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Sample records for npk fertility levels

  1. Desempenho do gergelim em função da adubação NPK e do nível d fertilidade do solo = Sesame performance in function of NPK fertilizer and levels of soil fertility

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    Adriano Perin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho do gergelim, em condições de safrinha, em doses crescentes de NPK e diferentes níveis de fertilidade do solo. Foram instalados dois experimentos: um em casa-de-vegetação e outro a campo. Em casa-devegetação, utilizou-se fatorial 6 x 2, distribuído em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso,com quatro repetições. O primeiro fator constou de seis doses do adubo 04:14:08; o segundo, de dois tipos de solo (baixa e alta fertilidade. O experimento a campo constou de seis tratamentos (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 e 600 kg ha-1 do adubo 04-20-10, distribuídos emblocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A adubação com 04:14:08, quando em solo de baixa fertilidade, promoveu aumento na altura das plantas, desde o início até o final do ciclo, enquanto, em solo de alta fertilidade, as respostas foram evidenciadas apenas nos primeiros43 dias de crescimento. A adubação ainda promoveu aumento no peso de matéria seca das hastes e das vagens, no número de vagens e na produção de grãos, em solo de baixa fertilidade, atingindo produção máxima de grãos na dose de 550 kg ha-1 do adubo 04:14:08. No campo, não houve resposta da adubação com relação à produção de matéria seca e rendimento de grãos cultivados na safrinha.The objective of this work was to evaluate sesame performance to NPKfertilizer and different levels of soil fertility. Two experiments were conducted: one in a greenhouse and another in field conditions. In the greenhouse, the study used a completely randomized design, in a 6 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. The first factor was six fertilization levels of 04:14:08, and the second two soil types (low and high fertility. The experiment in field conditions used randomized blocks with 6 treatments (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1 of 04-20-10 fertilizer 04:20:10 and 4 replications. The fertilization with 04:14:08 in low fertility soil promoted greaterheight of the plants

  2. Concentrations of heavy metals in NPK fertilizers imported in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Milinović; Vesna Lukić; Snežana Nikolić-Mandić; Dimitrije Stojanović

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest c...

  3. The Performance of Zea mays as Influenced by NPK fertilizer Application

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    Kolawole Edomwonyi LAW-OGBOMO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were made to estimate the effect of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize were conducted over a two year period. NPK fertilizer applications significantly increase plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield. The optimum level of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer for successful production of maize grains was 400 (60 kg N + 27.16 kg P + 49.80 kg K kg / ha compound fertilizer based on the fact that it had the greatest dry cob yield (12.44 t / ha, grain yield (7.95 t /ha, relative grain yield (2.26 and 100-seeds weight (11.62g. Keywords: Growth, NPK fertilizer, plant height, stem girth and yield.

  4. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in NPK Fertilizers Imported in Serbia

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    Jelena Milinović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn in sixteen NPK fertilizers imported and widely used in Serbia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. The results show that contents of heavy metals varied significantly in different fertilizers dependingon N:P:K ratio and fertilizer origin. Pb and Cd contents in water solution of fertilizers occurred at low ranges: 2.0-3.1 and 0.03- 1.56 mg/kg, respectively. An NPK (15:15:15 fertilizer from Romania was found to contain the highest concentration of Pb and Cd as impurities. Cu content, ranging from 7.1 to 974.7 mg/kg, was the highest in coloured fertilizers from Hungary, the Netherlands and Greece. Mn value in a Hungarian NPK product (10:10:20 exceeds the average Mn value in soil. The data indicate variable contents of heavy metals in fertilizers, some of which are significantly higher than natural concentrations in soil, which suggests that they need to be continuously monitored.

  5. Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.

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    Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied. PMID:22868114

  6. GROWTH OF Eucalyptus globulus SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO NPK FERTILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Vicente Pezzutti; Mauro Valdir Scnumacher; Juarez Martins Hoppe

    2009-01-01

    The present study has had as its objectives to evaluate the seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus subspecies maidenii, in response to different NPK originated from the combination of slow release and quick release fertilizers. The study was conducted in a climatized green house ata the Technological Center of Forestry, in the Forest Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria-RS, from September to December of 1997. The plants were cultivated in a compost of pine bark substrate, in a comple...

  7. GROWTH OF Eucalyptus globulus SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO NPK FERTILIZATION

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    Raul Vicente Pezzutti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study has had as its objectives to evaluate the seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus subspecies maidenii, in response to different NPK originated from the combination of slow release and quick release fertilizers. The study was conducted in a climatized green house ata the Technological Center of Forestry, in the Forest Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria-RS, from September to December of 1997. The plants were cultivated in a compost of pine bark substrate, in a completely randomized design, consisting of 4 treatments which consisted of Phosphorus dosages (60% of Super Simple (0-18-0 and a slow release NPK fertilizer (14-14-14, known as Osmocote, which derived from ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, calcium phosphate and potassium sulfate. The treatments, resulting from the combination of 60% super simple and 40% osmocote were 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 and 7,5 Kg m-3 of substrate. There were  4 repetitions of 11 plants for each treatment. After 100 days the height, collar diameter, above-ground dry matter, root dry matter and number of leaves were evaluated. The results indicate that the E. globulus subsp. maidenii seedlings growth responded positively to NPK fertilization  [60% of Super Simple (0-18-0+40% of slow release fertilizer (14-14-14]; when the fertilizer was not applied the seedlings did not grow as much while the maximum increment in height, collar diameter, above-ground dry matter, root dry matter and number of leaves were obtained in the  dosage range of 6,7 Kg m-3 to 7,5 Kg m-3 of substrate.

  8. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

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    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  9. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  10. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

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    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd. PMID:24897796

  11. Structural and impedance characterization of ceramics prepared from NPK fertilizer

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    Diouma Kobor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of this work was to study the possibilities of valorising the phosphates through the development of a conductive ceramics using NPK fertilizer as a precursor. Phosphorus based powders were synthesized using solid state technique from NPK fertilizer, lithium chloride and iron chloride at different temperatures up to 900 °C and ceramic samples were prepared by the powder pressing and sintering at 1100 °C. XRD spectra of the calcined powders show various sharp peaks indicating a relatively high degree of crystallinity and presence of different crystalline phases, such as: phosphorus based crystalline compounds (AlPO4 and LiFePO4, ferrite (Fe3O4 and DyFeO3, CaSO4 and K3DyCl6. The prepared phosphorus based ceramics showed very interesting electrical and dielectric properties. Thus, in the future the obtained ceramics could find application in electronic or energy storage devices. However, further investigations are necessary to understand the exact chemical composition and structural characteristics of this material, to better understand the origin of the obtained electrical and dielectric behaviour.

  12. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds

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    Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

  13. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn. Seeds

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    F. M. Oloyede

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November, and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P=0.05 depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha.

  14. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

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    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

  15. Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae

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    Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7% and leaf area (9% when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%, P (30% and K (17% of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.

  16. Controlled-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosiewicz, Anna; Tomaszewska, Maria

    2003-01-15

    The commercial granular fertilizer NPK6-20-30 was coated using polysulfone (PSF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and cellulose acetate (CA). The coatings were formed from the polymer solutions by the phase inversion technique. Measurements of the thickness and porosity of the prepared coatings and a microphotographic observation of the coatings were performed. The physical properties of the coatings influence the release rate of macronutrients which are present in the core of the coated fertilizer. In the case of PAN coating with 60.45% porosity, prepared from a 16% polymer solution, 100% of NH(4)(+) and P(2)O(5) was released after 4 h of test and 99.7% of K(+) after 5 h of test, whereas in the case of coating with 48.8% porosity, 31.8% of NH(4)(+), 16.7% of P(2)O(5), and 11.6% of K(+) was released after 5 h. In all experiments, different selectivities of the coatings in terms of the release of components were observed. The release of potassium through the coatings made of PSF and PAN was the slowest. The same tendency was observed for the release of nitrogen through a coating of CA. The release of fertilizer active components was the slowest in the case of PSF. The lowest porosity coating was prepared from the 18% PSF solution.

  17. Controlled-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosiewicz, Anna; Tomaszewska, Maria

    2003-01-15

    The commercial granular fertilizer NPK6-20-30 was coated using polysulfone (PSF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and cellulose acetate (CA). The coatings were formed from the polymer solutions by the phase inversion technique. Measurements of the thickness and porosity of the prepared coatings and a microphotographic observation of the coatings were performed. The physical properties of the coatings influence the release rate of macronutrients which are present in the core of the coated fertilizer. In the case of PAN coating with 60.45% porosity, prepared from a 16% polymer solution, 100% of NH(4)(+) and P(2)O(5) was released after 4 h of test and 99.7% of K(+) after 5 h of test, whereas in the case of coating with 48.8% porosity, 31.8% of NH(4)(+), 16.7% of P(2)O(5), and 11.6% of K(+) was released after 5 h. In all experiments, different selectivities of the coatings in terms of the release of components were observed. The release of potassium through the coatings made of PSF and PAN was the slowest. The same tendency was observed for the release of nitrogen through a coating of CA. The release of fertilizer active components was the slowest in the case of PSF. The lowest porosity coating was prepared from the 18% PSF solution. PMID:12517104

  18. NPK fertilization effects on concentration of nutrients in Valencia orange leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, C. (Empresa Catarinense de Pesquisa Agropecuaria S/A (Brazil)); Mielniczuk, J.; Bohnen, H. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia)

    1983-01-01

    The effects of NPK fertilization on the nutrient concentration in the leaves was evaluated in a field experiment of Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing in a sandy acid soil, with 4N, 3P and 4K fertilizer levels. N and Cu contents in the leaves were high, while P and Zn levels were low, in all treatments. Increasing the levels of N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/O fertilization resulted in an increase of the N, P and K concentration in the leaves, respectively. Crescent levels of N fertilization raised Mn and decreased Ca concentration in the leaves. P and K contents in the leaves correlated positively. With a great availability and absorption of K, reduction on the foliar contents of Mg and Ca ocurred.

  19. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, a...

  20. 氮、磷、钾不同施肥水平对烤烟光合特性的影响%Effects of Different Levels of N,P,K Fertilizer Application on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Tobaoco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 官宇; 侯宗琼; 毛万敏; 潘兴兵; 董华芳; 杨朋; 康莉; 蔡恒彬

    2014-01-01

    采用14种不同氮、磷、钾施肥配方,在自然光下测定烤烟叶片净光合速率、气孔导度等指标,研究不同氮、磷、钾施肥水平对烤烟叶片光合特性的影响。结果表明,14种施肥配方对烤烟植株的净光合速率、气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度、蒸腾速率、叶温有明显影响。 N2P1K1(N 90 kg/hm2、P 45 kg/hm2、K 112.5 kg/hm2)施肥水平烤烟叶片的净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率均最大,分别为14.145μmol/(m2·s)、0.817 mol/(m2·s)、12.573 mmol/(m2·s)。%Fourteen different application levels of N,P,K fertilizer were used to study effects of N,P,K on photosynthetic char-acteristics of tobaoco under natural light. The results showed that effects of different application levels N,P,K fertilizer on the photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, intercellular CO2 concn, transpiration rate, and leaf temperature of tobaoco leaves were significantly different. The photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, transpiration rate of tobaoco with N2P1K1 (N 90 kg/hm2,P 45 kg/hm2,K 112.5 kg/hm2﹚were maximal which were 14.145μmol/(m2•s﹚, 0.817 mol/(m2•s﹚ and 12.573 mmol/(m2•s﹚, respectively.

  1. NPK fertilization on initial growth of physic nut seedlings in Quartzarenic Neossol

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    Patrícia Teixeira de Souza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Balanced fertilization is important for plant growth. There is little information on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. and tests with the fertilization of the species are very recent. This study evaluated the initial growth of physic nut seedlings in response to NPK rates to Quartzarenic Neossol in a greenhouse and estimated P and K critical soil levels and N, P and K in shoot dry matter after 120 days of evaluation. The treatments were arranged in a randomized, fractional factorial design (4 x 4 x 4½, totalizing 32 treatments with three replicates, 96 experimental plots and N rates (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg dm-3 as urea; P rates (0, 45, 90 and 180 mg dm-3 as triple superphosphate and K rates (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3 as potassium chloride. After 120 days, the plants were harvested and some variables evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, macro and micronutrient levels in plant shoots, and soil chemical properties. The physic nut seedlings responded to NPK fertilizer in the initial growth phase; the response to N was negative. The recommended P and K rates were 25 and 67 mg dm-3, respectively. The critical levels, corresponding to the recommended P rate were 13 and 74 mg dm-3 for K in soil (Mehlich-1. The N, P and K levels in the shoot dry matter of physic nut were 37.4, 2.1 and 35.7 g kg-1, respectively.

  2. Mistura de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha com fertilizante NPK Mixture of Brachiaria brizantha seeds with NPK fertilizer

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    Eduardo do Valle Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As informações são contraditórias quanto ao tempo em que as sementes de Brachiaria brizantha podem ficar misturadas ao fertilizante NPK sem diminuir o poder germinativo das sementes. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de tempos de contato do adubo granulado NPK 04-14-08, com sementes dessa forrageira, na qualidade fisiológica (germinação e vigor. Empregou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas análise de variância e comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Também foram realizadas análises de regressão polinomial. Observou-se efeito significativo em todas as variáveis. Além disso, com o transcorrer do tempo de contato com o fertilizante, o teor de água e a condutividade elétrica das sementes aumentaram, enquanto observou-se diminuição da percentagem de germinação, da primeira contagem, da emergência e do índice de velocidade de emergência. Destaca-se que, para essas variáveis, o comportamento foi linear. Assim, é permitida a mistura das sementes com o fertilizante NPK, desde que a semeadura seja imediata, reduzindo-se os danos à qualidade fisiológica das sementes da forrageira (germinação e vigor. Na prática, recomenda-se fazer a mistura de sementes de B. brizantha com NPK somente da quantidade que poderá ser semeada até 12h após a mistura.Information is contradictory as to the time Brachiaria brizantha seeds can remain mixed with the NPK fertilizer without causing poorly formed stands. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the effect of contact times of NPK granular fertilizer (04-14-08 rate with seeds of this forage on physiological quality (germination and vigor. A completely randomized design with four replicates was employed. An analysis of variance was conducted and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. Polynomial regression analyses were also performed, and equations were fitted. A significant effect was observed in all

  3. Biomass yield and energy analysis of soybean production in relation to fertilizer-NPK and organic manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, K.G.; Hati, K.M.; Misra, A.K. [Division of Soil Physics, Indian Institute of Soil Science (ICAR), Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal 462 038, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2009-12-15

    The study attempts to quantify the root biomass and density, nodulation, crop biomass and grain yield of soybean, to analyze crop growth and energy (renewable and non-renewable) inputs in relation to fertilizer-NPK and organic manure. Observations were recorded from soybean grown with no fertilizer, NPK and NPK + FYM (farmyard manure). The root biomass (BM{sub root}) increased significantly with NPK + FYM compared to NPK and control. The trend of BM{sub root} was best fitted with a third order polynomial. Root length density was higher in NPK + FYM. Biomass of stem, petiole and leaf were significantly greater in NPK + FYM than other treatments, relative contribution to total biomass at physiological maturity were stem 29%, petiole 9%, leaf 17% and pod 46%; quadratic regression models best represented the stem, petiole and leaf biomass data. A maximum LAI of 4.88, total biomass of 633 g m{sup -2} at maturity, CGR of 18.4 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} were recorded in NPK + FYM. Grain yields increased by 72.5 and 98.5%, and stover yields by 56.0 and 94.8% in NPK and NPK + FYM, respectively over control. Though the total energy input in NPK + FYM was greater than those in NPK and control, the share of renewable energy was much higher with greater net energy output and non-renewable energy productivity in NPK + FYM than NPK. The use efficiency of non-renewable energy was also higher in NPF + FYM. Thus, a combination of NPK-fertilizer and organic manure (FYM) could be the viable nutrient management option for soybean production. (author)

  4. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (< or = 0.05) influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd.

  5. Resposta de cafezais adensados à adubação NPK NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations

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    PAULO BOLLER GALLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A adubação NPK para cafezais adensados, em doses por área, tem sido superestimada por derivar da recomendação para cafezais tradicionais, que é calculada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK em dois cafezais adensados: um com a variedade Mundo Novo e outro com a ‘Catuaí’, em condições de produção comercial. Instalaram-se dois experimentos fatoriais, com delineamento fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, na Fazenda Santo Antônio e na Samambaia, no município de Mococa (SP, em cafezais em plena produção. Na Santo Antônio, o ‘Mundo Novo’, em produção, tinha um espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,0 m e, na Samambaia, o ‘Catuaí’ tinha um espaçamento de 1,5 x 1,0 m. As doses de nutrientes aplicadas foram as seguintes: nitrogênio: 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg.ha-1 de N, como uréia; fósforo: 0, 30, 60 e 90 kg. ha-1 de P2O5; na forma de superfosfato triplo e potássio: 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg. ha-1 de K2O, na forma de cloreto de potássio. As adubações iniciaram-se em 1989, sendo obtidas, de 1991 a 1994, quatro colheitas em cada local. No experimento da Fazenda Santo Antônio, onde houve efeito estatisticamente depressivo de N, devem ser ressal-tados o teor médio de fósforo e o alto de potássio no solo, na amostragem inicial, e o teor elevado de N nas folhas, nas amostragens de 1992 e 1993. No experimento da Fazenda Samambaia, destaca-se o efeito significativo da adubação fosfatada sobre a produção do cafeeiro. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adubação nitrogenada em cafeeiro, em sistema adensado, poderá reduzir a produção quando há excesso de sombreamento; o teor de N total nas folhas e a análise de solo para P e K mostraram-se como ferramentas eficientes na avaliação da disponibilidade desses nutrientes e na resposta à adubação.The NPK fertilization for high tree density coffee plantations, on an area basis, has been overestimated because it is derived from the recommendation for the

  6. Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93 em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa". Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³, com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N e potássio (K e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P. As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate. A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³ was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per

  7. Growth and Yield of Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. as Influenced by Combined Application of Cowdung and NPK Fertilizer in Ogoja, Southeastern Nigeria

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    Ndaeyo, N.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in 1990 and 1991 sowing seasons at the University of Cross River State Teaching and Research Farm, Ogoja campus, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of soybean under diverse soil fertility levels. The findings suggest that combined use of Cowdung and NPK appears a better option.

  8. In situ polymerization coating and characteristics of coated NPK compound fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenghui; ZHU Homing

    2007-01-01

    Controlled release NPK compound fertilizers were prepared by means of in situ polymerization of monomers on the surface of fertilizer granules at room temperature. Methacrylate, α-methyl acrylic acid, and ethylene dimethylacrylate were used as monomers, Dibenzoyl peroxide as initiator, and cobalt naphthenate, and triethyl amine as promoters. The structures of coating materials were characterized by IR spectra. The thermogravimetric analysis result indicated that the coating materials were of good thermal stability. The mean thickness of single coating measured with screw gauge was ca. 140 μm. The morphologies of uncoated and coated fertilizer granules analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy were changed from porosities and gullies to hills and plain. The release rate of coated compound fertilizers in water could be controlled by the hydrophicity and thickness of coating. The increase in coating hydrophicity caused the increase in release rate of fertilizer. The increase in thickness of coating slowed the release rate.

  9. Effects of Organic, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizer Treatments on The Nutrient Uptake of Amaranthus Cruentus (L) on Two Soil Types in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    MAKINDE, E.A.; AYENI, L.S.; OJENIYI, S.O.

    2011-01-01

    The macronutrient uptake of A. cruentus under two soil types: Ikorodu (orthic Luvisol) and Lagos state university LASU) Ojo campus, (Dystric Fluvisol) were investigated under field conditions. Eight fertilizer treatments (1) control (no fertilizer), (2) pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB) 100%, (3) PGB + NPK (75:25), (4) PGB + NPK (50:50), (5) Kola Pod Husk (KPH) 100%, (6) KPH + NPK(75:25), (7) KPH + NPK(50:50) and (8) NPK(100%) were tested at first planting. Residual effects of the fertilizers were a...

  10. A preliminary study of the incorparation of NPK fertilizer into chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of slow release fertilizer has become a new trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution. Due to its polymeric cationic, biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bactericidal characteristics, chitosan (CS nanoparticle is an interesting material for use in controlled release systems. However, there are no attempts to explore the potential of chitosan nanoparticles as controlled release for NPK fertilizers. In this work chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing methacrylic acid for the incorporation of NPK fertilizers. The interaction and stability of chitosan nanoparticle suspensions containing nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and zeta-potential. The FTIR results indicated the existence of electrostatic interactions between chitosan nanoparticles and the elements N, P and K. The stability of the CS-PMAA colloidal suspension was higher with the addition of nitrogen and potassium than with the addition of phosphorus, due to the higher anion charge from the calcium phosphate than the anion charges from the potassium chloride and urea. The mean diameter increase of the CS-PMAA nanoparticles in suspension with the addition of different compounds indicated that the elements are being aggregated on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles.

  11. Impact of commercial garden growth substratum and NPK-fertilizer on copper fractionation in a copper-mine tailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

    2009-04-01

    Organic amendment and NPK-fertilizer could affect the distribution of copper (Cu) among Cu-mine tailing compounds and hence the availability or phytotoxicity of Cu to plants. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the forms of Cu in a Cu-mine tailing (pH 7.70) amended with a commercial garden growth substratum (GGS) containing peat moss and natural mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) in combination with a commercial NPK-fertilizer (20-20-20), by a sequential extraction method. There were eight treatments after the combination of four rates of GGS (0, 12.4, 50 and 100 g/kg tailing) and two rates of fertilizer (0 and 20 g/kg tailing). At the end of a 52-week incubation period, tailing Cu was sequentially extracted to fractionate Cu into five operationally defined geochemical forms, namely ‘water-soluble' (Cu-sol), ‘exchangeable' (Cu-exc), ‘specifically adsorbed on carbonates or carbonate-bound' (Cu-car), ‘organic-bound' (Cu-org) and ‘residual' (Cu-res) fractions. After treatments, the most labile Cu pool (Cu-sol + Cu-exc) represented about 0.94 % of the total Cu, the Cu-car and Cu-org accounted for 22.7 and 5.0% of total Cu, and the residual Cu accounted for nearly 71.3% of total Cu. Compared with the control, the application of GGS decreased Cu-car and increased CuORG whereas the addition of fertilizer increased Cu-sol + Cu-exc and decreased Cu-carb. Fertilizer-treated tailings had the highest amount of Cu-sol + Cu-exc. High rates of GGS resulted in Cu-org levels in GGS-treated tailings which were more than 2.0-2.8 times those obtained in the untreated tailing (control). The partition of Cu in GGS-treated tailings followed the order: Cu-sol + Cu-exc NPK-fertilizer promotes the formation of labile Cu forms in the calcite-containing Cu-mine tailing. GGS in the tailing matrix acts as effective sorbent for Cu.

  12. ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Murbach

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

  13. Influence of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot

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    Sylvestre Habimana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of chicken manure and NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer on growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L. in a volcanic soil of Musanze District in the Northern Province of Rwanda. This was geared upon by many unattended biotic and agronomic factors pertaining to low yields of carrot crop in this area. The treatments were: the control (T0, 10 t ha-1 of chicken manure (T1, 300 kg ha-1 of NPK (17-17-17 fertilizer (T2, and 5 t ha-1 chicken manure + 150 kg ha-1 of NPK fertilizer (T3 and each treatment was in three repetitions. The soil was tested for some of its physical and chemical properties and the soil reaction was moderately acid (pH 5.97 and the quantities of N, P, K were moderate. The growth and yield parameters were studied along with the effect of treatments and the economic contribution of the intervention was determined by Benefit-Cost-Ratio (BGR approach. Results revealed that the significantly (p < 0.05 highest plant height (45.59 cm and leaf length (45.29 cm were obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer and the lowest were 34.12 and 34.69 cm, respectively, in the absolute control. The sole application of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer recorded plant heights of 43.70 and 39.89 cm and leaf lengths of 43.46 and 39.61 cm, respectively. Results also indicated that marketable root yield was statistically similar between control (5.6 t ha-1 and chicken manure alone (5.7 t ha-1 and between NPK fertilizer alone (8.55 t ha-1 and combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (10.55 t ha-1. The best BCR was obtained in the combination of chicken manure and NPK fertilizer (2.09 compared with the absolute control (1.12, chicken manure alone (1.75 and NPK fertilizer alone (1.62.

  14. Use of textile waste water along with liquid NPK fertilizer for production of wheat on saline sodic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Jafar, Abdul Aleem; Naveed, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment in collaboration with a private textile industry (Noor Fatima Fabrics Private (Ltd.), Faisalabad) was conducted to evaluate the effect of disposed water from bleaching unit, printing unit and end drain for improving growth and yield of wheat under saline sodic soil. Textile waste water along with canal water (control) was applied with and without liquid NPK fertilizer. The application of liquid NPK fertilizer with end drain waste water increased plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, root length, number of tillers (m(-2)), number of fertile tillers (m(-2)), 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield up to 21, 20, 20, 44, 17, 20, 14, 44, 40 and 41%, respectively compared to canal water (control). Similarly, the NPK uptake in grain was increased up to 15, 30 and 28%, respectively by liquid fertilizer treated end drain water as compare to canal water with liquid fertilizer. Moreover, concentration of different heavy metals particularly Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd was decreased in grains by application of waste water along with liquid NPK. The result may imply that waste water application along with liquid-NPK could be a novel approach for improving growth and yield of wheat in saline sodic soils. PMID:26515426

  15. NPK-10:26:26 complex fertilizer assisted optimal cultivation of Dunaliella tertiolecta using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anup; Pathak, Akhilendra K; Guria, Chandan

    2015-10-01

    A culture medium based on NPK-10:26:26 fertilizer was formulated for enhanced biomass and lipid production of Dunaliella tertiolecta by selecting appropriate nutrients and environmental parameters. Five-level-five-factor central composite design assisted response surface methodology was adopted for optimal cultivation of D. tertiolecta and results were compared with simple genetic algorithm (GA). Significant improvement in biomass and lipid production was obtained using newly formulated fertilizer medium over f/2 medium. Following optimal parameters [i.e., NaHCO3, (mM), NPK-10:26:26 (g L(-1)), NaCl (M), light intensity (μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and temperature (°C)] were obtained for maximum biomass (1.98 g L(-1)) and lipid production (0.76 g L(-1)): (42.50, 0.33, 1.09, 125, 25.13) and (38.44, 0.40, 1.25, 125, 24.5), respectively using GA. A multi-objective optimization was solved using non-dominated sorting GA to find best operating variables to maximize biomass and lipid production simultaneously. Effects of operating parameters and their interactions on algae and lipid productivity were successfully revealed. PMID:26188554

  16. Effect of N and NPK fertilizers on early field performance of narrow-leaved ash, Fraxinus angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Emrah; Yilmaz, Faruk; Yilmaz, Murat

    2010-01-01

    The effect of fertilization in the first growing season on early survival and growth of narrow-leaved ash (NLA) (Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. oxycarpa) was evaluated throughout the first 3 years of growth in Adapazari, Turkey. A randomized complete block design with four replications was established to investigate fertilization effects. Granular N urea [46%, (NH2)2CO, NH2-N] and NPK (15/15/15%; NH3-N, P2O5, K2O) fertilizers were applied in mid-May of the first growing season. Fertilization treatments per tree were control, 67 g NPK (equal to 10/10/10 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 133 g NPK (20/20/20 g N/P2O5 /K2O tree(-1)), 33 g urea N (15 g N tree(-1)) and 54 g urea N (25 g N tree(-1)). After three growing seasons under these fertilizer treatments, 98% of trees were still viable. Compared to the control treatment, fertilization had a large and positive effect on diameter and height growth during the first 3 years of growth. However, since there were no significant differences among the fertilized plots in terms of tree diameter and height growth, addition of P and K to the fertilizer regime was not beneficial. The results show that N fertilization in the first growing season has the potential to improve early field growth of narrow-leaved ash. PMID:20648820

  17. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures. PMID:24494518

  18. Influence of mineral fertilization (NPK) on the quality of apricot fruit (cv. Canino). The effect of the mode of nitrogen supply

    OpenAIRE

    Radi, Mohamed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Jaouad, Abderrahime; Amiot, Marie

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Abstract - The effects of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers were evaluated on biochemical markers involved in the quality of apricots (sugars, organic acids and free acidity) and technological qualities (phenolic compounds: substrates of the enzymatic browning reaction). Apricot fruits (cv. Canino) were picked in the Marrakech area (Morocco). An experimental design was carried out with four factors: N, P and K, each one at two lev...

  19. Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N. A. Hasaneen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanofertilizers have become a pioneer approach in agriculture research nowadays. In this paper we investigate the delivery of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK for wheat plants by foliar uptake. Chiotsan-NPK nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and entered the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems. The uptake and translocation of nanoparticles inside wheat plants was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that nano particles were taken up and transported through phloem tissues. Treatment of wheat plants grown on sandy soil with nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer induced significant increases in harvest index, crop index and mobilization index of the determined wheat yield variables, as compared with control yield variables of wheat plants treated with normal non-fertilized and normal fertilized NPK. The life cycle of the nano-fertilized wheat plants was shorter than normal-fertilized wheat plants with the ratio of 23.5% (130 days compared with 170 days for yield production from date of sowing. Thus, accelerating plant growth and productivity by application of nanofertilizers can open new perspectives in agricultural practice. However, the response of plants to nanofertilizers varies with the type of plant species, their growth stages and nature of nanomaterials.

  20. Efficiency of a NPK fertilizer with adhered zinc lignosulfonate as a zinc source for maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

    2009-10-14

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a NPK fertilizer (8:15:15) with a Zn lignosulfonate (ZnLS) adhered as Zn source for maize plants. This product was compared in three experimental designs with the same NPK fertilizer with ZnSO(4) adhered and with no Zn adhered. The first and the second assays were carried out in a growth chamber by using perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate and the third experiment was raised in two calcareous fields. In general, growth chamber experiments showed that plants treated with NPK + ZnLS presented the highest dry weight and Zn concentrations in shoots. Also at field experiments, the Zn concentration in shoots was significantly high in plants treated with NPK + ZnLS. The grain harvested showed that this treatment gave the highest values in one location, but in the other no significant differences were observed. Although further research is required, we can conclude that NPK + ZnLS product could be a suitable source of Zn for maize crops.

  1. Initial performance of maize in response to NPK fertilization combined with Herbaspirillum seropedicae Desempenho inicial do milho, em resposta à adubação NPK combinada com a inoculação de Herbaspirillum seropedicae

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    Marihus Altoé Baldotto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria can be a technological approach useful for increasing the production of maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial performance of maize in response to application of doses of NPK combined with the inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae in an greenhouse experiment. The experiment consisted of six fertilizer levels: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200% of the recommended dose of NPK applied to maize inoculated and non-inoculated with H. seropedicae. At 30 days after the treatment application, the growth characteristics and nutritional status of the plants were evaluated. Plant development was influenced by fertilization, but it was enhanced by combination with the bacteria, which resulted in significant increases in the dry mass of shoots (7% and leaf area (9% when compared with non-inoculated plants. The results showed increases in the concentration of N (11%, P (30% and K (17% of maize plants in response to bacterial inoculation together with NPK compared with plants that were applied fertilize only. The greater consistency and stability response of the host plant to bacterization in the presence of chemical fertilizer indicate a promissory biotechnological approach for improving the initial growth and adaptation of maize to the cultivation environment.A inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas pode ser uma abordagem tecnológica útil para aumentar a produção de milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho inicial de plantas de milho, em resposta à aplicação de doses de NPK combinadas com a inoculação da bactéria diazotrófica Herbaspirillum seropedicae, em experimento em casa de vegetação. A matriz experimental consistiu em seis níveis de adubação: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 % da dose de NPK recomendada, aplicados em plantas de milho inoculadas e não inoculadas com H. seropedicae. Aos 30 dias após a

  2. Effects of Organic, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizer Treatments on The Nutrient Uptake of Amaranthus Cruentus (L on Two Soil Types in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. MAKINDE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient uptake of A. cruentus under two soil types: Ikorodu (orthic Luvisol and Lagos state university LASU Ojo campus, (Dystric Fluvisol were investigated under field conditions. Eight fertilizer treatments (1 control (no fertilizer, (2 pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB 100%, (3 PGB + NPK (75:25, (4 PGB + NPK (50:50, (5 Kola Pod Husk (KPH 100%, (6 KPH + NPK(75:25, (7 KPH + NPK(50:50 and (8 NPK(100% were tested at first planting. Residual effects of the fertilizers were assessed in the second and third planting periods. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in four replications. Data were analyzed using ANOVA Test. Due to the high N status of the soil in Ikorodu (sandy clay loam its uptake was significantly (p<0.05 higher (87.1% than that of LASU. The KPH and PGB had the highest potential in A. cruentus production. At Ikorodu site, KPH + NPK (75:25 had the nutrient uptake while at LASU, PGB + NPK (75:25 was optimum. KPH + NPK (75:25 gave highest N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake in A. cruentus

  3. Slow-released NPK fertilizer encapsulated by NaAlg-g-poly(AA-co-AAm)/MMT superabsorbent nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidzadeh, Azam; Olad, Ali

    2014-12-19

    A novel slow released NPK fertilizer encapsulated by superabsorbent nanocomposite was prepared via in-situ free radical polymerization of sodium alginate, acrylic acid, acrylamide, and montmorillonite in the presence of fertilizer compounds. Evidence of grafting and component interactions, superabsorbent nanocomposite structure and morphology was obtained by a FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. The water absorbency behavior of superabsorbent nanocomposite was investigated. After those characterizations, the potential application was verified through the study of fertilizer release from prepared formulations. Results indicated that the presence of the montmorillonite caused the system to liberate the nutrient in a more controlled manner than that with the neat superabsorbent. The good slow release fertilizer property as well as good water retention capacity showed that this formulation is potentially viable for application in agriculture as a fertilizer carrier vehicle. PMID:25263891

  4. Macronutrientes em mudas de citros cultivadas em vasos em resposta à adubação NPK Macronutrients in citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita com o objetivo de avaliar-se os efeitos do fornecimento de N, P e K sobre os teores de macronutrientes do porta-enxerto e das mudas. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/55³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Determinaram-se os teores totais de N, P e K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas novas e velhas, raízes e caule e a extração de N, P e K. Os teores de N relacionaram-se diretamente e os de P e K inversamente com a adubação nitrogenada. Os teores de Ca, Mg e S relacionaram-se positivamente até as doses intermediárias de N utilizadas. Houve efeito inibitório do fertilizante potássico sobre a absorção de Ca e Mg. A acumulação de NPK pelos porta-enxertos foi em torno de 30% pelas raízes e 70% pela parte aérea.'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees (Citrus sinensis budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia were grown in containers using pine bark, vermiculite and perlite as substracts with the objective of evaluating the NPK fertilization effect on macronutrient levels. The experiment was a complete (1/5 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Young and old leaves, root and stem total nutrient

  5. Effect of liming, manure, and NPK fertilizer application on growth and yield performance of soybean in swamp land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A . Wijanarko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity and the expansion of planting area to potential land are two strategies to increase soybean production. Swamp land is one of potential land. Acidic soil, poor fertility, and toxicity become limiting factors for soybean development in this area. Objective of this research was to determine effect of liming, organic and NPK fertilizer application on soybean yields in swamp land. On-farm trial had been conducted on swamp land of C type in South Kalimantan. Treatments consisted of two factors, laid out in randomized complete block design, replicated three times. The fist factor was three doses of manure (0, 2.5, and 5.0 t/ha. The second factor was four combinations of NPK fertilization dosage, (1 0-0-0, (2 22,5-36-30, (3 22,5-54-60, and (4 45-72-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O per hectare. Combinations of these two factors were tested on two environments, without and with liming. Results revealed that soil acidity, poor P, K, Ca, and Mg, and high aluminum saturation became limiting factors for soybean growth and yield in swamp land of type C in South Kalimantan. Amelioration using 2.5 t/ha manure, liming with dolomite equivalent to 20% of Al saturation, and NPK fertilizer at dose of 45 kg N - 72 kg K2O – 60 kg P2O5 /ha improved soil properties and soybean growth, and increase productivity to 2.4 t/ha.

  6. A comparative study of distillery spent wash with NPK (standard chemical fertilizers at seedling stage of sorghum (sorghum bicolor l.

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    Aijaz Ahmed Soomro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The price of commercial chemical fertilizers is beyond the purchasing power of farming community of world’s developing countries. Therefore, to find out the substitute of these commercial chemical fertilizers a comparative study was conducted at seedling stage of sorghum variety named Sarokartuho in seed testing laboratory. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design (CRD with three replications and three treatments, i.e. only drinking water (as check, recommended dose of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK commercial fertilizer, 30%+70% of distillery spent wash + water, 50%+50% distillery spent wash + water respectively. The results for spent wash (T2 were at seed germination% (95.33%, shoot length (6.62 cm, root length (5.49 cm, shoot fresh weight (0.18 mg, root fresh weight (0.019 mg, shoot dry weight (0.017 mg and root-dry weight (0.005 mg of sorghum. However, the maximum values for these all traits of observations except seed germination were recorded at recommended dose of NPK (chemical fertilizers.

  7. Integrated use of boiler ash as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with NPK in calcareous soil

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    Muhammad Jamil Khan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available characteristics and provide a reasonable economic means to recycle these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this objective, sugar industry boiler ash was applied to wheat crop in pots having 20 kg soil @ 3, 12, 25,50, 125 and 250 t ha-1 respectively, compared to the control. Same doses of boiler ash were also applied to wheat crop in the field experiment. A basal dose of NPK, 120, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 respectively, was also applied with boiler ash before sowingof wheat crop in both experiments. The soil under investigation was calcareous in nature, having a high pH (8.2, low in organic matter (8200 mg kg-1, and deficient in N (300 mg kg-1, P (7.5 mg kg-1 and Zn (6.2 mg kg-1. Boiler ash was rich inmicronutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and also contained sufficient amount of Ca, Mg, Na, S, K and P. Consequently, total porosity of soil, available P, S and K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu content in soil, increased with the levels of boiler ash application.On the other hand, dry bulk density declined which is a positive effect. ECe and pH of the soil was minutely increased. Yields and most of the yield components of wheat crop in pots, as well as in the field experiment, also increased due to boiler ashapplication. It is recommended that application of boiler ash @ 50 t ha-1 will result in enhanced yield of wheat in calcareous soil.

  8. Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lan; Liu, Mingzhu; Rui Liang

    2008-02-01

    A double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent and water-retention was prepared by crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)/diatomite - containing urea (the outer coating), chitosan (the inner coating), and water-soluble granular fertilizer NPK (the core). The effects of the amount of crosslinker, initiator, degree of neutralization of acrylic acid, initial monomer and diatomite concentration on water absorbency were investigated and optimized. The water absorbency of the product was 75 times its own weight if it was allowed to swell in tap water at room temperature for 2 h. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and element analysis results showed that the product contained 8.47% potassium (shown by K(2)O), 8.51% phosphorus (shown by P(2)O(5)), and 15.77% nitrogen. We also investigated the water-retention property of the product and the slow release behavior of N, P and K in the product. This product with excellent slow release and water-retention capacity, being nontoxic in soil and environment-friendly, could be especially useful in agricultural and horticultural applications. PMID:17320380

  9. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER LEVELS FOR GRAIN AND STRAW YIELD IN LATE SOWN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM

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    SUVARNA T. KALE1 * AND ANANT R. MALI2

    2014-10-01

    Response of different fertilizer levels and varieties on grain and straw yield of wheat was studied under late sown condition. The experimental design consists of split plot design with three replications comprising four levels of fertilizer and three varieties, thereby involving twelve treatment combinations. The fertilizer level 120:60:60 kg NPK/ha was found beneficial in improving growth characters, yield attributes and yield as compared to 80:40:40kg NPK/ha, 100:50:50 kg NPK/ha and 150:75:75 kg NPK/ha under late sown condition. The net monetary returns considering prevailing market prices were maximum with application of 120:60:60 kg NPK/ ha.

  10. Integrated use of boiler ash as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner with NPK in calcareous soil

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Jamil Khan; Muhammad Qasim

    2008-01-01

    characteristics and provide a reasonable economic means to recycle these wastes in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this objective, sugar industry boiler ash was applied to wheat crop in pots having 20 kg soil @ 3, 12, 25,50, 125 and 250 t ha-1 respectively, compared to the control. Same doses of boiler ash were also applied to wheat crop in the field experiment. A basal dose of NPK, 120, 90, and 60 kg ha-1 respectively, was also applied with boiler ash before sowingof wheat cro...

  11. Uji Efektivitas Pupuk Majemuk NPK yang Ditambah Asam Humat terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Padi

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    TITA RUSTIATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Study on The Effectivityof NPK Compound FertilizerAdded withHumic Acid for Growthand Pruductionof Rice.It is important to improve the efficiency of fertilizers especially nitrogen (Nfor lowland rice cultivation, since the efficiencyof broadcasted N was ony in the range of 30–40%,while P fertilizer 20–30% and K fertilizer 30–40%. Humic products have been used for years inproduction agriculture with varying results to improve plant growth and yield, as well as increasingfertilizer efficiency.Field experiment has been conducted at Experimental Farm of Rice Research InstituteinSukamandi to evaluate the effectivity of humic acid addition to NPK compound fertilizer on lowlandrice. Five doses (200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 kg/ha of compound fertilizers NPK-1 and NPK-2(NPK+humic acid, together with control and local recomended fertilizer were tested in this experiment.Twelve treatments with 4 replications were arranged in Completely Randomized Block Design.Resultsof experiment showed that in general compound NPK fertilizer did not give better result if humic acidwas added; the effectivity of NPK compound fertilizer was not affected by the addition of humic acid.Humic acid tended to increase N use efficiency at higher level of fertilizer. It was suggested that withhigher level of humic acid theeffect would be more significant.

  12. Effect of Sowing Methods and NPK Levels on Growth and Yield of Rainfed Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Shamim; Khan, M H; Khanday, B A; Nabi, Sabeena

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the response of rainfed maize to sowing methods and NPK levels, an experiment was undertaken during kharif of 2011 and 2012 at Dryland (Kerawa) Agriculture Research Station, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Budgam. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with combination of 2 sowing methods (flat sowing, 75 cm apart rows, and ridge sowing, 75 cm apart ridges) and 3 fertility levels (60 : 40 : 20, 75 : 50 : 30, and 90 : 60 : 40 N : P2O5 : K2O kg ha(-1)) with three replications. Various growth characters, namely, plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, number of days to different phenological stages, and yield, and yield contributing characters namely, cob length, number of grains cob(-1), cob diameter (cm), and 100-seed weight (g), were significantly higher with S2 over S1 during both the years of experimentation. Fertilizer levels F3 (90 : 60 : 40) and F2 (75 : 50 : 30) at par with one another produced significant increase in growth and yield characters, namely, plant height, leaf area index, dry matter production at different growth stages, cob length, number of cobs plant(-1), number of grains cob(-1), and 100-seed weight over F1 (60 : 40 : 20). Significantly higher grain yield was recorded with fertilizer level F3 (90 : 60 : 40) being at par with F2 (75 : 50 : 30) and showed significant increase over F1 (60 : 40 : 20) with superiority of 5.4 and 5.7 per cent during 2011 and 2012, respectively. The findings of the study concluded that ridge method of sowing of maize with NPK levels of 75 : 50 : 30 kg ha(-1) showed better performance of crop in terms of growth, yield, and yield attributes. PMID:26090269

  13. Interaction of NPK Fertilizers During Their Transformation in Soils:I.Dynamic Changes of Soil pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HUOYAN; ZHOU JIANMIN; CHEN XIAOQIN; LI SHOUTIAN; DU CHANGWEN; DONG CAIXIA

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic changes of soil pH as influenced by ammonium sulfate (AS), monocalcium phosphate (MCP),potassium chloride (KCl) and their interaction in soils were evaluated in incubation experiments. Applyingthese fertilizers significantly reduced soil pH values in all cases and followed sequences of AS > MCP >KCl, MCP > KCl > AS and KCl > AS > MCP for the paddy, calcareous and red soils, respectively. TheAS-induced reduction of pH in the three soils followed the sequence of red soil > paddy soil > calcareous soil,while in MCP and KCl systems the reduction of pH followed the sequences of calcareous soil > paddy soil >red soil and red soil > calcareous soil > paddy soil, respectively. The interactions of the NPK fertilizers on pHwere significant. MCP plus KCl or MCP plus AS reduced pH values more than the fertilizers applied solelyin the paddy soil, but AS partly counteracted the effect of MCP on pH in the 1 d sample of the calcareoussoil. The effect of MCP on pH was trivial when MCP was applied in combination with KCl or AS in the redsoil. When applied in combination with AS, KCl did not affect soil pH initially, but suppressed the reductionof pH at the later incubation stage, which was related to inhibition of nitrification by KCl in the soils.

  14. Desenvolvimento de mudas de citros cultivadas em vaso em resposta à adubação NPK Development of citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação NPK sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/55³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e o K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Avaliaram-se a produção de material seco das folhas, raízes, caule, parte aérea e total; área foliar, relação raízes/parte aérea; altura de plantas; volume radicular, relação área foliar/material seco para os porta-enxertos e as mudas, e o diâmetro do caule para os porta-enxertos. Funções de resposta foram ajustadas e os níveis de nutrientes foram calculados. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de fertilizantes que levaram às melhores respostas para produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência'/'Cravo' sobre o porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' foram: N, 9,85; P, 2,86; K, 7,99 g por plantas.The objective of this research was to evaluate the NPK fertilizer effect on 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery tree (Citrus sinensis development, budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia in a protected environment using containers with Pinus bark, vermiculite and perlite substrates. The experiment consisted of a complete (1/5 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was

  15. Interaction of NPK Fertilizers During Their Transformation in Soils:III.Transformations of Monocalcium Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huo-Yan; ZHOU Jian-Min; CHEN Xiao-Qin; DU Chang-Wen

    2004-01-01

    Interactions of N, P and K fertilizers in soil-plant systems are widely recognized. This study focused on the transformations of monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) (MCP) with co-application of ammonium and potassium fertilizers in three different soils. The results showed that after i d incubation a large portion of the MCP applied in the paddy,calcareous and red soils became the water-insoluble form and the recoveries of P applied as Olsen P varied greatly in these three soils. Application of ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) (AS) or potassium chloride (KC1) reduced WSP significantly in the soils with AS more effective than KC1 in the calcareous soil, while the reverse occurred in the red soil. Meanwhile, in the paddy soil, co-application of the two fertilizers reduced WSP more than when the fertilizers were applied individually. The co-application of AS with MCP in the paddy and calcareous soils significantly reduced Olsen P, but the opposite occurred in the red soil. The experiment on the effect of different accompanying anions showed that the ammonium fertilizers (PNC1 and PNS) reduced WSP more effectively than the corresponding potassium fertilizers (PKC1 and PKS) in the calcareous soil due to the difference of the cations, whereas in the red soil, the chlorides reduced WSP more effectively than the sulfates. Overall, co-application of ammonium or potassium fertilizers with MCP significantly decreased availability of P from MCP during its transformation in soils, especially when MCP was applied in combination with ammonium in the calcareous soil.

