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Sample records for npk stress characteristics

  1. Combined effects of drought stress and npk foliar spray on growth, physiological processes and nutrient uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, R.N.; Waraocj, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of supplemental foliar nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) spray, alone or in various combinations, on physiological processes and nutrients uptake in wheat under water deficit conditions. The study comprised of two phases; during the first phase, ten local wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were evaluated for their response to PEG-6000 induced osmotic stress. One drought tolerant (Bhakkar-2002) and sensitive (Shafaq-2006) genotype selected from screening experiments were used in the second phase to determine the individual and combined effects of N, P and K foliar spray on physiological mechanisms in wheat under drought stress. The results revealed that limited water supply significantly reduced germination, growth and uptake of N, P and K. Supplemental foliar fertilisation of these macronutrients alone or in different combinations significantly improved the water relations, gas exchange characteristics and nutrient contents in both the genotypes. Bhakkar-2002 maintained higher turgor, net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs) and accumulated more N, P and K in shoot than Shafaq-2006. The foliar spray of NPK in combination was effective in improving wheat growth under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. (author)

  2. Effete of Gamma Radiation and N.P.K on Lettuce yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo Elkhier, O.H.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Two field experiment were carried out during 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experiment at farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt – The experiments were conducted to study the effect of irradiated sowing seeds with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation and / or the effect of different levels of NPK fertilizer 0, (NPK)1, (NPK)2, (NPK)3, (NPK)4 and (NPK)5 on the morphological and chemical parameters of the lettuce yield. The fresh weight of the plant in the line, length of the plant in the line, the number of leaves in the line, the number of plants in the line and the fresh weight in Fadden per ton were studied. There were significant effects of NPK contents on the lettuce leaves at (NPK) 4 in the dose level 6 Gy and on Calcium and Vitamins. We found that the most effective doses on leaf lettuce is 6 Gy dose of gamma radiation which gives strong and early seedlings in maturity upwards in the production of seedlings dose of 4 Gy. While the dose 8 Gray did not occur any increase at dose level 6 Gy. The Level (NPK) 4 increase the production of fresh per acre more upwards for all levels with 6 Gray and fourth level was the best in the natural qualities and characteristics of chemical terms of delay growth harvest lettuce, as well as influence on the plant content of calcium, nitrogen, protein and all the natural qualities among the first season and the second season.

  3. INFLUENCE BY ARTIFICIAL DEFOLIATION AND NPK FERTILIZER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.E. Law-Ogbomo

    main plot, defoliation (sub-plot) and time of defoliation (sub- sub plot). ... using analysis of variance procedure for split – split plot design and means were ... The interaction between NPK fertilizer application and defoliation was only .... yield components (number of dry pod per plant, number of seeds per pod and plant).

  4. NPK macronutrients and microRNA homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcheski, Franceli R; Côrrea, Régis; Gomes, Igor A; de Lima, Júlio C; Margis, Rogerio

    2015-01-01

    Macronutrients are essential elements for plant growth and development. In natural, non-cultivated systems, the availability of macronutrients is not a limiting factor of growth, due to fast recycling mechanisms. However, their availability might be an issue in modern agricultural practices, since soil has been frequently over exploited. From a crop management perspective, the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are three important limiting factors and therefore frequently added as fertilizers. NPK are among the nutrients that have been reported to alter post-embryonic root developmental processes and consequently, impairs crop yield. To cope with nutrients scarcity, plants have evolved several mechanisms involved in metabolic, physiological, and developmental adaptations. In this scenario, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as additional key regulators of nutrients uptake and assimilation. Some studies have demonstrated the intrinsic relation between miRNAs and their targets, and how they can modulate plants to deal with the NPK availability. In this review, we focus on miRNAs and their regulation of targets involved in NPK metabolism. In general, NPK starvation is related with miRNAs that are involved in root-architectural changes and uptake activity modulation. We further show that several miRNAs were discovered to be involved in plant-microbe symbiosis during N and P uptake, and in this way we present a global view of some studies that were conducted in the last years. The integration of current knowledge about miRNA-NPK signaling may help future studies to focus in good candidates genes for the development of important tools for plant nutritional breeding.

  5. Structural and impedance characterization of ceramics prepared from NPK fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diouma Kobor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of this work was to study the possibilities of valorising the phosphates through the development of a conductive ceramics using NPK fertilizer as a precursor. Phosphorus based powders were synthesized using solid state technique from NPK fertilizer, lithium chloride and iron chloride at different temperatures up to 900 °C and ceramic samples were prepared by the powder pressing and sintering at 1100 °C. XRD spectra of the calcined powders show various sharp peaks indicating a relatively high degree of crystallinity and presence of different crystalline phases, such as: phosphorus based crystalline compounds (AlPO4 and LiFePO4, ferrite (Fe3O4 and DyFeO3, CaSO4 and K3DyCl6. The prepared phosphorus based ceramics showed very interesting electrical and dielectric properties. Thus, in the future the obtained ceramics could find application in electronic or energy storage devices. However, further investigations are necessary to understand the exact chemical composition and structural characteristics of this material, to better understand the origin of the obtained electrical and dielectric behaviour.

  6. Release of cadmium in contaminated paddy soil amended with NPK fertilizer and lime under water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Qing; Xiao, Xi-Yuan; Guo, Zhao-Hui; Xie, Ye-Hua; Zhu, Hui-Wen; Peng, Chi; Liang, Yu-Qin

    2018-05-03

    Agricultural soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) pose a risk to receiving surface water via drainage or runoff. A 90-day laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the release characteristics and transformation of Cd from contaminated paddy soil amended with agrochemical (NPK fertilizer) and lime (L) under water management regimes of continuous flooding (F) and drying-wetting cycles (DW). The result showed that the dissolved Cd concentrations in overlying water of the fertilizer treatment under flooding (NPK+F) and drying-wetting (NPK+DW) reached up to 81.0 μg/L and 276 μg/L, and were much higher than that from the corresponding controls without NPK fertilizer addition at the end of experiment. The Cd concentration showed significantly negative correlation with overlying water pH, but positive correlation with soil redox potential and concentrations of dissolved total nitrogen, sulfate and manganese in overlying water (P < 0.05), indicating that drying-wetting cycles and N fertilizer addition may enhance soil Cd release. The Cd concentrations in overlying water from all treatments except NPK+L+F treatment exceeded the Cd threshold limit of Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (10 μg/L Grade V) and poses potential risk to surface water quality. Meanwhile, the proportion of Cd in the acid-soluble fraction from all incubated soil except NPK+L+F treatment increased compared to before incubation. The results indicated that continuous flooding was a reasonable water management candidate coupled with lime addition for immobilizing soil Cd. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) varieties to NPK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to determine the response of three okra varieties to four NPK fertilizers. The okra varieties; V35 (in the pot experiment and Clemson spineless in the field trial), Jokoso, and Sologo formed the main plot treatments and four NPK fertilizer rates: no fertilizer (control), 30 +15 +15, 60 +30 ...

  8. Slow-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by carboxymethyl cellulose-based nanocomposite with the function of water retention in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olad, Ali; Zebhi, Hamid; Salari, Dariush; Mirmohseni, Abdolreza; Reyhani Tabar, Adel

    2018-09-01

    In this study, new slow release fertilizer encapsulated by superabsorbent nanocomposite was prepared by in-situ graft polymerization of sulfonated-carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) with acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), silica nanoparticles and nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) (NPK) fertilizer compound. The prepared materials were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The incorporation of NPK fertilizer into hydrogel nanocomposite network was verified by results of these analyses. Also, the swelling behavior in various pH and saline solutions as well as water retention capability of the prepared hydrogel nanocomposite was evaluated. The fertilizer release behavior of the NPK loaded hydrogel nanocomposite was in good agreement with the standard of Committee of European Normalization (CEN), indicating its excellent slow release property. These good characteristics revealed that the hydrogel nanocomposite fertilizer formulation can be practically used in agricultural and horticultural applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Miniaturized On-Chip Colorimeter for Detecting NPK Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui-Tao; Tao, Lu-Qi; Liu, Bo; Tian, Xiang-Guang; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Recently, precision agriculture has become a globally attractive topic. As one of the most important factors, the soil nutrients play an important role in estimating the development of precision agriculture. Detecting the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) elements more efficiently is one of the key issues. In this paper, a novel chip-level colorimeter was fabricated to detect the NPK elements for the first time. A light source–microchannel photodetector in a sandwich structu...

  10. Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7% and leaf area (9% when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%, P (30% and K (17% of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.

  11. PRODUKSI TANAMAN CABE RAWIT (Capsicum frutescent L.) DI TANAH ULTISOL MENGGUNAKAN BOKASHI SAMPAH ORGANIK RUMAH TANGGA DAN NPK

    OpenAIRE

    Mega Silvia; Hilda Susanti; Samharinto Samharinto; Gt. Muhammad Sugian Noor

    2016-01-01

    Research on the production of chilli in utisol soil using organic household waste bokashi and NPK was conducted  in Banjarbaru from February to June 2015. The research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments. The treatments were (P1) 100% NPK, (P2) 100% NPK + bokashi, (P3) 75% NPK + bokashi, (P4) 50% NPK + bokashi, (P5) 25% NPK + bokashi, (P6) 100% bokashi. 100% NPK and 100% bokashi were 250 kg ha-1 NPK and 10 t ha-1 bokashi respectively. The result showed that the aplicat...

  12. Produksi Tanaman Cabe Rawit (Capsicum Frutescent L.) Di Tanah Ultisol Menggunakan Bokashi Sampah Organik Rumah Tangga Dan Npk

    OpenAIRE

    Mega Silvia; Hilda Susanti; Samharinto Samharinto; Gt Muhammad Sugian Noor

    2016-01-01

    Research on the production of chilli in utisol soil using organic household waste bokashi and NPK was conducted in Banjarbaru from February to June 2015. The research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments. The treatments were (P1) 100% NPK, (P2) 100% NPK + bokashi, (P3) 75% NPK + bokashi, (P4) 50% NPK + bokashi, (P5) 25% NPK + bokashi, (P6) 100% bokashi. 100% NPK and 100% bokashi were 250 kg ha-1 NPK and 10 t ha-1 bokashi respectively. The result showed that the aplicat...

  13. Comparative assessment of the effect of Moringa extracts, NPK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera extracts, NPK fertilizer and Poultry manure on Soil properties and growth performance of Solanium melongena in the Giri area of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replicates was used. Data collected ...

  14. EFFECTS OF PLANT DENSITY AND NPK APPLICATION ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.E. Law-Ogbomo

    and livestock industries. Nigeria is the ... planting density and NPK fertilizer application rate on the growth and yield of D. rotundata in ..... Clay (%). 10.90. 11.00. 22.60. Silt (%). 8.60. 11.00. 23.40. Sand (%). 80.50. 78.00 .... Institute of food and.

  15. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF NPK FERTILIZER ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF NPK FERTILIZER ON THE. INFECTION COEFFICIENT OF RICE (Orysa sativa L.) .... 2014) and the effect of plants extracts on rice seed fungi (Nguefack et al., 2013). Several authors work on ... separated by border rows of 1m wide. Four varieties of rice were used for this study. (NERICA ...

  16. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in NPK Fertilizers Imported in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Milinović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest concentration of Pb and Cd as impurities. Cu content, ranging from 7.1 to 974.7 mg/kg, was the highest in coloured fertilizers from Hungary, the Netherlands and Greece. Mn value in a Hungarian NPK product (10:10:20 exceeds the average Mn value in soil. The data indicate variable contents of heavy metals in fertilizers, some of which are significantly higher than natural concentrations in soil, which suggests that they need to be continuously monitored.

  17. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  18. De Veterinaire Hoofdinspectie en het NPK ; ontwikkeling van een meetstrategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lembrechts JFMM; Pruppers MJM

    1993-01-01

    This report elaborates the position of the Veterinary Public Health Service (VHI), which is part of the Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs, within the National Organisation for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response (NPK). This organisation is activated in case of nuclear accidents

  19. PRODUKSI TANAMAN CABE RAWIT (Capsicum frutescent L. DI TANAH ULTISOL MENGGUNAKAN BOKASHI SAMPAH ORGANIK RUMAH TANGGA DAN NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the production of chilli in utisol soil using organic household waste bokashi and NPK was conducted  in Banjarbaru from February to June 2015. The research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six treatments. The treatments were (P1 100% NPK, (P2 100% NPK + bokashi, (P3 75% NPK + bokashi, (P4 50% NPK + bokashi, (P5 25% NPK + bokashi, (P6 100% bokashi. 100% NPK and 100% bokashi were 250 kg ha-1 NPK and 10 t ha-1 bokashi respectively. The result showed that the aplication of treatments gave affected to height increase, number of nodes, first day of appearing flower, biomass, fruit number and weight of fresh fruit The combination of 75% NPK and organic household waste bokashi can be recomended as the best doses for production of chilli. Organic household waste bokashi can contribute to reduce 25% of NPK aplication on the production of chili.

  20. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  1. A Miniaturized On-Chip Colorimeter for Detecting NPK Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Tao; Tao, Lu-Qi; Liu, Bo; Tian, Xiang-Guang; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-08-04

    Recently, precision agriculture has become a globally attractive topic. As one of the most important factors, the soil nutrients play an important role in estimating the development of precision agriculture. Detecting the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) elements more efficiently is one of the key issues. In this paper, a novel chip-level colorimeter was fabricated to detect the NPK elements for the first time. A light source-microchannel photodetector in a sandwich structure was designed to realize on-chip detection. Compared with a commercial colorimeter, all key parts are based on MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology so that the volume of this on-chip colorimeter can be minimized. Besides, less error and high precision are achieved. The cost of this colorimeter is two orders of magnitude less than that of a commercial one. All these advantages enable a low-cost and high-precision sensing operation in a monitoring network. The colorimeter developed herein has bright prospects for environmental and biological applications.

  2. Child Characteristics, Parenting Stress, and Parental Involvement: Fathers versus Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Schoppe, Sarah J.; Rane, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines variations in the relationships among child characteristics, parenting stress, and parental involvement. Analyses revealed significant, yet somewhat different, associations between child temperament and parental stress for mothers and fathers. More significant associations were found between perceptions of child temperament and…

  3. Growth, carcase and meat characteristics of stress susceptible and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, carcase and meat characteristics of stress susceptible and stress resistant. South African Landrace gilts. P.H. Heinze*. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, 1675Republic of South Africa. G. Mitchell. Department of Physiology, Medical School, University of the Witwatersrand, York ...

  4. Complementary Use of NPK Fertilizer and Zinc on Growth and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out at the research farm, National Root Crops Research Institute, Sub-station Igbariam to determine the effect of NPK fertilizer and zinc on growth and yield of cocoyam. The study was a factorial type fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. Five levels of NPK fertilizer ...

  5. Effect of poultry manure, NPK 15-15-15 and combination of their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effects of 300kg/ha NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer, 7t/ha poultry manure (Pm), six combinations of reduced levels of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer and poultry manure, and control (no fertilizer) on maize growth, nutrients uptake and soil chemical properties were investigated for two years at Akure, South West Nigeria.

  6. Adubação do milho: XXIV - Resultados de um ensaio permanente com estêrco, calcário e NPK mineral Fertilizer experiments with corn: XXIV - First 9-year results of a long term trial with manure, limestone, and NPK fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Miranda

    1964-01-01

    .This paper reports the first 9-year results of an experiment in which the effects of manure, limestone, and a NPK fertilizer are being tested on continuous corn. The experiment is located at Campinas, on a «terra-roxa-misturada» soil fairly fertile with the initial pH of 5.6. The corn yields were generally satisfactory and tended to increase during the indicated period, this being attributed to the accumulation of residues of the successive fertilizer applications and the use of more productive hybrids. The average effect of lime was null, but its interaction with NPK was significant and positive: in the absence and in the presence of NPK respectively, the responses to lime corresponded to -205 and +204 kg/ha (kilograms per hectare. The yield increases due to manure were very good and more or less constant during the period studied. Its interaction with NPK was significant and negative: +1,340 kg/ha in the absence and only +443 kg/ha in the presence of NPK. As to NPK, its effect was significant and tended to increase considerably as the years passed. While the presence of lime enhanced it, that of manure depressed it. In the 9-year average the response to NPK, which reached +1,904 kg/ha in the absence, dropped to +1,007 kg/ha in the presence of manure. However, the yields still increased where NPK + manure were applied. The authors also studied the influence of the treatments on some characteristics of the corn plant and ears, and on the chemical properties of the soil, as well as the most profitable rates of NPK applications.

  7. Lateral stress-induced propagation characteristics in photonic crystal fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hong-Da; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Han Li-Hong; Liu Yu-Min

    2009-01-01

    Using the finite element method, this paper investigates lateral stress-induced propagation characteristics in a pho-tonic crystal fibre of hexagonal symmetry. The results of simulation show the strong stress dependence of effective index of the fundamental guided mode, phase modal birefringence and confinement loss. It also finds that the contribution of the geometrical effect that is related only to deformation of the photonic crystal fibre and the stress-related contribution to phase modal birefringence and confinement loss are entirely different. Furthermore, polarization-dependent stress sensitivity of confinement loss is proposed in this paper.

  8. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oyedeji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot into unfertilized soil (control and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT. Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently.

  9. Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7% and leaf area (9% when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%, P (30% and K (17% of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.A inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas pode ser uma abordagem tecnológica útil para aumentar a produção de milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial de plantas de milho, em resposta à aplicação de doses de NPK combinadas com a inoculação da bactéria diazotrófica Herbaspirillum seropedicae, em experimento em casa de vegetação. A matriz experimental consistiu em seis níveis de adubação: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 % da dose de NPK recomendada, aplicados em plantas de milho inoculadas e não inoculadas com H. seropedicae. Aos 30 dias após a

  10. Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO BOLLER GALLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ‘Catuaí’, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP, em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ‘Mundo Novo’, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ‘Catuaí’ tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação.The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the

  11. [What worries Hungarian men? Characteristics of masculine gender role stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susánszky, Anna; Susánszky, Eva; Kopp, Mária

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of stress associated with male gender role and its relationship to health and to risk behaviours among Hungarian men. The present analysis is based on data of the Hungarostudy 2006 survey. Forty-one percent of the participants were men. Eighty nine percent of the male respondents completed the Eisler-Skidmore Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale; data of 1764 persons were analyzed. Anxiety about sexual performance, breadwinner role, and appearance (i.e. tradition factor) causes a much greater burden of stress than anxiety about changing gender relationships (i.e. modernization factor). With the increase of age, stress caused by traditional role expectations significantly decreases; tensions caused by women's dominance and by situations which demand emotional response and empathy are the highest among middle aged men. Traditional gender role stress is more prevalent among pensioners than among economically active men; stress caused by the modernization of masculine gender role particularly afflicts unemployed men. Married men are to the least extent troubled by female dominance and difficulties in expressing emotions. Of the two dimensions analyzed here (tradition and modernization) only the values on the tradition factor were related to health status, psychological wellbeing, and frequency of smoking. Modernization of gender roles represents only a small--if any--stressor in the life of Hungarian men; on the other hand, unsuccessful adaptation to traditional role expectations highly increases the burden of stress and is closely related to smoking.

  12. Minerals profile of two globe artichoke cultivars as affected by NPK fertilizer regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Sara; Pandino, Gaetano; Mauromicale, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Globe artichoke is a proven source of various minerals (such as K, Fe and Zn) in the Mediterranean diet, but their content in response to fertilizer regime has not yet been investigated sufficiently. Thus, we monitored the effect of two contrasting nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium (NPK) fertilizer regimes (one balanced and the other excessive) on the minerals accumulation of 'Apollo' and 'Tema 2000' cultivars, grown in three Sicilian locations ('Landolina', 'Iannarello' and 'Zotto') - South Italy. Except for total nitrogen, the balanced fertilizer regime favoured the accumulation of both macro- and micro-minerals, but with a different extent depending especially on trial location. Particularly, plants grown at 'Iannarello' responded more strongly to the fertilizer regime with respect to K, P, Ca, Fe and Zn accumulation, as a result of its different soil characteristics than the other locations. Providing a balanced supply of nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium via fertilization can enhance the nutritive value of globe artichoke, but taking into account especially soil characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NPK Fertilizers for Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst. Nicolson Intercropped with Coffee Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFertilizer application in elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst. Nicolson intercropping system is rare in Indonesia, therefore, NPK fertilizers experiment was conducted under the shade of 10-year-old coffee plantation at Leuwikopo Experimental Farm, Bogor, Indonesia, in order to increase the productivity of elephant foot yam intercropped with coffee trees. Prior to planting, 20 ton ha-1 of goat manure was applied. Four NPK combinations, i.e., N, P2O5, K2O at the rate of 0, 0 and 0; 100, 60 and 80; 125, 60 and 100; and 150, 60 and 120 kg ha-1, were applied. Results showed that there were no significant differences in leaf number per plant, petiole size and rachis length among treatments. Application of NPK decreased photosynthetic rates, while increasing rate of N and K2O had no effect on photosynthetic rates. NPK application at the 100 N, 60 P2O5 and 80 K2O kg ha-1 (N100P60K80 treatment or larger prolonged growth duration regardless of NPK levels, and there was a close relationship between corm yield and growth duration. As a result, corm fresh mass was higher in the 100:60:80 kg ha-1 treatment than in control. In the N125P60K100 and N150P60K120 kg ha-1 treatments, leaves were damaged by heavy rains and winds, counteracting beneficial effect of NPK on growth duration and corm yield. These results suggested the importance of delay of entering dormancy for an increase in productivity of A. paeoniifolius.Keywords: NPK fertilizers, photosynthesis, productivity, prolong growth, tuber crop

  14. Study of the characteristics of crust stress field in East China by inversion of stress tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huilan, Z.; Rugang, D.

    1991-12-01

    This paper combines the search procedure with the optimization procedure to inverse the average stress tensor, and applies this method to study the crustal stress field using data of the solution of P wave first motion. By dealing with the data of Haicheng, Tangshan, Xingtai, Anyang, Liyang, Taiwan, Fujian and Guangdong areas, we obtain the characteristics of crust stress field of East China. The directions of the principal pressure stress always possess a small dip angle, but the azimuths vary from NEE (in north part of East China) to SEE (in the south part). This frame probably is related to the push-extrusive effects of the northwestern Pacific plate from NEE and the Philippine plate from SEE. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Stress distribution characteristics in the vicinity of coal seam floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zimo; Chanda, Emmanuel; Zhao, Jingli; Wang, Zhihe

    2018-01-01

    Although longwall top-coal caving (LTCC) has been a popular, more productive and cost-effective method in recent years, roadway floor heave and rock bursts frequently appear when exploiting such coal seams with large dip angle. This paper proposes addressing this problem by adopting three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement (3-D RLSA). In this study, the first step was to analyse the stress distribution characteristics in the vicinity of coal seam floor based on the stress slip line field theory. In the second step, numerical calculation using FLAC3D was conducted. Finally, an evaluation of the 3-D RLSA for solving this particular issue was given. Results indicate that for this particular mine the proposed 3-D RLSA results in 24% increase in the coal recovery ratio and a modest reduction in excavation and maintenance costs compared to the conventional LTCC method.

  16. NPK NMR Sensor: Online Monitoring of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Animal Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Morten K; Jensen, Ole; Bakharev, Oleg N; Nyord, Tavs; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2015-07-07

    Knowledge of the actual content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) in animal slurry is highly important to optimize crop production and avoid environmental pollution when slurry is spread on agricultural fields. Here, we present a mobile, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor suitable for online monitoring of the NPK content in animal slurry as an alternative to crude estimates or tedious nonspecific, off-site laboratory analysis. The sensor is based on (14)N, (17)O, (31)P, and (39)K NMR in a digital NMR instrument equipped with a 1.5 T Halbach magnet for direct detection of ammonium N, total P, and K and indirect evaluation of the organic N content, covering all practical components of NPK in animal slurry. In correlation studies, the obtained NMR measurements show good agreement with reference measurements from commercial laboratories.

  17. Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Plant Density and NPK Application on the Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in a forest zone to examine the effect of increasing plant population and NPK application on the growth and tuber yield of Dioscorea rotundata (Poir) cv “Obiaoturugo”. This study involved three trials. The first was conducted in 2010 involving five plant densities (10000 ...

  19. Production and quality of three varieties of chrysanthemum grown in pots with different NPK rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Crescencio Heidemann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum can be grown for cutting or as a pot plant year-round, providing a constant production flow. In Brazil, little is known about mineral nutrition and fertilization for this crop. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the production and quality of chrysanthemum varieties cultivated in pots with different NPK rates. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with the NPK rates (10-10-10 of 3 g L-1, 6 g L-1 and 9 g L-1 and chrysanthemum varieties Sheena, Calabria and Indianapolis. Pots of 1.2 L capacity were filled with substrate and placed three cuttings per pot kept in a fog chamber under long days. After 21 days, apical pruning was done and started the short-day period. After flowering induction, short days were suspended. It was realized analysis of variance and it was noticed that stem length and EC were affected by NPK rates. It was observed an inverse relation between the increase in NPK rate and cultivation cycle, resulting in precocity of flowering for all varieties. Plants cultivated under 9 g L-1 rate did not present toxicity symptoms, suggesting that this dose was more adequate for the production of pot plants for all three varieties.

  20. Soil fertility erosion and the associated cost of NPK removed under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil fertility erosion and the associated cost of NPK removed under different soil and ... to study the effect of different tillage practices and mulching rates on fertility ... hand plough-harrow-plant and plough-plant tillage, respectively (1 US Dollar ...

  1. Effects of poultry manure supplemented by NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKECHUKWU ADINDU

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Three poultry manure (PM) levels; 0, 5 and 10 t/ha, two levels of NPK 15:15:15 60 and 120 kg/ha and the ... demand for exotic food materials of which cucumber is ... tropics, especially in Nigeria and in particular Port. Harcourt ...

  2. Effect of Saw Dust Biochar and NPK 15:15:15 Inorganic Fertilizer on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A factorialexperiment was conducted in the screen house of Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria to examine the response of Moringa oleifera Lam. seedlings to saw dust biochar and NPK 15:15:15 inorganic fertilizer amendments. The plants were grown for twelve weeks in top soil (0-30cm) collected from an Oxisol in the ...

  3. Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.Q.; Mughal, A.Q.; Amjad, N.; Javed, H.I.

    2013-01-01

    Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

  4. Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Z. Santos

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva e três níveis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10. Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares Empire e Pacific apresentaram frutos com maior peso médio do que Flora-Dade, Max e Diva. O número de frutos por planta aumentou com a elevação do nível de adubação de 2,0 para 3,5 t/ha, enquanto que o peso médio de frutos diminuiu, sem alterar a produção. As cultivares apresentaram respostas diferenciais aos níveis de adubação, em relação ao peso médio de frutos.The objective of this work was to study the effect of cultivar, NPK fertilization and the interaction on yield components of fresh market tomatoes. The experiment was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1995/96 season. Five cultivars (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific and Diva and three fertilization levels (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 t/ha of NPK (3.6-7.2-10 were used. The treatments were displayed under a factorial scheme, in a randomized complete block design, with three repetitions. Empire and Pacific cultivars showed higher average fruit weight than Flora-Dade, Max and Diva. The number of fruits per plant increased with the elevation of fertilization levels from 2.0 to 3.5 t/ha, while the average fruit weight diminished, without changing yield. The cultivars showed differential response to fertilization levels, in relation to average fruit weight.

  5. Corrosion characteristics of unprotected post-tensioning strands under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of stress condition : and environmental exposure on corrosion of post-tensioned strands during ungrouted periods. : Exposures for periods of up to 4 weeks of stressed, as-received strand placed i...

  6. PENGGUNAAN MIKORIZA DAN PUPUK NPK DALAM PEMBIBITAN JABON MERAH (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb. Havil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFN Danu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pembangunan hutan tanaman jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb. Havil memerlukan bibit yang bermutu. Bibit berkualitas dapat dihasilkan dengan mengoptimalkan proses fisiologis tanaman seperti fotosintesa dan metabolisme yang dipengaruhi oleh faktor luar seperti sinar matahari, air, hara mineral dan kondisi tempat tumbuh. Penambahan inokulan mikoriza dan pupuk sebagai penyedia hara dapat memacu pertumbuhan dan meningkatkan daya hidup bibit. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan mikoriza dan pupuk NPK terhadap pertumbuhan bibit jabon merah. Penambahan mikoriza 5 gram dan NPK 0,5 - 1,0 gram/polybag media tanah solum B dapat menghasilkan bibit jabon merah dengan tinggi 28,33 – 30,33 cm dan diameter 5,42 – 6,70 mm pada umur 5 bulan.

  7. Influence des engrais de type NPK sur l’oviposition d’Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darriet F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les engrais sont des associations de minéraux destinées à apporter aux plantes des compléments nutritifs nécessaires à leur croissance. Les engrais modernes de type NPK combinent les trois éléments de base que sont l’azote (N, le phosphore (P et le potassium (K. Dans cette étude de laboratoire réalisée dans des tunnels expérimentaux, nous avons étudié l’influence de solutions aqueuses contenant différentes concentrations en engrais NPK sur l’oviposition de femelles d’Aedes aegypti. Les résultats ont montré que les solutions contenant les concentrations en NK = 17-33 mg/l et P = 23-47 mg/l attiraient significativement plus de femelles gravides que l’eau osmosée seule (P 0,05. Ces résultats suggèrent que certaines teneurs en engrais NPK peuvent influencer le comportement de ponte du moustique Ae. aegypti.

  8. Behavior of Foliares Applications of Humus Mixed with the NPK in Rice Cultivation (Oryza Sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Saborit Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the observation of one green yellowsh clorosis in the plantations of rice, after the cold campaings and the disminishing of the agricultural efficiency of the cerial in areas of Saint Elena Land belonging to the fortified cooperatove of credits and service (FCCS Camilo Cienfuegos in Las Nuevas, La Sierpe, Province of Sancti – Spiritus, were done foliars aplications with mineral fertilizing as, N.P.K to different doses and moments of applications, in order to obtain alternative of nutrition for the cultivation, the work was done on a green yellowish ferralitic ground since 2009 to 2011, using LP-5 cultivation doing the sowing by the method of transplantation, fertilization. It was done mixing 49L. ha-¹ of liquid warm humus with 0.35 Kg. ha-¹ of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The results shown that the use of the foliar fertilization with liquid worm humus mixed with the N.P.K minerals, increased the efficiency, obtaining 5.3t. ha-¹ as an average in different variants used. The economic analysis showed that the treatment with 40% of nitrogen was reduced with seven foliars applications, it was highest to the witness N.P.K in 1.5t . ha-¹ of the grain obtaining a relative benefit of 4264.55 pesos by hectarea.

  9. Physiology, phenology and yield of sunflower (autumn) as affected by NPK fertilizer and hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Shah, S.U.

    2010-01-01

    The present field studies investigate the effect of NPK fertilizer on the physiology, phenology and yield response of sunflower hybrids at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during autumn, 2000 and 2001. The response of sunflower hybrids (SF-187 and Parsun-1) were studied using low medium and high rate of NPK (0, 50, 100,150 kg ha/sup -1/) in factorial design with split plot arrangements. Days to R1 (button stage), R4 (inflorescence begins to open), R5.8 (80% anthesis) and R9 (physiological maturity) stages significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Among the hybrids, Parsun-1 matured 4-5 days later than SF-187. Similarly, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), and dry matter accumulation (DMA) also significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Maximum LAI, CGR, DMA and seed yield was produced by fertilizer treatments of 150:100:100 kg ha/sup -1/ during both the seasons. Oil content also varied with different combinations of NPK fertilizers which ranged from 37 to 39% during both the seasons. (author)

  10. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha.

  11. Maternal and Infant Temperament Characteristics as Contributors to Parenting Stress in the First Year Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Kate B.; Murdock, Kyle W.; Vadnais, Sarah; Bridgett, David J.; Gartstein, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Although prominent models emphasize that maternal, child, and situational variables are associated with parenting stress, previous research has often neglected to examine associations between maternal and infant temperament characteristics and stress experienced in the parenting role. Additionally, while predictors of global parenting stress have…

  12. Stress relaxation characteristics of type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjoine, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The stress relaxation of type 304 stainless steel below 900 0 F (482 0 C) is practically time independent after 100 h and has a maximum of about 18 per cent. The per cent relaxation decreases with increasing degree of cold work and with decreasing stress. Above 900 0 F the per cent relaxation increases with time, temperature, and cold work. The initial stress can also be increased for cold work materials so that the remaining stress can be maintained at a higher value even up to 1200 0 F (649 0 C). Time-temperature parameters are practical to correlate and extrapolate the data in the higher temperature range. (author)

  13. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente, Sonia Betzabeth Ticona; Silva, Rodrigo Marques da; Higashi, Aline Baraldi; Guido, Laura de Azevedo; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8%) ...

  14. Can prenatal social stress impact sex characteristics in piglets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) alters sex traits in rodents by androgenizing offspring resulting in reduced reproduction. In production, gestating sows are often exposed to social stress of mixing. This study examined if mixing gestating sows alters sexual development in piglets. At 34 ± 10 d of gestation, 6...

  15. Supplemental exogenous NPK application alters biochemical processes to improve yield and drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Rana Nauman; Waraich, E A; Ali, H; Nawaz, F; Ashraf, M Y; Ahmad, R; Awan, M I; Ahmad, S; Irfan, M; Hussain, S; Ahmad, Z

    2016-02-01

    The recent food security issues, combined with the threats from climate change, demand future farming systems to be more precise and accurate to fulfill the ever increasing global food requirements. The role of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in stimulating plant growth and development is well established; however, little is known about their function, if applied in combination, in improving crop yields under environmental stresses like drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined foliar spray of supplemental NPK (NPKc) on physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enhance the drought tolerance potential of wheat for improved yield. Foliar NPKc markedly influenced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and activity of both nitrogen assimilation and antioxidant enzymes. It significantly improved the concentration of proline (66 %), total soluble sugars (37 %), and total soluble proteins (10 %) and enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, catalase, and peroxidase by 47, 45, 19, and 8 %, respectively, with respect to no spray under water-deficit conditions which, in turn, improve the yield and yield components. The accumulation of osmolytes and activity of antioxidant machinery were more pronounced in drought tolerant (Bhakkar-02) than sensitive genotype (Shafaq-06).

  16. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Agai–Demjaha, Teuta; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Zafirova, Beti

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Once high levels of work-related stress among teachers were confirmed many studies concentrated on identifying and investigating key stress factors among school teachers. Unfortunately there are very few researches made on stress causing factors among teachers in Republic of Macedonia. AIM: To determine the most frequent stress causing factors among teachers in elementary schools and to investigate their relationship with demographic and job characteristics. METHODOLOGY: W...

  17. Effects of salt-drought stress on growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  18. Effects of Salt-Drought Stress on Growth and Physiobiochemical Characteristics of Tamarix chinensis Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  19. PERTUMBUHAN KACANG HIAS (Arachis pintoi PADA MEDIA TANAH PASCA PENAMBANGAN BATUBARA YANG DIPERKAYA MIKORIZA, KAPUR DAN PUPUK NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie Samodra Laya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of the provision of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, the provision of lime, and the provision of NPK fertilizer, and the interaction effect of the provision of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, lime and NPK fertilizers in promoting the growth of pinto peanut in the soil media of post-mining land. The research method used was a completely randomized design (CRD three-factor factorial with the first factor is the type of inoculant FMA (M = 3 levels, the second factor is the provision of lime (K = 3 levels, and the third factor is the NPK fertilizer (P = 3 levels. These results indicated that the interaction between AMF Glomus sp. and NPK fertilizer dose of 1 gram/polybag can increase height increase pinto peanut plants for 34.16 % of the controls. The interaction between AMF Gigaspora sp. The lime dose of 50 % Al-dd and Fertilizers NPK dose of 1 gram/polybag can increase the growth of leaves pinto peanut plants at 108.33 % of the controls. The interaction between AMF Glomus sp. and NPK fertilizer dose of 2 grams/polybag can increase canopy and root biomass pinto peanut plants at 245.21 % of the controls. The interaction between AMF Glomus sp. and NPK fertilizer dose of 2 grams/polybag can increase canopy and root biomass pinto peanut plants at 245.21 % of the controls. Level relative mycorrhizal dependency (RMD was influenced by the type of AMF plant inoculated host. Highest RMD shown in pinto peanut using AMF Glomus sp. is 31.99% at moderately dependent.

  20. Can arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and NPK fertilizer suppress nematodes and improve tuber yield of yam (Dioscorea rotundata ‘cv’ ewuru?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gani Oladejo Kolawole

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor soil fertility and nematodes limit yam tuber yield and quality. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and fertilizers may suppress nematodes and improve yam productivity. We evaluated the extent AMF and fertilizer suppressed nematodes and improved yam performance. Tuber weight, mycorrhizal colonization of roots and nematode populations were evaluated with eight treatments; Control (No amendments, 90-50-75, kg N- P2O5-K2O ha-1 (NPK, (AMF (2g/kg soil, nematodes (5000 juvenile/pot, and their combinations. Tuber weight was higher in NPK+AMF and NPK+nematode treatments than AMF+nematode. NPK+AMF improved tuber weight by 17.5% and 32% compared with sole NPK or AMF respectively. Compared with control, nematodes did not reduce tuber weight but, AMF+nematode reduced it by 49.4%. NPK reduced AMF colonization of roots and reduced nematode population on tuber, in roots and soil by 34%, 42.6% and 41% respectively. NPK+AMF treatment was superior to either NPK or AMF in improving tuber yield while NPK was superior to AMF in suppressing nematodes in roots, soil, and tuber.

  1. Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic Couple Stresses on Dynamic Characteristics of Exponential Slider Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Naduvinamani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of couple stresses on static and dynamic characteristics of exponential slider bearing in the presence of magnetic field considering squeeze action is theoretically analyzed in this paper. The modified magnetohydrodynamic couple stress Reynolds type equation is derived on the basis of Stokes couple stress model and closed form expressions are obtained for static and dynamic character coefficients. Comparing with bearing lubricated with non-conducting Newtonian lubricants, the magnetohydrodynamic couple stress lubrication provides the higher steady load carrying capacity, dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient. The exponential bearing shows higher efficiency for small film thickness at higher value of couple stress parameter and Hartmann number.

  2. Predicting Performance Under Acute Stress : The Role of Individual Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study examined how differences in coping style, coping self-efficacy, and metacognitive awareness influence coping behavior and performance during a realistic acute stressful exercise in 2 military samples (n = 122 and n = 132). Results showed that coping self-efficacy and coping

  3. STRESS RELAXATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chocholoušek J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a quantitative method of stress relaxation measurement in prismatic glass samples during two different time-temperature regimes using the Sénarmont compensator. Four types of glass (Barium crystal glass, Eutal, Simax, and Container glass were subjected to observation in an assembled measuring device. Results will be used for parameterization of the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Mazurin model and consequently implemented in a finite element method code.

  4. Parenting Stress in CHARGE Syndrome and the Relationship with Child Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulffaert, Josette; Scholte, Evert M.; Dijkxhoorn, Yvette M.; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    This study investigates the parental perception of stress related to the upbringing of children with CHARGE syndrome and its association with behavioral and physical child characteristics. Parents of 22 children completed the Nijmegen Parenting Stress Index-Short, Developmental Behavior Checklist,

  5. Predicting Secondary Agriculture Teachers' Job Stress from Selected Personal, Family, and Work-Related Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robert M.; Lambert, Misty D.; Lawver, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to describe the characteristics and explain the current level of job stress among secondary agriculture teachers. The sample consisted of 370 secondary agriculture teachers. Data were collected using the Job Stress Survey (Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). From the findings it was concluded that the average secondary agriculture teacher…

  6. Stress concentration factor and stress intensity factor on hard metals in connection with the wear characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawihl, W.; Altmeyer, G.

    1977-01-01

    Description of a method to determine stress intensity factors on hard metals by lapping in notches of different diameter. Dependence of the values of the stress intensity factors on the size of the notch base diameter. For tungsten carbide hard metals with 6% Co, determination of a final value of 250 Nmm -3 / 2 . Characterisation of the stress intensity factor governed by the surface roughness which is decisive for the assessment of the wear-resistant behaviour. (orig.) [de

  7. Characteristics of people with self-reported stress-precipitated seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Michael; Walters, Michael; Lee, Ikjae; Polak, Emily; Fleck, Adrienne; Schwieterman, Donna; Haut, Sheryl R

    2014-12-01

    Stress is the most common patient-reported seizure precipitant. We aimed to determine mood and epilepsy characteristics of people who report stress-precipitated seizures. Sequential patients at a tertiary epilepsy center were surveyed about stress as a seizure precipitant. We asked whether acute (lasting minutes-hours) or chronic (lasting days-months) stress was a seizure precipitant, whether stress reduction had been tried, and what effect stress reduction had on seizure frequency. We collected information on antiepileptic drugs, history of depression and anxiety disorder, prior or current treatment for depression or anxiety, and scores on the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory (NDDI-E) and Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 (GAD-7) instruments, which are administered at every visit in our Epilepsy Center. We also asked whether respondents thought that they could predict their seizures to determine if stress as a seizure precipitant was correlated with seizure self-prediction. Two hundred sixty-six subjects were included: 219 endorsed stress as a seizure precipitant [STRESS (+)] and 47 did not [STRESS (-)]. Among STRESS (+) subjects, 85% endorsed chronic stress as a seizure precipitant, and 68% endorsed acute stress as a seizure precipitant. In STRESS (+) subjects, 57% had used some type of relaxation or stress reduction method (most commonly yoga, exercise and meditation), and, of those who tried, 88% thought that these methods improved seizures. Among STRESS (-) subjects, 25% had tried relaxation or stress reduction, and 71% thought that seizures improved. Although univariate analysis showed multiple associations with stress as a seizure precipitant, in the multivariable logistic regression, only the GAD-7 score was associated with STRESS (+) (OR = 1.18 [1.03-1.35], p = 0.017). Subjects who reported stress as a seizure precipitant were more likely to report an ability to self-predict seizures (p < 0.001). Stress-precipitated seizures are commonly reported

  8. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m 2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  9. Germination Characteristics of Marshmallow (Althea officinalis L. as Influenced by Drought and Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yazdani Biuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought and salinity are two important environmental stresses limiting the crop production. In order to study the influence of drought and salinity stresses on germination characteristics of Marshmallow plant seeds, two separate experiments were conducted based on completely randomized design with four replications in controlled conditions. Drought stress levels were 0, -2, -4, -6 and -8 bar in the first experiment and salinity stress levels were 0, -2, -4, -6, -8 and -10 bar in the second experiment which were accomplished using PEG 6000 and sodium chloride, respectively. The results indicated a decrease in germination rate and percentage, as well as in lengths and fresh and dry weights of both plumules and radicles, as the osmotic potential was reduced in both experiments. Marshmallow seeds showed an overall higher tolerance against salinity stress compared to drought stress, with germination occurring at as low osmotic potentials as -10 bars in salinity treatments, while only until -8 bar drought stress. In osmotic potentials of -2 and -4 bar the decrease in germination percentage was more sever in the salinity stress compared to drought stress; whereas in higher levels of stress (-6 and -8 bar drought stress brought about a higher decrease in germination percentage than did the salinity stress; illustrated by the percentage of germination decrease at -6 bar, i.e. 63% for drought and 80% for salinity treatments. At the treatments of higher potential (-2, -4 and -6 bar the decrease in radicle length was greater in response to salinity than to drought stress, but the length of plumule was more influenced by drought stress and also showed the highest sensitivity to drought, among all measured characteristics.

  10. Effect of NPK fertilization and elemental sulphur on growth and yield of lowbush blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. STARAST

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of fertilizers on the pH of former arable soils and on the growth and the yield of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.. Lowbush blueberry fertilization experiments were established in 1999 at two locations – at Kärla, Saaremaa, West Estonia and at Vasula, Tartu County, South Estonia. Experimental sites were situated on different soils: soil pHKCl at Kärla was 5.5 and at Vasula 6.2. Elemental sulphur and acidifying fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and superphosphate were used in both plantations. Fertilizers were applied based on nutrient in the soil and sulphur was applied at 100 g m–2. Plant growth was recorded in 2001, 2002 and 2003. A positive influence of NPK fertilization on yield was found in both Kärla and Vasula, and yield were 336 g and 41 g higher compared to the control, respectively. The vegetative growth and yield of blueberry depended significantly on soil pH. Elemental sulphur increased soil acidity and on loamy sand soil did not increase plant productivity. The sulphur effect on soil pH began to decrease three years after application. Sulphur can be recommended to increase soil acidity in nutrient-rich soil but, not nutrient poor soil with light texture, where only NPK fertilizers were effective.;

  11. Analysis Of Soil NPK Ph And Electrical Conductivity At Adham Area- Renk Upper Nile State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubaker Haroun Mohamed Adam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to investigate soil type potentiality and reaction in relation to the scattered remaining vegetation species and to quantify soil suitability for growing field crops. Adham area witnessed serious land degradation due to the rapid expansion of Rain-fed Mechanized Farming and overgrazing. Consequently the low crop yield enforced the local communities to shift to the alternative sources of income generating activities particularly those related to forest products like charcoal making firewood production logging and tree lobbing. By using Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD with emphasizes on Macro nutrients particularly the Nitrogen Phosphorous and potassium NPK in addition to soil pH and Electrical Conductivity EC. random soil samples each with three levels of depths 0 - 15 15 - 30 30 - 45 cm. were collected. All collected data were analyzed in the laboratory. The result of revealed several types of soils including the cracking and non -cracking clay sandy and red soils. The result of statistical analysis depicted variability in NPK pH and EC between the different locations and soil depths. Furthermore the result showed an association between some studied soil attributes and the spatial distribution of the vegetation species. Rational use through participatory approach is recommended for natural resources management conservation and sustainability. Moreover further study using space technology also recommended.

  12. Comparative economics, monetary and yield advantages from NPK fertilization to onion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, K.M.; Khokhar, M.A.; Mahmood, T.; Hussain, S.I.; Hidayat-Ullah; Laghari, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    An onion variety Swat-l was raised with different combinations of N (50 to 125 kg/ha) and K/sub 2/O (25 to 75 kg/ha) with constant rate of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (75 kg/ha). The bulb yield increased to the maximum of 20.0 and 34.3 t/ha during 2000-01 and 2001-02, respectively with NPK at the rate 100-75-50 kg/ha giving 87 and 94% increase over control. Further increase in nitrogen and potash levels did not significantly increase bulb yield. Maximum cost benefit ratio (1: 7.07 and 1: 7.98) was observed with NPK application at the rate100-75-50 kg/ha during2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively. The corresponding per hectare yield and net return were also maximum of 20.0 and 34.3 tonnes and Rs. 42609 and Rs. 48112, respectively. (author)

  13. PENGGUNAAN MIKORIZA DAN PUPUK NPK DALAM PEMBIBITAN NYAWAI (Ficus variegata Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFN Danu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan bahan baku  untuk industri pengolahan kayu dan serat dari tahun ke tahun semakin meningkat, sedangkan pasokan bahan baku dari hutan alam semakin menurun, akibatnya terjadi kelangkaan bahan baku industri pengolahan kayu dan pulp. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan pengembangan hutan tanaman yang memadai. Tanaman nyawai (Ficus variegata Blume  merupakan jenis alternatif prioritas dalam pembangunan hutan tanaman penghasil kayu. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan pengembangan hutan tanaman nyawai adalah penggunaan bibit bermutu, karena bibit yang berkualitas akan menghasilkan tegakan dengan tingkat produktivitas tinggi. Pengadaan bibit nyawai bermutu dapat melalui teknik perbanyakan generatif maupun vegetatif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan kombinasi pemupukan dan mikoriza yang tepat untuk menghasilkan bibit nyawai yang berkualitas. Buah nyawai dikumpulkan dari Kebun Raya Cibodas (Cianjur. Lokasi Penelitian di persemaian Nagrak. Perkecambahan dilakukan dengan menabur benih pada bak kecambah yang berisi media yang telah disterilkan. Media penyapihan menggunakan tanah sub soil ditambah mikoriza: tanpa mikoriza (C0, Glomus sp. (C1, Acaulospora sp. (C2 dan dosis NPK sebanyak : 0,0 g (P0, 0,5 g/polybag (P1, 1,0 g/poybag (P2. Pengadaan bibit nyawai dapat menggunakan campuran media tanah subsoil + 30 % serbuk sabut kelapa (coco peat +10 % arang sekam padi (v/v, CMA Glomus sp dan Acaulospora sp mampu berkolonisasi dengan akar bibit nyawai. Pemberian pupuk NPK 0,5 – 1,0 gram per polybag dapat meningkatkan serapan hara P.

  14. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cesiana da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  15. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-03-15

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

  16. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O 3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O 3 . - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  17. Nutrient uptake of NPK and result of some rice varieties in tidal land by using combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, Neni; Rompas, Joni Phillep; Marlina, Musbik

    2017-09-01

    Rice planting in tidal land has two main problems: iron (Fe) which has the potential to poison rice and low nutrient availability. Azospirillum enriched chicken manure and phosphate solvent bacteria (Biological Organic Fertilizer = BOF) is an option to overcome iron toxicity and as a source of nutrition. The objective of the study was to obtain a combination of biological organic fertilizers and balanced inorganic fertilizers in reducing doses of inorganic fertilizers, increasing NPK nutrient uptake and yield of several rice varieties in tidal land. This research used Factorial RAK with 25 treatment combinations that were repeated three times. Factor I is a combination of BOF and anorganic fertilizer with 5 levels of treatment (no inorganic fertilizers, BOF 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 25% NPK, BOF 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 50% NPK and BOF 400 kg / ha with fertilizer Inorganic 75% NPK). Factor II is several rice varieties (IPB 4S, Martapura, Margasari, Inpara 5, Inpara 7). The results showed that organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha can reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer by 75% of NPK fertilizer. The highest NPK nutrient absorption is in the treatment of organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha and inorganic fertilizer 25% of NPK fertilizer. Production of biological organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 25% NPK and 4B IPB varieties 727.77% higher when compared with without the provision of organic fertilizer with Inpara 5 varieties.

  18. Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg Andersson, Madelene; Silva, P.I.M.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered...... and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers...... and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains...

  19. Mechanical characteristics of fully mechanized top-coal caving face and surrounding rock stress shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guang-xiang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2005-06-15

    The distribution of surrounding rock stress in fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC) face was fully researched by large-scale and non-linear three-dimensional numerical simulation and equivalent laboratory. The results show that, there is the structure that is made of macroscopical stress shell composed of high stress binds in overlying strata of FMTC face. Stress shell, which bears and pass load of overlying strata, is primary supporting body. The stress in skewback of stress shell forms abutment pressure of surrounding rock in vicinity of working face. Bond-beam structure lies in reducing zone under stress shell. It only bear partial burden of strata under stress shell. The uppermost mechanical characteristic of FMTC face is lying in the low stress area under stress shell. It is the essential cause of strata behaviors of FMTC face relaxation. On the basis of analyzing stress shell, the mechanical essence that top coal performs a function of bedding is demonstrated. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Effects of Drought and Salinity Stresses on Germination Characteristics of Dodder (Cuscuta campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghanbari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the germination characteristics of dodder (Cuscuta campestris under drought and salinity stress conditions, two laboratory's experiment were conducted. Experiments were conducted in completely randomized design with 4 replications. The treatments, for salinity and drought stress were six potential levels (0,-3, -6, -9, -12 and -15 bar of NaCl and five potential levels (0, -3, -6, -9 and -12 bar of PEG 6000 respectively. Results showed that increasing drought and salinity stress significantly germination rate and germination percentage, plumule and radicle length, plumule of Dodder and its radicle fresh weight decreased. However ratio of radicle to plumule and root to shoot were increased (P≤0.01. It seems that among the characters, plumule length is more sensitive to drought and salinity stresses. In addition, germination of dodder was tolernt to drought stress more than salinity stresses.

  1. Mapping of QTLs for Germination Characteristics under Non-stress and Drought Stress in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra MARDANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic factors controlling traits associated with seed germination under drought stress conditions, leads to identification and development of drought tolerant varieties. Present study by using a population of F2:4 derived from a cross between a drought tolerant variety, Gharib (indica and a drought sensitive variety, Sepidroud (indica, is to identify and compare QTLs associated with germination traits under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Through QTL analysis, using composite interval mapping, regarding traits such as germination rate (GR, germination percentage (GP, radicle length (RL, plumule length (PL, coleorhiza length (COL and coleoptile length (CL, totally 13 QTLs were detected under pole drought stress (−8 MPa poly ethylene glycol 6000 and 9 QTLs under non-stress conditions. Of the QTLs identified under non-stress conditions, QTLs associated with COL (qCOL-5 and GR (qGR-1 explained 21.28% and 19.73% of the total phenotypic variations, respectively. Under drought stress conditions, QTLs associated with COL (qCOL-3 and PL (qPL-5 explained 18.34% and 18.22% of the total phenotypic variations, respectively. A few drought-tolerance-related QTLs identified in previous studies are near the QTLs detected in this study, and several QTLs in this study are novel alleles. The major QTLs like qGR-1, qGP-4, qRL-12 and qCL-4 identified in both conditions for traits GR, GP, RL and CL, respectively, should be considered as the important and stable trait-controlling QTLs in rice seed germination. Those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve drought tolerance by marker-assisted selection in rice.

  2. Tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease under resting-state and stress-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Ji; Lee, Woong Woo; Kim, Sang Kyong; Park, Hyeyoung; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Kim, Han Byul; Jeon, Beom S; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-15

    Tremor characteristics-amplitude and frequency components-are primary quantitative clinical factors for diagnosis and monitoring of tremors. Few studies have investigated how different patient's conditions affect tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we analyzed tremor characteristics under resting-state and stress-state conditions. Tremor was recorded using an accelerometer on the finger, under resting-state and stress-state (calculation task) conditions, during rest tremor and postural tremor. The changes of peak power, peak frequency, mean frequency, and distribution of power spectral density (PSD) of tremor were evaluated across conditions. Patients whose tremors were considered more than "mild" were selected, for both rest (n=67) and postural (n=25) tremor. Stress resulted in both greater peak powers and higher peak frequencies for rest tremor (pstate condition. The distributions of PSD of tremor were symmetrical, regardless of conditions. Tremor is more evident and typical tremor characteristics, namely a lower frequency as amplitude increases, are different in stressful condition. Patient's conditions directly affect neural oscillations related to tremor frequencies. Therefore, tremor characteristics in PD should be systematically standardized across patient's conditions such as attention and stress levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. in response to organic and NPK fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eifediyi Ehiokhilen Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil of North-Central Nigeria is home to many plant products that are used as industrial raw materials, and after processing their waste are often left in drainage channels, which ultimately find their way into rivers and streams where they pollute these water bodies, and sometimes some of these materials are burnt, which further aggravates global warming. In addition, the soil of the region is characterized by low organic matter content because of annual bush burnings, which reduce the low humus content of soils. Watermelon requires a fertile soil, which is high in organic matter content, while infertile soils yield an increased production of male flowers at the expense of female flowers, which results in low fruit set. Therefore, a study was carried out at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria, during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014 to assess the effect of different organic materials on the growth and yield of watermelon. The factors imposed were a control, NPK fertilizer and five organic materials (neem seed cake (NSC, jatropha seed cake (JSC, poultry manure (PM, compost manure (CM, and cow dung (CD. The experiment was a randomized complete block design (RCBD replicated thrice. Data collected on soil physico-chemical properties were: organic matter content, soil pH, organic carbon, total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, bulk density (BD, micro porosity (MIP, macro porosity (MAP, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS. Plant parameters evaluated include growth (vine length and number of leaves and yield (number of fruits per plant, fruit weight per plant, and yield ha−1. Results indicated that the organic matter content increased after the first year’s cropping and declined at the end of the study. The amended plots showed significantly higher values (P < 0.05 with respect to most soil physical properties (MIP, (MAP, and (KS, except the BD, where the values were lower. The bulk density particularly

  4. Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz, H.M.M.; Hasaneen, M.N.A.; Ome, A.M.

