is right upper quadrant pain, particularly in a post-cholecystectomy patient, where choledocholithiasis is suspected. A possible new indication is pre-operative evaluation prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The bile ducts are usually studied by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), or, less commonly, trans-hepatic cholangiography. The old technique of intravenous cholangiography has fallen into disrepute because of inconsistent bile-duct opacification. The advent of spiral CT scanning has renewed interest in intravenous cholangiography. The CT technique is very sensitive to the contrast agent in the bile ducts, and angiographic and three-dimensional reconstructions of the biliary tree can readily be obtained using the CT intravenous cholangiogram technique (CT IVC). Seven patients have been studied using this CT IVC technique, between February 1995 and June 1996, and are the subject of the present report. Eight further studies have since been performed. The results suggest that CT IVC could replace ERCP as the primary means of direct cholangiography, where pancreatic duct visualization is not required. (authors)

  11. Multiphoton tomography of astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Pietruszka, Anna; Bückle, Rainer; Gerlach, Nicole; Heinrich, Ulrike

    2015-03-01

    Weightlessness may impair the astronaut's health conditions. Skin impairments belong to the most frequent health problems during space missions. Within the Skin B project, skin physiological changes during long duration space flights are currently investigated on three European astronauts that work for nearly half a year at the ISS. Measurements on the hydration, the transepidermal water loss, the surface structure, elasticity and the tissue density by ultrasound are conducted. Furthermore, high-resolution in vivo histology is performed by multiphoton tomography with 300 nm spatial and 200 ps temporal resolution. The mobile certified medical tomograph with a flexible 360° scan head attached to a mechano-optical arm is employed to measure two-photon autofluorescence and SHG in the volar forearm of the astronauts. Modification of the tissue architecture and of the fluorescent biomolecules NAD(P)H, keratin, melanin and elastin are detected as well as of SHG-active collagen. Thinning of the vital epidermis, a decrease of the autofluoresence intensity, an increase in the long fluorescence lifetime, and a reduced skin ageing index SAAID based on an increased collagen level in the upper dermis have been found. Current studies focus on recovery effects.

  12. Electrical impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Beatriz; Hermosa, Cecilia; Abella, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Continuous assessment of respiratory status is one of the cornerstones of modern intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring systems. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT), although with some constraints, may play the lead as a new diagnostic and guiding tool for an adequate optimization of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. EIT may assist in defining mechanical ventilation settings, assess distribution of tidal volume and of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and contribute to titrate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)/tidal volume combinations. It may also quantify gains (recruitment) and losses (overdistention or derecruitment), granting a more realistic evaluation of different ventilator modes or recruitment maneuvers, and helping in the identification of responders and non-responders to such maneuvers. Moreover, EIT also contributes to the management of life-threatening lung diseases such as pneumothorax, and aids in guiding fluid management in the critical care setting. Lastly, assessment of cardiac function and lung perfusion through electrical impedance is on the way. PMID:29430443

  13. The double par locus of virulence factor pB171: DNA segregation is correlated with oscillation of ParA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G; Gerdes, K; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2001-01-01

    Prokaryotic plasmids and chromosomes encode partitioning (par) loci that segregate DNA to daughter cells before cell division. Recent database analyses showed that almost all known par loci encode an ATPase and a DNA-binding protein, and one or more cis-acting regions where the proteins act. All...

  14. ParABS Systems of the Four Replicons of Burkholderia cenocepacia: New Chromosome Centromeres Confer Partition Specificity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubarry, Nelly; Pasta, Franck; Lane, David

    2006-01-01

    Most bacterial chromosomes carry an analogue of the parABS systems that govern plasmid partition, but their role in chromosome partition is ambiguous. parABS systems might be particularly important for orderly segregation of multipartite genomes, where their role may thus be easier to evaluate. We have characterized parABS systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia, whose genome comprises three chromosomes and one low-copy-number plasmid. A single parAB locus and a set of ParB-binding (parS) centromere sites are located near the origin of each replicon. ParA and ParB of the longest chromosome are phylogenetically similar to analogues in other multichromosome and monochromosome bacteria but are distinct from those of smaller chromosomes. The latter form subgroups that correspond to the taxa of their hosts, indicating evolution from plasmids. The parS sites on the smaller chromosomes and the plasmid are similar to the “universal” parS of the main chromosome but with a sequence specific to their replicon. In an Escherichia coli plasmid stabilization test, each parAB exhibits partition activity only with the parS of its own replicon. Hence, parABS function is based on the independent partition of individual chromosomes rather than on a single communal system or network of interacting systems. Stabilization by the smaller chromosome and plasmid systems was enhanced by mutation of parS sites and a promoter internal to their parAB operons, suggesting autoregulatory mechanisms. The small chromosome ParBs were found to silence transcription, a property relevant to autoregulation. PMID:16452432

  15. Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Alberto Testoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an optical imaging modality that performs high-resolution, cross-sectional, subsurface tomographic imaging of the microstructure of tissues. The physical principle of OCT is similar to that of B-mode ultrasound imaging, except that it uses infrared light waves rather than acoustic waves. The in vivo resolution is 10–25 times better (about 10 µm than with high-frequency ultrasound imaging, but the depth of penetration is limited to 1–3 mm, depending on tissue structure, depth of focus of the probe used, and pressure applied to the tissue surface. In the last decade, OCT technology has evolved from an experimental laboratory tool to a new diagnostic imaging modality with a wide spectrum of clinical applications in medical practice, including the gastrointestinal tract and pancreatico-biliary ductal system. OCT imaging from the gastrointestinal tract can be done in humans by using narrow-diameter, catheter-based probes that can be inserted through the accessory channel of either a conventional front-view endoscope, for investigating the epithelial structure of the gastrointestinal tract, or a side-view endoscope, inside a standard transparent ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter, for investigating the pancreatico-biliary ductal system. The esophagus and esophagogastric junction have been the most widely investigated organs so far; more recently, duodenum, colon, and the pancreatico-biliary ductal system have also been extensively investigated. OCT imaging of the gastrointestinal wall structure is characterized by a multiple-layer architecture that permits an accurate evaluation of the mucosa, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, and part of the submucosa. The technique may therefore be used to identify preneoplastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's epithelium and dysplasia, and evaluate the depth of penetration of early-stage neoplastic lesions. OCT imaging

  16. Serum suPAR in patients with FSGS: trash or treasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Rutger J H; Deegens, Jeroen K J; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2013-07-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has important functions in cell migration. uPAR can be shed from the cell membrane resulting in soluble uPAR (suPAR). Further cleavage gives rise to shorter fragments with largely unknown functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that both overexpression of uPAR on podocytes and the administration of suPAR cause proteinuria in mice. The common pathogenic mechanism involves the activation of podocyte β3-integrin. Increased activation of β3-integrin is also observed in patients with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). These observations form the basis for the hypothesis that suPAR may be the circulating factor causing FSGS. A recent study fosters this idea by demonstrating increased suPAR levels in the serum of patients with FSGS and reporting an association with recurrence after transplantation and response to plasmapheresis. However, this study was heavily biased, and subsequent studies have given conflicting results. Although the experimental work is very suggestive, at present there is no proof that any known human suPAR fragment causes FSGS in humans. We therefore suggest that the measurement of suPAR using currently available assays has absolutely no value at the present time in decision-making in routine clinical practice.

  17. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique FUKUSHIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2 suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP. The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19 at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19 and severe chronic periodontitis (SP (n = 19 patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR. PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p <0.05 PAR-2 expression in patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  18. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.

  19. PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response during viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Silvio; Owens, A. Phillip; Baunacke, Martin; Williams, Julie C.; Lee, Rebecca D.; Weithäuser, Alice; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Malz, Ronny; Luyendyk, James P.; Esserman, Denise A.; Trejo, JoAnn; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Blaxall, Burns C.; Pawlinski, Rafal; Beck, Melinda A.; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3–induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1–/– mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-β and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1+/+ mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-β and CXCL10 expression. Par1–/– mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1+/+ mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-β expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection. PMID:23391721

  20. Par-4-mediated recruitment of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boosen, Meike; Vetterkind, Susanne; Koplin, Ansgar; Illenberger, Susanne; Preuss, Ute

    2005-01-01

    Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli, but the exact mechanisms are still poorly understood. Using Par-4 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Amida as a novel interaction partner, a ubiquitously expressed protein which has been suggested to be involved in apoptotic processes. Complex formation of Par-4 and Amida occurs in vitro and in vivo and is mediated via the C-termini of both proteins, involving the leucine zipper of Par-4. Amida resides mainly in the nucleus but displays nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in heterokaryons. Upon coexpression with Par-4 in REF52.2 cells, Amida translocates to the cytoplasm and is recruited to actin filaments by Par-4, resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. The synergistic effect of Amida/Par-4 complexes on the induction of apoptosis is abrogated when either Amida/Par-4 complex formation or association of these complexes with the actin cytoskeleton is impaired, indicating that the Par-4-mediated relocation of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for the pro-apoptotic function of Par-4/Amida complexes in REF52.2 cells. The latter results in enhanced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC) as has previously been shown for Par-4-mediated recruitment of DAP-like kinase (Dlk), suggesting that the recruitment of nuclear proteins involved in the regulation of apoptotic processes to the actin filament system by Par-4 represents a potent mechanism how Par-4 can trigger apoptosis

  1. Bacterial mitosis: Partitioning protein ParA oscillates in spiral-shaped structures and positions plasmids at mid-cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G.; Gerdes, Kenn

    2004-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes oscillating ATPase ParA, DNA binding protein ParB and two cis-acting DNA regions to which ParB binds (parC1 and parC2). Three independent techniques were used to investigate the subcellular localization of plasmids carrying par2. In cells......A-GFP oscillated in spiral-shaped structures. Amino acid substitutions in ParA simultaneously abolished ParA spiral formation, oscillation and either plasmid localization or plasmid separation at mid-cell. Therefore, our results suggest that ParA spirals position plasmids at the middle of the bacterial nucleoid...

  2. Envenimation mortelle par morsure de serpent chez une femme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas de morsure de serpent au niveau de la face chez une femme enceinte, dont l'évolution a été marquée par l'installation d'un oedème cervico-facial nécessitant une trachéotomie en urgence, et une mort foetale in utero avec troubles de l'hémostase responsable du décès maternel dans un ...

  3. Analysis of clinical features and visual outcomes of pars planitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Nilufer; Sen, Emine; Elgin, Ufuk; Atilgan, Cemile Ucgul; Dursun, Erdem; Yilmazbas, Pelin

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment and outcomes of patients with pars planitis in a tertiary referral center in Turkey. Medical records of patients with pars planitis were retrospectively reviewed. The data including demographic and ocular features and treatment outcomes were recorded. The distribution of clinical findings and complications were evaluated according to age and gender groups. The changes in final BCVA compared to the initial BCVA were noted. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (Version 18.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Twenty-seven patients (54 eyes) were included in this study. 16 patients were male (59.3%), and 11 were female (40.7%). Mean age at diagnosis was 12.84 ± 8.26 (range 4-36) years. Mean follow-up period was 61.3 ± 52.15 (range 9-172) months. Mean BCVA was 0.58 ± 0.36 (range 0.03-1.00) (0.40 ± 0.45 logMAR) at presentation, and 0.81 ± 0.28 (range 0.10-1.00) (0.14 ± 0.27 logMAR) at final visit (P = 0.001). Vitreous inflammation (100%), vitreous haze (92.6%), snowballs (74.1%), snowbanks (66.7%), anterior chamber cells (66.7%) and peripheral retinal vascular sheathing (48.1%) were the most common presentations. Ocular complications included vitreous condensation (51.9%), cystoid macular edema (22.2%), cataract (18.5%), inferior peripheral retinal detachment (11.1%), glaucoma (5.6%) and vitreous hemorrhage (3.7%). Treatments included topical, periocular, intravitreal and systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, peripheral laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy when needed. Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis mostly affecting children and adolescents. In spite of its chronic nature with high potential of causing ocular complications, adequate treatment and close follow-up lead to favorable visual outcomes.