  16. Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene L. A. Bovi

    1999-11-01

    crescentes de N proporcionaram um efeito linear positivo e significativo, mais evidente na progênie 1 (médias de 2,26, 2,39, 2,62 e 3,16 g/dm³ para as doses 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg/ha/ano de N, respectivamente. Não houve interação estatisticamente significativa entre GE e fertilizantes aplicados (NPK, exceto para GE x N x P. Embora com respostas diferenciais de acordo com a progênie, constatou-se que a maior densidade radicular foi sempre obtida nas doses mais elevadas de N.The efficient use of fertilizers requires a knowledge of their effects, not only on shoot biomass, but also on below-ground biomass, to identify an adequate fertilization level from the point of view of a better partition between both. Dried root mass per soil volume has been used, especially in perennial crops, as a substitute for estimates of root biomass. With this objective, the root density of three progenies of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth was studied under a combination of four nitrogen (0 to 400 kg/ha/year of N, phosphorus (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of P2O5 and potassium (0 to 200 kg/ha/year of K2O doses, in a field experiment. The area was located at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, in an allic alluvial soil, corrected by liming. The samples were collected during the first heart of palm harvest (October, 1993, when the plants (cultivated in a 2 x 1 m spacing were two years old. Samples were collected, between and within planting rows, using a root-soil auger sampler, 50 cm from the main stem and at a 0-20 cm soil depth. There were differences among genotypes (GE, with progenies 2 and 3 showing, on average, higher root densities than progeny 1 (5.15 and 6.20, against 2.61 g/dm³, respectively. The interaction GE x PO (sample position was significant: progenies 1 and 2 showed the highest root densities within planting rows (3.30 and 6.60 g/dm³ within row, against 1.92 and 4.70 g/dm³ between rows, respectively, while progeny 3 showed an inverse order (5.57 g/dm³ in the within row, and 6.84 g

  17. Efeito da densidade de plantas e da adubação NPK na produção inicial de palmito de pupunheira Effect of density and fertilization NPK on heart-of-palm production of peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Yuyama

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da densidade de plantas e doses de adubação na produção de palmito de pupunheira, em condições de campo, na Fazenda Yuricam, Rio Preto da Eva (AM. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, sendo avaliados os fatores: densidade de plantas (10.000; 5.000 e 3.333 plantas ha-1 e doses de adubação NPK (0-0-0; 112,5-12,5-90; 337,5-38-270; 225-90-180, 225-25-180 em kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente. Os resultados do primeiro ano de produção de palmito, em termos de estipes colhidas, para efeito das doses de adubação NPK, foram: 225-90-180 (66 %; 225-25-180 (57 %; 337,5-38-270 (50 %; 112,5-12,5-90 (26 %; 0-0-0 (1 % - os números entre parênteses indicam os percentuais de plantas coletadas em relação às plantadas - e para efeitos de densidade: 3.333 plantas ha-1 (58 %; 5.000 plantas ha-1 (28 %; 10.000 plantas ha-1 (40 %. O tempo médio para extração de palmito foi menor na densidade de 3.333 plantas ha-1 (18,4 meses e na dose de adubação NPK de 225-90-180 (18,1 meses. O efeito simples da adubação NPK dentro da densidade de 10.000 plantas ha-1 com a adubação 225-90-180 e 225-25-180 apresentou maior produção de palmito, com 841 e 779 kg ha-1, e de 1.154 e 1.223 kg ha-1 de estipe tenro, respectivamente, nas duas adubações.The effect of density and fertilization on heart-of-palm yield of peach palm under field conditions was determined at Yuricam farm, in Rio Preto da Eva counnty, state of Amazonia, Brazil. The experiment was installed in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme with three replicates. Treatments were comprised of the planting density (10,000; 5,000 and 3,333 plants ha-1 and N, P2O5 and K2O doses (0-0-0; 112.5-12.5-90; 337.5-38-270; 225-90-180 and 225-25-180 kg ha-1. The results of the first year of production showed that regarding the NPK doses the stem

  18. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  19. Impact of long-term N, P, K, and NPK fertilization on the composition and potential functions of the bacterial community in grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yao; Cassman, Noriko; de Hollander, Mattias; Mendes, Lucas W; Korevaar, Hein; Geerts, Rob H E M; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2014-10-01

    Soil abiotic and biotic interactions govern important ecosystem processes. However, the mechanisms behind these interactions are complex, and the links between specific environmental factors, microbial community structures, and functions are not well understood. Here, we applied DNA shotgun metagenomic techniques to investigate the effect of inorganic fertilizers N, P, K, and NPK on the bacterial community composition and potential functions in grassland soils in a 54-year experiment. Differences in total and available nutrients were found in the treatment soils; interestingly, Al, As, Mg, and Mn contents were variable in N, P, K, and NPK treatments. Bacterial community compositions shifted and Actinobacteria were overrepresented under the four fertilization treatments compared to the control. Redundancy analysis of the soil parameters and the bacterial community profiles showed that Mg, total N, Cd, and Al were linked to community variation. Using correlation analysis, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were linked similarly to soil parameters, and Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were linked separately to different suites of parameters. Surprisingly, we found no fertilizers effect on microbial functional profiles which supports functional redundancy as a mechanism for stabilization of functions during changes in microbial composition. We suggest that functional profiles are more resistant to environmental changes than community compositions in the grassland ecosystem. PMID:25046442

  20. 籽瓜氮、磷、钾肥料效应的研究%Study of Effects of NPK Fertilizer on Seed Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承业; 林明; 潘竟海; 白晓山; 刘华君

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To nail down the optimal fertilization schemes for planting seed watermelon,which could ensure the normalization and standardization of fertilization and reduce consumption in order to use resource reasonably.[Method] The optimal scheme 3414'was adopted in the field plot experiment,including the three factors (N,P,K) and four levels and fourteen treatments.[Results] The critical periods of fertilization for seed watermelon were vine stretch and young melon inflation.The main effects of yield were showed on the level of nitrogen 1 (N1),which increased the yield by 18.4 kg/667 m2.And the yield of seed watermelon was obviously decreased on the level of N3.No significant effects of increasing yield for seed watermelon in phosphorus (P) level.The yield of seed watermelon reached maximum in the level of potassium 1 (Kt) then decreased obviously with the fertilization.[Conclusion] The fertilizers of N,P and K were respectively used in the stages of vine stretch and young melon inflation.The optimal fertilization amount was:N-P-K=12.19-7.08-5.19andthesuitableratioofN:p:K was about 1.72∶ 1∶ 0.73.%[目的]明确种植籽瓜的最佳施肥方案,使籽瓜施肥规范化、标准化,低耗高效、合理利用资源.[方法]试验采用“3414”最优设计方案,即3因素(氮、磷、钾),4个水平,14个处理,进行田间小区试验.[结果]甩蔓期和幼瓜膨大期是籽瓜的需肥临界期.氮肥增产效应主要表现在N1水平上,产量增幅明显,增产幅度为18.4 kg/667 m2.在N,水平时对应的籽瓜产量增产幅度呈明显递减趋势.磷肥在田间对籽瓜产量的增产效应不是非常明显.钾肥在田间对籽瓜的增产效应表现在K1水平中籽瓜产量增产达到最大,而后随着钾肥施肥量的增加籽瓜产量的增幅呈递减趋势.[结论]在甩蔓期主施N、P肥,而在幼瓜膨大期主施K肥.最佳施肥量为N-P2O5-K20 =12.19-7.08-5.19,适宜施用比例为1.72∶1∶0.73.

  1. RESPOSTA DA SERINGUEIRA CLONE RRIM 600 À ADUBAÇÃO NPK EM SOLO PODZÓLICO VERMELHO-AMARELO RESPONSES OF RUBBER TREE CLONE RRIM 600 TO NPK FERTILIZATION ON RED YELLOW PODZOLIC SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONDINO CLEANTE BATAGLIA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, que teve por objetivo determinar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.] à adubação NPK durante o período de formação do seringal, relata os resultados de experimento com o clone RRIM 600 em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo de textura arenosa, no município de Avaí (SP, Brasil. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicados no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das plantas. Avaliou-se o perímetro do caule a 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a cada quatro meses, e calculou-se a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal em cada parcela. Efetuaram-se análises de solo aos 27 e 51 meses de idade das plantas e análises de folhas, anualmente, no verão. A partir de 60 meses de idade das plantas, aproximadamente três anos após o início das adubações, observou-se efeito linear da adubação nitrogenada sobre o perímetro do caule. A adubação fosfatada teve efeito linear a partir da idade de 72 meses e a interação NP linear foi consistente depois de 75 meses. Usando como indicador a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para as adubações nitrogenada e potássica. O período de imaturidade foi abreviado até em oito meses, comparando-se o tratamento sem adubação com os de melhor desempenho. Adubações desequilibradas, como no tratamento 0-80-120, provocaram retardamento até de 12 meses no período de imaturidade em relação ao tratamento de melhor desempenho (120-120-120. Um ano depois da interrupção da aplicação de fertilizantes, no fim do experimento, não se observou efeito residual dos tratamentos sobre os indicadores de crescimento utilizados.The response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell.Arg.], clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization during the

  2. Efeito da adubação NPK sobre o período de imaturidade da seringueira Effect of NPK fertilization on the immature phase of rubber tree

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    ONDINO CLEANTE BATAGLIA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.] à adubação NPK visando recomendá-la no período de formação dos seringais. Relata os resultados do experimento em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo eutrófico no município de Matão (SP. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4 com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O. Até 104 meses de idade das plantas, avaliaram-se o perímetro do caule 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal, efetuando-se análises de solo e folhas em diversas épocas. Observou-se, a partir de 24 meses de idade, pouco mais de um ano depois do início das aplicações efeito linear da adubação potássica sobre o perímetro do caule e, a partir de de 48 meses, com freqüência, a interação NK linear. Usando como indicador de desenvolvimento a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para K e, em algumas poucas épocas, também paraN. O período de imaturidade, apesar de afetado significativamente apenas pela adubação potássica, mostrou-se dependente do equilíbrio dos nutrientes. Adubações desequilibradas podem retardar até em 15 meses o tempo de imaturidade, comparando-se os melhores e os piores tratamentos. Na ausência de adubação potássica, verificou-se um efeito antagônico dos nutrientes N e P. Adubações potássicas foram essenciais para garantir a antecipação do início da fase produtiva.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.] to NPK fertilization in order, to improve fertilizer recommendation during the immature phase of this crop. It reports the results obtained from an experiment conducted on a podzolic soil at Matão, State of São Paulo, Brazil. It was a

  3. Disponibilidade dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio, chumbo e cromo no solo e tecido foliar da soja adubada com diferentes fontes de NPK+Zn Availability of cadmium, lead and chromium toxic heavy metals in soil and soybean leaf tissue fertilized with different sources of NPK+Zn

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    Ivair André Nava

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fertilizantes utilizados para suprir micronutrientes podem apresentar metais pesados tóxicos em sua composição que podem proporcionar severas consequências ao meio ambiente. Plantas cultivadas na presença de determinadas concentrações de elementos tóxicos podem oferecer risco de contaminação, pois os acumulam em seus tecidos. Desse forma, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a disponibilização dos metais pesados tóxicos Cd, Pb, e Cr para o solo e tecido foliar da cultura da soja, cultivada a campo e fertilizada com um formulado N:P2O5:K2O e diferentes fontes de Zn. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial [(5+1x2], com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco diferentes fertilizantes NPK+Zn (quatro fontes com Zn e uma sem Zn, um tratamento sem adubação e duas doses de adubação (uma vez e o seu dobro. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi concluído que a aplicação dos tratamentos disponibilizou Cd, Pb e Cr para as plantas de soja e para o solo do experimento nas duas doses de adubação utilizadas.Fertilizers used to supply micronutrients may have toxic heavy metals in their composition, which can have severe consequences for the environment. Plants grown in the presence of certain concentrations of toxic elements may present a risk of contamination because the toxins accumulate in their tissues. This study aimed to measure the presence of the toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in the soil and leaf tissue of field-grown soybean plants, fertilized with a formulated N:P2O5:K2O and different sources of Zn. The experimental design utilized randomized blocks in a factorial scheme [(5+1x2], with three replications. The treatments consisted of five different fertilizers NPK + Zn (four sources with Zn and one without Zn, a treatment without fertilizer and two fertilizer levels (a single and double application. Based on obtained results it was concluded that the double

  4. 木薯氮磷钾营养特性及其施肥效应研究%Cassava nutritive characteristics of NPK and effect of fertilizer application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄巧义; 唐拴虎; 陈建生; 张发宝; 解开治; 黄旭; 蒋瑞萍; 李苹

    2014-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz), a perennial shrub belonging to the family of Euphorbiaceae, is grown in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces of China. Cassava root develops into tubers that form an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates. Cassava is the most competitive biofuel crop in terms of clean energy (ethanol and hydrogen) production because of its high starch content and high level of production. Cassava yield is significant related with nutrient content of the plant. To analyze the effects of N, P2O5 and K2O contents at different growth stages [seedling stage (SS), tuber root formative stage (TRF), early tuberous root growth stage (TRG), rapid root bulking stage (TRB) and maturity stage MS)] of different cassava varieties, a field trial with five fertilization treatments [NP, NK, PK, NPK (in these treatments, the application rates of N, P, and K were 360 kg(N)·hm-2, 144 kg(P2O5)·hm-2, 360 kg(K2O)·hm-2), and CK (no fertilizer application)] and two varieties [(newly developed (‘SC5’) and conventional (‘SC205’)] was carried out. Results showed that cassava root yield had significant positive correlation (P<0.01) with N content at TRF, TRG and TRB stages, and with K2O content at SS, TRG and TRB stages. Starch content of cassava root had significant positive correlation (P<0.01) with N content at TRF stage. It had significant negative correlation (P<0.01) with P2O5 content at SS and MS stages, and with K2O content at MS stage. Application of nitrogen fertilizer significantly improved N content of cassava. However, phosphate and potassium fertilizers had little impact on N content. Phosphate fertilizer only significantly improved P2O5 content at SS stage while nitrogen and potassium fertilizer also enhanced P2O5 content. The application of potassium fertilizer significantly increased K2O content of cassava, whereas nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers had no effect on K2O content. The effects of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on N

  5. Adubação da cana-de-acúcar: XIV. Adubação NPK em latossolo roxo NPK fertilizer experiments of sugar cane on dusky red latosol soils

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    Raphael Alvarez

    1991-01-01

    . The results were in accordance with former management, indicating residual effect of phosphorus applications and potassium depletion on the areas former cultivated with sugar cane. However, responses to nitrogen could not be related to former soil usage. Responses of sugar cane to nitrogen were related to soil organic matter (r = 0.695** and to phosphorus with resin extractable P (r = 0.709**, but the response to potassium fertilizer was not related to soil K (r = 0.284 n.s. With adjusted response functions, the optimal economical amount of nutrients were shown to be in general, higher than the current recommendations. Yield increases promoted by NPK were directly related to the maximum economic yield (r = 0.773**.

  6. 不同土壤肥力水平下玉米氮素吸收和利用的研究%Nitrogen uptake and use of summer maize under different soil fertility levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓丽; 林治安; 袁亮; 温延臣; 赵秉强

    2013-01-01

    盆栽试验条件下利用15N同位素示踪技术研究了不同土壤肥力水平下夏玉米氮肥吸收利用的差异.结果表明:中(M)、低(L)肥力土壤的施肥比对应不施肥空白对照的增产效果要好于高肥力土壤(H).等NPK用量情况下,高肥力土壤(H-NPK)玉米籽粒产量分别比低肥力(L-NPK)和中肥力(M-NPK)土壤高出23.07%和12.40%.M-NPK处理的玉米籽粒吸收的氮素占总吸氮量的比例最高,达到82.3%.在本试验条件下,玉米吸收的肥料氮与土壤氮比例接近1∶1;L-NPK和M-NPK处理的肥料氮贡献率显著高于H-NPK处理.L-NPK处理玉米的氮肥表观利用率较M-NPK和H-NPK处理分别高出约2个百分点,而同位素15N研究表明,高(H-NPK)、低(L-NPK)肥力土壤之间的氮肥利用率差异不显著,但均较中(M-NPK)肥力土壤高出6.78%和7.65%.L-NPK处理的氮素激发率最高,其次为M-NPK处理,但二者间无显著性差异,且均较H-NPK处理显著高出37.30%和26.98%.%Effects of nitrogen uptake and use for summer maize under different soil fertility levels was studied in a pot experiment using N labeling techniques. The results showed that the grain yield under high soil fertility level (H-NPK) was higher than it was under low soil fertility level (L-NPK) and medium soil fertility level ( M-NPK) , 23.07% and 12. 40% , respectively. The percentage of grain nitrogen absorption in total nitrogen absorption under H-NPK treatment was highest, 82. 3%. The ratio of nitrogen which was absorbed from the indigenous soil supply and from applied fertilizer was close to 1: 1. The applied fertilizer nitrogen ratios of each maize organ under L-NPK and M-NPK was significantly higher than it's under H-NPK. Nitrogen apparent recovery efficiency under L-NPK was higher than it's under M-NPK and H-NPK, a-bout 2 percent, while I5N use efficiency under H-NPK and L-NPK were significantly higher than M-NPK, 6.78% and 7.65% , respectively. Priming rate under L-NPK was

  7. Effects of soil properties, mulch and NPK fertilizer on maize yields and nutrient budgets on ferralitic soils in southern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saidou, A.; Janssen, B.H.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four on-farm experiments examined whether modest applications of fertilizers in combination with prunings from native agroforestry trees would be an alternative to maintain the fertility of ferralitic soils in Benin. An application of about 1.9tha-1dry matter of mulch of Senna siamea combined with 3

  8. Pineapple yield and fruit quality effected by NPK fertilization in a tropical soil Produção e qualidade de frutos de abacaxizeiro em resposta à adubação com NPK

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    Ademar Spironello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information about fertilization of pineapple grown in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. So a field experiment with pineapple 'Smooth Cayenne' was carried out to study the effects of NPK rates on yield and fruit quality. The trial was located on an Alfisol in the central part of the State of São Paulo (Agudos county. The experimental design was an incomplete NPK factorial, with 32 treatments set up in two blocks. The P was applied only at planting, at the rates of 0; 80; 160 and 320 kg/ha of P2 0(5, as superphosphate. The N and K2O rates were 0; 175; 350, and 700 kg/ha, applied as urea and potassium chloride, respectively, divided in four applications during the growth period. Response functions were adjusted to yield or to fruit characteristics in order to estimate the nutrient rates required to reach maximum values. The results showed quadratic effects of N and K on yield and a maximum of 72 t/ha of fresh fruit was attained with rates of 498 and 394 kg/ha, respectively of N and K2O. In order to reach the maximum fruit size, and to improve the percentage of first class fruit (mass greater than 2.6 kg, were necessary rates of N and K respectively 11 and 43 % higher than those for maximum yield. No effect of P rates was observed on pineapple plant growth, despite the low availability of this nutrient in the soil. The effect of N rates was negative on total soluble solids and total acidity while the opposite occurred with K, which increased also the content of vitamin C. High yield and fruit size were closely related to N and K concentrations in the leaves.Há falta de informações sobre adubação de abacaxizeiro em São Paulo. Assim, um experimento de campo com abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne' foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de doses de NPK na produção e qualidade de frutos em Agudos, região central do Estado, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Empregou-se um fatorial incompleto, com 32 tratamentos distribu

  9. Efeitos da adubação NPK nos teores de macronutrientes das folhas de cana-de-açúcar (cana-soca Leaf macronutrient affected by NPK fertilization in sugar cane ratoon crops

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    Ademar Espironelo

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados oito ensaios de adubação NPK, em cana-soca do cultivar CB41-76, conduzidos em diversos solos do Estado de São Paulo, sendo quatro em Latossolo Roxo, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura argilosa, um em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura média, um em solos Podzolizados de Lins e Marília variação Manilha e outro em variação Lins. Aos quatro meses de idade da cana-soca, amostras de folhas + 3 foram coletadas para fins de análise de macronutrientes. As variações dos teores de macronutrientes foram mais acentuadas entre localidades do que entre doses dos respectivos adubos. Correlações positivas e significativas foram obtidas somente entre os teores de potássio nas folhas e as produções de cana. Devido às variações acentuadas dos teores de macronutrientes nas folhas de cana-soca em relação a diferentes localidades, as seguintes faixas de teores de nutrientes poderão ser, provisoriamente, consideradas como adequadas: N - 1,53 a 2,22%; P-0,14 a 0,20%; K - 1,24 a 1,59%; Ca-0,38 a 0,71%; Mg - 0,11 a 0,20% e S-0,11 a 0,31%.Eight fertilizer experiments with sugarcane ratoon crops (CB41-76 variety were carried out at several soils in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four of them were established on the Dusky Red Latosol, one in the clayey textured Red Yellow Latosol, one in a medium textured Dark Red Latosol and two in the Podzolized soils from calcareous sandstones sediments. Four month old leaves of position +3 were collected and analyzed for macronutrients. Considering the wide variation among localities, the following ranges of leaf nutrient contents were tentatively taken as adequate for sugarcane ratoon crops: N - 1.53 to 2.22%; P - 0.14 to 0.20%; K - 1.24 to 1.59%; Ca - 0.38 to 0.71%; Mg - 0.11 to 0.20% and S - 0.11 to 0.31%.

  10. Modelling the Relationship Between Summer Maize NPK Uptake and Yield on the Basis of Soil Fertility Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of fertilizer requirements can help to increase maize (Zea mays L.) yields and improve the fertilizer use efficiency. The model for the Quantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soils (QUEFTS) was calibrated for maize by use of soil fertility data and fertilizer trials at different sites of the Huang Huai Hal river plain in China. The QUEFTS model accounts for interactions between nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). It describes the effects of soil characteristics on maize yields in four steps: (1) assessment of the potential supply of N, P and K based on soil chemical data; (2) calculation of the actual uptake of N, P and K, in function of the potential supply as determined in step 1; (3) draft the yield ranges as a function of the actual uptake of N, P and K as determined in step 2; (4) calculation of the maize yield based on the three yield ranges established in step 3. Data of field experiments with different fertilization treatments of various regions in China during the years of 1985 to 1995 were used to calibrate the QUEFTS model for summer maize. In step 1 the N, P and K recovered from their amount applied were described by new equa tions. The minimum and maximum accumulated N, P and K (kg grain kg-1) in summer maize were determined as (21-64), (126-384) and (20-90), respectively. The simulated yields were in good agreement with the observed ones. It was concluded that the calibrated and adjusted QUEFTS model could be useful to improve fertilizer recommendations for maize in the Huang Huai Hai plain of China.

  11. Competição entre quatro variedades de girassol na ausência e na presença de adubação mineral com NPK Comparison of four sunflower varieties in the presence and absence of a NPK fertilizer

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    José Luiz Vasconcelos da Rocha

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de quatro variedades de girassol, na ausência e na presença de adubação com NPK, foi estudado em diversas localidades do Estado de São Paulo. A variedade Uruguai destacou-se consideravelmente das outras na produção. O efeito médio de NPK foi pequeno, mas houve grandes diferenças nas respostas das variedades e pelo uso anterior dos solos. Nas áreas não adubadas no ano anterior, a adubação aumentou substancialmente a produção, sobretudo das variedades Uruguai e Aguapeí. Embora ocupasse o segundo lugar na produção, a variedade Riscada foi das menos eficientes no aproveitamento da adubação.Experiments were conducted in several localities of the State of São Paulo to study the production of four sunflower varieties in the presence and absence of a NPK fertilizer. The seed yields decreased from the variety Uruguai to Riscada, Aguapeí and Preta. While Uruguai produced remarkably more than the other varieties, the differences among the latter were smaller. The overall yield increase due to NPK was small, but the responses changed appreciably according to the variety and the previous treatment of the soils used for the experiments. In the areas which received no fertilizer in the previous year, the experimental fertilizer increased substantially the yields, principally of the varieties Uruguai and Aguapeí. Riscada was less responsive to the pertilizer application.

  12. Estado nutricional e características de crescimento do abacaxizeiro 'Jupi' cultivado em latossolo amarelo distrófico em função da adubação com NPK Nutritional status and growth caracteristics of pineapple in dystrophic yellow latosol 'Jupi' cultivated in fucntion of NPK fertilization

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    Ruimário Inácio Coelho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação da fórmula 20:05:20 de NPK no crescimento das folhas e frutos e no estado nutricional do abacaxizeiro. Foram utilizadas mudas do tipo filhote do abacaxizeiro 'Jupi', com peso médio de 250 g, plantadas em vasos contendo 13 dm³ de Latossolo Amarelo Distrófico. Os tratamentos consistiram de 00; 31; 62; 93 e 124 g de NPK, na proporção de 20:05:20, aplicados em três parcelamentos de 20%, 40% e 40% da dose aos 45, 120 e 240 dias, após o plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O peso médio do fruto foi influenciado pela dose de adubo, com valor significativamente maior para peso do fruto sem coroa, na dosagem de 93 g de adubo. Com a elevação das doses de adubo os teores de brix e acidez titulável aumentaram, enquanto a relação brix/acidez titulável apresentou redução.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of NPK on the growth of leaves and fruits and nutritional status of pineapple. Slips of pineapple'Jupi', with weight of 250 g were planted in vessel with13 dm³ of dystrophic Yellow Latosol. The treatment consisted of 00; 31; 62; 93 e 124 g of NPK (20:05:20 divided in three applications (20%, 40% and 40% of the dose after 45, 120 and 240 days. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block outline, with four replications. The mean weight of the fruit was influenced by NPK doses. The highest fruit weight was obtained in the fruit without crown and fertilization of NPK with 93 g. With the increase of doses of NPK, the brix tenors and total titled acidity increased while the relation brix/titled acidity decreased.

  13. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients

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    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most demanded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S. Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE, i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation, while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % of N, 40 and 52 % of S, 40 and 48 % of K, and 35 and 45 % of Mg absorbed during the cycle was exported with grains, whereas less than 15

  14. Influence of balanced N,P,K fertilization on millet yield and soil fertility%氮磷钾平衡施肥对谷子产量及土壤肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓军; 王勇; 张晓娟; 孙玉琴; 程炳文

    2015-01-01

    采用“3414”设计,研究氮磷钾肥对谷子产量、株高及土壤肥力的影响.结果表明:当N2P1K1施肥处理时,试验条件下谷子产量最高,为431.23 kg/667 m2,产量回归方程拟合产量为422.3 kg/667 m2.氮肥为N2(21.53 kg/667 m2)水平时,不同生育时期土壤全氮质量比大小依次为灌浆期、抽穗期、拔节期、成熟期、苗期,不同处理的谷子平均株高大小依次为N2P2K2、N3P2K2、N1P2K2、N0P0K0;磷肥为P2(18.6 kg/667 m2)水平时,不同生育时期土壤全磷质量比大小依次为灌浆期、成熟期、苗期、拔节期、抽穗期,不同处理的谷子平均株高大小依次为N2P2K3、N2P3K2、N2P1K2、N0P0K0;钾肥为K2(4.47 kg/667 m2)水平时,不同生育时期土壤全钾质量比大小依次为抽穗期、拔节期、灌浆期、苗期、成熟期,不同处理的谷子平均株高大小依次为N2P2K2、N2P2K1、N2P2K3、N0P0K0.%Through“3414”designed to study the effect of N,P,K fertilizer on millet yield, high variability and soil fertility, the results showed that: when N2P1K1 fertilization treatments, the highest yield of millet under the test conditions, the yield of 431.23 kg/667 m2, fitted regression equation yields production of 422.3 kg/667 m2. When nitrogen N2 (21.53 kg/667 m2) level, the content changes of different soil nitrogen fertility during the period for: Filling stage > Heading stage> Jointing stage> Maturity stage> Seedling stage, millet average height changes N2P2K2> N3P2K2> N1P2K2 > N0P0K0; when phosphate P2 (18.6 kg/667 m2) level, different soil fertility period, total phosphorus absorption content variation is: Filling stage> Mature stage> Seedling stage >Jointing stage> Heading stage, millet average height variation for : N2P2K3> N2P3 K2>N2P1K2>N0P0K0; when potash K2 (4.47 kg/667 m2) level, a different variation of the content of the soil to absorb the whole growth period for potassium: Heading stage>Jointing stage> Filling

  15. Relations between Tea Yields & Quality and Applied Ratio of NPK Fertilizers in the Initial Production Tea Garden%初投产茶园氮磷钾配比施用与产量、品质的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐劲驰; 吴利荣; 吴家尧; 唐颢; 黎健龙; 庞式

    2011-01-01

    通过水泥池培育方法,进行初期投产茶园氮磷钾肥料配比试验.结果显示,氮磷钾不同配比施用对幼龄茶树生长性状及茶园产量影响很大,处理问差异均达到显著或极显著水平;氮磷钾肥不同水平配施或单因素施入对茶树芽叶生化成分影响显著,随着氮肥施入量的增加,氨基酸含量有明显提高;磷钾肥对提高红茶品质有着较大的作用,单施氮肥将使红茶品质变差.最终分析得出初期投产茶园以每年施纯氮150 kg/hm2、磷(P2O5)150 kg/hm2、钾(K2O)75 kg/hm2效果最好,在此施肥水平下,不仅茶叶产量、品质得到提高和改善,同时增强幼龄茶树的树势,为成龄茶园丰产打下基础.%Through the cement pond cultivation method to conduct the NPK fertilizer ratio test in the initial production tea garden, the results indicated that different proportions of NPK fertilizers showed a great influence on the growth characters and yield of tea plant. The difference between the treatments was significant or very significant; single application or matching application with different levels of NPK fertilizer affected biochemical composition of the shoots significantly. The amino acids significantly increased, with increasing of the amount of applied nitrogen. Application of P and K improved the quality of black tea, but separate application of N fertilizer reduced the quality of black tea. The final conclusion showed a good effect for tea production in the initial production tea garden with application fertilizer pure nitrogen per year 150 kg/hm2, phosphorus (P2O5) 150 kg/hm2,potassium (K2O) 75 kg/hm2, under this fertilizing level, not only the production and quality were increased and improved, the growth potential of young tea plant was also enhanced, thus laying the foundation for mature garden to gain high yields.

  16. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rehman; M Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad Ehsan Safdar; Safdar Hussain; Naeem Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm), ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm), and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip); NPK was applied in fou...

  17. 春施氮磷钾肥对栗树及栗瘿蜂的影响%Effects of Applying NPK Fertilizer on Castanea spp.and Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方贵儒

    2015-01-01

    为探讨氮、磷、钾肥不同配比、不同施用量对栗树及栗瘿蜂的影响,在宽甸县大西岔镇进行了栗树施肥试验,结果表明:春施氮、磷、钾肥虽能增强树势、提高产量,但使栗瘿蜂数量上升,且施肥效益不高。对密度为4 m×5 m,树龄为15~20 a 的实生栗树而言,有栗瘿蜂的栗园不易氮、磷、钾肥的配合使用。%In order to investigate the effects of different ratio & fertilizer on NPK fertilizer on Castanea spp.and Dryocosmus kuriphilus ,fertilizer experiments of Castanea spp.were conducted in Daxicha Town of Kuandian County.Result shows that applying N,P and K in spring,although energy enhanced vigor,increase production, but make Dryocosmus kuriphilus increase in the number and fertilizer efficiency is not high.So the density of 4 m × 5 m,1 5-20 a age of Castanea spp.in terms of seedling chestnut;N,P,K fertilizer is not suitable to be used in Castanea spp.orchard.

  18. INSTALAÇÃO DE ESPÉCIE FORRAGEIRA EM RAZÃO DA PROFUNDIDADE NO SOLO E CONTATO COM FERTILIZANTE FORMULADO NPK INSTALLATION OF FORAGE SPECIES AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL DEPTH AND CONTACT WITH NPK FERTILIZER FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Percinoto Pompei

    2009-01-01

    ="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 150%" align="justify">

    The objective of this study was to identify the most appropriate plant populations and fertilizer-liming levels for the conventional crop system, with the Iapar 81 cultivar, a type II common bean, on a heavy clay soil in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil. An experiment was carried out in the 2003/2004 summer rainy growing season. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, and treatments in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, with four populations (100 thousand, 200 thousand, 300 thousand, and 400 thousand plants ha-1 and four NPK-liming levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the recommended doses of NPK and lime. Plant height and grain yield, with their primary components (pod number per plant, grain number per pod and one hundred grains weight, were evaluated. Results allowed concluding that the increase of NPK-lime levels improved the plant height by 48%, the pod number per plant by 66%, and the grain yield by 88%, while the increase of plant population resulted in a decrease of 18% for plant height and 65% for pod number per plant, with no effect on the grain yield.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; plant population; fertilization; soil liming.

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar populações de plantas e níveis de adubação e calagem mais adequados para o plantio convencional da cultivar de

  1. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares x 4 (doses de NPK, em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições. As adubações estudadas corresponderam ao decréscimo em 30 % e aos acréscimos em 30 e 60 % de uma dose "padrão" com 145; 21,6 e 180 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (referente a 1,2; a 0,08; e a 1,2 % de N, P e K na MS, com produção estimada em 12000 kg/ha. A MS verde (MSV em pré-pastejo e no resíduo aumentou linearmente com a adubação, com maiores valores obtidos para o cv. Mombaça (9183 e 5227 kg/ha, respectivamente do que para o cv. Tanzânia (6275 e 3808 kg/ha, respectivamente. A participação de lâminas foliares na MSV em pré-pastejo foi menor no cv. Tanzânia (51 % do que no cv. Mombaça (54 %. A densidade de perfilhos não variou com a adubação. O aumento do peso de perfilho com a elevação das doses de NPK resultou em maiores produções de MSV. A MS senescida (média de 3108 kg/ha de MS não diferiu entre cultivares. De modo geral, quanto maior a dose de adubo aplicado, maiores foram a taxa de acúmulo diário de MSV e a MSV perdida por pisoteio. O cv. Mombaça apresentou maior potencial de resposta à adubação do que o cv. Tanzânia, com taxas de lotação de 6,2 e 4,0 UA/ha, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at the FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP, to evaluate the effects of the fertilization with four doses of NPK on the components of dry matter (DM and losses by trampling of two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzania and Mombaça under grazing, having a rest period of 28 days and an average

  2. Grain Quality, Nutrient use Efficiency, and Bioeconomics of Maize under Different Sowing Methods and NPK Levels Calidad del Grano, Eficiencia de uso de Nutrientes y Bio-Economía de Maíz con Diferentes Métodos de Siembra y Niveles de NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding more efficient ways to fertilize crops will reduce N losses and increase nutrient uptake. A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2006 and repeated in 2007. The crop was planted in three different geometrical arrangements, viz. flat sowing (rows spaced 75 cm, ridge sowing (ridges spaced 75 cm, and strip planting (double row strips spaced 120 cm with 30 cm between rows in a strip; NPK was applied in four different combinations (0-0-0 control, 200-100-100 low dose,250-125-125 medium dose, and 300-150-150 high dose kg ha-1. Both fertilizer use efficiency (FUE and N use efficiency (NUE were significantly lower with the high fertilizer dose (300-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 than with the low or medium doses. The highest nitrogen uptake efficiency was with the medium fertilizer dose and proved to be a good indicator of grain yield. Among planting methods, ridge plantation resulted in higher FUE, NUE, and N uptake efficiency. The highest grain yield, net income, and benefit cost ratio were recorded when a crop was planted on ridges with the medium fertilizer dose. Sowing methods did not significantly affect grain quality parameters. Seed oil, protein, and starch contents were the lowest in the control. Thereafter, seed oil contents continued to decrease, while seed protein and seed starch increased with each NPK fertilizer increment.Encontrando maneras más eficientes para fertilizar los cultivos se reducirán las pérdidas de N y aumentará la absorción de nutrientes. Un experimento de campo se llevó a cabo en la Granja de Investigación Agronómica de la Universidad de Agricultura, Faisalabad, Pakistán, durante 2006 y 2007. El cultivo fue sembrado en tres modalidades geométricas diferentes: siembra plana (filas separadas 75 cm, siembra en camellones (camellones separados 75 cm, y plantación en hileras (franjas de doble hilera separadas por 120 cm con espacio de 30 cm

  3. Effects of manure and mineral fertilization strategies on soil antibiotic resistance gene levels and microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Zhang, Zulin; Chapman, Stephen J; Freitag, Thomas E; Fu, Jianrong; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Junwei

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the responses of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the soil microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system to mineral fertilizer (NPK) and different application dosages of manure combined with NPK. The occurrence of five tetracycline ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetW), two sulfonamide ARGs (sul1 and sul2) and one genetic element (IntI1) was quantified. NPK application showed only slight or no impact on soil ARGs abundances compared with the control without fertilizer. Soil ARGs abundances could be increased by manure-NPK application but was related to manure dosage (2250-9000 kg ha(-1)). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the soil ARG profile of the treatment with 9000 kg ha(-1) manure separated clearly from the other treatments; the ARGs that contributed most to the discrimination of this treatment were tetA, tetG, tetW, sul1, sul2 and IntI1. Community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis showed that increasing manure dosage from 4500 kg ha(-1) to 9000 kg ha(-1) induced a sharp increase in almost all of the detected ARGs but would not change the microbial community at large. However, 9000 kg ha(-1) manure application produced a decline in soil microbial activity. Determination of antibiotics and heavy metals in soils suggested that the observed bloom of soil ARGs might associate closely with the accumulation of copper and zinc in soil.

  4. Effects of manure and mineral fertilization strategies on soil antibiotic resistance gene levels and microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Zhang, Zulin; Chapman, Stephen J; Freitag, Thomas E; Fu, Jianrong; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Junwei

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the responses of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the soil microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system to mineral fertilizer (NPK) and different application dosages of manure combined with NPK. The occurrence of five tetracycline ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetW), two sulfonamide ARGs (sul1 and sul2) and one genetic element (IntI1) was quantified. NPK application showed only slight or no impact on soil ARGs abundances compared with the control without fertilizer. Soil ARGs abundances could be increased by manure-NPK application but was related to manure dosage (2250-9000 kg ha(-1)). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the soil ARG profile of the treatment with 9000 kg ha(-1) manure separated clearly from the other treatments; the ARGs that contributed most to the discrimination of this treatment were tetA, tetG, tetW, sul1, sul2 and IntI1. Community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis showed that increasing manure dosage from 4500 kg ha(-1) to 9000 kg ha(-1) induced a sharp increase in almost all of the detected ARGs but would not change the microbial community at large. However, 9000 kg ha(-1) manure application produced a decline in soil microbial activity. Determination of antibiotics and heavy metals in soils suggested that the observed bloom of soil ARGs might associate closely with the accumulation of copper and zinc in soil. PMID:26774780

  5. Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol, no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualmente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente.The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually every year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three

  6. Pengaruh Kitosan Sebagai Bahan Penyalut Pada Pupuk Npk Untuk Memperlambat Larut Dalam Air

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Aulia Rahman

    2012-01-01

    NPK compound fertilizers given by plants Not all could be absorbed, while others are being degradated or leached by ground water so they will cause inefficient fertilizing and environmental pollution. Because of that problem, slow release fertilizer was needed. Slow-release NPK fertilizer nutrition was released gradually and continuously so that it could reduce nutrition losses by leaching. Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer compound and have abilty for coating. Therefore, on this research c...

  7. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PRODUKSI BEBERAPA AKSESI TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pratikta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH] The experiment was conducted in the Field Research, in Kumendung village, Muncar, Banyuwangi from November 2012 until February 2013. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect of NPK fertilizer in some accession of maize on it’s growth and production. It’s also evaluate the protein content of the accession under different fertilizer treatment. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replications. Main plot were NPK aplication rates (200, 300, 400 kg NPK ha-1 and the sub-plots were accesion number ( V1 = Srikandi Kuning x Manado Merah ; V2 = Bisma x Srikandi Kuning ; V3 = Srikandi Kuning x Bisma ; and V4 = Bisma x Manado Merah. An split plot statistical analysis of varience (ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5 % level of probability according to Hanafiah, (2005 was realized using the excel program. Growth and yield parameters recorded at different stages of crop growth and development. There were plant height, leaves number above the ear, leaves number under the ear, tassel emergence, silk emergence, physiologically ripe age, ear lenghth, ear weight, ear circumference, ear weight per plot, kernel weight, kernel weight per plot, 100-grain weight, and protein content. The result showed that no significant different affected by the defferent NPK application rates on these accession. Base on the character selection, the yielding of all accession were higher than Bisma variety. Content of the accession were 11,14 ; 10,25 ; 10,95 ; and 10,10 mg g-1 for V1, V2, V3, and V4, respectively. Keywords: NPK Fertilizer; Maize accession; Production [INDONESIAN] Penelitian dilakukan di lahan Desa Kumendung Kecamatan Muncar Kabupaten Banyuwangi pada bulan November 2012 hingga Febuari 2013. Tujuan dari percobaan ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pupuk NPK terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi beberapa Aksesi jagung, dan mengevaluasi kadar protein yang terkandung didalamnya. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan

  8. EFFECTS OF A COMPOUND FERTILIZER OF ORGANIC NPK MADE OF CONCRETIONS OF BLACK-LIQUOR IN PAPER-MAKING ON PEANUT%造纸黑液固化物有机NPK对花生的效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪怀建; 周跃龙; 罗运阔; 李琳

    2001-01-01

    The concretions of black liquor, a waste produced in paper-making indu stry, was used as a compound NPK fertilizer and applied to peanut plants with th e compound fertilizers “Shidazhuang” as the control. The black-liquor based fe rt ilizer increased the branch, fruit and plump fruit number per plant and extended flowering period, thus giving 5.6% and 16.4% higher yield than Shidazhuang No.1 and No.2, respectively. The new compound fertilizer also helped improve the qua lity of peanut fruit, increased the total N content in the peanut field and enha nced its fertility.%研究了造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥对花生产量、品质及土壤的影响,结果与“施大壮”复混肥相比,造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥能促进花生分枝多、延长开花期、果数多、饱果数多,因而产量比“施大壮”复混肥1号和2号分别增产5.6%和16.4%。该肥对提高花生品质有一定效应。且该肥增加花生地中土壤的有机质和全氮含量,从而提高土壤肥力。

  9. Long-term effect of mineral fertilizers and amendments on microbial dynamics in an alfisol of Western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S; Kanwar, S S; Sharma, S P

    2007-03-01

    The microbial dynamics expressed in terms of culturable microbial populations i.e. bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and Azotobacter were measured after 33 years of continuous application of mineral fertilizers and amendments to an acid alfisol. The bacterial, fungal and Azotobacter populations were maximum in plots treated with mineral fertilizers and FYM (100%NPK+FYM) while actinomycetes population was maximum in mineral fertilizes and lime treated plots (100%NPK+Lime). The bacterial population decreased and fungal population increased with increasing levels of NPK i.e. from 50% to 150%NPK. Bacillus species of bacteria and Gliocladium, Aspergillus and Rhizopus species of fungi were the main dominating culturable microorganisms in all the treatments. The FYM and lime amended plots sustained crop productivity and microbial populations at higher levels than rest of the mineral fertilizer treatments. The nitrogenous fertilizers alone had the most deleterious effect on crop productivity and the biological soil environment.

  10. NPK macronutrients and microRNA homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcheski, Franceli R; Côrrea, Régis; Gomes, Igor A; de Lima, Júlio C; Margis, Rogerio

    2015-01-01

    Macronutrients are essential elements for plant growth and development. In natural, non-cultivated systems, the availability of macronutrients is not a limiting factor of growth, due to fast recycling mechanisms. However, their availability might be an issue in modern agricultural practices, since soil has been frequently over exploited. From a crop management perspective, the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are three important limiting factors and therefore frequently added as fertilizers. NPK are among the nutrients that have been reported to alter post-embryonic root developmental processes and consequently, impairs crop yield. To cope with nutrients scarcity, plants have evolved several mechanisms involved in metabolic, physiological, and developmental adaptations. In this scenario, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as additional key regulators of nutrients uptake and assimilation. Some studies have demonstrated the intrinsic relation between miRNAs and their targets, and how they can modulate plants to deal with the NPK availability. In this review, we focus on miRNAs and their regulation of targets involved in NPK metabolism. In general, NPK starvation is related with miRNAs that are involved in root-architectural changes and uptake activity modulation. We further show that several miRNAs were discovered to be involved in plant-microbe symbiosis during N and P uptake, and in this way we present a global view of some studies that were conducted in the last years. The integration of current knowledge about miRNA-NPK signaling may help future studies to focus in good candidates genes for the development of important tools for plant nutritional breeding. PMID:26136763

  11. Effects of different regimes of fertilization on soil organic matter under conventional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the effects of different fertilization regimes on soil organic matter (SOM sequestration in a winter-soybean/corn rotation, a long-term field experiment was conducted in Anhui, China, from 1982 to 2011. There were six treatments, as follows: (1 no fertilizer input (CK; (2 mineral fertilizers input (NPK; (3 mineral fertilizers + 3,750 kg ha-1 wheat straw (WS/2-NPK; (4 mineral fertilizers + 7,500 kg ha-1 wheat straw (WS-NPK; (5 mineral fertilizers + 15,000 kg ha-1 composted farmyard manure (CNPK; and (6 mineral fertilizers + 30,000 kg ha-1 composted farmyard manure (DNPK. Mineral fertilizer applications combined with organic amendments improved soil physical properties. For the WS/2-NPK, WS-NPK, CNPK and DNPK treatments, the soil bulk density decreased more than 10%, while the air porosity and field water content increased more than 90% and 15%, compared with the values at the start of the experiment in 1982. Our results indicate that about two decades are needed for SOM to reach its saturation point in all treatments. The SOM sequestration rate was related to the fertilization regime. The average SOM sequestration rate in 1982-2005 was 0.27 g kg-1 yr-1 with NPK, 0.45 g kg-1 yr-1 with WS/2-NPK, 0.56 g kg-1 yr-1 with WS-NPK, 0.60 g kg-1 yr-1 with CNPK and 1.02 g kg-1 yr-1 with DNPK. Therefore, both the quantity and the quality of the organic amendment determine the SOM sequestration rate and SOM saturation level.