    2016-11-01

    Nanofertilizers have become a pioneer approach in agriculture research nowadays. In this paper we investigate the delivery of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) for wheat plants by foliar uptake. Chiotsan-NPK nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and entered the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems. The uptake and translocation of nanoparticles inside wheat plants was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that nano particles were taken up and transported through phloem tissues. Treatment of wheat plants grown on sandy soil with nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer induced significant increases in harvest index, crop index and mobilization index of the determined wheat yield variables, as compared with control yield variables of wheat plants treated with normal non-fertilized and normal fertilized NPK. The life cycle of the nano-fertilized wheat plants was shorter than normal-fertilized wheat plants with the ratio of 23.5% (130 days compared with 170 days for yield production from date of sowing). Thus, accelerating plant growth and productivity by application of nanofertilizers can open new perspectives in agricultural practice. However, the response of plants to nanofertilizers varies with the type of plant species, their growth stages and nature of nanomaterials. (Author)

  5. Trauma memory characteristics and the development of acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, A; Brewer, N; Meiser-Stedman, R; Nixon, R D V

    2017-03-01

    The present study addresses gaps in knowledge regarding the association between trauma memory processes and posttraumatic stress responses in youth. Our primary goal was to explore the relative contribution of perceptions of trauma memory quality versus narrative trauma memory characteristics to explain overall adjustment. Children (N = 67) were interviewed within four weeks (T1) of an injury leading to hospital treatment and then again eight weeks later (T2). In each interview, the child told a trauma narrative (which were later coded), and answered the Trauma Memory Quality Questionnaire (Meiser-Stedman, Smith, Yule, & Dalgleish, 2007a), a self-report measure indexing the sensory, fragmented, and disorganised characteristics of trauma memory. They then completed measures of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T1 and measures of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T2. Self-reported trauma memory characteristics predicted ASD symptoms cross-sectionally at T1 and PTS symptoms prospectively over time. At both time points, self-reported trauma memory characteristics accounted for all of the unique variance in symptoms initially explained by narrative characteristics. A reduction in self-report ratings, but not the hypothesised narrative features (e.g., disorganised or lexical elements of the narrative), significantly predicted a reduction in PTS symptoms over time. The small sample size and the absence of a within-subjects narrative control were the main limitations of the study. These findings underscore the importance of self-reported trauma memory characteristics to the aetiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphological characteristics of BRS 501 sweet sorghum under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Moreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] crop is distinguished from other crops for its tolerance to both water deficit and excess soil moisture, under very dry and/or very hot environmental situations in which the productivity of other cereals becomes uneconomical. This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of irrigation on root conformation at the initial development phase of sweet sorghum. So, BRS 501 cv. was subjected to four irrigation levels based on 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of the field capacity (CC. The decreased availability of water in the soil negatively affected the majority of the characteristics under evaluation except for the relationship between the root system and the aerial part (SR/PA, average root diameter (DMR and specific root area (ARE. We concluded that the growth of sweet sorghum plants under evaluation is sensible to the decrease of water in the soil, as it is affected by low water availability. This methodology, common to other crops, can be used for saccharine sorghum in order to establish hydric availabilities in new experiments to discriminate the drought-tolerant cultivars.

  7. Assessment of Salicylic Acid Impacts on Seedling Characteristic of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein MARDANI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedling characteristic were evaluated under different water stress levels by using a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications at experimental greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The studied factors included three water deficit levels (100% FC, 80% FC, and 60% FC considered as first factor and five levels of SA concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM as second factor. Results showed that foliar application of SA at the highest concentration enhanced leaf area, leaf and dry weight while decreased stomatal conductance under high level of water deficit stress. Though, severe water deficit stress sharply raised the SPAD reading values. In general, exogenous SA application could develop cucumber seedling characteristic and improve water stress tolerance.

  8. Statistical evaluation of characteristic SDDLV-induced stress resultants to discriminate between undamaged and damaged elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse Majgaard; Johansen, Rasmus Johan; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2015-01-01

    of modified characteristic stress resultants, which are compared to a pre-defined tolerance value, without any thorough statistical evaluation. In the present paper, it is tested whether three widely-used statistical pattern-recognition-based damage-detection methods can provide an effective statistical...... evaluation of the characteristic stress resultants, hence facilitating general discrimination between damaged and undamaged elements. The three detection methods in question enable outlier analysis on the basis of, respectively, Euclidian distance, Hotelling’s statistics, and Mahalanobis distance. The study...... alternately to an undamaged reference model with known stiffness matrix, hereby, theoretically, yielding characteristic stress resultants approaching zero in the damaged elements. At present, the discrimination between potentially damaged elements and undamaged ones is typically conducted on the basis...

  9. NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, C.; Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on he foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Parenting Stress in CHARGE Syndrome and the Relationship with Child Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulffaert, Josette; Scholte, Evert M; Dijkxhoorn, Yvette M; Bergman, Jorieke E H; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the parental perception of stress related to the upbringing of children with CHARGE syndrome and its association with behavioral and physical child characteristics. Parents of 22 children completed the Nijmegen Parenting Stress Index-Short, Developmental Behavior Checklist, and Dutch Vineland Screener 0-12 and reported their child's problems with hearing, vision and ability to speak. Parenting stress was high in 59% of the subjects. Behavioral problems on the depression, autism, self-absorbed and disruptive behavior scales correlated positively with parenting stress. A non-significant trend was found, namely higher stress among the parents of non-speaking children. No associations were found with other child characteristics, i.e. level of adaptive functioning and intellectual disability, auditory and visual problems, deafblindness, gender, and age. Raising a child with CHARGE syndrome is stressful; professional support is therefore essential for this population. More research into other possible influencing characteristics is needed to improve family-oriented interventions. Since CHARGE is a rare syndrome, closer international collaboration is needed, not only to expand the group of study subjects to increase statistical power, but also to harmonize research designs and measurement methods to improve the validity, the reliability, and the generalization of the findings.

  11. EFFECTS OF TYPES OF MEDIA AND NPK FERTILIZER ON THE ROOTING CAPACITY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM CUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Budiarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition. The study was aimed to analyze the effects of different types of media, fertilizer concentration, and frequency of fertilizer application on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings. The experiment was conducted at the Segunung Experimental Station of the Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute from February to May 2005. The treatments consisted of four different rooting media, i.e. carbonized rice husk, coco peat, perlite, and mixture of perlite and vermiculite (1:1 v/v; two concentrations of NPK (25:7:7 fertilizers, i.e. 1.75 and 2.5 g 1-l; and four frequencies of fertilizer application, i.e. every 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, and 4 days. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized block with four replications. Parameters observed were rooting capacity and cutting performances such as cutting height, cutting diameter, number of leaves, number of visible roots, and root length at 16 days after planting. The results showed that chrysanthemum cuttings rooted in carbonized rice husk had better performance than those rooted in coco peat, vermiculite, and mixture of perlite + vermiculite. Higher concentration of fertilizer solution up to 2.5 g l-1 also gave significant effect on the root formation and further root growth of cuttings. However, the rooting capacity of cuttings was not affected by the frequency of fertilizer application. This study implied that carbonized rice husk growing medium supplemented with NPK (2.5 g l-l every 4 days during rooting period is the choice for traditional chrysanthemum growers to increase the perform-ance and quality of the cut flowers.

  12. UJI ZPT HANTU DAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jacq DI MAIN NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enny Mutryarny

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is one of Indonesia's mainstay plantation commodities and plays an important role for the national economy. Oil palm and plantations managed by state-owned enterprises, this is due to the increasing demand for palm oil in the industrial market. With the continuous development of oil palm plantations so that the provision of seeds should be considered because the success of planting in the field and the production of production is highly dependent on the quality of the seeds of oil palm plants used. Efforts that can be done to accelerate the growth of seeds Main Nursery is to provide NPK fertilizer and growth regulatory substances (ZPT Hantu that can help the absorption of nutrients and accelerate the growth of vegetative plants. The aim of this research is to get the interaction of ZPT Hantu concentration and NPK fertilizer dosage which give the best influence to the growth of oil palm seed (Elaeis guineensis Jacq in Main-nursery. The experiment was conducted experimentally with factorial Randomized Design (RAL, consisting of 2 factors ie H factor is ZPT Hantu and N factor is NPK fertilizer (16:16:16 which each consist of 3 levels. Thus obtained 9 treatment combinations with 3 replications. The observed data were analyzed by Duncan's multipoint test and Duncan's multiplexed test of 5%. Test of ZPT Hantu and NPK fertilizer significantly affect the growth of oil palm seedlings in Main Nursery that is on the parameters of seed height, stem diameter, leaf number and leaf area, whereas the combination of both only on bar diameter parameters that gives a real effect, with best treatment is combination giving ZPT Hantu 2 cc / l water and NPK 20 grams / plant.

  13. ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Murbach

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

  14. Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Spironello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the State of São Paulo (Agudos county. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 160 and 320 kg/ha of P2 0(5, as superphosphate. The N and K2O rates were 0; 175; 350, and 700 kg/ha, applied as urea and potassium chloride, respectively, divided in four applications during the growth period. Response functions were adjusted to yield or to fruit characteristics in order to estimate the nutrient rates required to reach maximum values. The results showed quadratic effects of N and K on yield and a maximum of 72 t/ha of fresh fruit was attained with rates of 498 and 394 kg/ha, respectively of N and K2O. In order to reach the maximum fruit size, and to improve the percentage of first class fruit (mass greater than 2.6 kg, were necessary rates of N and K respectively 11 and 43 % higher than those for maximum yield. No effect of P rates was observed on pineapple plant growth, despite the low availability of this nutrient in the soil. The effect of N rates was negative on total soluble solids and total acidity while the opposite occurred with K, which increased also the content of vitamin C. High yield and fruit size were closely related to N and K concentrations in the leaves.Há falta de informações sobre adubação de abacaxizeiro em São Paulo. Assim, um experimento de campo com abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne' foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de NPK na produção e qualidade de frutos em Agudos, região central do Estado, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Empregou-se um fatorial incompleto, com 32 tratamentos distribu

  15. Characteristics of stress-coping behaviors in patients with bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunsoo; Chang, Jae Seung; Choi, Sungwon; Ha, Tae Hyon; Cha, Boseok; Cho, Hyun Sang; Park, Je Min; Lee, Byung Dae; Lee, Young Min; Choi, Yoonmi; Ha, Kyooseob

    2014-08-15

    Appropriate stress-coping strategies are needed to improve the outcome in the treatment of bipolar disorders, as stressful life events may aggravate the course of the illness. The aim of this study was to compare stress-coping behaviors between bipolar patients and healthy controls. A total of 206 participants comprising 103 bipolar patients fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Axis I disorder fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for bipolar I and II disorders and controls matched by age and sex were included in this study. Stress-coping behaviors were assessed using a 53-item survey on a newly-designed behavioral checklist. The characteristics of stress-coping behaviors between the two groups were compared by using t-test and factor analysis. Social stress-coping behaviors such as 'journey', 'socializing with friends', and 'talking something over' were significantly less frequent in bipolar patients than controls. On the other hand, pleasurable-seeking behaviors such as 'smoking', 'masturbation', and 'stealing' were significantly more frequent in bipolar patients than controls. These results suggest that bipolar patients may have more maladaptive stress-coping strategies than normal controls. It is recommended to develop and apply psychosocial programs to reduce maladaptive stress-coping behaviors of bipolar patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-dimensional simulation of the thermal stress effect on static and dynamic VDMOS characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwan, M.; Beydoun, B.; Ketata, K.; Zoaeter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Using a two-dimensional simulator, the effect of the thermal stress on static and dynamic vertical double-diffusion metal oxide semiconductor (VDMOS) characteristics have been investigated. The use of the device under certain thermal stress conditions can produce modifications of its physical and electrical properties. Based on physics and 2D simulations, this paper proposes an analysis of this stress effect observed on the electrical characteristics of the device. Parameters responsible of these modifications are determined. Approximate expressions of the ionization coefficients and breakdown voltage in terms of temperature are proposed. Non-punch-through junction theory is used to express the breakdown voltage and the space charge extension with respect to the impurity concentration and the temperature. The capacitances of the device have been also studied. The effect of the stress on C-V characteristics is observed and analyzed. We notice that the drain-gate, drain-source and gate-source capacitances are shifted due to the degradation of device physical properties versus thermal stress

  17. Impacts of Climate Variability on the Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Water Stress in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soojun; Devineni, Naresh; Lall, Upmanu; Kim, Hung Soo

    2017-04-01

    This study intended to evaluate water stress quantitatively targeted at the Korean Peninsula and to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of its occurrence. First, the severity and multiyear influence of water stress were analyzed by realizing water balance based on water supply and demand and by calculating the normalized deficit index (NDI) and the normalized deficit cumulated (NDC) for 113 small basins in the Korean Peninsula. Next, a change in the periodic characteristics of water stress was analyzed using wavelet transform of the NDI by small basins and 3 bands of periods of 1 year, 2-4 years, and 4-8 years were separated. Through an analysis of the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) on each band, it was found that water stress occurring in the Korean Peninsula has the characteristics of spatial distribution that it is extended from the south coast to the northern area and inland as its period gets longer. An analysis of the band with a period of 2-8 years for water stress showed that it has a relationship with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Acknowledgment This research was supported by a grant (14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  18. The Long-Term Effects of Stress on Partner Weight Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Fletcher

    Full Text Available Recent experimental evidence suggests that stressed males find heavier women more attractive than non-stressed males. The aim of this study is to examine whether these results also appear in actual mating patterns of adults from a national sample.Regression analysis linking partner weight measures to own measures of childhood stress, as measured by mistreatment. Cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Romantic Partners Sample is used to measure partner weight, childhood stressful events, and socio-demographic characteristics. Childhood experiences of adult mistreatment are retrospectively collected.Men who experienced childhood mistreatment are more likely to have obese female partners during young adulthood. The results are strongest for interactions with social services, adult neglect and physical abuse. We also present novel evidence of the opposite association in similarly stressed women whose male partners are more likely to be thin.These results suggest that preferences for partner characteristics are sensitive to histories of stress and that previously hypothesized patterns occur outside the experimental setting.

  19. Effect on Quality Characteristics of Tomatoes Grown Under Well-Watered and Drought Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunklin, Warinporn; Savage, Geoffrey

    2017-07-25

    Tomatoes are one of the most nutritionally and economically important crops in New Zealand and around the world. Tomatoes require large amounts of water to grow well and are adversely affected by drought stress. However, few studies have evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of commercial tomatoes grown under water stress conditions. Four tomato cultivars (Incas, Marmande, Scoresby Dwarf, and Window Box Red) were grown in a greenhouse under well-watered and drought stress conditions and the tomatoes were harvested when ripe. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant contents of the fruits were compared. There were significant differences between cultivars in quality characteristics-such as dry matter, total soluble solids, and pH parameters-but there were no differences in the quality characteristics between the two treatments of the fruits ( p > 0.05); however, there were significant differences ( p < 0.05) in the antioxidant compositions (lycopene, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS) of the fruits of both cultivars and treatments. Overall, these results indicated that tomatoes increased their bioactive compounds without changing any quality characteristics when exposed to water stress conditions.

  20. The relative influence of body characteristics on humid heat stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Luttikholt, V. G.; Vrijkotte, T. G.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relative importance of individual characteristics such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), adiposity, DuBois body surface area (AD), surface to mass ratio (AD: mass) and body mass, for the individual's reaction to humid heat stress. For this purpose 27

  1. Meta-analysis of digital game and study characteristics eliciting physiological stress responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vijgh, Benny; Beun, Robbert Jan; van Rood, Maarten; Werkhoven, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have been used as stressors in a range of disciplines for decades. Nonetheless, the underlying characteristics of these stressors and the study in which the stressor was applied are generally not recognized for their moderating effect on the measured physiological stress responses. We

  2. Workforce Characteristics, Perceptions, Stress, and Satisfaction among Staff in Green House and Other Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick B; Hudak, Sandra L; Horn, Susan D; Cohen, Lauren W; Reed, David Allen; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2016-02-01

    To compare workforce characteristics and staff perceptions of safety, satisfaction, and stress between Green House (GH) and comparison nursing homes (CNHs). Primary data on staff perceptions of safety, stress, and satisfaction from 13 GHs and 8 comparison NHs in 11 states; secondary data from human resources records on workforce characteristics, turnover, and staffing from 01/01/2011-06/30/2012. Observational study. Workforce data were from human resources offices; staff perceptions were from surveys. Few significant differences were found between GH and CNHs. Exceptions were GH direct caregivers were older, provided twice the normalized hours per week budgeted per resident than CNAs in CNHs or Legacy NHs, and trended toward lower turnover. GH environment may promote staff longevity and does not negatively affect worker's stress, safety perceptions, or satisfaction. Larger studies are needed to confirm findings. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Deformation Failure Characteristics of Coal Body and Mining Induced Stress Evolution Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the interaction between coal failure and mining pressure field evolution during mining are presented. Not only the mechanical model of stope and its relative structure division, but also the failure and behavior characteristic of coal body under different mining stages are built and demonstrated. Namely, the breaking arch and stress arch which influence the mining area are quantified calculated. A systematic method of stress field distribution is worked out. All this indicates that the pore distribution of coal body with different compressed volume has fractal character; it appears to be the linear relationship between propagation range of internal stress field and compressed volume of coal body and nonlinear relationship between the range of outburst coal mass and the number of pores which is influenced by mining pressure. The results provide theory reference for the research on the range of mining-induced stress and broken coal wall.

  4. Efeito da adubação NPK na cultura da crotalária Influence of NPK fertilization in sunnhemp crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em oito experimentos em que se procurou determinar os efeitos de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, na produção de massa verde e sementes de Crotalaria juncea L. No estudo dos três principais elementos, empregou-se um delineamento fatorial 3ª com duas repetições. Foram estudadas as dosagens de 0, 30 e 60 de N; 0, 60 e 120 de P2O5 e 0, 30 e 60 de K2O, em quilograma/hectare, empregados sob a forma de salitre-do-chile, superfosfato simples e cloreto de potássio respectivamente. Os experimentos foram realizados nos anos agrícolas 1967/68 e 1968/69, nas Estações Experimentais de Campinas, Tietê, Tatuí e Ribeirão Preto e, segundo a Comissão de Solos do Ministério da Agricultura, respectivamente, em solo: Latassolo roxo, série Chapadão; Podzólico vermelho-amarelo variação Piracicaba; Latossolo roxo e Latossolo roxo. Os resultados mostram que, na maioria dos experimentos, o emprego do fósforo aumentou significativamente a produção de massa verde e sementes. O nitrogênio apresentou efeito significativo em alguns deles, ao passo que o efeito do potássio foi praticamente nulo, só apresentando significância quando em presença do fósforo ou do fósforo e nitrogênio juntos.In this paper the influence of NPK fertilization in the production of sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. regarding fibers and seeds was studied. The experiments were conducted dining two years in four different regions of São Paulo State. The data showed that the best results were obtained with the application of phosphorus.

  5. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Zafirova, Beti

    2015-09-15

    Once high levels of work-related stress among teachers were confirmed many studies concentrated on identifying and investigating key stress factors among school teachers. Unfortunately there are very few researches made on stress causing factors among teachers in Republic of Macedonia. To determine the most frequent stress causing factors among teachers in elementary schools and to investigate their relationship with demographic and job characteristics. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study which involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. Among six categories of factors that generate work related stress (job demands, control, relationships, role, changes and support) control and support had the highest mean scores. Within the control category the highest levels of perceived teacher's work-related stress were caused by the following factors - changes in terms and conditions without consultation and given responsibility without the authority to take decisions. 141 out of the interviewed teachers (47%) have mentioned changes in terms and conditions without consultation as very stressful, while another 50 (16.67%) have reported it as stressful. 123 out of interviewed teachers (41%) have stated given responsibility without the authority to take decisions as very stressful, with another 105 (35%) have reported it as stressful. In the category support the highest levels of perceived teacher's work-related stress were caused by stress factors - lack of funds/resources to do the job and limited or no access to training. Out of 300 interviewed teachers, 179 (59.67%) have reported lack of funds/resources to do the job as very stressful, while another 50 (16.67%) as stressful. There is no significant relationship between the stress factor limited or no access to training and demographic and job characteristics. Our findings confirm that

  6. AC loss characteristics of Bi2223/Ag sheathed tape wires subjected to mechanical strains and stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Osami; Li, Z

    2007-01-01

    The influence of uniaxial tensile stress-strain on the AC loss characteristics of multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag sheathed tape wires was investigated. The uniaxial tensile stress-strain was applied to the sample wire in liquid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure, and the AC losses (transport, magnetization and total losses) were measured by an electric method. Two kinds of wire, oxide-dispersion strengthened Ag-alloy sheathed and Ag-alloy sheathed wires, were tested. The stress-strain curves of the tested wires were divided in three regions, i.e. elastic deformation, continuous plastic deformation and serrated-like plastic deformation regions, though the ranges of those regions were different for different kinds of wire. In the elastic and continuous plastic regions, the stress-strain curve was smooth and continuous, and in the serrated-like plastic region, the curve was rough. In the serrated-like plastic region, the wires kept elongating, while increase of the tensile stress was suspended. Dependences of the critical currents on the stress-strain were generally as follows. While decreases of the wire critical currents were in the range of less than 4% of the original values of the no-stress condition, the critical currents of the wires were reversible, that is, the critical currents recovered the original values at zero stress when the stress were released, regardless of whether the wires were in the elastic or continuous plastic region. In the continuous plastic region, the critical currents decreased up to 10%-15% of the original values and the critical currents were irreversible when the degradations of the critical currents exceeded about 4%. In the serrated-like plastic regions, the critical currents were more severely degraded. The AC loss characteristics of the wires are different in those regions. In the elastic and continuous plastic regions, the absolute values of AC losses were dependent on the stress-strain. However, the dependences of those normalized

  7. Severe, multimodal stress exposure induces PTSD-like characteristics in a mouse model of single prolonged stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Shane A; Eagle, Andrew L; George, Sophie A; Mulo, Kostika; Kohler, Robert J; Gerard, Justin; Harutyunyan, Arman; Hool, Steven M; Susick, Laura L; Schneider, Brandy L; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Galloway, Matthew P; Liberzon, Israel; Conti, Alana C

    2016-04-15

    Appropriate animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed because human studies remain limited in their ability to probe the underlying neurobiology of PTSD. Although the single prolonged stress (SPS) model is an established rat model of PTSD, the development of a similarly-validated mouse model emphasizes the benefits and cross-species utility of rodent PTSD models and offers unique methodological advantages to that of the rat. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and describe a SPS model for mice and to provide data that support current mechanisms relevant to PTSD. The mouse single prolonged stress (mSPS) paradigm, involves exposing C57Bl/6 mice to a series of severe, multimodal stressors, including 2h restraint, 10 min group forced swim, exposure to soiled rat bedding scent, and exposure to ether until unconsciousness. Following a 7-day undisturbed period, mice were tested for cue-induced fear behavior, effects of paroxetine on cue-induced fear behavior, extinction retention of a previously extinguished fear memory, dexamethasone suppression of corticosterone (CORT) response, dorsal hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor protein and mRNA expression, and prefrontal cortex glutamate levels. Exposure to mSPS enhanced cue-induced fear, which was attenuated by oral paroxetine treatment. mSPS also disrupted extinction retention, enhanced suppression of stress-induced CORT response, increased mRNA expression of dorsal hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors and decreased prefrontal cortex glutamate levels. These data suggest that the mSPS model is a translationally-relevant model for future PTSD research with strong face, construct, and predictive validity. In summary, mSPS models characteristics relevant to PTSD and this severe, multimodal stress modifies fear learning in mice that coincides with changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, brain glucocorticoid systems, and glutamatergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex

  8. Study on NPK Performance in Food Waste Composting by Using Agricultural Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Siti Noratifah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Alternative disposal method for food waste could be conducted by using composting method. In this study, investigationon food waste composting by using agricultural fermentation was carried out to find out the performance of the compost. Two types of compost were produced which were commercial compost and research compost and total of 8 reactors were tested during this study. Research compost consist of coconut fiber (decomposing medium and the combination of salt and breadfruit peels as the fermentation liquid, while rice husk was used as decomposing medium for commercial compost along with fermented soybeanand brown sugar as fermentation liquid. Physical and chemical parameters which are temperature, pH value, moisture content, Total Nitrogen (N, Total Phosphorus (P and Potassium (K concentration were determined. Based on the results of 20 weeks composting, the overall temperature range from 27 °C to 45 °C which shown the active phase for composting occurred. On the other hand, during the period of composting, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. As for NPK content, Total Nitrogen value range from 98 ppm to 2268 ppm for commercial compost, while 84 ppm to 2240 ppm for research compost. Total Phosphorus has the values of0.871 ppm to 11.615 ppm for commercial compost and 1.785 ppm to 14.143 ppm for research compost. On the other hand, result for potassium is from 91.85 ppm to 645.55 ppm for commercial compost and from 133.95 ppm to 686.2 ppm for research compost. As a conclusion from the results obtained, the compost in this study is sufficient to be use for agricultural purposes and the best performance of NPK value was demonstrated by Reactor C2 from research compost.

  9. Effects of drought and salt stresses on growth characteristics of euhalophyte Suaeda salsa in coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Huang, Chen; Bai, Junhong; Zhang, Guangliang; Zhao, Qingqing; Wen, Xiaojun

    2018-02-01

    The pot experiment was carried out in the Yellow River Delta to investigate the effects of drought and salt stresses on growth characteristics of Suaeda salsa, and to reveal the role of nitrogen (N) application in alleviation effects of drought and salt stresses on Suaeda salsa in coastal wetlands. In this study, plants were exposed to two water contents treatments (i.e., 14% and 26% water content), four salinity treatments (i.e., 2 g/kg, 4 g/kg, 6 g/kg, and 8 g/kg NaCl) and two N application treatments (i.e., 0 and 200 N mg/kg) in field conditions. Growth characteristics of Suaeda salsa were assessed as fresh weight, dry weight, height, total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC). Our results showed that fresh weight, dry weight and height of Suaeda salsa promoted at lower salinity treatments but reduced at higher salinity treatments, while TN and TC contents kept stable with increasing salinity levels. Drought stress diminished the fresh weight, dry weight and height of Suaeda salsa, whereas enhanced TN contents. Under the interactive stresses of drought and salt, fresh weight and dry weight showed slight increases at lower salinity treatments, whereas decreases at higher salinity treatments. N application promoted the fresh weight, dry weight and TN contents other than the height and TC contents of Suaeda salsa. The interaction between N application and salt stress exhibited a significant influence on the fresh weight and dry weight of Suaeda salsa, whereas no significant interaction between N application and drought stress was observed. These findings of this study suggested that higher salinity, drought and the interaction of drought and higher salinity would retard the growth of Suaeda salsa, whereas N application could only mitigate the deleterious effects of salt stress on Suaeda salsa.

  10. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridine, W.; Ngakou, A.; Mbaiguinam, M.; Namba, F.; Anna, P

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  11. RESPUESTA DEL PASTO RAIGRASS AUBADE (Lolium sp. A DOSIS DE SILICIO EN INTERACCION CON DIFERENTES DOSIS DE NPK

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    DIANA LEGARDA - LOPEZ

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en el corregimiento de Catambuco, municipio de Pasto, localizado a 01°06'33 N y 77°19 '07.8 WO; con el objeto de conocer El presente trabajo se realizó en el corregimiento de Catambuco, municipio de Pasto, localizado a 01°06 '33 N y 77°19´07.8 WO; con el objeto de conocer con tres repeticiones y 10 tratamientos distribuidos en dosis altas, medias y bajas de NPK (Altas: 529 kg/ha de úrea, 72 kg/ha de SFT, 160 kg/ha de KCl. Medias: 397 kg/ha de urea, 54 kg/ha de SFT, 120 kg/ha de KCl. Bajas: 265 kg/ha de úrea, 36 kg/ha de SFT, 80 kg/ha de KCl contrastadas con dosis altas, medias y bajas de Si (Alta 100 kg/ha, media 75 kg/ha, baja 50 kg/ha de SiO2 y un testigo sin fertilización con Si. El Si en dosis alta y NPK alto, presentó mejores resultados en altura de planta (101cm, producción de forraje verde (167,2 Ton/ha/año, materia seca (27,44 Ton/ha/año, concentraciones de P (parte aérea 0,53%y raíz 0,42%,de K (parte aérea 3,11% y raíz 2,27%. Al aplicar dosis altas y medias en el suelo,la concentración de P y K disminuyó. El tratamiento dosis alta de NPK y alta de Si presentó el mayor beneficio económico, seguido del tratamiento dosis media de NPK y alta de Si.

  12. Molecular characteristics of stress overshoot for polymer melts under start-up shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sohdam; Kim, Jun Mo; Baig, Chunggi

    2017-12-21

    Stress overshoot is one of the most important nonlinear rheological phenomena exhibited by polymeric liquids undergoing start-up shear at sufficient flow strengths. Despite considerable previous research, the fundamental molecular characteristics underlying stress overshoot remain unknown. Here, we analyze the intrinsic molecular mechanisms behind the overshoot phenomenon using atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of entangled linear polyethylene melts under shear flow. Through a detailed analysis of the transient rotational chain dynamics, we identify an intermolecular collision angular regime in the vicinity of the chain orientation angle θ ≈ 20° with respect to the flow direction. The shear stress overshoot occurs via strong intermolecular collisions between chains in the collision regime at θ = 15°-25°, corresponding to a peak strain of 2-4, which is an experimentally well-known value. The normal stress overshoot appears at approximately θ = 10°, at a corresponding peak strain roughly equivalent to twice that for the shear stress. We provide plausible answers to several basic questions regarding the stress overshoot, which may further help understand other nonlinear phenomena of polymeric systems.

  13. Evaluation of stress distribution characteristics on various bar designs of three-implant-supported mandibular overdentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Tokar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Implant-supported-overdentures, instead of conventional complete dentures, are frequently recommended to rehabilitate patients having edentulous mandible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution characteristics of mandibular implant-supported overdentures with four different bar attachment designs. Materials and Method: A photoelastic mandibular model with three implants (3.75 mm - 13 mm placed at the interforaminal region was generated from a cast of an edentulous mandible. Four mandibular bar overdenture designs were fabricated: bar-clip, bar-galvano, bar-locator, and bar-ceka. Axial vertical loads (135 N were applied to the central fossa of the right first molar area for each overdenture design. Stress concentrations were recorded photographically and analyzed visually. Results: The tested bar attachment designs revealed low and moderate stress levels. The lowest stress was observed with the bar-clip design, followed by bar-locator, bar-ceka, and bar-galvano designs. Conclusion: The loads were distributed to all of the implants. Studied designs experienced moderate stress levels around the loaded side implant. Bars with distally placed stud attachments and surface treatment with electroforming seems to increase stress levels around the implants.

  14. INFLUENCE OF NPK AND LIME APLICATION ON ERVA-MATE GROWTH, ROOT-ROT SEVERITY AND SOIL FUNGI POPULATION1

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    Igor Poletto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the influence of the application of NPK and liming doses in the soil, on the growth of Erva-mate, the severity of rot-root and the fungi population of the soil. To do so, an experiment was installed at the green house, in the Forest Nursery of UFSM, using an experimental design completely randomized factorial 4x3x4 (Factor F: Fusarium spp. inoculation; Factor C: soil limestone; Factor A: NPK doses , totaling 48 treatments. The seedlings were cultivated in vases containing 2 kg of soil, classified as ‘Red-Yellow Argisoil’ (clay soil. At the end of the experiment was measured the stem diameter, height of the aerial part, leaves number, aerial dry biomass, root dry biomass and total dry biomass of the seedlings. Also, the soil was collected, from each treatment, for the chemical analysis and the counting of the fungi population. It was observed that the association among application of NPK and liming in the soil hampered the development of Erva-mate seedlings. The analysis of some variables suggests that the limestone absence provided greater resistance of seedlings to the attack of Fusarium spp. or the severity of Fusarium spp. was reduced in lower pH. The fungi population of the soil presented varied behavior depending on the applied treatments.

  15. Efektivitas Amelioran pada Lahan Gambut Terdegradasi untuk Meningkatkan Pertumbuhan dan Serapan NPK Tanaman Jagung Manis (Zea mays L. var. saccharata

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    Eni Maftu’ah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of several of ameliorant formulas to increase plant growthand NPK uptake on sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata on degraded peatlands. The research was conducted in thegreenhouse of Balittra during May to July 2011. Sweet corn was planted in pot with soil taken from previously burnt peatin Kalampangan, Palangkaraya. The treatment consisted of two factors, i.e., combination of ameliorant (A1=80% chicken manure + 20% dolomite, A2=80% agricultural weeds + 20% dolomite, A3=80% mineral soil (Spodosol + 20% dolomite,A4=20% chicken manure + 20% agricultural weeds + 20% Eleocharis dulcis + 20% mineral soil + 20% dolomite, andA5=19% chicken manure + 71.5% mineral soil + 9.5% dolomite and application rates at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ton ha-1, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 3 replications. The results showed that ameliorants and application rates affected growth and NPK uptake of sweet corn. Application of 20 ton ameliorant (80% chicken manure + 20% dolomite ha-1 produced the highest dry weight of root and shoot, and NPK uptake.Keywords: ameliorants, degraded peatland, nitrogen, phosphate, potassium

  16. Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IN Abdullahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11061 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35

  17. Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with plant growth, nodulation, and shoot npk in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Anjum, T.; Shah, M.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with different root and shoot growth, nodulation and shoot NPK parameters was studied in three legumes viz. Trifolium alexandrianum, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus parviflora. The three test legume species showed different patterns of root and shoot growth, nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and shoot N, P and K content. Different mycorrhizal structures viz. mycelium, arbuscules and vesicles showed different patters of correlation with different studied parameters. Mycelial infection showed an insignificantly positive correlation with root and shoot dry biomass and total root length. Maximum root length was however, negatively associated with mycelial infection. Both arbuscular and vesicular infections were negatively correlated with shoot dry biomass and different parameters of root growth. The association between arbuscular infection and maximum root length was significant. All the three mycorrhizal structures showed a positive correlation with number and biomass of nodules. The association between arbuscular infection and nodule number was significant. Mycelial infection was positively correlated with percentage and total shoot N and P. Similarly percentage N was also positively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. By contrast, total shoot N showed a negative association with arbuscular as well as vesicular infections. Similarly both percentage and total shoot P were negatively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. All the associations between mycorrhizal parameters and shoot K were negative except between vesicular infection and shoot %K. (author)

  18. The Effect of Drought Stress on Morphological Characteristics and Yield Components of Medicinal Plant Fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bazzazi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is one of the oldest medicinal plants. In order to study water-stress effects on some morphological characteristics of fenugreek, an experiment was carried out in a strip plots based on randomized complete blocks design with three replicates, at Research Farm of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran, in 2010. The first factor was allocated to four water stress levels (irrigation after depletion of 20 (as control, 40, 60 and 80% of available soil moisture and the second factor was six fenugreek landraces (Shiraz, Ardestan, Tirancheh, Yazd, Jahrom and Hindi. The results of ANOVA and comparison of means indicated that the effect of water stress was significant for all traits and variation was observed among landraces for all the studied characteristics. Mean comparison showed that drought stress reduced days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height and yield components (number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-kernel weight. It was also revealed that water stress caused reduction in biological yield (43% and grain yield (42.3% of all genotypes. Comparison between landraces indicated that maximum biological and grain yield belonged to Ardestan landrace. Assessment of cluster analysis showed that it was possible to classify Ardestan, Shiraz and Tirancheh as a single group having tolerance to water stress. In general, based on obtained results, the Ardestan landrace, with 22.37 g/plant, had the highest biological yield and Hindi landrace, with 73.83 days to maturity, was the most early-maturing one.

  19. The nature, characteristics and associations of care home staff stress and wellbeing: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad Saiful; Baker, Christine; Huxley, Peter; Russell, Ian T; Dennis, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    The majority of residents in care homes in the United Kingdom are living with dementia or significant memory problems. Caring in this setting can be difficult and stressful for care staff who work long hours, have little opportunity for training, are poorly paid and yet subject to high expectation. This may affect their mental and physical wellbeing, cause high rates of staff turnover and absenteeism, and affect the quality of care they provide. The main objective of this survey was to explore the nature, characteristics and associations of stress in care home staff. Staff working in a stratified random sample of care homes within Wales completed measures covering: general health and wellbeing (SF-12); stress (Work Stress Inventory); job content (Karasek Job Content); approach to, and experience of, working with people living with dementia (Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire; and Experience of Working with Dementia Patients); and Productivity and Health Status (SPS-6). Multiple linear regressions explored the effects of home and staff characteristics on carers. 212 staff from 72 care homes completed questionnaires. Staff from nursing homes experienced more work stress than those from residential homes (difference 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.10 to 0.51; P  work (difference -4.77; CI -7.80 to -1.73; P  working in local authority homes than in the private sector (difference 7.75; CI 2.56 to 12.94; P  < 0.01). Our study highlights the importance of dementia training in care homes, with a particular need in the private sector. An effective intervention to reduce stress in health and social care staff is required, especially in nursing and larger care homes, and for nursing staff. ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN80487202. Registered 24 July 2013.

  20. Mindfulness-based stress reduction teachers, practice characteristics, cancer incidence, and health: a nationwide ecological description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sara Wagner; Benson, Kelsey; Middleton, Lauren; Meyers, Christine; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-14

    Studies have demonstrated the potential of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program to improve the condition of individuals with health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic pain; improve psychological well-being; reduce stress levels; and increase survival among cancer patients. To date, only one study has focused on the effect of long-term meditation on stress, showing a positive protective relationship. However, the relationship between meditation and cancer incidence remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to describe the state-level relationship between MBSR instructors and their practices and county-level health outcomes, including cancer incidence, in the United States. This ecologic study was performed using geospatial mapping and descriptive epidemiology of statewide MBSR characteristics and overall health, mental health state rankings, and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates. Weak to moderate state-level correlations between meditation characteristics and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence were detected, with states with more meditation (e.g., more MBSR teachers per population) correlated with a decreased cancer incidence. A negative correlation was detected between lung & bronchus cancer and years teaching MBSR only. Moderate positive correlations were detected between Hodgkin's Lymphoma and female breast cancer in relation to all meditation characteristics. Statistically significant correlations with moderate coefficients were detected for overall health ranks and all meditation characteristics, most strongly for total number of years teaching MBSR and total number of years of general meditation practice. Our analyses might suggest that a relationship exists between the total number of MBSR teachers per state and the total number of years of general meditation practice per state, and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence. Positive correlations were observed with overall health rankings. Despite this study

  1. Dynamic characteristics of rotating pretwisted clamped-clamped beam under thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yueming; Lu, Wei Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Effects of thermal stress on the vibration characteristics, buckling limit and critical speed of a rotating pretwisted beam clamped to rigid hub at a stagger angle were investigated. By considering the work done by thermal stress, the thermal influence on stiffness matrix was introduced in the dynamic model. The motion equations were derived based on Lagrange equation by employing three pure Cartesian deformation variables combined with nonlinear von Karman strain formula. Numerical investigations studied the modal characteristics of the beam. Numerical results calculated from a commercial finite element code and obtained with the present modeling method were in good agreement with the previous results reported in the literature. The combined softening effects due to the thermal stress and the rotation motion were observed. Furthermore, it is shown that the inclusion of thermal stress is necessary for blades operating under a high temperature field. Buckling thermal loads and the critical rotating speed were calculated through solving the corresponding nonlinear equations numerically, and some pertinent conclusions are outlined. It is also found that the peak value position of the first mode shape approaches to the tip of blade with the increment of rotating speed and hub radius. However, the variation in the environment temperature causes only a slight alteration in the mode shape

  2. Dynamic characteristics of rotating pretwisted clamped-clamped beam under thermal stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yueming [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong UniversityXi' an (China); Lu, Wei Zhen [Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-09-15

    Effects of thermal stress on the vibration characteristics, buckling limit and critical speed of a rotating pretwisted beam clamped to rigid hub at a stagger angle were investigated. By considering the work done by thermal stress, the thermal influence on stiffness matrix was introduced in the dynamic model. The motion equations were derived based on Lagrange equation by employing three pure Cartesian deformation variables combined with nonlinear von Karman strain formula. Numerical investigations studied the modal characteristics of the beam. Numerical results calculated from a commercial finite element code and obtained with the present modeling method were in good agreement with the previous results reported in the literature. The combined softening effects due to the thermal stress and the rotation motion were observed. Furthermore, it is shown that the inclusion of thermal stress is necessary for blades operating under a high temperature field. Buckling thermal loads and the critical rotating speed were calculated through solving the corresponding nonlinear equations numerically, and some pertinent conclusions are outlined. It is also found that the peak value position of the first mode shape approaches to the tip of blade with the increment of rotating speed and hub radius. However, the variation in the environment temperature causes only a slight alteration in the mode shape.

  3. Thermal stress analysis and operational characteristics of a bellows-seal globe valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Su; Kim, Youn Jae

    2005-01-01

    Because of design and manufacturing costs, it is important to predict an expected life of bellows with component stresses of bellows as its design factors and material characteristics. In this study, numerical analyses are carried out to elucidate the thermal and flow characteristics with 0.1 m (4 inch) bellows-seal globe valve for high temperature (max. 600 .deg. C) and for high pressure (max. 104 kgf/cm 2 , 10.2 MPa) conditions. Using commercial codes, FLUENT, which uses FVM and SIMPLE algorithm, and ANSYS, which uses FEM, the pressure and temperature fields are calculated and the results are graphically depicted. In addition, when bellows have an axial displacement, thermal stress affecting bellows life is studied. The pressure and temperature values obtained from the flow analyses are adopted as the boundary conditions for thermal stress analyses. As the result of this study, we get the reasonable coefficients for valve and thermal stress for bellows, compared with existing coefficients and calculated values

  4. Effects of Salinity and Drought Stresses on Germination Characteristics of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Yazdani Biuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the germination and seedling growth responses of Milk Thistle as a medicinal plant to salinity and drought stresses, two separate experiments were conducted based on completely randomised design with four replications. In the first experiment, the effect of drought potential levels (0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -10, -15 and -20 bars due to using polyethilenglycol (PEG 6000 and the second trial evaluated effects of salinity potential (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ml/molar caused by NaCl were studied on germination characteristics and seedling growth. The results indicated that salinity and drought stresses showed significant effects on germination and seedling growth of milk thistle. The seeds were able to germinate in 300 ml/molar salinity potential and -20 bar drought potential conditions. The effect of both stresses on length and dry weight of seedlings were significant and with increasing salinity and drought stresses, the length and dry weight of radicles and plumules decreased. Increasing drought level, led to higher plumule length reduction compared to radicle length reduction, which shows that milk thistle plumule is more sensitive to droughtness than radicle. Dry weight of seedling at -3 bar drought potential was 50% of control plants. Keywords: PEG, Drought stress, Sodium chloride, Milk thistle

  5. Characteristics of internet use as a means of perceived stress reduction in health care students

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    Hinić Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that people use media for instrumental needs, entertainment/leisure or for social gratification. The aim of this study is to identify specific characteristics of Internet use in health care students who use the Internet as a means of perceived stress reduction. The sample included 231 students (m=34%; f=66%, aged (M=22.44; SD=2.09, who were subsequently categorised into two groups according to whether they consciously use the Internet to alleviate the consequences of stressful experiences. The individuals reporting the Internet as a means of perceived stress reduction spend considerably more time online than other Internet users. They also use contents related to entertainment, culture and sex more frequently, as well as social applications and networks. In comparison to others, these participants meet new people and potential partners more often via the Internet, spend more time on their friends' profiles, while using different entertainment applications, most commonly games. The Internet may play a significant role in reducing negative reactions to stressful events; therefore, we may regard cyberspace as a fertile ground for educational, preventive and counselling services. The main limitation to the current study is the sample (only health care students. Future studies should include assessment of perceived stress levels and their relation to study variables.

  6. Effects of Nutrients Foliar Application on Agrophysiological Characteristics of Maize under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Ali SAJEDI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate effects of nutrients foliar application on agrophysiological characteristics of maize hybrid �KSC 704� water deficit stress conditions, an experiment was arranged in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications to the Research Station of Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch, Iran in 2007-2008. Main factors studied were four irrigation levels including irrigation equal to crop water requirement, water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage (V8, blister stage (R2 and filling grain stage (R4 in the main plot. Combined levels of selenium treatment (without and with application 20 gha-1 and micronutrients (without and with application 2 lha-1 were situated in sub plots. Results showed that water deficit stress decreased grain yield 19.7% in blister stage as compared with control. Using selenium increased relative content water at R2 and R4 stages significantly. Using selenium in water deficit stress condition increased measured traits except plant height as compared with treatment without selenium. A negative antagonistic interaction was found between selenium and micronutrients on some measured traits. Between treatments of water deficit stress, highest grain yield equal 6799.52 and 6736.97 kgha-1 was obtained from combined treatments of water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage+without selenium+without micronutrients and water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage+selenium+without micronutrients respectively which compared with treatment of irrigation equal to crop water requirement+selenium+microelements did not differ significant. According to the results of experiment, it is concluded that with micronutrients fertilizer spray under optimum irrigation and selenium spray under water deficit obtain optimum yield.

  7. Effect of the plate surface characteristics and gap height on yield stresses of a magnetorheological fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkkari, I; Syrjala, S; Kostamo, E; Kostamo, J; Pietola, M

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the plate material, surface roughness and measuring gap height on static and dynamic yield stresses of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid were investigated with a commercial plate–plate magnetorheometer. Magnetic and non-magnetic plates with smooth (Ra ∼ 0.3 μm) and rough (Ra ∼ 10 μm) surface finishes were used. It was shown by Hall probe measurements and finite element simulations that the use of magnetic plates or higher gap heights increases the level of magnetic flux density and changes the shape of the radial flux density profile. The yield stress increase caused by these factors was determined and subtracted from the measured values in order to examine only the effect of the wall characteristics or the gap height. Roughening of the surfaces offered a significant increase in the yield stresses for non-magnetic plates. With magnetic plates the yield stresses were higher to start with, but roughening did not increase them further. A significant part of the difference in measured stresses between rough non-magnetic and magnetic plates was caused by changes in magnetic flux density rather than by better contact of the particles to the plate surfaces. In a similar manner, an increase in gap height from 0.25 to 1.00 mm can lead to over 20% increase in measured stresses due to changes in the flux density profile. When these changes were compensated the dynamic yield stresses generally remained independent of the gap height, even in the cases where it was obvious that the wall slip was present. This suggests that with MR fluids the wall slip cannot be reliably detected by comparison of flow curves measured at different gap heights. (paper)

  8. Meta-analysis of digital game and study characteristics eliciting physiological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vijgh, Benny; Beun, Robbert-Jan; Van Rood, Maarten; Werkhoven, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Digital games have been used as stressors in a range of disciplines for decades. Nonetheless, the underlying characteristics of these stressors and the study in which the stressor was applied are generally not recognized for their moderating effect on the measured physiological stress responses. We have therefore conducted a meta-analysis that analyzes the effects of characteristics of digital game stressors and study design on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in studies carried out from 1976 to 2012. In order to assess the differing quality between study designs, a new scale is developed and presented, coined reliability of effect size. The results show specific and consistent moderating functions of both game and study characteristics, on average accounting for around 43%, and in certain cases up to 57% of the variance found in physiological stress responses. Possible cognitive and physiological processes underlying these moderating functions are discussed, and a new model integrating these processes with the moderating functions is presented. These findings indicate that a digital game stressor does not act as a stressor by virtue of being a game, but rather derives its stressor function from its characteristics and the methodology in which it is used. This finding, together with the size of the associated moderations, indicates the need for a standardization of digital game stressors. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Effect of NPK fertiliser on growth, flowering and yield of fonio (Digitaria exilis) in a coastal agro-ecological environment of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amekli, Yayra

    2013-07-01

    Fonio (Digitaria spp) is neglected and underutilised crop traditionally grown in the Sahelian savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana for its grain which is rich in crude protein, fibre and has medicinal properties. Decline in the production of the crop is attributed to poor agronomic and yield characteristics and changing agro-climatic conditions as a result of clobal warming which has rendered traditional growing areas too dry to surport cultivation of the crop. There is the need to explore the possibility of growing the crop in new agro-ecologies to sustain the production. The study was therefore conducted in Kwabenya-Atomic area which is located in the coastal savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana, to evaluate the adaptability of three fonio landraces (Yadema, Nomber and Nvoni) to the coastal zone, their growth and response to NPK 15:15:15 fertiliser treatment, apparent fertiliser nitrogen recovery (AFNR) as well as presence basic elements in the grains. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 during the major cropping season, using three fonio landraces grown at a planting distance of 0.05m x 0.45m. The experiment design used was the split plot in three replicates. Plants were sampled every two weeks throughout the growing season. Grain yield (GY) and its associated apparent fertiliser nitrogen recovery were significantly different (P≤ 0.05) among the fonio landraces during the cropping season with the landrace Nvoni producing the highest grain yield of 96 kg ha - 1 at NPK fertiliser rate of 60 kg ha - 1 and with a AFNR of 33.1%. The study also establised a positive correlation between biomass accumulation and grain yield. The efficiency of grain production per unit of fertiliser nitrogen (FN) increased, but at a diminishing rate with each traditional unit of FN. Additionally, ten essentials mineral elements (Na,Mg, K, Ca, I, CI, Cu, AI, Mn, and V) were detected among the grain of the three fonio landrace using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA

  10. Assessment of stress reactions of recruits based on quantitative analysis of the characteristics of fingertip photoplethysmographic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-jun XIAO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the feasibility of stress assessment based on specific quantification techniques and analysis of stress status with photoplethysmographic(PPG signals.Methods The PPG signals were stratified and randomly sampled from 58 recruits before and after stress induced by International Affective Pictures Systems(IAPS images of negative emotion.The signals were collected and processed in a tool called HC2180-D,an enhanced solution of a blood flow monitoring system,through which the characteristic parameters of pulsatile waveform were derived as components of bioinformation for quantitative and comparative study.A concise mental rating scale,the "brief profile of mood state"(BPOMS,was used as criterion.Results As the characteristic parameter and biomarker were derived,significant increases in values were observed in both the vasoconstriction/vasodilation fraction(CDF and the ordinate of the area under the pulse contour of the vasoconstriction phase(Y2 when the recruits were shown IAPS images of negative emotion(P 0.05 were shown.The values of both the CDF and the Y2 were positively correlated in mid-range to tension,depression,and anger(P < 0.05,and in low-range to fatigue and confusion(P < 0.05.The values were negatively correlated in mid-range with vigor(P < 0.05.Conclusion The characteristic parameter and biomarker derived from the pulsatile waveform obtained at the fingertip are highly sensitive and can be utilized as measures in the quantitative assessment of stress response among recruits.

  11. Effect of Alkaline Stress on Some Morphophysiologic Characteristics of Two Varieties of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Bemany Golnabadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is an important oilseed crop grown throughout the semiarid regions in many parts of the world. It has been cultivated for its oil and flowers and as a meal. Alkaline stress is caused by alkaline salts such as Na2CO3 or NaHCO3 in the soil. Alkaline stress, is widespread environmental constraint affecting crop productivity ,which can inhibit absorption of inorganic anions such as Cl–, NO3– and H2PO4–, greatly affect the selective absorption of K+-Na+, and break the ionic balance. However, under alkali stress, accumulation of compatible solutes, such as betaine, proline and soluble sugar into the vacuole are considered as the basic strategies for plant re-established cellular homeostasis. Some reports have clearly demonstrated that alkaline salts (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 are more destructive to plants than neutral salts (NaCl and Na2SO4. Moreover, the salt-alkali stress can directly damage plant growth, alter the availability of nutrients and disrupt the balance of ions and mineral nutrition. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of alkaline stress on growth and some physiological characteristics of safflower. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in a greenhouse in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan as factorial arrangement in completely randomized design with three replications. Experimental factors included alkaline stress in 7 levels (0, 10, 20, 30 , 40, 50 and 60 mM and two varieties of safflower (Sofeh and 411. Seeds were planted in pots filled with perlite and cocopite (1:1. The pots were irrigated with a nutrient solution with half strength Hoagland's solution. After the fourth true leaves appeared, alkaline stress in the pot was created by adding NaHCO3, to half strength Hoagland’s solution. Control plants were only irrigated with half strength Hoagland’s solution. Plants were harvested after 40 days of seed sowing. After forty days, shoot and root height

  12. The effect of mixed liming and NPK fertilizer to yield of some rice varieties on new openings of acid sulfate tidal swamp land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmad, A.; Dewi, W. S.; Sagiman, S.; Suntoro

    2018-03-01

    The strategies to meet the staple food needs in Indonesia is to open new paddy fields in the sub-optimal land. The research aims to get adaptive rice varieties with the highest yield on new openings of the acid sulfate tidal swamp applying mixed liming and NPK fertilizer. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Faculty of Agriculture, Tanjungpura University, Pontianak. The trials used a factorial completely randomized block design consisting of two factors. The first factor is a mixture of dolomite with NPK fertilizer, consisting of 3 levels (1 ton/ha dolomite and 60 kg/ha NPK; 2 ton/ha dolomite and 90 kg/ha of NPK, and 3 ton/ha dolomite and 120 kg/ha NPK). The second factor is rice varieties, consisting of 6 levels (Ciherang, Situ Bagendit, Inpara, Mira, Si Randah and Ringkak Janggut). Each treatment replicated four times. The results showed that the application of a mixture of 3 ton/ha dolomite and 120 kg/ha of NPK fertilizer showed the best results to improve rice yield on new opening of the acid sulfate tidal swap. Local rice varieties, Ringkak Janggut, applied 3 ton/ha dolomite and 120 kg/ha NPK fertilizer showed the best result of 1000 seed weight, i.e., 28.19 g, and total grain amount per panicle is 110.75 grains, with the lowest number of empty grains. Local rice varieties Ringkak Janggut potential to be developed as superior varieties on new opening acid sulfate tidal swamps by applying liming and fertilizer.