  4. Cartographie par carroyage et précision spatiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice LANGLOIS

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d'une cartographie par carroyage, on étudie la désagrégation de variables zonales, en revenant sur l'hypothèse de l'équirépartition spatiale des populations. L'objectif est d'approcher des règles différenciées de désagrégation des variables en fusionnant des plans d'information de nature morphologique, topologique et environnementale.

  5. Digital hilar tomography. Comparison with conventional technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, C.B.; Braunschweig, R.; Teufl, F.; Kaiser, W.; Claussen, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the following study was to compare conventional hilar tomography and digital hilar tomography. 20 patients were examined both with conventional and digital hilar tomography using the same tomographic technique and the identical exposure dose. All patients underwent computed tomography of the chest as a golden standard. The digital technique, especially the edge-enhanced image version, showed superior image quality. ROC-analysis by 4 readers found equal diagnostic performance without any statistical difference. Digital hilar tomography shows a superior and constant image quality and lowers the rate of re-exposure. Therefore, digital hilar tomography is the preferable method. (orig.) [de

  6. An introduction to emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report includes salient features of the theory and an examination of practical considerations for someone who is using or introducing tomography, selecting equipment for it or wishing to develop a clinical application. Emphasis is on gamma camera tomography. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: emission computed and gamma camera tomography and the relationship to other medical imaging techniques, the tomographic reconstruction technique theory, rotating gamma camera tomography, attenuation correction and quantitative reconstruction, other single photon tomographic techniques, positron tomography, image display, clinical application of single photon and positron tomography, and commercial systems for SPECT. Substantial bibliography. (U.K.)

  7. PET imaging of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) represents an important biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including prostate cancer (PC). Accordingly, uPAR expression either assessed directly in malignant PC tissue or assessed directly in plasma...... and prognostic imaging method. In this review, we will focus on the recent development of uPAR PET and the relevance within prostate cancer imaging. Novel antibody and small-molecule radiotracers-targeting uPAR, including a series of uPAR-targeting PET ligands, based on the high affinity peptide ligand AE105......, have been synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo in preclinical murine xenograft models and, recently, in a first-ever clinical uPAR PET study in cancer patients, including patients with PC. In this phase I study, a high and specific uptake of the tracer 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 was found in both primary...

  8. Paracrine Apoptotic Effect of p53 Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Par-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Burikhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Given that p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, the activation of p53 in normal mice, but not p53−/− or Par-4−/− mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4, which induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of its binding partner, UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for the inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors.

  9. Tomography with energy dispersive diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S. R.; Okasinski, J. S.; Woods, R.; Baldwin, J.; Madden, T.; Quaranta, O.; Rumaiz, A.; Kuczewski, T.; Mead, J.; Krings, T.; Siddons, P.; Miceli, A.; Almer, J. D.

    2017-09-01

    X-ray diffraction can be used as the signal for tomographic reconstruction and provides a cross-sectional map of the crystallographic phases and related quantities. Diffraction tomography has been developed over the last decade using monochromatic x-radiation and an area detector. This paper reports tomographic reconstruction with polychromatic radiation and an energy sensitive detector array. The energy dispersive diffraction (EDD) geometry, the instrumentation and the reconstruction process are described and related to the expected resolution. Results of EDD tomography are presented for two samples containing hydroxyapatite (hAp). The first is a 3D-printed sample with an elliptical crosssection and contains synthetic hAp. The second is a human second metacarpal bone from the Roman-era cemetery at Ancaster, UK and contains bio-hAp which may have been altered by diagenesis. Reconstructions with different diffraction peaks are compared. Prospects for future EDD tomography are also discussed.

  10. Computed tomography in renal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, W.; Eisenberger, F.; Buck, J.

    1981-01-01

    In a group of 19 patients suffering from flank trauma and gross hematuria the diagnostic value of angiography was compared with that of computed tomography. The cases that underwent both tests were found to have the some diagnosis of rupture of the kidney. Typical CT-findings in kidney rupture are demonstrated. Whereas angiography presents an exact picture of the arterial system of the kidney, including its injures computed tomography reveals the extent of organ lesons by showing extra- and intrarenal hematomas. If surgery is planned angiography is still mandatory, whereby the indication is largely determined by the clinical findings. Computed tomography as a non-invasive method is equally suitable for follow-ups. (orig.) [de

  11. Recent advances in neutron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, E.; Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA; Lanza, R.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron imaging has been shown to be an excellent imaging tool for many nondestructive evaluation applications. Significantly improved contrast over X-ray images is possible for materials commonly found in engineering assemblies. The major limitations have been the neutron source and detection. A low cost, position sensitive neutron tomography detector system has been designed and built based on an electro-optical detector system using a LiF-ZnS scintillator screen and a cooled charge coupled device. This detector system can be used for neutron radiography as well as two and three-dimensional neutron tomography. Calculated performance of the system predicted near-quantum efficiency for position sensitive neutron detection. Experimental data was recently taken using this system at McClellan Air Force Base, Air Logistics Center, Sacramento, CA. With increased availability of low cost neutron sources and advanced image processing, neutron tomography will become an increasingly important nondestructive imaging method

  12. Four cases of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutoh T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Mutoh, Koji Kadoya, Makoto ChikudaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Saitama, JapanAbstract: We report our recent experience with four cases of endophthalmitis (one male, three females after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV. One was a case of persistent cystoid macular edema caused by branch retinal vein occlusion, whereas the remaining three were cases of epiretinal membrane. Preoperative antibiotics before the first PPV procedure were not administered in three of the four cases. Endophthalmitis occurred 2–4 days after the first procedure in all cases, for which ceftazidime 2.0 mg/0.1 mL and vancomycin 1.0 mg/0.1 mL were injected into the vitreous cavity. This was followed by emergent 20-gauge PPV and intraocular lens removal using an infusion fluid containing ceftazidime and vancomycin. After the second PPV procedure, progress was good in three cases while retinal detachment occurred in the remaining case one month after surgery; this case required a third PPV procedure. Final best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/100 to 20/25 for the four cases. Bacterial cultures were negative after the second PPV procedure in all cases. In conclusion, postoperative endophthalmitis occurred in four of 502 cases (0.80% that underwent 25-gauge PPV at our hospital. It is important to minimize the incidence of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV.Keywords: 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, endophthalmitis, incidence

  13. Stress reactions involving the pars interarticularis in young athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.W.; Wiltse, L.L.; Dingeman, R.D.; Hayes, M.

    A stress reaction involving the pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine was confirmed in seven young athletes with a positive technetium pyrophosphate bone scan. No pars defects were detectable on their lumbosacral roentgenograms, which included oblique views. The return to normal levels of radioactive uptake on repeat bone scans correlated closely with their clinical course. If the bony reaction is recognized early, it may heal at a subroentgenographic level and prevent the development of lumbar spondylolysis. These early lesions usually show unilateral increased uptake at one lumbar level on the bone scan and, initially, the athlete localizes the pain to the corresponding unilateral lumbar paraspinous area. The ''one-legged hyperextension test'' is positive on the ipsilateral side and aggravates the pain. Treatment consists of avoiding the aggravating activities and resting. The average time for return to pain-free competition was 7.3 months. These developing defects may be the source of considerable prolonged disability in the young athlete, particularly if undiagnosed and untreated.

  14. Stress reactions involving the pars interarticularis in young athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.W.; Wiltse, L.L.; Dingeman, R.D.; Hayes, M.

    1981-01-01

    A stress reaction involving the pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine was confirmed in seven young athletes with a positive technetium pyrophosphate bone scan. No pars defects were detectable on their lumbosacral roentgenograms, which included oblique views. The return to normal levels of radioactive uptake on repeat bone scans correlated closely with their clinical course. If the bony reaction is recognized early, it may heal at a subroentgenographic level and prevent the development of lumbar spondylolysis. These early lesions usually show unilateral increased uptake at one lumbar level on the bone scan and, initially, the athlete localizes the pain to the corresponding unilateral lumbar paraspinous area. The ''one-legged hyperextension test'' is positive on the ipsilateral side and aggravates the pain. Treatment consists of avoiding the aggravating activities and resting. The average time for return to pain-free competition was 7.3 months. These developing defects may be the source of considerable prolonged disability in the young athlete, particularly if undiagnosed and untreated

  15. Réduction du risque d'infection par le VIH au Botswana - essais ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au Botswana, ce sont les jeunes femmes qui sont le plus touchées par les nouvelles infections par le VIH. Le présent projet a pour but de réduire le nombre de nouveaux cas d'infection par le VIH, en particulier chez les femmes de 15 à 29 ans. Bien que l'on recense des cas de VIH/sida dans la plupart des régions du ...

  16. Positron tomography. Methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellershohn, C.; Comar, D.

    1979-01-01

    Whereas single photon tomography provides a new and rewarding dimension to conventional nuclear medicine, positron tomography makes a new original approach possible of the analysis in vivo of fundamental biological and physiological processes. The main object of both is the sectional representation of the distribution of a radioactive indicator injected into the body system; compared with conventional detectors (gamma cameras and scintigraphic systems) they provide much greater accuracy in localization. The characteristics of these two methods can be presented schematically by comparing their respective advantages and drawbacks [fr

  17. Uncertainty analysis in seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoc, Bartosz; Majdański, Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    Velocity field from seismic travel time tomography depends on several factors like regularization, inversion path, model parameterization etc. The result also strongly depends on an initial velocity model and precision of travel times picking. In this research we test dependence on starting model in layered tomography and compare it with effect of picking precision. Moreover, in our analysis for manual travel times picking the uncertainty distribution is asymmetric. This effect is shifting the results toward faster velocities. For calculation we are using JIVE3D travel time tomographic code. We used data from geo-engineering and industrial scale investigations, which were collected by our team from IG PAS.

  18. Positron emission tomography in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current and potential uses of positron emission tomography in clinical medicine and research related to oncology. Assessment will be possible of metabolism and physiology of tumors and their effects on adjacent tissues. Specific probes are likely to be developed for target sites on tumors, including monoclonal antibodies and specific growth factors that recognize tumors. To date, most oncological applications of positron emission tomography tracers have been qualitative; in the future, quantitative metabolic measurements should aid in the evaluation of tumor biology and response to treatment

  19. NMF on positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bödvarsson, Bjarni; Hansen, Lars Kai; Svarer, Claus

    2007-01-01

    In positron emission tomography, kinetic modelling of brain tracer uptake, metabolism or binding requires knowledge of the cerebral input function. Traditionally, this is achieved with arterial blood sampling in the arm or as shown in (Liptrot, M, et al., 2004) by non-invasive K-means clustering....... We propose another method to estimate time-activity curves (TAC) extracted directly from dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Since the scaling of the basis curves is lost in the NMF the estimated TAC is scaled by a vector alpha which...