  12. Levels of natural radioactivity in some commonly used fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertilizers are used in increasing quantities to replenish natural nutrients depleted from the soil in agricultural practices. The phosphorous component of the fertilizer is responsible for most of the uranium and thorium decay series radionuclides. To determine the natural radioactivity levels three different commercial fertilizer blends and seven basic fertilizers were studied. Eppawela Apatite was found to contain the lowest concentrations of radioactivity, amongst the phosphate group of fertilizers studied. Levels of U and 40K were negligible. The phosphate fertilizer saphose contained the highest activity concentration. Urea had negligible levels of radioactivity. Selection of proper fertilizers will facilitate to reduce the pollution of the environment by radioelements

  13. 福建省主要蔬菜氮磷钾营养特性及其施肥指标体系研究Ⅱ.主要蔬菜氮磷钾施肥效应及其土壤养分丰缺指标%Nutrition Characteristics and Fertilization Indices of Nitrogen, Phosphor and Potassium for Major Vegetables in FujianⅡ.Vegetable's Response to Fertilizations and Garden Soil's Available NPK Fertilization Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 章明清; 姚宝全; 孔庆波; 姚建族; 张燕

    2011-01-01

    采用田间试验研究福建主要蔬菜氮磷钾施肥效应,建立菜田速效氮磷钾丰缺指标.根据148个试验的空白区产量水平,将土壤肥力分为“高”、“中”和“低”3个等级.结果表明,土壤肥力对蔬菜产量贡献率为(50.9士12.8)%,随土壤肥力等级的降低而明显下降;空白区产量与平衡施肥产量之间存在显著的线性关系.肥效试验结果表明,叶菜类、根茎类、瓜果类和葱类等蔬菜施用氮磷钾肥有显著的增长效果,随着土壤肥力水平的下降,氮磷钾肥效明显提高;增产幅度和净增收数均为氮肥明显高于钾肥,钾肥明显高于磷肥;叶菜类和葱类的氮肥产投比明显高于磷钾肥,而根茎类和瓜果类则为磷肥产投比明显高于氮钾肥.叶菜类蔬菜的土壤养分高产临界指标分别为碱解氮243mg·kg-1、Olsen-P 52 mg·kg-1和速效钾150mg·kg-1,根茎类和瓜果类等蔬菜则分别为碱解氮276 mg· kg-1、Olsen-P 47mg· kg-1和速效钾132mg·kg-1.%Based on the results of field experiments on the vegetables' response to N, P and K, soil fertilization indices of available N, P and K in vegetable gardens in Fujian were established. Soil fertility of the croplands was classified as high, medium and low grades according to the vegetable yield from 148 field experiments conducted in a test area. The results showed that the average contribution rate of soil nutrients to the growth of vegetables was (50. 9±12. 8)%. It decreased significantly when the soil fertility declined. A significant linear relationship existed between the yield on the control and fertilized areas. Leafy vegetables, melon, fruits, root-stock and onion-type vegetables were used in this study. Their yields increased significantly in response to the NPK fertilization. The effect of the NPK application increased significantly as the soil fertility declined. The extent and net gain from N fertilization were significantly greater than those from

  14. Precision Timing and Spatial Allocation of Economic Fertilizer Application

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Carl R.; Gandonou, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    Recent increases in fertilizer, particularly nitrogen, and fuel price have resulted in increased production cost for farmers. In this paper a farm level production model that compare uniform and variable rate fertilizer (NPK) application is developed that permits an analysis of the economic performance of fertilizer management regarding profitability. Results show that farmer's exposure to fertilizer and fuel prices risk have substantial impact both on the expected net returns and production ...

  15. Effects of 42-year long-term fertilizer management on soil phosphorus availability, fractionation,adsorption–desorption isotherm and plant uptake in flooded tropical rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pratap; Bhattacharyya; Amaresh; Kumar; Nayak; Mohammad; Shahid; Rahul; Tripathi; Sangita; Mohanty; Anjani; Kumar; Rajagounder; Raja; Bipin; Bihari; Panda; Banwari; Lal; Priyanka; Gautam; Chinmaya; Kumar; Swain; Koushik; Singha; Roy; Pradeep; Kumar; Dash

    2015-01-01

    Soil phosphorus(P) fractionation, adsorption, and desorption isotherm, and rice yield and P uptake were investigated in flooded tropical rice(Oryza sativa L.) following 42-year fertilizer and manure application. The treatments included low-input [unfertilized control without N, P, or K(C0N0)], farmyard manure(FYM)(C1N0), NP(C0NP), NPK(C0NPK), FYM + NP(C1NP), and high-input treatment, FYM + NPK(C1NPK). Grain yield was increased significantly by 74%over the control under the combined application of FYM + NPK. However, under low- and high-input treatments, yield as well as P uptake was maintained at constant levels for 35 years.During the same period, high yield levels and P uptake were maintained under the C0 NP, C0 NPK,and C1 NPK treatments. These are unique characteristics of a tropical flooded ecosystem, which is a self-sustaining system for rice production. The Fe–P fraction was highest compared to the Ca–P and Al–P fractions after 42 years of fertilizer application and was significantly higher under FYM + NPK treatment. The P adsorption capacity of soil was highest under the low-input treatment and lowest under long-term balanced fertilization(FYM + NPK). In contrast, P desorption capacity was highest under NPK and lowest in the control treatment. Long-term balanced fertilization in the form of FYM + NPK for 42 years lowered the bonding energy and adsorption capacity for P in soil but increased its desorption potential, increasing P availability to the plant and leading to higher P uptake and yield maintenance.

  16. Effects of 42-year long-term fertilizer management on soil phosphorus availability, fractionation, adsorption–desorption isotherm and plant uptake in flooded tropical rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Bhattacharyya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil phosphorus (P fractionation, adsorption, and desorption isotherm, and rice yield and P uptake were investigated in flooded tropical rice (Oryza sativa L. following 42-year fertilizer and manure application. The treatments included low-input [unfertilized control without N, P, or K (C0N0], farmyard manure (FYM (C1N0, NP (C0NP, NPK (C0NPK, FYM + NP (C1NP, and high-input treatment, FYM + NPK (C1NPK. Grain yield was increased significantly by 74% over the control under the combined application of FYM + NPK. However, under low- and high-input treatments, yield as well as P uptake was maintained at constant levels for 35 years. During the same period, high yield levels and P uptake were maintained under the C0NP, C0NPK, and C1NPK treatments. These are unique characteristics of a tropical flooded ecosystem, which is a self-sustaining system for rice production. The Fe–P fraction was highest compared to the Ca–P and Al–P fractions after 42 years of fertilizer application and was significantly higher under FYM + NPK treatment. The P adsorption capacity of soil was highest under the low-input treatment and lowest under long-term balanced fertilization (FYM + NPK. In contrast, P desorption capacity was highest under NPK and lowest in the control treatment. Long-term balanced fertilization in the form of FYM + NPK for 42 years lowered the bonding energy and adsorption capacity for P in soil but increased its desorption potential, increasing P availability to the plant and leading to higher P uptake and yield maintenance.

  17. Effects of 42-year long-term fertilizer management on soil phosphorus availability, fractionation, adsorption-desorption isotherm and plant uptake in flooded tropical rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pratap Bhattacharyya; Priyanka Gautam; Chinmaya Kumar Swain; Koushik Singha Roy; Pradeep Kumar Dash; Amaresh Kumar Nayak; Mohammad Shahid; Rahul Tripathi; Sangita Mohanty; Anjani Kumar; Rajagounder Raja; Bipin Bihari Panda; Banwari Lal

    2015-01-01

    Soil phosphorus (P) fractionation, adsorption, and desorption isotherm, and rice yield and P uptake were investigated in flooded tropical rice (Oryza sativa L.) following 42-year fertilizer and manure application. The treatments included low-input [unfertilized control without N, P, or K (C0N0)], farmyard manure (FYM) (C1N0), NP (C0NP), NPK (C0NPK), FYM+NP (C1NP), and high-input treatment, FYM+NPK (C1NPK). Grain yield was increased significantly by 74%over the control under the combined application of FYM+NPK. However, under low- and high-input treatments, yield as well as P uptake was maintained at constant levels for 35 years. During the same period, high yield levels and P uptake were maintained under the C0NP, C0NPK, and C1NPK treatments. These are unique characteristics of a tropical flooded ecosystem, which is a self-sustaining system for rice production. The Fe–P fraction was highest compared to the Ca–P and Al–P fractions after 42 years of fertilizer application and was significantly higher under FYM+NPK treatment. The P adsorption capacity of soil was highest under the low-input treatment and lowest under long-term balanced fertilization (FYM+NPK). In contrast, P desorption capacity was highest under NPK and lowest in the control treatment. Long-term balanced fertilization in the form of FYM+NPK for 42 years lowered the bonding energy and adsorption capacity for P in soil but increased its desorption potential, increasing P availability to the plant and leading to higher P uptake and yield maintenance.

  18. 氮素用量对油葵氮磷钾养分吸收积累及产量的影响%Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on NPK accumulations and yield for oilseed sunflower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉; 何文寿; 马玉波; 任然; 赵涛

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the nutrition of oilseed sunflower plants,fertilizer field experiment was con-ducted at Tongxin in Ningxia to investigate the effects of N,P and K fertilizers on yield.Results showed that N fer-tilizer affected organ's NPK accumulation at different growth stages.The accumulations of the three elements showed S curves along with the growth,imitated by Logistic equations.In the maturity stage,100 kg seeds of sunflower were obtained under average nutrition ratio (N∶P2O5∶K2O)of 1∶0.76∶2.93.Under the N2P2K2 treatment (12kg/667m2 N,6kg/667m2 P2O5 and 4kg/667m2 K2O),the highest total accumulations reached 47.99g/plant of N,35.45g/plant of P and 152.30g/plant of K respectively.The top yield reached 221.02kg/667m2 under 10.53 kg/667m2 of N fertilizer.The top economic yields reached 220.48kg/667m2 under 9.54kg/667m2 of N fertilizer.%为研究氮素对油葵植株氮磷钾养分积累和产量的影响,采用田间试验方法,在宁夏中部干旱带同心地区进行了油葵肥料试验。结果表明,在供试土壤条件下,氮磷钾养分积累均呈“S”型曲线,符合Logistic方程。施氮量在6~18kg/667m2之间时,均促进油葵对氮磷钾的吸收。其中,100kg籽粒所需N、P2O5、K2O范围分别是5.68~6.19kg、4.32~4.62kg、14.82~21.20kg,三要素(N∶P2O5∶K2O)平均比例为1∶0.76∶2.93。成熟期时,氮磷钾总积累量均是N2P2K2处理最高,分别达到47.99g/株、35.45g/株、152.30g/株。当施氮量为10.53kg/667m2时,产量达最高值221.02kg/667m2,最佳经济效应施氮量为9.54kg/667m2,最佳经济效益产量为220.48kg/667m2。

  19. Evaluation of NPK 8-30-20 with gypsum addition compared to fertilization employed in the region for the production of potato (Solanumtuberosum L. Evaluación de NPK 8-30-20 con yeso en comparación a la fertilización convencional para la producción de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Avaliação da fórmula NPK 8-30-20 com adição de gesso agrícola em comparação à adubação convencional para produção de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Jobim Vieira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Different forms of fertilizer management are employed by potato farmers, and from time to time, it appears a receipt to fertilize the crop. However, one should pay special attention to nutrition and fertilization of the potato as the relative demand of fertilizer per unit area in culture is high. The objective was to evaluate the use of NPK 8-30-20 with the addition of gypsum compared to NPK 4-14-8 (regional standard treatment in the production of potato. The study was conducted at the Research Unit in Potato Production and Microclimate on Agriculture, Campus CEDETEG at UNICENTRO in Guarapuava - PR. The treatments were: T1 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8, T2 - 3.5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum; T3 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20, T4 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum, T5 - 1.75 t ha-1 NPK 8-30-20 plus the application of plaster to make up the difference between fertilizer. The cultivation of potato was held on December 23, 2008 and the cultivar used was Agatha. The seed used was Generation 01 and tubers of class II. The density used was 50.000 tubers per hectare. The experimental design was completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. It was evaluated the productivity and classification of tubers of the size and incidence and severity of common scab (Streptomyces spp. and silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani Dur. And Mont. in the tubers. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and mean comparison by Tukey test (5%. Classification of the tubers was performed according to the diameter classes of the Ordinance No. 69 MAP of February 21, 2005. The use of manure at 5 t ha-1 NPK 4-14-8 over the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum and 1.75 t ha-1 of 8-30-20 NPK plus the application of 3 t ha-1 gypsum causes the

  20. Effect of NPK and microelement fertilizers on nutrient accumulation,distribution and yield of maize on high-fertility soil%氮磷钾和微肥对高肥区夏玉米养分积累、分配及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 孙志梅; 王艳群; 李婷; 薛世川; 王小雪

    2009-01-01

    采用田间试验方法研究了N、P、K、Zn及Mn肥对高肥区夏玉米产量、植株性状及干物质积累的影响.结果表明,在该试验条件下,土壤N、P、K、Zn、Mn的贡献率分别为91.2%、100.3%、96.3%、99.4%、99.9%.玉米吸收的N、P、Zn主要积累在籽粒中,Mn主要积累在叶片和籽粒中,而K在植株各部位的积累相对均匀.在NPK处理的基础上增施Zn、Mn肥,显著降低了植株对P的吸收,而对产量、植株性状和干物质积累的影响不大.土壤中P、Zn、Mn养分含量较高,完全能够满足夏玉米生长发育的要求.NK处理最为合理经济,有效地改善了玉米穗部和植株性状,平均产量达到9 821 kg/hm~2.%The effects of yield,plant characters and dry matter accumulation of summer maize with N,P,K,Zn and Mn fertilizer on high-fertility soil were studied.The results showed that relative yield of N,P,K,Zn and Mn respectively was 91.2%,100.3%,96.3%,99.4% and 99.9% on the test soil.N,P and Zn which plant absorbed from soil mainly got into maize seed,Mn mainly got into leaves and seed,K was even in every part compare to them.Based on NPK fertilizers,micro-element fertilizers could significantly reduce P consumption,while the differences of yield,plant characters and dry matter accumulation were not significant between NPKZn(Mn)treatment and NPK treatment.P element and microelement content in soil were enough to satisfy the demand of high yield maize.The ear characters and plant characters of NK treatment were improved effectively.This treatment could obtain very high yield(9 821 kg/hm~2).It was the best reasonable and the best economic.

  1. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros; Luís Roberto de Andrade Rodrigues; Vanildo Favoretto; Euclides Braga Malheiros; Valdo Rodrigues Herling; Allan Kardec Braga Ramos

    2002-01-01

    O trabalho foi conduzido na FCAV-Unesp, em Jaboticabal-SP, para avaliar os efeitos de quatro doses combinadas de NPK sobre os componentes da produção e das perdas de matéria seca (MS) em pastagens dos cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de Panicum maximum Jacq., manejadas com 28 dias de descanso e com altura média de 30 cm de resíduo pós-pastejo. As avaliações foram realizadas em parcelas de 96 m² segundo um fatorial 2 (cultivares) x 4 (doses de NPK), em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetiçõ...

  2. Plant density and levels of NPK on the production components of vegetable soybean in the Savannah of the state of Roraima=Densidade de plantas e doses de NPK nos componentes de produção de soja-hortaliça na Savana de Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alynny Neftaly Lopes Monteiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sowing densities and levels of NPK (02-24- 12 on the production components of the JLM 08 strain of vegetable soybean, in the Savannah of Boa Vista, in the state of Roraima, Brazil. The experiment was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in the experimental area of the Centre for Agrarian Sciences at the Cauamé Campus of the Federal University of Roraima in Boa Vista. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a factorial scheme (2 x 5 with three replications. The two densities (40,000 and 80,000 plants per hectare comprised the first factor, while five levels of NPK (02-24-12 made up the second (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 kg ha-1. The following were evaluated: height of insertion of the first and last pod; stem diameter; number of pods per plant having 1, 2, and 3 grains; total number of pods per plant; 100 grain weight and estimated grain yield. The height of insertion of the first and last pod in the JLM 08 genotype of the vegetable soybean is not influenced by the planting densities or levels of formulated fertiliser. At a density of 80,000 plants per hectare, the number of pods per plant is influenced by the levels of fertiliser, demonstrating a positive quadratic response. The level of fertiliser with the maximum technical efficiency (492.86 kg ha-1 gives an 18% increase in grain yield at the highest planting density. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de duas densidades de semeadura e doses de NPK (02-24-12 nos componentes de produção da soja hortaliça linhagem JLM 08, na Savana de Boa Vista, Roraima. O experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2013 a março de 2014, na área experimental do Centro de Ciências Agrária da Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus Cauamé, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (2 x 5, com três repetições. O primeiro fator correspondeu a duas

  3. 不同NPK组合对几个早稻品种产量及蛋白质含量的影响%Effects of different ration of NPK fertilizer on the grain yield and protein content in forage rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝晖

    2005-01-01

    @@ Different ratios of NPK were adopted in this research to study its effects on the objective traits of 2 early forage-rice varieties, and to obtain the optimum ratio to further improve the application technique in theory. At the same time, the possibility of increasing yield and protein content in the grain through cultivation technique was also studied. The conclusions were:

  4. [Effects of fertilization on the P accumulation and leaching in vegetable greenhouse soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-jie; Zhao, Mu-qiu; Lu, Cai-yan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin

    2015-02-01

    A packed soil column experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different fertilization practices on phosphorus (P) accumulation and leaching potential in a vegetable greenhouse soil with different fertility levels. The results showed that the leaching loss of total P in the leachates elevated with the increment of leaching time while the accumulative leaching loss of total P was relatively low, indicating P was mainly accumulated in the soil instead of in the leachate. At the end of the leaching experiment, soil fertility and fertilization treatment affected the content of total phosphorus and Olsen-P significantly. Compared with the low-level-fertility soil, the contents of total P and Olsen-P increased by 14.3% and 12.2% in the medium-level-fertility soil, 33.3% and 37.7% in the high-level-fertility soil. Total P in the combined application of poultry manure and chemical fertilizer (M+NPK) was elevated by 5.7% and 4.3%, compared with the NPK and M treatment. Compared with NPK treatment, Olsen-P in M and M + NPK treatments augmented by 13.0% and 3.1%, respectively. Soil total P and Olsen-P mainly accumulated in the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, and much less in the 20-40 cm soil layer. PMID:26094462

  5. Npk mediated improvement in biomass production, photosynthesis and na+ regulation in panicum antidotale under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panicum antidotale is a promising grass species for use as fodder and forage using non-conventional agricultural practices. It was therefore grown using brackish water irrigation to determine the optimal spacing and fertilizer treatment required for sustainable growth, ion relations and photosynthesis. Planting distance of 1.5 ft2 resulted in higher biomass yield. Composite NPK fertilizer (NPK120) at the rate 120 kg ha-1 supported better plant growth rather than N, P, K individually or their various combinations (NP, NK, PK, NPK). Addition of fermented farmyard manure (NPK120+FM) improved ion regulation (lower Na+ uptake, higher K+/Na+ ratio), photosynthetic rates and water use efficiency but did not improve biomass production compared to NPK120. However, higher Na+ uptake with NPK120 would result in lower ion accumulation in the root zone and delayed soil degradation. We conclude that NPK120 could support sustainable growth of Panicum antidotale in our cropping system by keeping leaf Na+ within safe limits for CO/sub 2/ assimilation and reducing the need for frequent re-planting of salinized root stock. (author)

  6. 团粒法40 kt/a Cl-NPK装置改产40 kt/a料浆法S-NPK生产技术%Transformation of 40 kt/a Cl -NPK fertilizer plant by agglomeration process into 40 kt/a S -NPK by slurry granulation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滨; 刘入宏; 张峰

    2005-01-01

    由于我公司有富余磷酸及氨,团粒法Cl-NPK产品销路不畅、成本偏高,故将40 kt/a团粒法Cl-NPK改产为40 kt/a料泉法S-NPK.介绍改造的工艺流程、新增设备、操作条件及改造后的运行情况,结果表明料浆法工艺比团粒法具有产品质量高、成本低等诸多优点.

  7. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Oyedeji; David Adedayo Animasaun; Abdullahi Ajibola Bello; Oludare Oladipo Agboola

    2014-01-01

    The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot) into unfertilized soil (control) and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM) at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four repli...

  8. Effects of Combined Application of N,P,K Fertilizers on Accumulation and Distribution of Dry Matter and Nutrients in Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)%氮磷钾配施对工业大麻干物质和养分积累与分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩; 张云云; 胡华冉; 杜光辉; 杨阳; 刘飞虎

    2015-01-01

    Effects of combined fertilization of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium on growth and accumulation and distribution of dry matter and N,P,K nutrients in industrial hemp cultivar Yunnan hemp 1 were studied via pot culture.Nitrogen was the main factor determining the growth and yield, while the effect of phosphorus was not significant if nitrogen and potassium were enough.P and K fertiliz-ers affected the bast fiber yield little,if nitrogen was deficient.Being compared with NPK and NK,NP impeded the growth and dry matter accumulation.PK treatment promoted phosphorus accumulation but impeded potassium accumulation,while NK treatment facilitated the accumulation of both nitrogen and potassium.Hemp consumed potassium mostly,nitrogen secondly,phosphorus least.The results showed that NPK contributed differently to the growth and yield.There were mutual benefits and antagonistic ac-tion between the three elements,which affected the absorption and utilization of them in hemp.%采用盆栽试验研究氮磷钾配施对工业大麻品种云麻1号的生长、干物质和氮磷钾养分积累与分配的影响。氮是影响大麻生长和产量形成的主要因素;氮、钾供应充分时,磷的影响不显著;缺氮时,增施磷、钾肥对纤维产量形成的作用微弱;对比 NPK 和 NK 配施,NP 配施一定程度上阻碍了大麻的生长与干物质积累;NK 配施增加植株对氮钾的积累,但 PK 配施虽增加了植株对磷的积累,却减少了对钾的积累;大麻植株对钾积累最多,氮次之,磷最少。结果表明,氮磷钾三要素对大麻产量的贡献差异较大,三要素之间存在互惠和拮抗效应,从而影响大麻对它们的吸收与积累。

  9. Measurement of NPK, Temperature, Moisture, Humidity using WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gaikwad S.V,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In India, where the economy is mainly base on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic and are not able to make full use of agricultural resources. The main reason is the lack of rains and scarifies of land reservoir water and overused of fertilizers so we need to control these parameters. This system made wireless sensor network for monitoringagricultural environments for various factors such as NPK, temperature and humidity along with other factors can be of significance.By using pH sensors we get the information about the soil and analyze the acid level of the soil. By which we can apply fertilizer to the place where it needs, also we can avoid over fertilization of the crops. We used humidity sensor to sense the weather. By this the farmer can get idea about the climate. If there is any chance for rainfall; the farmer need not irrigate the crop field. This Seminar reports the design and development of a smart wireless sensor network (WSN for an agricultural environment. Monitoring agricultural environments for various factors such as Nitrates, Zink, Potassium, Phosphorus, Humidity and Temperature along with other factors can be of significance. The ability to document and detail changes in parameters of interest has become increasingly valuable. Investigations were performed for a remote monitoring system using WiFi, where the wireless sensor nodes are based on WSN802G modules. These nodes send data wirelessly to a central server, which collects the data, stores it and allows it to be analyzed and displayed as needed.

  10. Adubação da batata-doce em São Paulo parte: III - Métodos de aplicação de NPK e estêrco Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes: III - Trials on the placement of npk and manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são relatadas nove experiências sôbre a localização de adubos na cultura de batata-doce, realizadas entre 1943-44 e 1946-47, sendo quatro com NPK (60-100-40 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O e cinco com estêrco. Em dois dos ensaios com NPK, conduzidos em Tupi Paulista (um dêles repetido por três anos no mesmo local, a adubação foi mais eficiente quando misturada com a terra dos camalhões do que aplicada sob eles ou em sulcos feitos em seus cumes. Nos outros dois, realizados em Campinas, a aplicação sob os camalhões se mostrou melhor, em média, mas os resultados variaram muito. Tratando-se de assunto que depende de muitos fatôres, inclusive das condições meteorológicas, os autores encarecem a necessidade de se continuarem as experiências, e, tendo discutido as vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos estudados, sugerem a inclusão, em futuros planos, do aplicação de P e K em sulcos laterais às mudas e de N em cobertura. Nas cinco experiências com estêrco, tôdas anuais e executadas em três localidades, seu espalhamento entre os camalhões se mostrou, em regra, inferior à aplicação sob os camalhões ou de mistura com o solo dêstes. Dos dois últimos métodos, o primeiro foi superior em três ensaios, igual em um e inferior no outro. As observações feitas indicam que, em geral, o estêrco deve ser colocado sob os camalhões.This paper reports the results of nine experiments conducted in the State of Sao Paulo on methods of application of NPK and manure for sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.. In two of the four trails with NPK, better results were obtained where it was broadcast before ridging than where it was placed in o furrow either under or on the top of the ridges. In the other two, the placement under the ridges showed better in the average, but the yearly results varied considerably. As the suitability of different methods of application depends on many factors, especially on the weather, the authors point to

  11. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oyedeji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot into unfertilized soil (control and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT. Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently.

  12. Effect of long-term different fertilization on bacterial community structures and diversity in citrus orchard soil of volcanic ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joa, Jae Ho; Weon, Hang Yeon; Hyun, Hae Nam; Jeun, Young Chull; Koh, Sang Wook

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess bacterial species richness, diversity and community distribution according to different fertilization regimes for 16 years in citrus orchard soil of volcanic ash. Soil samples were collected and analyzed from Compost (cattle manure, 2,000 kg/10a), 1/2 NPK+compost (14-20-14+2,000 kg/10a), NPK+compost (28-40-28+2,000 kg/10a), NPK (28-40-28 kg/10a), 3 NPK (84-120-84 kg/10a), and Control (no fertilization) plot which have been managed in the same manners with compost and different amount of chemical fertilization. The range of pyrosequencing reads and OTUs were 4,687-7,330 and 1,790-3,695, respectively. Species richness estimates such as Ace, Chao1, and Shannon index were higher in 1/2 NPK+compost than other treatments, which were 15,202, 9,112, 7.7, respectively. Dominant bacterial groups at level of phylum were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Those were occupied at 70.9% in 1/2 NPK+compost. Dominant bacterial groups at level of genus were Pseudolabrys, Bradyrhizobium, and Acidobacteria. Those were distributed at 14.4% of a total of bacteria in Compost. Soil pH displayed significantly closely related to bacterial species richness estimates such as Ace, Chao1 (pfertilization management, soil pH changes and characteristics of volcanic ash. PMID:25467117

  13. Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília, para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòmente o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral.Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL. Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minutiflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

  14. Fertility levels, patterns and differentials in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei, W K

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of a survey conducted between November 1979 and March 1980, new evidence is presented on changes in fertility levels, patterns, and differentials in Papua New Guinea. A single-stage systematic sample designed was used to select respondents in both rural and urban areas. 3986 females in the childbearing age group of 15-49 years and 2297 males ranging in age between 20 and 54 years were interviewed. 1066 males and 1857 females lived in rural areas and 1231 males and 2129 females resided in urban areas. Information was collected on the following: births occurring in the 12 months prior to the survey; the number of children ever born of all female respondents; a complete pregnancy history of all female respondents; and the age structure of the female respondents. The results of the estimated fertility measures for the rural and urban areas of Papua New Guinea are high by world standards: adjusted estimates of total fertility rates of between 6-7, gross reproduction rates of 2.99 and 2.76, and net reproduction rates of 2.25 and 2.08 for the urban and rural areas. Fertility was higher for rural respondents in all age groups except in the 30-34 and the 45-49 age groups where the rates were slightly higher for urban respondents. These differences in the fertility rates were substantial, particularly among respondents under 25 years old. The rural total fertility rate was 8.5% higher than the urban rate; the differences in the gross reproduction rate and the net reproduction rate were 8.3% and 8.2%, respectively. In the rural sample, respondents with primary education had a slightly lower fertility than those with no education, but the respondents with secondary and tertiary education showed marked differences than those with primary education, especially in the 20-39 year age groups. The differences among the youngest (15-19) year age group and the older (40-44) and (45-49) age groups were not large. The pattern for the urban sample was similar to the rural

  15. Effect of poultry manure and mineral fertilizer on the growth performance and quality of cucumber fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKOLI PSO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of poultry manure and organic fertilizer (NPK 20:10:10 on the growth and quality of cucumber fruits was studied at the experimental site of the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam campus. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four levels of treatments consisting of 4tha-1 poultry manure (PM, 900 kgha-1 NPK in a ratio of 20:10:10 (NPK, 2 tha-1 poultry manure + 450 kgha-1 NPK fertilizer (PM + NPK and 0 tha-1 control (CO, where no treatment was applied. Data collected were tested using analysis of variance and significant differences among treatment means were separated using LSD at 0.05 probability level. The results obtained from the study indicated that the numbers of leaves of cucumber increased as weeks after planting (WAP increased. The highest leaves numbers was observed in the plots treated by PM. The order of leaves increases from 2 to 6 weeks were PM > PM+NPK > NPK > CO. The length of fruits, number of fruits, the quality of marketable fruits and weight of fruits increased proportionately in PM treated plots and were significantly (P=0.05 different among the other treatments except for quality of marketable fruits. The highest value of 171.25cm (length of fruits, 10.75 (number of fruits and 2.38kgha- 1 (weight of fruits were obtained in PM treated plots. Based on the results obtained it is evident that poultry manure as organic manure and its mixture (PM + NPK is a good source of soil amendment, since it influenced the growth and yield components of cucumber.

  16. Nutrição do cafeeiro arábica em função da densidade de plantas e da fertilização com NPK Coffee nutrition as a function of plant density and NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Prezotti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora aumente a produtividade por área, o adensamento reduz a produção por planta, eleva sua eficiência de recuperação de nutrientes, o que contribui para a redução da quantidade de fertilizantes a ser aplicada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do cafeeiro arábica à aplicação de N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de N, P (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg.ha-1 de P2O5 e K (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de K2O, cultivados em diferentes densidades de plantio (3.333, 5.000, 10.000 e 20.000 plantas por hectare. Com base em informações obtidas em cinco produções, não foram observadas diferenças significativas de produtividade em função da densidade de plantas. A resposta em produtividade do café arábica às doses de N, P e K foi variável nos diversos espaçamentos, com maior freqüência de resultados positivos a N e P e menos expressivos para K. Os teores foliares de N e P foram pouco influenciados pelas doses de N e P2O5. Os teores foliares de K foram fortemente influenciados pelas doses de K2O. Cafeeiros submetidos ao sistema de cultivo adensado apresentaram maiores teores foliares de P e K, quando comparados àqueles cultivados em espaçamento mais largo. Os solos sob cultivo adensado, quando comparados a solos sob cultivos mais largos, apresentaram variações em suas características químicas, sendo mais evidente a redução do teor de H + Al.Although increasing in productivity, high-density tree planting provides reduction of the production per plant, increases the efficiency of recovery of nutrients by plants, and can contributes to the reduction of the amount of fertilizers to be applied per plant. Due to evaluate the answer of coffee tree plants (Coffea arabica L. to N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 of N; P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg.ha-1 of P2O5 and K (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg.ha-1 of K2O application, on work was carried out in a coffee cultivated at four densities (3,333; 5,000; 10,000 and 20,000 plants

  17. Level and differentials of fertility in Awassa town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Samson; Betre, Mulugeta

    2009-03-01

    A cross-sectional, descriptive study with internal comparison was conducted among 1376 women of reproductive age with the objective of assessing the level and determinants of fertility in Awassa town, Ethiopia. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was 3.4 and the mean Child Ever Born (CEB) was 1.72 and 3.02 among all women and married women. Regarding proximate determinants of fertility, the mean age at first marriage and duration of postpartum infecundability were 17.75 years and 12.3 months, respectively. Further, Contraceptive Prevalence Rate among married women was 41.2% and Total Abortion Rate was 0.02. Sociodemographic characteristics of mothers like poor educational status, absence of income, rural place of birth, early marriage, and other variables like history of child death, negative husbands' attitude towards contraceptive use, poor educational status of husbands, need for additional children, were found to have significant association with high fertility; accordingly, these variables need to addressed in activities against high fertility. PMID:20687268

  18. Tanggap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Jagung (Zea mays L.) Varietas Pioneer-23 Terhadap Berbagai Komposisi Vermikompos dengan Pupuk Anorganik (N,P,K)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Efrida Sari

    2013-01-01

    EFRIDA SARI NASUTION: The Response of Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) Pioneer 23 Variety on Some Compotition of Vermicompost and Anorganic Fertilizer (N,P,K), supervised by MARIATI SINURAYA and ASIL BARUS. The research has been conducted to investigate the response of growth and yield of maize on some compotition of organic (vermicompost) and anorganic (N,P,K) fertilizer at Bunga Terompet street, Sempakata village chief, Medan Selayang subdistrict head, with a height...

  19. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí.Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

  20. Soil Organic Carbon, Black Carbon, and Enzyme Activity Under Long-Term Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xing-hua; ZHENG Jian-wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to understand the effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC), black carbon (BC), enzyme activity, and the relationships among these parameters. Paddy ifeld was continuously fertilized over 30 yr with nine different fertilizer treatments including N, P, K, NP, NK, NPK, 2NPK (two-fold NPK), NPK+manure (NPKM), and CK (no fertilization), N, 90 kg urea-N ha-1 yr-1; P, 45 kg triple superphosphate-P2O5 ha-1 yr-1; K, 75 kg potassium chloride-K2O ha-1 yr-1;and pig manure, 22 500 kg ha-1 yr-1. Soil samples were collected and determined for SOC, BC content, and enzyme activity. The results showed that the SOC in the NPKM treatment was signiifcantly higher than those in the K, P, and CK treatments. The lowest SOC content was found in the CK treatment. SOC content was similar in the N, NP, NK, NPK, 2NPK, and NPKM treatments. There was no signiifcant difference in BC content among different treatments. The BC-to-SOC ratios (BC/SOC) ranged from 0.50 to 0.63, suggesting that BC might originate from the same source. Regarding enzyme activity, NPK treatment had higher urease activity than NPKM treatment. The urease activity of NPKM treatment was signiifcantly higher than that of 2NPK, NP, N, P, K, CK, and NPKM treatment which produced higher activities of acid phosphatase, catalase, and invertase than all other treatments. Our results indicated that long-term fertilization did not signiifcantly affect BC content. Concurrent application of manure and mineral fertilizers increased SOC content and signiifcantly enhanced soil enzyme activities. Correlation analysis showed that catalase activity was signiifcantly associated with invertase activity, but SOC, BC, and enzyme activity levels were not signiifcantly correlated with one another. No signiifcant correlations were observed between BC and soil enzymes. It is unknown whether soil enzymes play a role in the decomposition of BC.

  1. Trends of Yield and Soil Fertility in a Long-Term Wheat-Maize System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xue-yun; SUN Ben-hua; ZHANG Shu-lan

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of the wheat-maize rotation is important to China’s food security. Intensive cropping without recycling crop residues or other organic inputs results in the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrients, and is assumed to be non-sustainable. We evaluated the effects of nine different treatments on yields, nitrogen use efifciency, P and K balances, and soil fertility in a wheat-maize rotation system (1991-2010) on silt clay loam in Shaanxi, China. The treatments involved the application ofrecommended dose of nitrogen (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), nitrogen and potassium (NK), phosphorus and potassium (PK), combined NPK, wheat or maize straw (S) with NPK (SNPK), or dairy manure (M) with NPK (M1NPK and M2NPK), along with an un-treated control treatment (CK). The mean yields of wheat and maize ranged from 992 and 2 235 kg ha-1 under CK to 5962 and 6894 kg ha-1 under M2NPK treatment, respectively. Treatments in which either N or P was omitted (N, NK and PK) gave signiifcantly lower crop yields than those in which both were applied. The crop yields obtained under NP, NPK and SNPK treatments were statistically identical, as were those obtained under SNPK and MNPK. However, M2NPK gave a signiifcant higher wheat yield than NP, and MNPK gave signiifcant higher maize yield than both NP and NPK. Wheat yields increased signiifcantly (by 86 to 155 kg ha-1 yr-1) in treatments where NP was applied, but maize yields did not. In general, the nitrogen use efifciency of wheat was the highest under the NP and NPK treatments; for maize, it was the highest under MNPK treatment. The P balance was highly positive under MNPK treatment, increasing by 136 to 213 kg ha-1 annually. While the K balance was negative in most treatments, ranging from 31 to 217 kg ha-1 yr-1, levels of soil available K remained unchanged or increased over the 20 yr. SOM levels increased signiifcantly in all treatments. Overall, the results indicated that combinations of organic manure and

  2. Survey on Fertility of Tea Garden Soil in Meizhou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiping; PENG; Jichuan; HUANG; Junhong; YU; Zhidui; PENG; Zhijun; LIN; Linxiang; YANG; Xuena; WU

    2013-01-01

    Survey on fertility of tea garden soil in Meizhou region indicates that tea garden soil has strong acidity; organic matter content remains at medium level; there is a severe lack of available content of nitrogen(N),phosphorus(P) and potassium(K); available calcium(Ca) and magnesium(Mg) content is also insufficient; available sulfur(S) is abundant. In the management of tea cultivation,it is recommended to supplement organic fertilizer,balance the application of NPK fertilizer,and adequately alleviate shortage of Ca and Mg element,to guarantee high and stable yield of tea.

  3. A Study on the Effect of Applying the Compound Fertilizer of Organic NPK from the Concretions of Papermaking Black-Liguid on Cotton%造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥 对棉花的效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周跃龙; 汪怀建; 李琳; 罗运阔; 黄完基

    2001-01-01

    通过对棉花施用造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥的效果研究表明:棉田施用造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥确有较好的肥效,其籽棉和皮棉产量达4749.15kg/hm2和2063.55kg/hm2。相当于施大壮1(仅减产5.78%~3.97%),且较施大壮2增幅达17.43%~18.61%。施用于棉花上的效应主要表现在前期植株生长较旺盛,第一果枝着生节位较低,果枝数、总果节数也有增加。因此,有利于多结伏前桃,棉花早发,其“三桃”比例更为合理,从而实现了棉花中期稳长多结,后期不早衰。造纸黑液固化物有机NPK复合肥对棉花品质无明显影响。%This paper systematically studies the effect of the compound fertilizer of organic NPK from the concretions of papermaking black-liquid on cotton yield and quality. Applying the compound fertilizer can bring about relatively favorable result with the yields of unginned and ginned cotton respectively reaching 4749.15kg/hm2 and 2063.55kg/hm2. So it has almost the same effect as Shidazhuangl (with only 5.78%~3.97% yield loss), and it increases the yield by 17.43%~18.61% compared with Shidazhuang 2. The effect mainly lies in comparatively vigorous early growth of cotton plant, lower attachment position of fruit branch as well as more fruit branches and fruit nodes, which contributes to more bolls before hot summer days, earlier ripening of cotton and more reasonable ratio of “the three kind of boll”. Therefore, the cotton plant maintains steady growth and better fruitage in the middle stage with no premature senescence. Besides, the compound fertilizer has little effect on cotton quality.

  4. Effects of NPK fertilizer ratio on morphological and physiological changes of Keteleeria cyclolepis seedlings%氮、磷、钾对江南油杉形态及生理变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常冀原; 张斌; 许琪; 李科; 肖祥希; 李志辉

    2015-01-01

    By taking three Keteleeria cyclolepis provenances (one 1-year-old from Guizhou province, other two from Fujian province) as the tested materials, treated with different ratios of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization, the changes of seedling height, ground diameter, dry weight of biomass above the ground, dry weight of biomass under the ground, total dry biomass weight, leaf protein content, leaf soluble sugar were investigated. The results show that the optimized fertilization ratio was nitrogen 0.08 g/pot, phosphor 0.12 g/pot, kalium 0.09 g/pot, which could promote seedling height and ground diameter better development;The treatment No.2 (N1P2K2) had greatest positive effect to seedling growth;The optimized treatment group increased in seedling height, ground diameter, dry weight of biomass above the ground, dry weight of biomass under the ground, the total dry biomass weight, leaf protein content, leaf soluble sugar chlorophyll content compared with the control group to 64%(36%), 38%(30%), 124%(65%), 92%(82%), 113%(70%), 72%(67%), 69%(70%), 53%(52%).%以1年生的贵州、福建2个不同种源的江南油杉为实验材料,通过不同氮、磷、钾的配比施肥处理,研究了江南油杉苗高、地径、地上与地下干质量、总干质量、叶片中蛋白质含量和可溶性糖的变化。结果表明:促进苗高和地径等生长的较优施肥配比为氮0.08 g/盆+磷0.12 g/盆+钾0.09 g/盆,即N1P2K2处理(处理2)对幼苗的生长促进作用最大;相对于对照组的苗高、地径、地上干质量、地下干质量、总干质量、叶片中蛋白质含量、可溶性糖含量和叶绿素含量分别提高了64%(36%)、38%(30%)、124%(65%)、92%(82%)、113%(70%)、72%(67%)、69%(70%)、53%(52%)。

  5. Comparison between organic and mineral fertilization for soil fertility levels, crop macronutrient concentrations and yield

    OpenAIRE

    Herencia, Juan F.; Ruiz Porras, J. C.; Melero Sánchez, Sebastiana; Morillo González, Esmeralda; Maqueda Porras, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Interest in soil organic fertilization has grown appreciably in recent years; however, few studies have been performed in greenhouses. A comparative study of organic vs. mineral fertilization in a greenhouse has been conducted for 9 yr in a calcareous loamy soil classified as Xerofluvent in the Guadalquivir River Valley, Seville, Spain. The nutrient availability in the soil, macronutrient concentration in the edible part of the plants, and yield were examined. The organic fertilizer used was ...

  6. [Effects of long-term different fertilizations on biomass and nutrient content of maize root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Miao; Meng, Yan; Mohammad Amin, Ahmadzai; Zhou, Jian-bin

    2015-08-01

    Taking two long-term local field trials at the south edge of the Loess Plateau, which were found in 1990 and 2003, respectively, as test subjects, the effects of different fertilization practices on the maize root biomass and nutrient content were investigated in this paper. Maize roots in the 0-20 cm top soil post-maize harvest from the different fertilization practices were collected by hand in October 2011. The results showed that compared with control without fertilization and N, NK, or PK treatments, the NP, NPK, fertilizers plus manure (M1NPK and M2NPK) or plus straw return (SNPK) treatments significantly increased the dry mass of maize root. The C, N, P and K contents in maize roots in the NP, NPK, M1 NPK, M2NPK and SNPK treatments were also significantly higher than those of control, especially in the NPK plus organic manure treatments (M1 NPK and M2NPK) in the trial. Compared with the N fertilizer free treatment (N0), root biomass in the 120 kg N · hm(-2) (N120) and 240 kg N · hm(-2) ( N240) fertilization treatments increased by 38% and 45%, respectively, but there was no significant difference between N120 and N240 treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer application (N120 and N240) also improved the C, N, P and K contents in maize root. The water soluble organic C and total soluble N contents of maize root in the NP, NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK, SNPK and the N120 and N240 treatments were greater than those of control and other treatments. Otherwise, the cellulose and lignin contents in maize roots declined in the NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK, and SNPK treatments compared with other treatments. So the root C/N and lignin/N ratios in the control, PK and N0 treatments were significantly higher than those in the NP, NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK and SNPK treatments. We concluded that the optimum fertilization (e. g., NP, NPK, MNPK and SNPK treatments) could increase maize root growth and nutrient content and improve soil fertility and carbon sequestration through root residue into soil. PMID

  7. [Effects of long-term different fertilizations on biomass and nutrient content of maize root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Miao; Meng, Yan; Mohammad Amin, Ahmadzai; Zhou, Jian-bin

    2015-08-01

    Taking two long-term local field trials at the south edge of the Loess Plateau, which were found in 1990 and 2003, respectively, as test subjects, the effects of different fertilization practices on the maize root biomass and nutrient content were investigated in this paper. Maize roots in the 0-20 cm top soil post-maize harvest from the different fertilization practices were collected by hand in October 2011. The results showed that compared with control without fertilization and N, NK, or PK treatments, the NP, NPK, fertilizers plus manure (M1NPK and M2NPK) or plus straw return (SNPK) treatments significantly increased the dry mass of maize root. The C, N, P and K contents in maize roots in the NP, NPK, M1 NPK, M2NPK and SNPK treatments were also significantly higher than those of control, especially in the NPK plus organic manure treatments (M1 NPK and M2NPK) in the trial. Compared with the N fertilizer free treatment (N0), root biomass in the 120 kg N · hm(-2) (N120) and 240 kg N · hm(-2) ( N240) fertilization treatments increased by 38% and 45%, respectively, but there was no significant difference between N120 and N240 treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer application (N120 and N240) also improved the C, N, P and K contents in maize root. The water soluble organic C and total soluble N contents of maize root in the NP, NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK, SNPK and the N120 and N240 treatments were greater than those of control and other treatments. Otherwise, the cellulose and lignin contents in maize roots declined in the NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK, and SNPK treatments compared with other treatments. So the root C/N and lignin/N ratios in the control, PK and N0 treatments were significantly higher than those in the NP, NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK and SNPK treatments. We concluded that the optimum fertilization (e. g., NP, NPK, MNPK and SNPK treatments) could increase maize root growth and nutrient content and improve soil fertility and carbon sequestration through root residue into soil.

  8. EFFECT OF MILK UREA AND PROTEIN LEVELS ON FERTILITY INDICES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata JANKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of milk urea and protein levels in four consecutive lactations on fertility indices of Blackand- White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, milk recorded in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province has been made. Poorer fertility indices were found in first-calf heifers and second lactation cows receiving energy-deficient diets and in older (third and fourth lactation cows receiving excess dietary protein and energy. Best fertility was found in young cows fed excess protein (>3.60% regardless of milk urea levels, and in older cows having lower and optimum levels regardless of protein levels. Cow fertility is differentiated more by milk protein levels than by urea content. Fertility parameters were poorer in first and second lactation cows than in older cows. The coefficients of correlation between milk urea and protein levels and fertility indices were very low, with the only significant differences between protein content vs. calving interval and reproductive rest period.

  9. Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

    2006-04-01

    Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

  10. Chromium accumulation potential of Zea mays grown under four different fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheeba, B; Sampathkumar, P; Kannan, K

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. We performed pot experiment with chromium (30 mg/soil) to assess the accumulation potential of Zea mays and study the influence of four fertilizers, viz. Farm Yard Manure (FYM), NPK, Panchakavya (PK) and Vermicompost (VC) with respect to Cr accumulation. The oxidative stress and pigment (chlorophyll) levels were also examined. The results showed increased accumulation of chromium in both shoots and roots of Zea mays under FYM and NPK supply, and reduced with PK and VC. While the protein and pigment contents decreased in Cr treated plants, the fertilizers substantiated the loss to overcome the stress. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) indicating the enhanced damage control activity. However, these levels were relatively low in plants supplemented with fertilizers. Our results confirm that the maize can play an effective role in bioremediation of soils polluted with chromium, particularly in supplementation with fertilizers such as farm yard manure and NPK.