  13. Non-Parametric Kinetic (NPK Analysis of Thermal Oxidation of Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Seifi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to aerogel materials (especially carbon aerogels due to their potential uses in energy-related applications, such as thermal energy storage and thermal protection systems. These open cell carbon-based porous materials (carbon aerogels can strongly react with oxygen at relatively low temperatures (~ 400°C. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance of carbon aerogels in view of their energy-related applications at high temperatures and under thermal oxidation conditions. The objective of this paper is to study theoretically and experimentally the oxidation reaction kinetics of carbon aerogel using the non-parametric kinetic (NPK as a powerful method. For this purpose, a non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, at three different heating rates, was performed on three samples each with its specific pore structure, density and specific surface area. The most significant feature of this method, in comparison with the model-free isoconversional methods, is its ability to separate the functionality of the reaction rate with the degree of conversion and temperature by the direct use of thermogravimetric data. Using this method, it was observed that the Nomen-Sempere model could provide the best fit to the data, while the temperature dependence of the rate constant was best explained by a Vogel-Fulcher relationship, where the reference temperature was the onset temperature of oxidation. Moreover, it was found from the results of this work that the assumption of the Arrhenius relation for the temperature dependence of the rate constant led to over-estimation of the apparent activation energy (up to 160 kJ/mol that was considerably different from the values (up to 3.5 kJ/mol predicted by the Vogel-Fulcher relationship in isoconversional methods

  14. Study on stress characteristics of Francis hydraulic turbine runner based on two-way FSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W R; Xiao, R F; Yang, W; Wang, F J; Liu, J

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, cracking phenomenon occurs in many large-sized turbines both nationally and internationally, which has threatened the stable operation of hydraulic turbines. Consequently, Stress characteristics calculation and analysis of a Francis hydraulic turbine runner by application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) technology become significantly important. In order to introduce two-way coupling technology to hydraulic machinery, two-way FSI technology is applied in this article to calculate and analyze stress characteristics. Through coordinate system transformation, the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations in the Cartesian coordinates system are firstly transformed to ALE coordinates system. The fluid field control equations are then constructed and discrete equations can be obtained by using flow-condition-based interpolation (FBIC-C). The structure static mechanics equations used are established in rotation coordinate system, and modeled with the finite method. Two-way coupling is computed by using iteration method. The fluid equations and structure equations are iterated until coupling coefficients converge. According to structure result, the maximum stress, displacement as well as its location can be found. As a result, the most easily wear position can be discovered which provides valuable basis for optimized design and stable operation of Francis hydraulic turbines. After comparing the results with that of one-way coupling, it is discovered that displacements is the key factors which affects the results of one-way and two-way coupling.

  15. Effect of mineral nitrogen fertilization on growth characteristics of lucerne under induced water deficiency stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileva, V.; Vasilev, E.; Athar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Utility of lucerne crop fertilization with nitrogen fertilizer has been discussed in literature with controversy. In this study experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mineral nitrogen at the doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg N/kg on some characteristics of lucerne under induced water deficiency stress at the stage of budding in a pot trial. It was found that mineral nitrogen at the doses of 120 and 160 mg N/kg soil increased the productivity of dry top mass by 17 and 23% in conditions of optimum moisture, and by 9% in conditions of water deficiency stress at the dose of 80 mg N/kg soil. Application of mineral nitrogen at the dose of 120 and 160 mg N/kg soil increased the quantity of dry root mass by 43 and 38% for the conditions of optimum moisture, and by 54-56% for conditions of water deficiency stress. Mineral nitrogen fertilizing at the dose of 40 mg N/kg soil had the lowest suppressive effect on the nodulation (11%). The dose of 160 mg N/kg soil was found to be toxic to nodulation. The dose of 80 mg N/kg soil, at which the crop had the lowest sensitivity to water deficiency stress, was optimal for lucerne development. (author)

  16. 3-D characteristics of the residual stress in the plate weld between SA508 and stainless steel 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Tae Ryong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Won [Global New-clear Engineering and Consulting, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seon Yeong [Korea Laboratory Engineering System Company, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    This study is performed to check the three dimensional characteristics of residual stress in the dissimilar metal weld. Although two dimensional analysis has been widely used for the assessment of weld residual stress, it has limitations to understand the stress distribution of the third direction. 3-D analysis was done to understand residual stress distribution of the welded plate. A simple butt-welded plate was considered to show the stress variation on all direction. A mock-up plate weldment was fabricated with SA-508 and F316L, which are widely used in nuclear power plants. The analysis results were validated with the measured values in the mock-up.

  17. 3-D Characteristics of the Residual Stress in the Plate Butt Weld Between SA508 and F316L SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Tae Ryong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Won [GNEC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seon Yeong [KLES, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    This study is performed to check the three dimensional characteristics of residual stress in the dissimilar metal weld. Although two dimensional analysis has been widely used for the assessment of weld residual stress, it has limitations to understand the stress distribution of the third direction. 3-D analysis was done to understand residual stress distribution of the welded plate. A simple butt-welded plate was considered to show the stress variation on all direction. A mock-up plate weldment was fabricated with SA-508 and F316L, which are widely used in nuclear power plants. The analysis results were validated with the measured values in the mock-up.

  18. Mechanical characteristics of self-expandable metallic stents: in vitro study with three types of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil

    1998-01-01

    To obtain objective and comparable data for mechanical characteristics of self-expandable metallic stents widely used in the treatment of biliary obstruction. The stents tested were the 6 and 8 mm-band Hanaro spiral stent, Gianturco-Rosch Z stent, Wallstent, Ultraflex stent, and Memotherm stent. Each was subjected to three types of load:point, area, and circular. We analyzed their mechanical characteristics (resistance force, expansile force, and elasticity) according to these three types of stress. With regard to point loads, the Memotherm stent showed the highest resistance force and expansile force. The 8 mm-band Hanaro stent showed the lowest resistance force and the Gianturco-Rosch Z stent and Ultraflex stent showed lower expansile force. With regard to area loads, the Ultraflex stent showed the highest resistance force. The 6 mm-band Hanaro stent, Gianturco-Rosch Z stent, and Ultraflex stent showed higher expansile force. The 8 mm-band Hanaro stent showed the lowest value in both resistance force and expansile force. For circular loads, the Memotherm stent showed the highest resistance force and the Ultraflex stent and Wallstent showed lower value. Under all types of stress, the Hanaro stent and Memotherm stent were completely elastic, and the Ultraflex stent and Wallstent showed a wide gap between resistance force and expansile force. In clinical practice, awareness of the mechanical characteristics of each stent might help in choosing the one which is most suitable, according to type of biliary obstruction. =20

  19. Mechanical characteristics of self-expandable metallic stents: in vitro study with three types of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To obtain objective and comparable data for mechanical characteristics of self-expandable metallic stents widely used in the treatment of biliary obstruction. The stents tested were the 6 and 8 mm-band Hanaro spiral stent, Gianturco-Rosch Z stent, Wallstent, Ultraflex stent, and Memotherm stent. Each was subjected to three types of load:point, area, and circular. We analyzed their mechanical characteristics (resistance force, expansile force, and elasticity) according to these three types of stress. With regard to point loads, the Memotherm stent showed the highest resistance force and expansile force. The 8 mm-band Hanaro stent showed the lowest resistance force and the Gianturco-Rosch Z stent and Ultraflex stent showed lower expansile force. With regard to area loads, the Ultraflex stent showed the highest resistance force. The 6 mm-band Hanaro stent, Gianturco-Rosch Z stent, and Ultraflex stent showed higher expansile force. The 8 mm-band Hanaro stent showed the lowest value in both resistance force and expansile force. For circular loads, the Memotherm stent showed the highest resistance force and the Ultraflex stent and Wallstent showed lower value. Under all types of stress, the Hanaro stent and Memotherm stent were completely elastic, and the Ultraflex stent and Wallstent showed a wide gap between resistance force and expansile force. In clinical practice, awareness of the mechanical characteristics of each stent might help in choosing the one which is most suitable, according to type of biliary obstruction. =20.

  20. Influence des matières végétales et des engrais NPK sur la biologie de Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darriet F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude de laboratoire, les auteurs ont mesuré sur des femelles gravides de Aedes aegypti, l’attractivité à la ponte de milieux aqueux contenant un engrais NPK, de la matière végétale (MV et un mélange composé de MV+NPK. Tandis que les analyses physico-chimiques ont permis d’identifier puis de doser les constituants de chaque milieu, le suivi des larves et la pesée des femelles émergentes nous ont renseigné sur l’impact des composés minéraux et organiques sur le développement des moustiques. Sur les 23 jours qu’a duré l’expérience, la solution NPK est restée aussi attractive que le mélange MV+NPK sans toutefois pouvoir assurer le développement des larves. L’infusion MV a révélé une attractivité à la ponte moins importante, mais elle a apporté aux larves de moustiques les substances organiques dont la solution NPK était dépourvue. Enfin le mélange MV+NPK a attiré les femelles à la ponte tout en assurant pleinement la croissance des larves de Ae. aegypti. Alors que les analyses physico-chimiques de NPK ont révélé une composition essentiellement minérale (NH4++NO3–+P+K et celles de MV de fortes concentrations en carbone et en azote organiques, le mélange MV+NPK s’est distingué par une composition mixte organique et minérale qui a favorisé la prolifération des bactéries et le développement des larves de moustiques. Ce sont des observations importantes qui pourraient aider à la fabrication de pièges à la fois attractifs et létaux (NPK+larvicide et dont les fonctions seraient de piéger les femelles gravides à la recherche d’un lieu de ponte et de tuer les larves à l’éclosion des oeufs.

  1. Organizational uncertainty and stress among teachers in Hong Kong: work characteristics and organizational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassard, Juliet; Teoh, Kevin; Cox, Tom

    2017-10-01

    A growing literature now exists examining the relationship between organizational justice and employees' experience of stress. Despite the growth in this field of enquiry, there remain continued gaps in knowledge. In particular, the contribution of perceptions of justice to employees' stress within an organizational context of uncertainty and change, and in relation to the new and emerging concept of procedural-voice justice. The aim of the current study was to examine the main, interaction and additive effects of work characteristics and organizational justice perceptions to employees' experience of stress (as measured by their feelings of helplessness and perceived coping) during an acknowledged period of organizational uncertainty. Questionnaires were distributed among teachers in seven public primary schools in Hong Kong that were under threat of closure (n = 212). Work characteristics were measured using the demand-control-support model. Hierarchical regression analyses observed perceptions of job demands and procedural-voice justice to predict both teachers' feelings of helplessness and perceived coping ability. Furthermore, teacher's perceived coping was predicted by job control and a significant interaction between procedural-voice justice and distributive justice. The addition of organizational justice variables did account for unique variance, but only in relation to the measure of perceived coping. The study concludes that in addition to 'traditional' work characteristics, health promotion strategies should also address perceptions of organizational justice during times of organizational uncertainty; and, in particular, the value and importance of enhancing employee's perceived 'voice' in influencing and shaping justice-related decisions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Characteristics of Stress and Suicidal Ideation in the Disclosure of Sexual Orientation among Young French LGB Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Elodie; Dumas, Florence; Chesterman, Adam; Graziani, Pierluigi

    2018-02-07

    Lesbians, gays, and bisexual people (LGB) present high levels of suicidal ideation. The disclosure of sexual orientation is a stressful experience which presents a high suicide risk. Research has not paid sufficient attention to stress during this disclosure in order to understand suicide among LGB people. The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) the characteristics of stress during this revelation, more precisely cognitive appraisal, emotions, and coping; and (2) associations between these characteristics and suicidal ideation. A total of 200 LGB young adults answered the "Stressful situation assessment questionnaire", focusing on the most stressful disclosure of sexual orientation they have ever experienced. Avoidance coping is a good predictor of suicidal ideation, and mediates the association between primary appraisal (risk "Harm myself and others") and suicidal ideation. Our study illustrates the need to better understand stress during the disclosure of sexual orientation to prevent and care for suicide risk among LGB young adults.

  3. Psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Wendelbo, Troels

    This paper studies the interaction of sector and occupational status with psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism. The odds ratio and population attributable risk are estimated based on data from a survey of 10,748 individuals from four...... Nordic countries. We find that the effect of pay and 'sociability' on absence depends on the individual being employed in a private or public organization. We also find that the effect of pay depends on being a manager or not, and so do work pressure, job security, cooperation, climate among colleagues......, and whether work gets the individual down....

  4. Patient Characteristics Impacting Health State Index Scores, Measured by the EQ-5D of Females with Stress Urinary Incontinence Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tincello, Douglas; Sculpher, Mark; Tunn, Ralf; Quail, Deborah; van der Vaart, Huub; Falconer, Christian; Manning, Martina; Timlin, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics of women seeking treatment for symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to investigate the association of SUI symptoms with generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the EuroQol (EQ-5D) instrument. Methods: The Stress Urinary

  5. [Effect of long-term application of NPK fertilizer on maize yield and yellow soil nutrients sustainability in Guizhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan Ling; Li, Yu; Zhang, Ya Rong; Huang, Xing Cheng; Zhang, Wen An; Jiang, Tai Ming

    2017-11-01

    A long-term fertilization field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer on maize relative yield, yield-increasing effect and the changes of nutrients in yellow soil in Guizhou Province. Five fertilizer combinations were evaluated, including balanced fertilization (NPK) and nutrient deficiency treatments (N, NK, NP, and PK). The maize relative yield, contribution efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application, sustainability index of soil N, P, K nutrients, and other indicators were measured. The results revealed that the balanced fertilization (NPK) significantly increased maize yield, and the average yield under each treatment ranked as: NPK>NP>NK>PK>CK. The contribution efficiency and agronomic efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application was N>P>K. The fertilization dependence was ranked as: combined application of N, P and K>N>P>K. But in the lack of P treatment (NK), the maize relative yield significantly decreased at a speed of 1.4% per year, with the contribution efficiency and fertilization dependence of applied P significantly increasing at a speed of 2.3% per year and 1.4% per year, respectively. Over time, the effect of P fertilizer on maize yield gradually became equal to that of N fertilizer. The pH and soil organic matter content were the lowest in the P-lack treatment (NK), while they were higher in the N-lack treatment (PK). The application of chemical P significantly improved the sustainability index of soil P, but the application of chemical N and K did not significantly change the sustainability index of soil N and K nutrients compared to the N- and K-lack treatments, respectively. In summary, the use of balanced fertilizer application is critical for achieving high maize yield in typical yellow soil regions in Guizhou Province. P and N fertilizers are equally important for improving maize yield, and long-term application of unbalanced chemical fertilizer, especially the lack

  6. Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovi Marilene Leão Alves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93 em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa". Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³, com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N e potássio (K e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P. As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Stillbirth: Trauma Characteristics, Locus of Control, Posttraumatic Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Reed, Jacqueline

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the incidence of PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity among women who experienced stillbirth and investigated the relationship between locus of control, trauma characteristics of stillbirth, posttraumatic cognitions, PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Fifty women recorded information on stillbirth experiences, and completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale and the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory. 60, 28 and 12 % met the diagnostic criteria for probable full-PTSD, partial and no-PTSD respectively. Sixty-two percent and 54 % scored at or above the cutoff of the General Health Questionnaire-28 and postnatal depression respectively. Women who experienced stillbirth reported significantly more psychiatric co-morbid and post-natal depressive symptoms than the comparison group. Both groups were similar in locus of control. Women who experienced stillbirth reported negative cognitions about the self the most. After adjusting for postnatal depression, trauma characteristics were significantly correlated with Posttraumatic cognitions which, in turn, were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Locus of control was not significantly correlated with psychological outcomes. Mediational analyses showed that negative cognitions about self mediated the relationship between trauma characteristics and psychiatric co-morbidity only. Women reported a high incidence of probable PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Stillbirth trauma characteristics influenced how they negatively perceived themselves. This then specifically influenced general psychological problems rather than PTSD symptoms.

  8. The effect of water stress on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success on apple and quince rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Ibrahim; Dikilitas, Murat; Ercisli, Sezai; Ikinci, Ali; Tonkaz, Tahsin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67%) and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33%) combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  9. The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bolat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67% and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33% combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  10. [Investigation of the hyperspectral image characteristics of wheat leaves under different stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Yan; Zhang, Jing-Cheng; Zhu, Da-Zhou; Wang, Ji-Hua; Luo, Ju-Hua; Zhao, Jin-Ling; Huang, Wen-Jiang

    2011-04-01

    The diagnosis of growing status and vigor of crops under various stresses is an important step in precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging technology has the advantage of providing both spectral and spatial information simultaneously, and has become a research hot spot. In the present study, auto-development of the pushbroom imaging spectrometer (PIS) was utilized to collect hyperspectral images of wheat leaves which suffer from shortage of nutrient, pest and disease stress. The hyperspectral cube was processed by the method of pixel average step by step to highlight the spectral characteristics, which facilitate the analysis based on the differences of leaves reflectance. The results showed that the hyperspectra of leaves from different layers can display nutrient differences, and recognize intuitively different stress extent by imaging figures. With the 2 nanometer spectral resolution and millimeter level spatial resolution of PIS, the number of disease spot can be qualitatively calculated when crop is infected with diseases, and, the area of plant disease could also be quantitatively analyzed; when crop suffered from pest and insect, the spectral information of leaves with single aphid and aphids can be detected by PIS, which provides a new means to quantitatively detect the aphid destroying of wheat leaf. The present study demonstrated that hyperspecral imaging has a great potential in quantitative and qualitative analysis of crop growth.

  11. The effect of drought stress on morphological and physiological characteristics of millets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza khazaeii

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of drought stress on morphological and physiological characteristics of millets, a field experiment was arranged in a randomised complete block as a split-plot design with three replication during 2004 growing season at Reasearch Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Irrigation intervals (weekly interval, 14-day interval and three types of millet (Pennisetum glaceum , Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum were allocated to main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that, grain yield, panicle weight, grain weight, number of tillers, number of fertile tillers, panicle harvest index, leaf area and percentage of nitrogen leaf was not affected by water stress treatments. Although, type of millets had significiant effect on these traits. Exposure of plants to water stress led to noticeable decreases in plant height for all three cultivars. In this experiment, grain yield, plant height, panicle weight, grain weight, panicle harvest index and percentage of nitrogen of Panicum miliaceum was lowest, also Pennisetum glucum had relatively highest grain leaf yield, panicle weight, leaf area and percentage of leaf nitrogen and had favorable production potential in semi-arid tropical regions.

  12. [Study on physiological characteristics and effects of salt stress in Andrographis paniculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Gu, Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shu-Lan; Shao, Jing; Geng, Chao

    2014-08-01

    To study the physiological characteristics and effects of salt stress in Andrographis paniculata. Andrographis paniculata was treated with NaCl of different concentration. The photosynthetic characteristics and transpiration rate were an- alyzed by LI-6400 Portable Photosynthesis System. The activities of enzymes were studied with kits. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs) showed a diurnal variation of bimodal curve, the transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal limitation (Ls) both had a single peak diurnal variation, while the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and the water use efficiency (WUE) presented a single valley type of diurnal variation. With salt concentration rising, Pn, Tr, Ci, Ca and WUE decreased but L, increased, the activities of SOD, CAT and POD increased firstly and then decreased, while the MDA and proline content showed a rising trend. Andrographis paniculata is a type of sun plant. The net photosynthetic rate of Andrographis paniculata leaves has an obvious "midday depression" phenomenon. The results also indicate that Andrographis paniculata has a resistance to salt stress and appropriate shade is good for the quality improvement.

  13. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Monika; Baldus, Christiane; Herschelmann, Susanne; Schäfer, Ingo; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders and Substance Use Disorders Already in adolescence posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) often occur comorbid. SUD is usually in the focus of treatment and underlying PTSD is not always recognized. To date there is no explicit offer for the simultaneous treatment of both clinical pictures in adolescence. In the present study we tested whether the group intervention Seeking Safety, that is implemented successfully in adulthood, would also be interesting for the youth clientele. In addition we analyzed the characteristics of a target group of girls and young women between 14 and 21 years, that could be reached for such a program in a German city. In the present study we conducted 39 complete interviews that enable an estimation of the various strains and symptoms of those affected. The results clarify that female adolescents with a dual diagnosis PTSD and SUD are currently not sufficiently addressed by the supply system and could benefit from a specific treatment like Seeking Safety.

  14. "The cough game": are there characteristic urethrovesical movement patterns associated with stress incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Blaivas, Jerry; Clark, Amanda; McGuire, Edward J; Schaer, Gabriel; Tumbarello, Julie; Tunn, Ralf; DeLancey, John O L

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether five experts in female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) could discover a pattern of urethrovesical movement characteristic of SUI on dynamic perineal ultrasound. A secondary analysis of data from a case-control study was performed. Ultrasounds from 31 cases (daily SUI) and 42 controls (continent volunteers) of similar age and parity were analyzed. Perineal ultrasound was performed during a single cough. The five experts, blinded to continence status and urodynamics, classified each woman as stress continent or incontinent. Correct responses ranged from 45.7% to 65.8% (mean 57.4 +/- 7.6). Sensitivity was 53.0 +/- 8.8% and specificity 61.2 +/- 12.4%. The positive predictive value was 48.8 +/- 8.2% and negative predictive value was 65.0 +/- 7.3%. Inter-rater reliability, evaluated by Cohen's kappa statistic, averaged 0.47 [95% CI 0.40-0.50]. Experts could not identify a pattern of urethrovesical movement characteristic of SUI on ultrasound.

  15. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  16. Phenotyping of sweet sorghum for tolerance to hydric stress through morphological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Moreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the sweetsorghum cultivars presenting higher tolerance todrought as well as to phenotypically discriminatethe root morphological characteristics of thosegenotypes for environments with water deficit.The cultivars (Rio, Ramada, BRS 501 andBRS 506 were subjected to two treatments(Environments. The first one was an environmentnamed unrestricted water (AI -37.5 kPa, andthe second one, with hydric restriction, namedrestricted water (AR with a matrix pressurelower than the with CPA treatment, that is, -375kPa. The difference between the ideal weight ofthe treatment and the weight observed in thevase, before being irrigated, when compared withan identical vase used in the treatments withoutthe plant, provided an evapotranspiration ofthe cultivar during the period. The roots wereanalyzed by the WinRhizo system, in orderto obtain the following characteristics understudy: length, volume, superficial area, projectedarea and root diameter. For all characteristicsunder evaluation, the variance analysis showedno interaction (P> 0.05 between genotypeand environment. Separately, no variationswere observed (P> 0.05 in the genotypes and environments evaluated for the characteristicsunder study, except the root diameter. Thus,it was observed that the diameter of the rootswere higher (P <0.05 when the plants weresubmitted to higher drought stress conditions(AIR. Findings indicate that the cultivars didnot present significantly different characteristicsin the contrasting environments, which probablyoccurred because they are very tolerant to theimposed stress, the phenological stage underevaluation study was too initial, or the stress hadlow intensity to generate different activities in thecultivars..

  17. Differential response of radish plants to supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation under varying NPK levels: chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suruchi; Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2012-07-01

    Current and projected increases in ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation may alter crop growth and yield by modifying the physiological and biochemical functions. This study was conducted to assess the possibility of alleviating the negative effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 7.2 kJ m⁻² day⁻¹; 280-315 nm) on radish (Raphanus sativus var Pusa Himani) by modifying soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels. The N, P and K treatments were recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N and 1.5 times recommended dose of K. Plants showed variations in their response to UV-B radiation under varying soil NPK levels. The minimum damaging effects of sUV-B on photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance coupled with minimum reduction in chlorophyll content were recorded for plants grown at recommended dose of NPK. Flavonoids increased under sUV-B except in plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of N. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) also increased in response to sUV-B at all NPK levels with maximum at 1.5 times recommended dose of K and minimum at recommended dose of NPK. This study revealed that sUV-B radiation negatively affected the radish plants by reducing the photosynthetic efficiency and increasing LPO. The plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of NPK/N/K could not enhance antioxidative potential to the extent as recorded at recommended dose of NPK and hence showed more sensitivity to sUV-B. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  18. Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lan; Liu, Mingzhu; Rui Liang

    2008-02-01

    A double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention was prepared by crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)/diatomite - containing urea (the outer coating), chitosan (the inner coating), and water-soluble granular fertilizer NPK (the core). The effects of the amount of crosslinker, initiator, degree of neutralization of acrylic acid, initial monomer and diatomite concentration on water absorbency were investigated and optimized. The water absorbency of the product was 75 times its own weight if it was allowed to swell in tap water at room temperature for 2 h. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and element analysis results showed that the product contained 8.47% potassium (shown by K(2)O), 8.51% phosphorus (shown by P(2)O(5)), and 15.77% nitrogen. We also investigated the water-retention property of the product and the slow release behavior of N, P and K in the product. This product with excellent slow release and water-retention capacity, being nontoxic in soil and environment-friendly, could be especially useful in agricultural and horticultural applications.

  19. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; YANG Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the MSS dis-tribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteris-tics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide lots of theoretic references to the surrounding rocks' stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc.

  20. Early developmental and temporal characteristics of stress-induced secretion of pituitary-adrenal hormones in prenatally stressed rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kalin, N H

    1991-08-30

    Previous experiments revealed that 14-day-old prenatally stressed rats have significantly elevated concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone suggesting these animals have an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. In these studies, however, stress-induced hormone levels were determined only immediately after exposure to an acute stressor. Therefore, in the current study, we examined in postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 prenatally stressed rats the stress-induced time course of this pituitary-adrenal hormone elevation. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were measured in the basal state and at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after a 10-min exposure period to foot shocks administered in the context of social isolation. Results indicated that at all 3 ages, plasma ACTH in prenatally stressed rats was significantly elevated. Corticosterone concentrations were also significantly higher in prenatally stressed than in control rats, especially in day 14 rats. Analysis of stress-induced hormone fluctuations over time indicated that by 14 days of age, both prenatally stressed than in control and control rats had significant increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone after exposure to stress. Furthermore, although prenatally stressed rats had significantly higher pituitary-adrenal hormone concentrations than control animals, the post-stress temporal patterns of decline in ACTH and corticosterone levels were similar between groups. Results suggest that throughout the preweaning period, prenatal stress produces an HPA system that functions in a manner similar to that of controls but at an increased level.

  1. Effect of chronic psychogenic stress on characteristics of some rat brain synaptic membrane receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikuradze, V.O.; Kozlovskaya, M.M.; Rozhanets, V.V.; Val'dman, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies characteristics of alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptors, and imipramine and bensodiazepine receptors in brain synaptic membranes of rats after exposure to combined stress for 15 days by a modified Hecht's method. Before the experiment the suspension was thawed and centrifuged. Specific binding of tritium-WB-4101 (30 Ci/mmole), tritium-dihydroalprenolol, tritium-flunitrazepam, and tritium-imipramine was carried out by known methods with certain modifications. The results suggest that pathology of behavior in rats observed in the model may be classed as a depressive-like state rather than a neurosis-like state, and the model itself may be more appropriate for the study of the mechanisms of action of compounds with marked tranquilizing activity

  2. Effect of chronic psychogenic stress on characteristics of some rat brain synaptic membrane receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikuradze, V.O.; Kozlovskaya, M.M.; Rozhanets, V.V.; Val' dman, A.V.

    1986-02-01

    This paper studies characteristics of alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptors, and imipramine and bensodiazepine receptors in brain synaptic membranes of rats after exposure to combined stress for 15 days by a modified Hecht's method. Before the experiment the suspension was thawed and centrifuged. Specific binding of tritium-WB-4101 (30 Ci/mmole), tritium-dihydroalprenolol, tritium-flunitrazepam, and tritium-imipramine was carried out by known methods with certain modifications. The results suggest that pathology of behavior in rats observed in the model may be classed as a depressive-like state rather than a neurosis-like state, and the model itself may be more appropriate for the study of the mechanisms of action of compounds with marked tranquilizing activity.

  3. Evaluation of Data Retention and Imprint Characteristics of FRAMs Under Environmental Stresses for NASA Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asbok K.; Teverovsky, Alexander; Dowdy, Terry W.; Hamilton, Brett

    2002-01-01

    A major reliability issue for all advanced nonvolatile memory (NVM) technology devices including FRAMs is the data retention characteristics over extended period of time, under environmental stresses and exposure to total ionizing dose (TID) radiation effects. For this testing, 256 Kb FRAMs in 28-pin plastic DIPS, rated for industrial grade temperature range of -40 C to +85 C, were procured. These are two-transistor, two-capacitor (2T-2C) design FRAMs. In addition to data retention characteristics, the parts were also evaluated for imprint failures, which are defined as the failure of cells to change from a "preferred" state, where it has been for a significant period of time to an opposite state (e.g., from 1 to 0, or 0 to 1). These 256 K FRAMs were subjected to scanning acoustic microscopy (C-SAM); 1,000 temperature cycles from -65 C to +150 C; high temperature aging at 150 C, 175 C, and 200 C for 1,000 hours; highly accelerated stress test (HAST) for 500 hours; 1,000 hours of operational life test at 125 C; and total ionizing dose radiation testing. As a preconditioning, 10 K read/write cycles were performed on all devices. Interim electrical measurements were performed throughout this characterization, including special imprint testing and final electrical testing. Some failures were observed during high temperature aging test at 200 C, during HAST testing, and during 1,000 hours of operational life at 125 C. The parts passed 10 Krad exposure, but began showing power supply current increases during the dose increment from 10 Krad to 30 Krad, and at 40 Krad severe data retention and parametric failures were observed. Failures from various environmental group testing are currently being analyzed.

  4. [Effects of exogenous silicon on physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under ammonium stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Hai; Wang, Ya-Kun; Lu, Xiao-Min; Jia, Shuang-Shuang

    2014-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exogenous silicon on growth and physiological characteristics of hydroponically cultured cucumber seedlings under ammonium stress. The results showed that the growth, especially the aerial part growth of cucumber seedlings cultured with ammonium were significantly inhibited than those with nitrate, especially after treatment for 10 d, the aerial part fresh mass of cucumber seedlings were reduced 6.17 g per plant. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also promoted in cucumber seedlings under ammonium, and the contents of O2*- and H2O2 were significantly increased in cucumber leaves. With the exogenous silicon treatment, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were significantly improved, the ability to remove reactive oxygen species was enhanced, the contents of O2*- and H2O2 were significantly reduced in cucumber leaves, decreasing the reactive oxygen damage to the cell membrane, and the ratio of electrolyte leakage and the content of MDA in cucumber leaves. Also, with exogenous silicon treatment, the plasma membrane and activity of vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATP was significantly increased, transport capacity of intracellular proton was improved, and the level of ammonium in cucumber body was significantly reduced, thereby reducing the toxicity of ammonium. In conclusion, exogenous silicon could relieve ammonium stress, by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity, H(+)-ATP activity, and decreasing the ammonium content in cucumber seedlings.

  5. Relationship between turbine rotor and disk metallurgical characteristics and stress corrosion cracking behavior. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayley, H.B.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes stress corrosion test results in which several heats of turbine rotor steels specially prepared to achieve different degrees of segregation to the grain boundaries were tested in concentrated laboratory and actual steam turbine environments. Grain boundary characteristics are considered important because turbine rotor failures in field service have been of an intergranular nature and because grain boundary segregation is known to affect the impact toughness of rotor steels (''temper embrittlement''). The laboratory stress corrosion testing results showed no differences between heavily and lightly segregated test pieces which differed greatly in impact toughness. All test specimens cracked, indicating the laboratory environments may have been too severe to allow differentiation between the various metallurgical conditions, if any differences exist. Test loops and autoclaves for chemical analysis and mechanical testing were designed, installed and are operating in the field testing portion of this program. No intergranular cracking has occurred to date; hence, no differentiation between heavily and lightly segregated test pieces has been possible in field testing. Instrumented crack propagation specimens, which permit measurement of cracking as it occurs, have been installed for the continuing field testing program. Correlation of such cracking with the continuously monitored chemical composition of the environment will increase understanding of the cracking process and may give the possibility of providing an early warning of the existence of conditions which might cause turbine rotor cracking

  6. Stress in Parents of a Child with Hemifacial Microsomia: The Role of Child Characteristics and Parental Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkosuwito, Edwin; van der Vlies, Lieneke; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia; van Neck, Han; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Hovius, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Objective Examine stress levels of parents of children with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) and the relationship of parental stress to child characteristics and cognitive coping strategies. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants and Setting Parents with a child (age 3-19 years) with HFM (N = 31) were recruited through the Department of Orthodontics and the Craniofacial Center, Sophia-Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Intervention and Outcome Measures The adapted and shortened Dutch version of the parental stress index (NOSI-K) was used to measure parental stress, and the cognitive emotion-regulation questionnaire was used to measure cognitive coping strategies. Pearson correlations and a multiple regression analysis were performed. Results The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed associations between increased parental stress and learning difficulties and use of acceptance as a coping strategy. This suggests that problems other than the characteristic visual appearance of the child's face in HFM have a greater influence on parental stress. Conclusions Learning difficulties of the child with HFM and parental acceptance affect stress in parents with a child with HFM the most and are important in the search for a targeted tailoring of intervention for parents with high levels of parental stress.

  7. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  8. Macronutrientes em mudas de citros cultivadas em vasos em resposta à adubação NPK Macronutrients in citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita com o objetivo de avaliar-se os efeitos do fornecimento de N, P e K sobre os teores de macronutrientes do porta-enxerto e das mudas. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/55³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Determinaram-se os teores totais de N, P e K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas novas e velhas, raízes e caule e a extração de N, P e K. Os teores de N relacionaram-se diretamente e os de P e K inversamente com a adubação nitrogenada. Os teores de Ca, Mg e S relacionaram-se positivamente até as doses intermediárias de N utilizadas. Houve efeito inibitório do fertilizante potássico sobre a absorção de Ca e Mg. A acumulação de NPK pelos porta-enxertos foi em torno de 30% pelas raízes e 70% pela parte aérea.'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees (Citrus sinensis budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia were grown in containers using pine bark, vermiculite and perlite as substracts with the objective of evaluating the NPK fertilization effect on macronutrient levels. The experiment was a complete (1/5 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Young and old leaves, root and stem total nutrient

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Among Syrian Refugees: Trauma Exposure Characteristics, Trauma Centrality, and Emotional Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Shakra, Mudar; AlQarni, Nowf; AlMazrouei, Mariam; Al Mazrouei, Sara; Al Hashimi, Shurooq

    2018-03-01

    This study revisited the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and examined a hypothesized model describing the interrelationship between trauma exposure characteristics, trauma centrality, emotional suppression, PTSD, and psychiatric comorbidity among Syrian refugees. A total of 564 Syrian refugees participated in the study and completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Centrality of Event Scale, and Courtauld Emotional Control Scale. Of the participants, 30% met the cutoff for PTSD. Trauma exposure characteristics (experiencing or witnessing horror and murder, kidnapping or disappearance of family members or friends) were associated with trauma centrality, which was associated with emotional suppression. Emotional suppression was associated with PTSD and psychiatric comorbid symptom severities. Suppression mediated the path between trauma centrality and distress outcomes. Almost one-third of refugees can develop PTSD and other psychiatric problems following exposure to traumatic events during war. A traumatized identity can develop, of which life-threatening experiences is a dominant feature, leading to suppression of depression with associated psychological distress.

  10. Job stress and behavioral characteristics in relation to coronary heart disease risk among Japanese police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Maki; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Morioka, Ikuharu; Utsumi, Miyoko; Hattori, Sonomi; Koike, Hiroaki; Arita, Mikio; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2017-08-08

    This study examined the association between job-related behavioral characteristics and the risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) in Japanese male police officers. Compared to office clerks, police officers exhibited greater age-related increases of the prevalence of CHD risk factors, and a clustering number of CHD risk factors was significantly higher in the group of those over 45 yr of age. Among the police officers, coronary-prone behavior was more frequent than that seen in office clerks. The police officers with coronary-prone behavior tended to engage in shift work and to work overtime more; yet they were less likely to perceive job stress and to express the relevant physical and psychological symptoms than those without coronary-prone behavior. The subjects with such behavioral characteristics had a significantly greater number of CHD risk factors. In a multiple regression analysis, coronary-prone behavior together with age, social support, walking hours per day, and amount of alcohol consumption were selected as significant determinants of a cluster of CHD risk factors. These results suggest that coronary-prone behavior may contribute to the higher prevalence of CHD risk factors in police officers via leading the long working hours and the work-related unfavorable lifestyles, such as alcohol drinking and physical inactivity.

  11. Effects of Chitosan Spraying on Physiological Characteristics of Ferula flabelliloba (Apiaceae Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Taheri

    2016-02-01

    with different concentrations were investigated. The main objective of this study was to examine the potential benefits of chitosan by reducing damage to F. flabelliloba at the seedling stages under water-deficit conditions. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effects of chitosan spraying and drought stress on physiological characteristics of F. felabelliloba, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in laboratory. The experimental treatments included drought stress (irrigated in Field capacity, depletion of soil water content up to 35% and 65% of FC condition and foliar chitosan spray (Zero, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mg l-1. Seeds of F. flabelliloba were harvested in June-July of 2012 from natural habitat in Binalood mountain and kept in laboratory condition until the study started. F. flabelliloba seeds were germinated and grown in soils at light/dark temperature cycle of 20-16 degree centigrade and photoperiod of 16-8 h. Irrigation treatments were performed after 20 days, when seedling established and chitosan sprayed simultaneous and repeated one month later. The shoot from 60-day-old plants were taken and used for analysis the physiological parameters. Shoot dry weight was measured in oven at 70 ºC for 24 hours. Enzyme activity was determined from the extract prepared according to the method of Sairam and Saxena (2000. Catalase and Peroxidase activities were determined according to Weydert and Cullen (2010 and Superoxide dismutase activity assayed as described by Beauchamp and Fridovich (1971. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring spectrophotometrically malondialdehyde (MDA content of plant based on Jiang and Hung (2001. Total phenolic content was determined according to Ebrahimzadeh and Bahramian (2009. Data from the experiment was analyzed using SPSS ver. 17 and MSTAT-C software and mean comparison was carried out using Duncan´s multiple range test at the 95% of probability. Results and

  12. SPR Characteristics Curve and Distribution of Residual Stress in Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwanul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron diffraction was used to describe the residual stress distributions in self-piercing riveted (SPR joints. The sheet material displayed a compressive residual stress near the joint, and the stress gradually became tensile in the sheet material far away from the joint. The stress in the rivet leg was lower in the thick joint of the softer steel sheet than in the thin joint of the harder steel sheet. This lower magnitude was attributed to the lower force gradient during the rivet flaring stage of the SPR process curve. This study shows how the residual stress results may be related to the physical occurrences that happened during joining, using the characteristics curve. The study also shows that neutron diffraction technique enabled a crack in the rivet tip to be detected which was not apparent from a cross-section.

  13. The relation of depression, anxiety and stress with personal characteristics of nurses in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Khodadadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current industrialized world and ever advancing technology has changed human life by a significant increase in the level of stress and anxiety. Nurses are among those professionals who experience an overwhelming level of stress, anxiety and depression due to work overload and subsequent burnout. The nature of nursing profession for a vulnerable human character increases the possibility of emotional setbacks. Hence, this study was designed to explore and identify the prevalence of anxiety, stress and depression among the Iranian nurses and investigate how these variables relate to personal characteristics and influence the quality of patient care. Using a correlational descriptive design and random cluster method, 242 nurses who worked at different hospital wards in Tabriz, Iran were assessed for anxiety, stress and depression, while their personal characteristics were identified. Data were collected by using a standard questionnaire for stress, anxiety and depression (DASS-21 and later analyzed by SPSS (ver.17.Results showed that Iranian nurses suffered from a moderate level of anxiety, stress and depression and gender influenced these variable rates (p<0.05. Hospital ward type had a relation with stress level (p<0.05, being interested in nursing had an inverse relation to anxiety, stress and depression (p<0.05, while the education level positively related to depression rate among nurses (p<0.05. Type of work at different shifts influenced stress (p<0.05 and marital status reduced depression among nurses (p<0.05. Prevalence of stress and anxiety among the Iranian nurses were at a significant level with susceptibility to experience psychological disorders and provide lower quality of patient care. Findings of this study can alarm the Iranian authorities in healthcare systems to adopt a new policy and improve the current state of health for nurses and patients.

  14. Temperature-induced physiological stress and reproductive characteristics of the migratory seahorse Hippocampus erectus during a thermal stress simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Geng; Johnson, Cara; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Huixian; Yin, Jianping; Miller, Glen; Turingan, Ralph G; Guisbert, Eric; Lin, Qiang

    2018-05-15

    Inshore-offshore migration occurs frequently in seahorse species either because of prey opportunities or because it is driven by reproduction, and variations in water temperature may dramatically change migratory seahorse behavior and physiology. The present study investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus under thermal stress and evaluated the potential effects of different temperatures on its reproduction. The results showed that the thermal tolerance of the seahorses was time dependent. Acute thermal stress (30°C, 2-10 hours) increased the basal metabolic rate (breathing rate) and the expression of stress response genes ( Hsp genes) significantly and further stimulated seahorse appetite. Chronic thermal treatment (30°C, 4 weeks) led to a persistently higher basal metabolic rate, higher stress response gene expression, and higher mortality, indicating that the seahorses could not acclimate to chronic thermal stress and might experience massive mortality due to excessive basal metabolic rates and stress damage. Additionally, no significant negative effects on gonad development or reproductive endocrine regulation genes were observed in response to chronic thermal stress, suggesting that seahorse reproductive behavior could adapt to higher-temperature conditions during migration and within seahorse breeding grounds. In conclusion, this simulation experiment indicated that temperature variations during inshore-offshore migration have no effect on reproduction but promote basal metabolic rates and stress responses significantly. Therefore, we suggest that the high observed tolerance of seahorse reproduction was in line with the inshore-offshore reproductive migration pattern of lined seahorse. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. NPK, protein content and yield of broccoli as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and phosphorus fertilizer rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desoki, S.A.; Abdallah, A.A.G.; Awad, S.M.; Aboel-Kheir, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre sowing-seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and different phosphorus fertilizer application rates, 0, 30, 60 and 90 k P 2 O 5 /fed) on NPK content of leaves and spear, and protein content in spears at maturity, spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant and total spear yield. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by exposing broccoli seeds to 3 Gy. There were non-significant differences between 3 and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of phosphorus fertilizer application rates on the studied parameters, increasing phosphorus application rates up to 90 kg P 2 O 5 /fed increased the above mentioned parameters. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by applying 90 kg P 2 O 5 /fed. The interaction, gamma ray and P level showed phosphorus there were significant differences in main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear yield and spear diameter in first season. The highest value was obtained by 3 Gy and 90 kg P 2 O 5 /fed. Also there were significant effects on NPK content in broccoli leaves at 90 days after transplanting (DAT) except P in second season and nonsignificant values of broccoli spear at harvest except N, K in first season. The highest protein content of broccoli spears at harvest was obtained with 2 Gy and 30 kg P 25 /fed

  16. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Integrated nutrient management involving crop residue/green manures and chemical fertilizer is potential alternative to provide a balanced supply of nutrients, enhance soil quality and thereby sustain higher productivity. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different crop residue management practices and NPK levels on yield components and yield of wheat. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 at department of agronomy, Chamran University. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block designs in split plot arrangement. With three replications. Crop residues were assigned to main plot consistent CR1: wheat residue; CR2: rape residue; CR3: barley residue; CR4: barley residue + vetch; CR5: wheat straw + mungbean; CR6: vetch residue; CR7: mungbean residue; CR8: No residue incorporation as main plot and three NPK fertilizer rates: F1: (180N-120P-100K kg.ha-1; F2: (140N-90P-80K kg.ha-1; F3: (90N-60P-40K kg.ha-1 as sub plots. Twelve hills were collected at physiological maturity for measuring yield components from surrounding area of grain yield harvest area. Yield components, viz. number of spike per m2, seed per spike, 1000- grain weight, plant height were measured. Grain and straw yields were recorded from the central 5 m2 grain yield harvest area of each treatment and harvest index was calculated. Data were subjected to analysis by SAS and mean companions were performed using the Duncan multiple range test producer. Also, graphs were drawn in Excel software. Results and discussion The result of analysis variance showed significant difference between crop residues for evaluated traits. The result indicated that the highest biological and grain yield was obtained when wheat treated with CR5: wheat straw + mungbean (green manure and CR4: barley straw + vetch (green manure. Biological and grain yield increased 31 and 26% respectively by CR5 comparing with control. The highest

  17. Effect of Silicic Acid on some Anatomical and Biochemical Characteristics of Pelargonium graveolens under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fateme hasanvand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens is a perennial plant of the family Geranium (Geraniaceae. Although CaCl2 at higher concentrations than NaCl in the soils and ground water in many areas of the word, most studies have been based on experiments that NaCl is the predominant salt. Relatively few studies have focused on the effects of CaCl2 on plant growth and physiology. Silicon (Si is considered as an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the role of Si in alleviation the deleterious effects of salinity on geranium have been studied. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted in spring-summer 2014 in research greenhouse situated on the Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran. The greenhouse temperature was 16.5–37.5 ◦C and relative humidity of greenhouse was 30–80%. Terminal stem cuttings with five nodes were obtained from mother plants in the same greenhouse and placed in a sand substrate for rooting in April. Uniform rooted cuttings were then transplanted into plastic pots (22 cm diameter and height filled with sand substrates and grown hydroponically. Transplanting was done in May and one plant per pot was cultivated. Cultivated plants were irrigated with Hoagland’s medium electrical conductivity (EC 1.8 dS/m, (pH 5.8 twice a day. Experiment was arranged as factorial based on a completely randomized design with five replications. Factors consisted of daily application of 1.8, 4 and 6 ds/m CaCl2 and weekly application of 0, 0.5 and 1 mM silicic acid in nutrient solution. Plants were harvested in November. In this research some characteristics include the number of leaf, leaf area, photosynthetic pigments (chla, chlb. Total chl, carotenoids, MDA, EL, RWC, proline, number of stomata in surface unit of leaf, density of stomata and stomata index and antioxidant enzyme include CAT and POD measured. Results

  18. [Executive functions and stressful characteristics of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: influence on behavioral problems during adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer-Diago, Carla; Miranda-Casas, Ana; Herdoiza-Arroyo, Paulina; Presentación-Herrero, M Jesús

    2012-02-29

    The identification of possible factors that are influencing the course of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will allow the development of more effective early intervention strategies. AIMS. This research, which used a longitudinal and correlational design, set out to examine the temporal consistency of the primary symptoms and ADHD associated problems. In addition, the relationships and predictive power of working memory, inhibition and stressful characteristics of children with ADHD on the disorder symptoms and behavioral problems in adolescence was analyzed. This study included 65 families with children diagnosed with ADHD. In phase 1 children performed verbal working memory, visuo-spatial and inhibition tests, and information from parents about stressful characteristics of children was collected. In phase 1 and in the follow-up phase, which took place three years later, parents and teachers reported on the primary symptoms of ADHD and behavioral problems. Inattention symptoms as well as most behavioral problems were stable over time, while hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms decreased. Moreover, neither working memory nor inhibition showed power to predict the central manifestations of ADHD or behavioral problems, while stressful characteristics of demandingness, low adaptability and negative mood had a moderate predictive capacity. These results confirm the role of stressful child characteristics as a risk factor in the course of ADHD.

  19. Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: The Role of Intrapersonal Characteristics and Stress Processing Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Katherine; Barakat, Lamia P.; Patterson, Chavis A.; Dampier, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) complications place patients at risk for poor psychosocial adaptation, including depression and anxiety symptoms. This study aimed to test a mediator model based on the Risk and Resistance model to explore the role of intrapersonal characteristics and stress processing variables in psychosocial functioning. Participants…

  20. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

    2004-07-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis.

  1. Effects of strontium stress on antioxidant characteristics of oilseed rape seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Jia; Tang Yunlai; Chen Mei; An Bing; Wang Dan; Tao Yang

    2010-01-01

    Seedlings of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were treated with different concentration of Sr 2+ (0, 10, 20, 40 mmol/L SrCl 2 ) for 0, 7, 14, 21 days under quartz sand and Hoagland solution culture, and the antioxidant characteristics and Sr 2+ accumulation of seedling were investigated. Rape seedlings showed high accumulation capacity for strontium, especial the leaves. But the accumulation capacity declined with the increasing of Sr 2+ concentration. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the increasing of Sr 2+ concentration and then declined with the extention of the stress time. The activity of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) declined with the increasing of the Sr 2+ accumulation capacity. This study showed that oilseed rape had a very high strontium-tolerant and strontium-uptake capacity, and leaf was the organ that accumulates most of strontium. The accumulation capacity and activity of CAT, POD exhibited a significantly-negative correlation. (authors)

  2. Acoustic emission characteristics of stress corrosion cracks in a type 304 stainless steel tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woong Gi; Bae, Seung Gi; Lee, Bo Young [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seong [Center for Robot Technology and Manufacturing, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Sik [Dept. of Nuclear Safety Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwag, Nog Won [Ultrasonic Division, RM910, Byucksan Digital Valley II, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Acoustic emission (AE) is one of the promising methods for detecting the formation of stress corrosion cracks (SCCs) in laboratory tests. This method has the advantage of online inspection. Some studies have been conducted to investigate the characteristics of AE parameters during SCC propagation. However, it is difficult to classify the distinct features of SCC behavior. Because the previous studies were performed on slow strain rate test or compact tension specimens, it is difficult to make certain correlations between AE signals and actual SCC behavior in real tube-type specimens. In this study, the specimen was a AISI 304 stainless steel tube widely applied in the nuclear industry, and an accelerated test was conducted at high temperature and pressure with a corrosive environmental condition. The study result indicated that intense AE signals were mainly detected in the elastic deformation region, and a good correlation was observed between AE activity and crack growth. By contrast, the behavior of accumulated counts was divided into four regions. According to the waveform analysis, a specific waveform pattern was observed during SCC development. It is suggested that AE can be used to detect and monitor SCC initiation and propagation in actual tubes.

  3. Propagation characteristics of laser-induced stress wave in deep tissue for gene transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Takano, Shinta; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) in tissue and their correlation with properties of gene transfection were investigated for targeted deep-tissue gene therapy. LISWs were generated by irradiating a laser-absorbing material with 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses; a transparent plastic sheet was attached on the absorbing material for plasma confinement. Temporal pressure profiles of LISWs that were propagated through different thickness tissues were measured with a needle-type hydrophone and propagation of LISWs in water was visualized by shadowgraph technique. The measurements showed that at a laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm 2 with a laser spot diameter of 3 mm, flat wavefront was maintained for up to 5 mm in depth and peak pressure P decreased with increasing tissue thickness d; P was proportional to d -0.54 . Rat dorsal skin was injected with plasmid DNA coding for reporter gene, on which different numbers of excised skin(s) was/were placed, and LISWs were applied from the top of the skins. Efficient gene expression was observed in the skin under the 3 mm thick stacked skins, suggesting that deep-located tissue such as muscle can be transfected by transcutaneous application of LISWs.

  4. Fatigue crack growth behavior and tearing instability characteristics under cyclic high stress, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogami, Kazunari; Yamakawa, Jun; Ando, Kotoji; Ogura, Nobukazu

    1990-01-01

    The J-R curve, fatigue crack growth rate and characteristics of ductile unstable fracture under monotonic and cyclic load were investigated using 1TCT test specimens which were cut out from A508 steel for reactor pressure vessels. All the tests were carried out at 100degc. The main results obtained were as follows. (1) The J-R curve under the cyclic load is not a material constant but is dependent on the test conditions. (2) da/dN from typical fatigue data cannot be extrapolated by ΔJ only if the value of da/dN is above 5x10 -4 mm/cycles. However, it can be extrapolated by using the following equation in which J max is used: da/dN=C{√(ΔJ)/(B-√J max )} m . (3) The J values at instability obtained from the ductile unstable fracture test carried out under the cyclic load of stress ratio R=0, 01 and -1.0 were compared with those from the monotonically increasing load. These J values at instability were almost the same as that for the monotonically increasing load. (author)

  5. Coupling characteristics of the spun optical fiber with triple stress elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Minning; Shang, Fengtao; Chen, Dandan

    2018-06-01

    An empirical formula related to the stress field distribution in the optical fiber with triple stress elements is proposed and proved. The possible intercoupling between the fundamental modes and the higher order modes is demonstrated. The transmission property of the spun optical fiber with triple stress elements is analyzed. The experimental data from a sample of the spun optical fiber with triple stress elements confirm the theoretical results very well.

  6. Regional Characteristics of Stress State of Main Seismic Active Faults in Mid-Northern Part of Sichuan-Yunnan Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, W.; Yaling, W.

    2017-12-01

    We restore the seismic source spectrums of 1012 earthquakes(2.0 ≤ ML ≤ 5.0) in the mid-northern part of Sichuan-Yunnan seismic block(26 ° N-33 ° N, 99 ° E-104 ° E),then calculate the source parameters.Based on the regional seismic tectonic background, the distribution of active faults and seismicity, the study area is divided into four statistical units (Z1 Jinshajiang and Litang fault zone, Z2 Xianshuihe fault zone, Z3 Anninghe-Zemuhe fault zone, Z4 Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault zone). Seismic source stress drop results show the following, (1)The stress at the end of the Jinshajiang fault is low, strong earthquake activity rare.Stress-strain loading deceases gradually from northwest to southeast along Litang fault, the northwest section which is relatively locked is more likely to accumulate strain than southeast section. (2)Stress drop of Z2 is divided by Kangding, the southern section is low and northern section is high. Southern section (Kangding-Shimian) is difficult to accumulate higher strain in the short term, but in northern section (Garzê-Kangding), moderate and strong earthquakes have not filled the gaps of seismic moment release, there is still a high stress accumulation in partial section. (3)High stress-drop events were concentrated on Z3, strain accumulation of this unit is strong, and stress level is the highest, earthquake risk is high. (4)On Z4, stress drop characteristics of different magnitude earthquakes are not the same, which is related to complex tectonic setting, the specific reasons still need to be discussed deeply.The study also show that, (1)Stress drops display a systematic change with different faults and locations, high stress-drop events occurs mostly on the fault intersection area. Faults without locking condition and mainly creep, are mainly characterized by low stress drop. (2)Contrasting to what is commonly thought that "strike-slip faults are not easy to accumulate stress ", Z2 and Z3 all exhibit high stress levels, which

  7. Maternal Stress Predicted by Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a period of two years. The level of maternal…

  8. Maternal stress predicted by characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a

  9. Stress among Student Affairs Administrators: The Relationship of Personal Characteristics and Organizational Variables to Work-Related Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Kathleen R.

    1992-01-01

    Examined possible relationships between reported work-related stress and organizational and personal variables, hardiness of personality, exercise activity, and organizational culture of 240 student affairs administrators within Minnesota. Results revealed that job satisfaction and hardiness of personality were greatest predictors of lowered…

  10. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Becker, Richard C; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L; Rogers, Joseph; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; O'Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-02-19

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia. Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is prevalent and a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease, but past studies mainly studied patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Eligible patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease, regardless of exercise stress testing status, underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests followed by a treadmill test. Stress-induced ischemia, assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, was defined as: 1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥ 8%; and/or 3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥ 1 mm in 2 or more leads lasting for ≥ 3 consecutive beats during at least 1 mental test or during the exercise test. Mental stress-induced ischemia occurred in 43.45%, whereas exercise-induced ischemia occurred in 33.79% (p = 0.002) of the study population (N = 310). Women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88), patients who were not married (OR: 1.99), and patients who lived alone (OR: 2.24) were more likely to have mental stress-induced ischemia (all p mental stress-induced ischemia (all p Mental stress-induced ischemia is more common than exercise-induced ischemia in patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease. Women, unmarried men, and individuals living alone are at higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics and growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at the Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan during year 2012. The experiment was conducted in the open environment as factorial randomized complete block design with three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content as the first factor and four levels of silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil as the second factor with three replications. The results showed that drought stress imposed a negative significant effect on all traits. The drought stress led to increased electrolyte leakage and proline content, cuticular wax, leaf silicon concentration, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and grain potassium were decreased. The severe drought stress has most effect on electrolyte leakage (up to 53%. The application of silicon except the shoot/root parameter, on all characters have been affected so that application of 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil led to decrease electrolyte leakage up to 22.5% and increased SOD activity, proline content, cuticular wax grain K and flag leaf Si concentration, 25, 12.8, 21, 17 and 30% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed a positive effect of silicon on wheat plant under stress conditions that were higher than no stress condition.