  20. Virtual electrical capacitance tomography sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Yang, W Q

    2005-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an effective technique for elucidating the distribution of dielectric materials inside closed pipes or vessels. This paper describes a virtual electrical capacitance tomography (VECT) system, which can simulate a range of sensor and hardware configurations and material distributions. A selection of popular image reconstruction algorithms has been made available and image error and capacitance error tools enable their performance to be evaluated and compared. Series of frame-by-frame results can be stored for simulating real-time dynamic flows. The system is programmed in Matlab with DOS functions. It is convenient to use and low-cost to operate, providing an effective tool for engineering experiment

  1. Cranial computed tomography in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Bogerts, B.

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography has gained importance as a diagnostic tool in psychiatry to exclude structural brain pathology, but has passed on its role in research to magnetic resonance tomography. It helps to distinguish between senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. The enlargement of the ventricular system and cortical sulci is well established in schizophrenic and affective psychosis. Some alcohol addicts show a considerable degree of cerebral atrophy, only exceeded by demented patients, but this condition is potentially reversible. To screen psychiatric patients by CT is recommendable, as 2-10% of hospitalized psychiatric patients have structural brain disease. (orig.) [de

  2. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanning for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although the site of nosocomial sepsis in the critically ill ventilated patient is usually identifiable, it may remain occult, despite numerous investigations. The rapid results and precise anatomical location of the septic source using positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, in combination with computed ...

  3. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Henrique; Alves, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio; Carvalho, Verônica Franco de; Ambrósio, Lucas Macedo Batitucci; Eichler, Rosangela Aparecida Dos Santos; Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli de; Saraiva, Luciana; Holzhausen, Marinella

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2) suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP). The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19) at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19) and severe chronic periodontitis (SP) (n = 19) patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA) in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  4. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 19,2016 What is Computerized Tomography (CT)? CT is a noninvasive test that uses ...

  5. The value of computed tomography in ''sciatica''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm-Jurkovic, H.; Hammer, B.

    1981-01-01

    13 cases of therapy-resistant lumboischialgia without herniated disk, caused in 12 cases by a tumour and in 1 case by an abscess, were examined by computed tomography of the lumbar and pelvic region. This method is indicated immediately after insufficient results of conventional X-ray methods (including tomography) and of lumbosacral radiculography. The computed tomography is indispensable also in patients with ''sciatica'' with a known malignoma. The information given by computed tomography is essential for the therapy planning. (author)

  6. Protean appearance of craniopharyngioma on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danziger, A.; Price, H.I.

    1979-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas present a diverse appearance on computed tomography. Histological diagnosis is not always possible, but computed tomography is of great assistance in the delineation of the tumour as well as of the degree of associated hydrocephalus. Computed tomography also enables rapid non-invasive follow-up after surgery or radiotherapy, or both

  7. Measuring Weld Profiles By Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Noncontacting, nondestructive computer tomography system determines internal and external contours of welded objects. System makes it unnecessary to take metallurgical sections (destructive technique) or to take silicone impressions of hidden surfaces (technique that contaminates) to inspect them. Measurements of contours via tomography performed 10 times as fast as measurements via impression molds, and tomography does not contaminate inspected parts.

  8. Un « gouvernement des journalistes par le Pouvoir politique » par défaut ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Lardeau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les interactions de deux mouvements concomitants apparusprincipalement dans les décennies 1950 à 1970 dans le champ de la presse française : d’un côté les initiatives – consécutives à la démarche pionnière, en 1951, de création de la première Société des journalistes (SDJ au sein du Monde – menées par les journalistes de rédactions de quotidiens pour créer des SDJ dont la destination peut aller jusqu’à gouverner les journaux; de l’autre côté, les « réponses » apportées par les Pouvoirs politique et public pour contenir ces initiatives visant à étendre le pouvoir des journalistes dans la gestion et la gouvernance de leurs journaux. Cette étude exploratoire repose principalement sur l’analyse de deux types de littérature, souvent déconsidérés ou négligés par le champ académique, en dépit de leur grande richesse : (1 la littérature professionnelle, ayant pour principaux auteurs les journalistes et managers de presse (Périer Daville, Boegner, Pigasse, etc., florissante depuis 1944 et singulièrement durant les décennies 1960 et 1970 ; (2 la littérature grise constituée notamment par des rapports publics rédigés par des institutions comme les services du Premier ministre (commissions Lindon de 1970 et Serisé de 1972, le Conseil économique et social, etc. Nos principaux résultats montrent que les propositions ou actions menées par les journalistes (1 restent le plus souvent inexploitées in concreto par les journalistes eux-mêmes; (2 entrent le plus souvent en opposition avec les politiques de nouveaux actionnaires ou directions de journaux et avec les projets des autorités politiques et publiques qui cherchent à encadrer l’autonomie de la profession journalistique pour mieux gouverner celle-ci ; (3 combien in fine les représentants des différents acteurs impliqués s’accordent pour contenir l’émergence d’un « gouvernement des journalistes » par les

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about radiation dose. There always is a risk of complications from general anesthesia or sedation. Every measure will be taken to ... in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety Children and Radiation Safety ... (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) ...

  10. Computed tomography of cartilaginous tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincek, B.; Triller, J.; Robotti, G.; Gumppenberg, S. von

    1984-01-01

    The compound tomography (CT) morphology of cartilaginous tumors and the utility of CT in their diagnostic work-up is presented on the basis of 19 cases. CT provided unique informations regarding definition of tumor extent and tumor relationship to adjacent structures particularly in the axial skeleton. CT has diminished the indications for angiography in cartilaginous tumors. (orig.) [de

  11. Robustness of raw quantum tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, M.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Pascazio, S.; Sudarshan, E. C. G.

    2011-01-01

    We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the tomograms of quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of a finite window or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.

  12. Robustness of raw quantum tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asorey, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@lebedev.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2011-01-31

    We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the tomograms of quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of a finite window or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.

  13. Computed tomography in hepatic echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choliz, J.D.; Olaverri, F.J.L.; Casas, T.F.; Zubieta, S.O.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate 50 cases of hydatid disease of the liver. It was definite in 49 cases and negative in one case. Pre- and postcontrast scans were performed. CT may reveal the exact location and extension of cysts and possible complications. However, a false-negative case was found in a hydatid cyst located in a fatty liver

  14. Computer tomography in Caisson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, F.; Csobaly, S.; Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians, Budapest

    1981-01-01

    Computer tomography was performed on 20 patients with the early stages of Caisson osteoarthropathy, as well as in other patients with chronic bone infarcts. From their results the authors have formed the opinion that CT is valuable, not only in the diagnosis of early cases, but that it can provide significant information concerning the osteopathy and bone infarcts. (orig.) [de

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT (Computed Tomography) Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  16. Laryngopyocele: signs on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaroglu, Hasan E-mail: hnazarog@dicle.edu.tr; Oezates, Mustafa; Uyar, Asur; Deger, Emin; Simsek, Masum

    2000-01-01

    A laryngocele is an air-filled dilation of the saccule of the larynx. An infected laryngocele is called a laryngopyocele. Our experience with a case of laryngopyocele with signs on computed tomography before and after antibiotic therapy is presented since laryngopyocele is more unusual.

  17. Laryngopyocele: signs on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroglu, Hasan; Oezates, Mustafa; Uyar, Asur; Deger, Emin; Simsek, Masum

    2000-01-01

    A laryngocele is an air-filled dilation of the saccule of the larynx. An infected laryngocele is called a laryngopyocele. Our experience with a case of laryngopyocele with signs on computed tomography before and after antibiotic therapy is presented since laryngopyocele is more unusual

  18. X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Greg

    2001-01-01

    Describes computed tomography (CT), a medical imaging technique that produces images of transaxial planes through the human body. A CT image is reconstructed mathematically from a large number of one-dimensional projections of a plane. The technique is used in radiological examinations and radiotherapy treatment planning. (Author/MM)

  19. Industrial applications of computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.; Kruth, J. -P.

    2014-01-01

    The number of industrial applications of Computed Tomography(CT) is large and rapidly increasing. After a brief market overview, the paper gives a survey of state of the art and upcoming CT technologies, covering types of CT systems, scanning capabilities, and technological advances. The paper...

  20. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  1. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  2. MR tomography in Kallmann's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewes, W.; Krahe, T.; Klingmueller, D.; Harder, T.; Bonn Univ.

    1987-01-01

    MR tomography is the only imaging method that can demonstrate atrophy of the olfactory lobe of the brain in olfacto-genital dysplasia (Kallmann's syndrome). The MRT findings in five patients with Kallmann's syndrome are described. The MRT criterion for the presence of Kallmann's syndrome appears to be an interruption or total absence of the olfactory sulcus. (orig.) [de

  3. Positron computed tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervouet, T.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.; Lamy, T.; Le Gouil, S.; Devillers, A.; Bodet-Milin, C.; Ansquer, C.; Cheze-le Rest, C.; Metges, J.P.; Teyton, P.; Lozach, P.; Volant, A.; Bizais, Y.; Visvikis, D.; Morel, O.; Girault, S.; Soulie, P.; Dupoiron, D.; Berthelot, C.; Lorimier, G.; Jallet, P.; Garin, E.; Prigent, F.; Lesimple, T.; Barge, M.L.; Rousseau, C.; Devillers, A.; Bernard, A.M.; Bouriel, C.; Bridji, B.; Resche, R.; Banayan, S.; Claret, M.; Ninet, J.; Janier, M.; Billotey, C.; Garin, E.; Devillers, A.; Becker, S.; Lecloirec, J.; Boucher, E.; Raoul, J.L.; Rolland, V.; Oudoux, A.; Valette, F.; Dupas, B.; Moreau, P.; Champion, L.; Anract, P.; Wartski, M.; Laurence, V.; Goldwasser, F.; Pecking, A.P.; Alberini, J.L.; Brillouet, S.; Caselles, O.; Allal, B.; Zerdoud, S.; Gansel, M.G.; Thomas, F.; Dierrickx, L.; Delord, J.P.; Marchand, C.; Resche, I.; Mahe, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Several oral communications present the interest of positron computed tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose in the detection of cancers, or for the follow up of cancers treatments in order to detect early possible relapses.PET FDG is also used to optimize the definition of target volume in order to avoid side effects and to get a better control of the illness. (N.C.)