  11. Chromium accumulation potential of Zea mays grown under four different fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheeba, B; Sampathkumar, P; Kannan, K

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. We performed pot experiment with chromium (30 mg/soil) to assess the accumulation potential of Zea mays and study the influence of four fertilizers, viz. Farm Yard Manure (FYM), NPK, Panchakavya (PK) and Vermicompost (VC) with respect to Cr accumulation. The oxidative stress and pigment (chlorophyll) levels were also examined. The results showed increased accumulation of chromium in both shoots and roots of Zea mays under FYM and NPK supply, and reduced with PK and VC. While the protein and pigment contents decreased in Cr treated plants, the fertilizers substantiated the loss to overcome the stress. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) indicating the enhanced damage control activity. However, these levels were relatively low in plants supplemented with fertilizers. Our results confirm that the maize can play an effective role in bioremediation of soils polluted with chromium, particularly in supplementation with fertilizers such as farm yard manure and NPK. PMID:25651615

  12. Investigation of NPK in fertilized and unfertilized vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of selected minerals and moisture in Ridge Gourd, Gourd and Brinjal vegetables, collected from house and market of different localities, were determined. In house vegetables from kitchen garden of PCSIR colony the moisture contents were high (90%) as compared to market vegetables of Taj Bagh, Railway workshop Mandy and Singpura Lahore Mandy was 87%, 86.5% and 87.5% respectively. Regarding nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, sodium and potassium was high in market vegetables as compared to house samples due to the accumulation of nutrients in soil and crop. (author)

  13. A Miniaturized On-Chip Colorimeter for Detecting NPK Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Tao; Tao, Lu-Qi; Liu, Bo; Tian, Xiang-Guang; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Recently, precision agriculture has become a globally attractive topic. As one of the most important factors, the soil nutrients play an important role in estimating the development of precision agriculture. Detecting the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) elements more efficiently is one of the key issues. In this paper, a novel chip-level colorimeter was fabricated to detect the NPK elements for the first time. A light source-microchannel photodetector in a sandwich structure was designed to realize on-chip detection. Compared with a commercial colorimeter, all key parts are based on MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology so that the volume of this on-chip colorimeter can be minimized. Besides, less error and high precision are achieved. The cost of this colorimeter is two orders of magnitude less than that of a commercial one. All these advantages enable a low-cost and high-precision sensing operation in a monitoring network. The colorimeter developed herein has bright prospects for environmental and biological applications. PMID:27527177

  14. A Miniaturized On-Chip Colorimeter for Detecting NPK Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Tao; Tao, Lu-Qi; Liu, Bo; Tian, Xiang-Guang; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Recently, precision agriculture has become a globally attractive topic. As one of the most important factors, the soil nutrients play an important role in estimating the development of precision agriculture. Detecting the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) elements more efficiently is one of the key issues. In this paper, a novel chip-level colorimeter was fabricated to detect the NPK elements for the first time. A light source–microchannel photodetector in a sandwich structure was designed to realize on-chip detection. Compared with a commercial colorimeter, all key parts are based on MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology so that the volume of this on-chip colorimeter can be minimized. Besides, less error and high precision are achieved. The cost of this colorimeter is two orders of magnitude less than that of a commercial one. All these advantages enable a low-cost and high-precision sensing operation in a monitoring network. The colorimeter developed herein has bright prospects for environmental and biological applications. PMID:27527177

  15. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and organic matter (iPOM), and mineral-associated organic matter (mSOM). Physical fractionation showed the iPOM fraction of aggregates dominated C storage, averaging 76.87% of SOC storage. Overall, application of N and NPK fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5 g C m(2)) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM. PMID:26898121

  16. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and NPK fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5 g C m2) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM.

  17. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and organic matter (iPOM), and mineral-associated organic matter (mSOM). Physical fractionation showed the iPOM fraction of aggregates dominated C storage, averaging 76.87% of SOC storage. Overall, application of N and NPK fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5 g C m(2)) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM.

  18. [Effects of long-term fertilization on evolution of S forms in a red soil and a black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Wang, Song-Shan; Li, Ju-Mei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Sun, Wen-Tao; Luo, Lei; Zhang, Shu-Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Sulfur (S) forms in two contrasting soils (a red soil and a black soil) under different long-term fertilization treatments (from 1990 to 2011) from the National Long-term Monitoring Network of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Effects of China were investigated using a fractionation scheme in order to explore the distribution and transportation of S with different forms in the soils. The soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) horizons that were treated with no fertilizers (CK), nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers (NPK), or NPK plus organic manures (MNPK) since 1990. The results indicated that when compared with the CK, total S contents in the topsoil layers treated with NPK and MNPK were increased by 42% and 33% for the red soil, and by 6% and 76% for the black soil, respectively, while the total S in the subsoil layer was less affected by the fertilization treatments and obviously lower than in the topsoil layer except for the red soil treated with NPK. The main forms of inorganic S in the red soil and black soil were found to be available S and HCl-extracted S, respectively. The application of NPK and MNPK increased the available S by 447% and 102% in the topsoil layer of the red soil compared with CK, and facilitated the transportation of available S into the lower depth. In contrast, NPK and MNPK only increased the available S by 54% and 93% in the topsoil layer of the black soil, and showed a slight influence on available S in the subsoil. The organic S forms were predominantly composed of ester S and residual S in the two soils. Under long-term fertilization, the residual S significantly increased over 32% and 55% in the topsoil and subsoil layers, respectively, compared with CK. The ester S and carbon-bonded S, which were relatively active, were less affected by the fertilization treatments, but positively related to the level of organic carbon in each soil (P < 0.05). In addition, the results from the long

  19. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-xian WANG; Xiao-jun LI; Xin-qiang LIANG; Qi-xiang LUO; Fang FAN; Ying-xu CHEN; Zu-zhang LI; Huo-xi SUN; Tian-fang DAI; Jun-nan WAN

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC)sequestration.We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China.The experiment included eight treatments:(1) check,(2) PK,(3) NP,(4) NK,(5) NPK,(6) 7F:3M (N,P,K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N),(7) 5F:5M (N,P,K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N),(8) 3F:7M (N,P,K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N).Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment.The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha.The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check.Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers.The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues.Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization.Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  20. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

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    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  1. The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

  2. Effect of fertilizers on Cd uptake of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a high biomass, fast growing and easily cultivated potential Cd hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning Yu; Fu, Qing Lin; Zhuang, Ping; Guo, Bing; Zou, Bi; Li, Zhi An

    2012-02-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of three amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cvs. K112, R104, and K472) and the effect of application of N, NP, and NPK fertilizer on Cd uptake of the three cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg kg(-1) Cd. All three amaranth cultivars had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, which ranged from 95.1 to 179.1 mg kg(-1) in leaves, 58.9 to 95.4 mg kg(-1) in stems, and 62.4 to 107.2 mg kg(-1) in roots, resulting in average bioaccumulation factors ranging from 17.7 to 29.7. Application of N, NP, or NPK fertilizers usually increased Cd content in leaves but decreased Cd content in stem and root. Fertilizers of N or NP combined did not substantially increase dry biomass of the 3 cultivars, leading to a limited increment of Cd accumulation. NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 2.7-3.8, resulting in a large increment of Cd accumulation. Amaranth cultivars (K112, R104, and K472) have great potential in phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation and little effect on Cd uptake by fertilization.

  3. Effect of fertilizers on Cd uptake of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a high biomass, fast growing and easily cultivated potential Cd hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning Yu; Fu, Qing Lin; Zhuang, Ping; Guo, Bing; Zou, Bi; Li, Zhi An

    2012-02-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of three amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cvs. K112, R104, and K472) and the effect of application of N, NP, and NPK fertilizer on Cd uptake of the three cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg kg(-1) Cd. All three amaranth cultivars had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, which ranged from 95.1 to 179.1 mg kg(-1) in leaves, 58.9 to 95.4 mg kg(-1) in stems, and 62.4 to 107.2 mg kg(-1) in roots, resulting in average bioaccumulation factors ranging from 17.7 to 29.7. Application of N, NP, or NPK fertilizers usually increased Cd content in leaves but decreased Cd content in stem and root. Fertilizers of N or NP combined did not substantially increase dry biomass of the 3 cultivars, leading to a limited increment of Cd accumulation. NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 2.7-3.8, resulting in a large increment of Cd accumulation. Amaranth cultivars (K112, R104, and K472) have great potential in phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation and little effect on Cd uptake by fertilization. PMID:22567702

  4. ESTIMATION OF PARITY SPECIFIC FERTILITY RATES UNDER DIFFERENT FECUNDITY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B.Bhardwaj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to describe probabilistic behaviour of couplefertility in a given period of time (0,T. Singh et al. (1974, Singh (1964, Bhattacharya (1986,Pathak (1999 and Khan and Raeside (1998 have built the models to enhance the impact of birthintervals and fertility rates. Biswas (1980 considered the waiting time distribution as theconvolution of several Poisson distributions with variable parameters

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Tong, Yanan; Gao, Yimin; Gao, Pengcheng; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Zuoping; Pang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole. PMID:25380401

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of crop fertilization and soil fertility in the loess plateau in china from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Wang

    Full Text Available Increased fertilizer input in agricultural systems during the last few decades has resulted in large yield increases, but also in environmental problems. We used data from published papers and a soil testing and fertilization project in Shaanxi province during the years 2005 to 2009 to analyze chemical fertilizer inputs and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and maize (Zea mays L. on the farmers' level, and soil fertility change from the 1970s to the 2000s in the Loess Plateau in China. The results showed that in different regions of the province, chemical fertilizer NPK inputs and yields of wheat and maize increased. With regard to soil nutrient balance, N and P gradually changed from deficit to surplus levels, while K deficiency became more severe. In addition, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium increased during the same period. The PFP of N, NP and NPK on wheat and maize all decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s as a whole. With the increase in N fertilizer inputs, both soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen increased; P fertilizer increased soil available phosphorus and K fertilizer increased soil available potassium. At the same time, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium all had positive impacts on crop yields. In order to promote food safety and environmental protection, fertilizer requirements should be assessed at the farmers' level. In many cases, farmers should be encouraged to reduce nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer inputs significantly, but increase potassium fertilizer and organic manure on cereal crops as a whole.

  7. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000–250 μm, 250–53 μm, and 250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM. PMID:26898121

  8. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions.

  9. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940‒1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nisén

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

  10. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

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    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  11. Community-level education accelerates the cultural evolution of fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, Heidi; Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Mace, Ruth

    2014-03-22

    Explaining why fertility declines as populations modernize is a profound theoretical challenge. It remains unclear whether the fundamental drivers are economic or cultural in nature. Cultural evolutionary theory suggests that community-level characteristics, for example average education, can alter how low-fertility preferences are transmitted and adopted. These assumptions have not been empirically tested. Here, we show that community-level education accelerates fertility decline in a way that is neither predicted by individual characteristics, nor by the level of economic modernization in a population. In 22 high-fertility communities in Poland, fertility converged on a smaller family size as average education in the community increased-indeed community-level education had a larger impact on fertility decline than did individual education. This convergence was not driven by educational levels being more homogeneous, but by less educated women having fewer children than expected, and more highly educated social networks, when living among more highly educated neighbours. The average level of education in a community may influence the social partners women interact with, both within and beyond their immediate social environments, altering the reproductive norms they are exposed to. Given a critical mass of highly educated women, less educated neighbours may adopt their reproductive behaviour, accelerating the pace of demographic transition. Individual characteristics alone cannot capture these dynamics and studies relying solely on them may systematically underestimate the importance of cultural transmission in driving fertility declines. Our results are inconsistent with a purely individualistic, rational-actor model of fertility decline and suggest that optimization of reproduction is partly driven by cultural dynamics beyond the individual.

  12. Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine seedlings in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lumu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack ofgood quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out; to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts(experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25−5−5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18−4−14 +TE (C mixed in 1 m3 of soil.Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experimentswere laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorialtreatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara.Results of experiment two showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1½ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (Pvalue = 0.021, Pvalue = 0.001 at 1½ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 171717 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m3 of soil.

  13. Estimation of gamma radiation levels in the environs of fertilizer stockyards of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India using thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate and potash fertilizers are known for having higher concentrations of radionuclides and thus fertilizer stockyard environment might have higher radiation levels than that of outside natural background radiation. An attempt has been made to estimate the gamma radiation levels using thermoluminescence dosimeters and μR-survey meter in different fertilizer stockyards in Hyderabad, India. (author)

  14. Follicular development and steroid concentrations in cows with different levels of fertility raised under nutritional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J F C; Neves, J P; Moraes, J C F; Gonçalves, P B D; Bahr, J M; Hernandez, A G; Costa, L F S

    2002-09-16

    The aim of the present study was to characterize ovarian follicular development and steroid concentrations during postpartum and the estrous cycle of Brangus Ibagé cows (3/8 Nelore + 5/8 Aberdeen Angus) with different levels of fertility. Cows were classified as having high or low fertility according to the calving interval (CI). The average CI of the herd from which cows used in this study were selected was 404.6+/-5.44 and 711.2+/-20.89 days for the high and low fertility groups, respectively. Four cows of high fertility and five cows of low fertility had calves removed between 70 and 100 days after parturition. Ovarian activity was monitored daily by ultrasound for 16 days after calf removal. Days to emergency of the first follicular wave after calf removal, number of follicles with diameter >9 mm, growth rate of largest follicle, maximum diameter of largest follicle, length (days) and number of follicular waves were recorded. During this period, blood was collected daily for measurements of serum progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol (E(2)) concentrations. In another experiment, ovarian activity and P(4) and E(2) concentrations were examined during estrous cycle in five cows of high fertility and four cows of low fertility. Ovarian activity and steroid concentrations were assessed from the day prior to estrus to the 15th day of the estrous cycle (estrus = day 0). In postpartum cows of high fertility, the total number of follicles >5mm and the maximum diameter of the largest follicle were higher than in cows of low fertility (P 5mm, but the day effect was significant (P < 0.01). Plasma concentrations of P(4) and E(2) were similar in both groups. These data suggest that cows, from a population raised in the same environment have different fertility as a consequence of individual physiological characteristics. PMID:12220814

  15. 玉米氮磷钾不同配施水平的肥料效应%Fertilizer Effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium at Different Application Levels on Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长江

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different application levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on maize yield and economic benefits were studied by 3414 field trial to provide a scientific basis for soil testing and formulated fertilization of maize in Wuchuan County. The results showed that rational application of NPK could significantly enhance maize yield and output. The order of maize yield was K shortage block >P shortage block>N shortage block>CK, yield-increasing effect was N>P>K> and interaction effect was NP>PK>NK. The fertilizer utilization rate decreased with increasing fertilizer amount. The theoretical maize yield could be up to 615. 23 kg/667m2 with the optimum fertilizing amount of N(18. 84 kg/667m2), P2O5 (12. 81 kg/667m2) and K2O (15. 31 kg/667m2).%为务川县玉米测土配方施肥提供科学依据,采用3414田间肥效试验方法,研究了氮、磷、钾肥不同配施水平对玉米产量及经济效益的影响.结果表明:合理施用氮、磷、钾肥具有显著的增产增收效果,缺钾区产量>缺磷区产量>缺氮区产量>空白区产量,氮肥增产效应>磷肥增产效应>钾肥增产效应,氮磷肥互作效应>磷钾肥互作效应>氮钾肥互作效应,肥料利用率随施肥量的增加而减少;氮(N)、磷(P2O5)、钾(K2O)的最佳施肥量分别为18.84 kg/667m2、12.81 kg/667m2和15.31 kg/667m2,可获得理论产量615.23kg/667m2.

  16. Phospholipid fatty acid patterns of microbial communities in paddy soil under different fertilizer treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-chun; WANG Guang-huo; YAO Huai-ying

    2007-01-01

    The microbial communities under irrigated rice cropping with different fertilizer treatments, including control (CK), PK, NK, NP, NPK fertilization, were investigated using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profile method. The results of this study revealed that the fertilizer practice had an impact on the community structure of specific microbial groups. The principal components analysis (PCA) showed that proportion of the actinomycete PLFAs (10Me 18:0 and 10Me 16:0) were the lowest in the PK treatment and the highest in the NPK treatment, which means that soil nitrogen status affected the diversity of actinomycetes, whereas nitrogen cycling was related to the actinomycets. Under CK treatment, the ratio of Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria was lower compared with that in fertilizer addition treatments, indicating that fertilizer application stimulated Gram-positive bacterial population in paddy soil. The fatty acid 18:2ω6, 9, which is considered to be predominantly of fungal origin, was at low level in all the treatments. The ratio of cy19:0 to 18:1ω7, which has been proposed as an indicator of stress conditions, decreased in PK treatment. Changes of soil microbial community under different fertilizer treatments of paddy soil were detected in this study; however, the causes that lead to changes in the microbial community still needs further study.

  17. Serum Macromineral Levels in Estrual, Fertile, Subfertile and Pregnant Mares Kept Under Two Different Managemental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ali*, L. A. Lodhi, Z. I. Qureshi and M. Younis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 300 mares kept under one of the two managemental conditions: field (individual management and farm (organizational management. Mares were categorized as estrual, fertile, subfertile or pregnant. Any possible relationship between fertility and serum levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium was investigated. The serum sodium level differed significantly (P<0.05 among all groups of mares at both conditions, with pregnant mares having the highest and subfertile the lowest levels. Also, independent of the condition, the pregnant mares had significantly higher (P<0.05 serum potassium levels compared with subfertile ones. Serum calcium levels were significantly higher in estrual mares when compared with those of pregnant mares under farm management or subfertile mares under field conditions. In each group, mares kept under farm management had significantly higher serum magnesium levels but significantly lower serum calcium levels than those of mares kept under field. In estrual group, mares raised under field condition had significantly higher serum phosphorus levels. These results sufficiently provide the foundation for more rigorous and controlled studies to establish a firm basis for fertility versus serum-mineral-profile relationship. Moreover, due to marginally adequate serum mineral levels in mares kept under both managements, supplementation with mineral mixture was recommended for optimum fertility.

  18. CRESCIMENTO E PRODUÇÃO DO MARACUJAZEIRO-AMARELO EM SOLO COM BIOFERTILIZANTES E ADUBAÇÃO MINERAL COM NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodolfo Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow passion fruit crop (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. and natural insume use on agriculture are increasing in Remígio county Paraíba State, Brazil. In this direction was carried out an experiment, during July 2005 to December 2006 in randomized blocks in order to evaluate the effects of absence and presence of biofertilizers comum (bovine manure fertilizer fresh and water and supermagro (bovine manure, water, macronutrients and micronutrients, applied to soil on liquid form, in level of 2.4 L plant-1, 30 days before and two months after transplanting, in the absence and presence of mineral fertilizer with NPK, with three repetition and six plantas per set using a factorial designs 3x2. The biofertilizers show more reliable to growth than fruit production of yellow passion fruit. Biggest production corresponded to treatments with the use of mineral fertilizer, specially in the first production. Comum and supermagro biofertilizer gave significative effects on vegetative growth of plants of yellow passion fruit plant but had no influence on fruits production.

  19. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

  20. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  1. Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml was significantly higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml (p value< 0.001, and had negative relationship with sperm count, motility and morphology. Therefore it could be concluded that increase in lipid peroxidation was associated with sperm membrane destructed and high level of MDA.

  2. 东北黑土农田玉米适宜NPK用量试验研究%The Study of Apt NPK Dosage in Maize Rotation District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秉进; 陈渊; 刘洪家

    2009-01-01

    采用NPK三因素多水平的不完全设计,通过连续多年的小区定位试验,在12个不同NPK用量的配方中筛选出适合东北地区大豆-玉米轮作条件下的玉米适宜肥料用量.由于每小区包含有连续多年的肥料效应,理论上可提供更多的养分信息,生产实践上更为实用.初步研究结果表明:玉米适宜施氮量为162.1 kg/hm2.施磷不同用量之间,增产效果无明显差别.由于磷素的土壤积累,磷肥增产作用已经明显低于20世纪80年代,玉米对施磷的需求量降低,但氮素对磷素有显著的协助作用,施氮能显著促进玉米对磷素的吸收.建议当前玉米生产施磷量20kg/hm2~60.9kg/hm2.图5,表2,参13.%This study adopts the imperfection trial design with NPK three factors and more levels.The examinations selected apt NPK dosages through a longtime continuous field test which was based on twelve levels in soybean-maize rotation district.It was more practicable that more nourishment information can be offered on theory because a longtime continuous fertilizer was effective in each examination district. The pilot study result showed that the appropriate amount of nitrogen application for maize was 162. 1kg/hm2.It was not distinct different among the dif-ferent phosphoric treatment groups. Because of the accumulation of soil phosphorus, the increased production by phosphate fertilizer was signifi-cantly lower than that of the 1980s. Phosphoric fertilizer requirement in Maize was decreased. Nitrogen had assistance role in promoting the phos-phoric absorption. The recommended amount of the phosphoric fertilizer application was 20 kg/hm2-60.9kg/hm2.

  3. External gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soil around a phosphate fertilizer plant at Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertilizers containing phosphate have been used worldwide in increasing quantities in order to replenish natural nutrients, which are being continuously taken off from the soil for farming activities. Phosphate rocks together with potassium ores and nitrogenous compounds are the main raw materials used for industrial fertilizer production. Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphor-gypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in soil samples collected around a phosphate fertilizer plant were estimated. Radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and external dose rate due to natural gamma background at various locations around the plant were also measured. (author)

  4. The Influence of Varieties and Planting Systems on the Peach Tree Growth, Productivity and NPK Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian G. MATEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the effect of two organo-mineral fertilizers: root fertilizer C011 and foliar fertilizer 411 bio-ionic liquids, on some vegetative and productive features of five new peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] varieties introduced in Romania: ‘Earlirich’, ‘Royal Estate’, ‘Rubirich’, ‘October Star’ and ‘Late Luka’, grafted on GF 677 rootstock. The experimental plot located on a reddish preluvosol, have been established in 2008 with four planting systems: Tatura trellis, V planting system, Sibari Y and Vertical axe with different nutrition area/tree. Fertilization was applied on the beggining of June and August, 2010 and 2011 on the soil, locally on the tree rows (C011 and by foliar spraying (411. Trees vegetative growth was compared at the end of the vegetation period by number of fruit buds per unit trunk surface section (CM/TSS with significant differences between types of crowns and the biggest values for ‘Rubirich’; the total shoots length with significant differences between varieties. The influence of fertilization on trees productivity was apreciated by analyzing the yield and some typical productivy indexes. The studied parameters including the NPK uptake, have been significantly influenced by the variety 3.39% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2010 and 2.75% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2011 in Tatura trellis planting system.

  5. Grazing intensities and poultry litter fertilization levels on corn and black oat yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Adami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of poultry litter fertilization levels on corn and black oat yield using different grazing intensities, poultry litter levels (mixture of manure and bedding material and a chemical fertilization level. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Black oat + ryegrass grazing intensities, characterized by different pasture sward management, with animal entrance at 25, 30 and 35-cm heights and exit at 5.0, 10 and 15-cm heights, were established at the main plots. After the grazing period, corn was grown at the subplots with four levels of poultry litter (0, 4,953, 9,907 and 14,860 kg ha-1, aiming to supply 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, and a treatment with chemical fertilizer, according to soil analysis. Grazing intensities had no effect on corn yield. Corn yield was 7,493, 8,458, 9,188, 10,247 and 11,028 kg ha-1, respectively, for the treatments without and with 4,953, 9,907 and 14,860 kg ha-1 of poultry litter, and the treatment with chemical fertilization. Poultry litter levels have a residual effect on the production of black oat grown in succession to corn.

  6. Influence Organic Fertilizer and Gamma Ray on the Quality and Yield of Carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Two field experiment were carried out in the experimental farm belonging at Inshas, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, during the two growing season 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 to study the effect of pre sowing seeds irradiation with different doses of gamma rays and/or organic and NPK fertilizers on carrot yield and quality. The doses 20 and 30 Gy of gamma rays increased significantly one carrot weight per gm., number of carrot/line, weight of carrot ton/feddan in comparison with the control. The same trend was seen in weight of carbohydrate and nitrogen (mg/100 gm) in the two seasons. As for organic and NPK fertilizer at was found that both fertilizers increased significantly yield characters in comparison with control but the increase of NPK was more than organic fertilizer. The interaction (30 Gy × NPK fertilizer) produced the highest mean values of most characters.

  7. Associations among descriptors of herd management and phenotypic and genetic levels of health and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calus, M.P.L.; Windig, J.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the association of descriptors of herd environment with phenotypic levels and breeding values of fertility and health traits. Analyses were performed for 82,080 first-lactation heifers and 173,787 multiparous cows. Fourteen environmental parameters were

  8. Rapid diagnosis of tomato N-P-K nutrition level based on hyperspectral technology%基于高光谱的番茄氮磷钾营养水平快速诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红玉; 毛罕平; 朱文静; 张晓东; 高洪燕

    2015-01-01

    Because of the short growth cycle, large yield and high fertilizer requirements of facility crop, which were the characteristics causing high cost and high complement in cultivation medium, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) deficiencies frequent occurrence in the growth of facility crops. Accurate monitoring and diagnosis of nutrient content in facility crops during the growth process was very important-. In order to diagnose tomato nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrition level more accurately, rapidly and stably, in the aspect of the spectral diagnostics technology, the changes of reflectance on characteristic wavelengths were taking into consideration to assess the nutritional status of crops.-. Sensitive bands were selected by using genetic algorithms. Then, the quantitative models of tomato nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium were established via stepwise regression, principal component regression and partial least squares method respectively based on reflectance spectra. The results verified that the stepwise regression models outperformed the principal component and partial smallest squares regression models of nitrogen and phosphorus, while principal component regression get the best models of phosphorus. The correlation coefficient R of the best models were nitrogen (0.9026) >phosphorus (0.8819) > potassium (0.8561) . The root mean square error (RMSE) were nitrogen (0.3191) potassium (0.8991) >phosphorus (0.8673). The root mean square error (RMSE) were nitrogen (0.3413)

  9. 微肥对玉米生长发育、养分吸收及产量的影响%Effects of applying trace fertilizer on growth, nutrient uptake and yield on maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青军; 李宁; 胡国智; 胡伟; 孟凤轩; 张炎

    2013-01-01

    This study designed the field plot test to examine the effects of applying trace fertilizer on growth,nutrient uptake and yield on maize under plastic mulched drip irrigation.The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of maize concentrated in a period of 62 ~ 99 d after sowing,and the dry matter accumulation of per plant of the NPK + Fe,NPK + Mn and NPK + Zn treatment were respectively increased 8.84,4.74 and 15.69 g as compared with the NPK treatments.As compared with the NPK treatments,the nitrogen uptake of the NPK + Zn treatment increased 3.07% and was significant difference,but the nitrogen uptake of the NPK + Fe,NPK + Mn treatment were not significant difference,and the uptakes of P and K were not significant difference among the NPK + Fe,NPK + Mn,NPK + Zn and NPK treatment.The yield and 100-seed weight of the NPK + Fe and NPK + Zn treatment were significantly increased; the increasing rate were 6.61% and 4.46%,respectively; but no significant difference was found in the NPK + Mn treatment,compared with the NPK treatments.%通过田间小区试验,研究了覆膜滴灌条件下施用铁、锰、锌等微肥对玉米生长发育、养分吸收及产量的影响.结果表明:玉米干物质累积最快的时期是在播种后62 ~ 99 d,NPK+ Fe、NPK+ Mn和NPK+ Zn处理的玉米单株干物质的积累量分别比NPK处理增加8.84、4.74、15.69 g.NPK+ Zn处理的玉米吸N量比NPK处理提高了3.07%,达到了显著差异,而NPK+ Fe和NPK+ Mn处理的玉米吸N量与NPK处理没有显著差异.NPK+ Fe、NPK+ Mn和NPK+ Zn处理的玉米吸P量和吸K量与NPK处理相比均没有显著差异.施用铁、锌肥可以显著提高玉米的产量,增加玉米的百粒重,增产率分别为6.61%和4.46%,但施用锰肥效果不显著.

  10. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Lodging and Yield of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hechuan YANG; Liquan WU; Xinfeng HAN; Hui SHAO; Jian KE; Rongfu WANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effects of different fertilizer levels on lodging and yield of rice. [Method] A total of four treatments were de- signed and applied with 6, 9, 12 and 15 kg of nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. After seedling transplanting, the biological characteristics of rice at different growth stages in each treatment and the biological and economic characteristics of rice after lodg- ing were determined for statistical analysis. [Result] Application with 15 kg of nitro- gen fertilizer had significant promotion effect on the increase of rice yield; compared with the control (6 kg of nitrogen fertilizer), rice yield in three experimental treat- ments (9, 12 and 15 kg of nitrogen fertilizer, respectively) increased by 50.74%, 89.11% and 94.48%, respectively; lodging-resistance mechanical strengths of the three experimental treatments were 103.97%, 132.01% and 89.83% of the control, respectively; rice lodging resistance of treatment C (12 kg of nitrogen fertilizer) was the strongest, with the highest yield. [Conclusion] This study provides reference data and technical support for the rational fertilization of rice production.

  11. Effect of native soil fertility and mineral fertilizer on growth of pine (Pinus nigra seedlings in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lumu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial tree planting in Uganda is constrained by a lack of good quality seedlings due to poor soils used in nurseries. Two experiments were carried out, to evaluate the effects of different soils on the growth of the pine seedlings (experiment 1 and to compare the performance of seedlings provided with different NPK fertilizer formulations and amounts (experiment 2. Soils were collected from four forest reserves: Katugo (K, South Busoga (S, and Mbarara (M and from Mubende forest reserve. Treatments were: 0, 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg levels; NPK fertilizer formulations 25-5-5 (A, 17-17-17 (B and 18-4-14 +TE (C mixed in 1m3 of soil. Composite soil samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Experiments were laid out in a completely randomized block design, but with a factorial treatment structure for experiment 2. Routine nursery management practices were carried out. Seedling heights and diameter were recorded. The results showed that SOM (site 1, total N (site 2 and available P, K, Ca and Mg were below the critical values. Low nutrient concentrations reduced growth, with seedling height highest in Katugo and girth highest in the Mbarara. Experiment two results showed that there were no significant differences in mean heights for fertilizers A and C after a 1˝ months application and B had a significant difference in the mean height and girth. However, fertilizer C girth results were significant with (P-value = 0.021, P-value = 0.001 at 1˝ months and 3 months respectively. After 3 months, fertilizer B had the best mean height and mean girth at level 0.5 kg with (16.75 cm, 0.23 cm respectively, compared with fertilizer C and A with (13.42 cm, 0.175 cm and (12.44 cm, 0.174 cm respectively. From the results, a general NPK fertilizer formulation 17-17-17 is recommended for use at a rate of 0.5 kg m?3 of soil. (Pinus nigra

  12. EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaad DERBALA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate,Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3ha-1for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1h-1under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

  13. 不同施肥处理对红车轴草生长发育的影响%Effect of Fertilization on Growth and Development of Red Clover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻夜兰; 邹冬生; 朱战强; 刘飞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同肥料配施对红车轴草生长发育的影响.[方法]以从美国引进的红车轴草Auivasion为供试品种.在大田条件下设置不施肥、单施N、NP配施和NPK配施4个处理,研究不同施肥处理对红车轴草生长发育的影响.[结果]施肥促进了红车轴草的生长发育,如:株高增加,尤以NP配施的促进作用最大;促发分枝,以NPK配施的促进效应最好;促进根颈增粗,以NP配施、NPK配施的效应较好.施肥在0.01水平上极显著促进红车轴草的茎、叶干物质积累和单株产量增长,促进效应以NPK配施>NP配施≈单施N>>CK,各施肥处理之间单株产量差异不显著.[结论]合理施肥可促进红车轴草的生长发育.%[Objective] To investigate the effects of fertilization on growth and development of red clover. [Method] American red clover "Agivasion" was used as tested materials. In field,four treatments were used,including no fertilization (CK) ,application with N fertilizer,application with NP fertilizer,and application with NPK fertilizer. And the effects of fertilization on growth and development of red clover were analyzed. [ Result] After fertilization,plant height was increased,particularly in application with NP fertilizer. Branching was promoted,particularly in application with NPK fertilizer. Rhizome became thicker, particularly in application with NP or NPK fertilizer. The fertilization promoted accumulation of dry matter in stems and leaves and increased yield per plant significantly at the 0.01 level. This promoting effect became weaker in such order:NPK fertilizer > NP fertilizer≈ N fertilizer > CK. [Conclusion] Rational fertilization can promote grouth and development of red clover.

  14. The historical fertility transition at the micro level: Southern Sweden 1815-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Bengtsson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We know a great deal about the historical fertility transition at the macro level. The dominating focus on the macro level in previous research on the fertility transition means, however, that to a large extent we lack knowledge about details of the decline and empirical tests of the leading explanatory frameworks. Objective: Our aim is to explore socioeconomic fertility differentials in an industrializing community, to gain insight about the details and discuss possible mechanisms. The study starts well before industrialization and finishes at the end of the transition. Methods: We use longitudinal individual-level data from the Scanian Economic-Demographic Database, which contains demographic as well as socioeconomic information, including occupation, landholding, and income. In the analysis we use hazard regressions with shared frailty at the family level. Results: The transition involved not only parity-specific stopping but also spacing. While the upper social strata had higher fertility prior to the transition, they started to control their fertility earlier, by the 1880s, and also more consistently. Farmers, the middle class, and skilled workers followed in the decades after, and unskilled workers with some additional delay. Conclusions: These findings are partly inconsistent with several of the major explanations in the literature, such as mortality decline, increased female labor force participation, and a quantity-quality trade-off, but consistent with an innovation process where new ideas and attitudes about family limitation spread from the elite to other social groups. Comments: Further studies are required to empirically test the innovation-diffusion theory.

  15. Adubação da mamoneira: IV - Experiências de espaçamento x adubação (2.a série Fertilizer experiments with castor beans: IV - Plant density x fertility level (2nd series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz V. Rocha

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar a influência da densidade de plantio sôbre a produção da mamoneira-anã, variedade IAC-38, foram conduzidas duas experiências fatoriais com os espaçamentos de 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0 m entre as linhas de plantas, as distâncias de 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5 m entre as covas (deixando-se duas plantas por cova e três níveis de NPK: 0, 30-60-30 e 60-90-60 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O. As experiências, localizadas em Pindorama e Tatuí, foram instaladas em 1960-61 e repetidas (adubadas e plantadas, nos mesmos canteiros, em 1961-62. As melhores produções foram obtidas com os espaçamentos de 1,0 x 1,0 e 1,5 x 0,5 m. Para o efeito de NPK, as distâncias intermediárias, entre as linhas ou entre as covas; proporcionaram muito melhores condições do que as extremas. Levando em consideração detalhes das observações efetuadas, os autores supõem que um espaçamento da ordem de 1,25 x 0,80 m seria mais adequado, pois, em relação ao de 1,0 x 1,0 m, facilitaria os tratos culturais e a colheita, e, em relação ao de 1,5 x 0,5 m, evitaria possível desperdício de espaço entre as linhas e atenuaria a concorrência entre as plantas da.mesma linha.This paper reports the results obtained in two factorial experiments designed to study the effect, on the dwarf castor beans variety IAC-38, of three spacings between the rows (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 meters, three distances between the hills (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 meters, and three levels of an NPK fertilizer. The experiments were conducted for two years. The largest yields were obtained with the spacings of 1.0 x 1.0 and 1.5 x 0.5 meters. For the effect of NPK, the intermediate distances, between the rows, as well as between the hills, were much better than the wider and the closer ones. After considering the observations made, the authors believe that a spacing of about 1.25 x 0.8 meters would be more adequate. Compared with that of 1.0 x 1.0 meters, it would contribute to facilitate cultivations and harvest; compared with

  16. Response of maize to poultry manure and mineral fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of mineral fertilizer, poultry manure, and their combination on maize was evaluated in a pot experiment. Six treatments viz 0, 4, 8, 12 tons of poultry manure (PM) ha-1, 60-40-40 kg NPK ha-1 (NPK) and 2 t PM ha-1+30-20-20 Kg NPK ha-1 (2 t + 1/2 NPK) were used in a completely randomized design. Root dry matter of the 2 t+1/2 NPK was greater than that of the 4 t ha-1 and control, and similarly to that of the NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Shoot biomass showed a similar trend as the root dry matter. The NPK treatments and 12 t PM ha-1, rate had high shoot-root ratios. Although the NPK outyielded the other treatments in grain weight, it did differ significantly from that of the 2 t + 1/2 NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Thousand grain weight values did not differ statistically among treatments. The harvest index indicated a higher efficiency of dry matter partitioning into the sink in the combined treatment than in the 4 and 8 t PM ha-1, rates. For practical purposes and from economic point of view, 4 t PM ha1 may be recommended while the combined treatment is promising. Poultry manure appeared more advantageous in supplying C and N to the subsequent crop as more C and N remain in the soil after the maize harvest than mineral fertilizer. The 12 t PM ha-1 rate retained over 40% more C than the mineral fertilizer rate. Further studies, especially in field situations, are recommended (au)

  17. Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Obid Hussain

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598-2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

  18. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

  19. De Veterinaire Hoofdinspectie en het NPK ; ontwikkeling van een meetstrategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lembrechts JFMM; Pruppers MJM

    1993-01-01

    This report elaborates the position of the Veterinary Public Health Service (VHI), which is part of the Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs, within the National Organisation for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response (NPK). This organisation is activated in case of nuclear accidents i

  20. Effects of municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilizer amendments on soil properties and heavy metals distribution in maize plants (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Gregoria; de Imperial, Rosario Miralles; Torrijos, Manuel; Delgado, Mar; Rodriguez, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Soil amendments based on crop nutrient requirements are considered a beneficial management practice. A greenhouse experiment with maize seeds (Zea mays L.) was conducted to assess the inputs of metals to agricultural land from soil amendments. Maize seeds were exposed to a municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (50 Mg ha(-1)) and NPK fertilizer (33 g plant(-1)) amendments considering N plant requirement until the harvesting stage with the following objectives: (1) determine the accumulation of total and available metals in soil and (2) know the uptake and ability of translocation of metals from roots to different plant parts, and their effect on biomass production. The results showed that MSW compost increased Cu, Pb and Zn in soil, while NPK fertilizer increased Cd and Ni, but decreased Hg concentration in soil. The root system acted as a barrier for Cr, Ni, Pb and Hg, so metal uptake and translocation were lower in aerial plant parts. Biomass production was significantly enhanced in both MSW and NPK fertilizer-amended soils (17%), but also provoked slight increases of metals and their bioavailability in soil. The highest metal concentrations were observed in roots, but there were no significant differences between plants growing in amended soil and the control soil. Important differences were found for aerial plant parts as regards metal accumulation, whereas metal levels in grains were negligible in all the treatments.

  1. Investigation of high level of AsAb, EmAb in fertility female serum infected by chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of chlamydia trachomatis. AsAb, EmAb in female fertility. Methods: LPS antigen of chlamydia in reproduction tract of fertility female was detected by monoclonal antibody and immunology chromatography; the content of AsAb, EmAb in serum of fertility female was detected by ELISA. Results: Infections rate of chlamydia trachomatis in fertility female was higher than that in the control AsAb, EmAb in serum of the fertility patients who were infected with chlamydia trachomatis showed a significant difference from that in the control group. Conclusion: The level of AsAb, EmAb increases in patients who have been infected with chlamydia trachomatis and these cytokines is involved in the course of female fertility

  2. An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

  3. Nitrogen and Crude Proteins in Beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva under Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko PETEK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to determine the influence of different organic and mineral fertilization treatments and post-harvest treatments on the content of nitrogen and crude proteins in the edible part of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva. A field trial (2003-2005 was set up in a hilly part of Croatia according to the Latin square method with four types of fertilization (control, 50 t ha-1 stable manure, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30, while treatments involved harvested fresh beetroot and stored fresh beetroot. The highest dry weight (DW content was determined in climatologically favourable 2004 (average 14.8% DW and in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (15.6% DW in harvested beetroot. In 2004 and 2005, the highest levels of nitrogen and crude proteins in harvested beetroot were determined in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (2.41 and 2.43 g N kg-1 in fresh weight and 15.07 and 15.21 g crude proteins kg-1 in fresh weight, respectively. Regardless of fertilization treatment or studied year, nitrogen and crude protein contents were higher in stored than in harvested beetroot, by 12% on average. The lowest crude protein content was determined in treatment with stable manure what confirmed that protein content decreased by organic fertilization. It can be concluded that beetroot lost some water during the storage period, which increased its content of nitrogen and crude proteins in fresh weight and thus increased the nutritional quality of beetroot as a functional food.

  4. Mycorrhizal effectiveness on physic nut as influenced by phosphate fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. has attracted attention because of its potential for biofuel production. Although it is adapted to low-fertility soils, physic nut requires soil acidity corrections and addition of a considerable amount of fertilizer for high productivity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (control without AMF inoculation, Gigaspora margarita inoculation or Glomus clarum inoculation on increasing growth and yield of physic nut seedlings under different rates of P fertilization (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 P soil in greenhouse. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, block in a factorial scheme design with four replications. The physic nut plants were harvested 180 days after the beginning of the experiment. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased physic nut growth, plant P concentration and root P uptake efficiency at low soil P concentrations. The P use quotient of the plants decreased as the amount of P applied increased, and the P use efficiency index increased at low P levels and decreased at high P levels. Mycorrhizal root colonization and AMF sporulation were negatively affected by P addition. The highest mycorrhizal efficiency was observed when the soil contained between 7.8 and 25 mgkg-1 of P. The physic nut plants responded strongly to P application, independent of mycorrhizal inoculation.

  5. Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharoona, Baby; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir A

    2008-05-01

    Acquisition of nutrients by plants is primarily dependent on root growth and bioavailability of nutrients in the rooting medium. Most of the beneficial bacteria enhance root growth, but their effectiveness could be influenced by the nutrient status around the roots. In this study, two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens biotype F were tested for their effect on growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under simultaneously varying levels of all the three major nutrients N, P, and K (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended doses). Results of pot and field trials revealed that the efficacy of these strains for improving growth and yield of wheat reduced with the increasing rates of NPK added to the soil. In most of the cases, significant negative linear correlations were recorded between percentage increases in growth and yield parameters of wheat caused by inoculation and increasing levels of applied NPK fertilizers. It is highly likely that under low fertilizer application, the ACC-deaminase activity of PGPR might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (nutrient)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene in the roots through ACC hydrolysis into NH(3) and alpha-ketobutyrate. The results of this study imply that these Pseudomonads could be employed in combination with appropriate doses of fertilizers for better plant growth and savings of fertilizers.

  6. Britain in Europe: international and regional comparisons of fertility levels and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D

    1993-01-01

    "This chapter compares fertility patterns and trends in Britain with those in other West European countries. Britain shares many features in common with the rest of Western Europe: fertility below the replacement level, late childbearing with births over age 30 becoming more common. Britain stands out, however, by having one of the highest birth rates in Europe and is one of the few European countries not facing population decline in the medium term. Average age at first marriage and first birth are relatively young. Britain also has one of the highest proportions (30 per cent) of births outside marriage...[with] at least a quarter of all children...likely to experience a single parent home or a reconstituted family before age 16." Some data for the rest of the United Kingdom are also discussed.

  7. BIOMASS AND WOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Sclerolobium paniculatum IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri da Rocha Marmo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work studied the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics ofSclerolobium paniculatum Vogel var. subvelutinum wood of a plantation of 18 years old, under different levels of soil fertilization. Theinfluences of fertilization in the production of biomass and the anatomical, physical and energy characteristics showed no significantresults. The results showed an average production of biomass per hectare of 92.55t. The results disclose that the cultivated carvoeiro,with 18 years old, have fibers with 14.03mm of diameter; 3.41mm of thickness and 708mm length; basic specific gravity of 0.52g/cm3;83.84% of volatile material; 15.65% of fixed carbon; calorific power of 4,671kcal/kg.

  8. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  9. Fertility and blood progesterone levels following LHRH-induced superovulation in FSH-treated anestrous goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlosotu, B A; Wilder, C D

    1993-11-01

    Twenty mature, mixed-breed, seasonally anestrous female goats were used to study the effects of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) on ovulation rate, fertility, and blood progesterone levels following norgestomet-induced estrus and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments. Each goat received 6 mg norgestomet by subcutaneous (sc) implant and 3 mg intramuscularly, along with an intramuscular (im) injection of 5 mg estradiol valerate. Four injections of FSH were given for 2 d in divided doses of 10, 10, 5 and 5 mg im every 12 h, starting at 24 h before implant removal. The goats were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 equal treatment groups, and were treated with 2 intravenous (iv) injections of either 0.9% saline (control) or 300 ug LHRH at 24 and 48 h after the removal of the implants. All the goats exhibited estrus within 24 or 36 h of implant withdrawal and were mated to bucks of proven fertility. At laparotomy on Day 7 or 8 after the removal of the implants, the mean number of unovulated follicles was higher (P<0.05) in Group I than in Group II. The mean number of corpora lutea (ovulation rate), the total number of embryos and the number of normal embryos recovered were higher (P<0.05) in LHRH-treated does than in the controls. Treatment with LHRH resulted in 72.14% fertility (mean number of CL = 14) as compared with the controls with 64.29% fertility (mean number of CL = 2.8). The embryos obtained from goats in Group II were of more uniform developmental age regardless of the day of embryo collection, as compared with those of the controls. Plasma progesterone levels were significantly increased on Days 4 to 6 in both treatment groups. The results of this study have demonstrated that the FSH and LHRH treatment regimen increased follicular development, ovulation rate and blood progesterone levels in norgestomet-treated anestrous goats. Moreover, LHRH treatment enhanced fertility, and improved embryo quality as indicated by the significantly higher total

  10. 建设现代生育文化与稳定低生育水平%Building Modern Fertility Culture and Stabilizing Low-fertility Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏鸣; 冯天丽

    2001-01-01

    从历史发展看,现代生育文化替代传统生育文化有其必然性,在社会转型期建设现代生育文化是完善社会主义市场经济、在计划生育领域实践“三个代表”思想的需要。因现代生育文化对人们生育观的形成和转变有着指导、改造、调控的功能,故建设现代生育文化是稳定低生育水平的治本之策。%Modern fertility culture performa the functions ofguiding,transforming and adjusting over people's birth conceptions. As the result, building modern fertility culture is the key strategy to stabilize low-fertility level.

  11. Distribution of uranium in soil components of agricultural fields after long-term application of phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N. [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3, Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)], E-mail: nyamag@affrc.go.jp; Kawasaki, A.; Iiyama, I. [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3, Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Long-term application of phosphate fertilizers causes accumulation of U in the surface soil of agricultural fields. We investigated the soil constituents that contribute to the accumulation of U by using chemical extraction methods. Surface soil samples were obtained from upland fields, pastures, and paddy fields cultivated without any phosphate fertilizer (control site), with NPK fertilizer (NPK site), and with both NPK fertilizer and compost (NPK + compost site) for more than 20 years. In addition to the total U (U{sub t}) concentration in soil, the concentrations of pyrophosphate- and acid oxalate-extractable U were determined as a measure of U associated with soil organic matter and poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in soil, respectively. The total, pyrophosphate-extractable, and acid oxalate-extractable U concentrations were higher in the soil obtained from the NPK and NPK + compost sites than in that obtained from the control site. The difference in the U concentrations between the NPK or NPK + compost site and the control site corresponded with the increased U concentration observed after the application of the phosphate fertilizer or both the fertilizer and compost. In the upland field and pasture soil, the increase in pyrophosphate-extractable U was 83-94% of that in U{sub t}. On the other hand, the increase in acid oxalate-extractable U was 44-58% of that in U{sub t} in the upland field and pasture soil, but it was almost equivalent to the increase in U{sub t} in the paddy soil with NPK. In conclusion, most of the phosphate fertilizer-derived U was either incorporated into the soil organic matter or poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in the surface soil of agricultural fields. Thus, soil organic matter is an important pool of U in upland field and pasture soil, whereas poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals are important pools of U in paddy soil experiencing alternating changes in redox conditions.