  12. [Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on seed germination and physiological characteristics of Coronilla varia under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Le Yuan; Chen, Nian Lai; Han, Guo Jun; Li, Liang

    2017-10-01

    This research investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mmol·L -1 ) of salicylic acid on the seed germination and physiological characteristics of legume forage Coronilla varia (cultivar 'Lvbaoshi') under PEG-6000 (concentration 8% and 12%) simulated drought stress. The results showed that under drought stress, 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid significantly increased germination percentage, germination vigour, germination index, vitality index and bud length of C. varia. Under the stress of 12% PEG, the dry mass of C. varia seedlings processed by 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid was significantly higher than that under drought stress. 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid processing significantly increased proline, soluble protein content, the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase of C. varia seedlings under drought stress, but cell electrolyte permeability, H2O2 content and O2 - · production rate of seedlings were significantly decreased. 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid produced the best results. When the concentration of salicylic acid was beyond 2.0 mmol·L -1 , no mitigation effect was observed on the seed germination and growth of seedlings under drought stress. It was concluded that salicylic acid at appropriate concentrations could effectively improve osmotic regulation, antioxidation and mitigate the damage of drought stress so as to promote the growth of C. varia seedlings.

  13. Effects of Outdoor Housing of Piglets on Behavior, Stress Reaction and Meat Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yonezawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed housing systems are important from the viewpoint of animal welfare and improvement of meat production. In this study, we investigated the effects of outdoor housing of pigs on their behavior, cortisol levels, and meat characteristics. Two groups that were born and raised in a spacious outdoor pen (4×10 m for every two sows or a minimum-sized standard pen in a piggery (1.9×2.2 m for every sow were studied. When their behaviors at the age of 2 to 3 wk were observed, the number of rooting episodes tended to be larger (p = 0.0509 and the total time of rooting tended to be longer (p = 0.0640 in the outdoor-housed piglets although the difference was not significant. Basal salivary cortisol levels of the outdoor piglets at the age of 4 wk were significantly lower than those of the indoor piglets (5.0±0.59 ng/ml vs. 11.6±0.91 ng/ml, 30 min after treatment, although their plasma cortisol levels were similar (53.3±3.54 ng/ml vs. 59.9±4.84 ng/ml, 30 min after treatment. When the ears were pierced at weaning, plasma and salivary cortisol levels were increased in both groups, even at 15 min after piercing. However, the increase in the outdoor-housed group was significantly less than that in the indoor-housed group. Throughout their lives, body weight and daily gain of the pigs were not significantly different between the two groups. In a meat taste preference test taken by 20 panelists, saltiness, flavor, and color of the outdoor-housed pork were found to be more acceptable. Moreover, when an electronic taste-sensing device was utilized, the C00 and CPA-C00 outputs (3.78±0.07 and −0.20±0.023, which correspond to compounds of bitterness and smells, respectively, were significantly lower in the outdoor-housed pork (5.03±0.16 and −0.13±0.009. Our results demonstrate that the outdoor housing system for piglets induces natural behaviors such as rooting and suppresses the strongest stress reaction of piglets, which could be important

  14. Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula (Calendula officinalis L. under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat H.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of salicylic acid (SA as a phytohormone has been increased due to resistance to stresses such as salt stress. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous salicylic acid application on growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula grown under salt stress and greenhouse conditions. For this purpose a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with 3 levels of SA (0 (control, 1, 2 mM and 3 levels of NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM with 4 replications. At flowering stage, SA was applied with spraying two times in two week intervals. NaCl was also applied as drench (200 ml per pot in two day intervals. The results showed that salinity decreased the growth, Chlorophyll reading values, flower number per plant and flower diameter. However, foliar applications of SA resulted in greater root, shoot and total dry weight, plant height and leaf area of calendula plants under salt stress. The highest chlorophyll reading values was obtained from 2.00 mM SA application in all NaCl treatments. Salinity decreased number of flower per plant and flower diameter as ornamental characteristics; however SA increased them under salinity stress. Plants treated with 1.00 mM SA had the highest flower diameter at 100 and 200 mM of NaCl. Electrolyte leakage increased by salinity, however foliar application of SA significantly reduced electrolyte leakage under salt stress. Based on the present results, foliar application of SA treatments can ameliorate the negative effects of salinity on the growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula plants.

  15. Ankle and toe muscle strength characteristics in runners with a history of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Junya; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nakao, Sayaka; Fujita, Kosuke; Yanase, Ko; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    A high proportion of flexor digitorum longus attachment is found at the posteromedial border of the tibia, which is the most common location of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Therefore, plantar flexion strength of the lesser toes could be related to MTSS; however, the relationship between MTSS and muscle strength of the hallux and lesser toes is not yet evaluated due to the lack of quantitative methods. This study investigated the muscle strength characteristics in runners with a history of MTSS by using a newly developed device to measure the muscle strength of the hallux, lesser toes, and ankle. This study comprised 27 collegiate male runner participants (20.0 ± 1.6 years, 172.1 ± 5.1 cm, 57.5 ± 4.0 kg). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque of the plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion of the ankle were measured by using an electric dynamometer. MVIC torque of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) and 2nd-5th MTPJ were measured by using a custom-made torque-measuring device. MVIC torques were compared between runners with and without a history of MTSS. MVIC torque of the 1st MTPJ plantar flexion was significantly higher in runners with a history of MTSS than in those without it. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the MVIC torque values of the 2nd-5th MTPJ plantar flexion and each MVIC torque of the ankle between runners with and without a history of MTSS. A history of MTSS increased the isometric FHL strength.

  16. Effects of salt stress and mycorrhiza fungi on morpho-physiological characteristics of sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Abdolreza kazemeini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the interaction of mycorrhizal fungi and salinity on growth and physiological characteristics of sweet corn, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, in 2014. The experimental design was factorial based on Completely Randomized Design in three replications. Treatments included salinity at four levels (0.4 (control, 4, 7, 10 dS m-1, and the fungi at three levels (no fungi (control, Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices. Results indicated that at flowering stage, with increasing salinity levels, leaf chlorophyll a, b and a+b content and carotenoid decreased at a rate of 18.9, 52.4, 33.1, and 34.5 respectively. Application of mycorrhiza under salinity, partially offset the negative impacts and increased tolerance of maize to NaCl by enhancing SOD and CAT activities, chlorophyll contents, carotenoid and K concentrations in leaves, plant height, leaf area, and total dry weight at flowering stage significantly, compared to control. The Na/K ratio at salinity level of 10 dS m-1 in treatments inoculated with GIN and GM fungi decreased by 39.69 and 40.45 percentage, respectively. Increases plant height, leaf area, total dry weight, concentrations of chlorophyll a, b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid and K, the activity of antioxidant enzymes compared with the control. Moreover, GIN type fungi had a greater advantage over GM and reduced the negative effects of salinity. Results indicated that application of mycorrhiza alleviated the adverse effect of salinity stress and improve the sweet corn dry weight up to 38 percentage at salinity level of 10 dS m-1.

  17. Evaluation Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield Canola Cultivars under end Seasonal Drought Stress in Weather Condition of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Seyed Ahmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate canola cultivars response to physiological characteristics and grain yield end seasonal drought stress in weather condition of Ahvaz, farm experiments were done at research farm of Khuzestan agriculture and natural resources center. During 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 crop years. Farm test comprised drought stress was done as split plot form with randomize complete block design with four replication, treatments consist of drought stress (main factor including 50, 60 and 70 percent of water use content, which was applied from early heading stage until physiological maturity, and three spring canola cultivar including Shirali, Hayola 401 and R.G.S. were considered as sub plots. Measurements include biological yield, grain yield, harvesting index, number of pod per plant 1000 grain weight, number of grain in pod, plant height, and stem diameter, oil and protein percentage. Results showed that drought stress reduced significantly grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and the average of reduction of them during 2 years for per unit reduce moisture from 50% to 70% were 2, 1.35, and 0.81 percent, respectively. During two years, 1000 grain weight, number of pods per plant and number of grain per pod reduced 27, 36 and 20 percent, respectively. Terminal Drought stress reduced significantly plant height, stem diameter, stem number per plant and pod length, this reduced were 12, 46, 36 and 14 percent, respectively. Stem diameter, and stem number per plant reduced more than other characteristics. In this study oil grain decreased 12 % and protein grain increased 18.5% but oil and protein yield decreased 44.9% and 27.1% respectively..Finally, in weather condition of Khuzestan, terminal drought stress on February and March in which has simultaneous with early flowering stage and filling seed, significantly, reduced yield and compounded yield and affects on stem growth and qualities oil and protein negatively. Therefore, with irrigation

  18. NPK, protein content and yield of broccoli as affected by gamma rays seeds irradiation and phosphorus fertilizer rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Desoki, S A [Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Moshtohor, Zagazig University (Egypt); Abdallah, A A.G.; Awad, S M; Aboel-Kheir, O H [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-07-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre sowing-seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (0, 2, 3 and 4 Gy) and different phosphorus fertilizer application rates, 0, 30, 60 and 90 k P{sub 2}O{sub 5} /fed) on NPK content of leaves and spear, and protein content in spears at maturity, spear diameter, main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear fresh weight per plant and total spear yield. In general, exposing broccoli seeds to different gamma ray doses up to 4 Gy prior to sowing increased the above mentioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by exposing broccoli seeds to 3 Gy. There were non-significant differences between 3 and 4 Gy treatments during the two growing seasons. With respect to the effect of phosphorus fertilizer application rates on the studied parameters, increasing phosphorus application rates up to 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/fed increased the above mentioned parameters. The highest percentage of increase was obtained by applying 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/fed. The interaction, gamma ray and P level showed phosphorus there were significant differences in main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spear yield and spear diameter in first season. The highest value was obtained by 3 Gy and 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/fed. Also there were significant effects on NPK content in broccoli leaves at 90 days after transplanting (DAT) except P in second season and nonsignificant values of broccoli spear at harvest except N, K in first season. The highest protein content of broccoli spears at harvest was obtained with 2 Gy and 30 kg P{sub 25}/fed.

  19. Morphological characteristic of purple long yard bean cultivars and their tolerance to drought stress

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    M W Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of purple long yard bean which tolerance to drought stress and have high productivity can improve farming in arid area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of the tolerance purple long yard beans to drought stress based on morphologic characters, to get the hypothesis method of tolerance and to obtain tolerance cultivars to the drought stress. Eight cultivars of purple long yard beans, i.e. UBPHU1-41, UBPHU1-130, UBPU3-153, UBPU1-202, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, Brawijaya 4 and Bagong 2, were tested in two environmental conditions, 100% field capacity and 50% field capacity. The results showed that drought stress in purple long yard bean affected all morphological characters observed, except for root length and flowering time. Estimation of tolerance to drought stress using the Principles Component Analysis (PCA showed that the shoot fresh weight could be an indicator of purple pod bean tolerance to drought stress. However, the test using Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI was not able to classify the purple long yard bean tolerance to drought stress. The results of analysis using PCA followed by discriminant analysis and clustering dendrogram showed that the UBPU1-41, UBPU1-130, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, UB4 and Bagong 2 cultivars were medium cultivars that are tolerant to drought stress. Therefore, they can be planted in semiarid regions.

  20. Utility Of Stress-Texture Characteristics Of Structural Materials By X-Ray Technique

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    Bonarski J.T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of residual stress analysis in selected metal-metal joints manufactured by conventional welding and explosive merging. The X-ray diffraction technique applied for advanced stress-texture measurements and data processing revealed directions and values of the principal stresses and their configuration on the surface of the examined structural elements. The obtained stress topography of the joint intersections indicates a possible path of potential cracking formed during the exploitation process and thus it becomes a very useful tool in the diagnostics of structural elements.

  1. Investigations into stress shell characteristics of surrounding rock in fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, G.X.; Chang, J.C.; Yang, K. [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2009-01-15

    A key issue in underground mining is to understand and master the evolving patterns of stress induced by mining, and to control and utilize the action of rock pressure. Numerical and physical modeling tests have been carried out to investigate the distribution patterns of stress in the rock surrounding a fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC) face. The results showed that a macro-stress shell composed of high stress exists in the rock surrounding an FMTC face. The stress of the shell is higher than its internal and external stress and the stresses at its skewback producing abutment pressure for the surrounding rock. The stress shell lies in the virgin coal and rock mass in the vicinity of the face and its sagging zone. The stress shell, which bears and transfers the loads of overlying strata, acts as the primary supporting system of forces, and is the corpus of characterizing three-dimensional and macro-rock pressure distribution of mining face. Its external and internal shape changes with the variations in the working face structure as the face advances. Within the low-stress zone inside the stress shell, another structure, i.e. voussoir beam, which only bears parts of the load from the lower-lying strata, will produce periodic pressures on the face instead of great dynamic pressure even if the beam ruptures and loses stability. The results show that the FMTC face is situated within the lower-stress zone, which is protected by the stress shell of the overlying surrounding rock. We give an explanation of lower occurrence of rock pressure on FMTC faces, and reveal the mechanical nature of the top coal of an FMTC face acting as a 'cushion'. The strata behaviors of the face and its neighboring gates are under control of the stress shell. Drastic rock pressure in mine may occur when the balance of the stress shell is destruction or the forces system of the stress shell transfers. Crown Copyright

  2. RESPOSTA DA SERINGUEIRA CLONE RRIM 600 À ADUBAÇÃO NPK EM SOLO PODZÓLICO VERMELHO-AMARELO RESPONSES OF RUBBER TREE CLONE RRIM 600 TO NPK FERTILIZATION ON RED YELLOW PODZOLIC SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONDINO CLEANTE BATAGLIA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, que teve por objetivo determinar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.] à adubação NPK durante o período de formação do seringal, relata os resultados de experimento com o clone RRIM 600 em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo de textura arenosa, no município de Avaí (SP, Brasil. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicados no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das plantas. Avaliou-se o perímetro do caule a 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a cada quatro meses, e calculou-se a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal em cada parcela. Efetuaram-se análises de solo aos 27 e 51 meses de idade das plantas e análises de folhas, anualmente, no verão. A partir de 60 meses de idade das plantas, aproximadamente três anos após o início das adubações, observou-se efeito linear da adubação nitrogenada sobre o perímetro do caule. A adubação fosfatada teve efeito linear a partir da idade de 72 meses e a interação NP linear foi consistente depois de 75 meses. Usando como indicador a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para as adubações nitrogenada e potássica. O período de imaturidade foi abreviado até em oito meses, comparando-se o tratamento sem adubação com os de melhor desempenho. Adubações desequilibradas, como no tratamento 0-80-120, provocaram retardamento até de 12 meses no período de imaturidade em relação ao tratamento de melhor desempenho (120-120-120. Um ano depois da interrupção da aplicação de fertilizantes, no fim do experimento, não se observou efeito residual dos tratamentos sobre os indicadores de crescimento utilizados.The response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell.Arg.], clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization during the

  3. The stress characteristics of plate-fin structures at the different operation parameters of LNG heat exchanger

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    Ma Hongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the stresses of plate-fin structures at the different operation parameters were analyzed in actual operation process of LNG plate-fin heat exchanger based on finite element method and thermal elastic theory. Stress characteristics of plate-fin structures were investigated at the different operation parameters of that. The results show that the structural failure of plate-fin structures is mainly induced by the maximum shear stress at the brazing filler metal layer between plate and fin while by the maximum normal stress in the region of brazed joint near the fin side. And a crack would initiate in brazed joint near the fin side. The maximum normal stress is also main factor to result in the structural failure of plate-fin structures at the different temperature difference (between Natural Gas (NG and Mixture Refrigerant (MR, MR temperature and NG pressure of LNG heat exchanger. At the same time, the peak stresses obviously increase as the temperature difference, MR temperature and NG pressure increase. These results will provide some constructive instructions in the safe operation of LNG plate-fin heat exchanger in a large-scale LNG cold-box.

  4. Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on ß-carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor

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    Wiesław Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron, Aretit (dinoseb acetate, Gesatop 50 (simazine was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha on the ß-carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/v. An increase of ß-carotene content in the field bean leaves at the flower-bud formation stage was found, after application of above mentioned herbicides and high dosage NPK fertilization levels. No influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the (ß-carotene content in the plant leaves could be demonstrated at the full pods stage.

  5. Cuticular characteristics in the detection of plant stress due to air pollution - new problems in the use of these cuticular characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrec, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The foliar surface, and particularly the cuticle, is the first zone of impact of air pollutants on leaves. At the level of the cuticle, it is mainly studies on the modifications of the physico-chemical properties of the waxes that allow us to detect and estimate plant stress. However, during recent years, with modifications in the nature and level of air pollution (decrease of primary pollutants: SO 2 , HF; increase of secondary pollutants: O 2 , acid deposits; increase of nitrogen deposits; increase of organic micropollutants; appearence of global environmental problems: CO 2 , climatic change), the physiological impact on plants and in particular on the cuticle is different. For this reason, new problems have appeared and use of cuticular characteristics in the detection of plant stress due to air pollutants has recently evolved. Some examples are given, but much remains to be done to understand the effects on the cuticle of these new modifications of the atmospheric environment of plants. (orig.)

  6. Eficiencia fisiológica de uso de NPK en clones autoincompatible y autocompatible de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Jazbleidi Puentes-Páramo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar la eficiencia fisiológica de N-P-K en clones de cacao de sabor y aroma autocompatible (CCN-51, ICS-95 y autoincompatible: (TSH-565, ICS-39, con la finalidad de determinar la capacidad de producción de grano seco por unidad de nutriente absorbido. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones, los tratamientos fueron diseñados a partir del nivel de fertilidad natural del suelo (TR-Tratamiento de referencia y sobre este el 25, 50, 75 y 100% más de Nitrógeno-Fósforo-Potasio (N-P-K, correspondiente al T1, T2, T3 y T4. Los resultados evidencian que hay diferencias altamente significativas entre clones para los nutrientes N-P-K absorbidos, exhibiendo mayor absorción de nitrógeno, seguido de potasio y por ultimo fósforo, en este sentido, el clon autocompatible CCN-51 mostro mayor habilidad de absorción para la mayoría de nutrientes, excepto fósforo, sin embargo, no es generalizada la mayor habilidad para clones autocompatibles con respecto a clones autoincompatibles.  La mayor eficiencia fisiológica de uso de nutrientes N-P-K se presentó en el tratamiento uno y la menor capacidad de producción de grano seco de cacao por unidad de nutriente se presentó con la dosis nutricional más alta en el tratamiento cuatro, lo cual sugiere que a mayor dosis disminuye la eficiencia fisiológica de uso de nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio de los clones.

  7. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  8. Study of Sesame (Sesame indicum L. Cultivars based on Morphological Characteristics Under Water Deficit Stress Condition Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asghari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation sesame cultivars based on morphological characteristics under water deficit stress condition using factor analysis, an experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2009 in Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources in Parsabad. In this experiment, irrigation as the main factor at three levels (50, 75 and 100 percent of crop water requirement and ten sesame cultivars as the sub-factor were studied. The water requirement of sesame was calculated using CROPWAT software (Penman-Monteith method according to FAO-56. Results showed significant differences between the cultivars and the irrigation levels for all studied traits. Interaction between cultivars and irrigation levels was significant for some of traits. Comparisons of means showed that in water deficit condition, yield and all of traits reduced. In all traits the greatest amounts observed in complete irrigation treatment. In 50 percent of water requirement treatment, amount of leaf chlorophyll, root length, root branches and root length/plant height ratio were greater than other treatments. The Karaj1, Ultan, Naze and IS cultivars were better than other cultivars in stress and non stress condition. In factor analysis 5 and 4 first factors in non stress and stress condition explained 91.36 and 89.52 percent of trait variance, respectively. Grouping of sesame cultivars based on first and second factors in non stress conditions showed that Karaj1, Ultan and Naze cultivars were better than other cultivars. Also, in stress conditions Karaj1 and Ultan cultivars grouped as water deficit stress and better cultivars.

  9. Estado nutricional e características de crescimento do abacaxizeiro 'Jupi' cultivado em latossolo amarelo distrófico em função da adubação com NPK Nutritional status and growth caracteristics of pineapple in dystrophic yellow latosol 'Jupi' cultivated in fucntion of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimário Inácio Coelho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação da fórmula 20:05:20 de NPK no crescimento das folhas e frutos e no estado nutricional do abacaxizeiro. Foram utilizadas mudas do tipo filhote do abacaxizeiro 'Jupi', com peso médio de 250 g, plantadas em vasos contendo 13 dm³ de Latossolo Amarelo Distrófico. Os tratamentos consistiram de 00; 31; 62; 93 e 124 g de NPK, na proporção de 20:05:20, aplicados em três parcelamentos de 20%, 40% e 40% da dose aos 45, 120 e 240 dias, após o plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O peso médio do fruto foi influenciado pela dose de adubo, com valor significativamente maior para peso do fruto sem coroa, na dosagem de 93 g de adubo. Com a elevação das doses de adubo os teores de brix e acidez titulável aumentaram, enquanto a relação brix/acidez titulável apresentou redução.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of NPK on the growth of leaves and fruits and nutritional status of pineapple. Slips of pineapple'Jupi', with weight of 250 g were planted in vessel with13 dm³ of dystrophic Yellow Latosol. The treatment consisted of 00; 31; 62; 93 e 124 g of NPK (20:05:20 divided in three applications (20%, 40% and 40% of the dose after 45, 120 and 240 days. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block outline, with four replications. The mean weight of the fruit was influenced by NPK doses. The highest fruit weight was obtained in the fruit without crown and fertilization of NPK with 93 g. With the increase of doses of NPK, the brix tenors and total titled acidity increased while the relation brix/titled acidity decreased.

  10. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK NPK DAN KOMPOS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SEMAI JABON (ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA ROXB MIQ PADA MEDIA TANAH BEKAS TAMBANG EMAS (TAILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Wasis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tailings is one of the waste generated in the gold mining activities that contain nutrients are low. One of the principles for the management of tailings is merevegetasi land disturbed so that the necessary selection of the type that can be developed, in this case Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb Miq. Is one type that is recommended to be developed in the post-mine land revegetation because it is a type of fast-growing and has a high adaptability to various soil types. Experimental design used in this study was factorial design with two factors. The first factor is fertilizer NPK with 4 level and the second factor is the compost with 4 level. The best dose of the combination of the two fertilizer on the growth of seedlings jabon is high NPK fertilizer with compost dose of 15 grams and 10 grams and diameter growth for seedlings jabon, the best dose is the dose of 15 grams of NPK fertilizer and compost 0 grams

  11. Cadmium stress assessment based on the electrocardiogram characteristics of zebra fish (Danio rerio): QRS complex could play an important role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Na; Ji, Lizhen; Song, Jie; Ma, Jingchun; Li, Shangge; Ren, Zongming; Xu, Fei; Zhu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) of zebra fish (Danio rerio) expresses cardiac features that are similar to humans. Here we use sharp microelectrode measurements to obtain ECG characteristics in adult zebra fish and analyze the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) on the heart. We observe the overall changes of ECG parameters in different treatments (0.1 TU, 0.5 TU and 1.0 TU CdCl 2 ), including P wave, Q wave, R wave, S wave, T wave, PR interval (atrial contraction), QRS complex (ventricular depolarization), ST segment, and QT interval (ventricular repolarization). The trends of the ECG parameters showed some responses to the concentration and exposure time of CdCl 2 , but it was difficult to obtain more information about the useful indicators in water quality assessment depending on tendency analysis alone. A self-organizing map (SOM) showed that P values, R values, and T values were similar; R wave and T wave amplitude were similar; and most important, QRS value was similar to the CdCl 2 stress according to the classified data patterns including CdCl 2 stress (E) and ECG components based on the Ward linkage. It suggested that the duration of QRS complex was related to environmental stress E directly. The specification and evaluation of ECG parameters in Cd 2+ pollution suggested that there is a markedly significant correlation between QRS complex and CdCl 2 stress with the highest r (0.729) and the smallest p (0.002) among all ECG characteristics. In this case, it is concluded that QRS complex can be used as an indicator in the CdCl 2 stress assessment due to the lowest AIC data abased on the linear regression model between the CdCl 2 stress and ECG parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary patterns and their association with sociodemographic characteristics and perceived academic stress of college students in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabián, Carla; Pagán, Ideliz; Ríos, Josué L; Betancourt, Jesmari; Cruz, Sonia Y; González, Anaisa M; Palacios, Cristina; González, Michael J; Rivera-Soto, Winna T

    2013-03-01

    University students face academic responsibilities that may produce stress, which may lead to changes in dietary patterns (DPs). These changed patterns can become dysfunctional, often resulting in a negative impact on the health of the stressed student. Little is known about DPs in college students in Puerto Rico (PR). The purpose of this study was to describe the DPs of college students in PR and the association of these patterns with socio-demographic characteristics and perceived academic stress. This retrospective epidemiological study investigated self-reported DPs in a representative sample of 275 college students, in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, body composition (BC), and perceived academic stress; a Diet Quality Index was developed using the USDA Food Patterns for 2010 to determine whether their DPs were adequate or inadequate. Most of the participating students were female (67.6%), ranged from 21 to 30 years old (88%), lived in low household incomes (42.7%), and had healthy weights (56.4%). Most of the students perceived the stress levels as being moderate (60.7%). Most had diets that were below the dietary recommendations for grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein, whereas fat consumption was adequate. Overall, most had inadequate DPs (62%). DP was significantly associated with age (p students had better DPs than did younger students. In terms of the different schools (p students from the School of Medicine and those from the School of Public Health had better DPs than did the students from the other schools. DP was not associated with income, gender, BMI, stress level, or course load. The majority of the students had inadequate DPs, which inadequacy was associated with both the age of the student and the school that he or she attended.

  13. Impact of role-, job- and organizational characteristics on Nursing Unit Managers' work related stress and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Adriaenssens, Jef; Dilles, Tinne; Martens, Daisy; Van Rompaey, Bart; Timmermans, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    To study the impact of role, job- and organizational characteristics on nurse managers' work related stress and well-being such as feelings of emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Various studies investigated role-, job- and organizational characteristics influencing nurse-related work environments. Research on nurse managers' related work environments define influencing factors, but, a clear understanding of the impact of nurse-managers' work-environment characteristics on their work related stress and well-being is limited. A cross-sectional design with a survey. A cross-sectional survey (N = 365) was carried out between December 2011-March 2012. The questionnaire was based on various validated measurement instruments identified by expert meetings (e.g. staff nurses, nurse managers and executives and physicians). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed using emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intentions as outcome variables. Study results showed one out of six nursing unit managers have high to very high feelings of emotional exhaustion and two out of three respondents have high to very high work engagement. Hierarchical regression models showed that role conflict and role meaningfulness were strong predictors of nursing unit managers' work related stress and well-being, alongside with job- and organizational characteristics. Several risk factors and stimulating factors influencing nurse unit managers' work related stress and well-being were identified. Further challenges will be to develop proper interventions and strategies to support nursing unit managers and their team in daily practice to deliver the best and safest patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Organizational uncertainty and stress among teachers in Hong Kong: work characteristics and organizational justice

    OpenAIRE

    Hassard, Juliet; Teoh, Kevin; Cox, Tom

    2017-01-01

    A growing literature now exists examining the relationship between organizational justice and employees' experience of stress. Despite the growth in this field of enquiry, there remain continued gaps in knowledge. In particular, the contribution of perceptions of justice to employees’ stress within an organizational context of uncertainty and change, and in relation to the new and emerging concept of procedural-voice justice. The aim of the current study was to examine the main, interaction a...

  15. Effect of the fungus Piriformospora indica on physiological characteristics and root morphology of wheat under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger

    2017-09-01

    This study was done to evaluate the effects of the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat growth under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Inoculated (colonized) and non-inoculated (uncolonized) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chamran) seedlings were planted in growth chambers filled with moist sand (at a matric suction of 20 hPa). Slight, moderate and severe mechanical stresses (i.e., penetration resistance, Q p , of 1.17, 4.17 and 5.96 MPa, respectively) were produced by a dead-load technique (i.e., placing a weight on the sand surface) in the root medium. Slight, moderate and severe drought stresses were induced using PEG 6000 solutions with osmotic potentials of 0, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa, respectively. After 30 days, plant physiological characteristics and root morphology were measured. An increase in Q p from 1.17 to 5.96 MPa led to greater leaf proline concentration and root diameter, and lower relative water content (RWC), leaf water potential (LWP), chlorophyll contents and root volume. Moreover, severe drought stress decreased root and shoot fresh weights, root volume, leaf area, RWC, LWP and chlorophyll content compared to control. Catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities under severe drought stress were about 1.5 and 2.9 times greater than control. Interaction of the stresses showed that mechanical stress primarily controls plant water status and physiological responses. However, endophyte presence mitigated the adverse effects of individual and combined stresses on plant growth. Colonized plants were better adapted and had greater root length and volume, RWC, LWP and chlorophyll contents under stressful conditions due to higher absorption sites for water and nutrients. Compared with uncolonized plants, colonized plants showed lower CAT activity implying that wheat inoculated with P. indica was more tolerant and experienced less oxidative damage induced by drought and/or mechanical stress. Copyright

  16. Desenvolvimento de mudas de citros cultivadas em vaso em resposta à adubação NPK Development of citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/55³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e o K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Avaliaram-se a produção de material seco das folhas, raízes, caule, parte aérea e total; área foliar, relação raízes/parte aérea; altura de plantas; volume radicular, relação área foliar/material seco para os porta-enxertos e as mudas, e o diâmetro do caule para os porta-enxertos. Funções de resposta foram ajustadas e os níveis de nutrientes foram calculados. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de fertilizantes que levaram às melhores respostas para produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência'/'Cravo' sobre o porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' foram: N, 9,85; P, 2,86; K, 7,99 g por plantas.The objective of this research was to evaluate the NPK fertilizer effect on 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery tree (Citrus sinensis development, budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia in a protected environment using containers with Pinus bark, vermiculite and perlite substrates. The experiment consisted of a complete (1/5 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was

  17. Characteristics of Superjunction Lateral-Double-Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor and Degradation after Electrical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh‑Ling; Lin, Ming‑Jang; Lin, Li‑Jheng

    2006-04-01

    The superjunction lateral double diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect has recently received considerable attention. Introducing heavily doped p-type strips to the n-type drift region increases the horizontal depletion capability. Consequently, the doping concentration of the drift region is higher and the conduction resistance is lower than those of conventional lateral-double-diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (LDMOSFETs). These characteristics may increase breakdown voltage (\\mathit{BV}) and reduce specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). In this study, we focus on the electrical characteristics of conventional LDMOSFETs on silicon bulk, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) LDMOSFETs and superjunction LDMOSFETs after bias stress. Additionally, the \\mathit{BV} and Ron,sp of superjunction LDMOSFETs with different N/P drift region widths and different dosages are discussed. Simulation tools, including two-dimensional (2-D) TSPREM-4/MEDICI and three-dimensional (3-D) DAVINCI, were employed to determine the device characteristics.

  18. Effect of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) under water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, S M R; Aghaalikhani, M; Khavazi, K; Chaichi, M R

    2007-10-15

    The effect of seed inoculation by phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L. SC. 704) was studied in a field experiment. Positive effect on plant growth, nutrient uptake, grain yield and yield components in maize plants was recorded in the treatment receiving mixed inoculum of Glomus intraradices (AM) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf). Co-inoculation treatment significantly increased grain yield, yield components, harvest index, grain N and P, soil available P, root colonization percentage and crop WUE under water deficit stress. In some of investigated characteristics under well-watered conditions, chemical fertilizer treatment was higher than double inoculated treatments, but this difference was not significant. Seed inoculation only with AM positively affected the measured parameters as amount as co-inoculated treatments. According to the results showed in contrast to the inoculated treatments with AM+Pf and AM, the application of alone Pf caused a comparatively poor response. Therefore, this microorganism needs to a complement for its activity in soil. All of measured parameters in inoculated treatments were higher than uninoculated treatments under water deficit stress conditions. Furthermore, the investigated characteristics of co-inoculated plants under severe water deficit stress conditions were significantly lower than co-inoculated plants under well-watered and moderate-stressed conditions. Therefore it could be stated, these microorganisms need more time to fix and establishing themselves in soil. The present finding showed that phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms can interact positively in promoting plant growth as well as P uptake of maize plants, leading to plant tolerance improving under water deficit stress conditions.

  19. Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene L. A. Bovi

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa", durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N, fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O, em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação. As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993, quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE, com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente. A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente, enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha. Doses crescentes de potássio (K apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97 na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses

  20. Screening of marigold (Tagetes erecta L. cultivars for drought stress based on vegetative and physiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Younis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is an important genotypic character to be exploited for the plant cultivar selection under water deficit conditions. In the recent study, we examined the response of two marigold cultivars (Inca and Bonanza under different regimes of drought stress. The aim was to determine the best performing cultivar under water/drought stress. Three irrigation treatments include; 4 days (T1, 6 days (T2 and 8 days (T3 in comparison to control 1 day (T0 interval were imposed. Response characters under study were morphological, physiological and anatomical. Complete Randomized Design (CRD with four replications in two factorial arrangements was followed for experiment layout. The results revealed that increasing water stress adversely affect plant height, in both cultivars. Both cultivars showed a decreasing trend to the number of flowers under water stress. Total chlorophyll contents including a, b were also showed reduction under prolonged drought treatment in both cultivars from (2.7 mg g-1 FW to (1 mg g-1 FW. Overall, the performance of cultivar (cv. Inca was satisfactory under water stress regimes. These results are helpful for selecting drought tolerant marigold cultivars in water scarce areas.   

  1. Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Maize under Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, K.; Ilyas, N.; Batool, N.; Arshad, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring signaling molecule and growth regulator that enhances plant growth particularly in stress conditions. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of different levels of SA on maize growth under drought and salt stress conditions. An experiment was conducted to test the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in two cultivar of maize D-1184 and TG-8250. Varying levels of salicylic acid, i.e. 5mM, 10mM and 15mM were applied through foliar method. Exogenous applications of salicylic acid were done after 20 days of germination of the maize plants. Salicylic acid significantly affects root and shoot dry matter under drought and salt stress. Foliar application of SA significantly increased proline concentration (11 percentage and 12 percentage), amino acid accumulation (25 percentage and 18 percentage), relative water (17 percentage and 14 percentage) and Chlorophyll content. Overall, it can be concluded that SA at lower concentration is effective to minimize the effect of stress conditions. Maize cultivar TG-8250 showed better tolerance under drought and salt stress condition as compared to D-1184 cultivar. (author)

  2. [Clinical, functional and biochemical characteristics of arterial hypertension in military men under chronic stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpagina, L A; Ermakova, M A; Volkova, E A; Iakovleva, S A

    2008-01-01

    Peculiarities of military occupational activities are repeated stress and high degree of psychoemotional strain. The article deals with results of momentary study covering a select from military men cohort, with thyroid tests, renal functional tests, diurnal monitoring of blood pressure and psychologic state assessment. Course of arterial hypertension in military men subjected to chronic stress presents prevailing systolic-diastolic and diastolic variants with excessive decrease of blood pressure at night, with high values of albuminuria. Psychologic state of the military men examined, whe were subjects to chronic stress, was mostly mixed reactivity type with general overstrain and somatization of inner conflict (psychosomatic variant of dysadaptation). The authors demonstrated close correlation between intrinsic emotional strain degree with arterial hypertension type according to "hyper-dipper" variant and free T3 level.

  3. Physiological characteristics under the influence of heat stress working in the hot environment, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Yoshino, Kenji; Takano, Ken-ichi

    1987-01-01

    There is a possibility that physical and mental stress appears under hot environmental condition for the cause of wearing protection suits on reactor maintenance work. It is important to reduce heat stress rapidly and effectively. This paper mentioned following about the results of static state and simulation work done by testees with or without protection suits under 25 kinds of temperatures and wind velocities in a artificial climate chamber. (1) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and subjective symptoms without protection suits. (2) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and skin temperatures without protection suits. (3) investigation of the parts of body affecting subjective symptoms. (4) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and skin temperatures at working with protection suits. (5) working out countermeasures of recovery from heat stress with the index of skin temperatures and subjective symptoms. (author)

  4. [Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on physiological characteristics of longan (Dimocarpus longana) seedlings under acid rain stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-fu; Wang, Ming-yuan; Yang, Chen; Zhu, Ai-jun

    2013-08-01

    This paper studied the effects of exogenous nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmotic regulation substances of longan (Dimocarpus longana 'Fuyan') seedlings under acid rain (pH 3.0) stress. Under the acid rain stress, the seedling leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents decreased obviously, while the leaf malondialdedyde content had a remarkable increase, suggesting the toxic effect of the acid rain on the seedlings. Exogenous nitric oxide had dual nature on the physiological characteristics of longan seedlings under acid rain stress. Applying 0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP improved the SOD, POD and CAT activities and the chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents significantly, and decreased the malondialdedyde content. Low concentrations SNP reduced the oxidative damage caused by the acid rain stress, and 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP had the best effect. Under the application of 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP, the total chlorophyll, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents and the SOD, POD and CAT activities increased by 76.0%, 107.0%, 216.1%, 150. 0%, 350.9% and 97.1%, respectively, and the malondialdedyde content decreased by 46.4%. It was suggested that low concentration (0.1-0.5 mmol x L(-1)) SNP could alleviate the toxic effect of acid rain stress on longan seedlings via activating the leaf antioxidant enzyme activities and reducing oxidative stress, while high concentration SNP (1.0 mmol x L(-1)) lowered the mitigation effect.

  5. Impact of osmotic stress on seedling growth observations, membrane characteristics and antioxidant defense system of different wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardees M. Mickky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to find out a straightforward technique for screening the tolerance of ten wheat genotypes to two levels of osmotic stress at early seedling stage. Data revealed that polyethylene glycol-induced drought had general negative effect on seedling morphological characters indicated by plumule and radicle length, number of adventitious roots as well as seedling biomass and water content. Water deficit could also suppress membrane integrity by stimulating lipid peroxidation with marked increase in membrane leakage and subsequent decrease in its stability index. For all the addressed germination parameters and seedling membrane features, the impact of severe drought was more pronounced than that of moderate drought. Simultaneously, moderate stress could activate peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and ascorbic peroxidase of the studied genotypes; but these enzymes were inhibited by severe stress. The activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase was conversely retarded by drought whether at moderate or severe level. More interestingly, a novel function “Stress Impact Index; SII” was introduced to rank the estimated morpho-physiological traits (SIItrait as well as the considered genotypes (SIIgenotype according to their sensitivity to stress. Values of SIItrait implied that germination parameters were generally affected by drought more intensively than membrane characteristics and finally came the antioxidant enzymes with the least degree of suppression when applying stress. Based on the magnitudes of SIIgenotype, Sids 13 seemed to be the most drought-tolerant wheat cultivar while Shandawel 1 could be the most sensitive one at their juvenile growth stage.

  6. Vascularização das glândulas adrenais em galinhas da linhagem NPK (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Coutinho do Amaral

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares viscerais, que freqüentemente mostram suficientes variações para diferenciação entre famílias e ordens, utilizamos 34 galinhas da linhagem NPK, com idade aproximada de 10 semanas, eutanasiadas com dose de gás anestésico, tendo marcado seus contingentes arteriais com solução aquosa de Neoprene Látex ¨450¨ a 50 %, corada com corante específico e fixadas em solução aquosa de formol a 10 %, para estudar a vascularização das glândulas adrenais. Assim, os resultados indicam que as glândulas adrenais são órgãos pares, dispostos um em cada antímero, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e médio-cranialmente aos rins. Nos dois antímeros, as glândulas adrenais receberam vasos oriundos das artérias adrenais homólogas provenientes da artéria renal cranial e da aorta descendente (ramos diretos. Independentemente da origem, o número de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variou de acordo com o antímero, sendo de 1 a 4 para o antímero esquerdo, e de 1 e 3 para o direito. Quanto maior o número de artérias totais e ramos emitidos pelas artérias adrenais contralaterais destinados a um antímero, maior será o número de ramos destinados pelas mesmas ao antímero oposto.

  7. Characteristics of polytrauma patients with posttraumatic stress disorder in a level 1 trauma center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Kreis; N.J.Y. Castano; W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); L.C.A. Hoogenboom; S.A.G. Meylaerts (Sven); S. Rhemrev (Steven)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAims: The aims of this study were to determine if the severity of injury is related to the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in polytrauma patients and to review the personality traits of patients with PTSD. Methods: During 2006 and 2007, 252 polytrauma patients were

  8. Compressive stress-electrical conductivity characteristics of multiwall carbon nanotube networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; Říha, Pavel; Lengálová, A.; Sáha, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2011), s. 3186-3190 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : carbon nanotube network * compression * electrical conductivity * stress sensor Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2011

  9. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that within the control category, the highest levels of perceived teacher’s work-related stress were caused by changes in terms and conditions without consultation and given responsibility without the authority to take decisions, while in the category support, the same was true for stress factors lack of funds/resources to do the job and limited or no access to training. We have also concluded that the lower-grade school teachers, female teachers, teachers for whom this is the first job and teachers with university education perceive more often the lack of authority to take decisions as a very stressful factor than the upper-grade school teachers, male teachers, teachers previously employed in another workplace, and those with high education. The lower-grade school teachers, older teachers and teachers with university education perceive more often changes in education as a very stressful factor than the upper grade school teachers, younger teachers and those with high education.

  10. The effect of mechanical stress on lateral-effect position-sensitive detector characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, H.A. [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)]. E-mail: Henrik.Andersson@miun.se; Mattsson, C.G. [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Thungstroem, G. [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Lundgren, A. [SiTek Electro Optics, Ogaerdesvaegen 13A 433 30 Partille (Sweden); Nilsson, H.-E. [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used in noncontact measurement systems. In order to minimize the size of such systems, interest has increased in mounting the PSD chip directly onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). Stress may be induced in the PSD because of the large differences in thermal expansion coefficients, as well as the long-term geometrical stability of the chip packaging. Mechanical stress has previously been shown to have an effect on the performance of semiconductors. The accuracy, or linearity, of a lateral effect PSD is largely dependent on the homogeneity of the resistive layer. Variations of the resistivity over the active area of the PSD will result in an uneven distribution of photo-generated current, and hence an error in the readout position. In this work experiments were performed to investigate the influence of anisotropic mechanical stress in terms of nonlinearity. PSD chips of 60x3 mm active area were subjected, respectively, to different amounts of compressive and tensile stress to determine the influence on the linearity.

  11. Characteristics of the Residual Stress tensor when filter width is larger than the Ozmidov scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bragança Alves, Felipe Augusto; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    In stratified turbulence, the residual stress tensor is statistically anisotropic unless the smallest resolved length scale is smaller than the Ozmidov scale and the buoyancy Reynolds number is sufficiently high for there to exist a range of scales that is statistically isotropic. We present approximations to the residual stress tensor that are derived analytically. These approximations are evaluated by filtering data from direct numerical simulations of homogeneous stratified turbulence, with unity Prandtl number, resolved on up to 8192 × 8192 × 4096 grid points along with an isotropic homogeneous case resolved on 81923 grid points. It is found that the best possible scaling of the strain rate tensor yields a residual stress tensor (RST) that is less well statistically aligned with the exact RST than a randomly generated tensor. It is also found that, while a scaling of the strain rate tensor can dissipate the right amount of energy, it produces incorrect anisotropic dissipation, removing energy from the wrong components of the velocity vector. We find that a combination of the strain rate tensor and a tensor related to energy redistribution caused by a Newtonian fluid viscous stress yields an excellent tensorial basis for modelling the RST.

  12. Personal characteristics and forms of religiosity involved in coping with stress. Empirical studies of policeman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Franczak

    2012-12-01

    associations with the methods of coping with stress measured by Folkman and Lazarus WCQ Questionnaire. However, in the case of how to deal with difficult situations diagnosed by Questionnaire WCQ religious dimensions play a role only in three cases: the confrontation, avoidance and positive revaluation. This ways of coping are supported by prayer and worship.

  13. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  14. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  15. Predicted tyre-soil interface area and vertical stress distribution based on loading characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Stettler, M.; Keller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The upper boundary condition for all models simulating stress patterns throughout the soil profile is the stress distribution at the tyre–soil interface. The so-called FRIDA model (Schjønning et al., 2008. Biosyst. Eng. 99, 119–133) treats the contact area as a superellipse and has been shown...... of the actual to recommended inflation pressure ratio. We found that VT and Kr accounted for nearly all variation in the data with respect to the contact area. The contact area width was accurately described by a combination of tyre width and Kr, while the superellipse squareness parameter, n, diminished...... slightly with increasing Kr. Estimated values of the contact area length related to observed data with a standard deviation of about 0.06 m. A difference between traction and implement tyres called for separate prediction equations, especially for the contact area. The FRIDA parameters α and β, reflecting...

  16. Determination of Stress-Strain Characteristics of Railhead Steel using Image Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bandula-Heva; T.; Dhanasekar; M.

    2011-01-01

    True stress-strain curve of railhead steel is required to investigate the behaviour of railhead under wheel loading through elasto-plastic Finite Element (FE) analysis. To reduce the rate of wear, the railhead material is hardened through annealing and quenching. The Australian standard rail sections are not fully hardened and hence suffer from non-uniform distribution of the material property; usage of average properties in the FE modelling can potentially induce error in the predic...

  17. Genetic syndromes in the family : child characteristics and parenting stress in Angelman, CHARGE, Cornelia de Lange, Prader-Willi, and Rett syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulffaert, Josette

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the dissertation: To expand the knowledge on the behavioural phenotypes, level of parenting stress and the relationship between child characteristics and parenting stress in five genetic syndromes. The included syndromes are Angelman, CHARGE, Cornelia de Lange, Prader-Willi, and Rett

  18. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Characteristics of Single Fracture Stress-Seepage Coupling considering Microroughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtong Di

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the test among the joint roughness coefficient (JRC of rock fracture, mechanical aperture, and hydraulic aperture proposed by Barton, this paper deduces and proposes a permeability coefficient formula of single fracture stress-seepage coupling considering microroughness by the introduction of effect variables considering the microparticle size and structural morphology of facture surface. Quasi-sandstone fracture of different particle size is made by the laboratory test, and the respective modification is made on the coupled shear-seepage test system of JAW-600 rock. Under this condition, the laboratory test of stress-seepage coupling of fracture of different particle size is carried out. The test results show that, for the different particle-sized fracture surface of the same JRC, the permeability coefficient is different, which means the smaller particle size, the smaller permeability coefficient, and the larger particle size, the larger permeability coefficient; with the increase of cranny hydraulic pressure, the permeability coefficient increases exponentially, and under the same cranny hydraulic pressure, there is relation of power function between the permeability coefficient and normal stress. Meanwhile, according to the theoretical formula, the microroughness coefficient of the fractures with different particle size is obtained by the calculation, and its accuracy and validity are verified by experiments. The theoretical verification values are in good agreement with the measured values.

  20. Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Espironelo

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%.Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

  1. Psychometric characteristics of the Eating and Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire and obesity in Mexican university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevich, Irina; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Velazquez-Alva, María del Consuelo; Salinas-Ávila, Jaqueline

    2015-06-01

    Emotional eating has been defined as eating in a response to negative emotions and it is associated with weight gain. The English version of Eating Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire (EADES) was developed to assess how individuals use food in order to cope with stress and emotions. To analyze psychometric characteristics of Spanish version of EADES and to identify whether the constructs of EADES were associated with obesity in university students. The EADES (Spanish version) was administered to 232 Mexican university students from 18 to 29 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. A test-retest evaluation was conducted with 75 participants. Cronbach's alpha of EADES was 0.92; the interclass correlation coefficient was 0.88. Regarding BMI and EADES results, the subscale Emotion and Stress Related Eating was significantly associated with obesity (p = 0.026). Through factor analysis of the instrument, three factors were extracted and items that showed factor loading obesity and the 40-items version of the instrument, a statistically significance association was found for the total score (OR = 0.973, p = 0.020) and for the factor Self-confidence related to Emotional Eating component (OR = 0.940, p = 0.026). A good internal consistency and temporal stability of the Spanish version of the instrument were found; the 40-item EADES version was positively associated with obesity. This instrument could be useful in assessing emotional eating. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  3. Investigation on the electrical characteristics of a pentacene thin-film transistor and its reliability under positive drain bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Chiu, Ping-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Zuo; Yang, Tsung-Hsien; Chiang, Chin-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This study systematically investigates the effects of pentacene deposition rates and channel lengths on the electrical characteristics of pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and the performance degradation of OTFTs under the positive drain bias stress. With a slower deposition rate of the pentacene channel layer, the larger grain size is formed, and it improves the performance of pentacene-based OTFTs. As the channel length decreases, the threshold voltage (V TH ) shifts toward the positive direction and the field-effect mobility (µ FE ) decreases, which are due to the drain-induced barrier lowering effect and the lower mobility in the active channel near the region of source/drain electrodes, respectively. In addition, we also propose a mechanism to present the channel length dependence on the field-effect mobility. Results also show that the pentacene-based OTFTs, which are under positive drain bias stress, exhibit greater performance degradation than those under negative drain bias stress. The greater performance degradation, the decreasing I ON and the larger V TH shift are due to the greater trap state density (N trap ) created in the bulk channel by the large lateral electrical field and the carriers injected into the gate insulator by the large vertical electrical field, respectively

  4. Effect of chronic psychogenic stress on some behavioral and neurochemical characteristics of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, N.D.; Rozhanets, V.V.; Val'dman, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the behavioral, somatic, and certain neurochemical parameters in rats under conditions of unavoidable chronic stress, according to Hecht et al. in a situation of possible avoidance, with the same total number of aversive stimuli. Specific binding of tritium-flunitrazepam and tritium-dihydroalprenolol was studied. The dissociatin constant and the maximal concentration of ligand-receptor complexes were determined in Scatchard plots by means of an HP-33E computer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined by Peterson's method

  5. Umbilical blood flow ultrasound characteristics of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia and their relationship with maternal and fetal oxidative stress injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between umbilical blood flow ultrasound characteristics of perioperative fetal intrauterine hypoxia and maternal as well as fetal oxidative stress injury. Methods: 108 puerperae giving birth in our hospital between May 2014 and October 2016 were selected and divided into normal pregnancy group with neonatal Apgar score >7 points and intrauterine hypoxia group with neonatal Apgar score ≤7 points, color Doppler diasonograph was used to determine umbilical blood flow ultrasound parameters, umbilical cord blood was collected to determine the levels of oxidative stress products, and the placenta was collected to determine the levels of oxidative stress products and related apoptosis molecules. Results: During 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy, umbilical blood flow resistance index (RI, pulsatility index (PI and diastolic velocity/systolic velocity (S/D of intrauterine hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05; malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox- LDL, 8-isoprostanes (8-iso, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70 levels in umbilical cord blood of intrauterine hypoxia group were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05, MDA, oxLDL, 8-ios, HSP-70, Fas, FasL and Bax levels in placenta tissue were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05, and Bcl-2 and XIAP levels were significantly lower than those of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05; RI, PI and S/ D were positively correlated with MDA, oxLDL, 8-ios and HSP-70 levels in umbilical cord blood and placenta tissue, positively correlated with Fas, FasL and Bax levels in placenta tissue, and negatively correlated with Bcl-2 and XIAP levels in placental tissue. Conclusions: The increased umbilical blood flow resistance and decreased flow volume of fetal intrauterine hypoxia are closely related to maternal, fetal and placental oxidative

  6. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  7. Study of Germination Characteristics of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. population under Salinity and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hassan Farhadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fenugreek (Trigonalla foenum-graecum L., an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Coleoidea (Fabaceae family, has numerous medicinal properties such as decreasing blood glucose, laxative, appetizer, mucus, antipyretic and increasing the amount of milk during lactation . Among the most important problems in arid and semi-arid regions, drought stress or water shortage will have negative effects on plant growth. Drought stress occurs mostly because of reducing water availability in the soil. This may be due to excessive water loss or absorption problems, or both of them. One of the major factors limiting germination, which occurs in more arid and semi-arid regions, is salt stress. The study was done to evaluate germination of four Iranian population of fenugreek (Amol, Tabriz, Sari and Mashhad under drought and salinity stresses. Materials and methods: To investigate the effect of salinity and drought stresses on germination and seedling growth characteristics of native landrace fenugreek, two separate experiments were conducted in a Completely Randomized Design with three replications in Seed Laboratory of University of Mashhad in 2014. The experiment treatments consisted of four levels of salinity (0, 60, 120, 180 mM that was induced by different concentrations of sodium chloride and drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000 at four levels (0, -3, -6 and -9 Bar with three replications. The drought stress levels were simulation by polyethylene glycol 6000 and using the Michel and Kaufmann formula. Distilled water was applied as control. Iranian seed population of fenugreek were purchased from the city of Amol, Tabriz, Sari and Mashhad then the seeds were washed with sodium hypochlorite (3 % v/v for two minutes for disinfestation and washed three times with distilled water. On the twelfth day of experiment, seedling traits such as plumule and root length and weight in Petri dishes were measured. Results and

  8. Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Microbeams Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration behavior of piezoelectric microbeams is studied on the basis of the modified couple stress theory. The governing equations of motion and boundary conditions for the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam models are derived using Hamilton’s principle. By the exact solution of the governing equations, an expression for natural frequencies of microbeams with simply supported boundary conditions is obtained. Numerical results for both beam models are presented and the effects of piezoelectricity and length scale parameter are illustrated. It is found that the influences of piezoelectricity and size effects are more prominent when the length of microbeams decreases. A comparison between two beam models also reveals that the Euler-Bernoulli beam model tends to overestimate the natural frequencies of microbeams as compared to its Timoshenko counterpart.

  9. valuation of Germination Characteristics for Hedysarum Criniferum Boiss in Alternative Temperature and Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    24-26 °C day-night and four drought levels (0, -2, -4, and -6 bar with three replications. According to the results, different levels of drought stress and alternative temperature had significant effects on germination percentage and germination speed of the species seeds (α=5%. The study showed that increasing temperature and drought levels leads to reducing the germination percentage and germination speed of the species. Higher germination percentage of H. criniferum seeds in different drought levels compared to alternative temperature levels of 24-26 °C indicated that this species is more sensitive to higher temperature than high levels of drought condition. Therefore, it could partly be concluded that the H. criniferum is a relatively drought resistance species.