  4. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Taihei [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu, Miho [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko, E-mail: ckuroda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  5. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Taihei; Shimizu, Miho; Kuroda, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. → L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. → Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  6. Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): Latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejoo; Malaspina, Dolores; Ahn, Hongshik; Perrin, Mary; Opler, Mark G; Kleinhaus, Karine; Harlap, Susan; Goetz, Raymond; Antonius, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering analysis approach to generate hypotheses about differences between PARS and other cases of schizophrenia. We studied PARS (operationally defined as not having any family history of schizophrenia among first and second-degree relatives and fathers' age at birth ≥ 35 years) in a series of schizophrenia cases recruited from a research unit. Data were available on demographic variables, symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), cognitive tests (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised; WAIS-R) and olfaction (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test; UPSIT). We conducted a series of k-means clustering analyses to identify clusters of cases containing high concentrations of PARS. Two analyses generated clusters with high concentrations of PARS cases. The first analysis (N=136; PARS=34) revealed a cluster containing 83% PARS cases, in which the patients showed a significant discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence. The mean paternal and maternal ages were 41 and 33, respectively. The second analysis (N=123; PARS=30) revealed a cluster containing 71% PARS cases, of which 93% were females; the mean age of onset of psychosis, at 17.2, was significantly early. These results strengthen the evidence that PARS cases differ from other patients with schizophrenia. Hypothesis-generating findings suggest that features of PARS may include a discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence, and in females, an early age of onset. These findings provide a rationale for separating these phenotypes from others in future clinical, genetic and pathophysiologic studies of schizophrenia and in considering responses to treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electron microscope study of vacancy clusters produced by quenching in magnesium; Etude par microscopie electronique des amas de lacunes crees par trempe dans le magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, V; Espinasse, J; Mairy, C; Hillairet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Vacancy clustering in quenched magnesium has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the vacancy loops observed, seems to depend essentially on the impurity content of the metal; this effect can be attributed to a variation of the stacking fault energy of magnesium due to impurities. (authors) [French] On a etudie par microscopie electronique en transmission les defauts crees par trempe dans le magnesium. Un effet considerable des impuretes du metal sur la nature des boucles obtenues par condensation de lacunes a ete mis en evidence; cet effet semble s'expliquer de facon satisfaisante par un abaissement de l'energie de faute d'empilement du magnesium du aux impuretes. (auteur)

  8. Neutrons detection by scintillation; Detection de neutrons par scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-01-15

    The absence of charge of neutrons and their elevated penetration power make difficult their detection. Techniques vary otherwise with the energy of the particle. The author proposes the realization of a scintillation detector with a big volume of liquid scintillator and containing boron for the detection of slowing-down neutrons in the domain of intermediate energies from 1 to 10{sup 5} eV about. (M.B.) [French] L'absence de charge du neutron et son pouvoir de penetration eleve rendent difficile sa detection. Les techniques par ailleurs varient avec l'energie de cette particule. L'auteur propose la realisation d'un detecteur a scintillations comprenant un grand volume de scintillateur liquide et contenant du bore pour la detection des neutrons en ralentissement dans le domaine des energies intermediaires de 1 a 10{sup 5} eV environ. (M.B.)

  9. Cancro em mogno africano no estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Tremacoldi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas de cancro foram observados em plantios de mogno africano, no município de Dom Eliseu, Pará. Os fungos associados aos tecidos sintomáticos foram identificados como Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Fusarium subglutinans. Culturas puras desses fungos foram testadas quanto à patogenicidade em mudas de mogno africano sadias. Apenas L. theobromae produziu cancro, por meio de inoculação por ferimento e alta umidade. A confirmação de L. theobromae como agente causal do cancro ocorreu após o reisolamento do fungo a partir das plantas inoculadas em casa de vegetação, concluindo a primeira verificação do postulado de Koch para esse patossistema.

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION PLANNING IN COMPANY PARS KOMPONENTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Klega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current status of production planning in company Pars Komponenty s.r.o., proposes a new method of planning based on application of the principle of MRP. It is a discrete type of production with high complexity of BOM and MTO (Make-to-Order and ETO (Engineering-to-Order from the point of decoupling point. The original planning system plans according to production capacity backward without collisions, but for a given type of production does not work in practice. Planning system was analyzed and the main problems were identified, which were high work in progress and material stocks. This article target is to propose a new planining system based on the inclusion of time reserves of purchased material items. New planning system was tested in practise with benefit in reducing both the material inventory and work in progress.

  11. Pierre Vilar Frontinhan 1906 - París 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el pasado mes de agosto falleció en París el historiador y maestro de tantas generaciones Pierre Vilar. Aunque había mantenido una intensa actividad de reflexión sobre los sucesos contemporáneos, ésta se vio afectada en 1991 luego que una grave enfermedad le negó la visión. Fue entonces cuando decidió con la ayuda de Rosa Congost escribir sus reflexiones y recuerdos, especie de memoria de juventud. Pensar Históricamente (Barcelona: Editorial Crítica, 1997, el libro que reúne estos ejercicios, es una obra de sumo interés para conocer la infancia, adolescencia y juventud de este connotado historiador.

  12. Neutrons detection by scintillation; Detection de neutrons par scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudon, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-01-15

    The absence of charge of neutrons and their elevated penetration power make difficult their detection. Techniques vary otherwise with the energy of the particle. The author proposes the realization of a scintillation detector with a big volume of liquid scintillator and containing boron for the detection of slowing-down neutrons in the domain of intermediate energies from 1 to 10{sup 5} eV about. (M.B.) [French] L'absence de charge du neutron et son pouvoir de penetration eleve rendent difficile sa detection. Les techniques par ailleurs varient avec l'energie de cette particule. L'auteur propose la realisation d'un detecteur a scintillations comprenant un grand volume de scintillateur liquide et contenant du bore pour la detection des neutrons en ralentissement dans le domaine des energies intermediaires de 1 a 10{sup 5} eV environ. (M.B.)

  13. Determination of tritium by counting; Dosage du tritium par comptage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, R; Froment, G; Pinson, J; Genty, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    Ionisation chamber assay of tritium in any gaseous mixture is a simple, fast and accurate method. We used the method of relative determination by comparison to a standard rather than the method of absolute assay in which case the constants are known with too little accuracy. The efficiency of the chamber was studied in connection to the pressure inside the chamber and its total volume. The calibration is linear in the range we are taking into account (1 to 80 millicuries). The reproducibility of the method is good: 13 runs gave a coefficient of variation of 1.6 per cent. The relative accuracy was found equal to {+-} 1.3 per cent. To end the paper, we describe in detail the apparatus and the ways of proceedings. (authors) [French] Le comptage du tritium par chambre d'ionisation est une methode simple, rapide et precise pour determiner la teneur en tritium d'un melange gazeux quelconque. Nous avons prefere utiliser la methode de determination relative par rapport a un etalon car, dans le cas d'une determination absolue, les constantes sont connues avec une trop grande incertitude. L'efficacite de la chambre a ete etudiee en fonction de la variation de la pression d'argon a l'interieur de la chambre et du volume total, de cette derniere. L'etalonnage s'est revele lineaire dans le domaine de mesures qui nous interessaient (1 a 80 millicuries). La reproductibillte de la methode est tres bonne, le coefficient de variation pour une serie de 13 essais etant de 1,6 pour cent, quant a la precision relative, elle a ete evaluee a {+-} 1,3 pour cent. Pour terminer, nous donnons une description detaillee de l'appareillage utilise et du mode operatoire suivi. (auteurs)

  14. Single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Single photon tomography dates from the early 1960's when the idea of emission transverse section tomography was presented by Kuhl and Edwards. They used a rectilinear scanner and analogue back-projection methods to detect emissions from a series of sequential positions transverse to the cephaldcaudad axis of the body. This chapter presents an explanation of emission tomography by describing longitudinal and transverse section tomography. In principle all modes of tomography can be considered under the general topic of coded apertures wherein the code ranges from translation of a pinhole collimator to rotation of a parallel hole or focused collimator array

  15. Pars plana vitrectomy for disturbing primary vitreous floaters: clinical outcome and patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, K.F. de; Crama, N.; Tilanus, M.A.D.; Klevering, B.J.; Boon, C.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary vitreous floaters can be highly bothersome in some patients. In the case of persistently bothersome floaters, pars plana vitrectomy may be the most effective treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction, after pars plana

  16. Solar PAR and UVR modify the community composition and photosynthetic activity of sea ice algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enberg, Sara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Majaneva, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2015-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on species diversity, biomass and photosynthetic activity were studied in fast ice algal communities. The experimental set-up consisted of nine 1.44 m(2) squares with three treatments: untreated with natural snow cover (UNT), snow-free (PAR + UVR) and snow-free ice covered with a UV screen (PAR). The total algal biomass, dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, increased in all treatments during the experiment. However, the smaller biomass growth in the top 10-cm layer of the PAR + UVR treatment compared with the PAR treatment indicated the negative effect of UVR. Scrippsiella complex (mainly Scrippsiella hangoei, Biecheleria baltica and Gymnodinium corollarium) showed UV sensitivity in the top 5-cm layer, whereas Heterocapsa arctica ssp. frigida and green algae showed sensitivity to both PAR and UVR. The photosynthetic activity was highest in the top 5-cm layer of the PAR treatment, where the biomass of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida increased, indicating the UV sensitivity of this species. This study shows that UVR is one of the controlling factors of algal communities in Baltic Sea ice, and that increased availability of PAR together with UVR exclusion can cause changes in algal biomass, photosynthetic activity and community composition. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Spectral variations of UV-A and PAR solar radiation in estuarine waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talaulikar, M.; Suresh, T.; Silveira, N.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S; Lotlikar, A

    radiation (400 to 700 nm), PAR and ultraviolet radiation in the range 350-400 nm (UV-A) are presented here. The mean PAR values at the surface were 327 W/m sup(2) and reduced to 84 W/m sup(2) at first optical depth, Z sub(90) (m) in water. The first optical...

  18. Narrative Identities and the Plebiscite in Pará: An Analysis of the Front Pages for O Liberal and Diário do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Cristina Silva da Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On December 11, 2011, a plebiscite was held in Pará proposing to create two separatist states, Carajás and Tapajós, out of the state of Pará. The public voted against both projects. This article analyzes the narrative identities found on the front pages of O Liberal and Diário do Pará newspapers about the plebiscite in Pará. Depth Hermeneutics (DH, as proposed by Thompson (2011, was used as the methodological reference. DH emphasizes the object of analysis as a meaningful symbolic construction requiring interpretation. Narrative analysis, as proposed by Motta (2007, was the main research technique used to highlight the movement of construction of journalistic (discursive characters. The narrative identities built by the two newspapers showed that both were against the creation of the new states, but for very different reasons. The flag of Pará was the main object used to induce the idea of unity. Em 11 de dezembro de 2011, o plebiscito no Pará propôs a criação dos estados de Carajás e de Tapajós a partir da divisão do estado do Pará. O resultado da consulta pública foi negativo aos dois projetos. O artigo analisa as identidades narrativas constituídas pelas primeiras páginas dos jornais O Liberal e Diário do Pará sobre o plebiscito no Pará. Utilizou-se como referencial metodológico a Hermenêutica em Profundidade (HP, proposta por Thompson (2011. A HP evidencia o fato de que o objeto de análise é uma construção simbólica significativa, que exige uma interpretação. Como principal técnica de pesquisa, a análise narrativa, proposta por Motta (2007, com ênfase no movimento de construção de personagens jornalísticas (discursivas. As identidades narrativas construídas pelos dois jornais indicaram que ambos eram contrários à criação dos novos estados, porém por motivos divergentes. A bandeira do Pará foi o principal elemento utilizado para evocar a ideia de unidade. En 11 de diciembre de 2011, el plebiscito en

  19. Use of an improved simultaneous tomography cassette in linear tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egender, G.; Pirker, E.; Gornik, E.; Innsbruck Univ.