  12. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  13. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ(13)C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m(2) and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m(2)) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  14. County-Level Estimates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Commercial Fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer, for both farm and nonfarm uses, for the conterminous United States, for...

  15. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrients; a Ca source in the form of calcium nitrate; two organic fertilizers, one prepared with a mixture of bone meal, castor meal and ash, and a similar commercial fertilizer. The organic fertilizers were distributed on the surface of the pots every two months and the minerals were applied weekly to the substrate in 25 mL aliquots of a solution containing 1 g L-1 of the respective fertilizer. The plant response to the application of mineral together with organic fertilizer was better, with higher dry matter production than by the isolated application of each fertilizer (organic or mineral. The treatments with calcium nitrate + NPK fertilizer did not differ significantly from the use of NPK fertilizer, probably due to the S deficiency detected in a mineral analysis of the tissues. Commercial organic fertilizer had a very elevated B level, leading to toxicity symptoms, reduced growth and necrotized tips of the older leaves in all fertilized treatments.A fertilização de orquídeas é fundamental para crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios tanto em orquidários comerciais quanto em coleções. Essa fertilização pode ser realizada com fontes minerais e, ou, orgânicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fertilizantes orgânicos e, ou, minerais sobre a nutrição e crescimento de mudas de orquídeas (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni' em casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados: um fertilizante mineral NPK

  16. [Effects of different long-term fertilization patterns on Fuji apple yield, quality, and soil fertility on Weibei Dryland, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuo-Ping; Tong, Yan-An; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ying

    2013-11-01

    A 7-year (2003-2010) located field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different long-term fertilization patterns on the Fuji apple yield, quality, and soil fertility on the Weibei Dryland, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. Seven treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), inorganic P and K fertilization (PK), inorganic N and K fertilization (NK), inorganic N and P fertilization (NP), inorganic N, P, and K fertilization (NPK), swine manure (M), and half inorganic N, P, and K combined with half swine manure (NPKM). Each treatment had three replications. Fertilization increased the apple yield. The average yield in the 7 years under fertilization was increased by 14.4%-63.8%, as compared to the CK. The average yield decreased in the order of NPKM > NPK > or = M > NP > or = NK > PK > CK. In treatments NPKM, M, and NPK, the fruit sugar/acid (S:A) ratio, vitamin C, soluble solid, and hardness tended to be increased with time, with a smaller yearly fluctuation in treatments NPKM and M. In treatment NPKM, the S:A ratio and vitamin C increased by 30.9% and 17.5%, respectively after five years, as compared to the CK. Long-term rational fertilization increased the soil organic matter (SOC) content in 0-20 cm layer, with the largest increment in treatments NPKM and M (28.8% and 29.3%, respectively). The soil available N, P, and K contents in all layers in treatments NPK, NPKM, and M increased significantly, and the soil available N content in 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm layers in treatment NPK was increased by 22.7%, 37.3%, and 53.4%, respectively. As compared to treatment NPK, the soil available P content in treatment NPKM was increased by 18.7%. In all fertilization treatments, the soil available Pcontent was significantly higher in upper layer than in lower layer.

  17. 12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

  18. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as

  19. Nutritional quality of grains of sorghum cultivar grown under different levels of micronutrients fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Suha O; Abdalla, Adel Wahab H; Inoue, Tomoe; Ping, Ann; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2014-09-15

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different levels of micronutrients (0, 2, 4, and 8 g/5 kg soil) and a fixed amount (6 g/5 kg soil) of macronutrients fertilizer on the antinutrients content, protein content and digestibility, total and extractable macro- and micro-elements, amino acid content and score of grains of sorghum cultivar (Gadambalia) grown for two consecutive season. Protein content and essential amino acids composition of sorghum grains significantly (P⩽0.05) increased with micronutrients level for both seasons. Tannins and phytate contents dropped significantly (P⩽0.05) with a concomitant increase in protein digestibility, macro- and micro-elements extractability for both seasons and treatments. The content of macro- and micro-elements of the grains increased with micronutrients level during both seasons. The essential amino acids scores of the grains were significantly (P⩽0.05) increased for both seasons and treatments.

  20. Cadmium levels in soils and plants from some long-term soil fertility experiments in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortvedt, J.J.

    Phosphate fertilizers contain varying amounts of Cd and other heavy metals as contaminants from phosphate rock (PR). To determine whether periodic applications of P fertilizers resulted in measurable accumulations of Cd in soils and in harvested crops, soil and plant tissue samples from nine long-term (>50 yr) soil fertility experiments in the USA were analyzed for Cd, as well as P and other elements. Annual Cd rates were estimated to range from 0.3 to 1.2 g ha/sup -1/ in these experiments. Plant tissues analyzed were corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves or grain, and timothy (Phleum pratense L.) forage. Results from these long-term experiments have shown that plant uptake of Cd contaminants in P fertilizers containing < 10 mg Cd kg/sup -1/ is negligible. While the Cd accumulations in soil in these experiments could not be calculated, they would approximate that accumulated in most agricultural soils in the USA at this time. About 70% of the P fertilizers is produced from Florida PR, which contains <10 mg kg/sup -1/ of Cd, as compared with about 10% from the western USA, which contains higher Cd levels. Therefore, adding Cd to soils as a contaminant in P fertilizers at rates ranging from 0.3 to 1.2 g Cd ha/sup -1/ does not appear to result in increased Cd levels in plants as a result of long-term P fertilization.

  1. Effects of Long Term Application of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on Soil Organic Carbon and Physical Properties in Maize–Wheat Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babbu Singh Brar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Balanced and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers may enhance the accumulation of soil organic matter and improves soil physical properties. A field experiment having randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted for 36 years at Punjab Agricultural University (PAU, Ludhiana, India to assess the effects of inorganic fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM on soil organic carbon (SOC, soil physical properties and crop yields in a maize (Zea mays–wheat (Triticum aestivum rotation. Soil fertility management treatments included were non-treated control, 100% N, 50% NPK, 100% NP, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + Zn, 100% NPK + W, 100% NPK (-S and 100% NPK + FYM. Soil pH, bulk density (BD, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity, aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD and infiltration were measured 36 years after the initiation of experiment. Cumulative infiltration, infiltration rate and aggregate MWD were greater with integrated use of FYM along with 100% NPK compared to non-treated control. No significant differences were obtained among fertilizer treatments for BD and EC. The SOC pool was the lowest in control at 7.3 Mg ha−1 and increased to 11.6 Mg ha−1 with 100%NPK+FYM. Improved soil physical conditions and increase in SOC resulted in higher maize and wheat yields. Infiltration rate, aggregate MWD and crop yields were positively correlated with SOC. Continuous cropping and integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers increased soil C sequestration and crop yields. Balanced application of NPK fertilizers with FYM was best option for higher crop yields in maize–wheat rotation.

  2. Paddy Soil Stability and Mechanical Properties as Affected by Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Animal Manure in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wet stability, penetration resistance (PR), and tensile strength (TS) of paddy soils under a fertilization experiment for 22 years were determined to elucidate the function of soil organic matter in paddy soil stabilization. The treatments included no fertilization (CK), normal chemical fertilization (NPK), double the NPK application rates (2NPK), and NPK mixed with organic manure (NPK+OM). Compared with CK, fertilization increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil porosity. The results of soil aggregate fragmentation degree (SAFD) showed that fast wetting by water was the key fragmentation mechanism. Among the treatments, the NPK+OM treatment had the largest size of water-stable aggregates and greatest normal mean weight diameter (NMWD) (P ≤ 0.05), but the lowest PR and TS in both cultivated horizon (Ap) and plow pan. The CK and 2NPK treatments were measured with PR > 2.0 MPa and friability index < 0.20,respectively, in the Ap horizon, suggesting that the soils was mechanically unfavourable to root growth and tillage. In the plow pan, the fertilization treatments had greater TS and PR than in CK. TS and PR of the tested soil aggregates were negatively correlated to SOC content and soil porosity. This study suggested that chemical fertilization could cause deterioration of mechanical properties while application of organic manure could improve soil stability and mechanical properties.

  3. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level in two newly developed desert areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    A survey of soils and plants was carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels in two newly developed desert areas. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy; a shielded high purity germanium detector was used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide content in some commercial fertilizers was determined. The results of the analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.73-162.16 Bq/kg for 232Th and 10.22-23845.24 Bq/kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low-activity concen-trations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/kg) are quite similar, whereas that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/kg) are much higher for plant samples. Some of the results obtained are larger than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values of the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate was found to be 1.91-1027 nGy/h and the radium equivalent activity concentration was 4.02-1840.98 Bq/kg for fertilizer samples. Soil and plant sample results were 11.86-415E29 nGy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively. Banana plant contains the largest values. This article presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides for some fruits growing on these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflects its great uptake to the fruits. Observed soil-plant factors vary widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not

  4. Effects of Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Jatropha curcas L. in an Aeric Tropaquept of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar MOHAPATRA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Jatropha curcas L. has emerged as a biofuel crop attracting considerable interest of the researchers. The seeds of the plant yield non-edible oil with properties that are well suited for production of biodiesel. However it is still considered a semi-wild plant and systematic crop improvement programmes need to be undertaken to exploit its full yield potential. The present study deals with agronomic trials pertaining to optimum requirements of N:P:K fertilizers for better economic returns. Field experiments were conducted between 2008 and 2009 at the research farm of IMMT, Bhubaneswar, India (20�40� North and 85�50� East to evaluate the effect of N:P:K fertilizers on the yield attributing characters of Jatropha. Five-year-old standing crop plantation was treated with two levels of N (60 and 50 g/plant, P (80 and 100 g/plant and K (75 and 60 g/plant, either alone or in combination. Analysis of the results revealed significant differences in growth as well as yield characteristics due to application of inorganic fertilizers. While maximum seed yield (427.21 kg/ha was recorded in N60 treatment, the seed oil content varied significantly from 32.00% to 35.69% under various regimes of N:P:K applications. Treatment with N50P100K60 and N60 resulted in consistent higher yield of seed oil. Based on the results of growth and yield attributes, application of N fertilizer proved to be beneficial for Jatropha under tropical agroclimatic conditions in an Aeric Tropaquept of eastern India.

  5. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara F. M. Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K and magnesium (Mg sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1: two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis, applied based on its nitrogen (N content and the N requirement for the crop and an additional treatment with NPK. The castor bean grain yield fertilized with sewage sludge did not differ from conventional fertilization, with the maximum value achieved at a dose of 7.5 t ha-1 of sewage sludge. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased zinc and copper levels in the soil to values close to or higher than those in conventional fertilization, without any influence on the concentrations in the leaf. Fertilization with K and Mg sulphate increased the levels of these cations in the soil without affecting the concentrations in the leaves. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased the contents of organic matter, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and boron in the soil, and manganese and boron in castor bean leaves.

  6. Fertilization Management for Improving Quality Properties of Spring Wheat in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-bing; ZHANG Qiu-ying; JIN Jian; WANG Guang-hua; S J Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Fertilization management to improve quality properties of spring wheat cultivars has received little research attention in Northeast China. In this study, the effects of different fertilization management regimes on the quality properties of spring wheat cultivar New Kehan 9 (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated for two years. The results showed that fertilization consistently increased wheat yield, and the highest yield was obtained with addition of N, P and NPK fertilizers. The NPK treatment resulted in 50% more yield than the unfertilized plot. The average increases in protein content from NPK and NP at seeding + N at anthesis over no fertilization and NP fertilizers at seeding were 2.7% and 0.90% respectively. The highest protein yields were achieved in NPK and NPK + N treatments, and the lowest protein yield was observed in the no fertilizer treatment due to both low protein content and grain yield. Fertilization increased gliadins content, but decreased glutenins content, thus the gliadins/glutenins ratios were higher in the fertilization treatments. The most obvious effect of fertilization on kernel quality was the significant increase of hardness percentage. Although the dough rheological properties were not strongly changed by fertilization, dry gluten and wet gluten were significantly increased, and the highest bread volume and bread score were found in the NPK treatment in both years. The application of 3% urea at anthesis, or applying 45 kg ha-1 of potassium sulphate at seeding, with urea and diammonium phosphate as basal applications, significantly increased protein yield and improved quality properties of this wheat cultivar.

  7. Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg dm-3, as triple superphosphate powder. Portions of 6 dm3 of the clay soil (420 g kg-1 clay received lime, aimed at raising the V % soil to 70 %, equivalent to 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure, and the phosphate fertilizer according to the treatments, remaining incubated for about 30 days. At the end of incubation, each pot received a change of lettuce cultivar Verônica. The plant harvesting was performed 39 days after transplanting the seedlings. O P gave large increases in growth and production of lettuce, and culture responded positively to the application of high doses of the nutrient. A dose of 350 mg dm-3, equivalent to 800 kg ha-1 P2O5, was the most suitable for growing lettuce in the clay soil. In this work conditions, the phosphorus fertilizations it was necessary when the P-Mehlich contents in the clay soil were less than 75 mg dm-3.

  8. Fertility and Mortality in North Africa: Levels, Trends and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Yousif

    1995-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on substantive aspects of fertility and mortality, and their implications for future population trends in North Africa. There is convincing evidence that high fertility has been maintained for a considerable time and that a decline has begun in these countries. This decline is not uniformly the same in each country. Most of it is in urban areas, while fertility in rural areas is still high. Also, because of differences in desired fertility, use of contraceptive meth...

  9. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring γ-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide.

  10. Analysis Of Soil NPK Ph And Electrical Conductivity At Adham Area- Renk Upper Nile State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubaker Haroun Mohamed Adam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to investigate soil type potentiality and reaction in relation to the scattered remaining vegetation species and to quantify soil suitability for growing field crops. Adham area witnessed serious land degradation due to the rapid expansion of Rain-fed Mechanized Farming and overgrazing. Consequently the low crop yield enforced the local communities to shift to the alternative sources of income generating activities particularly those related to forest products like charcoal making firewood production logging and tree lobbing. By using Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD with emphasizes on Macro nutrients particularly the Nitrogen Phosphorous and potassium NPK in addition to soil pH and Electrical Conductivity EC. random soil samples each with three levels of depths 0 - 15 15 - 30 30 - 45 cm. were collected. All collected data were analyzed in the laboratory. The result of revealed several types of soils including the cracking and non -cracking clay sandy and red soils. The result of statistical analysis depicted variability in NPK pH and EC between the different locations and soil depths. Furthermore the result showed an association between some studied soil attributes and the spatial distribution of the vegetation species. Rational use through participatory approach is recommended for natural resources management conservation and sustainability. Moreover further study using space technology also recommended.

  11. Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles of Chinese Red Soils with Varying Fertility Levels and Land Use Histories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) was used to estimate the microbial community structures of eight Chinese red soils with different fertility levels and land use histories.The total amounts of PLFAs in the soils were significantly correlated with soil organic carbon,total nitrogen,microbial biomass C and basal respiration,indicating that total PLFA was closely related to fertility and sustalnability in these highly weathered soils.Soils for the eroded wasteland were rich in Gram-positive species.When the eroded soils were planted with citrus trees,the soil microbial population had changed little in 4 years but took up to 8~12 years before it reached a significantly different population.Multivariate analysis of PLFAs demonstrated that land use history and plant cover type had a significant impact on microbial community structure.However,the difference of soil microbial community structure in the paddy field compared to other land uses was not larger than expected in this experiment.

  12. 有机肥替代部分无机肥对华北农田土壤理化特性、酶活性及作物产量的影响%Impact of organic manure supplement chemical fertilizer partially on soil nutrition, enzyme activity and crop yield in the north China plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢鹏飞; 高圣超; 马鸣超; 周晓琳; 赵同凯; 孙军德; 沈德龙

    2016-01-01

    以华北平原农田土壤为研究对象,2012~2015年连续4年研究了有机肥替代部分无机肥对土壤中养分含量、土壤酶活性和作物产量的影响。结果表明:1)0.3M处理(70%无机肥+3000 kg/hm2有机肥)和0.5 M处理(50%无机肥+6000 kg/hm2有机肥)与NPK处理(单施无机肥)相比都提高了土壤中全氮、有效磷、速效钾含量,且0.5 M高于0.3 M,说明有机肥替代无机肥的比例越高,土壤中全氮、有效磷、速效钾含量就越高。2)土壤中脲酶活性大小顺序NPK>0.3 M>0.5 M>CK,蔗糖酶活性和过氧化氢酶活性为0.5 M>0.3 M>NPK,说明有机肥可以显著提高蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性。3)小麦4年累计产量0.3 M处理比NPK处理提高5.95%,0.5 M处理比NPK处理降低0.94%,;玉米4年累计产量则是0.3 M比NPK处理降低1.27%,0.5 M处理比NPK处理降低2.00%。综上所述,本研究表明,有机肥替代30%无机肥处理能够保证粮食产量,有机肥替代50%无机肥处理更能提高土壤肥力。%In this article effects of different proportions of manure and chemical fertilizer on soil nutrition, enzyme activity and crop yield were studied in a four-year experiment. The results indicated that the treatments 0. 3M (70% chemical fertilizer +3 000 kg/hm2 manure) and 0. 5M (50% chemical fertilizer +6 000 kg/hm2 manure) had a higher level of total N, available P and available K than NPK treatment (only chemical fertilizer), and in 0. 5M treatment was higher than those of 0. 3M treat-ment (P0. 3 M>0. 5 M>CK. For soil invertase activity and catalase activity the order was 0. 5 M>0. 3 M>NPK. The total wheat yield of 0. 3M treatment was 5. 95% higher than that of NPK treatment, but that of 0. 5M treatment was 0. 94% lower than that of NPK treatment (P<0. 01). The total maize yield of 0. 3 M treatment was 1. 27% lower than that of NPK treatment, while that of 0. 5 M treatment was 2. 00% lower than that of NPK treatment (P<0. 05). These

  13. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment program requires nutrient input for analysis of the national and regional assessment of water quality. Detailed information on nutrient inputs to the environment are needed to understand and address the many serious problems that arise from excess nutrients in the streams and groundwater of the Nation. This report updates estimated county-level farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input from commercial fertilizer sales for the conterminous United States for 1987 through 2006. Estimates were calculated from the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials fertilizer sales data, Census of Agriculture fertilizer expenditures, and U.S. Census Bureau county population. A previous national approach for deriving farm and nonfarm fertilizer nutrient estimates was evaluated, and a revised method for selecting representative states to calculate national farm and nonfarm proportions was developed. A national approach was used to estimate farm and nonfarm fertilizer inputs because not all states distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, and the quality of fertilizer reporting varies from year to year. For states that distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, the spatial distribution of the ratios of nonfarm-to-total fertilizer estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus calculated using the national-based farm and nonfarm proportions were similar to the spatial distribution of the ratios generated using state-based farm and nonfarm proportions. In addition, the relative highs and lows in the temporal distribution of farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input at the state level were maintained—the periods of high and low usage coincide between national- and state-based values. With a few exceptions, nonfarm nitrogen estimates were found to be reasonable when compared to the amounts that would result if the lawn application rates recommended by state and university agricultural agencies were used. Also

  14. Responses of bacterial communities in arable soils in a rice-wheat cropping system to different fertilizer regimes and sampling times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in a rice-wheat cropping system subjected to different fertilizer regimes were investigated in two seasons (June and October. All fertilizer regimes increased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Both fertilizer regime and time had a significant effect on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure. The combined application of inorganic fertilizer and manure organic-inorganic fertilizer significantly enhanced the bacterial diversity in both seasons. The bacterial communities across all samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi at the phylum level. Permutational multivariate analysis confirmed that both fertilizer treatment and season were significant factors in the variation of the composition of the bacterial community. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances further revealed that bacterial communities were separated primarily by season. The effect of fertilizer treatment is significant (P = 0.005 and accounts for 7.43% of the total variation in bacterial community. Soil nutrients (e.g., available K, total N, total P and organic matter rather than pH showed significant correlation with the majority of abundant taxa. In conclusion, both fertilizer treatment and seasonal changes affect soil properties, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. The application of NPK plus manure organic-inorganic fertilizer may be a sound fertilizer practice for sustainable food production.

  15. Effect of Fertilization on Soil Fertility and Nutrient Use Efficiency at Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshev, Nesho; Manolov, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The effect of fertilization on soil fertility, yields and nutrient use efficiency of potatoes grown under field experimental conditions was studied. The trail was conducted on shallow brown forest soil (Cambisols-coarse) during the vegetation periods of 2013 to 2015. The variants of the experiment were: control, N140; P80; K100; N140P80; N140K100; P80K100; N140P80K100; N140P80K100Mg33. The applied fertilization slightly decreased soil's pH after the harvest of potatoes compared to the soil pH their planting. Decreasing of pH was more severe at variant N (from 5,80 to 4,19 in 2014). The mineral nitrogen content in the soil after the harvest of potatoes was lower for the variants P, K and PK. The positive effect of fertilization on soil fertility after the end of the trails was more pronounced at variants NPK and NPKMg. The content of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium forms for these variants was the highest for each year. The highest content of mineral nitrogen was observed in 2013 (252,5 and 351,1 mg/1000g, respectively for variants NPK and NPKMg). It was due to extremely dry weather conditions during the vegetation in this year. Soil content of mineral N for the next two years was lower. The same tendency was observed for phosphorus and potassium was observed. In 2013 the P2O5 and K2O content in soil was the highest for the variants with full mineral fertilization - NPK (64,4 and 97,6 mg 100g-1 respectively for P2O5 and K2O) and NPKMg (65,2 and 88,0 mg 100g-1 respectively for P2O5 and K2O). The highest yields were recorded at variants NPK and NPKMg - 24,21 and 22,01 t ha-1, average for the studied period. The yield of variant NPK was 25 % higher than the yield from variant NP and 68 % higher than control. The partial factor productivity (PFPN, PFPP and PFPK) of the applied fertilizers was the highest at variant NPK. The PFPN (80,10 kg kg-1) for the yields of variant N was 57 % lower than the PFPN at variant NPK (180,36 kg kg-1). The PFPP and PFPK at

  16. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro–macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings—which remains to be proven by future research—is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  17. Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida. The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose recorded the highest plant height, number of branches, plant spread, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes such as number of flowers per plant, number of flowers per plot, flower yield/plant, flower yield/plot. The early flower bud initiation, 50 percent flowering and more flowering duration was achieved in the treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose. Application of Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose registered significantly higher quality parameters such as flower diameter.

  18. Fertilizer Use by Crop at the Country Level (1990–2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rosas

    2012-01-01

    We compute the fertilizer use in corn, cotton, soybeans, and rapeseed in the period from 1990 to 2010 for a set of selected countries. In each case, we present the consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash by crop and by year, reporting both the fertilizer application rates (in kilograms per hectare) and the fertilizer consumption (in thousand metric tonnes). We allocate a country's total nutrient consumption in a given year among competing crops based on publicly available statistics. T...

  19. Quantitative and compositional responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term field fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia-oxidizer responses to long-term field fertilization in a Mollisol soil were assessed through pyrosequencing of amoA genes. Long-term fertilization treatments including chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM), and no fertilization over 23 years altered soil properties resulting in significant shifts in AOA and AOB community composition and abundance. NPK exhibited a strong influence on AOA and AOB composition while the addition of manure neutralized the community change induced by NPK. NPK also led to significant soil acidification and enrichment of Nitrosotalea. Nitrosospira cluster 9 and 3c were the most abundant AOB populations with opposing responses to fertilization treatments. NPKM had the largest abundance of ammonia-oxidizers and highest potential nitrification activity (PNA), suggesting high N loss potential due to a doubling of nutrient input compared to NPK. PNA was strongly correlated to AOA and AOB community composition indicating that both were important in ammonium oxidization in this Mollisol soil. Total N and organic C were the most important factors driving shifts in AOA and AOB community composition. The AOA community was strongly correlated to the activities of all sugar hydrolysis associated soil enzymes and was more responsive to C and N input than AOB.

  20. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  1. Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Shon, Ho Kyong; Majeed, Tahir; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Sangyoup

    2012-04-17

    In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species.

  2. The influence of tillage systems, fertilization and plant protection levels on weed infestation in winter rye cultivated on light soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional and ploughless tillage systems upon infestation in two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on light soil. Before harvest winter rye there was determined weed infestation of square-frame method. There were estimated weed species composition and air dry matter of weeds in two randomly selected place. Number of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds and dry matter of weeds was higher on the objects with ploughless tillage system compared with conventional tillage. Intensive fertilization and plant protection decreased number of dicotyledonous weeds in canopy of winter rye. Conventional tillage system decreased Apera spica-venti occurrence in a canopy of winter rye and increased number of Plantago major plants. Intensive level of fertilization and plant protection decreased weed infestation first of all through Matricaria maritima.

  3. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Fernández-Sanjurjo; E. Alvarez-Rodríguez; Núñez-Delgado, A.; M. L. Fernández-Marcos; A. Romar-Gasalla

    2014-01-01

    We used soil columns to study nutrients release from two compressed NPK fertilizers. The columns were filled with soil material from the surface horizon of a granitic soil. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil, and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. These nutrients were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the ...

  4. [Change characteristics of rice yield and soil organic matter and nitrogen contents under various long-term fertilization regimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Zhang, Yang-Zhu; Qin, Dao-Zhu; Xu, Ming-Gang

    2013-07-01

    A long-term (1982-2010) field experiment was conducted in the Red Soil Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Qiyang County of Hunan Province, South-central China to investigate the dynamic changes of rice yield and soil organic matter (OM) and nitrogen contents under different fertilization treatments. The treatments included NPK, NPKM (M: manure), NPM, NKM, PKM, M, and CK. Fertilization increased the soil OM, total N, and alkaline-hydrolysable N contents and the rice yield. In treatment NPKM, the rice yield across the 28 years maintained at the highest level; while in treatment NPK, the yield showed a decreasing trend, being lower than that in other fertilization treatments. In the treatments applied with manure only or in combining with chemical fertilizers, the soil OM content increased rapidly in the first 16 years, and then fluctuated around a constant level (29.42-39.32 g x kg(-1)). In the treatments of chemical fertilization, the soil OM content only had a quicker increase in the first 8 years, and then fluctuated within a relatively stable range. Fertilization with manure increased the soil OM significantly, as compared to fertilization with chemical fertilizers only. The soil total N content in all fertilization treatments showed a rapid increase in the first 8 years, and the increment was the highest in treatment NPKM. The soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in all fertilization treatments had a slower increase in the first 12 years, with an average annual increment of 0.66-2.25 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1). In 1994-1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in fertilization treatments had a quicker increase, with an average annual increment of 6.45-32.45 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1); but after 1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content had a slight decrease. It was concluded that organic fertilization was the key measure to stably improve the physical and chemical properties and the productivity of red paddy soils by increasing their

  5. Effect of different fertilizer application on the soil fertility of paddy soils in red soil region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (Pfertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (Pfertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region.

  6. EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON PLANT HEIGHT, SPREAD AND FLOWER DIAMETER OF GAILLARDIA (GAILLARDIA PULCHELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Sowmyamala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on plant height, plant spread and flower diameter of Gaillardia (Gaillardia pulchella. In Gaillardia the plant maximum height was recorded in the plot treated with 100 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 tones ha-1 followed by 75 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 t ha-1 at 45 days and 75 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 5 tones ha-1 at 15, 30 and 60 days. Highest plant spread was obtained at 30 and 45 days after planting in the treatments which involved 100 per cent recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 t ha-1 and at 60 days no significant differences were recorded. The combination of recommended dose of NPK + press mud at 10 t ha-1 produced maximum diameter of flower.

  7. Effects of Different Water and Nitrogen Levels on the Yield and Periodicity of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNLÜ, Mustafa; KANBER, Rıza

    2005-01-01

    The effects of 2 irrigation intervals (If1: 7 days and If2: 14 days), 4 nitrogen doses (Ng, N0, N1, N2 and N3) and 2 crop coefficients (Kpc1: 0.60 and Kpc2: 0.90) on pistachio nut fertigation were studied to establish suitable irrigation and fertigation scheduling. The nitrogen levels were 0, 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1. In the traditional treatment, Ng, each tree received 500/600/400 g of NPK fertilizer at the beginning of February. Other fertilizer doses were applied in the irrigation water throug...

  8. Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1, medium (1260 kg plot-1 and low (700 kg plot-1 respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

  9. Testing the Fertilizer Effect of Compost Produced by Anaerobic Fermentation of Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The compost tested in this study resulted from the anaerobic fermentation process of sewage sludge with cereal straw. Processing and post-treatment were made by Biotechnological Research Centre within INCD ECOIND from Bucharest. Experimental program included testing the effect of fertilizer in quantities of 25 t, 50 t and 100 t compost / ha on the production of soya beans. It was also investigated the influence of the combination of fertilization with compost and inorganic fertilization with levels of 200 kg, respectively, 400 kg NPK / ha. Was analyzed the following productivity indicators: plant density, number of floors of pods, number and weight of pods and total beans production, in full ripening stage. In the case of fertilization only with composted sludge, production of peas and beans was higher in variants with 50 t / ha and 100 t / ha (2095 kg and 1990 kg grain / ha. Therefore, doubling the amount of compost does not provide corresponding increase yields of soybeans. Combining organic and inorganic fertilization determine a proportional production increase only for the total biomass production. The tested compost is a good organic fertilizer and the amount that provides the greatest soybeans production is 50 t / ha.

  10. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent;

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that uti......In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites...

  11. Anti-Mullerian hormone levels decline under hormonal suppression: a prospective analysis in fertile women after delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortner Iris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AMH's reported stability during periods of hormonal change makes it a practical tool in assessing ovarian reserve. However, AMH declines with age and age-specific cut-offs remain to be established in women with proven fertility. This study aims to determine age-specific ranges of AMH in women with proven fertility. Methods Two hundred-ten fertile women, aged 18-40 years, were prospectively recruited for AMH measurements within 14 days after delivery and age stratified into 3 groups (18-30, 31-36 and 37-40 years. Eligibility required spontaneous conception within a maximal period of six months. Autoimmune diseases, chemotherapy, radiation, ovarian surgery and polycystic ovary syndrome precluded inclusion. Results 95% confidence intervals of AMH declined with advancing female age from 0.9-1.1 to 0.6-0.9 and 0.2-0.4 ng/mL (P Conclusions Like infertile populations, fertile women demonstrate declining AMH with advancing age. Uniformly lower levels than in infertile women suggest that AMH levels do not appear as stable under all hormonal influences as previously reported.

  12. 有机肥替代部分无机肥对华北农田土壤理化特性、酶活性及作物产量的影响%Impact of organic manure supplement chemical fertilizer partially on soil nutrition, enzyme activity and crop yield in the north China plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢鹏飞; 高圣超; 马鸣超; 周晓琳; 赵同凯; 孙军德; 沈德龙

    2016-01-01

    以华北平原农田土壤为研究对象,2012~2015年连续4年研究了有机肥替代部分无机肥对土壤中养分含量、土壤酶活性和作物产量的影响。结果表明:1)0.3M处理(70%无机肥+3000 kg/hm2有机肥)和0.5 M处理(50%无机肥+6000 kg/hm2有机肥)与NPK处理(单施无机肥)相比都提高了土壤中全氮、有效磷、速效钾含量,且0.5 M高于0.3 M,说明有机肥替代无机肥的比例越高,土壤中全氮、有效磷、速效钾含量就越高。2)土壤中脲酶活性大小顺序NPK>0.3 M>0.5 M>CK,蔗糖酶活性和过氧化氢酶活性为0.5 M>0.3 M>NPK,说明有机肥可以显著提高蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性。3)小麦4年累计产量0.3 M处理比NPK处理提高5.95%,0.5 M处理比NPK处理降低0.94%,;玉米4年累计产量则是0.3 M比NPK处理降低1.27%,0.5 M处理比NPK处理降低2.00%。综上所述,本研究表明,有机肥替代30%无机肥处理能够保证粮食产量,有机肥替代50%无机肥处理更能提高土壤肥力。%In this article effects of different proportions of manure and chemical fertilizer on soil nutrition, enzyme activity and crop yield were studied in a four-year experiment. The results indicated that the treatments 0. 3M (70% chemical fertilizer +3 000 kg/hm2 manure) and 0. 5M (50% chemical fertilizer +6 000 kg/hm2 manure) had a higher level of total N, available P and available K than NPK treatment (only chemical fertilizer), and in 0. 5M treatment was higher than those of 0. 3M treat-ment (P0. 3 M>0. 5 M>CK. For soil invertase activity and catalase activity the order was 0. 5 M>0. 3 M>NPK. The total wheat yield of 0. 3M treatment was 5. 95% higher than that of NPK treatment, but that of 0. 5M treatment was 0. 94% lower than that of NPK treatment (P<0. 01). The total maize yield of 0. 3 M treatment was 1. 27% lower than that of NPK treatment, while that of 0. 5 M treatment was 2. 00% lower than that of NPK treatment (P<0

  13. Effects of decaying leaf litter and inorganic fertilizer on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka Kanayo S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of decaying leaf litter of Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia amygdalina as organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 and their combination effects on the growth and development of maize were studied in a screen house. Twenty-four experimental bags filled with 20 kg of loamy soil were laid out in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications for each treatment which included: 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia as mulch (T1, 250 g of decaying leaves of V. amygdalina (T2, 1.52 g of NPK (inorganic fertilizer (T3, a mixture of 250 g of decaying leaves of T. diversifolia and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T4, a mixture of V. amygdalina and 1.52 g of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (T5 and control (T6. The significant growth as well as maize yields were obtained from T3 treated maize seedlings, and this was closely followed by T4 treated seedlings. The study showed that the decaying leaf litter as an organic fertilizer in maize production in a screen house conditions did not give better yield than NPK treatment alone.

  14. Alternate Nitrogen Amendments for Organic Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M.K.C.; G.O. Adeoye; AdeOluwa, O.O.

    2001-01-01

    The use of compost or manure in agriculture as an organic source of nutrients is common in many tropical, developing countries like Nigeria. One of the drawbacks of such materials is their low nitrogen (N) content (=1% N). Farmers commonly use chemical N fertilizers such as urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), and NPK formulations to obtain better crop growth and yield. These chemical supplements may have a negative impact on the environment through nitrate leaching into water, leading to eu...

  15. Impact of Long-Term Fertilization on Cropland Soil Fauna Community at Loess Soil, Shannxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ying-hua; YANG Xue-yun; ZHANG Fu-dao; GU Qiao-zhen; SUN Ben-hua; MA Lu-jun

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between long-term fertilization and cropland soil fauna was studied at the station's experiment research network for soil fertility and fertilizers in Loess soil of Shannxi Provincefrom Jul. 2001 to Oct. 2002. Six types of long-term fertilizer were carried out for this study including non-fertilizer (CK), abandonment (ABAND), nitrogenous and phosphors and potassium fertilizers combined (NPK), straw and NPK (SNPK), organic material and NPK (MNPK) and 1.5 times MNPK (1.5MNPK). 72 soil samples were collected and 5 495 species of cropland soil fauna obtained by handsorting and Cobb methods at 4 times, belonging to 6 Phyla, 11 Classes, 22 Orders, 2 Superfamilies, 61 Families and 35 Genera. The result showed that different fertilizer had significantly impacted on the cropland soil fauna (F = 2.24, P<0.007). The number of the cropland soil fauna was related to the soil physicochemical properties caused by long-term fertilization. The result by principal component analysis, focusing on the number of 15 key soil fauna species group's diversity, evenness of community and the total soil fauna individuals indicated that the effects of SNPK, NPK, MNPK and 1.5MNPK were significantly different from that of the cropland soil fauna, in which, SNPK and NPK had the positive effect on cropland soil fauna, and MNPK and 1.5 MNPK had the negative affect, others could not be explained. By principal component I,the synthetic effect of different fertilization on the total soil fauna individuals and the group was most significant, and the effect was little on evenness and diversity. By value of eigenvectors, the maximum one was 9.6248, and the minimum one was -1.0904, that means the 6 types of fertilization did not affect evenly the cropland soil fauna.

  16. [Analysis of soil humus and components after 26 years' fertilization by infrared spectroscopy method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Lan; Sun, Cai-Xia; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Dong-Po; Liu, Xing-Bin; Chen, Li-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Du, Jian-Xiong

    2010-05-01

    The infrared spectrum was used to discuss structure change of soil humus and components of chemical groups in soil humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) isolated from soils in different fertilization treatment after 26 year's fertilization. The result indicated that using the infrared spectroscopy method for the determination of humus, humus fractions (HA and FA) and their structure is feasible. Fertilization affected the structure and content of soil humus and aromatization degree. After 26 years' fertilization, the infrared spectrum shapes with different treatments are similar, but the characteristic peak intensity is obviously different, which reflects the effects of different fertilization treatments on the structure and amounts of soil humus or functional groups. Compared with no fertilization, little molecule saccharides decreased and aryl-groups increased under application of inorganic fertilizer or combined application of organic and chemical fertilizer. The effect was greater in Treatment NPK and M+NPK than in Treatment M1 N and M2 N. Organic and NPK fertilizer increased the development of soil and increased soil quality to a certain extent. Results showed that organic fertilization increased aromatization degree of soil humus and humus fractions distinctly. The authors could estimate soil humus evolvement of different fertilization with infrared spectroscopy.

  17. Projected near-future levels of temperature and pCO2 reduce coral fertilization success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 are projected to contribute to a 1.1-6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14-0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C and pCO2 (+400 µatm projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2 and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential.

  18. Dynamics of clay mineralogy with profile depth in relation to long term potassium fertilizer application to sugar cane crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment consisted of treatment of sugar cane crop with N, NP, NPK and farmyard manure and determination of its effect on soil mica, vermiculite and montmorillonite over a period of 18 years. The NPK treatment had greater mica in coarse clay, but less in fine clay than NP and control treatments. Vermiculite in coarse clay fraction, in NPK treatment, increased with the depth as compared to other treatments. The fertilizer treatment effect on smectite content was obvious only in AP horizon in fine clay fraction. (author)

  19. Growth index in massai grass under different levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Neves Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the growth index of massai grass during two regrowth cycles in a greenhouse under five levels of nitrogen (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg N/dm³ of soil and eight growth ages (5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 26 days in a split-plot design with five replications. The following variables were evaluated: net assimilation rate, herbage growth rate, relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio and specific leaf area. The effect of nitrogen was detected on the variables net assimilation rate (regrowths 1 and 2, leaf area ratio (regrowth 1, leaf weight ratio (regrowths 1 and 2, specific leaf area (regrowths 1 and 2 and herbage growth rate (regrowths 1 and 2. The growth ages influenced the relative growth rate (regrowth 2 and the net assimilation rate (regrowth 2. The net assimilation rate presented linear effect, estimated in 0.70 and 2.86 g/m² leaf.day-1 for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively (regrowth 1. For each milligram of N/dm³ added, the leaf area ratio was reduced in 0.0000258 m² leaf/g plant (regrowth 1. The herbage growth rate was estimated in 1.38 and 37.02 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 1, and 4.37 and 32.20 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 2 for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively. The massai grass' growth is favored by nitrogen fertilization, and little do the growth ages affect the growth index of the plants.

  20. 不同肥料配施对冀张薯8号养分吸收和产量的影响%Effects of combined application of different fertilizers on nutrient uptake and yield of potato variety Jizhang 8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓军; 何文寿

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the method of field trials and lab tests to discusses the consistent in the NPK fertilizer application conditions, different biological fertilizer and NPK fertilizer application of Jizhang 8 potato different growth and quality of crops, increase organic fertilizer (T2), soil physical and chemical properties have obvious changes, as well as the economic characters and yield of Ji zhang potato 8 also has the change, the change rule between the three processing T2 > T3 > T1, namely the NPK + Biological organic fertilizer > NPK + Fulvic acid potassium > NPK, but reached the maximum at T3 soil available nutrients, three processing the change rule between the T3 > T2 > T1, namely the NPK + Fulvic acid potassium > NPK + Biological organic fertilizer > NPK, the experimental results show that the combination of organic manure and chemical fertilizer reasonably and effectively on soil fertilizer and potato yield and improving quality has important significance.%采用田间试验和室内测试分析相结合的方法,探讨在氮磷钾肥施用一致的条件下,不同生物肥料与氮磷钾肥配合施用对冀张薯8号养分吸收和产量、品质的影响.结果表明:增施有机肥,土壤理化性质有明显变化,同时冀张薯8号的经济性状和产量也有变化,不同处理的影响程度大小依次为NPK+生物有机肥、NPK+黄腐酸钾、NPK.增施黄腐酸钾对提升土壤速效养分效果显著,不同处理的影响程度大小依次为NPK+黄腐酸钾、NPK+生物有机肥、NPK.有机肥与化肥合理有效地结合起来,对土壤培肥和马铃薯产量及品质的提升有重要作用.

  1. The Declining Fertility Rate at the Below-Replacement Level: Determining Factors and Countermeasures - The Roles of Husbands, Workplaces, the Government and Society (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    Demographers have concluded that Japan's declining fertility rate at the below-replacement level is mainly propelled by delayed marriage or non-marriage. These factors also apply to other countries that have experienced sharply declining fertility rates, such as Korea and southern European nations. Compared to households in the U.S. or western Europe, however, in Japan and these other countries which experienced a rapid decline in fertility rate, wives have a major share of household work and...

  2. The Effects of Chronic Ingestion of Mercuric Chloride on Fertility and Testosterone Levels in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Heath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although male infertility is well researched, the effects of inorganic mercury on male reproduction and fertility are less well known. Studies pertaining to mercury and male fertility identified reduced concentration of testosterone in the serum of male workers, a toxic influence on fertility of organic mercury compounds within concentrations at the workplace, and increased days to pregnancy. We evaluated the effect of chronic mercuric chloride (HgCl2 exposure in male rats on reproductive endpoints. Thirty-day old male Sprague Dawley rats (n=31 were exposed to 0.0, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg/day of HgCl2 via gavage. After 60 days exposure, they were housed with nonexposed females for 21 days. A survivor analysis revealed the exposed animals took longer to impregnate the females and had a lower rate of impregnation. Further statistical analysis revealed a lower correlation between testicular testosterone levels and days to impregnate, and also lower sperm counts in the epididymis head and body of the exposed males. The results indicate that HgCl2 exposure had significant adverse effects on male rat reproduction endpoints including fertility at a dose that was not clinically toxic.

  3. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 � 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  4. Phosphate transport by hyphae of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at two levels of P fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingstrup, I.; Kahiluoto, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of P fertilisation on the function of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) measured as P transport to flax. Two methods were applied to soil from a long-term field experiment with NaHCO3-extractable soil P levels of 24 and 50 mg kg...... was largely similar in both fertilization treatments, indicating that the capacity for P uptake and transport by hyphae of the two AMF communities was similar....

  5. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira; Ailton T. Vale; José Teodoro de Melo

    2010-01-01

    The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or...

  6. Social class and net fertility before, during, and after the demographic transition: A micro-level analysis of Sweden 1880-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dribe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although demographers have long been interested in studying the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns. Identifying these patterns could help us to better understand the mechanisms behind the transition. Objective: The aim of this paper is to explore social class differentials in fertility before, during, and after the fertility decline, in order to test hypotheses regarding a reversal of class differences during the transition. Methods: We use micro-level census data for Sweden 1880, 1890, 1900, 1960, and 1970 with individual-level information on occupation, which is used to measure class. Poisson regressions with parish-level fixed effects enable us to carefully control spatial heterogeneity in measuring class differences in net fertility (child-woman ratios. Results: The relative differences were about as large in the early phases of the transition as they were in the 1960s. The fertility levels of the high-fertility classes were about 40Š higher than those of the low-fertility classes. In the early phases of the decline, the upper and middle classes had much lower net fertility than lower skilled workers, who had the highest fertility levels. However, there was no clear gradient from the highest to the lowest socioeconomic status. Instead, it appears that the upper and middle classes had low fertility levels, while the fertility levels of the remaining groups were unchanged, and therefore remained relatively high. In the 1960s, members of the middle class had the lowest fertility levels, while farmers and rural laborers had the highest fertility levels. Conclusions: The results only partly confirm the assumption that there was a reversal in class differences in the demographic transition. Class was found to be important, but the pattern was not characterized by a simple gradient. Moreover, spatial heterogeneity was shown to explain about half of the observed differences

  7. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  8. New strategies for submicron characterization the carbon binding of reactive minerals in long-term contrasting fertilized soils: implications for soil carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; He, Xinhua; Hao, Jialong; Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Lirong; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yu, Guanghui

    2016-06-01

    Mineral binding is a major mechanism for soil carbon (C) stabilization. However, the submicron information about the in situ mechanisms of different fertilization practices affecting organo-mineral complexes and associated C preservation remains unclear. Here, we applied nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) to examine differentiating effects of inorganic versus organic fertilization on interactions between highly reactive minerals and soil C preservation. To examine such interactions, soils and their extracted colloids were collected during a 24-year long-term fertilization period (1990-2014) (no fertilization, control; chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization, NPK; and NPK plus swine manure fertilization, NPKM). The results for different fertilization conditions showed a ranked soil organic matter concentration with NPKM > NPK > control. Meanwhile, oxalate-extracted Al (Alo), Fe (Feo), short-range ordered Al (Alxps), Fe (Fexps), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranked with NPKM > control > NPK, but the ratios of DOC / Alxps and DOC / Fexps ranked with NPKM > NPK > control. Compared with the NPK treatment, the NPKM treatment enhanced the C-binding loadings of Al and Fe minerals in soil colloids at the submicron scale. Furthermore, a greater concentration of highly reactive Al and Fe minerals was presented under NPKM than under NPK. Together, these submicron-scale findings suggest that both the reactive mineral species and their associations with C are differentially affected by 24-year long-term inorganic and organic fertilization.

  9. Effect of Fertilizer Types on the Growth and Yield of Amaranthus caudatus in Ilorin, Southern Guinea, Savanna Zone of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olowoake Adebayo Abayomi; Ojo James Adebayo

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin, to evaluate the effect of compost, organomineral, and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of Amaranthus caudatus as well as its residual effects. Amaranthus was grown with compost Grade B (unamended compost), organomineral fertilizer Grade A (compost amended with mineral fertilizer), and NPK 15-15-15 and no fertilizer (control). All the treatments except control were applied...

  10. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  11. Effect of Chemical Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Green Asparagus%化肥施用对绿芦笋产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟海翔; 杨斌; 焦彩菊

    2011-01-01

    A field experience was conducted to study the effect of NPK fertilization on yield and quality of green asparagus. The result showed that the branches of green asparagus, weight of per branch and yield of green asparagus in NPK treatment had the maximum values among those five treatments. The branches of green asparagus and weight of per branches in treatment of PK, NK and NP were much lower than NPK at different level. The content of crude protein, soluble protein, soluble sugar and content of mineral element in NPK treatment were much higher than in the other treatments. We concluded that balanced nutrient applications could not only increased yield, but also improved quality of green asparagus.%在大田条件下,研究了不同氮磷钾肥对绿芦笋产量及品质的影响.结果表明,绿芦笋支数、单支质量以及总产量均以NPK处理最高;PK,NK以及NP处理的芦笋支数、单支质量均不同程度降低,最终导致减产.芦笋粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗纤维、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖以及不同矿质元素含量均以NPK处理最高.可见,平衡的养分供给不仅可以提高绿芦笋产量,而且还可以有效改善芦笋的品质.