  10. Burnout syndrome in medical professionals: a manifestation of chronic stress with counterintuitive passive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Kuzelova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri; Harsa, Pavel; Kream, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    By operational criteria, burnout appears to be a multifaceted behavioral syndrome consisting of maladaptive individual responses subsequent to prolonged stressful situations. Given the intense physical and cognitive demands of providing high quality healthcare to a wide spectrum of patients, healthcare professionals are particularly susceptible to developing burnout syndrome, a notable phenomenon that has gleaned significant societal attention in recent years. Clearly, widespread manifestation of burnout by health care professionals represents a serious potential threat to the overall quality of patient care and to the realization of positive outcomes to multiple treatment strategies. It will most certainly engender a serious negative impact on the economic viability of the entire healthcare system. Presently, our brief review focuses on current research efforts to 1) provide precise behavioral and psychiatric diagnostic criteria for burnout syndrome in healthcare professionals, 2) identify potential etiological factors and ongoing stressors, and 3) outline an integrative approach for treatment and prevention.

  11. Effects of surface roughness, MHD and couple stress on squeeze film characteristics between curved circular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumagowda, B. N.; Salma, A.; Nagarajappa, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    The theoretical discussion is carried out for understanding the combined study of MHD, rough surface and couple-stress in the presence of applied magnetic field between two curved circular plates is present analysis. Modified Reynolds Equations accounting for rough surface using stochastic model of Christensen are mathematically formulated. The close form derivations for pressure, load-supporting capacity and response-film time are obtained. Our results shows that, there is an significant increase (decrease) for pressure, load-supporting capacity and squeeze film time due to the effect of azimuthal (radial) roughness parameter when compared to the Hanumagowda.et.al [14] and numerical data of load supporting capacity and response time are given in Table for engineering applications.

  12. Timing Effects of Heat-Stress on Plant Ecophysiological Characteristics and Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Heckathorn, Scott A; Mainali, Kumar; Tripathee, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Heat-waves with higher intensity and frequency and longer durations are expected in the future due to global warming, which could have dramatic impacts in agriculture, economy and ecology. This field study examined how plant responded to heat-stress (HS) treatment at different timing in naturally occurring vegetation. HS treatment (5 days at 40.5°C) were applied to 12 1 m 2 plots in restored prairie vegetation dominated by a warm-season C 4 grass, Andropogon gerardii , and a warm-season C 3 forb, Solidago canadensis , at different growing stages. During and after each heat stress (HS) treatment, temperature were monitored for air, canopy, and soil; net CO 2 assimilation ( A net ), quantum yield of photosystem II (Φ PSII ), stomatal conductance ( g s ), and internal CO 2 level ( C i ), specific leaf area (SLA), and chlorophyll content of the dominant species were measured. One week after the last HS treatment, all plots were harvested and the biomass of above-ground tissue and flower weight of the two dominant species were determined. HS decreased physiological performance and growth for both species, with S. canadensis being affected more than A. gerardii , indicated by negative HS effect on both physiological and growth responses for S. canadensis . There were significant timing effect of HS on the two species, with greater reductions in the net photosynthetic rate and productivity occurred when HS was applied at later-growing season. The reduction in aboveground productivity in S. canadensis but not A. gerardii could have important implications for plant community structure by increasing the competitive advantage of A. gerardii in this grassland. The present experiment showed that HS, though ephemeral, may promote long-term effects on plant community structure, vegetation dynamics, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning of terrestrial biomes when more frequent and severe HS occur in the future.

  13. Effects of salt stress on growth and physiological characteristics of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Yan, M.; Huang, X.; Yuan, Z.

    2018-01-01

    With 2-years-old pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. 'Tunisia' cuttings as materials, the growth properties, salt injury indexes, leaf membrane permeability, Chlorophyll (Chl) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, proline and soluble protein content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were investigated under different NaCl concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%, w/w) treatments after 7, 21 and 35 days. The results showed that: the height and ground diameter of pomegranate were increased at low salinity (0.1%), and they were significantly inhibited at high salinity (= 0.5%). With increased NaCl concentrations, Chl a, Chl b, and Chl (a + b) contents were decreased and chlorophyll a/b were increased. Leaf membrane permeability was seriously enhanced and the amount of MDA was markedly increased at high salinity (= 0.5%). The proline and soluble protein were significantly accumulated and quickly responded to NaCl stress. The activities of SOD, CAT, and POD showed a trend of first rising and then decreasing, with the maximum appearing at 0.4% salinity. In addition, the adverse effects on these physiological indexes aggravated gradually over time. Our study suggested that pomegranate 'Tunisi' was a moderately salt tolerant cultivar (0.4% NaCl) with a promoting effect on the growth below 0.1% salinity. This cultivar presents a mechanism of alleviating the detrimental effects of salt stress through improving the proline content, soluble protein content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. But the protections of antioxidant enzymes are in a limited range of salinity. (author)

  14. EFFECT OF SPACING AND NPK 20:10:10 FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF WATER MELON (CITRULLUS LANATUS IN ENUGU, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment to investigate the effect of spacing and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer on the growth and yield of watermelon was conducted at the teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology. The experiment was carried out in a 2 x 3 factorial in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six (6 treatments replicated three (3 times using and ldquo;crimson sweet and rdquo; as a test crop. Parameters measured were vine length, number of fruits per plant, days to 50% flowering, fruit yield (ton/ha, and number of marketable fruits. 400kg/ha fertilizer in spacing 30cm x 30cm plots recorded the highest vine length of 193.8 cm which significantly deferred from the other treatment means. This was followed by 200kg/ha fertilizer in spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm which recorded vine length of 151.50 cm that significantly deferred from the rest of the treatment means. There were no significant differences between 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15 cm plots and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15cm plots, O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm pots and O kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15 cm plots on vine length. 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots recorded the highest mean number of 34.33 fruits per plant which deferred significantly from the rest of the treatment means. The following treatments produced the same effects on the number of fruits per plant and ndash; 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots and 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15 cm plots, O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots and O kg/ha fertilizer in 1 5cm x 15cm plots. On fruit yield (ton/ha 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30cm x 30cm plots, and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots produced the highest yield of 13.44 ton/ha and 13.22 ton/ha respectively which were not significantly different except the controls and ndash; O kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15cm and O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots which

  15. Mobbing in Slovenia: Prevalence, Mobbing Victim Characteristics, and the Connection with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumel Damijan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of organizations face the problem of mobbing, which represents a serious, widespread problem with numerous consequences for victims, organizations, and society. We also recognize the connection this phenomenon has with the emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. PTSD poses one of the most critical consequences for victims of mobbing, who mostly consist of employees at lower organizational levels. Our research focuses on the prevalence of mobbing in Slovenia, its correlation to PTSD, and some differences in the subjective and objective assessments of being exposed to mobbing. We found that the prevalence of mobbing in Slovenia can be compared to some previous assessments as well as data from other countries. Among the study's participants, 24% could be classified as regular victims of mobbing. For the first time, we link mobbing with PTSD using a Slovenian sample. We also recorded some interesting differences between subjective and objective assessments of mobbing, thereby indicating the importance of subjective conceptualizations of mobbing acts, which should be investigated in greater detail in future research.

  16. Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environment? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela; Stokes, Carmen; Galea, Sandro

    2008-09-01

    As the body of evidence linking disparities in the health of urban residents to disparate social, economic and environmental contexts grows, efforts to delineate the pathways through which broader social and economic inequalities influence health have burgeoned. One hypothesized pathway connects economic and racial and ethnic inequalities to differentials in stress associated with social and physical environments, with subsequent implications for health. Drawing on data from Detroit, Michigan, we examined contributions of neighborhood-level characteristics (e.g., poverty rate, racial and ethnic composition, residential stability) and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender) to perceived social and physical environmental stress. We found that neighborhood percent African American was positively associated with perceptions of both social and physical environmental stress; neighborhood percent poverty and percent Latino were positively associated with perceived physical environmental stress; and neighborhood residential stability was negatively associated with perceived social environmental stress. At the individual level, whites perceived higher levels of both social and physical environmental stress compared to African American residents of the same block groups, after accounting for other variables included in the models. Our findings suggest the importance of understanding and addressing contributions of neighborhood structural characteristics to perceptions of neighborhood stress. The consistency of the finding that neighborhood racial composition and individual-level race influence perceptions of both social and physical environments suggests the continuing importance of understanding the role played by structural conditions and by personal and collective histories that vary systematically by race and ethnicity within the United States.

  17. The influence of trauma and patient characteristics on provider burnout in VA post-traumatic stress disorder specialty programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector A; McGeary, Cindy A; Finley, Erin P; McGeary, Donald D; Ketchum, Norma S; Peterson, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT) - post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments now available at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) - expose the provider to graphic traumatic material. Little is known about the impact of traumatic material on VHA providers. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between trauma content, patient characteristics, and burnout among VHA PTSD Clinical Team (PCT) providers. It was hypothesized that trauma content and patient characteristics would significantly predict burnout in this population. This cross-sectional study consisted of 137 participants. The sample was mostly female (67%), Caucasian (non-Hispanic; 81%), and married (70%) with a mean age of 44.3 years (SD = 11.3). Participants completed an electronic survey that assessed demographics, patient characteristics (i.e., anger, personality disorder, malingering), trauma content characteristics (e.g., killing of women and children) as well as burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS; Maslach et al., 1996, Burnout inventory manual. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press). Over half of the study population reported being bothered by trauma content; however, trauma content did not predict burnout. Treating patients with personality disorders and suspected malingering predicted burnout in PCT providers. High numbers (77%) reported perceiving that emotional exhaustion impacted the quality of care they provided. These findings suggest an important role of burnout assessment, prevention, and treatment strategies at the VHA. This paper addresses the impact of provider burnout on perceived quality of care. This paper also addresses potential predictors of burnout in PCT settings. This paper outlines potential remedies to provider burnout in the VHA. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Television images and probable posttraumatic stress disorder after September 11: the role of background characteristics, event exposures, and perievent panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Jennifer; Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Vlahov, David

    2004-03-01

    Television viewing has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after disasters and traumas; we examined characteristics that may explain this association among New Yorkers after September 11, 2001. Among 2001 respondents to a random-digit dial telephone survey conducted 4 months after September 11, people who viewed more television images in the 7 days after September 11 had more probable PTSD. People in the highest third of viewing had a 2.32 times greater odds of probable PTSD after September 11 compared with people in the lowest third of viewing; after adjustment for explanatory variables, the relative odds of probable PTSD were 1.66. Adjustment for perievent panic accounted for 44% of the reduction in association between television and probable PTSD, suggesting that perievent emotional reactions may play an important role in the television and psychopathology association. Television may merit consideration as a potential exposure to a traumatic event.

  19. Characteristics of child maltreatment and their relation to dissociation, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and depression in adult psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Schumacher, Sonja; Martin-Soelch, Chantal; Wirtz, Gustav; Fuhrhans, Christoph; Hindermann, Esther; Rufer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the influence of particular characteristics of childhood maltreatment, such as developmental stage, relationship to the perpetrator, and nature of the trauma, on adult psychopathology. The effects of childhood maltreatment were assessed in adult psychiatric patients (N = 287) using self-rating scales and diagnostic checklists. Maltreatment was strongly associated with dissociation. This relationship was observed for all childhood developmental stages and was strongest when the perpetrator was outside the family. Dissociation was more strongly correlated with childhood emotional abuse and sexual harassment than with sexual or physical abuse. Childhood sexual abuse was found to be associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. The findings suggest that dissociation is a relatively specific consequence of childhood maltreatment that is largely independent of the familial relationship to the perpetrator or the child's developmental stage.

  20. The Effects of Foliar Application of Methanol on Morphological Characteristics of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Armand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Available water is an important factor for plant growth in arid environments. Results indicated that foliar application of methanol is believed to be more important than the drought tolerance in C3 plant. Since bean is a C3 plant, it performs light respiration under intense heat, light and water stress due to internal leaf CO2 concentration reduction and oxygen concentration increase. Light respiration can cause up to 20% loss of carbon in plants and decrease the yield. Increasing concentration of carbon dioxide can neutralize the effect caused by drought stress. Thus, the use of substances that can cause an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the plant, leads to improving the yield under the drought conditions. One of the ways of increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in plants is by using compounds such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol as well as use of the amino acids of glycine, glutamate and aspartate. Plants can easily absorb methanol sprayed on leaves and use it as a carbon source added to atmospheric carbon. Methanol is relatively smaller compared to the CO2 molecules, so it can be easily absorbed and utilized by plants. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effects of foliar application of methanol on some morphological characteristics of bean under drought stress, a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized block design with three replications in 2014 at the Khatam Alanbia University of Behbahan. The treatment of spraying methanol was at 4 levels include control (without spraying, 10, 20 and 30% v/v methanol which added 2 g l-1 glycine to each of solutions. Adding glycine to aqueous solution of methanol leads to prevention of damages caused by the toxicity of methanol. The drought factors including control (100% field of capacity, moderate drought stress (50% field of capacity and severe drought stress (25% field of capacity were considered. In this experiment

  1. Osmo and hydro priming improvement germination characteristics and enzyme activity of Mountain Rye (Secale montanum seeds under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari O.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of polyetylenglycol 6000 (PEG 6000(0, -9, -11, -13 and -15 bar and hydro priming on Mountain Rye (secale montanum germination characteristic and enzyme activity were evaluated under drought stress in the seed laboratory of Natural Resources Faculty, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. Analyze of variance for hydro priming showed that temperature × time of priming interaction was significantly for germination percentage (GP, normal seedling percentage (NSP, coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG, seedling vigor index (SVI, coefficient of allometry (AC and seedling length (SL under drought stress and for osmo priming showed that Concentration of PEG × Temperature × Time of priming interaction was significantly for all traits under drought stress. Results of interaction effects for hydro priming showed that the highest GP (53% and NSP (23.5% were attained from hydro priming for 16h at 15 ◦C and the highest CVG (0.21 and AC (0.49 were attained from hydro priming for 8h at 10 ◦C, also hydro priming for 8h at 15 ◦C increased SL (3.15 as compared to the unprimed.Osmo priming with concentration of -15 bar PEG for 24h at 15 ◦C increased GP (80.5 %, GI (17.9, NSP (45 %, SVI (257.85 and SL (5.73 cm and decreased MTG as compared to the unprimed and other treatments of osmo priming. The highest CVG was attained from concentration of -9 bar PEG for 24h at 10 ◦C. the highest AC was attained from concentration of -9 bar PEG for 12h at 15 ◦C. Also osmo and hydro priming increased catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX as compared to the unprimed.

  2. Does prenatal maternal stress impair cognitive development and alter temperament characteristics in toddlers with healthy birth outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peng; Sun, Meng-Sha; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yu-Jiang; Jiang, Xiao-Min; Tao, Rui-Xue; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioural development of children with healthy birth outcomes whose mothers were exposed to prenatal stress but did not experience pregnancy complications. In this prospective study, self-reported data, including the Prenatal Life Events Checklist about stressful life events (SLEs) during different stages of pregnancy, were collected at 32 to 34 weeks' gestation. Thirty-eight healthy females (mean age 27 y 8 mo, SD 2 y 4 mo) who were exposed to severe SLEs in the first trimester were defined as the exposed infant group, and 114 matched comparison participants were defined as the unexposed infant group (1:3). Maternal postnatal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Toddler Temperament Scale were used to evaluate the cognitive development and temperament characteristics of the infants with healthy birth outcomes when they were 16 to 18 months old. A randomized block multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the mental development index scores of the infants of mothers with prenatal exposure to SLEs in the first trimester averaged seven points (95% confidence interval 3.23-10.73 points) lower than those of the unexposed infants. Moreover, the infants in the exposed group achieved higher scores for regularity (adjusted mean [SD] 2.77 [0.65] vs. 2.52 [0.78], F(5,146) =5.27, p=0.023) and for persistence and attention span (adjusted mean 3.61 [0.72] vs. 3.35 [0.52], F(5,146) =5.51, p=0.020). This study provides evidence that lower cognitive ability and less optimal worse behavioural response in infants might independently result from prenatal maternal stress. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Characteristics of a root hair-less line of Arabidopsis thaliana under physiological stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Natsuki; Kato, Mariko; Tomioka, Rie; Kurata, Rie; Fukao, Yoichiro; Aoyama, Takashi; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    The plasma membrane-associated Ca(2+)-binding protein-2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the growth of root hair tips. Several transgenic lines that overexpress the 23 residue N-terminal domain of this protein under the control of the root hair-specific EXPANSIN A7 promoter lack root hairs completely. The role of root hairs under normal and stress conditions was examined in one of these root hair-less lines (NR23). Compared with the wild type, NR23 showed a 47% reduction in water absorption, decreased drought tolerance, and a lower ability to adapt to heat. Growth of NR23 was suppressed in media deficient in phosphorus, iron, calcium, zinc, copper, or potassium. Also, the content of an individual mineral in NR23 grown in normal medium, or in medium lacking a specific mineral, was relatively low. In wild-type plants, the primary and lateral roots produce numerous root hairs that become elongated under phosphate-deficient conditions; NR23 did not produce root hairs. Although several isoforms of the plasma membrane phosphate transporters including PHT1;1-PHT1;6 were markedly induced after growth in phosphate-deficient medium, the levels induced in NR23 were less than half those observed in the wild type. In phosphate-deficient medium, the amounts of acid phosphatase, malate, and citrate secreted from NR23 roots were 38, 9, and 16% of the levels secreted from wild-type roots. The present results suggest that root hairs play significant roles in the absorption of water and several minerals, secretion of acid phosphatase(s) and organic acids, and in penetration of the primary roots into gels.

  4. [Effect of cadmium stress on physiological characteristics of garlic seedlings and the alleviation effects of exogenous calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Lian, Hai-feng; Liu, Shi-qi; Yu, Xin-hui; Sun, Ya-li; Guo, Hui-ping

    2015-04-01

    In the experiment, the effects of exogenous cadmium (Cd2+) and calcium (Ca2+) in nutrient solution on growth, photosynthetic characteristics, enzymes activities, main mineral elements absorption of garlic seedlings were studied. The results showed that cadmium could obviously inhibit the growth of garlic seedlings, decrease the pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters (P(n), E, g(s)) of leaves, reduced the enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) activities and increase the MDA content of leaves, and also could reduce the N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and increase the Cd content of roots. The growth was promoted after adding exogenous calcium to garlic seedlings under cadmium stress, which reflected that the morphological indexes were increased at first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous calcium concentrations, and were maximized when the exogenous calcium was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1). At the same time, the pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters (P(n), E, g(s)) of leaves showed a similar tendency with the morphological indexes, and they were the highest when the exogenous calcium was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1). In addition, adding exogenous calcium to garlic seedlings under cadmium stress enhanced the enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) activities and decreased the MDA content of leaves, also added the N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and reduced the Cd content of roots, and the effect was best when the exogenous calcium concentration was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1).

  5. Effect of Drought Stress on Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes in Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shiva akbari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plants may be exposed to various stresses and water deficit is the most important limiting factor of growth and yield in many parts of the world and Iran. Stress induced growth decrement can be because of cell development decrease due to decrement of turgor pressure and meiosis and photosynthesis decrease due to stomata closure. Determination of desired planting density is one of the success factors of plant growth and production. Garlic (Allium sativum has been an important medicinal plant over centuries in human life. According to the importance of medicinal plants and studying the effects of drought stress on them, the goal of this research is to investigate the effect of drought stress and planting density on growth and morphological characteristics of two ecotypes of garlic and determining the preferable ecotype and density from the perspective of these traits. Materials and methods This experiment was performed in 2012 in a farm in south east of Semnan. It was conducted on a split-plot factorial arrangement based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three levels of drought stress with 60, 80 and 100 percent of crop evapotranspiration (ETc were the main plot factors and factorial combination of three planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2 and two ecotypes of Tabas and Toroud were the levels of sub plot factors. To estimate water requirement of garlic, daily measured meteorology parameters of Semnan synoptic station were used and water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 instructions. From mid-January, the sampling of leaf area, bulb and leaf fresh and dry weight was started with destructive method every other week and continued until middle of Jun. three plant were selected randomly from each plot in each turn. From middle of May, height and number of leaves were measured. Leaf area measurement was done by leaf area meter (Delta-T. To estimate growth indices, dry weight of aerial and

  6. Detection of Genes that Determine Maize Grain Quality Characteristics and Resistance to Stress Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovskyi, O.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 200 experimental maize samples (Maize Company were examined for the presence of genes that determine the quality characteristics of grain (wx and fl-2 genes, herbicide (bar (pat, epsps genes and insect (cry-genes resistance. The total DNA was extracted from maize living plant tissue. Primers to detect wx, fl-2, bar (pat, mepsps, CP4 epsps, cry1A(b, cry1F, cry1A.105, mcry3A, cry2Ab2, cry3Bb1, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 genes were designed and selected. Multiplex and Touchdown PCR were worked out. PCR amplification of certain sequences was carried out. No transgenes (bar (pat, mepsps, CP4 epsps, cry1A(b, cry1F, cry1A.105, mcry3A, cry2Ab2, cry3Bb1, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 were found among 200 analyzed experimental maize samples. At the same time, fl-2 gene was found in 41 samples, wx gene was found in 192 analyzed samples.

  7. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  8. The impact of trauma exposure characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung Chung, Man; AlQarni, Nowf; AlMazrouei, Mariam; Al Muhairi, Shamsa; Shakra, Mudar; Mitchell, Britt; Al Mazrouei, Sara; Al Hashimi, Shurooq

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of trauma exposure characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees. One thousand one hundred and ninety-seven refugees residing in Turkey and Sweden participated in the research. They completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire-28. Forty-three percent of refugees met the cutoff for PTSD. After adjusting for location of residence, witnessing horror and exposure to life threat and assault were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity respectively. Death of, or life threat to family members or friends were significantly correlated with both distress outcomes. Refugees residing in Turkey had significantly higher levels of PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and trauma characteristics than those living in Sweden. To conclude, Syrian refugees who witnessed horror, life threat or had family or friends die, tended to have elevated psychological distress. Levels of distress among resettled refugees can vary depending on country of resettlement. We recommend systematic mental health screening and implementation of psychotherapeutic interventions to address issues pertaining to subjective experience of resettlement and trauma exposure for Syrian refugees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Summary of calculations of dynamic response characteristics and design stress of the 1/5 scale PSE torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is currently involved in a 1/5 scale testing program on the Mark I BWR pressure suppression system. A key element of the test setup is a pressure vessel that is a 90 0 sector of a torus. Proper performance of the 90 0 torus depends on its structural integrity and structural dynamic characteristics. It must sustain the internal pressurization of the planned tests, and its dynamic response to the transient test loads should be minimal. If the structural vibrations are too great, interpretation of important load cell and pressure transducer data will be difficult. The purpose of the report is to bring together under one cover calculations pertaining to the structural dynamic characteristics and structural integrity of 90 0 torus. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) system description in which the torus and associated hardware are briefly described; (2) structural dynamics in which calculations of natural frequency and dynamic response are presented; and (3) structural integrity in which stress calculations for design purposes are presented; and an appendix which contains an LLL internal report comparing the expected load cell response for a three and four-point supported torus

  10. Sleep characteristics as predictor variables of stress systems markers in insomnia disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floam, Samantha; Simpson, Norah; Nemeth, Emese; Scott-Sutherland, Jennifer; Gautam, Shiva; Haack, Monika

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the extent to which sleep characteristics serve as predictor variables for inflammatory, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and autonomic systems markers. Twenty-nine participants with a diagnosis of insomnia disorder based on the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (age 25.3 ± 1.6 years, insomnia duration 6.6 ± 0.8 years) and 19 healthy control sleepers (age 25.4 ± 1.4 years) underwent a 2-week at-home evaluation keeping a sleep diary and wearing an actigraph, followed by a visit to the Research Center to measure blood pressure, and collect blood and urine samples. The actigraphy- and diary-based variables of sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, wake after sleep onset and sleep fragmentation/number of night-time awakenings were averaged and entered as dependent variables in regression analyses. Composite scores were calculated for the autonomic (blood pressure, norepinephrine), inflammatory (monocyte counts, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems (cortisol), and used as predictor variables in regression models. Compared with controls, individuals with insomnia had a shorter sleep duration (P insomnia disorder, cortisol is upregulated and associated with actigraphy- and diary-based wake after sleep onset, suggesting that wake after sleep onset may serve as a marker to identify individuals at increased risks for disorders associated with a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. The absence of autonomic and pro-inflammatory changes (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein), despite a substantial decrease in actigraphic sleep duration, may relate to a higher resilience to the adverse biological consequences of insomnia in this young age group. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Effect of Salt and Drought Stresses and Pretreatment of Salicylic acid on Seed Germination Characteristics of Lavender (Lavandula stricta Del.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sanginabadi

    2017-09-01

    structure. SA is involved in endogenous signaling, mediating in plant defense against pathogens. The signal can also move to nearby plants by salicylic acid being converted to the volatile ester, methyl salicylate. Salicylic acid has an important role in resistance to environmental stresses. In the current study, the effects of pretreatment of salicylic acid to eliminate salinity and drought stresses were evaluated on Lavender seed germination (Lavandula stricta Del.. Materials and Methods: Seed samples of raised lavender were collected from Geno (Bandar Abbas on May 2013. Two experiments were conducted based on completely randomized design with three levels of Salicylic acid (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM and four levels (0, -2, -4 and -6 bar of drought and salinity stresses with three replications in Horticultural Sciences department, Plant production faculty of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (GUASNR. Plumule and radicle length, germination percentage and seed vigor were evaluated. Results Discussion: Results indicated that plumule and radicle length, germination percentage and seed vigor were significantly decreased by increasing drought and salinity stresses. The absence of pretreatment with salicylic acid were lead to increase negative effects of salinity in comparison with non-pretreated in the studied trait. However salinity stress levels -2 and -6 bar and pretreatments increased all traits significantly. Overall, the results showed that among total characteristics, plumule length is more sensitive in to drought and salinity stresses. As a result, the best range of moisture for lavender seeds germination is from non-stress conditions to -2 bars. It seems that seed germination on lavender has more tolerance to drought stress conditions than salinity stress conditions. Since the climate change will result in ecological degradation and further threaten the fragility of dry and saline lands, with serious consequences for crop and livestock

  12. Effect of Salt and Drought Stresses and Pretreatment of Salicylic acid on Seed Germination Characteristics of Lavender (Lavandula stricta Del.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sanginabadi

    2017-02-01

    structure. SA is involved in endogenous signaling, mediating in plant defense against pathogens. The signal can also move to nearby plants by salicylic acid being converted to the volatile ester, methyl salicylate. Salicylic acid has an important role in resistance to environmental stresses. In the current study, the effects of pretreatment of salicylic acid to eliminate salinity and drought stresses were evaluated on Lavender seed germination (Lavandula stricta Del.. Materials and Methods: Seed samples of raised lavender were collected from Geno (Bandar Abbas on May 2013. Two experiments were conducted based on completely randomized design with three levels of Salicylic acid (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM and four levels (0, -2, -4 and -6 bar of drought and salinity stresses with three replications in Horticultural Sciences department, Plant production faculty of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (GUASNR. Plumule and radicle length, germination percentage and seed vigor were evaluated. Results Discussion: Results indicated that plumule and radicle length, germination percentage and seed vigor were significantly decreased by increasing drought and salinity stresses. The absence of pretreatment with salicylic acid were lead to increase negative effects of salinity in comparison with non-pretreated in the studied trait. However salinity stress levels -2 and -6 bar and pretreatments increased all traits significantly. Overall, the results showed that among total characteristics, plumule length is more sensitive in to drought and salinity stresses. As a result, the best range of moisture for lavender seeds germination is from non-stress conditions to -2 bars. It seems that seed germination on lavender has more tolerance to drought stress conditions than salinity stress conditions. Since the climate change will result in ecological degradation and further threaten the fragility of dry and saline lands, with serious consequences for crop and livestock

  13. Effect of drought stress on qualitative characteristics of olive oil of cv Koroneiki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsifaki, Fani

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, K232, K270, oxidative stability and chemical compositional data (fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerols were studied in virgin olive oil samples from olive trees, cv Koroneiki, subjected to different water regimes. Experimental trials were carried out using three-year old own-rooted olive trees (Olea europaea L variety Koroneiki. Plants were subjected to two irrigation treatments to maintain soil water potential to -0.03 MPa and -1.5 MPa. Results showed that irrigation significantly increased the fruit oil content and the oxidative stability and peroxide value of the resulting oil. Olive oil from fruits of irrigated trees showed significant higher values in total saturated fatty acids. Total sterols were also significantly influenced by irrigation. Acidity and specific absorption coefficients K232, K270, of olive oils were not significantly affected.Se han estudiado los valores de calidad reglamentada (acidez, índice de peróxido, los valores de absorbancia en UV (K270, K232, estabilidad oxidativa media en Rancimat 120ºC y características químicas (ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos en aceite de oliva virgen variedad Koroneiki sometidos a diferentes regímenes hídricos. El estudio se ha realizado en árboles adultos de 3 años cultivados en contenedor al aire libre. Los árboles se riegan con dos dosis tratando de mantener un potencial de agua en el suelo de unos -0,03 Mpa y -1,5 Mpa. Los resultados muestran en los olivos de riego un aumento significativo de la riqueza grasa y de la estabilidad del aceite. Los aceites producidos en olivos de riego presentan una mayor proporción de ácidos grasos saturados (palmítico-esteárico. Los esteroles totales se ven significativamente influenciados por el riego. Acidez y absorbancia K270, K232 no se han visto afectados por el riego.

  14. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros Danilo Gusmão de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.

  15. Physiological characteristics and metabolomics of transgenic wheat containing the maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xueli; Xu, Weigang; Zhang, Jianzhou; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Mingzhong; Hu, Lin; Wang, Huiwei; Dong, Haibin; Li, Yan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two transgenic wheat lines, PC27 and PC51, containing the maize PEPC gene and its wild-type (WT) were used as experimental material to study the effects of high temperature on their photosynthetic physiological characteristics and metabolome. The results showed that transgenic wheat lines had higher photosynthetic rate (P n ) than WT under non-stress treatment (NT) and high temperature stress treatment (HT), and more significantly under HT. The change trends of F v /F m , Ф PSII , and q P were similar to P n , whereas that of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was the opposite. Compared with WT, no differences in chlorophyll content between the transgenic wheat and WT were observed under NT, but two transgenic lines had relatively higher contents than WT under HT. The change trends of Chlorophyll a/b radio, the decreased values of F m , W k , and V j , and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme were consistent with the chlorophyll content. Compared with WT, transgenic wheat lines exhibited lower rate of superoxide anion production, H 2 O 2 and malondialdehyde content under HT, and no significant differences were observed under NT. The expression pattern of the ZmPEPC gene and wheat endogenous photosynthesis-related genes were in agreement with that of P n . Compared with WT, about 13 different metabolites including one organic acid, six amino acids, four sugars, and two polyols were identified under NT; 25 different metabolites including six organic acids, 12 amino acids, four sugars, and three polyols were identified under HT. Collectively, our results indicate that ZmPEPC gene can enhance photochemical and antioxidant enzyme activity, upregulate the expression of photosynthesis-related genes, delay degradation of chlorophyll, change contents of proline and other metabolites in wheat, and ultimately improves its heat tolerance.

  16. The effect of air permeability characteristics of protective garments on the induced physiological strain under exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Heled, Yuval; Ketko, Itay; Muginshtein, Jeni; Yanovich, Ran; Druyan, Amit; Moran, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The high values of thermal resistance (Rct) and/or vapor resistance (Ret) of chemical protective clothing (CPC) induce a considerable thermal stress. The present study compared the physiological strain induced by CPCs and evaluates the relative importance of the fabrics' Rct, Ret, and air permeability in determining heat strain. Twelve young (20-30 years) healthy, heat-acclimated male subjects were exposed fully encapsulated for 3h daily to an exercise-heat stress (35°C and 30% relative humidity, walking on a motor-driven treadmill at a pace of 5 km h(1) and a 4% inclination, in a work-rest cycle of 45 min work and 15 min rest). Two bipack CPCs (PC1 and PC2) were tested and the results were compared with those attained by two control suits-a standard cotton military BDU (CO1) and an impermeable material suit (CO2). The physiological burden imposed by the two bilayer garments was within the boundaries set by the control conditions. Overall, PC2 induced a lower strain, which was closer to CO1, whereas PC1 was closer to CO2. Air permeability of the PC2 cloth was almost three times higher than that of PC1, enabling a better heat dissipation and consequently a lower physiological strain. Furthermore, air permeability characteristic of the fabrics, which is associated with its construction and weave, significantly correlated with the physiological strain, whereas the correlation with Rct, Ret, and weight was poor. The results emphasize the importance of air permeability in reducing the physiological strain induced by CPCs.

  17. Laser shock peening without coating induced residual stress distribution, wettability characteristics and enhanced pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, S.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Vasanth, G.; Kalainathan, S.; Shukla, Pratik; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-01-01

    Low energy laser shock peening without coating (LSPwC) was conducted on AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel specimens with varying pulse densities or overlapping. Highest magnitude of compressive residual stress (CRS) was achieved for an optimized pulse density of 2500 pulses/cm2 (75% overlapping). The 2-D and 3-D topographical analysis were indicative of the fact that controlled roughening of the surface was achieved after the LSPwC process. After the LSPwC process, the hydrophilic unpeened surface was converted into the hydrophobic surface, thus decreasing the wettability characteristics of the surface. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that there is a beginning of the martensite transformation and the rise in the intensity value of the peaks after LSPwC indicates the presence of compressive residual stresses induced in the specimen. The optical microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope results provided evidence of grain refinement and deformation induced refinement features such as multidirectional mechanical twinning, dislocations lines, micro shear cells and stacking faults in the near and sub-surface areas. The average hardness value of the LSPwC specimens was found to be increased by 28% more than the untreated specimen. The potentiodynamic polarization revealed that there was a considerable amount of increase in the pitting corrosion resistance after the LSPwC process, thus, supporting to extend the fatigue life of the specimen. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analysis depicts that the LSPwC process supports the formation of the strong passivation layer in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  18. Effects of Drought Stress and Bio-fertilizer Inoculation on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Marian Thistle (Silybum marianum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghayeh mohammadpour vashvaei

    2017-09-01

    -fertilizers inoculation and drought stress on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Marian thistle. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications, at the Research Farm of Zabol University, during growing season of 2012 and 2013. Main plots consisted of irrigation with 50, 70 and 90% field capacity and subplots including plant nutrition with nitroxin, supernitroplus, rich phosphate II, mycorrhiza and non-use of bio-fertilizer. Plant traits such as seed yield (kg.ha-1, the number of capitols per plant, the number of seeds per capitol, 1000-seed weight (g.plant-1, essential oil percentage, plant organic matter percentage, proline percentage and protein percentage of Marian thistle were measured. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT and simple correlation analysis were performed using SAS version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Results and discussion In this experiment, the effects of drought stress, bio-fertilizer and their interactions on all studied traits were significant at the 1% probability level. The highest grain yield (1300.00 kg, the number of capitols per plant (12.00 no., 1000-seed weight (23.27g, plant organic matter percentage (95.00% and protein percentage (17.19% belong to treatment of irrigation with 90% field capacity and nitroxin bio-fertilizer. The maximum number of seeds per capitol (87.67 were obtained by irrigation with 90% field capacity and mycorrhiza bio-fertilizer. Irrigation with 70 and 90% field capacity and nitroxin bio-fertilizer application were explained the maximum and minimum of essential oil percentage (3.72% and proline percentage (0.04%, respectively. The number of capitols per plant was the most important component in determining grain yield. The use of bio-fertilizers damped the effect of drought stress and improved qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Marian thistle. Conclusion

  19. An investigation of characteristics of thermal stress caused by fluid temperature fluctuation at a T-junction pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Utanohara, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Thermal fatigue cracking may initiate at a T-junction pipe where high and low temperature fluids flow in from different directions and mix. Thermal stress is caused by a temperature gradient in a structure and by its variation. It is possible to obtain stress distributions if the temperature distributions at the pipe inner surface are obtained by experiments. The wall temperature distributions at a T-junction pipe were measured by experiments. The thermal stress distributions were calculated using the experimental data. The circumferential and axial stress fluctuations were larger than the radial stress fluctuation range. The stress fluctuation at the position of the maximum stress fluctuation had 10sec period. The distribution of the stress fluctuation was similar to that of the temperature fluctuation. The large stress fluctuations were caused by the time variation of the heating region by the hot jet flow. (author)

  20. Índice de área foliar, spad e massa de matéria seca do feijoeiro comum em função dos bioestimulantes, NPK e micronutrientes em Vitória da Conquista – BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Nogueira dos Anjos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do feijão apresenta grande importância econômica e social no Brasil e estudos sobre a função dos bioestimulantes associados a diferentes adubações nessa cultura ainda são incipientes. Desse modo, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência do uso de bioestimulantes e suas interações com as adubações de NPK e micronutrientes no índice SPAD, índice de área foliar e a massa de matéria seca do feijoeiro da cultivar de feijão Pérola no município de Vitória da Conquista - BA. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia e teve o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados arranjados em três fatores 2x2x4 sendo dois níveis de NPK (ausência e presença, dois níveis de micronutrientes (ausência e presença e os bioestimulantes (ausência, Stimulate, Booster e Biozyme TF. Houve reposta significativa entre a interação dos bioestimulantes e NPK para o índice de área foliar e massa seca da parte aérea, com destaque para os bioestimulantes Booster e Biozyme TF que na ausência do NPK aumentaram o índice de área foliar. O NPK incrementou a massa seca da haste e o índice SPAD do feijoeiro.

  1. Impact of In Situ Stress Distribution Characteristics on Jointed Surrounding Rock Mass Stability of an Underground Cavern near a Hillslope Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangxiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a series of numerical simulations are performed to analyze the in situ stress distribution characteristics of the rock mass near different slope angles hillslope surfaces, which are subjected to the vertical gravity stress and different horizontal lateral stresses and the influence which the in situ stress distribution characteristics of 45° hillslope to the integral stability of surrounding rock mass when an underground cavern is excavated considering three different horizontal distances from the underground cavern to the slope surface. It can be concluded from the numerical results that different slope angles and horizontal lateral stresses have a strong impact on the in situ stress distribution and the integral surrounding rock mass stability of the underground cavern when the horizontal distance from the underground cavern to the slope surface is approximately 100 m to 200 m. The relevant results would provide some important constructive suggestions to the engineering site selection and optimization of large-scale underground caverns in hydropower stations.

  2. The influence of zeta potential and yield stress on the filtration characteristics of a magnesium hydroxide simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, Simon; Nabi, Rafiq; Poole, Colin; Patel, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    In the UK, irradiated fuels from Magnox reactors are often stored in water-filled ponds under alkaline conditions, so as to minimise corrosion of fuel cladding. This is important to prevent or reduce leakage of soluble fission products and actinides to the pond water. A variety of intermediate level wastes derived from Magnox materials are stored at power stations. Under these alkaline conditions, various species of magnesium are formed, of which magnesium hydroxide is the dominant material. The particle-fluid interactions are significant for the design and operation of facilities for hydraulic retrieval, filtration, dewatering and ion exchange treatment of fuel storage pond water and stored wet Magnox wastes. Here we describe a study of particulate properties and filtration characteristics of oxide particle simulants under laboratory conditions. Cake and medium resistance data were correlated across a range of pH conditions with electro-acoustic zeta potential and shear yield stress measurements, as a function of particle volume fractions. The influence of zeta potential on filtration properties arises directly from the interaction of particles within the sediment cake. (authors)

  3. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Curcuma Longa on the Biochemical Profile and Meat Characteristics of Broiler Rabbits under Summer Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen four week’s old weaned broiler rabbits of comparable body weights were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of six rabbits in each group namely T0 (basal control diet, T1 (basal diet added with turmeric rhizome powder, TRP, at the ratio of 150mgand T2 (basal diet added with TRP at the ratio of 300mg/100g diet. Different hematological and serum biochemical parameters such as packed cell volume, Hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count and serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase due to the dietary inclusion of turmeric powder rhizome supplementation at 0, 0.15 and 0.30 percent did not show significant difference between the treatment groups. Carcass parameters and chemical composition of meat were closer to the standard values. The results of the study indicated no beneficial effect of dietary inclusion of turmeric (Curcuma longa rhizome powder at 0, 0.15 and 0.30 per cent on blood biochemical and meat characteristics of broiler rabbits reared under summer stress [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 15-18

  4. Effect of Nitrogen and Triple Super Phosphate Levels on Physiological Characteristics of Kochia scoparia in Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed khaninejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing yield and forage quality in saline water irrigating conditions, is one of the problems of forage production. Therefore, using the chemical fertilizers can be considered as a useful solution. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different levels of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers with saline water on physiological characteristics of Kochia, through a split plot factorial experiments with three replications .The main experimental units consisted of the levels of salinity of irrigating water, 5.2 and 16.5 dS m-1, and the subsidiary experimental units consisted of three nitrogen levels in form of 46%N (0, 100, 200 kg ha-1 and three phosphorus levels in form of triple super phosphate (0, 75, 150 kg ha-1, arranged in factorial form in experimental units. Results showed that the effect of salinity on studied physiological properties was not significant. Green area index (GAI and membrane stability index (MSI were significantly increased with using nitrogen fertilizers on 5.2 dS/m salinity level to control group ,while phosphorus did not affect on them. In all properties, fertilizers application on 16.5 dS/m salinity level not only had no considerable effect on stress tolerance, but also increased the harmful effects of salinity. GAI had a high correlation (0.71 with dry forage yield related to the studied factors. Generally, 75 kg Triple Super Phosphate fertilizer from 100 kg Urea improved studied physiological properties without side effects.

  5. The effects of the local fracture stress and carbides on the cleavage fracture characteristics of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels in the transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Jon; Huh, Moo Young; Roh, Sung Joo; Lee, Bong Sang; Oh, Yong Jun; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2000-01-01

    In the ductile-brittle transition temperature region of SA508 C1.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels, the relationship of the local fracture stress and carbides influencing the cleavage fracture behavior was investigated. Based on the ASTM E1921-97 standard method, the reference transition temperatures were determined by three point bending fracture toughness tests. A local fracture stress σ f * , was determined from a theoretical stress distribution in front of crack tip using the cleavage initiation distance measured in each fractured specimen surface. The local fracture stress values showed a strong relationship with toughness characteristics of the materials and those were larger in the materials of smaller carbide size. Quantitative analysis of carbides showed that carbides larger than a certain size are mainly responsible for the cleavage fracture in the ductile-brittle transition temperature region. (author)

  6. Assessment of thermal fatigue damage caused by local fluid temperature fluctuation (part I: characteristics of constraint and stress caused by thermal striation and stratification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The source of the membrane constraint due to local temperature fluctuation was shown. • Thermal fatigue that occurred at a mixing tee and branched elbow was analyzed. • Cracking occurrence was reasonably explained by the constraint and stress conditions. - Abstract: This study was aimed at identifying the constraint conditions under local temperature fluctuation by thermal striping at a mixing tee and by thermal stratification at an elbow pipe branched from the main pipe. Numerical and analytical approaches were made to derive the thermal stress and its fluctuation. It was shown that an inhomogeneous temperature distribution in a straight pipe caused thermal stress due to a membrane constraint even if an external membrane constraint did not act on the pipe. Although the membrane constraint increased the mean stress at the mixing tee, it did not contribute to fluctuation of the thermal stress. On the other hand, the membrane constraint played an important role in the fatigue damage accumulation near the stratification layer of the branched elbow. Based on the constraint and stress conditions analyzed, the characteristics of the cracking observed in actual nuclear power plants were reasonably explained. Namely, at the mixing tee, where thermal crazing has been found, the lack of contribution of the membrane constraint to stress fluctuation caused a stress gradient in the thickness direction and arrested crack growth. On the other hand, at the branched elbow, where axial through-wall cracks have been found, the relatively large hoop stress fluctuation was brought about by movement of the stratified layer together with the membrane constraint even under a relatively low frequency of stress fluctuation

  7. Failure Characteristics of Granite Influenced by Sample Height-to-Width Ratios and Intermediate Principal Stress Under True-Triaxial Unloading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibing; Feng, Fan; Li, Diyuan; Du, Kun; Ranjith, P. G.; Rostami, Jamal

    2018-05-01

    The failure modes and peak unloading strength of a typical hard rock, Miluo granite, with particular attention to the sample height-to-width ratio (between 2 and 0.5), and the intermediate principal stress was investigated using a true-triaxial test system. The experimental results indicate that both sample height-to-width ratios and intermediate principal stress have an impact on the failure modes, peak strength and severity of rockburst in hard rock under true-triaxial unloading conditions. For longer rectangular specimens, the transition of failure mode from shear to slabbing requires higher intermediate principal stress. With the decrease in sample height-to-width ratios, slabbing failure is more likely to occur under the condition of lower intermediate principal stress. For same intermediate principal stress, the peak unloading strength monotonically increases with the decrease in sample height-to-width. However, the peak unloading strength as functions of intermediate principal stress for different types of rock samples (with sample height-to-width ratio of 2, 1 and 0.5) all present the pattern of initial increase, followed by a subsequent decrease. The curves fitted to octahedral shear stress as a function of mean effective stress also validate the applicability of the Mogi-Coulomb failure criterion for all considered rock sizes under true-triaxial unloading conditions, and the corresponding cohesion C and internal friction angle φ are calculated. The severity of strainburst of granite depends on the sample height-to-width ratios and intermediate principal stress. Therefore, different supporting strategies are recommended in deep tunneling projects and mining activities. Moreover, the comparison of test results of different σ 2/ σ 3 also reveals the little influence of minimum principal stress on failure characteristics of granite during the true-triaxial unloading process.

  8. Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: the effects of parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, R; Rose, J; McDonald, J

    2005-06-01

    Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child characteristics, family support and parenting stress. The aspects of cognitions studied were: parenting self-esteem (including efficacy and satisfaction) and parental locus of control. The group studied consisted of 46 mothers of children with ID. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Maladaptive Behavior Domain were administered by interview. Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form). Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, partial correlations and a regression analysis. The results indicated that most of the variance in parenting stress was explained by parental locus of control, parenting satisfaction and child behaviour difficulties. Whilst there was also a strong correlation between family support and parenting stress, this was mediated by parental locus of control. The results demonstrate the potential importance of parental cognitions in influencing parental stress levels. It is argued that these results have implications for clinical interventions for promoting parents' coping strategies in managing children with ID and behavioural difficulties.

  9. Investigation into Mechanism of Floor Dynamic Rupture by Evolution Characteristics of Stress and Mine Tremors: A Case Study in Guojiahe Coal Mine, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the mechanism of floor dynamic rupture, the current study adopts a thin plate model to further investigate the condition of floor failure. One of the possible explanations could be floor buckling due to high horizontal stress and dynamic disturbance ultimately leading to rapid and massive release of elastic energy thus inducing dynamic rupture. Seismic computed tomography and 3D location were employed to explore the evolution characteristics of floor stress distribution and positions of mine tremors. In the regions of floor dynamic rupture, higher P-wave velocity was recorded prior to the dynamic rupture. On the contrary, relatively lower reading was observed after the dynamic rupture thus depicting a high stress concentration condition. Meanwhile, evolution of mine tremors revealed the accumulation and subsequent release of energy during the dynamic rupture process. It was further revealed that dynamic rupture was induced due to the superposition of static and dynamic stresses: (i the high static stress concentration due to frontal and lateral abutment stress from coal pillar and (ii dynamic stress from the fracture and caving of coal pillar, hard roof, and key stratum. In the later part of this study, the floor dynamic rupture occurrence process would be reproduced through numerical simulations within a 0.6 sec time frame. The above-mentioned findings would be used to propose a feasible mechanism for prewarning and prevention of floor dynamic rupture using seismic computed tomography and mine tremors 3D location.

  10. Psychosocial Work Environment, Stress Factors and Individual Characteristics among Nursing Staff in Psychiatric In-Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvesson Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychosocial work environment is an important factor in psychiatric in-patient care, and knowing more of its correlates might open up new paths for future workplace interventions. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate perceptions of the psychosocial work environment among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care and how individual characteristics—Mastery, Moral Sensitivity, Perceived Stress, and Stress of Conscience—are related to different aspects of the psychosocial work environment. A total of 93 nursing staff members filled out five questionnaires: the QPSNordic 34+, Perceived Stress Scale, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and Mastery scale. Multivariate analysis showed that Perceived Stress was important for Organisational Climate perceptions. The Stress of Conscience subscale Internal Demands and Experience in current units were indicators of Role Clarity. The other Stress of Conscience subscale, External Demands and Restrictions, was related to Control at Work. Two types of stress, Perceived Stress and Stress of Conscience, were particularly important for the nursing staff’s perception of the psychosocial work environment. Efforts to prevent stress may also contribute to improvements in the psychosocial work environment.

  11. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1 ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK, e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP. Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura.The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibble tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1 with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant of a NPK-enriched zeolite

  12. Exploration of Relationship Between Stress and Spirituality Characteristics of Male and Female Engineering Students: A Comprehensive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Radha; Khanna, Ashu; Singh, Dharmendra

    2017-04-01

    This observational paper endeavours to recognize the connection between spirituality and stress. Four types of indicators are utilized for the estimation of anxiety, vis-à-vis, behavioural indicators, emotional indicators, sleep indicators and personal habits. As per pre-documented theory, if spirituality is high within an individual, then his/her stress will be low and vice versa. In college, the stress of education and scoring grades influences the understudy. Information is gathered through a survey in the light of spirituality index and stress index. Findings prove that the indicators of the stress are more visible in female students. Apart from this, there has been not much substantial study in the area of stress and spirituality among college students. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to discuss the various types of stress and effects of spirituality on the engineering students belonging to the age group of 21-26 years, prioritizing the indicators of stress as per the gender of students. The entire study constituted of a sample group of 200 participants, and for the entire process, correlation analysis was used to find the relative relation between spirituality and stress among girls and boys. T test is used for rejection of the null hypothesis. The article focuses on the current issues that students have been facing in the twenty-first century. Result of the study showed that there is a negative relationship between the spirituality and stress of male and female students. Moreover, the article provides unique contribution to the literature and also offers suggestions for generating new research ideas that can be used to ameliorate the problems that plague individuals and organizations in today's world. This is the first article which covers the spirituality and stress of the engineering student and discusses the impact on young adults, as well as highlighting certain ways to overcome stress and enhance spirituality.

  13. SPR Characteristics Curve and Distribution of Residual Stress in Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Rezwanul; Wong, Yat C.; Paradowska, Anna; Blacket, Stuart; Durandet, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was used to describe the residual stress distributions in self-piercing riveted (SPR) joints. The sheet material displayed a compressive residual stress near the joint, and the stress gradually became tensile in the sheet material far away from the joint. The stress in the rivet leg was lower in the thick joint of the softer steel sheet than in the thin joint of the harder steel sheet. This lower magnitude was attributed to the lower force gradient during the rivet flaring...

  14. The Influence of Gamma Irradiation on the Bacterial Growth and the Concentration of Macro nutrient Plant Elements (N,P,K) in The Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, M.; Zainul Kamal; Elin Nuraini

    2002-01-01

    The investigation of the gamma irradiation influence for bacterial growth and macro-nutrient plant element in the sludge has been done. The objective of the research is to study the gamma irradiation influence on bacterial growth and macro-nutrient plant element concentration; after that, can be determine the effective dose for killing pathogenic bacteria, while the other kind of bacteria such as the decomposer has been survived. The sludge samples was collected from the vicinity of Surabaya such as Sukolilo for sewage, PT SIER Rungkut for industrial and Dr. Sutomo hospital waste sludge. The irradiation of the sludge has been done at P3TIR-BATAN by Co-60 irradiator and the dose variation are 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. Microbiological observation was done after irradiation at FMIPA-UNAIR laboratory and the analysis of N,P,K elements by using fast neutron activation analysis. The observation involving total bacterial and one kind of pathogenic microbial which is Salmonella, from this observation can be deduced that population of total bacteria in the sludge is in the range at 1.0 x 10 7 to 3.7 x 10 8 . For every 5 kGy increment could be able to decrease total bacterial growth about 10 times, and at 25 kGy the total bacterial growth can be suppressed. The higher population of Salmonella can be found in the hospital sludge is in range of 3.0 to 3.5 x 10 5 , in the sewage sludge is 1.4 to 1.6 x 10 4 and industry is 1.0 to 1.4 x 10 3 . For the Salmonella disinfection need the 15 to 20 kGy radiation dose. From the calculation results can be known that the nitrogen content in the sludge is in the range at 1.393 ± 0.692 to 3.147 ± 0.697 % , the phosphor 3.714 ± 0.892 to 8.120 ± 1.034 % and the potassium 1.999 ± 0.523 to 4.52 ± 0.599 %. The variation of the irradiation dose 10 - 25 kGy does not have any significant influence for the macro-nutrient plant (N,P,K) content in the sludge from the industrial, the sewage or the hospital waste water treatment. (author)

  15. Parenting stress in mothers of adults with an intellectual disability: parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C; Rose, J

    2009-12-01

    There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to mothers of adults with ID. Of particular interest were the parental cognitions of parenting self-esteem and parental locus of control. Face-to face interviews were administered with 44 mothers of adults with ID. They completed the Vineland Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour Scale, the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened version of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Correlations were observed between parenting stress and the other study variables. Regression analysis revealed that parental cognitive variables predicted 61% of the variance in parenting stress. Parenting satisfaction, a subscale of the measure of parenting sense of competence, mediated the relationships between adaptive behaviour and parenting stress and between family support and parenting stress. These results indicate the importance of cognitive variables in the stress of mothers of adults with ID. Potential avenues of future research might focus on the experience of fathers and the impact of positive perceptions as a cognitive factor.

  16. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the definition of threshold levels to diagnose coronary artery disease on electrocardiographic stress testing. Part II: the use of ROC curves in the choice of electrocardiographic stress test markers of ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazìa, Stefania; Barnabei, Luca; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    A common problem in diagnostic medicine, when performing a diagnostic test, is to obtain an accurate discrimination between 'normal' cases and cases with disease, owing to the overlapping distributions of these populations. In clinical practice, it is exceedingly rare that a chosen cut point will achieve perfect discrimination between normal cases and those with disease, and one has to select the best compromise between sensitivity and specificity by comparing the diagnostic performance of different tests or diagnostic criteria available. Receiver operating characteristic (or receiver operator characteristic, ROC) curves allow systematic and intuitively appealing descriptions of the diagnostic performance of a test and a comparison of the performance of different tests or diagnostic criteria. This review will analyse the basic principles underlying ROC curves and their specific application to the choice of optimal parameters on exercise electrocardiographic stress testing. Part II will be devoted to the comparative analysis of various parameters derived from exercise stress testing for the diagnosis of underlying coronary artery disease.

  17. Changes in the performance characteristics of a GaAs near infrared light emitting diode when exposed to various current and thermal stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The changes that occurred in the optical and electrical characteristics of a near infrared, GaAs light emitting diode, when operated under various levels and combinations of current and thermal stresses are discussed. A total of forty parts were operated for two thousand hours under eight different sets of dc current and ambient temperature conditions. Degradation in the radiant optical power of these devices was thirty-four percent when operated at their rated current and an ambient temperature of 298K (25 C). Derating the current and/or the thermal stress reduced the degradation of this parameter in approximately a linear manner. All degraded devices behaved similarly, exhibiting rapid nonlinear degradation followed by a gradual linear degradation and finally a period of stable operation. An attempt was made to correlate initial device condition to degradation during stress testing, but met with little success.