    1984-01-01

    An improved simultaneous tomography cassette according to P. Landau was tried out for four months using four tomographs in routine work. The mode of operation is based on accurate control of the relative speeds of the individual x-ray films resulting in simultaneous imaging of 6 equidistant tomographic levels. Clinical testing was effected in 80 cases: nephrotomography, of the lungs, the hilum, and the skeleton. In particular, the article describes imaging of the renal arteries by simultaneous tomography for the purpose of finding out the cause of hypertension, and if there is suspicion of a space-occupying growth in the kidney, basing on the urogram. The specific advantages of this technique are, on the one hand, improved diagnostic efficiency (the tomograms are taken during the same respiratory phase, more rapid diagnosis especially with accident patients), and, on the other hand, an important reduction in the x-ray exposure of the patient; furthermore, the life of the x-ray tube is prolonged, and there is a definite saving of time for both patient and personnel, the image quality being comparable with that of single-layer tomography. (orig.) [de

  20. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) and the uPAR-associated protein (uPARAP/Endo180)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The breakdown of the barriers formed by extracellular matrix proteins is a pre-requisite for all processes of tissue remodeling. Matrix degradation reactions take part in specific physiological events in the healthy organism but also represent a crucial step in cancer invasion. These degradation...... on the surface of various cell types that serves to bind the urokinase plasminogen activator and localize the activation reactions in the proteolytic cascade system of plasminogen activation. uPARAP is an integral membrane protein with a pronounced role in the internalization of collagen for intracellular...... degradation. Both receptors have additional functions that are currently being unraveled. The present discussion of uPAR and uPARAP is centered on their protein structure and molecular and cellular function....

  1. Effect of simvastatin and ezetimibe on suPAR levels and outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Forman, Julie L

    2018-01-01

    -lowering therapy also lowers suPAR levels is unknown. METHODS: We investigated whether treatment with Simvastatin 40 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg lowered plasma suPAR levels in 1838 patients with mild-moderate, asymptomatic aortic stenosis, included in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study, using...... and Ezetimibe treatment impeded the progression of the time-related increase in plasma suPAR levels. Year-1 suPAR was associated with all-cause mortality, MCE, and AVE irrespective of baseline levels (SEAS study: NCT00092677)....... cardiovascular events (MCE) composed of ischemic cardiovascular events (ICE) and aortic valve related events (AVE). RESULTS: After 4.3 years of follow-up, suPAR levels had increased by 9.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.0%-11.5%) in the placebo group, but only by 4.1% (1.9%-6.2%) in the group with lipid...

  2. Brulure par Plaque de Bistouri Electrique: a Propos de Quatre Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Belmir, R.; Cherkab, L.; Ennouhi, M.A.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary La brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique est un accident rare mais grave par la profondeur de la lésion et par sa localisation, surtout quand qu’elle survient dans un contexte chirurgical dont le vécu reste difficile de la part du malade et du chirurgien. Cette brûlure bien que imprévisible reste grave par la profondeur et la localisation de la brûlure et par sa survenue dans un contexte opératoire, chez des patients malades. La prise en charge de la brûlure doit se faire en milieu spécialisé. La prévention reste le seul moyen d’éviter ce type d’accident. PMID:21991216

  3. par genes in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis are arranged in an operon transcribed from "SigGC" promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casart Yveth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ParA/Soj and ParB/Spo0J proteins, and the cis-acting parS site, participate actively in chromosome segregation and cell cycle progression. Genes homologous to parA and parB, and two putative parS copies, have been identified in the Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosomes. As in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the parA and parB genes in these two non-pathogenic mycobacteria are located near the chromosomal origin of replication. The present work focused on the determination of the transcriptional organisation of the ~6 Kb orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis by primer extension, transcriptional fusions to the green fluorescence protein (GFP and quantitative RT-PCR. Results The parAB genes were arranged in an operon. However, we also found promoters upstream of each one of these genes. Seven putative promoter sequences were identified in the orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG, whilst four were identified in the homologous region of M. smegmatis, one upstream of each open reading frame (ORF. Real-time PCR assays showed that in M. smegmatis, mRNA-parA and mRNA-parB levels decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. In M. bovis BCG, mRNA-parA levels also decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. However, parB expression was higher than parA expression and remained almost unchanged along the growth curve. Conclusion The majority of the proposed promoter regions had features characteristic of Mycobacterium promoters previously denoted as Group D. The -10 hexamer of a strong E. coli σ70-like promoter, located upstream of gidB of M. bovis BCG, overlapped with a putative parS sequence, suggesting that the transcription from this promoter might be regulated by the binding of ParB to parS.

  4. MODIS-derived daily PAR simulation from cloud-free images and its validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liangfu; Gu, Xingfa; Tian, Guoliang [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); The Center for National Spaceborne Demonstration, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yang, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Liu, Qinhuo [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, a MODIS-derived daily PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) simulation model from cloud-free image over land surface has been developed based on Bird and Riordan's model. In this model, the total downwelling spectral surface irradiance is divided into two parts: one is beam irradiance, and another is diffuse irradiance. The attenuation of solar beam irradiance comprises scattering by the gas mixture, absorption by ozone, the gas mixture and water vapor, and scattering and absorption by aerosols. The diffuse irradiance is scattered out of the direct beam and towards the surface. The multiple ground-air interactions have been taken into account in the diffuse irradiance model. The parameters needed in this model are atmospheric water vapor content, aerosol optical thickness and spectral albedo ranging from 400 nm to 700 nm. They are all retrieved from MODIS data. Then, the instantaneous photosynthetically available radiation (IPAR) is integrated by using a weighted sum at each of the visible MODIS wavebands. Finally, a daily PAR is derived by integration of IPAR. In order to validate the MODIS-derived PAR model, we compared the field PAR measurements in 2003 and 2004 against the simulated PAR. The measurements were made at the Qianyanzhou ecological experimental station, Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. A total of 54 days of cloud-free MODIS L1B level images were used for the PAR simulation. Our results show that the simulated PAR is consistent with field measurements, where the correlation coefficient of linear regression between calculated PAR and measured PAR is 0.93396. However, there were some uncertainties in the comparison of 1 km pixel PAR with the tower flux stand measurement. (author)

  5. Posterior Dynamic Stabilization With Direct Pars Repair via Wiltse Approach for the Treatment of Lumbar Spondylolysis: The Application of a Novel Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Rong; Dou, Qingyu; Li, Xiaolong; Liu, Yin; Kong, Qingquan; Chen, Qi; Gong, Quan; Zeng, Jiancheng; Liu, Hao; Song, Yueming

    2016-04-01

    A retrospective study to evaluate the clinical outcomes of a novel surgical method for treating patients with lumbar spondylolysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of posterior ISOBAR TTL stabilization of the lumbar spine with direct pars repair using Wiltse approach for the treatment of lumbar spondylolysis with or without slight spondylolisthesis and discuss the indications of this surgery. Surgical treatment of lumbar spondylolysis has yielded relatively good results. However, there are still many limitations of the current surgical methods, including, adjacent level degeneration, restricted indications, and soft tissue damage. Between August 2010 and January 2013, 13 (9 males and 4 females; mean age: 28.2 yrs), patients with lumbar spondylolysis with or without slight spondylolisthesis underwent posterior ISOBAR TTL stabilization of the lumbar spine, with direct pars repair via Wiltse approach. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months at outpatient visits or telephonically. Pre-operative and postoperative radiological assessments included anteroposterior, lateral and flexion extension radiographs, 3-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data pertaining to intraoperative blood loss, duration of operation, visual analog score (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores, and other assessments were collected. The median follow-up duration was 36 months (range, 24-53 months). Surgery was successful in all patients with no complications; bony fusion of pars was confirmed on CT scan at postoperative 2 years. Significant pain relief was achieved in all patients including those with discogenic pain, those >30 years of age, and those with severe disc degeneration (P spondylolysis with or without slight spondylolisthesis. Besides the good clinical results, the indications for this new surgery are much wider and can potentially overcome the limitations of earlier techniques. 4.

  6. 68Ga-labeling and in vivo evaluation of a uPAR binding DOTA- and NODAGA-conjugated peptide for PET imaging of invasive cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Madsen, Jacob; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    , uPAR binding affinity and cell uptake were determined. To characterize the in vivo properties, dynamic microPET imaging was carried out in nude mice bearing human glioma U87MG tumor xenograft. RESULTS: In vitro experiments revealed uPAR binding affinities in the lower nM range for both conjugated......-AE105-NH(2) was observed. Good stability in phosphate-buffered saline and mouse plasma was observed. High cell uptake was found for both tracers in U87MG tumor cells. Dynamic microPET imaging demonstrated good tumor-to-background ratio for both tracers. Tumor uptake was 2.1% ID/g and 1.3% ID/g 30 min...... positron emission tomography (PET) in human cancer xenograft mice models. Here we introduce (68)Ga-DOTA-AE105-NH(2) and (68)Ga-NODAGA-AE105-NH(2) and evaluate their imaging properties using small-animal PET. METHODS: Synthesis of DOTA-AE105-NH(2) and NODAGA-AE105-NH(2) was based on solid-phase peptide...

  7. Massively parallel diffuse optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd A.

    2017-09-05

    Diffuse optical tomography systems and methods are described herein. In a general embodiment, the diffuse optical tomography system comprises a plurality of sensor heads, the plurality of sensor heads comprising respective optical emitter systems and respective sensor systems. A sensor head in the plurality of sensors heads is caused to act as an illuminator, such that its optical emitter system transmits a transillumination beam towards a portion of a sample. Other sensor heads in the plurality of sensor heads act as observers, detecting portions of the transillumination beam that radiate from the sample in the fields of view of the respective sensory systems of the other sensor heads. Thus, sensor heads in the plurality of sensors heads generate sensor data in parallel.

  8. Instrumentation for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with a spatial resolution of 2 mm full width at half maximum for quantitation in regions of interest 4 mm in diameter will become possible with the development of detectors that achieve ultrahigh resolution. Improved resolution will be possible using solid-state photodetectors for crystal identification or photomultiplier tubes with many small electron multipliers. Temporal resolution of 2 seconds and gating of cyclic events can be accomplished if statistical requirements are met. The major physical considerations in achieving high-resolution positron emission tomography are the degradation in resolution resulting from positron range, emission angle, parallax error, detector sampling density, the sensitivity of various detector materials and packing schemes, and the tradeoff between temporal resolution and statistical accuracy. The accuracy of data required for physiological models depends primarily on the fidelity of spatial sampling independent of statistical constraints

  9. Single photon emission computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooge, P. de.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis two single-photon emission tomographic techniques are presented: (a) longitudinal tomography with a rotating slanting-hole collimator, and (b) transversal tomography with a rotating gamma camera. These methods overcome the disadvantages of conventional scintigraphy. Both detection systems and the image construction methods are explained and comparisons with conventional scintigraphy are drawn. One chapter is dedicated to the determination of system parameters like spatial resolution, contrast, detector uniformity, and size of the object, by phantom studies. In separate chapters the results are presented of detection of tumors and metastases in the liver and the liver hilus; skeletal diseases; various pathological aberrations of the brain; and myocardial perfusion. The possible use of these two ect's for other organs and body areas is discussed in the last chapter. (Auth.)