  12. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N2-fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus enhances P acquisition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a sandy loam soil with long-term inorganic fertilization regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Lin, Xiangui; Wang, Junhua; Cui, Xiangchao; Dai, Jue; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2010-10-01

    The P efficiency, crop yield, and response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledonium were tested in an experimental field with long-term (19 years) fertilizer management. The experiment included five fertilizer treatments: organic amendment (OA), half organic amendment plus half mineral fertilizer (1/2 OM), mineral fertilizer NPK, mineral fertilizer NK, and the control (without fertilization). AMF inoculation responsiveness (MIR) of wheat plants at acquiring P were estimated by comparing plants grown in unsterilized soil inoculated with G. caledonium and in untreated soil containing indigenous AMF. Without AMF inoculation, higher crop yields but lower colonization rates were observed in the NPK and two OA-inputted treatments, and NPK had significantly (P soils and thereby P acquisition of wheat plants compared with OA and 1/2 OM. G. caledonium inoculation significantly (P soil alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, only with the NPK treatment. This gave an MIR of ca. 45% on total P acquisition of wheat plants. There were no other remarkable MIRs. It suggested that the MIR is determined by soil available P status, and rational combination of AMF with chemical NPK fertilizer can compensate for organic amendments by improving P-acquisition efficiency in arable soils.

  14. Increasing Soil Organic Matter Enhances Inherent Soil Productivity while Offsetting Fertilization Effect under a Rice Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Nan Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of soil organic matter (SOM in soil quality and subsequent crop yield and input requirements is useful for agricultural sustainability. SOM is widely considered to affect a wide range of soil properties, however, great uncertainty still remains in identifying the relationships between SOM and crop yield due to the difficulty in separating the effect of SOM from other yield-limiting factors. Based on 543 on-farm experiments, where paired treatments with and without NPK fertilizer were conducted during 2005–2009, we quantified the inherent soil productivity, fertilization effect, and their contribution to rice yield and further evaluated their relationships with SOM contents under a rice cropping system in the Sichuan Basin of China. The inherent soil productivity assessed by rice grain yield under no fertilization (Y-CK was 5.8 t/ha, on average, and contributed 70% to the 8.3 t/ha of rice yield under NPK fertilization (Y-NPK while the other 30% was from the fertilization effect (FE. No significant correlation between SOM content and Y-NPK was observed, however, SOM content positively related to Y-CK and its contribution to Y-NPK but negatively to FE and its contribution to Y-NPK, indicating an increased soil contribution but a decreased fertilizer contribution to rice yield with increasing SOM. There were significantly positive relationships between SOM and soil available N, P, and K, indicating the potential contribution of SOM to inherent soil productivity by supplying nutrients from mineralization. As a result, approaches for SOM accumulation are practical to improve the inherent soil productivity and thereafter maintain a high crop productivity with less dependence on chemical fertilizers, while fertilization recommendations need to be adjusted with the temporal and spatial SOM variation.

  15. Study on Wheat Yield Stability in Huaibei Lime Concretion Black Soil Area Based on Long-Term Fertilization Experiment%长期施肥下淮北砂姜黑土区小麦产量稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欢; 曹承富; 孔令聪; 张存岭; 李玮; 乔玉强; 杜世州; 赵竹

    2014-01-01

    Objective The research was conducted to explore the responsive mechanism of wheat yield stability to long-term fertilization. [Method] Based on long-term fertilization experiment in Yangliu village of Anhui province, the trend of change in wheat average yield, annual fluctuation of wheat yield and soil nutrients content in 5 fertilization patterns were investigated:non-fertilization (CK), application of single chemical fertilizer (NPK), application of single organic fertilizer (M), mixed application of organic and chemical fertilizer with the same amount of nitrogen (MNPK), mixed application of organic and chemical fertilizer with the larger amount of nitrogen (HMNPK).[Result]It was discovered that wheat yield in CK showed a declining trend by 5.81 kg·hm-2·a-1, while fluctuated increasing emerged in fertilization treatments. Wheat yield trend line of HMNPK was in the first place, but MPK had been chasing after by 9.75 kg·hm-2·a-1. Wheat yield trend line of NPK was higher than M in the earlier stage of experiment, whereas it was caught up by M after 22 years. In respect of wheat average yield of 32 years, HMNPK and MNPK were higher than other fertilization treatments, with 5 544.3 kg·hm-2 and 5 200.6 kg·hm-2, respectively; NPK took the third place, by increasing 614.6% of that in the non-fertilization treatment; wheat yield increasing of M was the lowest, however, no obvious difference was found between M and NPK. The contribution of soil capacity in lime concretion black soil had been decreasing in early 10 years then stopped and kept stable at 10%;the contribution ratio of fertilizer had been increasing in early 10 years, and then maintained dynamic balance at the level of 80%-90%. It enhanced the coefficient of variation (CV) and reduced sustainable yield index (SYI) without fertilization, which made yield stability the worst;the wheat yield stability of HMNPK and MNPK was better than NPK which was better than M. Compared with CK, fertilizer application

  16. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  17. TEORES DE METAIS TÓXICOS NAS FOLHAS DE PLANTAS DE MILHO FERTILIZADAS COM LODO DE CURTUME LEVELS OF TOXIC METALS IN THE LEAVES OF MAIZE FERTILIZED WITH TANNING RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Barros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Nesta pesquisa foram avaliados os teores dos metais tóxicos Cr, Cd, Ni e Pb, nos tecidos foliares, e a produção de fitomassa verde da parte aérea em milho. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de solo (Latossolo Vermelho, fertilizadas com lodo de curtume nas doses: zero (testemunha, 113,1 mL (36 m3.ha-1, 226,2 mL (72 m3.ha-1, 452,4 mL (144 m3.ha-1 e 904,8 mL (288 m3.ha-1 por vaso, apenas com adubo químico, e com o adubo associado ao lodo de curtume. Os sete tratamentos foram aplicados em quatro repetições, sob condições de estufa, no período de agosto a novembro de 2003, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. O lodo de curtume foi incorporado ao solo vinte dias antes da semeadura e o adubo químico NPK 4-30-16 + Zn (1,256 g por vaso, ou 400 kg.ha-1 foi adicionado na operação de semeadura do milho híbrido BR 205. Os teores médios dos metais tóxicos Cr, Cd, Ni e Pb, obtidos nas folhas das plantas, aos cinqüenta dias após a emergência, estiveram dentro dos limites toleráveis nestes tecidos. Os maiores teores de Cr (0,147 mg.dm-3 foram observados nos tratamentos com as maiores doses do lodo de curtume. Houve incremento da fitomassa verde da parte aérea das plantas com o aumento das doses do lodo. A adição do lodo de curtume no substrato, em diferentes doses, como fonte de nutrientes para plantas de milho, apresentou resultados agronômicos promissores.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Nutrição de plantas; metais tóxicos; resíduo industrial; fitomassa.

    In this study, were measured levels of the toxic metals Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in leaf tissues, as well as the green matter yield of the aerial part of maize plants. The plants were grown in pots with a soil substrate (Oxisol, fertilized with tanning

  18. Effect of Various Nitrogen Fertilizers and Their Levels on Big-Arch Shelter Cucumber Yield and Water Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaopeng Ou Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are mainly cultivated through facility in early spring and late autumn in Northern of China. In the case of a serious shortage of water resources, water use efficiency of greenhouse vegetable is of an important scientific significance in both water and fertilizer management. On the basis of pan Evaporation (Ep and real-time monitoring of soil moisture content, the amount of water irrigation adequate to big-arch shelter cucumber growth, water dissipation, yield and water use efficiency were determined through the combination of three nitrogen fertilizers including urea, urea containing nitrification inhibitors (5:1 with urea and nitrification inhibitor and coated urea (slow fertilizer and their various levels with 0 kg/ha, 350 kg/ha, 550 kg/ha, 750 kg/ha. The results showed that the most 10,9000 kg/ha production was gained by the treatment of 550 kg/ha urea containing inhibitors, which could increase 41.5% of a yield, 15.2% of a cumulative water consumption that was at 462.0mm and 44.7% of a water use efficiency that is at 14.11kg (dry matter/(mm• ha, compared with that of control, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the application of moderate levels of urea containing nitrification inhibitor in greenhouse cucumber can gain higher yields and water use efficiency.

  19. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Level on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics in Flag Leaf of Super Hybrid Rice at Late Growth Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Ji-rui; MA Guo-hui; WAN Yi-zheng; SONG Chun-fang; SUN Jian; QIN Rui-jun

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effects of slow-release nitrogen fertilizer at six different levels on the flag leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of super hybrid rice,a field fertilization experiment was conducted with super hybrid rice Y Liangyou 1 as a test material.The photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR),effective quantum yield (EQY),photochemical quenching coefficient (qp),and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) of flag leaves were measured at the initial heading,full heading,10 d after full heading and 20 d after full heading stages.Results showed that the values of ETR,EQY and qp increased with rice development from initial heading to 20 d after full heading,whereas the NPQ decreased.During the measured stages,ETR,EQY and qp increased initially and then decreased as nitrogen application amount increased,but they peaked at different nitrogen fertilizer levels.The maximum ETR and EQY values appeared at the treatment of 135 kg/hm2 N.In conclusion,the optimum nitrogen amount for chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of super hybrid rice was 135-180 kg/hm2.

  20. Nitric oxide level in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile males and its correlation with sperm parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri I.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a free radical molecule, produced by most cells and tissues in the body. The effect of NO on cells is concentration dependent. Low concentration of NO is essential in biology and physiology of most of cells, but high amounts of NO is toxic and has detrimental effects on cells. The role of NO in biology of male and female genital systems is under investigation. In the present study, the nitric oxide concentration was measured in the seminal plasma of both fertile and infertile males and compared with spermatogram parameters. For this purpose, semen samples were collected from 45 patients and 70 healthy donors. After analysis of samples, the stable metabolites of nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate were measured by Griess assay. The results indicated that the nitric oxide concentration in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly higher than controls. There was a significant negative correlation between the nitric oxide concentration and sperm motility and viability in infertile males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the level of nitric oxide in seminal plasma of infertile men was higher than that of fertile men. The increasing level of nitric oxide concentration in seminal plasma leads to the decrease in sperm motility and viability and affects fertility.

  1. New complex fertilizer 'Suprodit' to obtain safe agricultural productions on contaminated lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaevich Ratnikov, Alexander; Sergeevich Anisimov, Vyacheslav; Nikoaevna Anisimova, Lidiya; Georgievich Sviridenko, Dmitry; Jurievna Balanova, Olesya

    2015-04-01

    ). The Cd accumulation by barley grain in sod-podzolic soil, contaminated with Cd6, Zn600, Cu390 mg/kg, when applying "SUPRODIT" was 2.5 times less than after industrial fertilizers (NPK and nitrophoska) application; the accumulation of Zn - 1.5 and 1.9 times less; the accumulation of Cu - 1.6 and 1.5 times less in comparison with NPK and nitrophoska, respectively. Applying of "SUPRODIT" constrain the accumulation of 137Cs in barley grain 1.2-1.3 times more efficiently than NPK and nitrophoska. Use "SUPRODIT" in technologies of cultivation of fodder crops on contaminated land in the districts of the Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation allow us to get a feed corresponding to acceptable levels on the content of 137Cs at a density of contamination 500-920 kBq/m2, which ensures that the milk will fit to corresponding maximum permissible concentration.

  2. Influence of chemical and organic fertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen JANMOHAMMADI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out to study the response of Dracocephalum moldavica L. to NPK fertilizer and different application techniques of MOG organic fertilizer in two regions of Iran (Piranshahr with cold Mediterranean climate and clay loam soil,  Maragheh with cool sub-humid temperate climate and sandy loam  soil. MOG is bio-organic fertilizer with plant origin and contains different natural enzymes and amino acids. In current study following treatments have been applied: NPK (a complete NPK 20-20-20, 90 kg fertilizer ha-1; MOG1 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing stage; MOG2 (foliar application of MOG organic fertilizer at early stage of flowering; MOG3 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing and at 5 to 6 leaf stage; MOG4 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing and at 5 to 6 leaf stage with foliar application at early stage of flowering. Results indicated that all MOG treatments overcome the chemical fertilizers in both locations. However, plants grown in Piranshahr were more responsive to MOG fertilizer treatments than those grown in Mragheh. Overall, it could be concluded that utilization of MOG fertilizer as both soil and foliar application (MOG4 may increase content and yield of essential oil, which could be suggested as a suitable alternative for chemical fertilizers.

  3. New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Gorecka; Henryk Gorecki; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Marzanna Barańska; Izabela Michalak; Agnieszka Zielińska

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, animal bones as the source of phosphorus and wood ash as the source of potassium and micronutrients. Bioavailability of fertilization components was increased by mineralization with s...

  4. Nutrients Release from a Novel Gel-Based Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Li, W H; Zheng, X. Z.; Wang, M K; Tang, L. N.; Chen, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    A novel gel-based slow/controlled release fertilizer (G-CRF) was developed, which was produced by combining various natural, seminatural, and/or synthetic organic macromolecule materials and natural inorganic mineral with conventional NPK fertilizers. Its nutrient release characteristics were studied to compare with conventional fertilizers through the soil column leaching method. The influences of soil factors, including temperature, pH, water, and nutrient contents in the G-CRF on nutrient ...

  5. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in

  6. Preferential fertilization in Plumbago: Ultrastructural evidence for gamete-level recognition in an angiosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Scott D.

    1985-01-01

    Gametic fusion patterns in the angiosperm Plumbago zeylanica were determined by using cytoplasmically dimorphic sperm cells differing in mitochondrion and plastid content and then identifying paternal organelles through their ultrastructural characteristics within the maternal cytoplasm at the time of fertilization. The virtual absence of plastids within the sperm cell that is physically associated with the vegetative nucleus allows paternal plastids to be used to trace the fate of the two ma...

  7. Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Tropical Forests: Ecosystem-Level Patterns and Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Cusack, Daniela F.; Silver, Whendee; McDowell, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Humid tropical forests are often characterized by large nitrogen (N) pools, and are known to have large potential N losses. Although rarely measured, tropical forests likely maintain considerable biological N fixation (BNF) to balance N losses. We estimated inputs of N via BNF by free-living microbes for two tropical forests in Puerto Rico, and assessed the response to increased N availability using an on-going N fertilization experiment. Nitrogenase activity was measured across forest strata...

  8. [Humus composition of black soil and its organo-mineral complexes under different fertility level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lanpo; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jingshuan; Liu, Shuxia; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Hongbin; Zhang, Zhidan

    2005-01-01

    Determinations by Kumada method showed that with the improvement of black soil fertility, the free and combined humus contents in soil and its different size organo-mineral complexes increased, but the humification degree of free humus decreased, which was more obvious in silt and fine sand size complexes. The organic carbon content in complexes, humus extraction rate, free humus content, and humification degree of free humic acid decreased with the increasing particle size of complexes. All free humic acids in fertile soil were Rp type, while in unfertile soil, they were Rp and B type. With the increasing particle size of complexes, the type of free humic acids changed in the sequence A type (clay)-->B type (silt)-->Rp type (fine sand). Combined form humic acid mainly belonged to A type, no matter what particle size the complex was. The improvement of soil fertility could make the humification degree of free humus in soil and its complexes decrease, and furthermore, result in type change. In black soil, the type change of free humic acid mainly occurred in silt size complex, and that of combined form humic acid mainly occurred in fine sand size complex.

  9. Role of phosphogypsum and NPK amendments on the retention or leaching of metals in different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Rawaa; Kanbar, Hussein Jaafar; Kazpard, Véronique; Wazne, Mahmoud; El Samrani, Antoine G; Amacha, Nabil; Saad, Zeinab; Chou, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the effects of soil physicochemical characteristics on metal mobility in the subsurface. The metals investigated originated from disposed industrial waste byproducts and from agrochemicals spread over the farmlands. Soil column tests can provide insights into leaching of metals to underlying water compartments. The findings of this study can be used for prevention strategies and for setting risk assessment approaches to land-use and management, and soil and water quality and sustainability. Soils collected from an industrial (IS) watershed and an agricultural (AQ) hydrographic basin were used in soil column leaching experiments. The soil samples were characterized for mineralogy, functional groups, grain size, surface charge, soil type, porosity, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) along with elemental composition. Varying concentrations of phosphogypsum industrial waste or agrochemical (NPK fertilizer) was then added to the surface of the packed columns (n = 28). The columns were subjected to artificial rain over a period of 65 days. Leachates were collected and analyzed for dissolved Na(+), K(+), and Cd(2+) throughout the experimental period, whereas residual Cd content in the subsurface soil was measured at the end of the experiment. Physicochemical characterization indicated that the AQ soil has a higher potential for metal retention due to its fine clay texture, calcareous pH, high organic matter content and CEC. Metal release was more prominent in the IS soil indicating potential contamination of the surrounding soil and water compartments. The higher metal release is attributed to soil physicochemical characteristics. High calcium concentrations of phosphogypsum origin is expected to compete for adsorbed bivalent elements, such as Cd, resulting in their release. The physicochemical characteristics of the receiving media should be taken into consideration when planning land-use in order to achieve

  10. Agrotecnólogical characteristics of cane sugar at different times of suppression of irrigation and fertilizer levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Meireles de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of Agrotechnological two varieties of cane sugar influenced by different times of deletions irrigation and fertilization levels. The characteristics evaluated were: plant height (m, stem diameter (mm, number of tillers m- 1, Brix broth, sugar cane Pol, Pol broth, Sugar reducer, and overall productivity. The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Farm area Unimontes in Janaúba in northern Minas Gerais. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replications in a split plot (2 x 3 x 6 , two varieties of cane sugar, RB85 and 5453 SP80 1816, three different times suppression of irrigation (DIAP and six different levels of NK fertilization. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when significant differences were the F test was performed to compare the means by Scott Knott (p<0.05 for all variables, using the software program SISVAR. The varieties showed different behavior at maturity, having variety RB85 5453 higher values in technological quality and productivity at lower rates. The varieties obtained overall average of 24.3 ° Brix, Pol 17.6 % of sugarcane, 21 % Pol broth, 0.6 % AR, 3:08 meters in height, 29.2 mm in diameter, 18.9 tillers m-1, 11.1 stems m-1, t ha-1 159.8 productivity. The varieties responded to different eras of suppression irrigation (DIAP. 6 The level of fertilization provided better performance in terms of this work. The RB85 - 5453 and SP80 -1816 varieties are promising for Nortemineira region.

  11. Differences in chemical composition of soil organic carbon resulting from long-term fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1-3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4-6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3-52.6% and 9.4-64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration.

  12. Differences in chemical composition of soil organic carbon resulting from long-term fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1-3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4-6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3-52.6% and 9.4-64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration. PMID:25884713

  13. Effects of long-term amendment of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer on nitrous oxide emission in a sandy loam soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei-xin; MENG Lei; CAI Zu-cong; HAN Feng-xiang

    2007-01-01

    To understand the effects of long-term amendment of organic manure and N fertilizer on N2O emission in the North China Plain,a laboratory incubation at different temperatures and soil moistures were carried out using soils treated with organic manure (OM),half organic manure plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NPK (NPK), fertilizer NP (NP), fertilizer NK (NK), fertilizer PK (NK) and control (CK) since 1989. Cumulative N2O emission in OM soil during the 17 d incubation period was slightly higher than in NPK soil under optimum nitrification conditions (25C and 60% water-filled pore space, WFPS), but more than twice under the optimum denitrification conditions (35C and 90% WFPS). N2O produced by denitrification was 2.1-2.3 times greater than that by nitrification in OM and HOM soils, but only 1.5 times greater in NPK and NP soils. These results implied that the long-term amendment of organic manure could significantly increase the N2O emission via denitrification in OM soil as compared to NPK soil. This is quite different from field measurement between OM soil and NPK soil. Substantial inhibition of the formation of anaerobic environment for denitrification in field might result in no marked difference in N2O emission between OM and NPK soils. This is due in part to more rapid oxygen diffusion in coarse textured soils than consumption by aerobic microbes until WFPS was 75% and to low easily decomposed organic C of organic manure. This finding suggested that addition of organic manure in the tested sandy loam might be a good management option since it seldom caused a burst of N2O emission but sequestered atmospheric C and maintained efficiently applied N in soil.

  14. Activity and Composition of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in an Aquic Brown Soil as Influenced by Land Use and Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wan-Tai; XU Yong-Gang; BI Ming-Li; MA Qiang; ZHOU Hua

    2010-01-01

    The effects of long-term(19 years)different land use and fertilization on activity and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria(AOB)in an aquic brown soil were investigated in a field experiment in Liaoning Province,China.The 19-year experiment conducted from 1990 to 2008 involved seven treatments designed: cropping rotation of soybean-corn-corn with no fertilizer(control,CK),recycled manure(RM),fertilizer nitrogen(N),phosphorous(P)and potassium(K)(NPK),NPK+RM,and no-crop bare land,mowed fallow,and non-mowed fallow.The results showed that the potential nitrification rates of the RM,NPK+RM,mowed fallow,and non-mowed fallow treatments were significantly higher(P < 0.05)than those of the CK and NPK treatments,indicating that the long-term applications of recycled manure and return of plant residues both significantly increased the activity of AOB.Although the application of NPK did not enhance soil potential nitrification because of decreased pH,available K had an important effect on potential nitrification.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE)fingerprint profiles showed that no-crop treatments had an increase in the diversity of the AOB community compared to the CK,RM,and NPK treatments,implying that agricultural practices,especially tillage,had an adverse effect on the soil AOB community.The NPK+RM treatment had the most diverse DGGE patterns possibly because of the increased available P in this treatment.A phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the DGGE bands derived belonged to Nitrosoxpira cluster 3,not Nitrosospira cluster 2.These demonstrated that different land use and fertilization significantly influenced the activity and composition of the AOB community by altering the soil properties,mainly including pH,total C,available K,and available P.

  15. Effect of Long-Term Potassium Fertilization on Crop Yield and Potassium Efficiency and Balance Under Wheat-Maize Rotation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-Min; YANG Xue-Yun; HE Xin-Hua; XU Ming-Gang; HUANG Shao-Min; LIU Hua; WANG Bo-Ren

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable potassium (K) management at different soil sites requires understanding the relationships between crop productivity and long-term K fertilizations on a regional or national scale. We analyzed responses of grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.), K efficiency, and partial balance (difference between K input through fertilizer and K output in the aboveground biomass) during 15- (1990-2005) or 18-year (1990-2008) K fertilizations at five distinctive agroecological zones across China. Compared to the inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization, the inorganic NPK fertilization significantly increased grain yields of wheat (21%) and maize (16%-72%) at Qiyang and Changping, where soils have low exchangeable and non-exchangeable K contents, but not at (U)rǔmqi, Yangling and Zhengzhou, where soils have a high exchangeable and non-exchangeable K and/or low N/K ratio in crop plants. Compared to the inorganic NPK fertilization, the inorganic NPK (30% N) and organic manure (70% N) fertilization (NPKM) increased grain yields of wheat (14%-40%) and maize (9%-61%) at four sites, but not at Zhengzhou. For a productivity of wheat at 2-5 t ha-1 or maize at 3-6 t ha-1, 13-26 or 9-17 kg K ha-1 were required to produce 1.0 t wheat or maize. The NP fertilization resulted in the lowest negative partial K balance and accumulated 52 kg K ha-1 year-1 less than the NPK fertilization, which accumulated 28 kg ha-1 year-1 less K than the NPKM fertilization. A re-evaluation of the site-specific fertilization effects on N/K rat io in crop plants and soil K accumulation under current NPK and NPKM fertilization is urgently needed to increase both crop yield and K use efficiency at different agroecological zones across China.

  16. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  17. Variation in yield gap induced by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoqin; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Yunsheng; Wang, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under a wheat-maize rotation system from 1990 to 2006 in North China Plain (NCP) to determine the effects of N, P and K on yield and yield gap. There were five treatments: NPK, PK, NK, NP and a control. Average wheat and maize yields were the highest in the NPK treatment, followed by those in the NP plots among all treatments. For wheat and maize yield, a significant increasing trend over time was found in the NPK-treated plots and a decreasing trend in the NK-treated plots. In the absence of N or P, wheat and maize yields were significantly lower than those in the NPK treatment. For both crops, the increasing rate of the yield gap was the highest in the P omission plots, i.e., 189.1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for wheat and 560.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize. The cumulative omission of P fertilizer induced a deficit in the soil available N and extractable P concentrations for maize. The P fertilizer was more pivotal in long-term wheat and maize growth and soil fertility conservation in NCP, although the N fertilizer input was important for both crops growth. The crop response to K fertilizers was much lower than that to N or P fertilizers, but for maize, the cumulative omission of K fertilizer decreased the yield by 26% and increased the yield gap at a rate of 322.7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). The soil indigenous K supply was not sufficiently high to meet maize K requirement over a long period. The proper application of K fertilizers is necessary for maize production in the region. Thus, the appropriate application of N and P fertilizers for the growth of both crops, while regularly combining K fertilizers for maize growth, is absolutely necessary for sustainable crop production in the NCP.

  18. Variation in yield gap induced by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Dai

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted under a wheat-maize rotation system from 1990 to 2006 in North China Plain (NCP to determine the effects of N, P and K on yield and yield gap. There were five treatments: NPK, PK, NK, NP and a control. Average wheat and maize yields were the highest in the NPK treatment, followed by those in the NP plots among all treatments. For wheat and maize yield, a significant increasing trend over time was found in the NPK-treated plots and a decreasing trend in the NK-treated plots. In the absence of N or P, wheat and maize yields were significantly lower than those in the NPK treatment. For both crops, the increasing rate of the yield gap was the highest in the P omission plots, i.e., 189.1 kg ha(-1 yr(-1 for wheat and 560.6 kg ha(-1 yr(-1 for maize. The cumulative omission of P fertilizer induced a deficit in the soil available N and extractable P concentrations for maize. The P fertilizer was more pivotal in long-term wheat and maize growth and soil fertility conservation in NCP, although the N fertilizer input was important for both crops growth. The crop response to K fertilizers was much lower than that to N or P fertilizers, but for maize, the cumulative omission of K fertilizer decreased the yield by 26% and increased the yield gap at a rate of 322.7 kg ha(-1 yr(-1. The soil indigenous K supply was not sufficiently high to meet maize K requirement over a long period. The proper application of K fertilizers is necessary for maize production in the region. Thus, the appropriate application of N and P fertilizers for the growth of both crops, while regularly combining K fertilizers for maize growth, is absolutely necessary for sustainable crop production in the NCP.

  19. Chemical fertilization, organic fertilization and pyroligneous extract in the development of seedlings of areca bamboo palm (Dypsis lutescens)=Adubação química, adubação orgânica e extrato pirolenhoso no desenvolvimento de mudas da palmeira areca bambu (Dypsis lutescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Christina da Silva Wanderley; Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of using chemical fertilization, organic and pyroligneous extract (EPL) on the seedling development of areca bamboo palm was evaluated. Treatments were: T1 = no fertilizer (control), T2 = 0.1% EPL, T3 = 0.2% EPL, T4 = NPK-20-5-20, T5 = NPK-20-5-20 + 0.1% EPL, T6 = NPK-20-05-20 + 0.2% EPL, T7 = castor bean cake, T8 = castor bean cake + 0.1% EPL and T9 = castor bean cake + 0.2% EPL. The EPL solutions were 0.1 or 0.2%, 100 mL per pot, applied every two weeks. NPK 20-5-20 chemical fert...

  20. Orchid growth and nutrition in response to mineral and organic fertilizers Crescimento e nutrição de orquídea em resposta à fertilização mineral e orgânica

    OpenAIRE

    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Víctor Hugo Alvarez V.; José Maria Moreira Dias; Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque Villani

    2010-01-01

    Orchid fertilization is fundamental for a satisfactory plant growth and development for commercial orchid production as well as in collections. Mineral and/or organic sources can be used for fertilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of organic and/or mineral fertilizers on the nutrition and growth of orchid (Laelia purpurata 'werkhanserii' x L. lobata 'Jeni') seedlings in greenhouse. The following fertilizers were tested: an NPK fertilizer + micronutrien...

  1. Ensaio de adubação N-P-K em amendoim N-P-K fertilizer test with peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gargantini

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich contendo terra-roxa-misturada, foi instalado com a finalidade de se determinar o efeito dos elementos fertilizantes nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, na produção do amendoim. Empregou-se para êste estudo o delineamento fatorial 3x4x3, contendo cada tratamento três repetições. Foram colhidos separadamente a parte aérea e os frutos e sôbre êstes dois fatôres foi estudada a ação daqueles elementos fertilizantes. Os dados coletados mostram haver semelhança entre os resultados com a produção da parte aérea e a dos frutos. O elemento responsável pela maior produção foi o fósforo, vindo a seguir o nitrogênio; o potássio não teve influência no aumento de produção. Pelos dados obtidos neste experimento deduz-se que a fórmula de adubação que melhores resultados apresentou foi a N1P3, ou sejam, 30 e 240 quilos de N e P2O5 por hectare, respectivamente.The present test was carried out with peanut plants grown in Mitscherlich pots filled with the "terra-roxa-misturada" type of soil. Its objective was to determine the influence of the three major elements, viz. nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the yield. A 3 x 4 x 3 factorial design was employed, each treatment being replicated 3 times. Both the aerial parts of the plants and the fruit were harvested separately and used for statistical analysis. Fruit yield and weight of aerial parts showed similar responses to the treatments. Phosphorus increased the yield the most, followed by nitrogen; potash had no influence on yield. According to the results obtained the best formula was N1P3, corresponding to 30 and 240 kg of N and P2O5 per hectare, respectively.

  2. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  3. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  4. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

  5. Desain dan Pengujian Metering Device untuk Alat Penjatah Pupuk Granular Laju Variabel (Variable Rate Granular Fertilizer Applicatior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Azis S.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Uniform Rate of fertilizer Application (URA practice is disregarding the productive potential of the various areas within the field. Thus, some area is less fertilized and other is over fertilized. It is also an important issue recently that nitrogen from fertilizers may be subjected to lost into atmosphere or enters streams through surface or subsurface drainage (leaching. The place with over-fertilization will be a potential source of pollution in the form of ammonia (NH3, nitrite (NO2 and nitrate (NO3 which may hazard people health. Variable rate of fertilizer applicator is a solution to overcame the negative impact of URA. It can control the appropriate of fertilizer dosage and location of application in the field. The objective of this research is to design a metering device for variable rate granular fertilizer applicator. The result of variable rate fertilizer testing with single metering device with single rotor indicated that the rate of urea, SP-36 and NPK are 0.84, 0.96 and 1.2 g/rotation respectively. The testing with double rotor indicated that the rate of urea, SP-36 and NPK are 1.14, 2.22 and 2.1 g/rotation respectively. The all of the testing result indicated that metering device which designed can be applied with urea, SP-36 and NPK fertilizer.

  6. Effect of inorganic fertilizers and municipal solid waste manure on some soil physical properties in cotton-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil for three consecutive years (2002-2005) to study the effects of combined use of chemical fertilizers (NPK) and organic manure (municipal solid waste manure-MSWM) on soil organic matter, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, and yields of crops in cotton (Desi)-wheat cropping system. After three years, organic matter content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil increased (42-68%)to 7.1-8.4 g kg from an initial level of 5.0 g kg with out any significant interaction between two fertilizer doses, three management techniques and six seasons except for dose x season interaction where higher organic matter contents were found after each cotton harvest by site-specific fertilizer application. In general, the bulk density of the surface soil increased un-impressively with the time by unique use of fertilizers and decreased gradually by application of integrated plant nutrients management (IPNM) technique using MSWM with or without pesticides/herbicides use. Porosity of soil increased (2.5 %) by applying IPNM technique compared to unique use of chemical fertilizers. Penetration resistance was increased with unique use of fertilizers to a level of 0.80 M Pa from initial value of 0.74 MPa. Presumably due to higher intrinsic bulk density of the soil. Over the three years, on an average, the MSW manured and fertilized plots (IPNM with pesticides/herbicides use ) produced higher i.e. 2% and 11% increase in seed cotton and wheat grain yields respectively than did the plots receiving chemical fertilizers. Neglecting herbicides/pesticides application decreased (4-5%) seed cotton yield. (author)

  7. Growth of chamaecyparis lawsoniana nursery trees with different levels of covering and substrate mineral fertilization / Crescimento de mudas de chamaecyparis lawsoniana em diferentes níveis de adubação mineral do substrato e em cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simultaneous experiments were accomplished in the Nursery of Ornamental Plants of the Federal University of Paraná State with the objective of evaluating the effect of mineral fertilization on the growth of nursery trees of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana planted directly in the field and in individual packings. The experimental design was the completely randomized with five combinations of NPK 4-30-10 + urea, in grams (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 and 120 + 40 for the field and 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 and 40 + 16 for the packings and four replications. The growth of the plants was observed during one year and the height of plants and the diameter of the trunks were evaluated each two months. The fertilization in covering in the field did not stimulate the growth of the plants. The substrate fertilization promoted significantly higher growth of plants in height and diameter of trunks in the period from September to May. The trunk diameter was more influenced, demonstrating that the secondary growth of the plant is more stimulated by the fertilization. The plant growth in the field was greater than the plant growth in individual packings.Foram realizados dois experimentos simultâneos no Viveiro de Plantas Ornamentais da Universidade Federal do Paraná com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação mineral sobre o crescimento de mudas de Chamaecyparis lawsoniana plantadas diretamente no campo e em recipientes individuais. Utilizou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado com cinco combinações de NPK (4-30-10 mais uréia, em gramas, (0 + 0; 30 + 10; 60 + 20; 90 + 30 e 120 + 40, respectivamente para o campo e 0 + 0; 10 + 4; 20 + 8; 30 + 12 e 40 + 16, respectivamente para os recipientes e quatro repetições. O crescimento das plantas foi observado durante um ano, realizando-se avaliações de altura da muda e diâmetro do tronco a cada dois meses. A adubação em cobertura a campo não estimulou o crescimento das mudas. A aduba

  8. Long-term fertilization effects on soil organic carbon fractions in a red soil of southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, X.; Xu, M.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.; Cong, R.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a study of long-term (17 years) fertilization effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions in a typical red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) under intensive cropping with maize-wheat with various fertilizations in Hunan, China. The fertilization treatments include non-fertilization (Control), mineral nitrogen (N), mineral nitrogen-phosphorus (NP), nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium combination (NPK), and mineral NPK combined with organic amendments (e.g., pig manure and straw). Two sets of soil samples were used: (1) collected in 1990, and (2) collected in 2007. Soil samples were separated to measure free particulate organic C (fPOC), intra-microaggregate particulate organic C (iPOC), and mineral associated organic C (MOC) with physical fractionation. The percentage of SOC fractions in all treatments follows an order: MOC (45-89%) >fPOC (7-35%) >iPOC (11-20%), suggesting that MOC is the primary organic carbon pool in the red soil. Compared with the control, there is no increase in iPOC and MOC under imbalanced mineral fertilizer applications (i.e., N, NP). However, all SOC fractions show a significant increase under balanced mineral fertilizer application (NPK), and mineral NPK applied with organic amendments. Particularly, manure application results in an increase of 290.6-408.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 for fPOC, 162.0-179.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for iPOC and 322.9-514.5 kg ha-1 yr-1 for MOC.

  9. Leaching versus input of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in different fertilizer regimens in Christmas tree stands of Abies nordmanniana in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram; Ingerslev, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) fertilization and deposition on nutrient leaching were assessed in four Danish Nordmarm fir Christmas tree stands on former arable land. NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer type was applied in doses between 0 and 1200 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Deposition...

  10. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jurišić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  11. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jurišić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of biomass for energy, food or biomaterials requires certain agricultural practices. The increasing nitrogen loading due to inorganic fertilizers used in conventional agriculture is one of the major global environmental challenges. This research was conducted in central part of Croatia near Park of nature Lonjsko polje, on experimental field which was established 17 years ago in order to determine influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization on nitrate leaching. The soil type of trial site is drained distric Stagnosols and four different nitrogen fertilization levels are taken into consideration: 1. N0+P+K, 2. N100+P+K, 3. N200+P+K, 4. N300+P+K (kg N ha-1. Water samples were taken in periods with lysimeters discharge. Soil sampling (0-0.25 m was carried out four times in the investigated period from June 2007 to June 2008 during the vegetation of maize and winter wheat. Research results indicate that the soil NO3-N content significantly varied (27.3 kg ha–1 to 338.2 kg ha –1 depending on the treatment and sampling time. Compare to the winter sampling time (November 2007 and February 2008 significantly higher content of soil NO3-N was determined in the summer sampling (June 2007 and June 2008. Regarding to the water samples, results revealed that the total nitrate-nitrogen losses were in the range from 5.97 kg NO3-N ha-1 to 112.3 kg NO3-N ha-1. Lysimeter discharge varied in dependence on precipitation and crop type. Total amounts of precipitation during the investigation were 652.5 mm and 34.6 % of them were recorded in lysimeters. Average NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water varied from 2.4 mg L-1 (0 kg N ha-1 up to 54.5 mg L-1 (300 kg N ha-1.

  12. Declines in fertility levels evident in Africa, notes UN Population Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu-amaah, V

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) African regional meeting that was held in November 1997. The meeting was attended by an assortment of UNFPA representatives and program staff. This meeting followed up the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and 1995 regional meetings on the 1994 Plan of Action. These prior meetings emphasized the link between population and development and the urgency of meeting the needs of individual women and men in a people-centered approach to development, rather than a target oriented one. The 1997 meeting reviewed the progress made toward achieving the goals of the 1994 plan of action by the UNFPA. UNFPA aims to decentralize operations, to play a role in emergency situations, to encourage South-to-South cooperation, to advocate for reproductive rights, and to promote gender equity and women's empowerment. The meeting discussed UNFPA's role in reproductive health, population and development strategies, and advocacy in detail. Participants agreed that there were signs of fertility decline in Africa. Countries are beginning to adopt a reproductive health and rights approach and to address female genital mutilation as a human and reproductive right's issue. Population policies are being changed to include ICPD goals. 32 countries adopted new programs in 1996 and 1997, that integrated the 1994 strategies and selectively focused on issues of concern. Partnerships confirm that population issues are becoming an agenda for all. The major challenge ahead is the mobilization of resources, while dealing with civil strife and political instability.

  13. Effects of Chemical Fertilizer Reduction on Soil Microbiological and Microbial Biomass in Wheat Field%化肥减量对麦田土壤微生物量及微生物区系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆; 海江波; 岳忠娜; 门倩

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of chemical fertilizer reduction with organic fertilizer application on soil microbes,winter wheat was planted under diffierent fertilizer treatments.4 chemical fertilizer(NPK) levels of 100%,70%,50% and 30%,and three organic fertilizer(M) level of 18 000,25 500 and 34 500 kg·km-2(representing with LM,MM and HM,respectively) were selected in the experiment with single NPK application as CK.In the treatments with 100% NPK,the explicating amount of urea,diammonium phosphate and potassium sulfate per hectare were 251.8,255.7 and 375.2 kg·km-2,respectively).The serial dilution plate culture method and chloroform evaporated method were used to determine the difference of soil microbial carbon,nitrogen contents and the distribution of microbial flora with different treatment.The results indicated that the together application of organic and inorganic fertilizers significantly increased the content of soil microbial carbon and nitrogen,the number of microbes such as bacteria,nitrogen-fixing bacteria,actinomyces,but did not affect the number of soil fungus.The effect of fertilizers rose with the increasing of organic fertilizer under no reducing of chemical fertilizer.the best treatment was 50%NPK + MM when reducing chemical fertilizer.It illustrated that moderate fertilizer reduction with matching application of organic fertilizer could improve soil microbial biomass in favor of soil fertility.%为了解化肥减量和有机培肥配施对冬小麦田土壤微生物的影响,以单施常量化肥(表示为NPK,分别施尿素、磷酸二铵和硫酸钾251.8、255.7和375.2kg.km-2)为对照,设置不同化肥(不减量、减量30%、减量50%和减量70%)和有机肥(18 000、25 500和34 500kg.km-2,分别用LM、MM和HM表示)配施处理,采用系列稀释平板法和氯仿熏蒸培养法分别测定了不同处理下土壤微生物量碳、氮以及微生物区系分布的差异。结果表明,有机无机

  14. Effects of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Input Levels on Soil NO3−-N Content and Vertical Distribution in Greenhouse Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interactions between irrigation and fertilizer treatments on soil NO3−-N content and vertical distribution under drip fertigation in greenhouse tomatoes. Randomized block design with three replications and the treatments consisting of three levels of irrigation and three levels of N fertilizer were used. Three irrigation levels were W1 (100%  ET0), W2 (75%  ET0), and W3 (50%  ET0) and fertilizer levels were F1 (N240–P2O5120–K2O150 kg hm−2), F2 (N180–P2O590–K2O112.5 kg hm−2), and F3 (N120–P2O560–K2O75 kg hm−2). The result demonstrates that dynamics of soil NO3−-N and its response to drip fertigation and levels of N moved toward the fore soil moist, and the average soil NO3−-N content with W3 treatment was 1.23 times higher than that of the W1 treatment in 0–60 cm at 43 days after transplanting. The negative correlation between N use efficiency and levels of fertilizer N and the N recovery efficiency was increased with increases of N fertilizer application. The fertilizer nitrogen rate greatly significantly influenced soil NO3−-N content. Avoiding N leaching through controlled matching N fertilizer application and controlled irrigation to tomato N demand is the key to maintain crop yield and improve N use efficiency. PMID:27642536

  15. The radioactivity measurements in soils and fertilizers using gamma spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their mineral content, soils are naturally radioactive and one of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to the extensive use of fertilizers. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclides in local production of phosphate fertilizers to determine the content of radioactivity in several commercial fertilizers produced in Algeria and to estimate their radiological impact in a cultivated soil even for the long-term exposure due to their application. For these purposes, virgin and fertilized soils were collected from outlying Setif region in Algeria and from phosphate fertilizers used in this area. Gamma spectrometry was exploited to determine activity concentration due to naturally occurring 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in five types of samples (two different sorts of fertilizers, virgin and fertilized soils and well water used for irrigation) taken from Setif's areas. The results show that these radionuclides were present in an average concentration of 134.7 ± 24.1, 131.8 ± 16.7, 11644 ± 550 Bq/kg for the first fertilizer NPK and 190.3 ± 30, 117.2 ± 10.3, 5312 ± 249 Bq/kg for the second fertilizer (NPKs). For the virgin and the fertilized soils, the corresponding values were respectively 47.01 ± 7.3, 33 ± 7, 329.4 ± 19.7 Bq/kg and 53.2 ± 10.6, 50.0 ± 7, 311.4 ± 18.7 Bq/kg. For well water, the values were 1.93 and 0.12 Bq/kg; however the third value was below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the representative level index Iγr for all samples were also calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature. - Highlights: → We analyze radioactivity in Fertilizers and agricultural soils using Gamma spectrometry technique. → The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples were within the world average. → The fertilizer samples show much higher concentrations.

  16. The radioactivity measurements in soils and fertilizers using gamma spectrometry technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukhenfouf, Wassila, E-mail: boukhenfoufw@yahoo.f [DAC Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, UFAS University, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Boucenna, Ahmed [DAC Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, UFAS University, Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2011-04-15

    Because of their mineral content, soils are naturally radioactive and one of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to the extensive use of fertilizers. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclides in local production of phosphate fertilizers to determine the content of radioactivity in several commercial fertilizers produced in Algeria and to estimate their radiological impact in a cultivated soil even for the long-term exposure due to their application. For these purposes, virgin and fertilized soils were collected from outlying Setif region in Algeria and from phosphate fertilizers used in this area. Gamma spectrometry was exploited to determine activity concentration due to naturally occurring {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in five types of samples (two different sorts of fertilizers, virgin and fertilized soils and well water used for irrigation) taken from Setif's areas. The results show that these radionuclides were present in an average concentration of 134.7 {+-} 24.1, 131.8 {+-} 16.7, 11644 {+-} 550 Bq/kg for the first fertilizer NPK and 190.3 {+-} 30, 117.2 {+-} 10.3, 5312 {+-} 249 Bq/kg for the second fertilizer (NPKs). For the virgin and the fertilized soils, the corresponding values were respectively 47.01 {+-} 7.3, 33 {+-} 7, 329.4 {+-} 19.7 Bq/kg and 53.2 {+-} 10.6, 50.0 {+-} 7, 311.4 {+-} 18.7 Bq/kg. For well water, the values were 1.93 and 0.12 Bq/kg; however the third value was below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the representative level index I{sub {gamma}r} for all samples were also calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature. - Highlights: {yields} We analyze radioactivity in Fertilizers and agricultural soils using Gamma spectrometry technique. {yields} The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples were within the world average. {yields

  17. [Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem. PMID:25509090

  18. [Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem.

  19. Formulation of a liquid fertilizer for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using vermicompost leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; García-Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Rincón Rosales, Reiner; Abud-Archila, Miguel; María Angela, Oliva Llaven; Cruz, Marcos Joaquín Guillen; Dendooven, Luc

    2008-09-01

    Leachate from vermicomposting contains large amounts of plant nutrients and can be used as liquid fertilizer, but normally diluted to avoid plant damage. The amount of nutrients applied is thus reduced so that an additional fertilizer is required. We investigated how dilution of vermicompost leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer, and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected sorghum plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m(-1), contained 834 mg K(+) l(-1), 247 mg NO(3)(-)l(-1) and 168 mg PO(4)(3-) l(-1), was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65 % germination index. Vermicompost leachate can be used as liquid fertilizer for the cultivation of sorghum without dilution and mixed with 140-170 g l(-1) of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and 2-3 ml(-1) of dispersant and 0-1 ml l(-1) adherent. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth.

  20. [Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

    2013-10-01

    An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency.