  18. Effect of dexmedetomidine on the stress reaction caused by sevoflurance anesthesia in school-age children with different personality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of dexmedetomidine on the stress reaction caused by sevoflurance anesthesia during the perianesthesia period in school-age children with different personality characteristics. Methods: A total of 160 children who were admitted in our hospital for transumbilical single-port laparoscopic hernia inner ring ligation were included in the study and randomized into dexmedetomidine (D group and midazolam (M group. The children were performed with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire before operation (children edition. Children were divided into the emotion group (group I and stable group (group II. The operation was performed under sevoflurance inhalation anesthesia. Patients in DI and DII groups were given 1 毺g/kg DEX, MI and MII groups were given 0.05 mg/kg midazolam, for 15 min. MAP and HR one day before operation (T0, before anesthesia induction (T1, 1 min after pneumoperitoneum establishment (T2, the time after pulling out the laryngeal mask (T3, and the time after shifting from the recovery room (T4 were recorded. A volume of 6 mL venous blood 1 d before operation and 4 h after operation was collected. Blood sugar concentration, cortisol and IL-6 levels were detected. Results: MAP at T1, T2, T3, and T4 in DI and MI groups were significantly elevated when compared with at T0. MAP at T2 and T3 in DII group was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MII group was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. When compared with DI group, MAP at T1, T2, and T3 in DII group was significantly reduced; MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MI group was significantly elevated; MAP at T1 in MII group was significantly reduced. When compared with DII group, MAP at T2, T3, and T4 in MI and MII groups was significantly elevated. HR at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly elevated when compared with at T0. When compared with DI group, HR at T1, T2, and T3 in DII group was significantly reduced; HR at each

  19. The TDDB Characteristics of Ultra-Thin Gate Oxide MOS Capacitors under Constant Voltage Stress and Substrate Hot-Carrier Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown characteristics of ultra-thin gate oxide MOS capacitors fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology under constant voltage stress and substrate hot-carrier injection are investigated. Compared to normal thick gate oxide, the degradation mechanism of time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB of ultra-thin gate oxide is found to be different. It is found that the gate current (Ig of ultra-thin gate oxide MOS capacitor is more likely to be induced not only by Fowler-Nordheim (F-N tunneling electrons, but also by electrons surmounting barrier and penetrating electrons in the condition of constant voltage stress. Moreover it is shown that the time to breakdown (tbd under substrate hot-carrier injection is far less than that under constant voltage stress when the failure criterion is defined as a hard breakdown according to the experimental results. The TDDB mechanism of ultra-thin gate oxide will be detailed. The differences in TDDB characteristics of MOS capacitors induced by constant voltage stress and substrate hot-carrier injection will be also discussed.

  20. A cross-sectional study of the effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress: implications for stress-fracture injuries in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Silder, Amy; Zhang, Ju; Reifman, Jaques; Unnikrishnan, Ginu

    2017-03-23

    Load carriage is associated with musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fractures, during military basic combat training. By investigating the influence of load carriage during exercises on the kinematics and kinetics of the body and on the biomechanical responses of bones, such as the tibia, we can quantify the role of load carriage on bone health. We conducted a cross-sectional study using an integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to analyze how the amount of load carriage in women affected the kinematics and kinetics of the body, as well as the tibial mechanical stress during running. We also compared the biomechanics of walking (studied previously) and running under various load-carriage conditions. We observed substantial changes in both hip kinematics and kinetics during running when subjects carried a load. Relative to those observed during running without load, the joint reaction forces at the hip increased by an average of 49.1% body weight when subjects carried a load that was 30% of their body weight (ankle, 4.8%; knee, 20.6%). These results indicate that the hip extensor muscles in women are the main power generators when running with load carriage. When comparing running with walking, finite element analysis revealed that the peak tibial stress during running (tension, 90.6 MPa; compression, 136.2 MPa) was more than three times as great as that during walking (tension, 24.1 MPa; compression, 40.3 MPa), whereas the cumulative stress within one stride did not differ substantially between running (15.2 MPa · s) and walking (13.6 MPa · s). Our findings highlight the critical role of hip extensor muscles and their potential injury in women when running with load carriage. More importantly, our results underscore the need to incorporate the cumulative effect of mechanical stress when evaluating injury risk under various exercise conditions. The results from our study help to elucidate the mechanisms of stress fracture in women.

  1. Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK = Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Grazielle Radin Magalhães Teles

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF, colmos (MSC e total (MST, teor de proteína bruta (PB, N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic RedYellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP and determination of

  2. Plant density and levels of NPK on the production components of vegetable soybean in the Savannah of the state of Roraima=Densidade de plantas e doses de NPK nos componentes de produção de soja-hortaliça na Savana de Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alynny Neftaly Lopes Monteiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sowing densities and levels of NPK (02-24- 12 on the production components of the JLM 08 strain of vegetable soybean, in the Savannah of Boa Vista, in the state of Roraima, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in the experimental area of the Centre for Agrarian Sciences at the Cauamé Campus of the Federal University of Roraima in Boa Vista. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a factorial scheme (2 x 5 with three replications. The two densities (40,000 and 80,000 plants per hectare comprised the first factor, while five levels of NPK (02-24-12 made up the second (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 kg ha-1. The following were evaluated: height of insertion of the first and last pod; stem diameter; number of pods per plant having 1, 2, and 3 grains; total number of pods per plant; 100 grain weight and estimated grain yield. The height of insertion of the first and last pod in the JLM 08 genotype of the vegetable soybean is not influenced by the planting densities or levels of formulated fertiliser. At a density of 80,000 plants per hectare, the number of pods per plant is influenced by the levels of fertiliser, demonstrating a positive quadratic response. The level of fertiliser with the maximum technical efficiency (492.86 kg ha-1 gives an 18% increase in grain yield at the highest planting density. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de duas densidades de semeadura e doses de NPK (02-24-12 nos componentes de produção da soja hortaliça linhagem JLM 08, na Savana de Boa Vista, Roraima. O experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2013 a março de 2014, na área experimental do Centro de Ciências Agrária da Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus Cauamé, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (2 x 5, com três repetições. O primeiro fator correspondeu a duas

  3. Post- and peritraumatic stress in disaster survivors: an explorative study about the influence of individual and event characteristics across different types of disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grimm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Examination of existing research on posttraumatic adjustment after disasters suggests that survivors’ posttraumatic stress levels might be better understood by investigating the influence of the characteristics of the event experienced on how people thought and felt, during the event as well as afterwards. Objective : To compare survivors’ perceived post- and peritraumatic emotional and cognitive reactions across different types of disasters. Additionally, to investigate individual and event characteristics. Design : In a European multi-centre study, 102 survivors of different disasters terror attack, flood, fire and collapse of a building were interviewed about their responses during the event. Survivors’ perceived posttraumatic stress levels were assessed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R. Peritraumatic emotional stress and risk perception were rated retrospectively. Influences of individual characteristics, such as socio-demographic data, and event characteristics, such as time and exposure factors, on post- and peritraumatic outcomes were analyzed. Results : Levels of reported post- and peritraumatic outcomes differed significantly between types of disasters. Type of disaster was a significant predictor of all three outcome variables but the factors gender, education, time since event, injuries and fatalities were only significant for certain outcomes. Conclusion : Results support the hypothesis that there are differences in perceived post- and peritraumatic emotional and cognitive reactions after experiencing different types of disasters. However, it should be noted that these findings were not only explained by the type of disaster itself but also by individual and event characteristics. As the study followed an explorative approach, further research paths are discussed to better understand the relationships between variables.

  4. CRESCIMENTO E PRODUÇÃO DO MARACUJAZEIRO-AMARELO EM SOLO COM BIOFERTILIZANTES E ADUBAÇÃO MINERAL COM NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodolfo Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow passion fruit crop (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. and natural insume use on agriculture are increasing in Remígio county Paraíba State, Brazil. In this direction was carried out an experiment, during July 2005 to December 2006 in randomized blocks in order to evaluate the effects of absence and presence of biofertilizers comum (bovine manure fertilizer fresh and water and supermagro (bovine manure, water, macronutrients and micronutrients, applied to soil on liquid form, in level of 2.4 L plant-1, 30 days before and two months after transplanting, in the absence and presence of mineral fertilizer with NPK, with three repetition and six plantas per set using a factorial designs 3x2. The biofertilizers show more reliable to growth than fruit production of yellow passion fruit. Biggest production corresponded to treatments with the use of mineral fertilizer, specially in the first production. Comum and supermagro biofertilizer gave significative effects on vegetative growth of plants of yellow passion fruit plant but had no influence on fruits production.

  5. [Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of fulvic acid from the long-term located fertilization in black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ping; Wei, Dan; Zhou, Bao-Ku; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Xi-Lin; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Shu-Ling

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of long-term located fertilization on soil fulvic acid (FA), in this study, four soil samples were taken from black soil with long-term located fertilization (about 30 year) in Harbin, Heilongjiang province. The fertilization treatments included control (CK), N, P and K fertilization (NPK), horse manure (OM), combination of organic manure and chemical fertilizations (MNPK). Soil FA was extracted from the samples and purified. The excitation, emission, synchronous, and three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3DEEM) characteristics of the FA were determined. The excitation, emission and synchronous scan spectra all indicated that the main peaks of FA in the NPK treatment exhibited a significantly blue shift compared with CK, while those of MNPK, OM treatment caused a red shift to some extent. 3DEEM spectra of FA in all treatments exhibited four peaks (peak a, peak b, peak c, and peak d), compared with FA in CK, the wavelengths shift tendency of peak a, peak b, and peak c of FA 3DEEM in NPK, MNPK and OM treatments were similar to that of traditional spectra in FA. In order to provide quantitative information of FA humification degree in different treatments, we investigated the fluorescence index f450/500 (FI), area integration (A370-600 nm, A1 370-412 nm, A4 538-600 nm). Compared with CK, the f450/500, ratio of A1/A in NPK and A4/A in MNPK treatment increased by 4.62%, 6.12%, 7.22%, respectively. However, the f450/500, the ratio of A1/A in MNPK and A4/A in NPK treatment decreased by 3.86%, 15.31%, and 7.22% respectively. This indicated that NPK application gave a lower degree of FA humification, and combination of organic manure and chemical fertilizations would lead to a greater degree of FA aromatization in black soil with long-term located fertilization than CK.

  6. Relations between mothers' daily work, home, and relationship stress with characteristics of mother-child conflict interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Villarreal, Deyaun L; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-06-01

    This study examined whether daily variations in levels of mothers' work, home, and relationship stress were related to collaborative and oppositional qualities of mother-child conflict interactions across 1 week. Mothers reported on 1 specific conflict interaction with their 5- to 8-year-old child and their work, home, and relationship stress through online surveys each day for 7 consecutive days. Diary data from 142 mothers were analyzed in 6 multilevel models, each including within- and between-family levels of a stressor predicting collaborative or oppositional conflict qualities. Results suggested that families in the sample differed from each other, and also varied during the week, in collaborative and oppositional conflict qualities as well as stress in all 3 domains. Mothers reported a greater degree of oppositional conflict qualities on days characterized by higher perceptions of home chaos. Additionally, mothers who reported higher average levels of negativity in romantic relationships endorsed oppositional conflict qualities to a greater extent than mothers with lower relationship negativity. Two multilevel models including all 3 stressors in relation to collaborative and oppositional conflict revealed that for mothers managing multiple roles, average romantic relationship stress was the most important unique contributor to mother-child conflict qualities and daily relationship stress was particularly influential among mothers with sons compared to those with daughters. Results support the spillover hypothesis of stress within the family system and are discussed in terms of mothers' coping mechanisms and emotional engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Spatio-temporal characteristics of large scale motions in a turbulent boundary layer from direct wall shear stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating wall shear stress experiments were performed on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL) under zero pressure gradient conditions. The fluctuating wall shear stress was measured using a microelectromechanical 1mm × 1mm floating element capacitive shear stress sensor (CSSS) developed at the University of Florida. The experiments elucidated the imprint of the organized motions in a TBL on the wall shear stress through its direct measurement. Spatial autocorrelation of the streamwise velocity from the PIV snapshots revealed large scale motions that scale on the order of boundary layer thickness. However, the captured inclination angle was lower than that determined using the classic method by means of wall shear stress and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) temporal cross-correlations and a frozen field hypothesis using a convection velocity. The current study suggests the large size of these motions begins to degrade the applicability of the frozen field hypothesis for the time resolved HWA experiments. The simultaneous PIV and CSSS measurements are also used for spatial reconstruction of the velocity field during conditionally sampled intense wall shear stress events. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  8. Effect of Foliar Application of Chitosan on Growth and Biochemical Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    batool mahdavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water deficit stress and foliar application of chitosan in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a pot experiment was conducted in 2009. Experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement with three replications. Experimental factors were water deficit levels (unstressed (control and 70% available water depletion from soil (water deficit stress, chitosan concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1%, all dissolved in 1% acetic acid along with an additional treatment of distilled water and foliar application times (before and during stem elongation. The results showed that water deficit stress reduced plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weight, root height and volume. Whereas, foliar application of chitosan increased mentioned traits. In addition, water deficit stress decreased chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll concentration and relative water content. Carotenoid, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA content were increased in response to stress. Foliar application of chitosan increased chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (68.77% and chlorophyll b in the water deficit stressed plants, whereas decreased MDA content. The results of the present study indicate that application of chitosan can reduce the harmful effects of water deficit and improve plant growth.

  9. Determination of the effects of organic antioxidants and fat sources on performance, carcass and bone characteristics of broilers under heat stress

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    seyyed javad Hosseini-vashan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heat stress is one of the major environmental stressors that negatively influence feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestion, absorption, and retention in the poultry production. In the two last decades, several researches were done to find approaches for decreasing the undesirable effects of high ambient temperatures. Supplementation of powder, extract and essence of some medicinal plants were proposed that could be used in poultry production to improve the performance, immune system and antioxidant status in heat stress condition. Turmeric powder is known as a natural antioxidant, because it has several antioxidant component specially curcumin that prevent the oxidative reaction and the free radicals production in the live body. On the other hand, some of by-products in food industry may also be used in heat stressed birds. Tomato pomace is a reachable source of vit E, C and A and several carotenoids specially lycopene that has antimutagenic, anticancer and antioxidant properties. Therefore the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of organic antioxidants including turmeric powder and tomato pomace and fat sources including soybean oil, canola oil and tallow on performance, carcass and bone characteristics of broilers under heat stress. Materials and Methods An experiment with factorial arrangement 3× 2× 2 (3 oils involved: canola, soybean, tallow, 2 turmeric powder (TRP levels involved 0.4, 0.8% and 2 tomato pomace (TP levels 3, 5 of TP% in a completely randomized design in heat stressed birds was done. Five hundred four one-d-old male Ross broilers were randomly allocated to 36 experimental units with 12 dietary treatments (3 replicates with 12 birds in each. The feed and water were supplied ad libitum. All diets were balanced to meet the nutrient requirement proposed by the Ross committee. A daily heat stressed (HS schedule (33oC for 5 h was applied from 29 to 42d of

  10. Psychological characteristics, stressful life events and deliberate self-harm: findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hawton, Keith; McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; De Leo, Diego; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; Ystgaard, Mette; Arensman, Ella

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that both psychological characteristics and stressful life events are contributory factors in deliberate self-harm among young people. These links, and the possibility of a dose-response relationship between self-harm and both psychological health and life events, were investigated in the context of a seven-country school-based study. Over 30,000, mainly 15 and 16 year olds, completed anonymous questionnaires at secondary schools in Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Australia. Pupils were asked to report on thoughts and episodes of self-harm, complete scales on depression and anxiety symptoms, impulsivity and self-esteem and indicate stressful events in their lives. Level and frequency of self-harm was judged according to whether they had thought about harming themselves or reported single or multiple self-harm episodes. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the extent to which psychological characteristics and stressful life events distinguished between adolescents with different self-harm histories. Increased severity of self-harm history was associated with greater depression, anxiety and impulsivity and lower self-esteem and an increased prevalence of all ten life event categories. Female gender, higher impulsivity and experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, physical or sexual abuse and worries about sexual orientation independently differentiated single-episode self-harmers from adolescents with self-harm thoughts only. Female gender, higher depression, lower self-esteem, experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, and trouble with the police independently distinguished multiple- from single-episode self-harmers. The findings reinforce the importance of psychological characteristics and stressful life events in adolescent self-harm but nonetheless suggest that some factors are more likely than others to be implicated.

  11. Primary caregivers of in-home oxygen-dependent children: predictors of stress based on characteristics, needs and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Wei K; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Chin-Ting; Lee, Kuo-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    To identify the predictors of primary caregivers' stress in caring for in-home oxygen-dependent children by examining the association between their levels of stress, caregiver needs and social support. Increasing numbers of primary caregivers of oxygen-dependent children experience caregiving stress that warrants investigation. The study used a cross-sectional design with three psychometric scales - Modified-Parenting Stress Index, Caregiver Needs Scale and Social Support Index. The data collected during 2010-2011 were from participants who were responsible for their child's care that included oxygen therapy for ≧6 hours/day; the children's ages ranged from 3 months-16 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression were used. A total of 104 participants (M = 34, F = 70) were recruited, with an average age of 39·7 years. The average age of the oxygen-dependent children was 6·68 years and their daily use of oxygen averaged 11·39 hours. The caregivers' overall levels of stress were scored as high and information needs were scored as the highest. The most available support from family and friends was emotional support. Informational support was mostly received from health professionals, but both instrumental and emotional support were important. Levels of stress and caregiver needs were significantly correlated. Multivariable linear regression analyses identified three risk factors predicting stress, namely, the caregiver's poor health status, the child's male gender and the caregiver's greater financial need. To support these caregivers, health professionals can maintain their health status and provide instrumental, emotional, informational and financial support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of physiological and defense characteristics and ions contents of Red and Brooms cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum biolor under salt stress stress in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Razavizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate defense and physiological responses of some red and broomscultivars of Sorghum to salinity stress under in vitro culture. Seeds of Sorghum cultivars were cultured on MS (Murashig and Skoog, 1962 medium containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl under in vitro condition. After 2 weeks, the effect of salinity was studied on percentage of germination, growth parameters, photosynthetic capacity (total chlorophyll and carotenoids, total anthocyanin, total felavonoids, reducing sugars, proline, Na+/K+/Ca2+ ions, total soluble protein content, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in roots and shoots. According to percentage of seed germination and growth parameters, Red and brooms cultivars were selected as susceptible and resistant to salinity in the study, respectively. The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids and the anthocyanin content decreased by increasing salt levels in both cultivars, while flavonoids increased in three wavelengths 270, 300 and 330 nm. The results showed proline, suger and protein contents increased in roots and shoots of two cultivars by increasing salinity. The content of Na+ ion increased in the roots of red and brooms cultivars and shoot of Red cultivar. Ratio Na/K increased in roots of two cultivars and shoots of red by increasing salinity. Ratio Na/K in the shoots of brooms cultivar didn’t change significantly under salt stress. Generally in the presence of salt, potassium decreased in roots and shoots of two cultivars. Calcium ion amount in the roots of two cultivars didn’t change significantly under salt stress while it increased in shoots of two cultivars. The CAT activity increased in roots and shoots of two cultivars but APX activity increased in brooms cultivar and decreased significantly in red cultivar.

  13. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

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    M. Tajik Khaveh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  14. Timing effects of heat-stress on plant physiological characteristics and growth: a field study with prairie vegetation

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    Dan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available More intense, more frequent, and longer heat-waves are expected in the future due to global warming, which could have dramatic agricultural, economic and ecological impacts. This field study examined how plant responded to heat-stress (HS treatment at different timing in naturally-occurring vegetation. HS treatment (5 days at 40.5 ºC were applied to 12 1m2 plots in restored prairie vegetation dominated by Andropogon gerardii (warm-season C4 grass and Solidago canadensis (warm-season C3 forb at different growing stages. During and after HS, air, canopy, and soil temperature were monitored; net CO2 assimilation (Pn, quantum yield of photosystem II (ФPSII, stomatal conductance (gs, and internal CO2 level (Ci of the dominant species were measured. One week after the last HS treatment, all plots were harvested and the biomass of above-ground tissue and flower weight of the two dominant species was determined. HS decreased physiological performance and growth for both species, with S. canadensis being affected more than A. gerardii, indicated by negative heat stress effect on both physiological and growth responses. There were significant timing effect of heat stress on the two species, with greater reductions in the photosynthesis and productivity occurred when heat stress was applied at later-growing season. The reduction in aboveground productivity in S. canadensis but not A. gerardii could have important implications for plant community structure by increasing the competitive advantage of A. gerardii in this grassland. The present experiment showed that heat stress, though ephemeral, may promote long-term effects on plant community structure, vegetation dynamics, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning of terrestrial biomes when more frequent and severe heat stress occur in the future.

  15. Neighborhood characteristics influence DNA methylation of genes involved in stress response and inflammation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer A; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xu; Ratliff, Scott M; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Kardia, Sharon L R; Liu, Yongmei; Roux, Ava V Diez; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-08-01

    Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with poor health outcomes even after accounting for individual-level socioeconomic factors. The chronic stress of unfavorable neighborhood conditions may lead to dysregulation of the stress reactivity and inflammatory pathways, potentially mediated through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. We used multi-level models to examine the relationship between 2 neighborhood conditions and methylation levels of 18 genes related to stress reactivity and inflammation in purified monocytes from 1,226 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based sample of US adults. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, a summary of 16 census-based metrics, was associated with DNA methylation [False discovery rate (FDR) q-value ≤ 0.1] in 2 out of 7 stress-related genes evaluated (CRF, SLC6A4) and 2 out of 11 inflammation-related genes (F8, TLR1). Neighborhood social environment, a summary measure of aesthetic quality, safety, and social cohesion, was associated with methylation in 4 of the 7 stress-related genes (AVP, BDNF, FKBP5, SLC6A4) and 7 of the 11 inflammation-related genes (CCL1, CD1D, F8, KLRG1, NLRP12, SLAMF7, TLR1). High socioeconomic disadvantage and worse social environment were primarily associated with increased methylation. In 5 genes with significant associations between neighborhood and methylation (FKBP5, CD1D, F8, KLRG1, NLRP12), methylation was associated with gene expression of at least one transcript. These results demonstrate that multiple dimensions of neighborhood context may influence methylation levels and subsequent gene expression of stress- and inflammation-related genes, even after accounting for individual socioeconomic factors. Further elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships will be important for understanding the etiology of health disparities.

  16. IARC use of oxidative stress as key mode of action characteristic for facilitating cancer classification: Glyphosate case example illustrating a lack of robustness in interpretative implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, James S

    2017-06-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has formulated 10 key characteristics of human carcinogens to incorporate mechanistic data into cancer hazard classifications. The analysis used glyphosate as a case example to examine the robustness of IARC's determination of oxidative stress as "strong" evidence supporting a plausible cancer mechanism in humans. The IARC analysis primarily relied on 14 human/mammalian studies; 19 non-mammalian studies were uninformative of human cancer given the broad spectrum of test species and extensive use of formulations and aquatic testing. The mammalian studies had substantial experimental limitations for informing cancer mechanism including use of: single doses and time points; cytotoxic/toxic test doses; tissues not identified as potential cancer targets; glyphosate formulations or mixtures; technically limited oxidative stress biomarkers. The doses were many orders of magnitude higher than human exposures determined in human biomonitoring studies. The glyphosate case example reveals that the IARC evaluation fell substantially short of "strong" supporting evidence of oxidative stress as a plausible human cancer mechanism, and suggests that other IARC monographs relying on the 10 key characteristics approach should be similarly examined for a lack of robust data integration fundamental to reasonable mode of action evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial disparity in bacterial vaginosis: the role of socioeconomic status, psychosocial stress, and neighborhood characteristics, and possible implications for preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kathleen; Boutain, Doris; Manhart, Lisa; Hitti, Jane

    2008-09-01

    Racial disparity in preterm birth is one of the most salient, yet least well-understood health disparities in the United States. The preterm birth disparity may be due to differences in how women experience their racial identity in light of neighborhood factors, psychosocial stress, or the prevalence of or response to genital tract infections such as bacterial vaginosis (BV). The latest research emphasizes a need to explore all these factors simultaneously. This cross-sectional study of parous women in King County, Washington, USA investigated the effects of household income, psychosocial stress, and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics on risk of BV after accounting for known individual-level risk factors. Relevant demographic, socioeconomic, and medical data were linked to U.S. census socioeconomic data by geocoding subjects' residential addresses. It was found that having a low income was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of BV among African American but not White American women. A higher number of stressful life events was significantly associated with higher BV prevalence among both African American and White American women. However, perceived stress was not related to BV risk among either group of women. Among White American women, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) was univariately associated with increased BV prevalence by principal components analysis, but was no longer significant after adjusting for individual-level risk factors. No neighborhood SES effects were observed for African American women. These results suggest that both the effects of individual- and neighborhood-level risk factors for BV may differ importantly by racial group, and stressful life events may have physiological effects independent of perceived stress.

  18. Adaptation to social isolation - Acute and long-term stress responses of growing gilts with different coping characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, MAW; te Brake, JHA; Engel, B; Buist, WG; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM

    The present experiment studied the acute and long-term stress responses of reactive and proactive prepubertal gilts to social isolation. Gilts with either reactive or proactive features were identified according to behavioral resistance in a backtest at a young age (2-4 days), respectively being low

  19. TheEffect of Salicylic Acid Application on Some Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Grape Cultivars (Vitisvinifera L. Under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abbaspour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water stress is considered as a main environmental factor limiting crop growth and yield, including grape in Mediterranean areas.Selection for drought-tolerantvarieties is possible through investigation of their performance under stress conditions. The estimation of physiological characteristics as reliable indices can be used as a tool to select tolerant plants. For this reason, varieties and genotypes of one plant species are usually investigated through physiological characteristics and its relation to drought tolerance. Investigation of the effects of water stress on some growth and physiological characteristics in grape plants has revealed that plant height, number of leaves and nodes, leaf area and the percentage of dry weightdecreased under increasing drought stress. Salicylic Acid is a naturally occurring plant hormone whichinfluences various morphological and physiological functions in plant. It can act as an important signaling molecule and has diverse effects on biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance capacity. Materials and Methods: In this research, two-yearold grapesplanted in plastic pots containingingredients of humus, soil and sand (1:2:1 were used. The experiment was conducted using a factorial based on randomized complete block design with three factors including irrigation periods (every 5, 10 and 15 days, salicylic acid concentrations (0, 1 and 2 mM and grape cultivars (Rasheh andBidanesefid with 3 replications in thegreenhouse of faculty of agricultureinUrmia University. Plant height, stem diameter and leaf area and chlorophyll indicesweremeasuredby usingruler, digital caliper (Model22855 NO: Z, leaf Area Meter (ModelAM200 and SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter (Minolta Crop, Japan,respectively. In order to determine proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA, total protein and total soluble sugars, spectrophotometric methods [51,25,6and28] were utilized,respectively. Results and Discussion: Based on comparing the averages

  20. The Effect of Silicon on some Morpho-physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hasibi

    2016-12-01

    in comparison with control. Sepideh and Payam showed the lowest sensitive to salinity. In the other genotypes, harvest index decreased more than 50%. The minimum rate of harvest index was recorded for Payam genotypes under salinity stress and silicon treatments. Under stress conditions, silicon significantly increased leaf area index in Sepideh, Payam, TN-04-83, TN-04-68, TN-04-37, TN-04-100 and TN-04-62. Chlorophyll index also increased under salinity stress using silicon treatments. The highest chlorophyll index belonged to TN-04-68 and was significantly different from the others genotypes. Use of silicon improved the membrane stability in TN-04-37, TN-04-107, TN-04-100, TN-04-71, TN-04-70, TN-04-95 and Sepideh. Conclusions The results showed that the use of silicon improved the physiological characteristics, yield and yield components of sorghum. Most of the genotypes showed a positive reaction to the applied silicon especially under stress condition. According to the results the maximum yield obtained from Sepideh (540 g m-2 and Payam (475 g m-2, respectively. It seems that among the studied genotypes, Sepideh, Payam and TN-04-100 had the best response to the silicon and showed the minimum sensitivity to the salinity stress. The most sensitive genotypes were TN-04-39, TN-04-68, and TN-04-62. In general it can be said that either under normal condition or salinity stress, silicon is able to improve yield production of grain Sorghum and its components.

  1. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  2. Stress/strain characteristics of Cu alloy sheath in situ processed MgB2 superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Kazumune; Kasaba, Koichi; Shoji, Yoshitaka

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical properties of copper and copper alloy (Cu-Zr, Cu-Be and Cu-Cr) sheath in situ PIT-processed MgB 2 superconducting wires were studied at room temperature (RT) and 4.2 K. The effects of stress-strain on the critical current (I c ) of the wires have also been studied at 4.2 K and in magnetic fields up to 5 T. It has been clarified that alloying the Cu sheath significantly increases the yield and flow stresses of the wires at both RT and 4.2 K. The 0.5% flow stresses of the Cu alloy sheath wire were 147-237 MPa, whereas that of Cu was 55 MPa. At RT, serration corresponding to multiple cracking was observed around a strain of 0.4% and the stress-strain curves saturated beyond that point. The strain dependence of I c prior to the critical strain (ε irr ) was different depending on the magnetic field; being almost constant at 2 T and increasing with strain at 5 T. The I c decreased beyond ε irr , which is much larger for Cu alloy sheath wires as compared to Cu sheath wire. This is due to the difference in the residual compressive strain in the MgB 2 core during cooling from the heat-treatment temperature to 4.2 K, which is determined through relaxation by yielding in the sheath materials. The transverse compression tests revealed that the I c of the Cu alloy sheath wire did not degrade up to 314 MPa, which is also higher than that of Cu sheath wire. (author)

  3. Effect of Seed Priming on Growth and Some Physiological Characteristics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under salinity Stress Condition caused by Alkali Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bekhrad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sesame (Sesamun indicum L. is an important oil seed crop. Its seed has excellent nutritional value with a high and unique protein composition, making it a perfect food. Salinity is a serious problem in many regions of the world including Iran. Salinity stress is one of the widespread environmental constraints affecting crop productivity. Salinity generally induces osmotic stress and causes direct ion injury by disrupting ion homeostasis and the ion balance within plant cells (25. Seed priming is one of the ways to reduce negative effects of salt which is used for increasing germination percentage and seed resistance in salty zones. Seed priming is a pre-germination treatment that provides a moisture level sufficient to start pre-germination metabolic processes. It entails the partial germination of seeds by soaking them in water (or in a solution of salts for specified period of time, and then re-dry them just before radicle emerges (24. Priming stimulates many of the metabolic processes involved with the early phases of germination. Given that part of the germination processes have been initiated, seedlings from primed seed grow faster, grow more vigorously, and perform better in adverse conditions (24. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity stress caused by alkali salts on growth and some physiologic characteristics of sesame. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in a greenhouse in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan as factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental factors included priming (control (unprimed, hydropriming, halopriming with NaCl and NaHCO3 and level of salinity with sodium bicarbonate salt (Zero, 15, 30 and 45 mM. Seeds were planted in pots filled with perlite and cocopite (1:1. The pots were irrigated with a nutrient solution (with half strength Hoagland's solution. After the fourth true leaves appeared, salinty stress in

  4. Effect of drought stress, corm size and corm tunic on morphoecophysiological characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sabet Teimouri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of corm tunic, corm weight and drought stress on saffron (Crocus sativus L., an experiment was conducted at the greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Treatment were combination of four corm weights range (2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 8-10 g, two levels of water availability (100% field capacity and drought and two levels of corm tunic (natural corm with tunic and without tunic as factorial arrangement based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The corms were divided to four groups based on their weights and removed tunics of corm in tunic free treatment. Results indicated that the highest biomass produced in irrigation, corms with tunic with maximum weight. Both chlorophyll a and b contents decreased significantly under drought stress and chlorophyll b content was 50% of chlorophyll a content. Effect of corm size and corm tunic and interaction of these treatments imposed a significant effect on the leaf number per plant, leaf weight and chlorophyll content. Effect of corm tunic in 8-10 g corm size increased ch (a/ch (b ratio and leaf number. The relative water content was decreased in drought treatment in both tunic and tunicless treatments and the best corm weight in all treatment was 6-8g and could be useful to tolerate drought stress.

  5. Effects of exogenous epibrassinolide on photosynthetic characteristics in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) seedlings under weak light stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Jiang, Weijie; Yu, Hongjun

    2010-03-24

    The effects of three concentrations (0.1, 0.01, 0.001 mg/kg) of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide on leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and parameters of light response curve in tomato seedlings under 150 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) weak light stress were studied, with two tomato cultivars, 'Zhongza9', tolerant, and 'Zhongshu6', sensitive to weak light stress. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), maximal photochemical quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), light saturation point (LSP), and dark respiration rate (Rd) decreased remarkably under weak light, but the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b (chlb) content, increased obviously compared with normal light intensity control. However, exogenous 24-epibrassinolide alleviated the decrease of leaf Pn and Fv/Fm and induced the further increase of chlb content as well as the further decrease of Rd and chla/chlb under weak light stress, which indicated that exogenous 24-epibrassinolide could enhance plant tolerance to weak light and diminish damage from weak light. However, the optimum concentrations were different between the two cultivars; 0.1 mg/kg 24-epibrassinolide showed the best induction effects in 'Zhongshu6', and the best level for 'Zhongza9' was 0.01 mg/kg 24-epibrassinolide.

  6. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. [Effects of desulfurization waste on calcium distribution, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and antioxidant characteristics of rice leaf under alkali stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gui-Lian; Xu, Xing; Zeng, Jin; Yue, Zi-Hui; Yang, Shu-Juan

    2012-02-01

    To approach the action mechanisms of desulfurization waste on alleviating alkali stress-induced injury of rice, a pot experiment was conducted to study the variations of leaf total calcium content, calcium distribution, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and reactive oxygen content of rice seedlings under alkali stress after the application of desulfurization waste. In the control, a few calcium particulates scattered in the cell wall and chloroplasts, while applying desulfurization waste or CaSO4 increased the calcium particulates in the plasma membrane, intercellular space, cell wall, and vacuole significantly. With the increasing application rate of desulfurization waste or CaSO4, the leaf total calcium content increased, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membrane and tonoplast presented an increasing trend, plasma membrane relative permeability, MDA content, and O2 production rate decreased, and SOD and POD activities increased. The desulfurization waste could relieve the alkali stress to rice in some extent, and the main reactive compound in the waste could be CaSO4.

  8. Workplace bullying and its relation with work characteristics, personality, and post-traumatic stress symptoms: an integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Cristian; Fraccaroli, Franco; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2011-10-01

    Workplace bullying refers to prolonged exposure to frequent hostile behaviors at work, which can lead to severe stress reactions. Research in this area has not revealed a clear picture on how bullying escalates in organizations. Drawing on recent developments in work stress theory, this study tested a comprehensive model of bullying in which work environmental and personality factors were hypothesized to act as antecedents of bullying and post-traumatic stress symptoms as an outcome. Structural equation modeling on data provided by 609 public sector employees in Italy showed that job demands (workload and role conflict) and job resources (decision authority, co-worker support and salary/promotion prospects) were related to bullying over and above neuroticism, and that bullying mediated the relationship between job demands and PTSD symptoms. Evidence also emerged for a buffering effect of job resources on the job demands-bullying relationship. Overall results are compatible with a view of bullying as a strain phenomenon, initiated by both work environmental and personality factors.

  9. Effect of Surface Roughness on MHD Couple Stress Squeeze-Film Characteristics between a Sphere and a Porous Plane Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajashekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of couple stress and surface roughness on the MHD squeeze-film lubrication between a sphere and a porous plane surface are analyzed, based upon the thin-film magnetohydrodynamic (MHD theory. Using Stoke’s theory to account for the couple stresses due to the microstructure additives and the Christensen’s stochastic method developed for hydrodynamic lubrication of rough surfaces derives the stochastic MHD Reynolds-type equation. The expressions for the mean MHD squeeze-film pressure, mean load-carrying capacity, and mean squeeze-film time are obtained. The results indicate that the couple stress fluid in the film region enhances the mean MHD squeeze-film pressure, load-carrying capacity, and squeeze-film time. The effect of roughness parameter is to increase (decrease the load-carrying capacity and lengthen the response time for azimuthal (radial roughness patterns as compared to the smooth case. Also, the effect of porous parameter is to decrease the load-carrying capacity and increase the squeeze-film time as compared to the solid case.

  10. The characteristics and residual stress of aluminum nitride films grown by two-stage sputtering of mid-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.-C.; Cheng, H.-E.; Tang, S.-H.; Liu, W.-C.; Lee, Antony H.C.

    2008-01-01

    The [0 0 2] oriented aluminum nitride has a high surface acoustic wave speed and high mechanic-electron couple coefficient. It is a potential material for manufacturing piezoelectric devices in high frequency application. The AlN films deposited onto silicon substrates were fabricated by two-stage sputtering process with mid-frequency generator. The results showed that the film did not have well [0 0 2] preferred orientation at 1.0 and 1.5 kW, and exhibited a [0 0 2] preferred orientation at 2.0 kW. The adhesion was poor when the film had a high preferred orientation because the substrate was damaged by high energetic atoms bombardment. A two-stage growth method was investigated in order to get high [0 0 2] preferred orientation and good adhesion. A good performance was obtained at the first stage power of 1.5 kW and the second stage power of 2.0 kW. The film showed a tensile stress state when the film was deposited at 1.0 kW. In contrast, the stress state was changed to compressive when the films were grown at 2.0 kW. The two-stage growth could succeed not only to get a high [0 0 2] preferred orientation but also to develop a reducing global stress film

  11. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    Full Text Available Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar, were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA. The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P < 0.05. Heat stress also decreased the zeatin riboside (ZR content, but increased the gibberellin (GA3, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and abscisic acid (ABA contents at 3 to 15 DAA. Application of 6-BA significantly (P < 0.05 increased the grain-filling rate, endosperm cell division rate, endosperm cell number, and 1,000-grain weight under heated condition. 6-BA application increased ZR and IAA contents at 3 to 28 DAA, but decreased GA3 and ABA contents. The contents of ZR, ABA, and IAA in kernels were positively and significantly correlated with the grain-filling rate (P < 0.05, whereas GA3 was counter-productive at 3 to 15 DAA. These results suggest that the decrease in grain yield under heat stress was due to a lower ZR content and a higher GA3 content compared to that at elevated temperature during the early development of the kernels, which resulted in less kernel number and lower grain-filling rate. The results also provide essential information for further utilization of the cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat.

  12. The Effect of Drought Stress and Plant Density on Biochemical and Physiological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Akbari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought stress is the most important growth limiting factor for crop production. Sugar accumulation under drought stress strengthens and stabilizes cell membranes and maintains the water absorption and turgid property. Under stress conditions, proline will also maintain the turgor pressure and decreased the damages caused to plant membrane. Although proline concentrations may have undesirable effects on plant growth, because of deflecting photosynthetic resources to the processes that are not involved in plant growth. Chloroplasts and its pigments are also affected by drought stress. Density is one of the factors that has a significant impact on plant growth. Garlic is one of the edible plants which has generated considerable interest throughout human history because of its pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to determine the effects of drought stress and plant density on some biochemical and physiological treats of two garlic ecotypes and determining the more resistant ecotype. Materials and Methods The study was carried out in 2011-2012 in a farm land at the south east of Semnan city. The experimental layout was a split-plot factorial with a randomized complete block design in three replications. The treatments were comprised of three factors: irrigation regimes (60%, 80% and 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETC that were assigned as the main plot and the factorial combination of 3 levels of planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants. m-2 and two ecotypes (Tabas and Toroud made up the sub-plots. The water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 crop water requirements instruction. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate evapotranspiration. To calculate the content of soluble sugar, proline and leaves pigment, the samples were collected in a random way from the youngest fully expended leaves one month before the final harvest. Relative water content was estimated by measuring dry weight, fresh weight

  13. Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivair André Nava

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, pois os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn, um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas.Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tissues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn, a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application. Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double

  14. Work stress and patient safety: observer-rated work stressors as predictors of characteristics of safety-related events reported by young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, A; Semmer, N K; Grebner, S

    This study investigates the link between workplace stress and the 'non-singularity' of patient safety-related incidents in the hospital setting. Over a period of 2 working weeks 23 young nurses from 19 hospitals in Switzerland documented 314 daily stressful events using a self-observation method (pocket diaries); 62 events were related to patient safety. Familiarity of safety-related events and probability of recurrence, as indicators of non-singularity, were the dependent variables in multilevel regression analyses. Predictor variables were both situational (self-reported situational control, safety compliance) and chronic variables (job stressors such as time pressure, or concentration demands and job control). Chronic work characteristics were rated by trained observers. The most frequent safety-related stressful events included incomplete or incorrect documentation (40.3%), medication errors (near misses 21%), delays in delivery of patient care (9.7%), and violent patients (9.7%). Familiarity of events and probability of recurrence were significantly predicted by chronic job stressors and low job control in multilevel regression analyses. Job stressors and low job control were shown to be risk factors for patient safety. The results suggest that job redesign to enhance job control and decrease job stressors may be an important intervention to increase patient safety.

  15. Characteristics of the stress-induced formation of R-phase in ultrafine-grained NiTi shape memory wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbricht, J.; Yawny, A.; Pelegrina, J.L.; Eggeler, G.; Yardley, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We investigated the stress-induced formation of R-phase in NiTi shape memory wires. •The R-phase related strains were isolated from the overall stress-strain-behavior. •The stress–strain characteristics of R-phase suggest a homogeneous transformation. •Thermography confirms the homogeneous R-phase formation in ultrafine-grained NiTi. -- Abstract: The transformation between the cubic B2 and monoclinic B19′ phases in ultrafine-grained pseudoelastic NiTi can occur as a two-step process involving the intermediate rhombohedral R-phase. Experimental work using differential scanning calorimetry, electrical resistance measurements and transmission electron microscopy has demonstrated the formation of this intermediate phase during thermal cycling and during mechanical loading. In the present paper, complementary mechanical and thermographic results are presented which allow to further assess the character of the stress-induced R-phase formation. The transformation from B2 to R-phase is demonstrated to occur homogeneously within the gauge length rather than via advancing Lüders-type transition regions as it is the case in the localized transformation from B2 or R-phase to B19′

  16. Stress analysis of liners for prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels with regard to non-linear behaviour of liner material and of anchor-characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberpichler, R.; Schnellenbach, G.

    1975-01-01

    The thin liner attached by anchors like a membrane to the interior wall of a prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessel (PCRV) has to provide the leak-tightness of the vessel. Furthermore the liner may serve as internal shuttering for placing of concrete as well as a support for the cooling system. The two-dimensional behaviour of the liner is investigated with regard to non-linear anchor-characteristics and non-linear material behaviour of the liner. The analysis is based on a plane stress model under the assumption of a membrane state of the liner. Calculations are performed by the dynamic relaxation method. With the aid of available non-linear stress-strain diagrams, describing the post-buckling behaviour, individual panels are considered as buckled ones. The adjacent unbuckled panels are calculated on other non-linear diagrams. Strains and stresses in the liner and additional shear loads in the anchors can be calculated with arbitrary sizing and spacing of the anchors. With respect to the parameters they are easily controlled. Since actual loads on the liner are defined by the PCRV-behaviour, an economical and safe design is possible. Finally an extreme case is calculated to assess the maximum value of the shear-forces assuming zero post-buckling capacity for the buckled panel. (Auth.)

  17. Novel Step-Up DC/DC Converter with No Right Half Plane Zero and Reduced Switched Voltage Stress Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    and the voltage transfer gain is obtained. It is also demonstrated that the voltage stress on all semiconductor devices is restricted to input voltage which allows the utilization of a power switch with lower drain source resistance. In order to further increase the voltage gain another switched capacitor voltage......Novel step-up DC/DC converter is introduced in this paper. This converter is realized with adding the switched capacitor voltage multiplier cell to the three switch step-down DC/DC converter that has been proposed in the literature. The proposed converter is analyzed in the steady state...

  18. [Effects of exogenous silicon on the pollination and fertility characteristics of hybrid rice under heat stress during anthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yang; Chen, Dan; Luo, Hai-Wei; Yao, Yi-min; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Tsutomu, Matsui; Tian, Xiao-Hai

    2013-11-01

    Taking two medium-maturing indica rice hybrids Jinyou 63 and Shanyou 63 as test materials, this paper studied the effects of applying silicon fertilizer on the flag leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic properties, antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, pollen vigor, anther acid invertase activity, pollination, and seed-setting of hybrid rice under the heat stress during anthesis. This study was conducted in pots and under growth chamber. Soluble solution of silicon fertilizer applied as Na2SiO3 x 9H2O was sprayed on the growing plants after early jointing stage, with three times successively and at an interval of one week. The pots were then moved into growth chamber to subject to normal temperature vs. high temperature (termed as heat stress) for five days. In treatment normal temperature, the average daily temperature was set at 26.6 degrees C, and the maximum daily temperature was set at 29.4 degres C; in treatment high temperature, the average and the maximum daily temperature were set at 33.2 degrees C and 40.1 degrees C, respectively. As compared with the control, applying silicon increased the flag leaf chlorophyll content significantly, improved the net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, decreased the accumulative inter- cellular CO2 concentration, improved the leaf photosynthesis, reduced the MDA content, and improved the activities of SOD, POD and CAT under heat stress. In addition, applying silicon improved the anther acid invertase activity and the pollen vigor, increased the anther basal dehiscence width, total number of pollination per stigma, germinated number, germination rate of pollen, and percentage of florets with more than 10 germinated pollen grains, decreased the percentage of florets with fewer than 20 germinated pollen grains, and thus, alleviated the fertility loss of Jinyou 63 and Shanyou 63 under heat stress by 13.4% and 14.1%, respectively. It was suggested that spraying exogenous silicon in the

  19. Effect of Trinexapac-Ethyl and Traffic Stress on Physiological and Morphological Characteristics of Wheat Grass(Agropyron desertorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Sheikh Mohamadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of trinexapac ethyl concentrations (0, 250 and 500 g/h and traffic stress (traffic and non traffic treatments on wheat grass physiological and morphological traits, an experiment was conducted on research farm of Isfahan University of Technology in 2011 - 2012 as factorial in completely randomized designs with three replications. The studied traits involved plant height and plant density, shoot dry weight and fresh weights, tillering, chlorophyll level, roots and shoot dissolved carbohydrates. Results showed that Trinexapac ethyl reduced plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of cut parts significantly. Application of 250 and 500 g/h Trinexapac ethyl decreased plant height by 21.23 percent and 31.85 percent respectively. Application of Trinexapac ethyl improved plant height, tillering and chlorophyll level. In contrast, chlorophyll level was decreased substantially under traffic treatment and this treatment did not affect wheat grass density and tillering significantly. Under 500 g/h Trinexapac ethyl treatment, tillering was increased by 36 percent compared with under control condition one. Results showed that Trinexapac ethyl application and traffic increased dissolved carbohydrates of root and shoot significantly. As a result, it was found that wheat grass is a traffic resistant plant and it seems that the use of Trinexapac ethyl increases plant resistance to traffic stress

  20. Pore-Scale Investigation on Stress-Dependent Characteristics of Granular Packs and Their Impact on Multiphase Fluid Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrealba, V.; Karpyn, Z.; Yoon, H.; Hart, D. B.; Klise, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    The pore-scale dynamics that govern multiphase flow under variable stress conditions are not well understood. This lack of fundamental understanding limits our ability to quantitatively predict multiphase flow and fluid distributions in natural geologic systems. In this research, we focus on pore-scale, single and multiphase flow properties that impact displacement mechanisms and residual trapping of non-wetting phase under varying stress conditions. X-ray micro-tomography is used to image pore structures and distribution of wetting and non-wetting fluids in water-wet synthetic granular packs, under dynamic load. Micro-tomography images are also used to determine structural features such as medial axis, surface area, and pore body and throat distribution; while the corresponding transport properties are determined from Lattice-Boltzmann simulations performed on lattice replicas of the imaged specimens. Results are used to investigate how inter-granular deformation mechanisms affect fluid displacement and residual trapping at the pore-scale. This will improve our understanding of the dynamic interaction of mechanical deformation and fluid flow during enhanced oil recovery and geologic CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. SOWING DENSITIES AND NPK AND LIMING LEVELS ON COMMON BEAN YIELD, IN CONVENTIONAL CROPPING SYSTEM, IN PONTA GROSSA, PARANÁ STATE, BRAZIL DENSIDADES DE SEMEADURA E NÍVEIS DE NPK E CALAGEM NA PRODUÇÃO DO FEIJOEIRO SOB PLANTIO CONVENCIONAL, EM PONTA GROSSA, PARANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando de Albuquerque

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to identify the most appropriate plant populations and fertilizer-liming levels for the conventional crop system, with the Iapar 81 cultivar, a type II common bean, on a heavy clay soil in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil. An experiment was carried out in the 2003/2004 summer rainy growing season. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, and treatments in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, with four populations (100 thousand, 200 thousand, 300 thousand, and 400 thousand plants ha-1 and four NPK-liming levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the recommended doses of NPK and lime. Plant height and grain yield, with their primary components (pod number per plant, grain number per pod and one hundred grains weight, were evaluated. Results allowed concluding that the increase of NPK-lime levels improved the plant height by 48%, the pod number per plant by 66%, and the grain yield by 88%, while the increase of plant population resulted in a decrease of 18% for plant height and 65% for pod number per plant, with no effect on the grain yield.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; plant population; fertilization; soil liming.

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar populações de plantas e níveis de adubação e calagem mais adequados para o plantio convencional da cultivar de

  2. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average

  3. Partição de biomassa seca e nutriente em minicepas de eucalipto influenciada pela adubação NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira Carvalho Neto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986615O estado nutricional da planta-matriz é de grande importância para a manutenção do seu vigor vegetativo, o que determina a produção de brotos e também os índices de enraizamento e velocidade de formação das raízes, uma vez que os macronutrientes e os micronutrientes estão envolvidos nos processos bioquímicos e fisiológicos vitais à planta. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a partição de biomassa seca e nutriente em minicepa de eucalipto em solução nutritiva. O trabalho foi realizado de novembro de 2008 a janeiro de 2009, em casa de vegetação. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial fracionado (4x4x41/2, perfazendo 32 tratamentos com três repetições. Os tratamentos se constituíram de quatro doses dos nutrientes de N (50; 100; 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de ureia, P (7,5; 15; 30 e 60 mg L-1 na forma de ácido fosfórico e K (50; 100; 200 e 400 mg L-1 na forma de cloreto de potássio em solução nutritiva. Houve efeito significativo apenas para as doses de N isoladamente, para a biomassa seca das miniestacas e biomassa seca da parte aérea e raiz das minicepas com efeito linear decrescente, com o aumento das doses de N. A dose de 50 mg L-1 de N proporcionou maior acúmulo de biomassa seca das miniestacas e minicepas. A distribuição percentual da biomassa seca e dos nutrientes na biomassa seca das miniestacas, parte aérea e raízes das minicepas variou em relação às doses de N. A extração de macronutrientes pelas miniestacas de 6 cm na dose de 50 mg L-1 de N seguiu a seguinte ordem decrescente de N > S > P > K > Ca > Mg e micronutrientes de Cu > B > Mn > Fe > Zn.

  4. Efeitos da adubação NPK na fertilidade do solo, nutrição e crescimento da seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Bataglia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes combinações de doses de fertilizantes NPK, durante o período de formação do seringal, sobre as características químicas do solo, nutrição mineral e crescimento de árvores de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.], clone RRIM 600. O experimento foi instalado em 1985 e realizado até 1993, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, testando as doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicadas na forma de uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. Foi usado Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Podzólico distrófico A moderado de textura arenosa/média, localizado no município de Avaí, estado de São Paulo, no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das árvores. A avaliação do experimento foi feita por meio da análise de solo, de folha e medida do perímetro do caule. O fertilizante nitrogenado (uréia foi o que causou maiores alterações com intensa acidificação do solo. Além de alterar diversos atributos do solo, a aplicação de uréia elevou as concentrações de N e reduziu as de K e S nas folhas. A fertilização fosfatada aumentou a disponibilidade de P no solo e a concentração nas folhas, o mesmo acontecendo com a adubação potássica em relação à disponibilidade de K no solo e na planta. Apesar disso, as correlações entre as concentrações de P e K no solo e nas folhas e o período de imaturidade não foram coerentes com esse aumento de disponibilidade. Mesmo sem a aplicação de micronutrientes, observou-se que as concentrações de B nas folhas correlacionaram-se positivamente com o período de imaturidade, enquanto os demais micronutrientes pouco influíram na fertilidade do solo.

  5. Structural Response of the Earth's Crust to an Extra-Terrestrial Source of Stress by Identifying its Characteristic Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, B.

    2016-12-01

    The earth's crust is a geodynamic realm, which is constantly evolving. Due to its dynamic nature, the crust is constantly being subjected to remodelling. The earth's crustal response to stress is a result of isostatic compensation. The crust is also a living proof of yesteryears' dynamics. Extra-terrestrial agents of deformation refers to meteorites, asteroids etc. These are catastrophic events that influence a larger area (considering larger impact bodies). They effect the crust from outside, hence leave behind very specific structural signatures.Consider an extra-terrestrial object impacting the earth's crust. The problem can be broken down into 3 parts: Pre Impact (kinematics of the object and nature of surface of impact); Syn Impact (dissipation of energy and formation of crater); and Post Impact (structural response, geophysical anomalies and effect on biota)Upon impact, the projectile penetrates the earth's crust to a depth of twice its diameter. Shock waves generated due impact propagate in all possible directions. The reflected waves cause complete melting and vaporization of the impact body. At the same time, increased internal energy of the system melts the target rock. Depending on the thickness and density of crustal matter, its' interaction with the mantle is determined. Data collection from such impact sites is the first step towards its theoretical modeling. Integrating geophysical (seismic, magnetic), paleomagnetic, geochemical and geo-chronological data one can determine the kinematic parameters that governed the event. A working model that illustrates the crustal responses to extraterrestrial stress of extreme magnitude cannot be qualitative. Hence the most fundamental thing at this point is quantification of these parameters. The variables form a `mass-energy equation', a simple theorem in Classical Physics. This project is directed to give the equation its shape. The equation will be the foundation on which the simulation model will rest. Mass

  6. Characteristic of the Oxidative Stress in Blood of Patients in Dependence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravlyova, Larissa; Molotov-Luchankiy, Vilen; Bakirova, Ryszhan; Klyuyev, Dmitriy; Demidchik, Ludmila; Lee, Valentina

    2016-03-15

    At the present time the alternation of the oxidative metabolism is considered as one of the leading pathogenic mechanisms in the development and progression of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However the nature and direction of the oxidative protein changes in CAP patient's blood had been almost unexplored. To define oxidative and modified proteins in erythrocytes and blood plasma of CAP patients. Blood plasma and erythrocytes obtained from: 42 patients with moderate severity pneumonia, 12 patients with grave severity pneumonia and 32 healthy volunteers. Content of advanced oxidation protein products, malondialdehyde and reactive carbonyl derivatives were estimated as indicators of the oxidative stress and oxidative damage of proteins. In patients with grave severity the level of oxidative proteins and MDA in erythrocytes exceeded both: control values and similar meanings in CAP patients with moderate severity. The further growth of MDA in this group patients' blood plasma was observed, but the level of oxidative proteins decreased in comparison with those in CAP patients with moderate severity. To sum up, our derived data show, that injury of erythrocytes' redox-status and blood plasma components plays an essential role in development and progression CAP.