  10. Computerised tomography in radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badcock, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of computed tomography as an adjunct to radiotherapy planning. Until recently, acquisition of accurate data concerning tumour anatomy lagged behind other developments in radiotherapy. With the advent of computer-tomography (CT), these data can be displayed and transmitted to a treatment planning computer. It is concluded that the greatest inaccuracies in the radiation treatment of patients are to be found in both the inadequate delineation of the target volume within the patient and changes in body outline relative to the target volume over the length of the irradiated volume. The technique was useful in various subgroups (pelvic, intra-thoracic and chest-wall tumours) and for those patients being treated palliatively. With an estimated improvement in cure rate of 4.5% and cost-effective factors of between 3.3 and 5, CT-assisted radiotherapy planning appears to be a worthwhile procedure. (orig.)

  11. Urine suPAR levels compared with plasma suPAR levels as predictors of post-consultation mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian

    2010-01-01

    -suPAR was measured using a commercial ELISA (suPARnostic®). We found that U-suPAR carried significant prognostic information on mortality for HIV-infected subjects with an area under the ROC curve of 0.75. For HIV-negative individuals, little or no prognostic effect was observed. However, in both HIV positives...... and negatives, the predictive effect of U-suPAR was found to be inferior to that of P-suPAR....

  12. Eccentric Macular Hole after Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Epiretinal Membrane Without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnavou-Xirou, Christina; Xirou, Tina; Kabanarou, Stamatina; Gkizis, Ilias; Velissaris, Stavros; Chatziralli, Irini

    2017-12-01

    Postoperative eccentric macular hole formation is an uncommon complication after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for the treatment of epiretinal membrane (ERM). We present a case of eccentric macular hole formation after PPV for ERM without ILM peeling. A 68-year-old male patient presented with ERM and visual acuity of 6/24 in his left eye. He underwent 23-gauge PPV without ILM peeling for treatment of ERM. One week postoperatively the retina was attached and the epiretinal membrane was successfully removed, while visual acuity was 6/9. One month after PPV, a single eccentric retinal hole below the macula was detected using fundoscopy and subsequently confirmed by optical coherence tomography. At this time the visual acuity was 6/9 and the patient reported no symptoms. No further intervention was attempted and at the 9-month follow-up, the visual acuity and the size of the eccentric macular hole remained stable. Eccentric macular holes can be developed after PPV even without ILM peeling and are usually managed conservatively by observation.

  13. Long-term outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without internal limiting membrane peeling for optic disc pit maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, R; Yilmaz, S; Inan, U U; Kaderli, B; Kurt, M; Yalcinbayir, O; Yildiz, M; Yucel, A

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the results of surgical treatment of maculopathy secondary to congenital optic pit anomaly with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), endolaser to the temporal edge of the optic disc and C3F8 tamponade without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Thirteen eyes of 12 patients with serous macular detachment and/or macular retinoschisis secondary to congenital optic disc pit (ODP) were included in the study. All eyes underwent PPV, posterior hyaloid removal, endolaser photocoagulation on the temporal margin of the optic disc and 12% C3F8 gas tamponade. Anatomic success and functional outcome determined retrospectively by optical coherence tomography and measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), respectively were the main outcome parameters. Two lines or more improvement in BCVA was obtained in 11 eyes and 6 of these eyes had 20/40 or better BCVA at the final visit. Subretinal or intraretinal fluid was completely resorbed postoperatively in 12 eyes but a little intraretinal fluid persisted in one eye at the 16-month follow-up. Better visual improvement was observed in patients treated by earlier surgical intervention. PPV, C3F8 gas tamponade and endolaser to the optic disc margin without ILM peeling may yield favourable results in the treatment of ODP maculopathy.

  14. Industrial applications of computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Kanglong; Qiang Yujun; Yang Fujia

    1992-01-01

    Industrial computer tomography (CT) and its application is a rapidly developing field of high technology. CT systems have been playing important roles in nondestructive testing (NDT) of products and equipment for a number of industries. Recently, the technique has advanced into the area of industrial process control, bringing even greater benefit to mankind. The basic principles and typical structure of an industrial CT system Descriptions are given of some successful CT systems for either NDT application or process control purposes

  15. Computed tomography of projectile injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, A.J.; Rutty, G.N.; Robinson, C.; Morgan, B.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a gold standard in clinical imaging but forensic professions have been slow to embrace radiological advances. Forensic applications of CT are now exponentially expanding, replacing other imaging methods. As post-mortem cross-sectional imaging increases, radiologists will fall under increasing pressure to interpret complex forensic cases involving both living and deceased patients. This review presents a wide variety of weapon and projectile types aiding interpretation of projectile injuries both in forensic and clinical practice

  16. Positron emission tomography. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio

    2001-01-01

    The basic principles of positron emission tomography (PET) technique are reviewed. lt allows to obtain functional images from gamma rays produced by annihilation of a positron, a positive beta particle. This paper analyzes positron emitters production in a cyclotron, its general mechanisms, and the various detection systems. The most important clinical applications are also mentioned, related to oncological uses of fluor-l8-deoxyglucose

  17. Viewing Welds By Computer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Antonio G.; Roy, Jagatjit

    1990-01-01

    Computer tomography system used to inspect welds for root penetration. Source illuminates rotating welded part with fan-shaped beam of x rays or gamma rays. Detectors in circular array on opposite side of part intercept beam and convert it into electrical signals. Computer processes signals into image of cross section of weld. Image displayed on video monitor. System offers only nondestructive way to check penetration from outside when inner surfaces inaccessible.

  18. Quantitative inspection by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.T.; Assis, J.T. de; Jesus, E.F.O. de

    1989-01-01

    The computerized Tomography (CT) is a method of nondestructive testing, that furnish quantitative information, that permit the detection and accurate localization of defects, internal dimension measurement, and, measurement and chart of the density distribution. The CT technology is much versatile, not presenting restriction in relation to form, size or composition of the object. A tomographic system, projected and constructed in our laboratory is presented. The applications and limitation of this system, illustrated by tomographyc images, are shown. (V.R.B.)

  19. Computed tomography in osteoid osteoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicens, J.L.; Aubspin, D.; Buchon, R.; Schoenenberger, P.; Flageat, J.

    1989-01-01

    Four cases of suspected osteoid osteoma were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). The role of CT was related, as a key diagnostic tool: radionuclide imaging is helpful in directing subsequent CT scans, which allows the study of complex anatomical sites (spine) or the analysis of atypical lesions (invisible nidus, sclerosis or lytic lesions, double nidus...). CT provides the surgeon with the exact location and extent of the lesion, and thus, CT may allow a more limited surgical resection of the involved bone [fr

  20. Inherent Limitations of Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, Geoffrey C.; Butler, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    We offer a cautionary note in response to an increasing level of enthusiasm regarding high-resolution aquifer characterization with hydraulic tomography. We use synthetic examples based on two recent field experiments to demonstrate that a high degree of nonuniqueness remains in estimates of hydraulic parameter fields even when those estimates are based on simultaneous analysis of a number of carefully controlled hydraulic tests. We must, therefore, be careful not to oversell the technique to the community of practicing hydrogeologists, promising a degree of accuracy and resolution that, in many settings, will remain unattainable, regardless of the amount of effort invested in the field investigation. No practically feasible amount of hydraulic tomography data will ever remove the need to regularize or bias the inverse problem in some fashion in order to obtain a unique solution. Thus, along with improving the resolution of hydraulic tomography techniques, we must also strive to couple those techniques with procedures for experimental design and uncertainty assessment and with other more cost-effective field methods, such as geophysical surveying and, in unconsolidated formations, direct-push profiling, in order to develop methods for subsurface characterization with the resolution and accuracy needed for practical field applications. Copyright ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  1. Comparison between conventional tomography and computer tomography in diseases of the sacroiliac joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, J.D.; Ganter, H.; Winter, C.; Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Giessen

    1990-01-01

    16 patients with diseases of the sacroiliac joints were examined both with computer tomography and with conventional tomography. Both techniques were characterized by a high sensitivity. Computer tomography was superior in exactly delineating the extent of the pathologic changes. In conventional tomography the joint surface was more blurred, erosions were larger, and signs of ankylosis were more expanded, so that the joints seemed to be more altered in 8 cases than demonstrated by computer tomography. Very accurate changes like subchondral cysts were recognized only in the computer tomograms. In all cases in which anteroposterior radiographs revealed no clear result, the authors recommend to additionally employ computer tomography. (orig.) [de

  2. Proteinase-Activated Receptor-1 and Immunomodulatory Effects of a PAR1-Activating Peptide in a Mouse Model of Prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M. Mark; Nelson, Lisa K.; Benediktsson, Hallgrimur; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Buret, Andre G.; Ceri, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nonbacterial prostatitis has no established etiology. We hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) can play a role in prostatitis. We therefore investigated the effects of PAR1 stimulation in the context of a new model of murine nonbacterial prostatitis. Methods. Using a hapten (ethanol-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (DNBS-)) induced prostatitis model with both wild-type and PAR1-null mice, we examined (1) the location of PAR1 in the mouse prostate and (2) the impact of a PAR1-activating peptide (TFLLR-NH2: PAR1-TF) on ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation. Results. Ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation was maximal at 2 days. In the tissue, PAR1 was expressed predominantly along the apical acini of prostatic epithelium. Although PAR1-TF on its own did not cause inflammation, its coadministration with ethanol-DNBS reduced all indices of acute prostatitis. Further, PAR1-TF administration doubled the prostatic production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) compared with ethanol-DNBS treatment alone. This enhanced IL-10 was not observed in PAR1-null mice and was not caused by the reverse-sequence receptor-inactive peptide, RLLFT-NH2. Surprisingly, PAR1-TF, also diminished ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation in PAR1-null mice. Conclusions. PAR1 is expressed in the mouse prostate and its activation by PAR1-TF elicits immunomodulatory effects during ethanol-DNBS-induced prostatitis. However, PAR1-TF also diminishes ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation via a non-PAR1 mechanism by activating an as-yet unknown receptor. PMID:24459330

  3. Profiling gene expression induced by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 activation in human kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Y Suen

    Full Text Available Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2 has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis, but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293, a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2 and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH(2. Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes, the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2 and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15. Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4 known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents.

  4. Comparaison du Pangola (Digitaria decumbens) et du Stargrass (Cynodon nlemfluensis) exploités par des ovins

    OpenAIRE

    Boval, Maryline

    1989-01-01

    A la Martinique l'utilisation comparée de Digitaria decumbens (Dd) et de Cynodon nlemfuensis (Cn) par des brebis allaitantes a été étudiée pendant une période d'observation de 6 mois. Le cheptel est à un taux élevé de 1 600 kg de poids vif par hectare et par an, obtenu par une fertilisation de 450 kg/ha/an en azote.

  5. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  6. Pars plana Ahmed valve and vitrectomy in patients with glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallsh, Josh O; Gallemore, Ron P; Taban, Mehran; Hu, Charles; Sharareh, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of a modified technique for pars plana placement of the Ahmed valve in combination with pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease. Thirty-nine eyes with glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease underwent pars plana vitrectomy combined with Ahmed valve placement. All valves were placed in the pars plana using a modified technique, without the pars plana clip, and using a scleral patch graft. The 24 eyes diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma had an improvement in intraocular pressure from 37.6 mmHg to 13.8 mmHg and best-corrected visual acuity from 2.13 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution to 1.40 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution. Fifteen eyes diagnosed with steroid-induced glaucoma had an improvement in intraocular pressure from 27.9 mmHg to 14.1 mmHg and best-corrected visual acuity from 1.38 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution to 1.13 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution. Complications included four cases of cystic bleb formation and one case of choroidal detachment and explantation for hypotony. Ahmed valve placement through the pars plana during vitrectomy is an effective option for managing complex cases of glaucoma without the use of the pars plana clip.