  1. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Native Soil Properties on Rice Grain Fe, Zn and Protein Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. CHANDEL; S. BANERJEE; S. SEE; R. MEENA; D. J. SHARMA; S. B. VERULKAR

    2010-01-01

    Deposition of protein and metal ions (Fe, Zn) in rice grains is a complex polygenic trait showing considerable environmental effect. To analyze the effect of nitrogen application levels and native soil properties on rice grain protein, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents, 32 rice genotypes were grown at three different locations each under 80 and 120 kg/hm2 nitrogen fertilizer applications. In treatments with nitrogen fertilizer application, the brown rice grain protein content (GPC) increased significantly (1.1% to 7.0%) under higher nitrogen fertilizer application (120 kg/hm2) whereas grain Fe/Zn contents showed non-significant effect of nitrogen application level, thus suggesting that the rate of uptake and translocation of macro-elements does not influence the uptake and translocation of micro-elements. The pH, organic matter content and inherent Fe/Zn levels of native soil showed significant effects on grain Fe and Zn contents of all the rice genotypes. Grain Zn content of almost all the tested rice genotypes was found to increase at Location III having loamy soil texture, neutral pH value (pH 6.83) and higher organic matter content than the other two locations (Locations I and II), indicating significant influence of native soil properties on brown rice grain Zn content while grain Fe content showed significant genotype × environment interaction effect. Genotypic difference was found to be the most significant factor to affect grain Fe/Zn contents in all the tested rice genotypes, indicating that although native soil properties influence phyto-availability of micronutrients and consequently influencing absorption, translocation and grain deposition of Fe/Zn ions, yet genetic makeup of a plant determines its response to varied soil conditions and other external factors. Two indica rice genotypes R-RF-31 (27.62 μg/g grain Zn content and 7.80% GPC) and R1033-968-2-1 (30.05 μg/g grain Zn content and 8.47% GPC) were identified as high grain Zn and moderate GPC

  2. Differential responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term fertilization in a New England salt marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng ePeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, new questions have arisen about population and community dynamics and potential interactions between AOA and ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria (AOB. We investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on AOA and AOB in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Falmouth, MA, USA to address some of these questions. Sediment samples were collected from low and high marsh habitats in July 2009 from replicate plots that received low (LF, high (HF, and extra high (XF levels of a mixed NPK fertilizer biweekly during the growing season since 1974. Additional untreated plots were included as controls (C. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amoA genes revealed distinct shifts in AOB communities related to fertilization treatment, but the response patterns of AOA were less consistent. Four AOB operational taxonomic units (OTUs predictably and significantly responded to fertilization, but only one AOA OTU showed a significant pattern. Betaproteobacterial amoA gene sequences within the Nitrosospira-like cluster dominated at C and LF sites, while sequences related to Nitrosomonas spp. dominated at HF and XF sites. We identified some clusters of AOA sequences recovered primarily from high fertilization regimes, but other clusters consisted of sequences recovered from all fertilization treatments, suggesting greater physiological diversity. Surprisingly, fertilization appeared to have little impact on abundance of AOA or AOB. In summary, our data reveal striking patterns for AOA and AOB in response to long-term fertilization, and also suggest a missing link between community composition and abundance and nitrogen processing in the marsh.

  3. Effects of long-term phosphorus fertilization and straw incorporation on phosphorus fractions in subtropical paddy soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-yuan; YANG Rui; GAO Ru; WEI Hong-an; CHEN An-lei; LI Yong

    2015-01-01

    Study on soil phosphorus (P) fraction is an important aspect in probing the mechanisms of soil P accumulation in farm-land and mitigating its losing risk to the environment. We used a sequential extraction method to evaluate the impacts of long-term fertilization and straw incorporation on inorganic, organic, and residual P (Pi, Po, and Pre) fractions in the plow layer (0–20 cm) of acidic paddy soil in southern China. The experiment comprised of six treatments:(i) no fertilizer control (CK); (i ) straw incorporation and green manure (SG); (i i) nitrogen and P fertilizer (NP); (iv) NP+SG; (v) NP+K fertilizer (NPK);and (vi) NPK+SG. The results showed that, compared to the initial total soil P content (TSP, 600 mg kg–1 in 1990), long-term (20 years) combined continuous P fertilizer and SG signiifcantly increased P accumulation (by 13–20%) while single fertilization (39.3 kg P ha–1 yr–1) could maintain soil P status at the most. The average soil P fractions comprised of extractable Pi, Po, and Pre by 51.7, 33.4, and 14.9%in total soil P, respectively. With comparison of no fertilizer addition (CK), long-term single fertilization signiifcantly (P0.05), our data indicate that SG may partial y substitute for fertilizer P input and minimizing soil P accumulation and subsequent environmental risk in the subtropical paddy soil.

  4. Effects of long-term fertilizer on soil fertility and soil enzyme activities in upland red soils%长期施肥对旱地红壤肥力和酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵兴华; 徐金仁; 张建忠; 李海峰; 周同林; 张辉

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the relation between soil enzyme activity and soil chemical propertities in upland red soil under different fertilizer treatments, we conducted a study to determine the effects of pig manure, inorganic fertiliser and combination of pig manure and inorganic NPK on soil chemical and biological properties in a more than 30 a long-term fertilization experiment. The treatments as the following: no fertilization(CK), N, NP, NPK, double NPK, pig manure, NPK+pig manure. The results showed, the total N content had no significant difference between different treatments. The only applied N could significantly improve available N in soil. Soil pH, organic matter, total P and available P in manure fertilization treatments ( NPK+pig manure and pig manure) all increased significantly compared with no fertilization (CK) and mineral fertilization treatmets (N, NP, NPK and double NPK). Except for the highest urease activity was double NPK treatment, the soil invertase, dehydrognease, catalase and acid phosphatase activities were all significantly higher than those in other fertilization treatments. Acid phosphatase, catalase, dehydrognease and urease activities were significant and dramatically significant positively correlated with total N, organic matter and available N. So, manure application or co-application of manure and mineral fertilizers not only increased the soil fertility, but also enhanced significantly soil enzymes activities, thus could improve red soil sustainable productivity.%为了明确不同施肥种类对旱地红壤肥力与酶活性的影响,以30年(1981年至今)长期定位试验地为基础,研究不同施肥处理(CK,N,NP,NPK,2倍NPK,猪粪,NPK+猪粪)旱地红壤玉米田耕层(0~20 cm)土壤酶活性与养分的变化趋势及其相关性.结果表明:1)全N含量各处理间差异不显著,单施N肥显著增加土壤速效N,施有机肥处理(NPK+猪粪,猪粪)土壤的pH值、有机质、全P、速效P均显著增加;2)

  5. Mercury in some chemical fertilizers and the effect of calcium superphosphate on mercury uptake by corn seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiulan; Wang, Dingyong

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contents in ten chemical fertilizers were determined, and the effect of calcium superphosphate (CSP) on the uptake and translocation of Hg in corn seedlings was investigated by pot experiments. CSP was applied at the levels of 0, 66.7, and 133.4 mg P2O5/kg to Hg-treated (2 mg/kg) and untreated soils. CSP had the highest Hg content (5.1 mg/kg), followed by the NPK compound fertilizer 15-5-5 (15% N, 5% P2O5, 5% K2O) (1.2 mg/kg), then by nitrogen fertilizers (except for ammonia sulfate) and potassium fertilizers. Application of CSP did not obviously influence the biomass of corn roots, but it significantly increased the biomass of corn shoots in Hg-treated soil. Application of CSP at the levels of 66.7 and 133.4 mg P2O5/kg did not obviously influence the uptake of Hg by corn seedlings on soils without Hg treatment, but it decreased the Hg uptake of corn seedlings significantly on Hg-treated soils. The transfer coefficient of Hg in corn seedlings improved slightly on soils without Hg treatment, but decreased slightly on Hg-treated soils with the application of CSP. These results implied that CSP could ameliorate Hg toxicity to corn seedlings by inhibiting the uptake and the translocation of Hg in plants on Hg-polluted soils. PMID:21179956

  6. 红芪氮素吸收和多糖积累规律及施肥响应%Response of hedysari radix nitrogen absorption and polysaccharide accumulation to fertilizer application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺海明; 刘学周; 程卫东; 杨建军

    2011-01-01

    It is critical to establish a standard cultivation procedure forhedysari radix, and explore new ways of using less fertilizer for high yields of Chinese herbal crops, and provide theoretical basis for the application of palygorskite in cultivating Chinese traditional medicine. To that end, a field experiment was conducted to study the dynamics, absorption and distribution of nitrogen and polysaccharides in hedysari radix. The effects of palygorskite application rates of 750 kghm-2 (PI), 1 500 kg-hm2 (P2) and 2 250 kg-hm-2 (P3) with NPK fertilizer on nitrogen absorption and polysaccharide accumulation in hedysari radix were also analyzed. The results showed that the critical period of nitrogen nutrition in aboveground part of hedysari radix was late June to late July. However, increased nitrogen requirement by the root system of hedysari radix was noted in late August. From late September to late October, nitrogen transfer occurred from aboveground part to belowground tissues. Also from late June to late August, the content of polysaccharides sharply increased in the root system of hedysari radix plant. Compared with only NPK application, combined application of palygorskite and NPK fertilizer increased N content at the late growth stage of the plant. It also increased N content in roots and active aboveground growth tissues. Compared with NPK treatment, NPK+P3, NPK+P2 and NPK+P1 treatments increased hedysari radix N accumulation at harvest by 45.22%, 29.45% and 20.06%, respectively. N accumulation in the aboveground part of the plant under NPK+P3 treatment increased by 71.99%, compared with NPK treatment. N accumulation in the root system under NPK+P3 and NPK+P2 treatments increased by 38.72% and 26.07%, respectively. NPK+P3 treatment promoted N accumulation and prolonged the period of N accumulation in the aboveground part of hedysari radix at the early growth stage. It also delayed N de-accumulationin the aboveground part of the plant at the late growth stage

  7. Fertilization strategies affect phosphorus forms and release from soils and suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Teresa; Celi, Luisella; Bünemann, Else K; Oberson, Astrid; Frossard, Emmanuel; Barberis, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    The release of phosphorus from soils in surface runoff is strongly influenced by fertilizer inputs and contributes significantly to agriculturally driven eutrophication. This work evaluated the forms and availability of P in bulk soils and suspended solids (SS) produced by a water dispersion test that mimics the action of rain events and/or irrigation. This test was applied on soils cultivated with maize and fertilized with mineral N, P, and K (NPK); mineral P and K (PK); bovine slurry and P (S); or manure and P (M) for 15 yr. The P surplus in the treated soils was in the order NPK fertilizer-derived P salts in the suspended solids control P forms and exchangeability for mineral fertilizer treatments, whereas in M soil carbon content assumed a key role.

  8. Fertilization strategies affect phosphorus forms and release from soils and suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Teresa; Celi, Luisella; Bünemann, Else K; Oberson, Astrid; Frossard, Emmanuel; Barberis, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    The release of phosphorus from soils in surface runoff is strongly influenced by fertilizer inputs and contributes significantly to agriculturally driven eutrophication. This work evaluated the forms and availability of P in bulk soils and suspended solids (SS) produced by a water dispersion test that mimics the action of rain events and/or irrigation. This test was applied on soils cultivated with maize and fertilized with mineral N, P, and K (NPK); mineral P and K (PK); bovine slurry and P (S); or manure and P (M) for 15 yr. The P surplus in the treated soils was in the order NPK fertilizer-derived P salts in the suspended solids control P forms and exchangeability for mineral fertilizer treatments, whereas in M soil carbon content assumed a key role. PMID:25602831

  9. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND SHRINKAGE OF Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel WOOD IN A HOMOGENEOUS PLANTING UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Bonifácio Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposa of this work was to study the influence of fertilization on wood quality of Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel. A homogeneous planting trial, under different levels of liming and phosphorus, was established by Embrapa-Cerrados 18 years ago in Planaltina, Distrito Federal, Brazil, tropical wood savanna region. Mechanical tests conducted were static bending, parallel compression to grain, shear strength and shrinkage. No significant differences were observed for mechanical properties or for shrinkage, which presented: ¦b = 650kg/cm2, E = 59.877kg/cm2, ¦c = 296kg/cm2 e ¦n = 131kg/cm2. Control treatment showed highest values for shear strength and compression parallel to grain. Too many branches in all trees and also too many knots in lumber were observed. Pruning is recommended for homogeneous planting of Sclerolobium paniculatum to avoid knots in order to be produced wood of superior quality.

  10. Short Communication: Primordial radionuclides contamination level in fertilized farms soils of Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim-Akhtar*, M. Tufail, Muhammad Yousuf Hussain and Muhammad Akram

    2011-04-01

    leads to theinformation that the existing radiation contamination in the soils of the investigated farms is not animmediate hazard to the labourers/general public who are in contact with these farms. However, if thecultivation of these farms with the use of artificial fertilizers goes on then with time, in future the soilsof these farms may pose a risk for the general public.

  11. 长期施肥砂姜黑土微生物学特征差异及评价%Difference and assessment in microbial characteristics of lime concretion black soil affected by long-term fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欢; 曹承富; 张存岭; 李玮; 乔玉强; 赵竹; 杜世州; 张向前

    2015-01-01

    significantly by long-term application of organic fertilizer , while that of acid phosphatase was not .The effects of the NPK treatment on these enzyme activities were opposite to organic fertilizer .4 ) Two principal components were extracted from the initial 9 indicators.The major contributors of primary component were bacteria , actinomycete, SMBC, SMBN, urease and invertase, and the secondary contributors were fungi , acid and neutral phosphatase .Being evaluated comprehensively by principle components analysis , the micro-ecosystem qualities in treatments of MNPK and HMNPK were in the 1st level, M in the 2nd level and NPK and CK in the 3rd level.[Conclusions] The comprehensive best microbial ecological function in lime concretion black soil is found in the long-term organic plus inorganic fertilization condition , then is the mere organic fertilizer application and worst is the pure mineral fertilizer application and non-fertilization.%[目的]作为安徽省主要中低产土壤类型之一,砂姜黑土不良属性严重制约旱地粮食作物稳产增产,因此本研究利用长期定位试验研究砂姜黑土微生物特征对不同施肥模式的响应,为改善砂姜黑土生态功能、 提高地力可持续性等提供理论依据. [方法]基于安徽省杨柳长期定位试验(始于1981年),研究5种施肥模式,不施肥(CK)、单施化肥( NPK)、单施有机肥( M)、有机肥与化肥配施(等氮) ( MNPK)、有机肥与化肥配施(高氮) ( HMNPK)砂姜黑土耕层土壤可培养微生物数量、微生物生物量及酶活性等微生物学性状的变化规律,并通过主成分分析方法对不同施肥模式下的土壤微生态进行综合评价. [结果]与不施肥相比,长期施用有机肥( M、MNPK和HMNPK)可显著增加土壤微生物总数量( 15.68 22.80倍) ,尤其是细菌和放线菌数量,二者分别于M、MNPK处理达最高值(30.50 ×10 5 cfu/g和15.50 ×10 4 cfu/g);长期单施有机肥对土壤真菌有明显抑制作用,单施

  12. Influences of consecutive 13-year long-term fertilization on yields of rice and wheat and soil fertility in Xihu Plain%西湖平原区连续13年定位施肥对麦、稻产量及土壤肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐祖祥

    2011-01-01

    The consecutive 13-year long-term fertilization trials with six fertilization treatments in Xihu plain were conducted to explore influences of long-term fertilization on the yields of single-cropping late rice and winter wheat and soil fertility. The results show that yields of wheat and rice arc increased significantly under the application of chemical fertilizers combined with organic manure. The results of soil nutrient analysis show that contents of soil organic matter and total nitrogen are gradually increased with experimental time among the all treatments. The highest value of soil organic matter content is observed in the treatment of the application of manure plus chemical fertilizers, which is 25.8% more than that at the beginning of the trials. Among the six treatments, the content of soil organic matter are increased in the order of manure plus chemical fertilizers (NPK) > straw mulching plus chemical fertilizers (NPK) > chemical fertilizers (NPK) > straw > control. The results of soil physical analysis show that there are significant rising trends in soil water-stable granular structure and total soil porosity during 13 years in all fertiliation treatments, which is beneficial to the improvement of soil physical characteristics. Soil nutrient balance analysis on consecutive 13-year fixed-location fertilization indicate that NPK plus manure, NPK plus straw and NPK treatments have a surplus of nitrogen and phosphorus, while straw and control treatments show deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. NPK plus manure and NPK plus straw show balances of input and output of potassium in soils, while NPK, straw, and control treatments show deficiencies of potassium in soils. The consecutive fixed-location fertilization suggests that the application of chemical fertilizer combined with organic manure could increase crop yield and improved soil fertility. The increasing application of potassium fertilizer would help the balances of nutrients in soils.%

  13. Changes in Organic Carbon Index of Grey Desert Soil in Northwest China After Long-Term Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yong-mei; LIU Hua; WANG Xi-he; XU Ming-gang; ZHANG Wen-ju; JIANG Gui-ying

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and SMBC quotient (SMBC/SOC, qSMBC) are key indexes of soil biological fertility because of the relationship to soil nutrition supply capacity. Yet it remains unknown how these three indexes change, which limits our understanding about how soil respond to different fertilization practices. Based on a 22-yr (1990-2011) long-term fertilization experiment in northwest China, we investigated the dynamics of SMBC and qSMBC during the growing period of winter wheat, the relationships between the SMBC, qSMBC, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations, the carbon input and grain yield of wheat as well. Fertilization treatments were 1) nonfertilization (control);2) chemical nitrogen plus phosphate plus potassium (NPK);3) NPK plus animal manure (NPKM);4) double NPKM (hNPKM) and 5) NPK plus straw (NPKS). Results showed that the SMBC and qSMBC were signiifcantly different among returning, jointing, lfowering and harvest stages of wheat under long-term fertilization. And the largest values were observed in the lfowering stage. Values for SMBC and qSMBC ranged from 37.5 to 106.0 mg kg-1 and 0.41 to 0.61%, respectively. The mean value rank of SMBC during the whole growing period of wheat was hNPKM>NPKM>NPKS>CK>NPK. But there were no statistically signiifcant differences between hNPKM and NPKM, or between CK and NPK. The order for qSMBC was NPKS>NPKM>CK>hNPKM>NPK. These results indicated that NPKS signiifcantly increased the ratio of SMBC to SOC, i.e., qSMBC, compared with NPK fertilizer or other two NPKM fertilizations. Signiifcant linear relationships were observed between the annual carbon input and SOC (P<0.01) or SMBC (P<0.05), and between the relative grain yield of wheat and the SOC content as well (P<0.05). But the qSMBC was not correlated with the annual carbon input. It is thus obvious that the combination of manure, straw with mineral fertilizer may be beneift to increase SOC and improve soil quality than

  14. Evaluation of agricultural fertilizers on the productivity of microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarita Silva-Benavides

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productivity of microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230 with two different foliar fertilizers used in agriculture and the comparison with the nutrient medium Kolwitz (K3.Variables assessed were cell growth, productivity, chlorophyll concentration, fluorescence (Fv/Fm, proteins, and carbohydrates. Two commercial fertilizers with NPK 20-20-20 and NPK 22-10-7 formula were used as nutrient media. The study was conducted at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Florence, Italy, in 2014. Each experiment was repeated five times using three replicates in each experiment under a light intensity of 150 μmol photons m2/s, temperature 28 °C and CO2/air (2:98v/v. The culture media were prepared by using the following fertilizers: 1 NPK 20-20-20 (1.00 g/l + 0.27 g/l MgSO4.7H2O, 2 NPK 22-10-7 (+2 MgO (1.00 g/l + 0.27 g/l MgSO4.7H2O, 3 NPK 22-10-7 (+2 MgO (1.00 g/l, 4 NPK 20-20-20 (1.00 g/l. The nutrient medium Kolwitz (K3 was used as a control. Higher cell concentrations, productivity, chlorophyll, fluorescence, proteins, and carbohydrates were obtained in cultures grown in the media prepared with magnesium sulfate (NPK 20-20-20 (1.00 g/l + 0.27 g/l MgSO4.7H2O, and NPK 22-10-7 (+2 MgO (1.00 g/l + 0.27 g/l MgSO4.7H2O. Lower biomass growth was obtained in cultures lacking magnesium sulfate. Sulfide and magnesium, as well as the amounts of urea and ammonia in the chemical composition of each fertilizer, had a positive effect on the culture growth and productivity. 

  15. [Effect of Long-term Fertilizer Application on the Stability of Organic Carbon in Particle Size Fractions of a Paddy Soil in Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xia-li; Lu, Kou-ping; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-kai; He, Li-zhi; Wang, Hai-long

    2015-05-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers and organic manure on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in particle size fractions of paddy soil were investigated in a 17-year long-term fertilization field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China. The inherent chemical composition of silt- and clay-associated SOC was evaluated with solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to CK (no fertilizer treatment), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers plus rice straw) , NPKOM (NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) , NPK (NPK fertilizers) and OM (organic manure alone) treatments significantly (P NPK fertilizers alone, combined application of organic amendments and NPK fertilizers facilitated the storage of newly sequestered SOC in silt- and clay-sized fractions, which could be more conducive to the stability of SOC. Based on 13C-NMR spectra, both silt and clay fractions were composed of Alkyl-C, O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C and carbonyl-C. Changes in the relative proportion of different C species were observed between silt and clay fractions: the clay fraction had relatively more Alkyl-C, carbonyl-C and less O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C than those in the silt fraction. This might be ascribed to the fact that the organic matter complexed with clay was dominated by microbial products, whereas the silt appeared to be rich in aromatic residues derived from plants. The spectra also showed that the relative proportion of different C species was modified by fertilization practices. In comparison with organic amendments alone, the relative proportion of Alkyl-C was decreased by 9.1%-11.9% and 13.7%-19.9% under combined application of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers, for silt and clay, respectively, and that of O-alkyl-C was increased by 2.9%-6.3% and 13.4%-22.1%, respectively. These results indicated that NPKOM and NPKRS treatments reduced the decomposition rate of SOC. The aromaticity, hydrophobicity and, hence, chemical recalcitrance of silt- and clay-associated SOC in the NPK fertilizer treatments were lower

  16. Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  17. Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Carvalho Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér, a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure; 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure + 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien were obtained with mineral fertilizer.

  18. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  19. [Effects of different fertilization modes on paddy field topsoil organic carbon content and carbon sequestration duration in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Qun; Yang, Min-Fang; Xu, Min-Lun; Zhang, Wu-Yi; Bian, Xin-Min

    2012-01-01

    Based on the organic carbon data of 222 topsoil samples taken from 38 paddy field experiment sites in South China, calculations were made on the relative annual change of topsoil organic carbon content (RAC) and carbon sequestration duration in the paddy fields in South China under five fertilization modes (inorganic nitrogen fertilization, N; inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, NP; inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization, NPK; organic fertilization, O; and inorganic plus organic fertilization, OF). The RAC under the fertilizations was 0-0.4 g x kg(-1) x a(-1), with an increment of 0.20 and 0.26 g x kg(-1) x a(-1) in double and triple cropping systems, respectively. The RAC was higher in treatments O and OF than in treatments N, NP, and NPK, being the highest (0.32 g x kg(-1) x a(-1)) in treatment OF. The topsoil organic carbon accumulation rate decreased with increasing time, and the carbon sequestration duration in treatments N, NP, NPK, O, and OF was about 22, 28, 38, 57, and 54 years, respectively. Inorganic plus organic fertilization was the most effective practice for soil carbon sequestration in the paddy fields in South China.

  20. Breakdown of low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil using grasses and willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Patrick; Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Schulthess, Cristian P; Guillard, Karl

    2016-01-01

    A phytoremediation study targeting low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was conducted using cool- and warm-season grasses and willows (Salix species) grown in pots filled with contaminated sandy soil from the New Haven Rail Yard, CT. Efficiencies of the TPH degradation were assessed in a 90-day experiment using 20-8.7-16.6 N-P-K water-soluble fertilizer and fertilizer with molasses amendments to enhance phytoremediation. Plant biomass, TPH concentrations, and indigenous microbes quantified with colony-forming units (CFU), were assessed at the end of the study. Switchgrass grown with soil amendments produced the highest aboveground biomass. Bacterial CFU's were in orders of magnitude significantly higher in willows with soil amendments compared to vegetated treatments with no amendments. The greatest reduction in TPH occurred in all vegetated treatments with fertilizer (66-75%) and fertilizer/molasses (65-74%), followed sequentially by vegetated treatments without amendments, unvegetated treatments with amendments, and unvegetated treatments with no amendment. Phytoremediation of low-level TPH contamination was most efficient where fertilization was in combination with plant species. The same level of remediation was achievable through the addition of grasses and/or willow combinations without amendment, or by fertilization of sandy soil. PMID:26553847

  1. Effect of Different Fertilization Practices on Yield of a Wheat-Maize Rotation and Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A 15-year field experiment was carried out in Henan Province, China, to study the effects of different fertilization practices on yield of a wheat-maize rotation. Fertilizers tested contained N alone (N), N plus P (NP) or plus P and K (NPK), all with or without manure (M). Different long-term fertilization practices affected the yields under the rotation system of wheat and maize differently and the effects on yields was in a general trend of MNPK>MNP>MN>NPK>NP>M>N>the control. The average contribution rate of soil fertility to the highest yield was 37.9%, and the rest 62.1% came from fertilizer applications. The yield effects of the chemical fertilizers were in the order of N>P>K and were increased by application of manure.Balanced fertilization with multielement chemical fertilizers and manure can be effective in maintaining growth in agricultural production. Combined application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure also increased the content of soil organic matter.

  2. Restoration of European yew (Taxus baccata L. in Mediterranean mountains: importance of seedling nursery fertilization and post-planting light levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Nicolás Peragón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We studied the influence of nursery fertilization and post-planting light environment on the growth and survival of out-planted two-year-old yew (Taxus baccata seedlings.Area of study: Post-planting performance was assessed at two sites in the Valsain Forest (Central Mountain Range, Segovia, Spain.Materials and Methods: Seedlings were grown using the same seed-lot, container type and fertirrigation schedule. A soluble fertilizer with two contrasting doses resulting in 239 and 376 mg N per seedling was applied during the whole culture period. Seedlings grown under the highest level of fertilization had greater root collar diameter, height, shoot to root ratio, root and shoot mass, and root growth potential before planting. Post-planting performance was assessed at two sites in the Valsain Forest (Central Mountain Range, Segovia, Spain. In each site, seedlings from both fertilization treatments were planted in three plots with contrasting light environment (full sunlight, and under Pinus sylvestris stands with moderate and deep shade conditions. Survival, diameter and height growth were monitored for six years.Main results: Nursery fertilization did not affect survival, but high fertilization enhanced post-planting growth. Survival was highest under deep shade conditions but growth in this microsite was lower than in higher light sites, revealing a trade-off for survival and growth across light levels.Research highlights: The lower fertilization rate used in this study was suitable to produce seedlings with acceptable quality. Planting under shaded conditions (light availability<30% is recommended to maximize the initial success of yew plantations in Mediterranean mountains.Keywords: Taxus baccata; plant quality; field growth; survival; reforestation.

  3. Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

  4. The effect of fertilizer applications on 137Cs uptake by different plant species and vegetation types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial carried out in a greenhouse over a two-year period is discussed. The effects on 137Cs concentration in plants, roots and soil have been investigated versus the grassland species composition (legume, grass and mixture) and eight combinations of mineral fertilizers (NPK). The results indicate: (a) the effect of K fertilizer in reducing 137Cs plant absorption; (b) the effect of N fertilizer in favouring grass growth and radiocaesium absorption; (c) for all fertilizer combinations, a higher 137Cs storage in the root system of the legumes and a lower 137Cs absorption in the plants. (author)

  5. Power efficiency of mineral and organic fertilizers application in crop rotations

    OpenAIRE

    BOSAK V.M.

    2009-01-01

    In researches on sod podzolic light loamy soil the application of mineral and organic fertilizers has provided high indicators of agronomic and power efficiency. Entering of mineral fertilizers has raised efficiency of field crop rotations on 19,9-30,3 tha -1 of f.u., as well as entering of organic fertilizers on 5,2-10,8 tha -1 of f.u. at a recoupment of 1 ton of manure of 65,0-131,3 f.u. and 1 kg of NPK of 8,1-9,7 f.u. Power return of application of mineral fertilizers in crop rotations has...

  6. HIV and Fertility Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan; Belgi Turan

    2010-01-01

    Young (2005) argues that HIV related population declines reinforced by the fertility response to the epidemic will lead to higher capital-labor ratios and to higher per capita incomes in the affected countries of Africa. Using household level data on fertility from South Africa and relying on between cohort variation in country level HIV infection, he estimates a large negative effect of HIV prevalence on fertility. However, the studies that utilize the recent rounds of Demographic Health Sur...

  7. 长期不同施肥模式红壤性水稻土磷素变化%Variation of soil phosphorus under long-term fertilization in red paddy soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶会财; 李大明; 黄庆海; 柳开楼; 余喜初; 徐小林; 周利军; 胡惠文; 王赛莲

    2015-01-01

    用在提高土壤全磷含量的同时也提高磷素的有效性. 土壤有效磷超过20 mg/kg后相对产量提高缓慢. 氮磷钾化肥与有机肥配合施用是提高耕层土壤磷素库容和提高磷素活化能力的有效措施.%[Objectives] The study was aimed to clarify the change of the total and available phosphorus contents in arable layer of red paddy soil under long-term fertilization practices , to find relationship between the available phosphorus content and the accumulation or loss of phosphorus , and find out the most effective fertilization method of improving yield and soil fertility .[Methods] The experiment was in a double rice cropping system and composed of different fertilization treatments:nitrogen and potassium ( NK) , NPK fertilizer ( NPK) , two times NPK fertilizer (NPK2), NPK fertilizer with milk vetch in early rice and with pig manure in late rice (NPKM), and no fertilizer ( CK) .Irrigation and pesticide were applied following the local management practices , and rice cultivars were replaced periodically .The available and total phosphorus contents in top layer soils of the five fertilization treatments from 1981 to 2012 were analyzed .The relationship between incremental available phosphorus and the surplus or loss phosphorus amount was calculated .[Results] The annual average P deficiency of CK is 22.7 kg/hm2 , while the available phosphorus content maintains balance at a low level after 32 years.The annual P deficiency of the NK treatment is 27.9 kg/hm2 , which is significantly higher than that of CK , and the total phosphorus content is reduced slowly by 8.6%after 32 years, while the available phosphorus is not changed .The average annual P surplus of the NPK , NPK2 and NPKM treatments are 33.3 , 39.0 and 41.0 kg/hm2 , respectively , the total phosphorus contents are increased by 32.1%, 89.4%and 165.1%, respectively , and the available phosphorus contents are increased by 2.2, 6.9 and 15.3 times, respectively ( the annual

  8. The Impact of Serum Progesterone Levels on the Results of In Vitro Fertilization Treatments: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jaime Larach Del; Bousamra, Maroun; Fuente, Laura De La; Ruiz-Balda, Jose A; Palomo, Marissa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review is to analyze the relationship between preovulatory progesterone (P) rise and in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy outcomes. It also investigates the sources and effects of rises in progesterone levels, including the underlying mechanisms and potential strategies in preventing its elevation during ovarian stimulation. Progesterone is produced in the early follicular phase in the adrenal gland, which shifts toward the ovaries prior to ovulation. Several factors contribute to the etiology of P level increase including the number of multiple follicles, the overdose of gonadotropins and poor ovarian response. Nowadays, the influence of the preovulatory P rise on IVF outcome remains controversial. Several authors have failed to demonstrate any negative impact, while others reported a detrimental effect associated with the rise of P. It seems that P rise (1.5 ng/ml or 4.77 nmol/l) may have deleterious effects on endometrial receptivity, namely, accelerating the endometrial maturation process that subsequently narrows the period for implantation and thus decreases pregnancy rates. Recent studies have proposed different cutoffs according to the ovarian response, which may be a little high in patients with high response in relation to those of normal response or low response. To prevent a P rise, it might be preferable to use milder stimulation protocols, earlier trigger of ovulation, cryopreservation of all embryos and transfer in the natural cycle.

  9. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  10. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camilla Bof; Knupp, Eliana Aparecida Nonato; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano, E-mail: cgbs@cdtn.b [Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena; Ciqueira, Maria Celia [Pocos de Caldas Lab., (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  11. Dynamic Relationship Between Biologically Active Soil Organic Carbon and Aggregate Stability in Long-Term Organically Fertilized Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-Liang; XU Jiang-Bing; HE Yuan-Qiu; LIU Yan-Li; FAN Jian-Bo

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active soil organic carbon (BASOC) is an important fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC),but our understanding of the correlation between BASOC and soil aggregate stability is limited.At an ecological experimental station (28° 04′-28° 37′ N,116°41′-117° 09′ E) in Yujiang County,Jiangxi Province,China,we analyzed the dynamic relationship between soil aggregate stability and BASOC content over time in the red soil (Udic Ferrosols) fertilized with a nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium chemical fertilizer (NPK)without manure or with NPK plus livestock manure or green manure.The dynamics of BASOC was evaluated using CO2 efflux,and soil aggregates were separated according to size using a wet-sieving technique.The soils fertilized with NPK plus livestock manure had a significantly higher content of BASOC and an improved aggregate stability compared to the soils fertilized with NPK plus green manure or NPK alone The BASOC contents in all fertilized soils decreased over time The contents of large aggregates (800-2000μm) dramatically decreased over the first 7 d of incubation,but the contents of small aggregates (< 800.μm) either remained the same or increased,depending on the incubation time and specific aggregate sizes.The aggregate stability did not differ significantly at the beginning and end of incubation,but the lowest stability inall fertilized soils occurred in the middle of the incubation,which implied that the soils had a strong resilience for aggregate stability.The change in BASOC content was only correlated with aggregate stability during the first 27 d of incubation.

  12. Transformations of Fractions of Exogenous Chromium(Ⅲ)in Manural Loess Soil After Long- term Fertil-ization%长期不同施肥塿土对外源Cr(Ⅲ)形态转化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉会; 张树兰; 封涌涛; 孙本华; 杨学云

    2014-01-01

    以23年长期不同施肥处理(不施肥CK,施氮磷钾化肥NPK,有机肥配合化肥MNPK)土壤为材料,外源添加浓度为500 mg·kg-1 Cr,经过90 d的室内培养,研究了土壤pH、有效态Cr及各个形态Cr含量随培养时间的变化。结果表明:外源添加Cr导致土壤pH下降了0.4~0.6个单位;施肥显著降低了土壤有效Cr含量,在培养结束后,NPK处理土壤有效态Cr较CK下降了约34%, MNPK处理土壤有效态Cr的含量几乎为零。长期施用NPK处理土壤铁锰氧化物结合态Cr和有机结合态Cr含量分别较CK提高了12%和38%,而可交换态Cr含量却较CK下降了约27%,但碳酸盐结合态和残渣态Cr含量与CK相比无显著差异;长期施用MNPK土壤可交换态、碳酸盐结合态、铁锰氧化物结合态Cr含量分别较NPK处理降低了100%、44%和29%,而有机结合态和残渣态Cr含量却分别提高了72%和17%。研究表明长期合理施肥,尤其是化肥配合有机肥施用可以显著提高塿土恢复力,降低塿土重金属Cr污染的危害。%Fractions and bioavailability of heavy metals in soils varied among different soils, thus impacting soil resilience to heavy metal contamination. We spiked two levels of Cr(Ⅲ)(0 and 500 mg·kg-1)to soils subjected to different fertilization for 23 years and incubated the soils for three months. The fertilizer treatments included(1)no fertilizer(CK),(2)mineral nitrogen, phosphate and potassium(NPK), and(3)organic manure integrated with NPK(MNPK). Soil Cr fractions were measured with sequential extraction. Spiking Cr decreased soil pH by 0.4 to 0.6 units. Long-term fertilization significantly reduced bioavailability of exogenous Cr. Compared with no fertilizer(CK), soil bioavailable Cr was 34% lower in NPK and almost 100% lower in MNPK. In NPK soil, iron and manganese oxides bounded and organic bounded fractions increased by 12%and 38%, respectively;exchangeable Cr contents decreased

  13. Effects of tillage methods, corn residue mulch and n fertilizer levels on the wheat crop productivity under the rain fed condition of loess plateau china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2 years study was conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods (Chisel plough tillage, Zero-tillage, Rotary tillage and Mould board plough tillage), two mulch levels (M0 i.e. No corn residue mulch and M1 i.e. Corn residue mulch) and 5 N fertilizer levels (0, 80, 160, 240 and 320 kg N/ha) on the wheat crop productivity under the rain fed condition of Loess Plateau, China. Factorial experiment with three replications, having strip, split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in sub- plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots was used for this study. Due to variations in rainfalls, during the year, 2010-11, maximum grain yields i.e. 6.58 t/ha and 6.72 t/ha were recorded in case of Zero tillage planting method and similarly in case of 80 kg N/ha, while during the cropping year 2011-12 equal grain yields were recorded in case of all tillage methods, however maximum grain yield (7.46 t /ha) was recorded in case of 320 kg N/ha, N fertilizer level. On two years average basis, maximum grain yields i.e. 6.75 t/ha and 6.80 t/ha were recorded in case of Zero tillage planting method and similarly in case of 80 kg N/ha as compared with the other tillage methods or N fertilizer levels. Use of mulch reduced > 40% weeds infestation. Economic analysis shows that Zero tillage and minimum use of N fertilizer according to the projected rainfalls along with the use of mulch are both economic and environmental friendly. (author)

  14. Eficiency and wastewater used as fertilizer on sugar beet crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Some researchs about wastewater treatment have been show efficiency on DQO removal, however Nitrogen and Phosphorus removal are smaller than other nutrients. The use of wastewater as nutrient source can be interesting due high nutrients amount. This trial was carried out on Suggar beet plants at Horticulture Department of Centro Regional Universitário de Espírito Santo do Pinhal – UNIPINHAL, by using wastewater associated or no with fertilizer at different rates comparing with normal water. The results obtained showed that wastewater has higher amount of nutrients than normal water and increased the sugar beet root weight when associated or no with fertilizer NPK.

  15. Effect of compost and slow-release fertilizers addition on soil biochemistry and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Bautista-Cruz; Gricel Cruz Domínguez; María de las Nieves Rodríguez Mendoza; Rafael Pérez Pacheco; Celerino Robles

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bokashi (B, a fermented compost), slow-release fertilizers (SRFs) and their combined application on mycorrhizal colonization (MC), soil invertase, cellulase, acid (AcP) and alkaline (AlP) phosphatases activities and maize ( Zea mays L.) yield was investigated in terrace (TS) and valley (VS) soils in Oaxaca, Mexico. A complete randomized design, seven fertilizer treatments and four replications were used: unamended control (C); conventional fertilization (90-46-00 NPK...

  16. Design and production of nitro -based NPK and Urea -based NPK(cont'd)%硝基NPK和尿基NPK复合肥的工艺设计与生产(续完)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚永发; 徐卫亚; 钱文浩

    2003-01-01

    @@ 2硝基NPK和尿基NPK装置的工艺设计 硝基NPK与尿基NPK复合肥有许多共性,故应将装置设计成既能生产硝基NPK,又可生产尿基NPK,N、P、K比例在较大范围内可调.现就工艺设计分述于下[12,13].

  17. Influence des engrais de type NPK sur l’oviposition d’Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Darriet F.; Corbel V.

    2008-01-01

    Les engrais sont des associations de minéraux destinées à apporter aux plantes des compléments nutritifs nécessaires à leur croissance. Les engrais modernes de type NPK combinent les trois éléments de base que sont l’azote (N), le phosphore (P) et le potassium (K). Dans cette étude de laboratoire réalisée dans des tunnels expérimentaux, nous avons étudié l’influence de solutions aqueuses contenant différentes concentrations en engrais NPK sur l’oviposition de femelles d’Aedes aegypti. Les rés...

  18. Response of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in the black soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoke ZHANG; Yong JIANG; Lei LIANG; Xiaofan ZHAO; Qi LI

    2009-01-01

    The effects of inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities were studied in a long-term fertilization experimental field in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China,where no fertilizer (CK),N fertilizer (N),combined application of N and P (NP),combined application of N and K (NK),and combined application of N,P and K (NPK) were compared.The results showed that the total nematode abundance was not affected significantly by inorganic fertilizers in the long-term field experiment.The numbers of bacterivores increased significantly in the NP treatment compared to the CK treatment,and those of fungivores and plant-parasites were inhibited in the NPK treatment.The similarity between CK and NPK treatment and the nematode diversity were higher than in other treatments.The stability of the soil ecosystem was disturbed by the inorganic fertilizers,as indicated by the change in MI values under different treatments.The response of soil nematodes mainly depended on the types of inorganic fertilizers applied.

  19. Combined Waste Resources as NPK Fertiliser: Results from a Pot Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Returning waste to agricultural land is a holistic systems approach to meet the challenging task of future food supply. As nutrient contents in organic material often are unbalanced in comparison to the plants’ needs, the aim of this paper was to study the fertilisation effect of waste-based NPK compound fertiliser products and their potential to substitute conventional fertilisers in agricultural plant production. A pot experiment with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. italicum) a...

  20. [Effect of long-term fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-xin; Chi, Feng-qin; Xu, Xiu-hong; Kuang, En-jun; Zhang, Jiu-ming; Su, Qing-rui; Zhou, Bao-ku

    2015-10-01

    In order to study the effects of long-term different fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in arable black. soil, we examined microbial metabolic activities in two soil la- yers (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm) under four treatments (CK, NPK, M, MNPK) from a 35-year continuous fertilization field at the Ministry of Agriculture Key Field Observation Station of Harbin Black Soil Ecology Environment using Biolog-ECO method. The results showed that: in the 0-20 cm soil layer, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer(MNPK) increased the rate of soil microbial carbon source utilization and community metabolism richness, diversity and dominance; In the 20-40 cm layer, these indices of the MNPK treatment was lower than that of the NPK treat- ment; while NPK treatment decreased soil microbial community metabolism evenness in both layers. Six groups of carbon sources used by soil microbes of all the treatments were different between the two soil layers, and the difference was significant among all treatments in each soil layer (P fertilization affected soil microbial community functional diversity in both tillage soil layer and down soil layers, and chemical fertilization alone had a larger influence on the microbial community functional diversity in the 20-40 cm layer. PMID:26995915

  1. Influence des engrais de type NPK sur l’oviposition d’Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darriet F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les engrais sont des associations de minéraux destinées à apporter aux plantes des compléments nutritifs nécessaires à leur croissance. Les engrais modernes de type NPK combinent les trois éléments de base que sont l’azote (N, le phosphore (P et le potassium (K. Dans cette étude de laboratoire réalisée dans des tunnels expérimentaux, nous avons étudié l’influence de solutions aqueuses contenant différentes concentrations en engrais NPK sur l’oviposition de femelles d’Aedes aegypti. Les résultats ont montré que les solutions contenant les concentrations en NK = 17-33 mg/l et P = 23-47 mg/l attiraient significativement plus de femelles gravides que l’eau osmosée seule (P 0,05. Ces résultats suggèrent que certaines teneurs en engrais NPK peuvent influencer le comportement de ponte du moustique Ae. aegypti.

  2. Change of nitrogen use efficiency of maize affected by long-term manure fertilization in the typical black soil%长期培肥我国典型黑土玉米氮肥效应的演变趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 徐明岗; 朱平; 张文菊; 张会民; 李忠芳

    2015-01-01

    , annual nitrogen use efficiency and accumulated nitrogen use efficiency of maize .[Results] All levels of manure treatments and NPK significantly have increased maize yield .The treatments of NPK combined with manures ( M30+NPK and M60+NPK) have reduced the variation of maize yield ( CV) and improved the sustainable index of maize yield ( SYI) .The nitrogen agronomy efficiency , annual nitrogen use efficiency and accumulated nitrogen use efficiency show increase trends with long -time chemical fertilization , and the increases reach significant or extremely significant levels .The soil fertility is improved with the applications of manures , but the variation of nitrogen agronomy efficiency , annual nitrogen use efficiency and accumulated nitrogen use efficiency are not significant , and the variation trend is significantly decreased with the elongation of experiment time .The nitrogen use efficiency is negatively correlated with soil organic carbon , soil total nitrogen , soil total phosphorus , and soil available potassium .[Conclusions] In black soil with relatively high fertility , the nitrogen use efficiency of maize is stable , but shows significantly declining trend, which provide scientific references for the partial replacement of chemical fertilizer by manure .

  3. Honey and Vitamin E Restore the Plasma Level of Gonadal Hormones and Improve the Fertilization Capacity in Noise-Stressed Rats

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    Rajabzadeh Asghar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Noise as a natural teratogenic factor affects the body systems including the reproductive organ to reduce the fertility rate and fetus health. Honey and vitamin E as natural antioxidants protects the sperm released from the reproductive system. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity in noise-exposed rats by assessing plasma sexual hormones levels i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and testosterone, altered in relation with noise stress. Materials and Methods: This study was targeted the 24 male rats that randomly were divided into four equal groups including one control group (unexposed to noise stress and three experimental groups pre-induced with noise stress for 50 days and then divided as: no treated, honey and vitamin E treated groups, respectively. Then, the blood samples of experimental and control groups were taken, and the serum level of the sexual hormones was analyzed. Finally, to investigate the fertility capacity of rats, the male rats of all groups were coupled with the female ones. Results: Our results showed that FSH and LH level in noise stressed male rats raised, and the testosterone secretion decreased compared to the control group. Moreover, noise stress injury could reduce weight and the survival rate of the fetus. However, the honey and vitamin E improved the testosterone concentration, declined the plasma FSH and LH level in noise - exposed rats and enhanced the fertility rate. Conclusion: These findings may also spell out a natural curative approach rather than pharmaceutical drugs to optimize of neuroendocrine gonadal axis and testicular integrity induced by pathogenesis stress, i.e., noise and enhance the male fertility capacity.