  7. Hair coat characteristics and thermophysiological stress response of Nguni and Boran cows raised under hot environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.

    2017-12-01

    Breed, age, coat colour, month and temperature humidity index (THI) influence on body weight (W), body condition score (BCS), thermophysiological variables (rectal temperature (Tr), skin temperature (Tsk)) and hair length was studied in Nguni ( n = 19) and Boran ( n = 16). As a result of this study, breed influenced W, BCS and Tsk on the neck and belly ( P cows were higher than the Boran cows. Hair length of both breeds increased from February to August. The THI influenced thermophysiological variables ( P cows (3-8 years) had lower weight and high Tr and Tsk ( P cows had high neck and thurl temperatures in June while Boran cows had the highest in August ( P cows had increased BCS. Nguni cows with red, fawn and white cows had high BCS. Fawn-coloured Nguni cows and white-brown Boran cows had the more weight than cows with other colours compared in the study. White-red Nguni and Boran cows recorded the highest Tr. For Nguni cows, neck and belly temperatures were significantly ( P cows had significant ( P cows were more adapted to the prevailing bioclimatic changes. However, Boran cows have the potential of performing well under heat stress conditions over time.

  8. Stress-induced leakage current characteristics of PMOS fabricated by a new multi-deposition multi-annealing technique with full gate last process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanrong; Yang Hong; Xu Hao; Luo Weichun; Qi Luwei; Zhang Shuxiang; Wang Wenwu; Zhu Huilong; Zhao Chao; Chen Dapeng; Ye Tianchun; Yan Jiang

    2017-01-01

    In the process of high- k films fabrication, a novel multi deposition multi annealing (MDMA) technique is introduced to replace simple post deposition annealing. The leakage current decreases with the increase of the post deposition annealing (PDA) times. The equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) decreases when the annealing time(s) change from 1 to 2. Furthermore, the characteristics of SILC (stress-induced leakage current) for an ultra-thin SiO 2 /HfO 2 gate dielectric stack are studied systematically. The increase of the PDA time(s) from 1 to 2 can decrease the defect and defect generation rate in the HK layer. However, increasing the PDA times to 4 and 7 may introduce too much oxygen, therefore the type of oxygen vacancy changes. (paper)

  9. The effect of oblique angle of sound incidence, realistic edge conditions, curvature and in-plane panel stresses on the noise reduction characteristics of general aviation type panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, F.; Lameris, J.; Dunn, D.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments and a theoretical analysis were conducted to predict the noise reduction of inclined and curved panels. These predictions are compared to the experimental results with reasonable agreement between theory and experiment for panels under an oblique angle of sound incidence. Theoretical as well as experimental results indicate a big increase in noise reduction when a flat test panel is curved. Further curving the panel slightly decreases the noise reduction. Riveted flat panels are shown to give a higher noise reduction in the stiffness-controlled frequency region, while bonded panels are superior in this region when the test panel is curved. Experimentally measured noise reduction characteristics of flat aluminum panels with uniaxial in-plane stresses are presented and discussed. These test results indicate an important improvement in the noise reduction of these panels in the frequency range below the fundamental panel/cavity frequency.

  10. Effect of salt stress and seed priming methods on emergence and seedling characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Salehi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ]Introduction The main limiting factor for food security in Iran and world is water qualitative and quantitative. Agriculture sector is the main consumer of water and more vulnerable section from water crisis. In order to improve food security calorie requirement of growing population should be provided from nonsaline water resources. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is diploeid, allotetraploied, C3 and facultative halophyte from Amaranthace family and categorized in pseudo cereal group. This plant has cultivated 5000 years in Ands, and the highest cultivated area is in Bolivia near salt flats. This plant can grow successfully in different countries such as, Europe countries, USA, Canada, Africa, Morocco, Pakistan and India. Protein content is between 13.81-21.9% and flour is gluten free and provides all essential amino acid of human. Because of high potential of quinoa for providing human calories and high salt and drought tolerance it could be considered for saline and marginal area. Quinoa was selected for cultivation with saline water because of salt tolerance and economic production with saline water which are not use for conventional crop. The main problem of quinoa is emergence and stand establishment with saline water. The aim of this study is evaluation of salinity stress on plant emergence and priming effect of emergence improvement under saline condition. Materials and methods In order to evaluate salinity stress on emergence and establishment of quinoa an experiment was conducted based on CRD design with 5 levels of salinity (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS/m with four replication in soil and cocopit. Emergence recorded daily and finally plant height and dry weight was measured. Two piece and modified discount function model was fitted to emergence percent. In order to improve emergence under saline condition an experiment was conducted with three treatments (Gibberlic acid (10 ppm, H2O and Ascorbic acid (3 ppm and four levels of salinity (0, 4 and

  11. Interactive effects of copper stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on photosynthetic characteristics and chlorphyl fluorescence parameters of elsholtzia splendens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Jin, Z.; Li, J.

    2017-01-01

    To determine interactive effects of added copper (Cu) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on the photosynthesis of Elsholtzia splendens, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted. Four treatments were used, including -Cu-AMF (no Cu addition and no AMF inoculation), +Cu-AMF (Cu addition but no AMF inoculation), -Cu+AMF (no Cu addition and AMF inoculation), and +Cu+AMF (Cu addition and AMF inoculation). Cu addition did not change diurnal variation curves of the net photosynthetic rate(PN), the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (Ci), the stomatal conductance (gs), or the transpiration rate (E); however, it significantly decreased the daily mean PN, gs, E, light-use efficiency (LUE), and carboxylation efficiency (CE). Furthermore, AMF inoculation significantly increased the daily mean PN, gs, LUE, and CE of E. splendens. In response to light, Cu addition significantly decreased the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (PNmax), the light saturation point (LSP), the light compensation point (LCP), and the apparent quantum yield (AQY), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax and AQY. In response to the CO/sub 2/ concentration, Cu addition significantly decreased PNmax and the CO/sub 2/ saturation point (CSP), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax. Both Cu addition and AMF inoculation significantly decreased the relative chlorophyll content. Compared to the negative control treatment (-Cu-AMF), Cu addition significantly increased the minimal fluorescence, but significantly decreased maximal fluorescence, variable fluorescence,and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. These results suggest that AMF inoculations alleviate the inhibitory effect of copper stress on E. splendens plants by weakening its toxic effects on the photosynthetic apparatus and pigments. (author)

  12. The Effects of Silymarin on Oxidative Status and Bone Characteristics in Japanese Quail Subjected to Oxidative Stress Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Silymarin on oxidative status, bone characteristics, and some blood parameters in Japanese quail subjected to oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with four replicates, each with 30 birds, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two doses of Silymarin (0 and 1 mL/kg BW and CCl4 (0 and 1 mL/kg BW. Results revealed that the interaction between Silymarin and CCl4on concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, albumin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were significant (P < 0.05. In contrast, concentrations of phosphorus, total protein, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in blood serum did not differ between experimental treatments. Experimental treatments had a significant effect on superoxide dismutase activity in blood serum (P < 0.05, but not on glutathione peroxide activity and malondialdehyde concentration. Experimental treatments significantly affected the weight, thickness, and external and internal diameters of tibia bone (P < 0.05, but not its length, ash, volume, and density. This study shows that Silymarin has potential to attenuate adverse effects of oxidative stress induced by CCl4 in Japanese quail.

  13. Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banovački Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 μT, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 μT, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 μT-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

  14. Sense of coherence and socio-demographic characteristics predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms and recovery in the aftermath of the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhi, Shaul; Eshel, Yohanan; Zysberg, Leehu; Hantman, Shira; Enosh, Guy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sense of coherence (SOC) as a mediator between demographic attributes of individuals (gender, age, economic situation, and exposure to traumatic events during the war) and two war outcomes (postwar stress symptoms and perceived posttraumatic recovery). The participants were 870 adults (ages ranged between 20 and 85), who were affected by the Second Lebanon War and were evacuated from their home town. They were administered the research questionnaire approximately one year after this war. Path analysis indicated the following: gender, age, economic situation, and exposure were significantly associated with level of symptoms as well as perceived recovery. However, three of these connections (age, economic, and exposure) were partially mediated by SOC which was linked with lower levels of stress symptoms and higher levels of perceived posttraumatic recovery. Unlike our hypothesis, exposure by age interaction was not significantly associated with SOC and the two war outcomes. Results supported the hypotheses that SOC mediates between demographic characteristics and negative (symptoms) as well as positive (perceived recovery) war outcomes.

  15. The Effect of Vermicompost and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Grain Yield and some Physiological Characteristics of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Water Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jahangiri nia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Moisture limitation is considered as one of the important limiting factors in soybean growth. Drought stress affects different aspects of soybean growth through making anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes (Tarumingkeng & Coto, 2003. Under dry tension condition, there will be a disturbance in transmitting nutrients, but some useful soil fungi such as mycorrhiza improve production of crops under stress through forming colonies in the root and boosting water and nutrient absorption (Al-Karaki et al., 2004. Using vermicompost in sustainable agriculture strengthens support and activities of beneficial soil microorganisms (such as mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in order to provide nutrients required by plants like nitrogen, phosphorus and soluble potassium as well as improving the growth and performance of the crops (Arancon et al., 2004. Materials and methods In order to investigate the effects of vermicompost and mycorrhiza fertilizers on grain yield and some physiological characteristics of soybean under water stress condition an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Khorramabad during 2013. The field experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plot with four replications. The experiment treatments including irrigation in three levels (after 60, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from pan class A pan, nutrient management in six levels (non-use of vermicompost and mycorhiza fertilizer, inoculated with mycorrhiza fertilizer, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost with mycorrhiza were respectively as the main plots and sub. In current study, RWC, LAI, SPAD were measured during 59 days after planting at the beginning of podding of the control treatment. The temperature of plant leaves were measured by the thermometer (model TM-958 LUTRON infrared Thermometers. To analyze the growth of

  16. Sources of stress for breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating: examining associations with treatment characteristics and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadd, Valerie; Sabiston, Catherine M; McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to (1) identify common stressors faced by breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating, (2) examine the conceptual and statistical factor groupings of the stressors, (3) identify differences in stressor factors based on treatment characteristics, and (4) examine the associations between stressor factors and two indicators of self-esteem. Survivors (n = 470) involved in dragon boating completed a survey assessing stressor frequency, stressor intensity, stressor valence, physical self-worth, and global self-esteem, along with demographic and cancer treatment information. An exploratory factor analyses (EFA) using maximum likelihood extraction with oblique rotation revealed a four-factor solution that included physical, emotional, social, and exercise-related stressors. Exercise-related stressors were reported more frequently and intensely but were appraised positively by most survivors. The physical, emotional, and social stressors were perceived predominantly as negative. Findings also revealed that physical and emotional stressors and exercise-related stressors were correlates of physical self-worth (R(2) = 0.26). Emotional, social, and exercise-related stressors were significant correlates of global self-esteem (R(2) = 0.11). Cancer treatments were also associated with the experience of stressors, with the strongest effects reported for chemotherapy treatment. Overall, the results demonstrate that participants experienced many stressors but that exercise-related stressors were viewed as more adaptive and were positive correlates of self-esteem processes.

  17. Carcass characteristics, physicochemical changes and oxidative stress indicators of meat from sheep fed diets with coffee pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salinas-Rios

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how feeding sheep coffee pulp affects carcass characteristics and what changes occur in physicochemical, antioxidant capacity and oxidation of the meat during refrigerated storage. The experiment was carried out in 15 Blackbelly lambs weighing an average 22.86±0.76kg. The animals were assigned to three treatments: T0=control diet, T1=diet with 8% coffee pulp, and T2=diet with 16% coffee pulp. After fattening for 56 days, the sheep were slaughtered and the carcasses assessed. The inclusion of 16% coffee pulp in the diet increased carcass dressing from 48.19 to 50.83% and decreased the amount of fat in rumen and intestines from 3.43 to 2.53% (P<0.05. The inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet did not alter the amount of crude protein or fat in meat or its oxidation and antioxidant capacity during refrigerated storage. However, the inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet decreased fat in the rumen and intestines, and thus increased the amount of usable meat.

  18. Characteristics of objective daytime sleep among individuals with earthquake-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A pilot community-based polysomnographic and multiple sleep latency test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Yun; Zhu, Hongru; Cui, Haofei; Qiu, Changjian; Tang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the objective sleep characteristics of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examines the association between PTSD symptom severity and objective daytime sleep characteristics measured using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) in therapy-naïve patients with earthquake-related PTSD. A total of 23 PTSD patients and 13 trauma-exposed non-PTSD (TEN-PTSD) subjects completed one-night in-lab polysomnography (PSG) followed by a standard MSLT. 8 of the 23 PTSD patients received paroxetine treatment. Compared to the TEN-PTSD subjects, no significant nighttime sleep disturbances were detected by PSG in the subjects with PTSD; however, a shorter mean MSLT value was found in the subjects with PTSD. After adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index, PTSD symptoms, particularly hyperarousal, were found to be independently associated with a shorter MSLT value. Further, the mean MSLT value increased significantly after therapy in PTSD subjects. A shorter MSLT value may be a reliable index of the medical severity of PTSD, while an improvement in MSLT values might also be a reliable marker for evaluating therapeutic efficacy in PTSD patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Effects of Nano Chelated Zinc and Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation on Some Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rezaei Chiyaneh

    2017-06-01

    biotic (root pathogens stress resistance of the host. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effects of nano-zinc fertilizer and mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis on some agronomic and physiological characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under drought stress conditions, an experiment was arranged as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, West Azarbaijan Province, Naghadeh city during growing season of 2013-2014. The main factor consisted of four irrigation levels (irrigation after 60, 110, 160 and 210 mm evaporation from pan and sub factor included four fertilizer levels (nano fertilizer, mycorrhizal, mycorrhizal+nano fertilizer and control. Studied traits were number of head per plant, number of seed per head, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, oil percentage, soluble sugars and proline contents. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT were performed using SAS version 9.9 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Results and Discussion The results declared that increasing drought stress decreased yield and yield components (such as number of head per plant, number of seed per head and 1000-seed weight significantly. But, application of fertilizer sources decreased the drought effects, so in irrigation levels, application of nano fertilizer, mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal+nano fertilizer increased these traits. The highest seed yield (2588 kg.ha-1 was obtained in irrigation after 60 mm evaporation of pan with using mycorrhizal+nano fertilizer and the lowest amount (1836.6 kg.ha-1 from irrigation after 210 mm evaporation of pan and control. Oil percentage decreased by increasing drought stress, but oil percentage with application of mycorrhizal+nano fertilizer significantly increased (11% compared to control (without application fertilizers. Increasing drought stress and use of nano zinc fertilizer and mycorrhizal

  20. Effects of short fiber reinforcement and mean stress on tensile fatigue strength characteristics of polyethersulfone; Tansen`i kyoka porieterusaruhon no hippari hiro tokusei ni oyobosu heikin oryoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furue, H.; Nonaka, K. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-01-15

    Thermoplastics are often reinforced with short fibers with aims of improvement of their strengths, rigidities and hardness or maintenance of their dimensional stabilities. Such short fiber reinforced plastic materials have more expectation for high performance plastics. Authors already examined of some effects of reinforced fiber and of orientation in injection molding on flexural fatigue characteristics of the injection-molded high performance thermoplastic materials. However, the examination of short fiber reinforced effects on fatigue strength characteristics was not always sufficient. In this study, in order to obtain a guiding principle for fatigue resistant design of the short fiber reinforced injection molding materials, polyethersulfones (PES) was examined on its tensile fatigue strength and an effect of short fiber reinforcement for improvement of its fundamental dynamic properties on its fatigue characteristics. Especially, its fatigue life characteristics was elucidated mainly on relationship of mean stress, stress amplitude and number of repeating fracture in tensile fatigue behavior. 10 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Stress Management and Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vidisha A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress can affect anyone, and gifted children are no exception. Giftedness can sometimes be the cause of the stress. Perfectionism, sensitivity, and intensity are characteristics of gifted children that may exacerbate stress. Stress can be constructive. Prolonged stress, however, with no time to recover becomes detrimental. Continued stress upsets…

  2. Influência da aplicação de NPK e calcário sobre o crescimento da erva- mate, severidade da podridão-de-raízes e população fúngica do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2011-01-01

    of NPK and liming in the soil hampered the development of Erva-mate seedlings. The analysis of some variables suggests that the limestone absence provided greater resistance of seedlings to the attack of Fusarium spp. or the severity of Fusarium spp. was reduced in lower pH. The fungi population of the soil presented varied behavior depending on the applied treatments.

  3. Macro design effects on stress distribution around implants: A photoelastic stress analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Emre Ozkir

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: As there were observable differences between the implant types, straight placed cylindrical implants showed better stress distribution characteristics, while inclined tapering implants had better stress distribution characteristics.

  4. Mobility and retention of micronutrients in soil : Part III. Investigation on the influence of various external factors, NPK-fertilizers and soil amending agents on the mobility and retention of manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Santikari, A.K.; Banerji, K.C.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations on the mobility and retention of manganese through Sindri red sandy clay loam of pH 7.4 and Ranchi clay loam of pH 5.6 have been carried out using the radiotracer 54 Mn. The vertical distribution of manganese in these soils showed almost sharp fall upto a depth of 12 to 14 cm and thereafter it tended to attain the saturation. Variations have been marked in the degrees of manganese retention at the top surface layers of the concerned soils. Influence of various NPK fertilizers and soil amending agents, at various application levels, have been studied on the mobility, retention and leaching loss of manganese in the prementioned soils. Marked variations have been recorded and discussed. (author)

  5. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  6. The relationship of gender and trauma characteristics to posttraumatic stress disorder in a community sample of traumatized northern plains American Indian adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Mukund; Novins, Douglas K; Beals, Janette

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have identified a high prevalence (25%-80%) of trauma among American Indian and non-American Indian adolescents and adults. However, only a fraction of traumatized individuals develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article examines the relationships of gender and trauma characteristics to a diagnosis of PTSD among a community sample of traumatized American Indian adolescents and young adults. Complete data were collected from 349 American Indians aged 15 to 24 years who participated in a cross-sectional community-based study from July 1997 to December 1999 and reported experiencing at least 1 traumatic event. Traumatic events and PTSD were assessed using a version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Logistic regression determined the relationships of gender, trauma type, age at first trauma, and number of traumas to the development of PTSD. Forty-two participants (12.0% of those who experienced a traumatic event) met criteria for lifetime PTSD. While all 4 of the independent variables noted above demonstrated univariate associations with PTSD, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only experiencing a sexual trauma (odds ratio [OR] = 4.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.76 to 11.28) and having experienced 6 or more traumas (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.06 to 6.04) were independent predictors of meeting criteria for PTSD. American Indian children and adolescents who experience sexual trauma and multiple traumatic experiences may be at particularly high risk for developing PTSD.

  7. Real-time synchronous measurement of curing characteristics and polymerization stress in bone cements with a cantilever-beam based instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagummi, Sri Vikram; Landis, Forrest A.; Chiang, Martin Y. M.

    2018-03-01

    An instrumentation capable of simultaneously determining degree of conversion (DC), polymerization stress (PS), and polymerization exotherm (PE) in real time was introduced to self-curing bone cements. This comprises the combination of an in situ high-speed near-infrared spectrometer, a cantilever-beam instrument with compliance-variable feature, and a microprobe thermocouple. Two polymethylmethacrylate-based commercial bone cements, containing essentially the same raw materials but differ in their viscosity for orthopedic applications, were used to demonstrate the applicability of the instrumentation. The results show that for both the cements studied the final DC was marginally different, the final PS was different at the low compliance, the peak of the PE was similar, and their polymerization rates were significantly different. Systematic variation of instrumental compliance for testing reveals differences in the characteristics of PS profiles of both the cements. This emphasizes the importance of instrumental compliance in obtaining an accurate understanding of PS evaluation. Finally, the key advantage for the simultaneous measurements is that these polymerization properties can be correlated directly, thus providing higher measurement confidence and enables a more in-depth understanding of the network formation process.

  8. Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 sob efeito de adubação com NPK - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9392 Yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 under the effect of NPK fertilization - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9392

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Zione de Souza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de combinações de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sobre a produção de matéria seca e composição química de Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. O experimento foi composto por 16 tratamentos de NPK, conforme matriz experimental Plan Puebla II, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico Arênico e, como fonte de N, P e K, foram utilizados sulfato de amônio e uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, respectivamente. O material coletado foi separado em colmo e folha, e pré-seco para a determinação da produção matéria seca de folhas (MSF, colmos (MSC e total (MST, teor de proteína bruta (PB, N, P e K. A adubação promoveu incremento na produção da B. brizantha cv. MG-4, cujas doses de 360-370-360 g vaso-1 de NPK, respectivamente, proporcionaram 95% da maior produção de MST observada. As produtividades máximas foram nas doses de 373, 407 e 317 mg dm-3 de N de solo para MST, MSF e MSC, respectivamente. As doses de N proporcionaram incrementos nos teores de PB das folhas. As adubações fosfatada e nitrogenada proporcionaram aumento na quantidade acumulada de N, P e K na B. brizantha cv. MG-4.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of combinations of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K on the dry matter yield and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4. The experiment consisted of 16 combination levels of NPK, according to experimental matrix Plan Puebla II, in a completely randomized design with five replications. It used a dystrophic Red Yellow Sand-Argisol; ammonium and urea sulfate, triple super phosphate and potassium chloride were used as sources of N, P and K, respectively. The harvested material was separated into leaves and stem and submitted to dry matter yield (DMY evaluations of the aerial part, crude protein (CP and determination

  9. The Combination of Trichoderma harzianum and Chemical Fertilization Leads to the Deregulation of Phytohormone Networking, Preventing the Adaptive Responses of Tomato Plants to Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M B; Hermosa, Rosa; Vicente, Rubén; Gómez-Acosta, Fabio A; Morcuende, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Bettiol, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. In addition to biocontrol abilities, Trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. Morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. The application of Trichoderma harzianum T34 to tomato seeds had very positive effects on plant growth, independently of chemical fertilization. The application of salt stress significantly changed the parameters related to growth and gas-exchange rates in tomato plants subject to chemical fertilization. However, the gas-exchange parameters were not affected in unfertilized plants under the same moderate saline stress. The combined application of T34 and salt significantly reduced the fresh and dry weights of NPK-fertilized plants, while the opposite effects were detected when no chemical fertilization was applied. Decaying symptoms were observed in salt-stressed and chemically fertilized plants previously treated with T34. This damaged phenotype was linked to significantly higher intercellular CO 2 and slight increases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, and to the deregulation of phytohormone networking in terms of significantly lower expression levels of the salt overlay sensitivity 1 ( SOS1 ) gene, and the genes involved in signaling abscisic acid-, ethylene-, and salicylic acid-dependent pathways and ROS production, in comparison with those observed in salt-challenged NPK-fertilized plants.

  10. Power-Generation Characteristics After Vibration and Thermal Stresses of Thermoelectric Unicouples with CoSb3/Ti/Mo(Cu) Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kwang Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok; Kim, Kyung-Hun; Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Seo, Won-Seon; Kim, Il-Ho; Lee, Soonil; Hwang, Hae Jin

    2015-06-01

    Reliability tests for thermoelectric unicouples were carried out to investigate the adhesion properties of CoSb3/Ti/Mo(Cu) interfaces. The n-type In0.25 Co3.95Ni0.05Sb12 and p-type In0.25Co3FeSb12 bulks were prepared for fabricating a thermoelectric unicouple (one p- n couple) by an induction melting and a spark plasma sintering process. Mo-Cu alloy was selected as an electrode for the unicouples due to its high melting temperature and proper work function value. Many thermoelectric unicouples with the CoSb3/Ti/Mo(Cu) interfaces were fabricated with the proper brazing materials by means of a repeated firing process. Reliability of the unicouples with the interfaces was evaluated by a vibration test and a thermal cycling test. After the thermal cycling and vibration tests, the power-generation characteristics of the unicouples were compared with the unicouples before the tests. Even after the vibration test, electrical power with a power density of 0.5 W/cm2 was generated. The Ti-interlayer is considered as a possible candidate for making a reliable unicouple with high adhesion strength. With the thermal cycling test, the resistance of the unicouple increased and the electrical power from the unicouple decreased. A failure mode by the thermal cycling test was ascribed to a complex effect of micro-cracks originated from the thermal stress and oxidation problem of the thermoelectric materials; that is, a thick oxide layer more than 300 μm was detected after a high-temperature durability test of n-type In0.25Co3.95Ni0.05Sb12 material at 773 K in air for 7 days.

  11. Recovery of normal testicular temperature after scrotal heat stress in rams assessed by infrared thermography and its effects on seminal characteristics and testosterone blood serum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maíra Bianchi Rodrigues; Andrade, André Furugen Cesar de; Arruda, Rubens Paes de; Batissaco, Leonardo; Florez-Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea; Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins de; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Lançoni, Renata; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Prado Filho, Roberto Romano do; Vellone, Vinícius Silva; Losano, João Diego de Agostini; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Nichi, Marcílio; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Reestablishment of testicular normal temperature after testicular heat stress is unknown and its effect varies widely. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of scrotal insulation (IN) on testicular temperature and its relation to semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. For this, 33 rams were used; 17 submitted to IN for 72 hours (using bags involving the testes) and 16 not submitted to IN (control group). The experiment was performed between August and December 2013 in Pirassununga, Brazil (21°56″13″ South/47°28'24″ West). Seminal characteristics, testosterone blood serum concentration, rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency, scrotal superficies mean temperature (SSMT), and eye area mean temperature (EAMT) were analyzed 7 days before IN and 21, 35, 49, 63, and 90 days afterward. Scrotal superficies mean temperature and EAMT were measured by thermography camera FLIR T620. Testosterone was evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance was used to determine the main effects of treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction using PROC MIXED of SAS software adding command REPEAT. Pearson correlation test was used to verify correlation between SSMT, EAMT, RT, and respiratory frequency. Significant difference was considered when P ≤ 0.05. At the end of IN, SSMT was higher (P blood serum concentration was lesser in insulated rams (P = 0.03). Thus, the difference of 1.12 °C between RT and testicular temperature impacts semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. Moreover, this study shows that rams can recover testes temperature efficiently toward IN and that infrared thermography is an efficient tool to identify differences on SSMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship Between Endothelial Wall Shear Stress and High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaque Characteristics for Identification of Coronary Lesions That Cause Ischemia: A Direct Comparison With Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Starikov, Anna; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Gransar, Heidi; Kolli, Kranthi K; Lee, Ji Hyun; Rizvi, Asim; Baskaran, Lohendran; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K

    2016-12-19

    Wall shear stress (WSS) is an established predictor of coronary atherosclerosis progression. Prior studies have reported that high WSS has been associated with high-risk atherosclerotic plaque characteristics (APCs). WSS and APCs are quantifiable by coronary computed tomography angiography, but the relationship of coronary lesion ischemia-evaluated by fractional flow reserve-to WSS and APCs has not been examined. WSS measures were obtained from 100 evaluable patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography and invasive coronary angiography with fractional flow reserve. Patients were categorized according to tertiles of mean WSS values defined as low, intermediate, and high. Coronary ischemia was defined as fractional flow reserve ≤0.80. Stenosis severity was determined by minimal luminal diameter. APCs were defined as positive remodeling, low attenuation plaque, and spotty calcification. The likelihood of having positive remodeling and low-attenuation plaque was greater in the high WSS group compared with the low WSS group after adjusting for minimal luminal diameter (odds ratio for positive remodeling: 2.54, 95% CI 1.12-5.77; odds ratio for low-attenuation plaque: 2.68, 95% CI 1.02-7.06; both Prelationship was observed between WSS and fractional flow reserve when adjusting for either minimal luminal diameter or APCs. WSS displayed no incremental benefit above stenosis severity and APCs for detecting lesions that caused ischemia (area under the curve for stenosis and APCs: 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.93; area under the curve for stenosis, APCs, and WSS: 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; P=0.30 for difference). High WSS is associated with APCs independent of stenosis severity. WSS provided no added value beyond stenosis severity and APCs for detecting lesions with significant ischemia. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Effect of defect creation and migration on hump characteristics of a-InGaZnO thin film transistors under long-term drain bias stress with light illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Jung; Kim, Woo-Sic; Lee, Yeol-Hyeong; Park, Jeong Ki; Kim, Geon Tae; Kim, Ohyun

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the mechanism of formation of the hump that occurs in the current-voltage I-V characteristics of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) that are exposed to long-term drain bias stress under illumination. Transfer characteristics showed two-stage degradation under the stress. At the beginning of the stress, the I-V characteristics shifted in the negative direction with a degradation of subthreshold slope, but the hump phenomenon developed over time in the I-V characteristics. The development of the hump was related to creation of defects, especially ionized oxygen vacancies which act as shallow donor-like states near the conduction-band minimum in a-IGZO. To further investigate the hump phenomenon we measured a capacitance-voltage C-V curve and performed two-dimensional device simulation. Stretched-out C-V for the gate-to-drain capacitance and simulated electric field distribution which exhibited large electric field near the drain side of TFT indicated that VO2+ were generated near the drain side of TFT, but the hump was not induced when VO2+ only existed near the drain side. Therefore, the degradation behavior under DBITS occurred because VO2+ were created near the drain side, then were migrated to the source side of the TFT.

  14. Caffeinated-beverage consumption and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and self-perceived academic stress in first and second year students at the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus (UPR-MSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Josué L; Betancourt, Jesmari; Pagán, Ideliz; Fabián, Carla; Cruz, Sonia Y; González, Anaisa M; González, Michael J; Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    To determine the association between caffeinated-beverage consumption, self-perceived academic load, and self-perceived stress levels in first and second year students at UPR-MSC. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire given to a representative stratified sample of 275 students. Questions included information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, academic load and stress indicators, and caffeinated-beverage consumption. Chi2 was used to assess the associations between these variables. Most participants were women (68%), aged 21-30 years (88%), with low annual household incomes (43%). Most perceived their academic loads as being heavy (68%), and most perceived their academic stress levels as being moderate (37%). Academic load was significantly correlated with stress level (pstress, and many (49%) reported that these beverages were useful for coping with stress. Energy drinks, in particular, were consumed more often by men compared to women (pstress or load. Consuming caffeinated beverages is a popular practice among participants in this sample, with soft drinks and coffee being the ones that are the most frequently consumed. No associations were found between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and academic stress or load.

  15. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  16. Occupational Stress among Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…

  17. Role of Low Endothelial Shear Stress and Plaque Characteristics in the Prediction of Nonculprit Major Adverse Cardiac Events: The PROSPECT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Peter H; Maehara, Akiko; Coskun, Ahmet Umit; Maynard, Charles C; Zaromytidou, Marina; Siasos, Gerasimos; Andreou, Ioannis; Fotiadis, Dimitris; Stefanou, Kostas; Papafaklis, Michail; Michalis, Lampros; Lansky, Alexandra J; Mintz, Gary S; Serruys, Patrick W; Feldman, Charles L; Stone, Gregg W

    2018-03-01

    This study sought to determine whether low endothelial shear stress (ESS) adds independent prognostication for future major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in coronary lesions in patients with high-risk acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from the United States and Europe. Low ESS is a proinflammatory, proatherogenic stimulus associated with coronary plaque development, progression, and destabilization in human-like animal models and in humans. Previous natural history studies including baseline ESS characterization investigated low-risk patients. In the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study, 697 patients with ACS underwent 3-vessel intracoronary imaging. Independent predictors of MACE attributable to untreated nonculprit (nc) coronary lesions during 3.4-year follow-up were large plaque burden (PB), small minimum lumen area (MLA), and thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) morphology. In this analysis, baseline ESS of nc lesions leading to new MACE (nc-MACE lesions) and randomly selected control nc lesions without MACE (nc-non-MACE lesions) were calculated. A propensity score for ESS was constructed for each lesion, and the relationship between ESS and subsequent nc-MACE was examined. A total of 145 lesions were analyzed in 97 patients: 23 nc-MACE lesions (13 TCFAs, 10 thick-cap fibroatheromas [ThCFAs]), and 122 nc-non-MACE lesions (63 TCFAs, 59 ThCFAs). Low local ESS (<1.3 Pa) was strongly associated with subsequent nc-MACE compared with physiological/high ESS (≥1.3 Pa) (23 of 101 [22.8%]) versus (0 of 44 [0%]). In propensity-adjusted Cox regression, low ESS was strongly associated with MACE (hazard ratio: 4.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.89 to 10.00; p < 0.001). Categorizing plaques by anatomic risk (high risk: ≥2 high-risk characteristics PB ≥70%, MLA ≤4 mm 2 , or TCFA), high anatomic risk, and low ESS were prognostically synergistic: 3-year nc-MACE rates were 52.1% versus 14.4% versus 0.0% in high

  18. Residual Effect of Chemical and Animal Fertilizers and Compost on Yield, YieldComponents, Physiological Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomilla L. under Drought Stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Ahmadian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The residual effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of plants is one of the important problems in nutrition. This study was conducted to determine the residual effect of different fertilizers on yield, yield components, physiological parameters and essential oil percentage of Matricaria chamomilla under drought stress. A split plot arrangement based on randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replication was conducted in 2009, at the University of Zabol. Treatments included W1 (non stress, W2 (75% FC and W3 (50% FC as main plot and three types of residual’s fertilizers: F1 (non fertilizer, F2 (chemical fertilizer, F3 (manure fertilizer and F4 (compost as sub plot. Results showed that water stress at W3 treatment reduced dry flower yield. Low water stress increased essential oil percentage and the highest oil was obtained in W2. In this experiment, free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress. The residual’s manure and compost enhanced flower yield, percentage and yield of essential oil of chamomile at the second year. At a glance, animal manure application and light water stress (75% FC was recommended to obtain best quantitative and qualitative yield. Keywords: Water Stress, Fertilizer, Carbohydrate, Proline, Chamomile

  19. [Characteristics of the sympathoadrenal system response to psychoemotional stress under hypoxic conditions in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of the respiratory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanov, E O; Os'mak, Ie D; Kuz'mins'ka, L A

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional and hypoxic stress in healthy young people and in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of respiratory system were studied. It was shown that in aging a more pronounced response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. At the same time, elderly people with different types of aging of the respiratory system did not demonstrate a difference in the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. Unlike in young people, in aged people, combination of psychoemotional and hypoxic stresses resulted in further activation of the sympathoadrenal system. The reaction of the sympathoadrenal system was more expressed in elderly people with accelerated ageing of the respiratory system.

  20. Gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under edaphic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Alexey A; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Krasnov, George S; Koroban, Nadezhda V; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Muravenko, Olga V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Melnikova, Nataliya V

    2016-11-16

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is widely used for production of textile, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. However, various stresses decrease flax production. Search for genes, which are involved in stress response, is necessary for breeding of adaptive cultivars. Imbalanced concentration of nutrient elements in soil decrease flax yields and also results in heritable changes in some flax lines. The appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1) is the most studied modification. However, LIS-1 function is still unclear. High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome of flax plants grown under normal (N), phosphate deficient (P), and nutrient excess (NPK) conditions was carried out using Illumina platform. The assembly of transcriptome was performed, and a total of 34924, 33797, and 33698 unique transcripts for N, P, and NPK sequencing libraries were identified, respectively. We have not revealed any LIS-1 derived mRNA in our sequencing data. The analysis of high-throughput sequencing data allowed us to identify genes with potentially differential expression under imbalanced nutrition. For further investigation with qPCR, 15 genes were chosen and their expression levels were evaluated in the extended sampling of 31 flax plants. Significant expression alterations were revealed for genes encoding WRKY and JAZ protein families under P and NPK conditions. Moreover, the alterations of WRKY family genes differed depending on LIS-1 presence in flax plant genome. Besides, we revealed slight and LIS-1 independent mRNA level changes of KRP2 and ING1 genes, which are adjacent to LIS-1, under nutrition stress. Differentially expressed genes were identified in flax plants, which were grown under phosphate deficiency and excess nutrition, on the basis of high-throughput sequencing and qPCR data. We showed that WRKY and JAS gene families participate in flax response to imbalanced nutrient content in soil. Besides, we have not identified any mRNA, which could be

  1. Gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. under edaphic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dmitriev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is widely used for production of textile, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. However, various stresses decrease flax production. Search for genes, which are involved in stress response, is necessary for breeding of adaptive cultivars. Imbalanced concentration of nutrient elements in soil decrease flax yields and also results in heritable changes in some flax lines. The appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1 is the most studied modification. However, LIS-1 function is still unclear. Results High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome of flax plants grown under normal (N, phosphate deficient (P, and nutrient excess (NPK conditions was carried out using Illumina platform. The assembly of transcriptome was performed, and a total of 34924, 33797, and 33698 unique transcripts for N, P, and NPK sequencing libraries were identified, respectively. We have not revealed any LIS-1 derived mRNA in our sequencing data. The analysis of high-throughput sequencing data allowed us to identify genes with potentially differential expression under imbalanced nutrition. For further investigation with qPCR, 15 genes were chosen and their expression levels were evaluated in the extended sampling of 31 flax plants. Significant expression alterations were revealed for genes encoding WRKY and JAZ protein families under P and NPK conditions. Moreover, the alterations of WRKY family genes differed depending on LIS-1 presence in flax plant genome. Besides, we revealed slight and LIS-1 independent mRNA level changes of KRP2 and ING1 genes, which are adjacent to LIS-1, under nutrition stress. Conclusions Differentially expressed genes were identified in flax plants, which were grown under phosphate deficiency and excess nutrition, on the basis of high-throughput sequencing and qPCR data. We showed that WRKY and JAS gene families participate in flax response to imbalanced nutrient content in soil

  2. Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco Di Stefano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años, en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna, la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas. Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (χ²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002, probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos.Natural regeneration of woody species in a Costa Rican plantation of Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae and the effect of P and NPK fertilization. Forest plantation management strategies, including the selection of species, may have positive or negative effects over plant regeneration in the tropics. in this case, understory woody plants density and richness were studied in

  3. Characteristics of the Foot Static Alignment and the Plantar Pressure Associated with Fifth Metatarsal Stress Fracture History in Male Soccer Players: a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Sho; Fukubayashi, Toru; Hirose, Norikazu

    2017-12-01

    There is a large amount of information regarding risk factors for fifth metatarsal stress fractures; however, there are few studies involving large numbers of subjects. This study aimed to compare the static foot alignment and distribution of foot pressure of athletes with and without a history of fifth metatarsal stress fractures. The study participants comprised 335 collegiate male soccer players. Twenty-nine with a history of fifth metatarsal stress fractures were in the fracture group and 306 were in the control group (with subgroups as follows: 30 in the fracture foot group and 28 in the non-fracture group). We measured the foot length, arch height, weight-bearing leg-heel alignment, non-weight-bearing leg-heel alignment, forefoot angle relative to the rearfoot, forefoot angle relative to the horizontal axis, and foot pressure. The non-weight-bearing leg-heel alignment was significantly smaller and the forefoot angle relative to the rearfoot was significantly greater in the fracture foot group than in the control foot group (P = 0.049 and P = 0.038, respectively). With regard to plantar pressure, there were no significant differences among the groups. Midfield players had significantly higher rates of fifth metatarsal stress fracture in their histories, whereas defenders had significantly lower rates (chi-square = 13.2, P stress fractures according to the type of foot (kicking foot vs. pivoting foot) or the severity of ankle sprain. Playing the midfield position and having an everted rearfoot and inverted forefoot alignment were associated with fifth metatarsal stress fractures. This information may be helpful for preventing fifth metatarsal stress fracture recurrence. More detailed load evaluations and a prospective study are needed in the future.

  4. Characteristics Associated With Utilization of VA and Non-VA Care Among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Erin P; Mader, Michael; Bollinger, Mary J; Haro, Elizabeth K; Garcia, Hector A; Huynh, Alexis K; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2017-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects nearly one-fifth of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (IAV). The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has invested in making evidence-based psychotherapies for PTSD available at every VA facility nationwide; however, an unknown number of veterans opt to receive care in the community rather than with VA. We compared PTSD care utilization patterns among Texas IAV with PTSD, an ethnically, geographically, and economically diverse group. To identify IAV in Texas with service-connected disability for PTSD, we used a crosswalk of VA administrative data from the Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Roster and service-connected disability data from the Veterans Benefits Administration. We then surveyed a random sample of 1,128 veterans from the cohort, stratified by sex, rurality, and past use/nonuse of any VA care. Respondents were classified into current utilization groups (VA only, non-VA only, dual care, and no professional PTSD treatment) on the basis of reported PTSD care in the prior 12 months. Responses were weighted to account for sample stratification and for response rate within each strata. Utilization group characteristics were compared to the population mean using the one sample Z-test for proportions, or the t-test for means. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify survey variables significantly associated with current utilization group. 249 IAV completed the survey (28.4% response rate). Respondents reported receiving PTSD care: in the VA only (58.3%); in military or community-based settings (including private practitioners) (non-VA only, 8.7%); and in both VA and non-VA settings (dual care, 14.5%). The remainder (18.5%) reported no professional PTSD care in the prior year. Veterans ineligible for Department of Defense care, uncomfortable talking about their problems, and opposed to medication were more likely to receive non-VA care only, whereas those with lower household income

  5. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the definition of threshold levels to diagnose coronary artery disease on electrocardiographic stress testing. Part I: The use of ROC curves in diagnostic medicine and electrocardiographic markers of ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabei, Luca; Marazìa, Stefania; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2007-11-01

    A common problem in diagnostic medicine, when performing a diagnostic test, is to obtain an accurate discrimination between 'normal' cases and cases with disease, owing to the overlapping distributions of these populations. In clinical practice, it is exceedingly rare that a chosen cut point will achieve perfect discrimination between normal cases and those with disease, and one has to select the best compromise between sensitivity and specificity by comparing the diagnostic performance of different tests or diagnostic criteria available. Receiver operating characteristic (or receiver operator characteristic, ROC) curves allow systematic and intuitively appealing descriptions of the diagnostic performance of a test and a comparison of the performance of different tests or diagnostic criteria. This review will analyse the basic principles underlying ROC curves and their specific application to the choice of optimal parameters on exercise electrocardiographic (ECG) stress testing. Part I will focus on theoretical description and analysis along with reviewing the common problems related to the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia by means of exercise ECG stress testing. Part II will be devoted to applying ROC curves to available diagnostic criteria through the analysis of ECG stress test parameters.

  6. The Effect of Silicon on some Morpho-physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) under Salt Stress

    OpenAIRE

    S Hasibi; H Farahbakhsh; Gh Khajoeinejad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nowadays, salinity is one of the limiting factors for crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is a self-pollinated and short-day plant, which partly has been adapted to salinity and water stress conditions; also play an important role in humans, livestock and poultry nourishments. All studies have showed the positive effects of Silicon on growth and yield of plants in both normal and stress conditions. The aim of this exp...

  7. [BEHAVIORAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH POST-TRAUMATIC RESPONSE TO CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE VERSUS ALTERNATE EXPOSURE IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfeld, Ishay; Kaplan, Zeev; Cohen, Hagit

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to approximate these conditions in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). More specifically, the neurobiological basis of these conditions, focusing on stress-related behavioral changes, HPA-axis and morphological were evaluated. The intention was to employ this well-validated, reproducible and reliable model for PTSD, to elicit data which will provide some guidance in the planning of a prospective study involving military personal. Combat personnel are exposed to significant stress and hardship, both physical and emotional, during their service and especially during active combat. Military forces are increasingly involved in conflicts involving nonmilitary or paramilitary adversaries in which they are exposed not to battles but to sporadic events, in what has come to be labeled "low intensity conflict". "Low intensity conflict" refers to a level of hostilities or use of military power that falls short of a full scale conventional or general war. These are characterized by brief periods of extreme stress and tangible danger interspersed by prolonged periods of siege. Whereas the potentially traumatizing effect of battle conditions is well documented, the risks of the sporadic highly stressful nature of "low intensity conflict" have not been studied. Furthermore, in recent years, soldiers commonly receive "relaxation periods" before re-engaging in battle. This new policy may possibly contradict the traditional treatment principles, focusing on "proximity" and "continuity" to the battlefield and its effects have not been studied. Continuous and sporadic stresses, representing battlefield conditions, were induced in a validated rat animalmodel for PTSD and behavioral changes, hormonal levels and brain morphology were evaluated. Behavioral response, hormonal levels and brain morphological changes suggest that PTSD-like reactions were significantly higher in rats exposed to continuous stress compared to those exposed to

  8. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  9. Spectral Discrimination of Salinity and Fertilizer Stress in Wheat (Triticum Sativa L.) using Photosynthesis Parameters and Hpyerspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S. H.; Houborg, R.; Tester, M.; McCabe, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Multidisciplinary research has long sought the ability to estimate the parameters of plant functions such as photosynthetic capacity under stress conditions from remotely sensed data. Yet, the main goal has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of saline water irrigation and the rate of fertilizer application on the photosynthetic response of wheat in a greenhouse based experiment. After two weeks of germination, the plants were subjected to irrigation with sea water blended with high quality reverse osmosis (RO) water. Three levels of water salinity having electrical conductivities (EC) of 0.3, 7.0, 14.0 dSm-1 were obtained by mixing sea water with RO water and plants were irrigated to approximately 70% of field capacity without excess drainage. Three levels of NPK fertilizer at the rate of null, half and full recommended doses were also employed in the experiment. The two key determinants of photosynthetic capacity, the maximum rates of RuBP carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport based on NADPH requirement (Jmax), were obtained through standard gas exchange technique.CO2 response curves of net CO2 assimilation (An) against variable CO2 concentrations in the intracellular spaces (Ci) at constant environmental conditions were drawn and a Sharkey model was fit to the obtained data. Hyperspectral reflectance (λ = 350-2500 nm) of fresh leaves were obtained and the hyperspectral characteristics and their correlations with the photosynthetic parameters were drawn. Unique contributions from different spectral regions of the hyperspectral data were analyzed. Our results revealed that saline irrigation adversely affects some of the biochemical photosynthetic parameters while favors others and it can be reflected in shifts in patterns at various regions of the hyperspectral data. These results suggest a promising strategy for developing remote sensing methods to characterize photosynthetic activity of

  10. Exposure characteristics and peri-trauma emotional reactions during the 2004 tsunami in Southeast Asia--what predicts posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Susanne; Salcioglu, Ebru; Andersen, Henrik Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of disaster-related stressors and peri-trauma emotional reactions on mental health 10 months after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami disaster in a sample of 660 Danish tourists evacuated from the disaster area. The estimated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder...

  11. The developing relationship between recently placed foster infants and toddlers and their foster carers: Do demographic factors, placement characteristics and biological stress markers matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, H.W.H.; Post, W.J.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Kamphuis, J.S.; v.d. Gaag, R.J.; Knorth, E.J.; Grietens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infants and toddlers often react to a foster family placement with avoidant behavior. Foster carers may interpret this as if the child is adapting quite well to the new family. This misunderstanding may lead to stress in the child and create a risk for an enduring relationship.

  12. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Role of Gender-Typed Characteristics, Self-Esteem, Body Image, Stressful Life Events, and Pubertal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Diane; Fortin, Laurier; Potvin, Pierre; Papillon, Myra

    2002-01-01

    In a study of French-speaking adolescents (n=547), five measures designed to examine psychological well being found that body image, self-esteem, and negative stressful life events mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Further analysis of a subsample who recently transitioned to high school also found…

  13. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  14. The significance of sense of coherence for the perceptions of task characteristics and stress during interruptions amongst a sample of public health nurses in Hong Kong: implications for nursing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, A T

    1998-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate the significance of sense of coherence (SOC) for the perceptions of task characteristics and for stress perceptions during interruptions of public health nurses (PHNs) with children in Hong Kong. The research design employed the experience sampling method. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 20 subjects. During stage one of the study a watch was worn that gave a signal at six random times each day for seven days to complete an experience sampling diary. PHNs on average responded to 34 signals (80%) to complete the diaries which collected data on work and family juggling, task characteristics, and their effects on mood states. At stage two respondents completed the SOC scale which measured confidence in life as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful. Two major findings provide the focus for this paper. First, results indicate that there was positive correlation between SOC and perceived task characteristics. Second, results reveal that when interruptions occurred, PHNs with high SOC had higher positive affect and lower negative affect than PHNs with low SOC. These results suggest that SOC as a salutogenic model helps PHNs to cope with the family and work juggling as well as the occupational stress. Implications for nursing management on strengthening SOC of PHNs are discussed.

  15. Sex-related differences in photoinhibition, photo-oxidative stress and photoprotection in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) exposed to drought and nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas, Bárbara; Juvany, Marta; Cotado, Alba; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-03-01

    Dimorphic plant species can show distinct nutrient needs due to sex-related differences in nutrient allocation to reproductive structures, which can potentially affect their sensitivity to photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress. Here, we investigated sex-related differences in the extent of photo-oxidative stress in male and female individuals of U. dioica exposed to a combination of severe drought and nutrient starvation. Male and female individuals of U. dioica subject to severe drought stress were exposed to various levels of nutrient availability. First, a set of plants grown under field conditions and exposed to summer drought was used to test the effects of nutrient supply (given as NPK fertilizer). Secondly, the effects of various phosphate concentrations in the nutrient solution were tested in drought-stressed potted plants. The Fv/Fm ratio (maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry), photoprotection capacity (levels of carotenoids, including the xanthophyll cycle, and vitamins C and E), and the extent of lipid peroxidation (hydroperoxide levels) were measured. Results showed that an application of the NPK fertilizer to the soil had a positive effect on drought-stressed plants, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in both males and females. P deficiency led to residual photoinhibition, as indicated by significant reductions in the Fv/Fm ratio, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in females, but not in males. We conclude that (i) increased nutrient availability in the soil can alleviate photo-oxidative stress in drought-stressed U. dioica plants, and (ii) U. dioica plants show sexual secondary dimorphism in terms of photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress, but this is only apparent when stress infringed on plants is very severe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reassessment of the psychometric characteristics and factor structure of the 'Perceived Stress Questionnaire' (PSQ: analysis in a sample of dental students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Montero-Marin

    Full Text Available The training to become a dentist can create psychological distress. The present study evaluates the structure of the 'Perceived Stress Questionnaire' (PSQ, its internal consistency model and interrelatedness with burnout, anxiety, depression and resilience among dental students.The study employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of Spanish dental students (n = 314 completed the PSQ, the 'Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale' (GADS, 'Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale' (10-item CD-RISC and 'Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey' (MBI-SS. The structure was estimated using Parallel Analysis from polychoric correlations. Unweighted Least Squares was the method for factor extraction, using the Item Response Theory to evaluate the discriminative power of items. Internal consistency was assessed by squaring the correlation between the latent true variable and the observed variable. The relationships between the PSQ and the other constructs were analysed using Spearman's coefficient.The results showed a PSQ structure through two sub-factors ('frustration' and 'tenseness' with regard to one general factor ('perceived stress'. Items that did not satisfy discriminative capacity were rejected. The model fit were acceptable (GFI = 0.98; RSMR = 0.06; AGFI = 0.98; NFI = 0.98; RFI = 0.98. All the factors showed adequate internal consistency as measured by the congeneric model (≥0.91. High and significant associations were observed between perceived stress and burnout, anxiety, depression and resilience.The PSQ showed a hierarchical bi-factor structure among Spanish dental students. Using the questionnaire as a uni-dimensional scale may be useful in perceived stress level discrimination, while the sub-factors could help us to refine perceived stress analysis and improve therapeutic processes.

  17. Transcriptome-based gene profiling provides novel insights into the characteristics of radish root response to Cr stress with next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eXie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Radish (Raphanus sativus L. is an important worldwide root vegetable crop with high nutrient values and is adversely affected by non-essential heavy metals including chromium (Cr. Little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying Cr stress response in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technique was employed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs under Cr stress. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, there were 30,676 unigenes representing 60,881 transcripts isolated from radish root under Cr stress. Differential gene analysis revealed that 2,985 uingenes were significantly differentially expressed between Cr-free (CK and Cr-treated (Cr600 libraries, among which 1,424 were up-regulated and 1,561 down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that these DEGs were mainly involved in primary metabolic process, response to abiotic stimulus, cellular metabolic process and small molecule metabolic process. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly involved in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, starch and sucrose metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, drug and xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 metabolism. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression patterns of 12 randomly selected DEGs were highly accordant with the results from RNA-seq. Furthermore, many candidate genes including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors and metal transporters, chelate compound biosynthesis and antioxidant system, were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms of Cr stress response regulatory networks. These results would provide novel insight into molecular mechanism underlying plant responsiveness to Cr stress and facilitate further genetic manipulation on Cr uptake and accumulation in radish.

  18. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  19. Germination and seedling characteristics of drought-stressed corn seed as influenced by seed priming with potassium nano-chelate and sulfate fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ZAHEDIFAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of seed-priming with potassium (K sources (K-nano-chelate, KNC, and sulfate (0, 2 and 4 % under drought stress (DS conditions (0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 and -1.5 MPa water potential on the corn seedling traits was studied. Drought stress decreased the germination indices and seedling vigor. The highest germination, seminal root fresh and dry mass (RFM and RDM was obtained in KNC primed seeds at -0.3 MPa DS. Mean germination time increased under DS conditions mainly in non-primed seeds. Increasing DS to -1.2 MPa led to decrease in RFM and RDM. Influence of DS on the fresh mass of shoots was more severe than on seminal roots. The highest shoots and seminal roots length was observed in 4 % KNC without any DS. Proper priming can be suggested to increase the plant tolerance under DS.