  7. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV

    2010-03-08

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum (PAR+UVR), PAR only, and minimal light (reduced PAR and UVR). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that different light conditions resulted in the formation of highly different microbial communities. The lowest densities of bacteria were found under the full spectrum treatment, while the lowest densities of diatoms were found in the minimal light treatment. Macrofouling communities consisted of 13 species and differed among light treatments. In the presence of UVR, communities had low species diversity, evenness, and richness, while in minimal light and PAR treatments, communities had high species diversity, evenness, and richness. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed that the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, the alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) sp., and the bivalve Perna viridis were the species responsible for most of the dissimilarities in macrofouling communities among treatments. While densities of H. elegans were similar in the PAR and minimal light treatments, this polychaete had higher growth rates under minimal light conditions. We conclude that UVR and PAR directly control the development of shallow micro- and macrofouling communities by inhibiting the recruitment and growth of sensitive species and promoting the growth of resistant species, but also that these forms of solar radiation influence the surface cues available to competent larvae by altering the development of the microbial community.

  8. The pars intermedia: an anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response to female genital arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheryl; Cold, Christopher J; Yang, Claire C

    2013-06-01

    The pars intermedia is an area of the vulva that has been inconsistently described in the literature. We conducted anatomic studies to better describe the tissues and vascular structures of the pars intermedia and proposed a functional rationale of the pars intermedia in the female sexual response. Nine cadaveric vulvectomy specimens were used. Each was serially sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. Histologic ultrastructural description of the pars intermedia. The pars intermedia contains veins traveling longitudinally in the angle of the clitoris, supported by collagen-rich stromal tissues. These veins drain the different vascular compartments of the vulva, including the clitoris, the bulbs, and labia minora; also, the interconnecting veins link the different vascular compartments. The pars intermedia is not composed of erectile tissue, distinguishing it from the erectile tissues of the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris as well as the corpus spongiosum of the clitoral (vestibular) bulbs. The venous communications of the pars intermedia, linking the erectile tissues with the other vascular compartments of the vulva, appear to provide the anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response during female sexual arousal. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Hunger amidst plenty along the coast of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Nascimento

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work one analyzes some referring questions to the new significações of the temporality constructed socially enters the artisan fishing of the coast, in the city of Maracanã, using as boundary-maker the concepts the concepts of abundance and famitura the one that they send themselves to the speech in way of life of the past and the gift. It will see as the typical way of life of the rescued past of the memory of old and the meaning of the abundance in the time of the fishing-farmer, the counterpoint with the concept of famitura of the fishing-exclusive of the gift, where the loss surpasses the scope of the strict survival reaching the proper way of life with the weakness of solidarity. This analysis will be given mecanicamente in the conceptual field of the time measured for the tasks and of the time chronometered for the clock. The intensive field work ocurred on Fortaleza of the Mocooca community incorporating data gotten a long the author's experience in the fish artisan thematic of the Pará coast.

  10. Le Web pour enseigner par projets et favoriser la collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Ratté

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation du Web présentée dans cet article vient appuyer une démarche pédagogique fondée sur le partage des savoirs. Dans le contexte d’une simulation industrielle, les étudiants d’un cours de programmation avancée doivent apprendre à partager leur expertise, à communiquer clairement leurs questions, à décrire des problèmes et à faire face à des retournements inattendus. Le Web devient un espace de collaboration pour diffuser les requêtes d’un client fictif, les directives, les travaux préliminaires et les ententes. Les résultats obtenus tendent à suggérer que cette approche globale force l’étudiant à mieux planifier, l’invite à mieux formuler et décrire les problèmes, augmente le niveau de collaboration et facilite la production d’analogies. Un système facilitant la logistique entourant la revue par les pairs (récupération des travaux, construction d’une grille d’évaluation et diffusion des résultats est également présenté.

  11. Design of 118 MHz twelfth harmonic cavity of APS PAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Bridges, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Two radio frequency (RF) cavities are needed in the Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. One is for the first harmonic frequency at 9.8 MHz, and the other is for the twelfth harmonic frequency at 118 MHz. This note reports on the design of the 118 MHz RF cavity. Computer models are used to find the mode frequencies, impedances, Q-factors, and field distributions in the cavity. The computer codes MAFIA, URMEL, and URMEL-T are useful tools which model and simulate the resonance characteristics of a cavity. These codes employ the finite difference method to solve Maxwell's equations. MAFIA is a three-dimensional problem solver and uses square patches to approximate the inner surface of a cavity. URMEL and URMEL-T are two-dimensional problem solvers and use rectangular and triangular meshes, respectively. URMEL-T and MAFIA can handle problems with arbitrary dielectric materials located inside the boundary. The cavity employs a circularly cylindrical ceramic window to limit the vacuum to the beam pipe. The ceramic window used in the modeling will have a wall thickness of 0.9 cm. This wall thickness is not negligible in determining the resonant frequencies of the cavity. In the following, results of two- and three-dimensional modeling of the cavities using the URMEL-T and MAFIA codes are reported

  12. Characterization of ParTI Phoswiches Using Charged Pion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, Emily; Zarrella, Andrew; Youngs, Michael; Yennello, Sherry

    2017-09-01

    The Partial Truncated Icosahedron (ParTI) detector array consists of 15 phoswiches. Each phoswich is made of two scintillating components - a thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) crystal and an EJ-212 scintillating plastic - coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Both materials have different scintillation times and are sensitive to both charged and neutral particles. The type of particle and amount of energy deposited determine the shape of the scintillation pulse as a function of time. By integrating the fast and slow signals of the scintillation pulses, a ``Fast vs. Slow Integration'' plot can be created that produces particle identification lines based on the energy deposited in the scintillating materials. Four of these phoswiches were taken to the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland where π + , π-, and proton beams were scattered onto the phoswiches to demonstrate their particle identification (PID) capabilities. Using digitizers to record the detector response waveforms, pions can also be identified by the characteristic decay pulse of the muon daughters.

  13. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenas Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  14. MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1 signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9% and 58 (68.2% tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068, MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127, and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883 and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681, MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279, and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881 as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.

  15. MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Hong-hua; Zhang, Xi; Cao, Pei-guo [Department of Oncology, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China)

    2011-11-18

    The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1)/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9%) and 58 (68.2%) tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883) and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881) as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.

  16. Noninvasive coronary angioscopy using electron beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, PMA; Nieman, K; de Feyter, PJ; Oudkerk, M

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of noninvasive coronary imaging techniques like multidetector computed tomography and electron beam computed tomography, new representation methods such as intracoronary visualization. have been introduced. We explore the possibilities of these novel visualization techniques and

  17. Positron emission tomography with Positome, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukui, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Thompson, C.J.; Feindel, W.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with Positome II using 68 Ga-EDTA was performed in cases with brain tumor and cerebral arteriovenous malformation. A significant focal uptake in static study and hemodynamic changes in dynamic study were noted in all cases except one case with intracranial lipoma. Comparing this method with sup(99m) Tc-pertechnetate cerebral image study and computerized axial tomography, the diagnostic rate for detecting brain tumor was almost equal in all of these three methods. However, detecting and localizing was easier and clearer in static positron emission tomography with 68 Ga-EDTA than in sup(99m) Tc-pertechnetate cerebral image and computerized axial tomography without infusion of contrast medium. Furthermore, static positron emission tomography with 68 Ga-EDTA was superior to computerized axial tomography without infusion of contrast medium for detecting cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Concerning dynamic positron emission tomography with 68 Ga-EDTA, semiquantitative values obtained by this method correlated well with findings of computerized axial tomography and was thought to be more precise and in detail than the findings of sup(99m) Tc-pertechnetate cerebral image study. Summation of the previous studies about dynamic positron emission tomography with 77 Kr in occlusive cerebrovascular disease is also reported. In conclusion, static positron emission tomography with 68 Ga-EDTA is a very useful diagnostic method for detecting and localizing brain tumor and cerebral arteriovenous malformation without any attendant complications. Furthermore, a good combination of static and dynamic positron emission tomography and computerized axial tomography appear to be outstandingly effective for not only detecting the lesion but also understanding the pathophysiological aspect in cases with various intracranial lesions. (author)

  18. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TR-7681 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt, Chris M...Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt and Matthew S Bratcher Weapons and Materials Research...values to account for projectile variability in the ballistic evaluation of armor. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computed tomography , CT, BS41, projectiles

  19. Prognostic value of suPAR and hs-CRP on cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Marie Zöga; Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Mickley, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Background and aims: Studies have shown that soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) and CRP (both inflammatory markers) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are independent risk predictors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether suPAR and CRP...... have an increased predictive prognostic value beyond the traditional CV risk factors and the CAC score. Methods: A population sample of 1179 subjects, free of CV disease was included. The subjects underwent traditional CV risk evaluation, CAC assessment and blood sampling for suPAR and CRP. CV events...

  20. Profils des enfants infectes par le vih en debut du traitement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But : Décrire les profils des enfants infectés par le VIH au début du traitement antirétroviral. Matériels et méthode: Les dossiers des enfants infectés par le VIH dans la région maritime ont été analysés de mai 2008 à février 2010 par le comité thérapeutique. Résultats: Parmi les 96 dossiers analysés, 66,67% venaient du ...

  1. Les dispensées par fantaisie en éducation physique et sportive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude vise à comprendre les raisons avancées par les élèves dispensés par fantaisie des cours d'EPS, pour justifier leur attitude et principalement leur forfait. Une enquête par questionnaire écrit a été menée dans 13 établissements publics de la ville de Porto-Novo au Bénin. Au total, 203 élèves parmi les 771 élèves ...

  2. MODELISATION DE LA CINETIQUE CHIMIQUE DANS LA REDUCTION DES OXYDES D4AZOTE PAR DECHARGE COURONNE.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDJAHDI, Sarah ines

    2015-01-01

    CE TRAVAIL DE recherche rentre dans le cadre général de modélisation de la réduction des oxydes d'azote . l'utilisation des réacteurs a plasma froid non-thermique généré par des décharges couronnes est actuellement l'une des techniques les puis promettre .ses pour la destruction des oxydes d'azote .en effet , le traitement des gaz pollués par les décharges couronnes est notamment rendu possible par la multiplication des décharges Électriques .

  3. Thrombin induces rapid PAR1-mediated non-classical FGF1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Maria; Kolev, Vihren; Soldi, Raffaella; Kirov, Alexander; Graziani, Irene; Oliveira, Silvia Marta; Kacer, Doreen; Friesel, Robert; Maciag, Thomas; Prudovsky, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Thrombin induces cell proliferation and migration during vascular injury. We report that thrombin rapidly stimulated expression and release of the pro-angiogenic polypeptide fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Thrombin failed to induce FGF1 release from protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) null fibroblasts, indicating that this effect was dependent on PAR1. Similarly to thrombin, FGF1 expression and release were induced by TRAP, a specific oligopeptide agonist of PAR1. These results identify a novel aspect of the crosstalk between FGF and thrombin signaling pathways which both play important roles in tissue repair and angiogenesis

  4. Complexation de l'aluminium par des hétéropolyanions lacunaires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif visé par cette étude est la dépollution des eaux à partir de la complexation d'un métal toxique, l'aluminium en solution, par des hétéropolyanions lacunaires (HPA) de type Dawson. Les complexes formés sont récupérés par membrane liquide émulsionnée (MEL).Les résultats de la complex1ation de l'aluminium ...