  20. Effects of Salinity Stress on Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of some Local Landrace and Inter specific Hybrids of Cucurbits Seedlings as Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farhadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity stress is regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors in plant limiting growth, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The reduction of plant growth by salinity stress has been well documented. When water supply is limited, plant structure is modified by increasing the root: shoot ratio. To reduce of losses in vegetative growth and production of plant and to improve water use efficiency under saline conditions in high-yielding genotypes grafting them onto rootstocks could bereduced the effect of saline stress on plant shoot. Grafting is a routine technique in continuous cropping systems. Most of the species of cucurbits are distributed in the dry regions. The objective of this studywas investigated the effectiveness of salinity stress on accessions of cucurbita and hybrid inter specific which enter from another country to Iran. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted in laboratory and greenhouse at the Research Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Isfahan during 2013-2014 growing season. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was conducted for rootstock and irrigation water salinity.. In the first experiment 25 seeds of rootstocks were sown in petri dishes with 10 cm diameter and irrigated by 10 ml of saline water. Rootstocks included 20 different local landraces and interspecific hybrids (C.moschata cv. Isfahan and Koshk, C.pepo cv. Alvar, Tiran, Koshk and Asgharabad, C. maxima cv. Kermanshah, Shahreza, Mohamadiyeh and Alvar, Lagenaria Siceraria, Luffa cylindrica, Trichosanthes cucumerina, RZ-Ferro, Es113, Ews910, Ews909, Ews913, 426 and Es152. Salinity stress was 6 levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ds/m of NaCl. Germination, diameter of stem, height of root and stem, shoot and root fresh mass, vigor index and root: shoot ratio were evaluated. In the second experiment seeds were sown in plastic pot by soil media. Seedlings were irrigated daily

  1. Characteristics of six small heat shock protein genes from Bactrocera dorsalis: Diverse expression under conditions of thermal stress and normal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wei; Tian, Yi; Liu, Hong; Shi, Yan; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-11-01

    To explore the functions of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in relation to thermal stress and development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pest species attacking a wide range of fruits and vegetables, six full-length cDNAs of sHsp genes (BdHsp17.7, 18.4, 20.4, 20.6, 21.6 and 23.8) were cloned, and the expression patterns in different developmental stages and tissues, as well as in response to both thermal and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exposures, were examined using real time quantitative PCR. The open reading frames (ORFs) of six sHsps are 453, 489, 537, 543, 567 and 630bp in length, encoding proteins with molecular weights of 17.7, 18.4, 20.4, 20.6, 21.6 and 23.8kDa, respectively. BdHsp18.4 and BdHsp20.4 maintained lower expression levels in both eggs and larvae, whereas remarkably up-regulated after the larval-pupal transformation, suggesting that these two sHsps may be involved in metamorphosis. Significant tissue specificity exists among sHsps: the highest expression of BdHsp20.6 and BdHsp23.8 in the Malpighian tubules and ovary, respectively, versus a peak in the fat body for others. BdHsp20.4 and BdHsp20.6 were significantly up-regulated by thermal stress. In contrast, BdHsp18.4 and BdHsp23.8 reacted only to heat stress. BdHsp17.7 and BdHsp21.6 were insensitive to both heat and cold stresses. The degree of sHsps response depends on intensity of 20E treatment, i.e., dose and time. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the sHsp subfamily in B. dorsalis. The physiological function of sHsp members under thermal stress and normal growth remains the subjects of further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  3. Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília, para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòmente o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral.Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL. Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minutiflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

  4. Characteristics of aperiodic sequence of slip events caused by interaction between seismic patches and that caused be self-organized stress heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, N.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulations of earthquake cycles are conducted to investigate the origin of complexity of earthquake recurrence. There are two main causes of the complexity. One is self-organized stress heterogeneity due to dynamical effect. The other is the effect of interaction between some fault patches. In the model, friction on the fault is assumed to obey a rate- and state-dependent friction law. Circular patches of velocity-weakening frictional property are assumed on the fault. On the remaining areas of the fault, velocity-strengthening friction is assumed. We consider three models: Single patch model, two-patch model, and three-patch model. In the first model, the dynamical effect is mainly examined. The latter two models take into consideration the effect of interaction as well as the dynamical effect. Complex multiperiodic or aperiodic sequences of slip events occur when slip behavior changes from the seismic to aseismic, and when the degree of interaction between seismic patches is intermediate. The former is observed in all the models, and the latter is observed in the two-patch model and the three-patch model. Evolution of spatial distribution of shear stress on the fault suggests that aperiodicity at the transition from seismic to aseismic slip is caused by self-organized stress heterogeneity. The iteration maps of recurrence intervals of slip events in aperiodic sequences are examined, and they are approximately expressed by simple curves for aperiodicity at the transition from seismic to aseismic slip. In contrast, the iteration maps for aperiodic sequences caused by interaction between seismic patches are scattered and they are not expressed by simple curves. This result suggests that complex sequences caused by different mechanisms may be distinguished.

  5. Experimental Study of Pressure Drop and Wall Shear Stress Characteristics of γ /Al2O3-Water Nanofluid in a Circular pipe under Turbulent flow induced vibration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Abbas AL-Moosawy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of γ /Al2O3 with mean diameter of less than 50 nm was dispersed in the distilled water that flows through a pipe consist of five sections as work station ,four sections made of carbon steel metal and one sections made of Pyrex glass pipe, with five nanoparticles volume concentrations of 0%,0.1%,0.2%,0.3%,and 0.4% with seven different volume flow rates 100, 200 , 300, 400, 500, 600 ,and 700ℓ/min were investigated to calculated pressure distribution for the cases without rubber ,with 3mm rubber and with 6mm rubber used to support the pipe. Reynolds number was between 20000 and 130000. Frequency value through pipe was measured for all stations of pipe for all cases. The results show that the pressure drop and wall shear stress of the nanofluid increase by increasing the nanoparticles volume concentrations or Reynolds number, the values of frequency through the pipe increase continuously when wall shear stress increases and the ratio of increment increases as nanofluid concentrations increase. Increasing of vibration frequency lead to increasing the friction factor between the pipe and the wall and thus increasing in pressure drop. Several equations between the wall shear stress and frequency for all volume concentration and for three cases without rubber, with rubber has 3mm thickness ,and with rubber has 6mm thickness. Finally, the results led to that γ /Al2O3 could function as a good and alternative conventional working fluid in heat transfer applications. A good agreement is seen between the experimental and those available in the literature

  6. N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT-115 clone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, G.; Rodriguez, I.; Martinez, O.

    2009-04-01

    In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming the natural cycle occurring within each farm, is of vital importance to potentate nutrient recycling for a stable animal production. The objective is the determination of the values of N, P and K inputs and outputs in a dairy farm with a sward composed by 60% of C. nlemfuensis and 40% of P. purpureum CT-115, associated with legumes in 28% of the area and the balance of these nutrients in the system using the "Recycling" software proposed by Crespo et al (2007). The grassland covered an area of 53.4 ha, composed by C. nlemfuensis (60%), P. purpureum CT-115 (40%) and L. leucocephala and C. cajan legumes intercropped in 28% of the area. The dairy herd consisted of 114 cows, 35 replacement heifers and 24 calves. There was a milk yield of 100 000 litters and the animals consumed 825 t DM from pastures and 75.1 t DM from other supplementary feeds. Nutrients extracted by pastures, nutrients intake by animals from pastures, symbiotically N fixation by legumes and N, P and K determinations outside the system due to animal production were determined (3-11). Volatilized ammonia, nutrient input and litter accumulated in the paddocks were measured once each season of the year. In the whole system the balance indicates negative values of N, P and K. Out of the total amount of nutrients consumed, animals used only 16 kg N, 5 Kg P and 4 Kg K for milk production, LW gain and calf production, the remainder returned to the system through excretions. Hence, more than 90% of the N and K, and approximately 81% of the P consumed by the animals were recycled to the system through the excretions. These

  7. The teacher under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2003-01-01

    Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged pro...

  8. Influence of slaughter weight and stress gene genotype on the water-holding capacity and protein gel characteristics of three porcine muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, D S; Ellis, M; Lan, Y; McKeith, F K; Wilson, E R

    1997-06-01

    The longissimus lumborum, gluteus medius, and the triceps brachii muscles from 40 animals were used to evaluate the effect of stress gene genotype (non-mutant, NN and mono-mutant, Nn) and live weight at slaughter (110 kg and 140 kg) on the processing quality of fresh pork. The 45 minute and ultimate pH measurements did not differ between genotypes. Total percent protein was not different between samples taken from NN or Nn pigs, nor were there any differences in salt-soluble protein. The M. longissimus lumborum from Nn pigs possessed lower water-holding capacity values and lost greater amounts of water upon cooking. In addition, Nn pigs had lower subjective color and firmness scores which suggest a higher incidence of pale, soft and exudative pork. Slaughter weight did not affect total protein, salt-soluble protein, Minolta L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) values or subjective color, firmness and marbling scores. Back fat thickness and loineye area increased as slaughter weight increased. Overall, this study suggested that Nn pigs have reduced water retention properties which may result in lower yields in processed meat items. Slaughter weight had limited effects on the processing quality of meat from NN or Nn pigs. There were no interactions of significance between stress gene genotype and slaughter weight, suggesting that the differences in muscle quality and functional properties between NN and Nn pigs are maintained over the slaughter weights used in this study.

  9. Effect of CT Specimen Thickness on the Mechanical Characteristics at the Crack Tip of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Ni-based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinghao, Cui; He, Xue; Lingyan, Zhao

    2017-12-01

    It’s important to obtain accurate stress corrosion crack(SCC) growth rate for quantitative life prediction of components in nuclear power plants. However, the engineering practice shows that the crack tip constraint effect has a great influence on the mechanical properties and crack growth rate of SCC at crack tip. To study the influence of the specimen thickness on the crack tip mechanical properties of SCC, the stress, strain and C integral at creep crack tip are analyzed under different specimens thickness. Results show that the cracked specimen is less likely to crack due to effect of crack tip constraint. When the thickness ratio B/W is larger than 0.1, the crack tip constraint is almost ineffective. Value of C integral is the largest when B/W is 0.25. Then specimen thickness has little effect on the value of C integral. The effect of specimen thickness on the value of C integral is less significant at higher thickness ratio.

  10. Tensile stress-dependent fracture behavior and its influences on photovoltaic characteristics in flexible PbS/CdS thin-film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Yeon, Deuk Ho; Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Cho, Yong Soo

    2015-03-04

    Tensile stress-dependent fracture behavior of flexible PbS/CdS heterojunction thin-film solar cells on indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates is investigated in terms of the variations of fracture parameters with applied strains and their influences on photovoltaic properties. The PbS absorber layer that exhibits only mechanical cracks within the applied strain range from ∼0.67 to 1.33% is prepared by chemical bath deposition at different temperatures of 50, 70, and 90 °C. The PbS thin films prepared at 50 °C demonstrate better mechanical resistance against the applied bending strain with the highest crack initiating bending strain of ∼1.14% and the lowest saturated crack density of 0.036 μm(-1). Photovoltaic properties of the cells depend on the deposition temperature and the level of applied tensile stress. The values of short-circuit current density and fill factor are dramatically reduced above a certain level of applied strain, while open-circuit voltage is nearly maintained. The dependency of photovoltaic properties on the progress of fractures is understood as related to the reduced fracture energy and toughness, which is limitedly controllable by microstructural features of the absorber layer.

  11. Characteristics of the Emotional and Behavioral Reactions of Rats under Chronic Stress Immobilization During Treatment with 5-R-thio-tetrazol [1,5-c] quinazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Y. Tozyuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypokinesia can reduce physical performance and impair human health, which is evident by significant morphofunctional changes in the body. To correct these abnormalities and prevent their occurrence actoprotectors are used in hospitals. In previous studies [Stepanyuk G.I, 2012] we found that 5-R-thio-tetrazol [1,5-c] quinasoline derivatives quite clearly improved physical performance of rats according to swimming test. In terms of actoprotective activity compound-leader КВ-28 (sodium 2-( tetrazol [1,5-с] quinazolin -5- ylthioacetate for certain predominated over reference compound bemityl. WORK OBJECTIVE. To describe the influence of course administration of sodium 2-( tetrazol [1,5-с] quinazolin -5- ylthio acetate in comparison with bemityl on the behavioral reactions of rats under 18-day hypokinesia. RESEARCH MATERIALS AND METHODS. Chronic stress immobilization was modeled by keeping rats in small wooden cases for 16 hours / day for 18 days. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals in each: I - intact animals, II - rats stressed with hypokinesia without correction (control, III and IV - hypokinetic rats who one-time within 18 days take daily intraperitoneally КВ -28 (1,7 mg/kg and bemityl (32 mg/kg at doses equal to their ED50 according to swimming test. Orientative-searching and emotional activity were assessed by neuroethological "open field" test [Buresh, 1991] on the 4th, 12th and 18th day of experiment, that accordingly characterize the stage of anxiety, resistance and exhaustion of general adaptation syndrome [Stefanov, 2001]. To analyze the behavior the following neurophysiological indices were used: horizontal motor activity (number of the crossed squares, vertical activity (number of racks, number of examined holes and autonomic balance: number of washings (grooming and defecation acts (number of boluses and urinations. Duration of observation was 3 min. RESULTS AND THEIR DISCUSSION. In the course of the experiment a

  12. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of cell wall components and prenyl lipids in the leaves of Tilia x euchlora trees growing under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska-Hendel, Anna; Baczewska, Aneta H; Sala, Katarzyna; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Brągoszewska, Paulina; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Jozwiak, Adam; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Swiezewska, Ewa; Kurczynska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The study was focused on assessing the presence of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins within the cell walls as well as prenyl lipids, sodium and chlorine content in leaves of Tilia x euchlora trees. The leaves that were analyzed were collected from trees with and without signs of damage that were all growing in the same salt stress conditions. The reason for undertaking these investigations was the observations over many years that indicated that there are trees that present a healthy appearance and trees that have visible symptoms of decay in the same habitat. Leaf samples were collected from trees growing in the median strip between roadways that have been intensively salted during the winter season for many years. The sodium content was determined using atomic spectrophotometry, chloride using potentiometric titration and poly-isoprenoids using HPLC/UV. AGPs and pectins were determined using immunohistochemistry methods. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that rhamnogalacturonans I (RG-I) and homogalacturonans were differentially distributed in leaves from healthy trees in contrast to leaves from injured trees. In the case of AGPs, the most visible difference was the presence of the JIM16 epitope. Chemical analyses of sodium and chloride showed that in the leaves from injured trees, the level of these ions was higher than in the leaves from healthy trees. Based on chromatographic analysis, four poly-isoprenoid alcohols were identified in the leaves of T. x euchlora. The levels of these lipids were higher in the leaves from healthy trees. The results suggest that the differences that were detected in the apoplast and symplasm may be part of the defensive strategy of T. x euchlora trees to salt stress, which rely on changes in the chemical composition of the cell wall with respect to the pectic and AGP epitopes and an increased synthesis of prenyl lipids.

  13. Cross-sectional study on nurses' attitudes regarding coercive measures: the importance of socio-demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, and strategies for coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregar, Branko; Skela-Savič, Brigita; Kores Plesničar, Blanka

    2018-06-04

    Coercive measures are containment methods used in psychiatry to curb patients' disruptive and aggressive behaviours towards themselves, others or objects. The prevalence of the practice of coercive measures in psychiatry is directly related to the attitudes of the staff. When discussing these attitudes, nurses are often particularly singled out. The purpose of the study is to research the impact of individual factors on nurses' attitudes in the decision-making process for the use of coercive measures. A cross-sectional study among all psychiatric nursing staff in Slovenia (n = 367, 79%) was conducted over the years 2013/2014. Standardized questionnaires were used, including a survey of nurses' attitudes to the use of seclusion, the Job Descriptive Index, and the Folkman-Lazarus test. Nurses' attitudes towards special coercive measures are predominantly negative ([Formula: see text] = 11.312, SD = 2.641). The factors that explain a positive attitude are as follows: female gender (β = - 0.236, p <  0.001), fewer years of service (β = - 0.149, p = 0.023), emotion-focused strategies of coping with stress (β = 0.139, p = 0.020), and less-threatening patient behaviour (β = 0.157, p = 0.012). The effects of some known factors did not prove important in the model. Newly recognized factors are "less-threatening patient behaviour" and "emotion-focused strategies of coping with stress". Therefore, attitudes towards special coercive measures in psychiatry must be regarded as contextualized, interactive, and multidimensional phenomena that cannot be explained merely through a defined set of factors.

  14. Regeneración natural de plantas leñosas en una plantación costarricense de Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae y el efecto de la fertilización con P y NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fco Di Stefano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de manejo y las especies seleccionadas en plantaciones forestales pueden tener efectos positivos o negativos sobre la regeneración vegetal en los trópicos. Esta investigación estudió la abundancia y riqueza de plantas leñosas bajo el dosel de un monocultivo de Vochysia guatemalensis de diez años. Se evaluaron 19 parcelas de 80 m²en Tabarcia de Mora, con varios tratamientos de fertilización (0-0; 0-50; 50-0, 50-50 g/ planta de P, y NPK, respectivamente, este ultimó se aumentó de 150 a 200 g hasta que la plantación alcanzó los seis años, en un diseño factorial totalmente al azar. Se contaron e identificaron todas las especies leñosas con más de 0.5 m de altura, con un total de aproximadamente 10 000 ind/ha en 90 especies, siendo éstas principalmente nativas de la zona (varias maderables, otras importantes para la fauna, la mayoría con bajos índices de importancia (suma de la densidad y frecuencias relativas. Un 16% alcanzaron alturas superiores a 2.5 m. Se considera que varios factores pudieron favorecer dicha regeneración, como un dosel con una apertura inter-media, un manejo forestal de bajo impacto, la cercanía de un fragmento boscoso maduro, y el establecimiento de la plantación en sustitución de un cafetal donde se aplicaban estrategias de conservación de suelos y se fertilizaba anualmente. Finalmente, se determinó una mayor abundancia y riqueza en las parcelas con solo P (χ²=15.364, gl=3, p=0.002, probablemente porque los árboles de Vochysia tendieron a ser menos desarrollados en comparación con los otros tratamientos.

  15. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...

  16. Manage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  17. Stress Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Stresses in the PhEur/USP Disintegration Tester Under Fed and Fasted Fluid Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen, Sarah; Wachtel, Herbert; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Disintegration of oral solid dosage forms is a prerequisite for drug dissolution and absorption and is to a large extent dependent on the pressures and hydrodynamic conditions in the solution that the dosage form is exposed to. In this work, the hydrodynamics in the PhEur/USP disintegration tester were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particle image velocimetry was used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD simulations were performed with different Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, representing fasted and fed states. The results indicate that the current design and operating conditions of the disintegration test device, given by the pharmacopoeias, are not reproducing the in vivo situation. This holds true for the hydrodynamics in the disintegration tester that generates Reynolds numbers dissimilar to the reported in vivo situation. Also, when using homogenized US FDA meal, representing the fed state, too high viscosities and relative pressures are generated. The forces acting on the dosage form are too small for all fluids compared to the in vivo situation. The lack of peristaltic contractions, which generate hydrodynamics and shear stress in vivo, might be the major drawback of the compendial device resulting in the observed differences between predicted and in vivo measured hydrodynamics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Effects of fumonisin B1 and mycotoxin binders on growth performance, tibia characteristics, gut physiology, and stress indicators in broiler chickens raised in different stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Kim, D-H; Keum, M-C; Han, E; An, B-K; Chang, H-H; Choi, Y-H; Moon, B-H; Lee, K-W

    2018-03-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of stocking density, fumonisin B1 (FB), and mycotoxin binder (TB) on growth performance, bone quality, physiological stress indicators, and gut health in broiler chickens. Day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks (n = 1,440/experiment) were randomly allocated to 72 floor pens in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, using 3 stocking densities (12.5 birds/m2 [HSD], 10 birds/m2 [MSD], or 7.5 birds/m2 [LSD]), 2 levels of purified FB (0 or 10 ppm), and 2 levels of TB (0 or 0.2%). Each treatment had 6 replicates (n = 6/treatment) and experiments lasted 34 days. All data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA with stocking density level, FB, and TB as main factors. Body weight gain and feed intake were lower (P FB-contaminated diet exhibited a higher feed-to-gain ratio compared with those fed an FB-free diet (P FB-contaminated diet compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Significant interaction (P FB and TB on serum NO levels was noted. In summary, increasing stocking density lowered growth performance and bone quality, but increased the H/L ratio. Dietary TB did not affect FB-induced increases in the feed-to-gain ratio. No interaction was observed between stocking density and FB for the measured variables.

  20. effects of different levels of NPK fertilizer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O ISRAEL

    2009-10-13

    Oct 13, 2009 ... Vitellaria paradoxa is an indigenous fruit tree of Sudano-. Sahelian Africa, it is called shea ... occurring individual trees that are protected by farmers when clearing their fields, .... Conservation Guide 34. Roma: FAO. Boffa JM ...

  1. Demographic Characteristics, Components of Sexuality and Gender, and Minority Stress and Their Associations to Excessive Alcohol, Cannabis, and Illicit (Noncannabis) Drug Use Among a Large Sample of Transgender People in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cesar A; Gallego, Joseph D; Bockting, Walter O

    2017-08-01

    The current study examined demographics, sexual orientation, gender characteristics, and gender minority stress and their association to excessive alcohol, cannabis, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among 1210 transgender adults living in the United States. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data that included 680 transgender women (M age  = 32.63, SD age  = 12.29) and 530 transgender men (M age  = 26.14, SD age  = 7.42). A modified version of the Risk Behavioral Assessment quantified participants' alcohol, cannabis, and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Overall, 21.5% of participants reported excessive alcohol use; no significant differences were found on the rates of excessive alcohol use between transgender women and men. Cannabis use among our sample was 24.4%; trangender men reported significantly higher rates of cannabis use compared to transgender women. Illicit drug (noncannabis) use among our sample was 11.6%; transgender men also reported significantly higher rates of illicit drug use compared to transgender women. Multivariate analyses suggested that gender dysphoria was significantly associated with: excessive alcohol use for transgender women, cannabis use among both transgender women and men, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among transgender women. A nonheterosexual orientation was associated with increased odds of cannabis use among transgender women and men; a nonheterosexual orientation was associated with greater odds of illicit substance use among transgender men but not among transgender women. Gender minority stressors were independently associated with excessive alcohol use among transgender men and cannabis use among transgender women. The authors suggest that minority stress may only partially account for substance use among transgender people. Consequently, the authors suggest that in addition to minority stress, other biopsychosocial mechanisms should continue to be examined to identify pathways that may lead

  2. Bowel habits and behaviors related to defecation in 10- to 16-year-olds: impact of socioeconomic characteristics and emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman

    2011-05-01

    Bowel habits vary depending on food consumption and genetic factors. The knowledge regarding this physiological phenomenon is limited. Thorough understanding of normal bowel habits is essential for correct diagnosis of defecation disorders. This study evaluated the normal bowel habits of Sri Lankan children. Children ages 10 to 16 years were randomly selected from 5 schools in 4 districts. Those without defecation disorders were recruited. Details regarding their bowel habits during previous 2 months were collected using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. A total of 2273 children were enrolled (mean age 13.2 years, SD 1.7 years, boys 49.7%). Of them, 1748 (76.9%) opened bowels once daily, whereas 149 (6.6%) and 11 (0.5%) had 3/day defecations, respectively. Stool consistency was normal in 1997 (87.9%), hard in 86 (3.8%), and changing consistency in 163 (7.1%). Straining was present in 639 (28.1%), painful defecation in 241 (10.6%), and bleeding in 49 (2.2%). One hundred six (4.7%) children reported stool withholding. Bulky stool was present in 158 (7.0%). Straining, bulky stools, and withholding posture were more common in boys, whereas painful defecation and bleeding were reported more often in girls (Pwar-affected areas (P < 0.05). Bowel frequency < 3/week, bulky stools, painful defecation, straining, and withholding posture were more common in those exposed to stressful life events (P < 0.05). The present study provides data on normal bowel habits of Sri Lankan schoolchildren and provides a firm platform to evaluate defecation disorders in them.

  3. The Study of Turbulent Fluctuation Characteristics in a Small Rotary Engine with a Peripheral Port Based on the Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Shear-Stress Transport (IDDES-SST Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved delayed detached eddy simulation method combined with shear-stress transport (SST model was used to study the three-dimensional turbulent characteristics in a small rotary engine with a peripheral port. The turbulent characteristics including instantaneous velocity, turbulent fluctuation, coherent structure and velocity circulation were analysed based on a dynamic model of the small rotary engine. Three sets of conclusions on the basis of computational results were obtained. First, it was found that large-scale vortex structures with high intensity were distributed in the center of the chamber in the intake process and broke into lots of small vortex structures in the compression process. Second, flow stability in the X direction decreased from the leading to the trailing in the small rotary engine. The fluctuation velocity of the Y direction showed the paraboloid feature and its peak position moved from the mid-back to the middle of the chamber during the operation process. Third, during the intake process, two vortices occurred in the cross section parallel to the covers and were located at the leading and trailing of the cross section, respectively. Compared to the intake process, more vortices occur at cross sections which were far away from the central section during the compression process.

  4. Characteristics of images of angiographically proven normal coronary arteries acquired by adenosine-stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT/CT-IQ[Symbol: see text]SPECT with CT attenuation correction changed stepwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Haruki; Kozono, Nami; Tanakamaru, Yoshiki; Idei, Naomi; Ohashi, Norihiko; Ohtsubo, Hideki; Okada, Takenori; Yasunobu, Yuji; Kaseda, Shunichi

    2015-04-01

    Although several studies have shown the diagnostic and prognostic value of CT-based attenuation correction (AC) of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD), this issue remains a matter of debate. To clarify the characteristics of CT-AC SPECT images that might potentially improve diagnostic performance, we analyzed images acquired using adenosine-stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT/CT equipped with IQ[Symbol: see text]SPECT (SPECT/CT-IQ[Symbol: see text]SPECT) from patients with angiographically proven normal coronary arteries after changing the CT attenuation correction (CT-AC) in a stepwise manner. We enrolled 72 patients (Male 36, Female 36) with normal coronary arteries according to findings of invasive coronary angiography or CT-angiography within three months after a SPECT/CT study. Projection images were reconstructed at CT-AC values of (-), 40, 60, 80 and 100 % using a CT number conversion program according to our definition and analyzed using polar maps according to sex. CT attenuation corrected segments were located from the mid- and apical-inferior spread through the mid- and apical-septal regions and finally to the basal-anterior and basal- and mid-lateral regions in males, and from the mid-inferior region through the mid-septal and mid-anterior, and mid-lateral regions in females as the CT-AC values increased. Segments with maximal mean counts shifted from the apical-anterior to mid-anterolateral region under both stress and rest conditions in males, whereas such segments shifted from the apical-septal to the mid-anteroseptal region under both stress and rest conditions in females. We clarified which part of the myocardium and to which degree CT-AC affects it in adenosine-stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT/CT-IQ[Symbol: see text]SPECT images by changing the CT-AC value stepwise. We also identified sex-specific shifts of segments with maximal mean counts that changed as

  5. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  6. The effect of magnetic stress and stiffness modulus on resonant characteristics of Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloy actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Ratchatee; Kostamo, Jari; Allen, Samuel M.; O'Handley, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The prospect of using ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) is promising for a resonant actuator that requires large strain output and a drive frequency below 1 kHz. In this investigation, three FSMA actuators, equipped with tetragonal off-stoichiometric Ni 2 MnGa single crystals, were developed to study their frequency response and resonant characteristics. The first actuator, labeled as A1, was constructed with low-k bias springs and one Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal. The second actuator, labeled as A2, was constructed with high-k bias springs and one Ni-Mn-Ga crystal. The third actuator, labeled as A3, was constructed with high-k bias springs and two Ni-Mn-Ga crystals connected in parallel. The three actuators were magnetically driven over the frequency range of 10 Hz-1 kHz under 2 and 3.5 kOe magnetic-field amplitudes. The field amplitude of 2 kOe is insufficient to generate significant strain output from all three actuators; the maximum magnetic-field-induced strain (MFIS) at resonance is 2%. The resonant MFIS output improves to 5% under 3.5-kOe amplitude. The frequency responses of all three actuators show a strong effect of the spring k constant and the Ni-Mn-Ga modulus stiffness on the resonant frequencies. The resonant frequency of the Ni-Mn-Ga actuator was raised from 450 to 650 Hz by increasing bias spring k constant and/or the number of Ni-Mn-Ga crystals. The higher number of the Ni-Mn-Ga crystals not only increases the magnetic force output but also raises the total stiffness of the actuator resulting in a higher resonant frequency. The effective modulus of the Ni-Mn-Ga is calculated from the measured resonant frequencies using the mass-spring equation; the calculated modulus values for the three actuators fall in the range of 50-60 MPa. The calculated effective modulus appears to be close to the average modulus value between the low twinning modulus and high elastic modulus of the untwined Ni-Mn-Ga crystal. - Highlights: → Dynamic FSMA actuation shows

  7. [Psychological Characteristics of Patients With Stress-induced Arterial Hypertension: a Violation of the Regulation of Emotions as a Central Link of Pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumova, O D; Pervichko, E I; Zinchenko, Y P

    2016-09-01

    The study of emotional and personality characteristics of patients with hypertension in the workplace (HW) and comparative assessment of the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy in these patients. The study included 170 patients c hypertensive disease stage II, 1-2-th degree, aged 32-52 years, including 85 patients with and 85 patients without WAH, and 82 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. To carry out simulation of the situation of emotional intensity (level of claims assessment process - UE) and a modified version of the test Rosenzweig. Patients with WAH were randomized into 2 groups: patients of group 1 received bisoprolol, 2nd group -eprosartan. If target blood pressure (BP) in 2 weeks, all patients were added indapamide retard. At baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment was carried out daily monitoring of blood pressure and the working day. When modeling a situation of emotional intensity in patients with WAP become, compared with patients without a healthy and WAH, revealed (1) marked increase in systolic blood pressure - 16.1, 4.1 and 3.0 mmHg, respectively (p motivation "avoid failure" (UP underestimated in 34.1% of cases, unformed UP - in 21.2% of cases, healthy - 14.6% and 3.7% of cases, cootvetstvenno, pemotionally meaningful situations (9.7 and 7.8, respectively) and emotional descriptors (11 and 7, respectively). Patients with WAH differ significantly (pemotion regulation in an emotionally meaningful situations: the suppression of the expression of emotions (38.3 and 20.3%, respectively), rumination and disasterization (19 and 11.8%, respectively) and more rare - high performance: sequential actualization of new meanings (25.7 and 31.7%, respectively) and the strategy of interactive subject-subject transformations (12.6 and 25.2%, respectively). After 16 weeks of treatment showed a significant (pemotionally meaningful situations frequently resorted to repression of emotions, choose the inefficient strategies of emotion regulation, they

  8. 陷落柱填隙物全应力-应变过程的渗流特性研究%Research on permeability characteristics of karst collapse column fillings in complete stress-strain process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勃阳; 白海波; 张凯

    2016-01-01

    岩溶陷落柱易导通含水层与煤层从而引发底板突水事故,已经成为我国华北地区下组煤开采的重要安全隐患。对于固结良好的陷落柱,其填隙物的渗透性直接影响着陷落柱的整体渗透性,且在采动压力的影响下,陷落柱填隙物的渗透性也在不断发生变化。为研究不同应力状态下填隙物渗透率的变化规律,对填隙物进行固结重塑,并利用MTS815.02渗流试验系统对重塑后不同初始含水率的填隙物试样进行了不同围压条件下的全应力-应变过程的渗流特性试验。试验结果表明:1)陷落柱填隙物全应力-应变过程渗透率的变化曲线可划分为压密段、破坏段和蠕变段,渗透率对应的呈现出减小-增大-减小的变化规律;2)填隙物的全应力-应变过程的渗透率峰值随围压的增大而减小,其峰值比与围压差存在指数函数关系;3)填隙物的初始渗透率和孔隙度随初始含水率的增大而增大,渗透率比和孔隙度比存在幂函数关系,在全应力-应变过程中渗透率峰值与初始值的差随初始含水率的增大而减小。%The floor water-inrush accident caused by karst collapse column is easy to break over the aquifer and coal seam. This kind of accident has become the serious danger of lower group coal mining in northern China. For the well-consolidated collapse column, the permeability of the fillings directly affects that of the overall collapse column, and the permeability of fillings constantly changes under the influence of mining. The study on seepage characteristic of collapse column fillings is conducted with MTS815.02 seepage test system in a complete stress-strain process and the variation of permeability under different strain states. Meanwhile the influence of initial moisture content and confining pressure on the fillings permeability is analyzed in this test. The results show that: 1) The representative stress

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE BOTTOM MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to assess the selected heavy metals pollution of bottom sediments of small water bodies of different catchment management. Two ponds located in Mostkowo village were chosen for investigation. The first small water reservoir is surrounded by the cereal fields, cultivated without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The second reservoir is located in a park near rural buildings. Sediment samples were collected by the usage of KC Denmark sediments core probe. Samples were taken from 4 layers of sediment, from depth: 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm. Sampling was made once during the winter period (2014 year when ice occurred on the surface of small water bodies, from three points. The material was prepared for further analysis according to procedures used in soil science. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry by usage of ASA ICE 3000 Thermo Scientific after prior digestion in the mixture (5: 1 of concentrated acids (HNO3 and HClO4. Higher pH values ​​were characteristic for sediments of pond located in a park than in pond located within the agricultural fields. In both small water bodies the highest heavy metal concentrations occurred in the deepest points of the research. In the sediments of the pond located within crop fields the highest concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were observed in a layer of 0–5 cm, wherein the nickel and chromium in a layer of 20–30 cm. In the sediments of the pond, located in the park the highest values ​​occurred at the deepest sampling point in the layer taken form 10–20 cm. Sediments from second reservoir were characterized by the largest average concentrations of heavy metals, except the lead content in sediment form the layer of 10–20 cm. According to the geochemical evaluation of sediments proposed by Bojakowska and Sokołowska [1998], the majority of samples belongs to Ist

  10. The teacher under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged professional stress are anxiety, depression, frustration, unfriendly behavior towards students and colleagues, emotional weariness, and extreme tension. Health and psychological problems cause, most frequently, the reduction of self-esteem job dissatisfaction, job resignation, absenteeism, and wrong decision-making. In an attempt to call professional public attention to negative effects of stress on the outcomes of teacher work, we have analyzed four important aspects of stress teachers experience in their everyday work (a definition and measurement of stress, (b distribution and sources of stress (problem behaviors in students, poor working conditions, lack of time, poor school ethos, (c teacher personality traits (sex, age, work experience, locus of control, job satisfaction, intention to resign absenteeism, (d strategies for overcoming and reducing negative effects of stress (direct action techniques, palliative techniques.

  11. Low nitrogen stress stimulating the indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis of Serratia sp. ZM is vital for the survival of the bacterium and its plant growth-promoting characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liming; Pei, Haiyan; Xu, Zhaohui

    2017-04-01

    Serratia sp. ZM is a plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacterial strain isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Populus euphratica in northwestern China. In this study, low nitrogen supply significantly stimulated the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in Serratia sp.ZM. The inoculation of the bacterium to wheat seedlings improved plant growth compared with the uninoculated group, and the stimulating effect was more prominent under low nitrogen stress. Inactivation of the predicted key gene in the IAA biosynthesis pathway impaired IAA production and significantly hampered mutant growth in poor medium. Furthermore, the IAA-deficient mutant lost the PGP effect under either normal or low nitrogen conditions in plant experiments. This study revealed the significant impact of environmental nitrogen levels on IAA production in the PGP strain and the vital effect of IAA on resistance physiology of both the bacterium and host plant. The characteristics of Serratia sp. ZM also indicated its application potential as a biofertilizer for plants, especially those suffering from poor nitrogen soil.

  12. Occupational Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Löblová, Klára

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with load, stress and related questions of the working life. Work-related stress brings numerous difficulties not only to affected individuals, but as a result also to organizations. The thesis follows symptoms, impacts, somatic and mental aspects of stress, its types and also types of stressors, which cause this problem. It is concentrated on workload as a specific area of work-related stress, individual resistance to the load, factors of workload and work-related stress and...

  13. Metallurgy of stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    The susceptibility of metals and alloys to stress corrosion is discussed in terms of the relationship between structural characteristics (crystal structure, grains, and second phases) and defects (vacancies, dislocations, and cracks) that exist in metals and alloys. (U.S.)

  14. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  15. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  16. Neuromuscular Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…

  17. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  18. Dementia care worker stress associations with unit type, resident, and work environment characteristics: a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project (SHURP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Barbara; De Geest, Sabina; Fierz, Katharina; Beckmann, Sonja; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2017-03-01

    Although caring for residents with dementia in nursing homes is associated with various stressors for care workers, the role of the unit type, and particularly the proportion of residents with dementia, remains unclear. This study aimed to explore associations between unit type and care worker stress, taking into account additional potential stressors. This cross-sectional study was a secondary data analysis in the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project, which included data from 3,922 care workers from 156 Swiss nursing homes. Care workers' stress was measured with a shortened version of the Health Professions Stress Inventory. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess care worker stress and its relationships with three unit types (special care units and others with high or low proportions of residents with dementia), work environment factors, and aggressive resident behavior. After including all potential stressors in the models, no significant differences between the three unit types regarding care worker stress were found. However, increased care worker stress levels were significantly related to lower ratings of staffing and resources adequacy, the experience of verbal aggression, and the observation of verbal or physical aggression among residents. Although the unit type plays only a minor role regarding care worker stress, this study confirms that work environment and aggressive behavior of residents are important factors associated with work-related stress. To prevent increases of care worker stress, interventions to improve the work environment and strengthen care workers' ability to cope with aggressive behavior are suggested.

  19. Practical stress analysis in engineering design

    CERN Document Server

    Huston, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Presents the application of engineering design and analysis based on the approach of understanding the physical characteristics of a given problem and then modeling the important aspects of the physical system. This book covers such topics as contact stress analysis, singularity functions, gear stresses, fasteners, shafts, and shaft stresses.

  20. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  1. Características do ejaculado de caprinos sob estresse calórico em câmara bioclimática Sperm characteristics of bucks under heat stress in climatic chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Coelho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o efeito do estresse calórico (EC na produção espermática de caprinos, oito machos das raças Saanen (n=4 e Pardo-Alpina (n=4 foram mantidos em câmara bioclimática, sob condições de termoneutralidade (13,0ºC a 26,7ºC durante 30 dias e, após um período (60 dias de descanso, submetidos ao EC (23,7ºC a 34,0ºC por mais 30 dias. Para minimizar as variações sazonais na produção espermática, durante todo o período, o fotoperíodo foi controlado utilizando-se alternância de dias longos (16 horas de luz e 8 horas de escuro e de dias curtos (8 horas de luz e 16 horas de escuro a cada 30 dias. Avaliaram-se as temperaturas retal e testicular, o volume do ejaculado, a concentração espermática, as motilidades massal e individual progressiva (MIP, o vigor e a morfologia espermática. Houve aumento (P0,05 o percentual total de células anormais e nem a temperatura retal. Os machos da raça Saanen apresentaram temperaturas do testículo e retal mais elevadas (PTo verify the effect of heat stress (HS on caprine semen production eight male goats of Saanen (n=4 and Alpine Brown (n=4 breeds were kept in climate chamber under thermal neutral conditions (13.0ºC to 26.7ºC for 30 days. After a resting period (60 days, the same bucks were submitted to heat stress (23.7ºC to 34.0ºC for another 30 days. To neutralize the seasonal variations of sperm production throughout the period, the photoperiod was controlled every 30 days alterning long days (16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness and short days (8 hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. The following variables were evaluated: rectal and testicular temperatures, volume of ejaculate, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual progressive motility, vigor and sperm morphology. There was an elevation (P0.05 on percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa and rectal temperature. The Saanen males showed higher testicular and rectal temperatures and produced more sperm

  2. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  3. Work Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roeters, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...

  4. The effect of different type of vermicompost organic fertilizer litter on quantitive, qualitative and biochemical characteristics of green mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) in drought stress conditions in Varamin

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Vahid Reza Mahmoudi; Mohammad Nasri; Peyman Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Vermicompost in sustainable agriculture is very useful for improving soil porosity and thereby providing more nutrients to plants; accordingly, a split plot experiment was performed on mung bean in a randomized complete block design from with three replications in research farm of Islamic Azad University, Varamin – Pishva. The first factor was drought stress including lack of drought stress, irrigation cut in podding stage and irrigation cut in grain filling stage as the main plot and the sec...

  5. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and its association with socio-demographic characteristics, dietary pattern, and perceived academic load and stress in college students in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Jesmari; Ríos, Josué L; Pagán, Ideliz; Fabián, Carla; González, Anaisa M; Cruz, Sonia Y; González, Michael J; Rivera, Winna T; Palacios, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Stress can have deleterious effects on health and academic performance. Common stress-relieving activities among college students include the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). The aim of this study was to determine the associations between self-perceived academic load and stress, NMUPD (stimulants, depressants, and sleeping medication), and dietary pattern in college students in PR. A questionnaire to evaluate academic load and stress, NMUPD, and dietary pattern was used on a representative sample of 275 first- and second-year students from one campus. In total, 27.6% reported NMUPD in the past 6 months, with higher use among students aged 21-30 years (93.4%) than in those aged 31-53 years (6.6%; p=0.062). Those with high levels of stress had higher NMUPD (42.1%) than did those with low (26.3%) or moderate (31.6%) stress levels, after controlling for age and sex (p=0.03). Among those who reported NMUPD over the previous 6 months, 74% reported that such use was effective as a coping strategy, and 35% reported that it helped them to improve academic performance. Although no significant association was found between NMUPD and dietary pattern, 57% of the participants reported that their appetites decreased when they engaged in NMUPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has associated self-perceived academic load and stress, NMUPD, and dietary pattern among college students in Puerto Rico. NMUPD's prevalence was 27.6%, which prevalence appeared to be higher in students aged 21-30 years than in those of any other age. High levels of stress were significantly related to high NMUPD in this sample.

  6. Improvements of Nickel Deposit Characteristics by Pulse Plating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter; Møller, Per

    1993-01-01

    Investigation of the properties of electroplated nickel, using both pulse plating and conventional di-rect current (DC), has lead to several interesting improvements of deposit characteristics. Investigated properties include; internal stress, tensile strength, yield stress, elongation, hardness...

  7. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  8. Geopotential Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth’s lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth’s Stress Field. In theory the GPE...... is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid...... are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral...

  9. Learn to manage stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress - managing; Stress - recognizing; Stress - relaxation techniques ... LEARN TO RECOGNIZE STRESS The first step in managing stress is recognizing it in your life. Everyone feels stress in a different way. ...

  10. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL ... diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determine .... heated on an electric stove and stirred continuously.

  11. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  12. Characteristics of Suicidality among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Scott; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of suicidality and psychopathology (including depression, aggression, impulsivity, and stressful life events) among four groups of depressed adolescent outpatients. The nonsuicidal group was differentiated from the three suicidal groups on the basis of suicidality and psychopathology. The three suicidal groups were…

  13. Occupational Stress and Coping Resources of K-12 Probationary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure what factors impact the stress levels of probationary teachers who may or may not be new to the field of education, to determine what demographic characteristics are related to higher levels of stress, to determine what coping resources were successful in reducing stress, and to compare the stress levels and…

  14. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with regions of your brain that control mood, motivation and fear. The body's stress-response system is ... problems Headaches Heart disease Sleep problems Weight gain Memory and concentration impairment That's why it's so important ...

  15. Stressing academia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    Incongruences between the individual and the organizational work context are potential stressors. The present study focuses on the relationship between a complementary need-supply fit and Danish researchers’ self-perceived job stress. Strain is expected to increase as organizational supplies fall...... hand, the fit on “hard” dimensions as salary, financial rewards and career opportunities is found to be unrelated to the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The fit with regard to job security is an important exception, however....... to “soft” dimensions as freedom and independence in the job, personal and professional development at work, and receiving peer recognition is highly significant for the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The better the fit is the lower stress-levels the researchers’ on average report. On the other...

  16. Stress Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.Univ. Dr. Paul Marinescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the post-modern management organizational leaders have the obligation of protecting their employees against factors that could cause damages to their potentially wealthy lives. Stress is such a factor. We shall attempt by means of the present article to draw attention on certain general aspects that should be taken into account in drafting plans for fighting against and diminishing the stress faced by the employees

  17. Stress fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Cooper, K.L.; Pritchard, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of a stress fracture should be considered in patients presented with pain after a change in activity, especially if the activity is strenuous and the pain is in the lower extremities. Since evidence of the stress fracture may not be apparent for weeks on routine radiographs, proper use of other imaging techniques will allow an earlier diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is especially important in the femur, where displacement may occur

  18. A Triaxial Characteristic State Model for Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.; Borup, M.; Hedegaard, J.

    the loading surfaces approach the zero-tension planes asymptotically, generating a nearly triangular contour in the deviator ic stress plane. The gradient of the flow potential is generated directly from the gradient of the loading potential by scaling of the mean stress component. Two hardening rules...... that permit ultimate stress states beyond the characteristic line have been proposed. Results from drained triaxial tests show good agreement with the model, usi ng a weighted work hardening rule....

  19. Stress and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vukovic, O; Stepanovic, J

    2011-01-01

    Stress is an adaptation reaction of living organisms in response to internal or external threats to homeostasis. It is considered as a complex defence mechanism representing the final endpoint of numerous dynamic and interconnected factors of biological, psychological and social nature. Stress is not a simple, stimulus-response reaction, but the interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Specific inherited characteristics, early experience in life, and particular, learned cognitive predispositions make individuals more or less susceptible to the effects of stressors. Resilience and vulnerability to stressors as well as intensity of stress response are greatly dependable on age, gender, intelligence, and numerous characteristics of personality, such as hardiness,locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism, hostility (component of type A personality)and type D traits (negative affectivity and social inhibition). To understand the relation between personality and stress, it is essential to recognize the impact of individual differences in the following four aspects: (1) choice or avoidance of environments that are associated with specific stressors, challenges or benefits, (2) way of interpreting a stressful situation and evaluating one's own abilities and capacities for proactive behaviour so as to confront or avoid it, (3) intensity of response to a stressor,and (4) coping strategies employed by the individual facing a stressful situation. Studies have recorded considerable consistency in coping strategies employed to confront stressful situations, independentlyof situational factors and in connection with permanent personality and temperamental traits,such as neuroticism, extraversion, sense of humour, persistence, fatalism, conscientiousness, andopenness to experience. Positive affect has been associated with positive reappraisal

  20. Evaluation of Effect of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth Characteristics, Yield and Yield components of three Sesame Ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Goldani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using organic fertilizers is cause increase soil fertility, improving crop growth and production. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design with three replications during 2011 year. First factor included: three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7 and second factor was 6 fertilizer treatments that included: Incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer (216 g manure and 1 gram chemical fertilizer NPK, Chemical fertilizer (2 g NPK, Vermicompost (192 g, Manure ( 228 g, Compost Sulfur granules (192 g per vase and Control (without any manure or fertilizer. Results indicated that different manure treatments had significant effect on morphological and yield components traits, as the most number and length branch per plant was obtained from incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment. Appling incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment had the most biomass in MSC3 ecotype that in comparison of control treatment was increased almost 73 percent. Consuming incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment in MSC3 ecotype was also obtained the most capsule per plant (21.2, number seed per capsule (54.4, 100-seed weight (0.257 g and seed per plant with (1.95 g. The least seed weight per plant with 0.450 g was observed in MSC7 ecotype from application of control treatment. Response of three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7 to applied vermin-compost manure was similar; as the amount of seed weight per plant was increased more than 1 g per plant in all these ecotypes and in others fertilizer treatments was not observed this trend. There was significant positive correlation between seed weight per plant and number of capsule per plant (r=0.83**, height (r=0.68** and biomass (r=0.51**. The results showed that incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer was improved on growth and yield characteristics of sesame plant.

  1. Stress Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)......The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)...

  2. Welding stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Barbe, B.; Jolly, N.

    1976-01-01

    The aim is to show how internal stresses are generated and to fix the orders of magnitude. A realistic case, the vertical welding of thick plates free to move one against the other, is described and the deformations and stresses are analyzed. The mathematical model UEDA, which accounts for the elastic modulus, the yield strength and the expansion coefficient of the metal with temperature, is presented. The hypotheses and results given apply only to the instantaneous welding of a welded plate and to a plate welded by a moving electrode [fr

  3. Perceived stress in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a normal physiological response to events that make us feel threatened, or upset our balance in some way. In medicine, it is known that stress, as an emotional state, can be a trigger for many psychosomatic disorders. Work stress and burnout are considered to be serious professional risks in dentistry. The dentist should be aware of these stressors and attempt to manage them in order to avoid becoming occupationally dissatisfied. On the other hand, the other common characteristic of modern life is a growing burden of different chronic diseases. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived stress in patients with periodontal pathologies, and to compare it with the stress in doctors-dentists and students of dentistry as future professionals. Our study confirmed the presence of significant stress in all three groups of examinees (patients, doctors, and students). Surprisingly, the obtained PSQ scores are similar in the examined groups. In addition, no differences between perceived stress in males and females have been found. There is a minimal positive correlation between age and obtained scores. However, stress must be evaluated as a risk factor both for professionals or for chronic dental patients and some response measures must be undertaken.

  4. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  5. (stress) testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...

  6. Drosophila larvae lacking the bcl-2 gene, buffy, are sensitive to nutrient stress, maintain increased basal target of rapamycin (Tor signaling and exhibit characteristics of altered basal energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrate Jessica P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 proteins are the central regulators of apoptosis. The two bcl-2 genes in Drosophila modulate the response to stress-induced cell death, but not developmental cell death. Because null mutants are viable, Drosophila provides an optimum model system to investigate alternate functions of Bcl-2 proteins. In this report, we explore the role of one bcl-2 gene in nutrient stress responses. Results We report that starvation of Drosophila larvae lacking the bcl-2 gene, buffy, decreases survival rate by more than twofold relative to wild-type larvae. The buffy null mutant reacted to starvation with the expected responses such as inhibition of target of rapamycin (Tor signaling, autophagy initiation and mobilization of stored lipids. However, the autophagic response to starvation initiated faster in larvae lacking buffy and was inhibited by ectopic buffy. We demonstrate that unusually high basal Tor signaling, indicated by more phosphorylated S6K, was detected in the buffy mutant and that removal of a genomic copy of S6K, but not inactivation of Tor by rapamycin, reverted the precocious autophagy phenotype. Instead, Tor inactivation also required loss of a positive nutrient signal to trigger autophagy and loss of both was sufficient to activate autophagy in the buffy mutant even in the presence of enforced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signaling. Prior to starvation, the fed buffy mutant stored less lipid and glycogen, had high lactate levels and maintained a reduced pool of cellular ATP. These observations, together with the inability of buffy mutant larvae to adapt to nutrient restriction, indicate altered energy metabolism in the absence of buffy. Conclusions All animals in their natural habitats are faced with periods of reduced nutrient availability. This study demonstrates that buffy is required for adaptation to both starvation and nutrient restriction. Thus, Buffy is a Bcl-2 protein that plays an

  7. Effect of magnetic field and silver nanoparticles on yield and water use efficiency of Carum copticum under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seghatoleslami Mohammadjavad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normally the productivity of cropping systems in arid and semi- arid regions is very low. The sustainable agricultural systems try to find out environmental friendly technologies based on physical and biological treatments to increase crop production. In this study two irrigation treatments (control and water stress and six methods of fertilizer treatment (control, NPK-F, using magnetic band- M, using silver nano particles- N, M+N and M+N+50% F on performance of ajowan were compared. Results showed that treatments with magnetic field or base fertilizer had more yield compared to the control and silver nanoparticles (N treatments. Application of silver nanoparticles had no positive effect on yield. The highest seed and biomass WUE achieved in base fertilizer or magnetic field treatments. Under water stress treatment, seed WUE significantly increased. In conclusion magnetic field exposure, probably by encourage nutrient uptake efficiency could be applied to reduce fertilizer requirement. On the other hand the cultivation of plants under low MF could be an alternative way of WUE improving.

  8. Effect of the Volume Fraction of Jute Fiber on the Interlaminar Shear Stress and Tensile Behavior Characteristics of Hybrid Glass/Jute Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Bar for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Gi Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid glass/jute fiber reinforced polymer (HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured for concrete structures, and their interlaminar shear stress and tensile performance were evaluated. HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured using a combination of pultrusion and braiding processes. Jute fiber was surface-treated with a silane coupling agent. The mixing ratio of the fiber to the vinyl ester used in the HGJFRP composite bars was 7 : 3. Jute fiber was used to replace glass fiber in proportions of 0, 30, 50, 70, and 100%. The interlaminar shear stress decreased as the proportion of jute fiber increased. Fractures appeared due to delamination between the surface-treated component and the main part of the HGJFRP composite bar. Tensile load-strain curves with 50% jute fiber exhibited linear behavior. With a jute fiber volume fraction of 70%, some plastic deformation occurred. A jute fiber mixing ratio of 100% resulted in a display of linear elastic brittle behavior from the fiber; however, when the surface of the fiber was coated with poly(vinyl acetate, following failure, the jute fiber exhibited partial load resistance. The tensile strength decreased as the jute fiber content increased; however, the tensile strength did not vary linearly with jute fiber content.

  9. Stress and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  10. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  11. Stress and your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary heart disease - stress; Coronary artery disease - stress ... Your body responds to stress on many levels. First, it releases stress hormones that make you breathe faster. Your blood pressure goes up. Your muscles ...

  12. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  13. Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking of fixed deflection stressed slotted rings of Zircaloy fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejnoha, R.; Wood, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy fuel cladding by fission products is thought to be an important mechanism influencing power ramping defects of water-reactor fuels. We have used the fixed-deflection stressed slotted-ring technique to demonstrate cracking. The results show both the sensitivity and limitations of the stressed slotted-ring method in determining the responses of tubing to stress corrosion cracking. They are interpreted in terms of stress relaxation behavior, both on a microscopic scale for hydrogen-induced stress-relief and on a macroscopic scale for stress-time characteristics. Analysis also takes account of nonuniform plastic deformation during loading and residual stress buildup on unloading. 27 refs

  14. The residual stress evaluation for expansion process of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.-S.; Lee, S.-C.; Shim, D.-N.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of a nuclear power plant is affected by the reliability of steam generator tube and the reliability of steam generator tube is affected by stress corrosion cracking(SCC). Many steam generator tubes were experiencing stress corrosion cracking and stress corrosion cracking is affected material characteristics, corrosive environments and added stresses. The added stresses have the manufacturing stresses and operating stresses, the manufacturing stresses include the residual stresses generating in the tube manufacture and tube expanding procedure. We will investigate for influence which affected to residual stresses with tube plastic deformation method and measurement region. (author)

  15. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  16. 40 CFR 90.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 90.329... Equipment Provisions § 90.329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for thermally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10...

  17. 40 CFR 91.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 91.329....329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for termally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10 °C. (b) Evaluation...

  18. Stress and recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, M

    2001-09-01

    Our current understanding into the role of stress in unexplained recurrent miscarriages comes from two different research strategies. The majority of research has examined the role of psychological support within this patient population. This support has been provided in a number of ways ranging from weekly interviews with a psychiatrist or gynaecologist and or visual re-assurance in the form of ultrasound scans. A comparison of psychological support with an absence of such intervention has found differences in successful pregnancy outcome varying from as great as 84 versus 26%, respectively. It has been assumed that psychological support reduces the miscarriage rate by reducing “stress”within this patient population. In addition it provides indirect support for a role of stress in the aetiology of unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Other studies have attempted to directly assess the effect of personality characteristics on miscarriage rate; these studies have yielded conflicting results.The mechanism by which stress may be causal in the aetiology of unexplained recurrent miscarriage has not been examined in humans. Animal studies, however, have found that psychological distress can alter immune parameters that may be intricately involved with implantation. These parameters include an elevation of the “abortive” cytokine TNF-a and a reduction in the “anti-abortive” cytokine TGF-P2. Cells that are involved in the release of TNF-a at the feto-maternal interface include T cells, macrophages and mast cells.Mechanisms through which stress may act on these cells are explored and an integrated model is postulated.

  19. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this

  20. Stressed podocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    and in response to injury induced by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress (Golubinskaya et al., 2015). Their report shed light on the complex regulation of Best3 in podocytes and will help pave the way for future studies on the pathogenesis of kidneys diseases with podocyte injury. This article is protected...... structure appears to be a common finding in acquired proteinuric conditions (Pavenstadt et al., 2003). Identification of genes that are involved in physiological and pathophysiological functions of the podocytes is a major task. Recent studies indicate that Bestrophin (Best) 3 has cell protective functions...... in a number of cell types (Lee et al., 2012, Jiang et al., 2013, Song et al., 2014). In the present issue of Acta Physiologica, Golubinskaya et al. use cultured podocytes, kidneys and isolated glomeruli of the mouse kidney to provide a thorough characterisation of Best3 expression under normal conditions...