  5. Influence of P-Reactor operation on the aquatic ecology of Par Pond: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Tilly, L.J.

    1985-02-01

    Par Pond is a 1012 hectare reservoir that was constructed in 1958 to provide cooling water for Savannah River nuclear reactors. The purpose of this report is to summarize all known studies on the Par Pond system and point out demonstrable or probable effects that can be correlated with reactor operations. Reactor operation effects the Par Pond ecosystem through: (1) pumping, (2) thermal alteration, and (3) the addition of Savannah River makeup water. The influence of each of these factors is discussed. 108 references, 24 figures, 34 tables. (MF)

  6. Monoradiculopathy and secondary segmental instability caused by postoperative pars interarticularis fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Tuncay; Tutkan, Ibrahim

    2009-04-01

    Instability can develop after lumbar spinal surgery. What is also known as secondary segmental instability is one of the important causes of failed back syndrome. In this paper, we described a 45-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with secondary segmental instability caused by left L3 pars interarticularis fracture after a high lumbar disc surgery and was subsequently treated with re-operation. We evaluated the clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment methods for secondary segmental instability caused by postoperative pars interarticularis fracture. Furthermore, we emphasized the importance of preserving the pars interarticularis during upper lumbar disc surgeries in order to avoid a potential stress fracture.

  7. RELIABILITY OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN EVALUATION OF TESTICULAR CARCINOMA PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoletić, Katarina; Mihailović, Jasna; Matovina, Emil; Žeravica, Radmila; Srbovan, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the reliability of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan in evaluation of testicular carcinoma patients. The study sample consisted of 26 scans performed in 23 patients with testicular carcinoma. According to the pathohistological finding, 14 patients had seminomas, 7 had nonseminomas and 2 patients had a mixed histological type. In 17 patients, the initial treatment was orchiectomy+chemotherapy, 2 patients had orchiectomy+chemotherapy+retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, 3 patients had orchiectomy only and one patient was treated with chemotherapy only. Abnormal computed tomography was the main cause for the oncologist to refer the patient to positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan (in 19 scans), magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in 1 scan, high level oftumor markers in 3 and 3 scans were perforned for follow-up. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging results were compared with histological results, other imaging modalities or the clinical follow-up of the patients. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans were positive in 6 and negative in 20 patients. In two patients, positron emission tomography-computed tomography was false positive. There were 20 negative positron emission omography-computed tomography scans perforned in 18 patients, one patient was lost for data analysis. Clinically stable disease was confirmed in 18 follow-up scans performed in 16 patients. The values of sensitivty, specificity, accuracy, and positive- and negative predictive value were 60%, 95%, 75%, 88% and 90.5%, respectively. A hgh negative predictive value obtained in our study (90.5%) suggests that there is a small possibility for a patient to have future relapse after normal positron emission tomography-computed tomography study. However, since the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the study ire rather low, there are limitations of positive

  8. Computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, L.D.; Ritman, E.L.; Robb, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Presented here is a brief introduction to two-, three-, and four-dimensional computed tomography. More detailed descriptions of the mathematics of reconstruction and of CT scanner operation are presented elsewhere. The complementary tomographic imaging methods of single-photon-emission tomography (SPECT) positron-emission tomography (PET), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, ulltrasound sector scanning, and ulltrasound computer-assisted tomography [UCAT] are only named here. Each imaging modality ''probes'' the body with a different energy form, yielding unique and useful information about tomographic sections through the body

  9. Influencia de los parámetros de proceso, en el comportamiento del parámetro vibración absoluta en turbinas de vapor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado en turbinas de vapor de pequeña capacidad de generación de las centrales termoeléctricas cubanas, relacionadas con la influencia estadística entre parámetros de proceso de la turbina, respecto al parámetro vibración absoluta, medidos en las chumaceras de la turbina. Se utilizan las bases de datos de los sistemas de monitoreado on-line de la turbina. Se exponen las relaciones existentes entre los principales parámetros seleccionados para este estudio.This work show the study in small steam turbine capacity of generation in cubans thermoelectric power station to relative with statistical influence between steam process parameters regarding absolute vibration parameter, in the steam housing measurements. Themselves use database as steam on-line monitoring systems. Expose the existing relation between the principal selection parameters for this study.

  10. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Cun; Xie, Qiang; Lv, Wei-Fu

    2014-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a phenotypically heterogeneous, chronic, destructive inflammatory disease of the synovial joints. A number of imaging tools are currently available for evaluation of inflammatory conditions. By targeting the upgraded glucose uptake of infiltrating granulocytes and tissue macrophages, positron emission tomography/computed tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG PET/CT) is available to delineate inflammation with high sensitivity. Recently, several studies have indicated that FDG uptake in affected joints reflects the disease activity of RA. In addition, usage of FDG PET for the sensitive detection and monitoring of the response to treatment has been reported. Combined FDG PET/CT enables the detailed assessment of disease in large joints throughout the whole body. These unique capabilities of FDG PET/CT imaging are also able to detect RA-complicated diseases. Therefore, PET/CT has become an excellent ancillary tool to assess disease activity and prognosis in RA. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Therapy response evaluation with positron emission tomography-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, George M

    2010-12-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose is widely used for evaluation of therapy response in patients with solid tumors but has not been as readily adopted in clinical trials because of the variability of acquisition and processing protocols and the absence of universal response criteria. Criteria proposed for clinical trials are difficult to apply in clinical practice, and gestalt impression is probably accurate in individual patients, especially with respect to the presence of progressive disease and complete response. Semiquantitative methods of determining tissue glucose metabolism, such as standard uptake value, can be a useful descriptor for levels of tissue glucose metabolism and changes in response to therapy if technical quality control measures are carefully maintained. The terms partial response, complete response, and progressive disease are best used in clinical trials in which the terms have specific meanings and precise definitions. In clinical practice, it may be better to use descriptive terminology agreed upon by imaging physicians and clinicians in their own practice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Computed tomography of stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, M.; Brennan, R.E.; Edeiken, J.

    1982-01-01

    An athletic young female developed gradual onset of pain in the right leg. Plain radiographs demonstrated solid periosteal reaction in the tibia compatible with stress fracture. She stopped sport activites but her pain continued. Follow-up radiographs of the tibia revealed changes suspicious for osteoid osteoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated periosteal reaction, but in addition, lucent fracture lines in the tibial cortex were evident. CT obviated the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures in this patient. In selected cases CT may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of stress fracture when plain radiographic or routine tomographic studies are not diagnostic. (orig.)

  13. Computerized tomography of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Mayumi

    1981-01-01

    Two different types of computerized tomography scanners (CT scanner), i.e. a whole-body CT scanner (GE-CT/T8800) and a cerebral CT scanner (EMI-1010), were compared in the assessment and diagnosis of various orbital lesions. The whole-body CT scanner was found to be advantageous over the cerebral CT scanner for the following reasons: (1) CT images were more informative due to thinner slices associated with smaller-sized and larger-numbered matrices; (2) less artifacts derived from motion of the head or eyeball were produced because of the shorter scanning time; (3) with a devised gantry, coronal dissections were available whenever demanded. (author)

  14. Positron emission tomography takes lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simms, R.

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)'s ability to detect functional abnormalities before they manifest anatomically is examined and some of its most common applications are outlined. It is emphasised that when PET facility and Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's national cyclotron are established at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, the availability of short-lived tracers such as oxygen 15, nitrogen 13 and fluorine 18 would improve the specificity of tests(e.g. for brain tumors or cardiac viability) further. Construction of the cyclotron will start shortly and is due to be completed and operating by the end of 1991

  15. Duodenal diverticulitis. computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, E.; Martin, S.; Garcia, J.; Dominguez, A.

    2001-01-01

    Duodenal diverticular occur very frequently among the general public. However, duodenal diverticulitis is a very uncommon clinical entity, the diagnosis of which requires radiological studies since the clinical signs cam mimic a great number of disease processes with different treatments. We present a case of duodenal diverticulitis in which the diagnosis according to ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) studies was confirmed intraoperatively. We also review the few cases of this entity reported in the literature. The CT findings are highly suggestive of duodenal diverticulitis given their similarity to those associated with diverticulitis at other sites. (Author) 5 refs,

  16. Intensifying screens in transaxial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelder, M.H.; Bollen, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim by Agfa-Gevaert relates to a method for the production of transaxial tomographs, a combination of materials therefor and X-ray intensifying screens incorporating at least one reflecting element for use in transaxial tomography, wherein the exposure of a photographic silver halide emulsion material proceeds at an angle within the range of 2 0 to 10 0 in conjunction with an X-ray fluorescent intensifying screen including an ultra-violet and/or visible radiation reflective coating or sheet to increase the radiation output of the screen and to reduce the exposure time and radiation dose e.g. in medical X-ray applications. (author)

  17. Mathematical foundations of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.T.; Keinert, F.

    1985-01-01

    Along with a review of some of the mathematical foundations of computed tomography, the article contains new results on derivation of reconstruction formulas in a general setting encompassing all standard formulas; discussion and examples of the role of the point spread function with recipes for producing suitable ones; formulas for, and examples of, the reconstruction of certain functions of the attenuation coefficient, e.g., sharpened versions of it, some of them with the property that reconstruction at a point requires only the attenuation along rays meeting a small neighborhood of the point

  18. Fundamentals of positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is a modern radionuclide method of measuring physiological quantities or metabolic parameters in vivo. The methods is based on: (1) Radioactive labelling with positron emitters; (2) the coincidence technique for the measurement of the annihilation radiation following positron decay; (3) analysis of the data measured using biological models. The basic aspects and problems of the method are discussed. The main fields of future research are the synthesis of new labelled compounds and the development of mathematical models of the biological processes to be investigated. (orig.) [de

  19. Emission tomography for adrenal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.; Shapiro, B.; Hawkins, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPET) of the adrenals was compared to convential gamma camera images. Depths of 19 adrenals were assessed by both the lateral skin-upper kidney pole method and by SPET. Eleven patients with adrenal disorders were also studied. An advantage of using SPET was that the analogue transverse section image showed improvement over the conventional posterior view because the liver activity was well separated from the adrenal. Furthermore, non-adrenal tissue background was virtually eliminated and adrenal depth determination facilitated. (U.K.)

  20. High speed computer assisted tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maydan, D.; Shepp, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray generation and detection apparatus for use in a computer assisted tomography system which permits relatively high speed scanning. A large x-ray tube having a circular anode (3) surrounds the patient area. A movable electron gun (8) orbits adjacent to the anode. The anode directs into the patient area xrays which are delimited into a fan beam by a pair of collimating rings (21). After passing through the patient, x-rays are detected by an array (22) of movable detectors. Detector subarrays (23) are synchronously movable out of the x-ray plane to permit the passage of the fan beam