  4. The effect of mineral fertilization on fungi colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers after harvest and after storage

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    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact experiment conducted in Bałcyny, in which a late potato cultivar, Jasia, was grown. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization: A (N 80 kg × ha-1 P 80 kg × ha-1 K120 kg × ha-1 and B (N 120 kg × ha-1 P 144 kg × ha-1 K156 kg × ha-1, and foliar fertilization (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn and Solubor DF on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungal populations colonizing potato tubers. Fungi were isolated immediately after harvest and after a five-month storage period. After seven days of incubation, fungal colonies were transferred onto agar slants for microscopic identification. Over the entire experimental period, more pathogenic fungi were obtained from potato tubers analyzed after storage (62.9% of the total fungal population after storage than from those analyzed immediately after harvest (39.1%, and the greatest number of fungi was reported in 2004. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated most frequently, followed by Colletotrichum coccodes and Alternaria alternata. Pathogens of the genus Fusarium and the species Helminthosporium solani were not numerous. In the treatment A with soil mineral fertilization with lower NPK rates, larger numbers of pathogenic fungi were noted in 2004 after harvest and after five-month storage, and in 2005 after harvest. At the remaining dates of analysis, pathogens were more frequently isolated from potato tubers in experimental variant B with higher NPK rates. Immediately after harvest, the highest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated in the treatment with foliar application of ADOB Mn and Basfoliar 12-4-6. After five-month storage, pathogens most often colonized potato tubers in experimental variant B with foliar application of Solubor DF, Solubor DF and ADOB Mn, and in experimental variant A with a combination of fertilizers. In the other fertilization variants, including in the control

  5. 长期施肥对水稻土酶活性及理化特性的影响%Effect of long-term fertilization on enzyme activities and chemical properties of paddy soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵兴华; 张建忠; 夏雪琴; 杨新

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the relation between soil enzyme activity and soil chemical properties in paddy soil under different fertilizer treatments, we conducted a study to determine the effects of inorganic fertilizer and combination of pig manure and inorganic NPK on soil chemical and biological properties in a more than 30 a long term fertilization experiment. The treatments as the following: no fertilization (CK), N, P, K, NPK, double NPK, NPK + pig manure. The results showed, P fertilizer(only applied P fertilizer or applied P fertilizer with other chemical fertilizer) could increase total P and availabel P of paddy soils. Soil organic matter, total P, available P, total N and available N in NPK+pig manure treatment all increased significantly compared with no fertilization(CK) and mineral fertilization treatments( N, P, K, NPK and 2NPK). Except for the highest urease activity was NPK treatment, the soil invertase, acid phosphatase and catalase activities were all significantly higher than those in other fertilization treatments. Acid phosphatase activity negatively correlated with soil total P. Catalase, urease and invertase activities were significant and dramatically significant positively correlated with total N, organic matter, available N, available P. So, co-application of manure and mineral fertilizers not only increased the soil fertility, but also enhaced significantly soil enzymes activities, thus could inprove paddy soil sustainable productivity.%为了明确不同施肥种类对水稻土土壤肥力与酶活性的影响,以30年(1981年至今)长期定位试验地为基础,研究不同施肥处理(CK,N,P,K,NPK,2倍NPK,NPK+猪粪)水稻田耕层(0~20 cm)土壤酶活性与养分的变化趋势及其相关性.结果表明:1)施P(配施或单施)增加土壤全P、速效P含量,平衡施肥配施有机肥(NPK+猪粪处理)土壤的有机质、全P、速效P、全N、速效N均显著增加,所有施肥处理间pH值差异均不显著;2)除了NPK处

  6. Salmon carcasses increase stream productivity more than inorganic fertilizer pellets: A test on multiple trophic levels in streamside experimental channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.; Caouette, John P.; Mitchell, N.L.; Lessard, Joanna L.; Heintz, Ron A.; Chaloner, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nutrient amendments to streams are viewed as possible restoration strategies for re-establishing nutrients and stream productivity throughout the western coast of North America, where salmon runs and associated marine-derived nutrient subsidies have declined. In a mesocosm experiment, we examined the short-term (6 weeks) comparative effects of artificial nutrient pellets and salmon carcasses, alone (low and high amounts) and in combination, on stream food webs. Response variables included dissolved nutrient concentrations, biofilm ash-free dry mass (AFDM) and chlorophyll-alevels, macroinvertebrate density, growth and body condition of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and whole-body lipid content of invertebrates and juvenile coho salmon. Most of the response variables were significantly influenced by carcass treatment; the only response variable significantly influenced by fertilizer pellet treatment was soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration. Ammonium-nitrogen concentration was the only response variable affected by both (low and high) levels of carcass treatment; all others showed no significant response to the two carcass treatment levels. Significant treatment × time interactions were observed for all responses except nitrate; for most responses, significant treatment effects were detected at certain time periods and not others. For example, significantly higher SRP concentrations were recorded earlier in the experiment, whereas significant fish responses were observed later. These results provide evidence that inorganic nutrient additions do not have the same ecological effects in streams as do salmon carcasses, potentially because inorganic nutrient additions lack carbon-based biochemicals and macromolecules that are sequestered directly or indirectly by consumers. Salmon carcasses, preferably deposited naturally during spawning migrations, appear to be far superior to inorganic nutrient amendments for sustaining and restoring

  7. Effects of Phaseolus vulgaris QTL in controlling host-bacteria interactions under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

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    Souza Alessandra A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers were used to estimate the effect of mineral nitrogen on the phenotypic expression of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling the number of Rhizobium nodules (NN and resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in the common bean. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a BAT-93 x Jalo EEP558 cross were grown in a greenhouse in the absence or presence (5 mM NH4NO3 of nitrogen. Resistance to Xanthomonas was assessed as diseased leaf area (DLA and the number of nodules was obtained by direct counting. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant associations between 85 marker loci from 12 linkage groups (LG and quantitative traits. In the absence of nitrogen, 15 and 11 markers, distributed over 7 and 5 LG, showed a significant association with NN and DLA, respectively. The combined percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the marker-loci and QTL associations was 34% for NN and 42% for DLA. In the presence of nitrogen, there were only five significant associations for NN and eight for DLA, which explained 28 and 26% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. The effects of some QTL were detected only at a certain level of nitrogen. The contribution of parental alleles at two NN QTL was dependent on the level of nitrogen. Four QTL were associated with both the number of Rhizobium nodules and resistance to Xanthomonas, suggesting a common genetic control of responses to bacterial infections in the common bean. Despite the dramatic environmental interactions noted with some QTL, in other cases the phenotypic effects were not affected by the amount of nitrogen. The stability of the latter QTL may be relevant when breeding cultivars adapted to variable soil fertility.

  8. [Nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice under different levels of the controlled-release N fertilizers (CRF) in the Nansi Lake basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Wen; Du, Chun-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Gui-Chun; Wang, Ming

    2011-07-01

    The nitrogen (N) fertilizers overused or misused are the main contributors for water eutrophication of the Nansi Lake in eastern China. A field experiment with different application levels of controlled-release N fertilizer (CRF) was carried out at a rice field in the Nansi lake basin to provide information on the nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice with CRF application at different growth stages of rice. The fertilization levels for the controlled fertilizer in this study were 0, 300, 337.5 and 375 kg/hm2, respectively, and 375 kg/hm2 for conventional urea (CU). We estimated the N uptake rate in different growing season and apparent recovery of fertilizer in root, stover and grain of rice. The result showed that grain yield increased by higher N rate. However, the N uptake rate did not increase linearly with the nitrogen application amount. The highest N uptake rate was 22.48 mg/(plant x d) under the fertilization amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 during the young panicle differentiation stage. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CU with traditional application amount of 375 kg/hm2 was 21.86%. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CRF with application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 was highest with 37.17%. Based on the statistical data, with CU of traditional urea application amount of 375 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil N residue at one growing season are 130.07 x 10(3) t for Jining city and 11.4 x 10(3) t for Yutai county of the Nansi Lake basin. If using CRF with the optimized application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil residual at one growing season is 10.46 x 10(4) t for Jining city. It could reduce losses of 2.55 x 10(4) t N for Jining city and 2 235.26 t N for Yutai county per year. Because of releasing patterns more closely matched to crop N uptake patterns, controlled release N fertilizer could be a good way to prevent water eutrophication due to nitrogen fertilizer overused or misused in the Nansi Lake.

  9. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

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    Enio Marchezan

    2002-04-01

    pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and

  10. Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soil physical properties, root distribution, and water-use efficiency of soybean in Vertisols of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, K M; Mandal, K G; Misra, A K; Ghosh, P K; Bandyopadhyay, K K

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a Vertisol for three consecutive years (1998-2000) to study the effects of combined use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure (farmyard manure) on soil physical properties, water-use efficiency, root growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in a soybean-mustard cropping system. Application of 10 Mg farmyard manure and recommended NPK (NPK+FYM) to soybean for three consecutive years improved the organic carbon content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil from an initial value of 4.4 g kg(-1) to 6.2 g kg(-1) and also increased seed yield and water-use efficiency by 103% and 76%, respectively, over the control. The surface (0-15 cm) soil of the plots receiving both farmyard manure and recommended NPK had larger mean weight diameter (0.50 mm) and a higher percentage of water stable aggregates (55%) than both the inorganically fertilized (NPK) (0.44 mm and 49%) and unfertilized control plots (0.41 mm and 45.4%). The saturated hydraulic conductivity (13.32 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) of the NPK+FYM treatment of the 0-7.5 cm depth was also significantly greater than that of the NPK (10.53 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) and control (8.61 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) treatments. The lowest bulk density (1.18 Mg m(-3)) in the 0-7.5 cm layer was recorded in NPK+FYM whereas it was highest in the control plots (1.30 Mg m(-3)). However, at sub-surface (22.5-30 cm) layer, fertilizer and manure application had little effect on bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Root length density (RLD) up to the 30 cm depth was highest in the NPK+FYM plots and it was 31.9% and 70.5% more than NPK and control plots. The RLD showed a significant and negative correlation (r=-0.88( * *)) with the penetration resistance.

  11. Long Term Effect of Manuring, Fertilization and Cropping on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen fractions of rainfed Alfisols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi; A, Shankar, M.; N, Gajanana, G.; K, Ramachandrappa, B.; Somashekara., K.,

    2009-04-01

    Soil samples collected from different treatment of 30 years long term experiment located at GKVK, Bangalore, Karnataka, were analyzed for Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) content and distribution of N fractions. Results indicated that samples obtain from the treatments involving continuous use of FYM alone and FYM integrated with NPK fertilizers recorded higher values with respect to NH4+-N , NO3--N, fixed NH4+-N hydrolysable NH4+- N, hexosamine -N, amino acid N, available and total N content compared to the treatments involving only NPK fertilizers or without any fertilizer or organic (control). Similarly highest SOC (0.58 per cent) was recorded by the treatment involving application of FYM @ 10 t / ha followed by the treatments involving FYM @ 10 t / ha + RDF, FYM @ 10 t / ha + 50 %. RDF and only RDF which recorded the SOC of 0.54, 0.53 and 0.37 per cent respectively. In respect of Fulvic Acid (FA) and Humic acid (HA) in soil, the highest (0.23 per cent) Fulvic Acid (FA) was recorded in the treatments which receive FYM @ 10 t / ha compared to all other treatments and the lowest Fulvic Acid (0.14 per cent) was recorded in receiving only RDF. Similarly Humic Acid carbon was found to be highest (0.34 per cent) in the treatment receiving FYM @ 10 t / ha and lowest Humic Acid content (0.195 per cent) was recorded in recommended NPK fertilizers. In respect to per cent Humic Acid and Fulvic Acid in humus, highest Fulvic Acid (77.2 per cent) in humus was recorded in control and lowest Fulvic Acid (54.6 per cent) was noticed in treatment receiving FYM @ 10 t / ha + recommended NPK fertilizers, while highest (45.3 per cent) Humic Acid in humus was recorded in FYM @ 10 t / ha + recommended NPK and lowest (22.8 per cent) was noticed in control.

  12. Long-term balanced fertilization increases the soil microbial functional diversity in a phosphorus-limited paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Ding, Long-Jun; Xue, Kai; Yao, Huai-Ying; Quensen, John; Bai, Shi-Jie; Wei, Wen-Xue; Wu, Jin-Shui; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of long-term chemical fertilization on soil microbial communities has been one of the frontier topics of agricultural and environmental sciences and is critical for linking soil microbial flora with soil functions. In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and a functional gene array, geochip 4.0, were used to investigate the shifts in microbial composition and functional gene structure in paddy soils with different fertilization treatments over a 22-year period. These included a control without fertilizers; chemical nitrogen fertilizer (N); N and phosphate (NP); N and potassium (NK); and N, P and K (NPK). Based on 16S rRNA gene data, both species evenness and key genera were affected by P fertilization. Functional gene array-based analysis revealed that long-term fertilization significantly changed the overall microbial functional structures. Chemical fertilization significantly increased the diversity and abundance of most genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling, especially for the treatments NK and NPK. Significant correlations were found among functional gene structure and abundance, related soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, suggesting that a fertilizer-induced shift in the microbial community may accelerate the nutrient turnover in soil, which in turn influenced rice growth. The effect of N fertilization on soil microbial functional genes was mitigated by the addition of P fertilizer in this P-limited paddy soil, suggesting that balanced chemical fertilization is beneficial to the soil microbial community and its functions. PMID:25410123

  13. Produtividade e qualidade nutricional de cultivares de feijão em diferentes adubações Nutritional quality and yield of bean cultivars under different fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Bastos Andrade

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O fornecimento adequado e equilibrado de nutrientes para o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. por meio da calagem e adubação pode contribuir para o aumento da produtividade e o valor nutricional dos grãos. Portanto, avaliou-se o efeito da adubação na produtividade, componentes da produção, nos teores de macro e micronutrientes, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de três cultivares de feijão (Aporé, Pérola e Rudá. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela subdividida, sendo locados nas parcelas as diferentes adubações (N1 - não adubado; N2 - adubação para produtividade esperada de até 1.200 kg ha-1, N3 - adubação para produtividade esperada acima de 2.500 kg ha-1. As subparcelas constaram das três cultivares. As adubações utilizadas foram suficientes para alcançar os níveis de produtividade esperados. A cultivar Rudá destacou-se das demais, com os maiores teores de Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn e B. A cultivar Aporé apresentou os maiores teores de K, N, proteína e triptofano. A cultivar Pérola obteve os maiores teores de Ca e P. A recomendação de adubação para atingir produtividade superior a 2.500 kg ha-1 de grãos proporcionou as maiores produtividades, os maiores teores de K, N, Fe, Cu, Mn, B, proteína e triptofano nos grãos de feijão.The appropriate and balanced supply of nutrients of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. achieved by liming and fertilization can contribute towards increasing the grain yield and nutritional value. It was evaluated the effect of the levels of fertilization on the productivity, components of the production, composition of macro and micronutrients, protein and tryptophan in the grains of three bean cultivars (Aporé, Pérola and Rudá. The experimental design was composed of random blocks, with four replicates, in split-plot design, considering the different levels of fertilization (N1 - no fertilized; N2 - fertilization level

  14. Adubação mineral e orgânica e a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae em cebola Mineral and organic fertilization and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae population density

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    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adubação mineral e orgânica sobre a densidade populacional de Thrips tabaci Lind. em cebola, Allium cepa L., foi avaliado na Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina, entre agosto e dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram níveis de adubação mineral com N, P2O5 e K2O em dose recomendada e três vezes a recomendada, adubação orgânica e a testemunha foi a ausência de adubação. Os tratamentos foram as seguintes doses de nutrientes: 1 30 + 120 + 60kg ha-1 de NPK; 2 90 + 360 + 180kg ha-1 de NPK; 3 75kg ha-1 de N; 4 225kg ha-1 de N; 5 80kg ha-1 de P2O5; 6 240kg ha-1 de P2O5; 7 60kg ha-1 de K2O; 8 180kg ha-1 de K2O; 9 75kg ha-1 de N + 80kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 10 225kg ha-1 de N + 240kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; 11 37,5kg ha-1 de N + 40kg ha-1 de P2O5 (esterco de suíno + fosfato natural; testemunha sem adubação. Nenhuma das fontes e níveis de adubação apresentaram nível populacional de T. tabaci superior à testemunha sem adubo.The effect of the mineral and organic fertilization on onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind., population density was evaluated at Ituporanga Experiment Station, EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, between August and December 1998. The treatments were different levels of mineral fertilization with N, P2O5 and K2O at recommended rate and three times recommended rate, the organic fertilization and without fertilization was check. The treatments in nutrient rate were: 30 + 120 + 60kg NPK ha-1; 90 + 360 + 180kg NPK ha-1; 75kg N ha-1; 225kg N ha-1; 80kg P2O5 ha-1; 240kg P2O5 ha-1; 60kg K2O ha-1; 180kg K2O ha-1; 75kg N ha-1 + 80kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 225kg N + 240kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; 37,5kg N + 40kg P2O5 ha-1 (swine manure + phosphate rock; check without fertilizer. The onion thrips population density was similar among treatments with

  15. Influence of Plant Population and Nitrogen-Fertilizer at Various Levels on Growth and Growth Efficiency of Maize

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    M. I. Tajul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to evaluate plant population and N-fertilizer effects on yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.. Three levels of plant populations (53000, 66000, and 800000 plants ha−1 corresponding to spacings of 75 × 25, 60 × 25, and 50 × 25 cm and 4 doses of N (100, 140, 180, and 220 kg ha−1 were the treatment variables. Results revealed that plant growth, light interception (LI, yield attributes, and grain yield varied significantly due to the variations in population density and N-rates. Crop growth rate (CGR was the highest with the population of 80,000 ha−1 receiving 220 kg N ha−1, while relative growth rate (RGR showed an opposite trend of CGR. Light absorption was maximum when most of densely populated plant received the highest amount of N (220 kg N ha−1. Response of soil-plant-analysis development (SPAD value as well as N-content to N-rates was found significant. Plant height was the maximum at the lowest plant density with the highest amount of N. Plants that received 180 kg N ha−1 with 80,000 plants ha−1 had larger foliage, greater SPAD value, and higher amount of grains cob−1 that contributed to the maximum yield (5.03 t ha−1 and the maximum harvest index (HI compared to the plants in other treatments.

  16. Influence of plant population and nitrogen-fertilizer at various levels on growth and growth efficiency of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajul, M I; Alam, M M; Hossain, S M M; Naher, K; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate plant population and N-fertilizer effects on yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.). Three levels of plant populations (53000, 66000, and 800,000 plants ha⁻¹ corresponding to spacings of 75 × 25, 60 × 25, and 50 × 25 cm) and 4 doses of N (100, 140, 180, and 220 kg ha⁻¹) were the treatment variables. Results revealed that plant growth, light interception (LI), yield attributes, and grain yield varied significantly due to the variations in population density and N-rates. Crop growth rate (CGR) was the highest with the population of 80,000 ha⁻¹ receiving 220 kg N ha⁻¹, while relative growth rate (RGR) showed an opposite trend of CGR. Light absorption was maximum when most of densely populated plant received the highest amount of N (220 kg N ha⁻¹). Response of soil-plant-analysis development (SPAD) value as well as N-content to N-rates was found significant. Plant height was the maximum at the lowest plant density with the highest amount of N. Plants that received 180 kg N ha⁻¹ with 80,000 plants ha⁻¹ had larger foliage, greater SPAD value, and higher amount of grains cob⁻¹ that contributed to the maximum yield (5.03 t ha⁻¹) and the maximum harvest index (HI) compared to the plants in other treatments.

  17. [Effect of Long-term Fertilizer Application on the Stability of Organic Carbon in Particle Size Fractions of a Paddy Soil in Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xia-li; Lu, Kou-ping; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-kai; He, Li-zhi; Wang, Hai-long

    2015-05-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers and organic manure on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in particle size fractions of paddy soil were investigated in a 17-year long-term fertilization field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China. The inherent chemical composition of silt- and clay-associated SOC was evaluated with solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to CK (no fertilizer treatment), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers plus rice straw) , NPKOM (NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) , NPK (NPK fertilizers) and OM (organic manure alone) treatments significantly (P fertilizers alone, combined application of organic amendments and NPK fertilizers facilitated the storage of newly sequestered SOC in silt- and clay-sized fractions, which could be more conducive to the stability of SOC. Based on 13C-NMR spectra, both silt and clay fractions were composed of Alkyl-C, O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C and carbonyl-C. Changes in the relative proportion of different C species were observed between silt and clay fractions: the clay fraction had relatively more Alkyl-C, carbonyl-C and less O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C than those in the silt fraction. This might be ascribed to the fact that the organic matter complexed with clay was dominated by microbial products, whereas the silt appeared to be rich in aromatic residues derived from plants. The spectra also showed that the relative proportion of different C species was modified by fertilization practices. In comparison with organic amendments alone, the relative proportion of Alkyl-C was decreased by 9.1%-11.9% and 13.7%-19.9% under combined application of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers, for silt and clay, respectively, and that of O-alkyl-C was increased by 2.9%-6.3% and 13.4%-22.1%, respectively. These results indicated that NPKOM and NPKRS treatments reduced the decomposition rate of SOC. The aromaticity, hydrophobicity and, hence, chemical recalcitrance of silt- and clay-associated SOC in the NPK fertilizer treatments were lower than

  18. Mitigation of cadmium and arsenic in rice grain by applying different silicon fertilizers in contaminated fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Wen, Shi-Lin; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Lu; Cen, Kuang; Sun, Guo-Xin

    2016-02-01

    A field experiment was established to support the hypothesis that application of different silicon (Si) fertilizers can simultaneously reduce cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) concentration in rice grain. The "semi-finished product of Si-potash fertilizer" treatment at the high application of 9000 kg/ha (NP+S-KSi9000) significantly reduced the As concentration in rice grain by up to 20.1%, compared with the control. Si fertilization reduces the Cd concentration in rice considerably more than the As concentration. All Si fertilizers apart from sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3) exhibited a high ability to reduce Cd concentration in rice grain. The Si-calcium (CaSi) fertilizer is the most effective in the mitigation of Cd concentration in rice grain. The CaSi fertilizer applied at 9000 kg/ha (NPK+CaSi9000) and 900 kg/ha (NPK+CaSi900) reduced the Cd concentration in rice grain about 71.5 and 48.0%, respectively, while the Si-potash fertilizer at 900 kg/ha (NP+KSi900), the semi-finished product of Si-potash fertilizer at both 900 kg/ha (NP+S-KSi900) and 9000 kg/ha (NP+S-KSi9000), and the rice straw (NPK+RS) treatments reduced the Cd concentration in rice grain about 42, 26.5, 40.7, and 23.1%, respectively. The results of this investigation demonstrated the potential effects of Si fertilizers in reducing Cd and As concentrations in rice grain.

  19. Mitigation of cadmium and arsenic in rice grain by applying different silicon fertilizers in contaminated fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Wen, Shi-Lin; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Lu; Cen, Kuang; Sun, Guo-Xin

    2016-02-01

    A field experiment was established to support the hypothesis that application of different silicon (Si) fertilizers can simultaneously reduce cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) concentration in rice grain. The "semi-finished product of Si-potash fertilizer" treatment at the high application of 9000 kg/ha (NP+S-KSi9000) significantly reduced the As concentration in rice grain by up to 20.1%, compared with the control. Si fertilization reduces the Cd concentration in rice considerably more than the As concentration. All Si fertilizers apart from sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3) exhibited a high ability to reduce Cd concentration in rice grain. The Si-calcium (CaSi) fertilizer is the most effective in the mitigation of Cd concentration in rice grain. The CaSi fertilizer applied at 9000 kg/ha (NPK+CaSi9000) and 900 kg/ha (NPK+CaSi900) reduced the Cd concentration in rice grain about 71.5 and 48.0%, respectively, while the Si-potash fertilizer at 900 kg/ha (NP+KSi900), the semi-finished product of Si-potash fertilizer at both 900 kg/ha (NP+S-KSi900) and 9000 kg/ha (NP+S-KSi9000), and the rice straw (NPK+RS) treatments reduced the Cd concentration in rice grain about 42, 26.5, 40.7, and 23.1%, respectively. The results of this investigation demonstrated the potential effects of Si fertilizers in reducing Cd and As concentrations in rice grain. PMID:26498817

  20. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen; Müller, Renate

    2014-01-01

    an additional foliar calcium application influenced the same parameters. Subsequently, the effect of the various treatments on the germination of the obtained seeds was explored. Two identical experiments (A and B) were carried out with five concentrations of nutrient solutions corresponding to an electrical...... affected seed production. Number of flower heads and seed weight were not influenced by the dose of fertilizer, but plant biomass and number of seeds were significantly reduced at the highest concentration (6.25 mS·cm-1). In Expt. B, the fertilizer concentration did not affect number of flower heads...... calcium affect the number of flowers, seed production, seed weight, or the total biomass. Our data indicate that seed producers of G. hybrida should not apply standard fertilizer in a concentration higher than corresponding to an EC of ≈1.25 mS·cm-1. It would have been valuable if we also had included...

  1. [Effects of different nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilization modes on carbon- and nitrogen accumulation and allocation in rice plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Tong, Cheng-li; Shi, Hui; Wu, Jin-shui; Chen, An-lei; Zhou, Ping

    2011-10-01

    Based on a 20-year field site-specific fertilization experiment in Taoyuan Experimental Station of Agriculture Ecosystems under Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN), this paper studied the effects of different fertilization modes of N, P, and K on the accumulation and allocation of C and N in rice plant. The fertilization mode N-only showed the highest C and N contents (433 g kg(-1) and 18.9 g kg(-1), respectively) in rice grain, whereas the modes balanced fertilization of chemical N, P and K (NPK) and its combination with organic mature recycling (NPKC) showed the highest storage of C and N in rice plant. In treatments NPK and NPKC, the C storage in rice grain and in stem and leaf was 1960 kg hm(-2) and 2015 kg hm(-2), and 2002 kg hm(-2) and 2048 kg hm(-2), and the N storage in rice grain was 80.5 kg hm(-2) and 80.6 kg hm(-2), respectively. Treatment NPK had the highest N storage (59.3 kg hm(-2)) in stem and leaf. Balanced fertilization of chemical N, P, and K combined with organic manure recycling increased the accumulation of C and N in rice plant significantly. Comparing with applying N only, balanced fertilization of chemical N, P, and K was more favorable to the accumulation and allocation of C and N in rice plant during its growth period.

  2. Presentation of a model simulating the response of lakes to fertilizations to reduce radiocesium levels in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake fertilization is a potential remedy for toxic contamination in lakes with low productivity, which are known to be sensitive to, e.g. radionuclides, metals and organic toxins. This study presents a model to plan the duration and predict the outcome of fertilization in lakes. Several methods of lake fertilization have been used in field experiments: (1) Lake and wetland liming using 'mixed' lime with added phosphorus; (2) treatment with commercial fertilizers; and (3) using effluents (containing phosphorus) from fish farms. This model is basically a dynamic model using differential equations to handle fluxes, amounts and concentrations. It also includes several empirical relationships, because the model is meant to be used in practice and the driving variables should be few and readily available, like catchment and lake morphometric data. The model is primarily intended to be used as a sub-model predicting realistic changes in phosphorus and potassium concentrations and in lake pH caused by these remedial measures within the framework of a more extensive lake model for radiocesium. It is, however, meant to be based on the fundamental processes regulating phosphorus fluxes in lakes, and could be of interest also in contexts other than radioecology. It is driven by the amount of fertilizer added to the lake and the month of treatment. The consequences for the spread, biological uptake and concentrations of radiocesium are also discussed and simulated. The phosphorus model is, and must be, easy to handle since all the input data should be derived either from maps or from regular monitoring programs. In this paper, the model is presented and calibrations are examined. The results of the calibrations indicate that the model should be useful for managers to optimise lake fertilization, e.g. in contexts of lake radioecology where the benefits and drawbacks of different remedial strategies are evaluated (multi-attribute analysis). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B

  3. [Effects of long-term fertilization on organic carbon functional groups in black soil as revealed by synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qing-He; Dong, Pei-Bo; Li, Cui-Lan; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Gao, Qiang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2012-10-01

    A 20 years (1984-2004) stationary field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers (N or NPK) alone or in combination with low (0.125 kg x hm(-2)) or high dose of corn stalk (0.25 kg x hm(-2)) on organic carbon functional groups in black soil using synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (C-1s NEXAFS). Compared with the control (CK) treatment, the aromatic C and the carboxyl C of soil increased, whereas the aliphatic C, the carbonyl C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio decreased after the application of chemical fertilizer alone. After the application of chemical fertilizations in combined with corn stalk, the aromatic C decreased while the aliphatic C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio increased as compared to N or NPK fertilizer treatment. And the change tendency was more obvious with the increase in the dose of corn stalk applied. Regardless of corn stalk application, the aromatic C, the aliphatic C, and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio were all higher for NPK than for N fertilizer treatment. The above results indicated that, compared with the no-fertilizer control treatment, the application of chemical fertilizers alone resulted in the relative proportion of aromatic compounds increased whereas that of aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds decreased. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds was higher after the application of chemical fertilizers with than without corn stalk, with high than with low dose of corn stalk, and with NPK than with N fertilization. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy could characterize in situ the changes of organic carbon functional groups in soil under long-term stationary fertilization.

  4. Evaluation of interspecific hybrids and cultivars of Brachiaria spp. submitted to sourcers and levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Atauri Cardelli Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of nitrogen supply (N is a very important issue concerned to plant growth and the environment healthy. For farmers, to know how much N the plant requires enables the application of appropriate amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, maximizing the use of this material. The availability of N has been identified as one of the main limiting factors, but also a management tool in the production of grasses. The nitrogen in the soil either, as a constituent of organic matter or in the mineral form (ammonium and nitrate, has a limited supply and can be depleted rapidly in a few crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sources and nitrogen levels in four genotypes of Brachiaria (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piata and two interspecific hybrids of Brachiaria spp on the total and the leaf dry matter production, leaf percentage and leaf: stem ratio. The soil was an Psament-Entisol, coming from a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with low organic matter content. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, in Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo, from October 2009 to April 2010. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks and the treatments were arranged in a factorial 4 x 2 x 4, four genotypes of Brachiaria , two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate and four nitrogen rates (0, 75, 150 or 225 mg dm-3 with five replicates, totaling 160 pots with a capacity of 3.34 dm3 of soil. Two cuts were performed in the plants. After the second cut a soil sample was collected from each experimental unit. Two evaluations were performed on plants. The first one 52 days after sowing, and the second 56 days after the first cut. Data were analyzed by the mixed procedure of SAS V. 9.2; average qualitative factors were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The degrees of freedom related to N rates (quantitative factor were decomposed into orthogonal polynomials; to obtain the best equation fits the data. The variables

  5. Use of slow-release fertilizer on the production of sweet potatoes plantlets in tray

    OpenAIRE

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós; Humberto Sampaio de Araújo; Nobuyoshi Narita

    2013-01-01

    The production of plantlets in containers generally requires the use of fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of sweet potato in styrofoam trays using slow-release fertilizer. The experiment was carried out, under a screen-protected nursery, in a factorial scheme 5x5, with five doses of slow-release fertilizer NPK 19-06-10 (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 g per 25 kg de substrate) and five times of plantlets permanence in tray (14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days after planting the c...

  6. Moss-specific changes in nitrogen fixation following two decades of warming, shading, and fertilizer addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Lett, Signe; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    is the main source of new nitrogen to arctic ecosystems. In order to gain information on future nitrogen fixation rates in a changing climate, we studied the effects of two decades of warming with passive greenhouses, shading with sackcloth, and fertilization with NPK fertilizer on nitrogen fixation rates....... To expand the knowledge on species-specific responses, we measured nitrogen fixation associated with two moss species: Hylocomium splendens and Aulacomnium turgidum. Our expectations of decreased nitrogen fixation rates in the fertilizer and shading treatments were met. However, contrary to our expectation...

  7. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Fernández-Sanjurjo; E. Alvarez-Rodríguez; A. Núñez-Delgado; M. L. Fernández-Marcos; Romar-Gasalla, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutrients release from two compressed nitrogen–potassium–phosphorous (NPK) fertilizers. In the Lourizán Forest Center, tablet-type controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) were prepared by compressing various mixtures of fertilizers without covers or binders. We used soil columns (50 cm long and 7.3 cm inner diameter) that were filled with soil from the surface layer (0–20 cm) of an A horizon corresponding to a Cambic Umbrisol. Tablets of ...

  8. [Effects of different fertilizer species on carbon and nitrogen leaching in a reddish paddy soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi-Yu; Zou, Jing-Dong; Xu, Li-Li; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Feng-Ting; Dai, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Zhong-Qiang; Sun, Xiao-Min

    2014-08-01

    Enhanced fertilization could decrease nitrogen utilization rate and increase carbon and nitrogen leaching, leading to water pollution in agricultural ecosystem. A long-term field experiment had been established on a reddish paddy soil of Qianyanzhou Ecological Experimental Station (114 degrees 53'E, 26 degrees 48'N) in Jiangxi Province in 1998. Soil solution samples were collected by clay tube and vacuum pump. Four fertilizer species treatments were selected: control with no fertilizer (CK), straw return (ST), nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium mineral fertilizers (NPK) and pig manure (OM), aiming to evaluate the effects of different species of fertilizer on carbon and nitrogen leaching in a double rice cropping system. The results showed that: (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+) -N) was the major type of N in soil leachate in reddish paddy soil. The application of NPK could significantly increase the ammonium nitrogen concentration (1.2 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.1 mg x L(-1)) compared with the CK, ST and OM treatments, and the application of OM could significantly increase the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (27.3 mg x L(-1) +/- 1.6 mg x L(-1)) in soil leachate. The carbon and nitrogen leaching were more notable in the vegetative growth stage than the reproductive growth stage of rice (P NPK and OM increased the NH4(+) -N, DOC, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents. The NPK was best beneficial to improve TN contents and OM to improve SOC contents. (3) The DOC contents in soil leachate and SOC in paddy soil had a positive correlation (P < 0.01), while NH4(+) -N contents in soil leachate and TN contents in paddy soil had a positive correlation (P < 0.01). PMID:25338383

  9. Soil CO2 and N2O Emissions in Maize Growing Season Under Different Fertilizer Regimes in an Upland Red Soil Region of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu-bo; WU Lian-hai; SUN Nan; DING Xue-shan; LI Jian-wei; WANG Bo-ren; LI Dong-chu

    2014-01-01

    Upland red soils have been identiifed as major CO2 and N2O sources induced by human activities such as fertilization. To monitor characteristics of soil surface CO2 and N2O lfuxes in cropland ecosystems after continuous fertilizer applications over decades and to separate the respective contributions of root and heterotrophic respiration to the total soil CO2 and N2O lfuxes, the measurements of soil surface CO2 and N2O lfuxes throughout the maize growing season in 2009 were carried out based on a fertilization experiment (from 1990) through of the maize (Zea mays L.) growing season in red soil in southern China. Five fertilization treatments were chosen from the experiment for study: zero-fertilizer application (CK), nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertilizer application only, pig manure (M), NPK plus pig manure (NPKM) and NPK with straw (NPKS). Six chambers were installed in each plot. Three of them are in the inter-row soil (NR) and the others are in the soil within the row (R). Each fertilizer treatment received the same amount of N (300kg ha-1 yr-1). Results showed that cumulative soil CO2 lfuxes in NR or R were both following the order: NPKS>M, NPKM>NPK>CK. The contributions of root respiration to soil CO2 lfuxes was 40, 44, 50, 47 and 35%in CK, NPK, NPKM, M and NPKS treatments, respectively, with the mean value of 43%. Cumulative soil N2O lfuxes in NR or R were both following the order: NPKS, NPKM>M>NPK>CK, and soil N2O lfuxes in R were 18, 20 and 30%higher than that in NR in NPKM, M and NPKS treatments, respectively, but with no difference between NR and R in NPK treatment. Furthermore, combine with soil temperature at -5 cm depth and soil moisture (0-20cm) together could explain 55-70% and 42-59% of soil CO2 and N2O emissions with root interference and 62-78%and 44-63% of that without root interference, respectively. In addition, soil CO2 and N2O lfuxes per unit yield in NPKM (0.55 and 0.10kg Ct-1) and M(0.65 and 0.13g Nt-1) treatments were lower than

  10. Relationship of antral follicle counts to fertility and ovarian AMH mRNA levels in beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mammalian females, reproductive senescence is associated with decreased numbers of follicles in the ovary. Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) of ovarian origin has been proposed to be a biomarker of the number of follicles in the ovary and of fertility in women, as well as to control activation of pri...

  11. Long-Term Effects of Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers on Yield and Soil Fertility for a Winter Wheat-Maize System in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Dong; H. HENGSDIJK; DAI Ting-Bo; W. de BOER; JING Qi; CAO Wei-Xing

    2006-01-01

    Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the effect of inorganic and organic nutrient sources on yield and yield trends of both winter wheat and maize, 2) monitor the changes in soil organic matter content under continuous wheat-maize cropping with different soil fertility management schemes, and 3) identify reasons for yield trends observed in Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, over a 20-year period. There were eight treatments applied to both wheat and maize seasons: a control treatment (C); three inorganic fertilizers, that is, nitrogen (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); and addition of farmyard manure (FYM) to these four treatments, that is,M, MN, MNP, and MNPK. At the end of the experiment the MN, MNP, and MNPK treatments had the highest yields,about 7 t wheat ha-1 and 7.5 t maize ha-1, with each about i t ha-1 more than the NPK treatments. Over 20 years with FYM soil organic matter increased by 80% compared to only 10% with NPK, which explained yield increases. However,from an environmental and agronomic perspective, manure application was not a superior strategy to NPK fertilizers.If manure was to be applied, though, it would be best applied to the wheat crop, which showed a better response than maize.

  12. Fertility Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Fertility Awareness KidsHealth > For Teens > Fertility Awareness Print A A A Text Size What's in ... español Monitoreo de fertilidad What Is It? Fertility awareness is a way to prevent pregnancy by not ...

  13. Effect of Planting Density,Fertilizer Level,and Number of Seedlings per Hole on Yield of Coix Lachryrma-jobi L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqin; SONG; Maohong; AO; Gang; SHEN; Pengfei; LIU

    2015-01-01

    In order to study high yield cultivation technology for Coix Lachryrma-jobi L.,and discuss the effect of planting density,fertilizer level,and number of seedlings per hole on yield of Coix Lachryrma-jobi L.,this paper took domesticated variety Xingren Small White Shell of Coix Lachryrma-jobi L. as an example. Using L9( 34) orthogonal design,it selected optimum combination of planting density,fertilizer level,and number of seedlings per hole to guide planting of Coix Lachryrma-jobi L.. Experiment indicated that the optimum planting density( spacing in the rows and spacing between rows) of Coix Lachryrma-jobi L. is 40 cm x 80 cm; the optimum fertilizer level is pure nitrogen 15 kg,pure phosphorus 15 kg and pure potassium 15 kg per mu; the optimum number of seedlings per hole is 5 seedlings per hole. Through variance analysis,it indicated that planting density exerts significance effect on the yield of Coix Lachryrma-jobi L.

  14. Basic Soil Productivity of Spring Maize in Black Soil Under Long-Term Fertilization Based on DSSAT Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Yan; WU Xue-ping; HE Xin-hua; ZHANG Hui-min; GONG Fu-fei; CAI Dian-xiong; ZHU Ping; GAO Hong-jun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing basic farmland soil productivity has signiifcance in reducing fertilizer application and maintaining high yield of crops. In this study, we deifned that the basic soil productivity (BSP) is the production capacity of a farmland soil with its own physical and chemical properties for a speciifc crop season under local environment and ifeld management. Based on 22-yr (1990-2011) long-term experimental data on black soil (Typic hapludoll) in Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, Northeast China, the decision support system for an agro-technology transfer (DSSAT)-CERES-Maize model was applied to simulate the yield by BSP of spring maize (Zea mays L.) to examine the effects of long-term fertilization on changes of BSP and explore the mechanisms of BSP increasing. Five treatments were examined:(1) no-fertilization control (control);(2) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); (3) NPK plus farmyard manure (NPKM); (4) 1.5 time of NPKM (1.5NPKM) and (5) NPK plus straw (NPKS). Results showed that after 22-yr fertilization, the yield by BSP of spring maize signiifcantly increased 78.0, 101.2, and 69.4% under the NPKM, 1.5NPKM and NPKS, respectively, compared to the initial value (in 1992), but not signiifcant under NPK (26.9%increase) and the control (8.9%decrease). The contribution percentage of BSP showed a signiifcant rising trend (PNPKM>NPK≈NPKS, indicating that organic manure combined with chemical fertilizers (1.5NPKM and NPKM) could more effectively increase BSP compared with the inorganic fertilizer application alone (NPK) in the black soil. This study showed that soil organic matter (SOM) was the key factor among various fertility factors that could affect BSP in the black soil, and total N, total P and/or available P also played important role in BSP increasing. Compared with the chemical fertilization, a balanced chemical plus manure or straw fertilization (NPKM or NPKS) not only increased the concentrations of soil nutrient, but also improved the

  15. Effect of fertilizers on cd uptake of two edible amaranthus herbs%施肥对两种苋菜吸收积累镉的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凝玉; 李志安; 庄萍; 傅庆林; 郭彬

    2012-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究了生长在5 mg/kg镉(Cd)污染土壤中的两种苋菜(红苋(Amaranthus Paniculatus L.)和绿苋(Amaranthus Paniculatus L.))在3种施肥处理下(N、NP和NPK)的生长状况和对Cd的吸收积累情况.结果表明,两种苋菜能够在污染土壤中正常生长,各器官中叶Cd含量最高,范围为124.1-225.9 mg/kg;根中次之,范围为57.1-100.6 mg/kg;茎中最低,范围为56.2-87.6 mg/kg;富集系数高达22.4-40.2.施加N,NP,NPK肥对两种苋菜器官中的Cd含量和生物量有显著影响.其中,施加NPK肥使红苋和绿苋的生物量分别达到不施肥(对照)处理的3.5和3.2倍,单株提取Cd的总量是对照3.2和5.0倍.综上表明,两种苋菜(红苋和绿苋)具有生物量大、易栽培、施加NPK肥能够大幅增加生物量的同时不减少器官对Cd的吸收等优点,作为Cd污染土壤的修复植物有巨大应用前景.%We assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of two edible amaranthus herbs ( red amaranth: Amaranth Paniculatus L. and green amaranth: Amaranth Paniculatus L. ) and the effect of application of N, NP and NPK fertilizers on Cd uptake of the two cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg/kg Cd. Two edible amaranthus herbs had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, ranging from 124. 1 to 225.9 mg/kg in leaves, from 56.2 to 87.6 mg/kg in stems, and from 57. 1 to 100. 6 mg/kg in roots, resulting in average Bioaccumulation Factors (BCF) ranging from 22. 4 to 40. 2. Application of N, NP or NPK fertilizers had significantly influenced Cd content in leaves, stems and roots. Fertilizers of NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 3. 5 for red amaranth or 3. 2 for green amaranth, resulting in a large increment of Cd uptake per plant. Two edible amaranthus herbs have great potential in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation, and little effect on Cd uptake by

  16. [Effects of long-term fertilization on bacterial and archaeal diversity and community structure within subtropical red paddy soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hong-zhao; Wu, Hao; Ge, Ti-da; Li, Ke-lin; Wu, Jin-shui; Wang, Jiu-rong

    2015-06-01

    Paddy soils not only function as an important sink for "missing carbon" but also play an important role in the production of greenhouse gases such as N2O and CH4. Dynamic changes in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are closely related to microbially mediated carbon and nitrogen transformation processes occurring in soil. Using soil samples collected from a long-term fertilization experimental site in Taojiang County, subtropical China (established in 1986), we determined the effects of long-term (>25 years) non-fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (NPK), and NPK combined with rice straw residues (NPKS) on soil bacterial and archaeal community structures. The 16S rRNA genotypes from the three differently treated soils were divided into 9 bacterial phylotypes, mainly including Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and archaea of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Crenarchaeota increased in the soils under NPK and NPKS treatments, with the increase being greater in the latter treatment. LUBSHUFF statistical analyses also demonstrated that there was significant difference among the microbial community compositions in CK-, NPK- and NPKS-treated soils. The abundance of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes ranged from 0.58 x 10(10) to 1.06 x 10(10) copies · g(-1) dry soil and from 1.16 x 10(6) to 1.72 x 10(6) copies · g(-1) dry soil, respectively. Application of fertilizers increased the bacterial and archaeal abundance and diversity in the treated soils, with NPKS > NPK. Long-term chemical and organic applications significantly affected the abundance, diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal communities in paddy ecosystems. PMID:26572036

  17. Comparison of digestion methods to determine heavy metals in fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard method to regulate heavy metal determination in Brazilian fertilizers and the subsequent use of several digestion methods have produced variations in the results, hampering interpretation. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three digestion methods for determination of metals such as Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr in fertilizers. Samples of 45 fertilizers marketed in northeastern Brazil were used. A fertilizer sample with heavy metal contents certified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST was used as control. The following fertilizers were tested: rock phosphate; organo-mineral fertilizer with rock phosphate; single superphosphate; triple superphosphate; mixed N-P-K fertilizer; and fertilizer with micronutrients. The substances were digested according to the method recommended by the Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil (MAPA and by the two methods 3051A and 3052 of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. By the USEPA method 3052, higher portions of the less soluble metals such as Ni and Pb were recovered, indicating that the conventional digestion methods for fertilizers underestimate the total amount of these elements. The results of the USEPA method 3051A were very similar to those of the method currently used in Brazil (Brasil, 2006. The latter is preferable, in view of the lower cost requirement for acids, a shorter digestion period and greater reproducibility.

  18. Determination of Cd, Cr and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco José

    2014-07-01

    A validated method for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Laboratory samples were comminuted and homogenized by cryogenic or planetary ball milling, pressed into pellets and analyzed by LIBS. The experimental setup was designed by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm with 10 Hz repetition rate, and the intensity signals from Cd II 214.441 nm, Cr II 267.716 nm and Pb II 220.353 nm emission lines were measured by using a spectrometer furnished with an intensified charge-coupled device. LIBS parameters (laser fluence, lens-to-sample distance, delay time, integration time gate, number of sites and number of laser pulses per site) were chosen after univariate experiments with a pellet of NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer). Calibration and validation were carried out with 30 fertilizer samples from single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, monoammonium phosphate, and NPK mixtures. Good results were obtained by using 30 pulses of 50 J cm- 2 (750 μm spot size), 2.0 μs delay time and 5.0 μs integration time gate. No significant differences between Cd, Cr, and Pb mass fractions determined by the proposed LIBS method and by ICP OES after microwave-assisted acid digestion (AOAC 2006.03 Official Method) were found at 95% confidence level. The limits of detection of 1 mg kg- 1 Cd, 2 mg kg- 1 Cr and 15 mg kg- 1 Pb and the precision (coefficients of variation of results ranging from 2% to 15%) indicate that the proposed LIBS method can be recommended for the determination of these analytes in phosphate fertilizers.

  19. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Mullerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed.Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001) and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01), respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS). In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032) and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients (Author).

  20. Long-term combined chemical and manure fertilizations increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in aggregate fractions at three typical cropland soils in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y T; Zhang, W J; Xu, M G; Tong, X G; Sun, F X; Wang, J Z; Huang, S M; Zhu, P; He, X H

    2015-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) are important factors of soil fertility. However, effects of the combined chemical fertilizer and organic manure or straw on these factors and their relationships are less addressed under long-term fertilizations. This study addressed changes in SOC, TN, MBC and MBN at 0-20 cm soil depth under three 17 years (September 1990-September 2007) long-term fertilization croplands along a heat and water gradient in China. Four soil physical fractions (coarse free and fine free particulate organic C, cfPOC and ffPOC; intra-microaggregate POC, iPOC; and mineral associated organic C, MOC) were examined under five fertilizations: unfertilized control, chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (NPK), NPK plus straw (NPKS, hereafter straw return), and NPK plus manure (NPKM and 1.5NPKM, hereafter manure). Compared with Control, manure significantly increased all tested parameters. SOC and TN in fractions distributed as MOC > iPOC > cfPOC > ffPOC with the highest increase in cfPOC (329.3%) and cfPTN (431.1%), and the lowest in MOC (40.8%) and MTN (45.4%) under manure. SOC significantly positively correlated with MBC, cfPOC, ffPOC, iPOC and MOC (R(2) = 0.51-0.84, P fertilization for improving soil fertility while straw return should take into account climate factors in Chinese croplands. PMID:26119378

  1. Long-term combined chemical and manure fertilizations increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in aggregate fractions at three typical cropland soils in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y T; Zhang, W J; Xu, M G; Tong, X G; Sun, F X; Wang, J Z; Huang, S M; Zhu, P; He, X H

    2015-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) are important factors of soil fertility. However, effects of the combined chemical fertilizer and organic manure or straw on these factors and their relationships are less addressed under long-term fertilizations. This study addressed changes in SOC, TN, MBC and MBN at 0-20 cm soil depth under three 17 years (September 1990-September 2007) long-term fertilization croplands along a heat and water gradient in China. Four soil physical fractions (coarse free and fine free particulate organic C, cfPOC and ffPOC; intra-microaggregate POC, iPOC; and mineral associated organic C, MOC) were examined under five fertilizations: unfertilized control, chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (NPK), NPK plus straw (NPKS, hereafter straw return), and NPK plus manure (NPKM and 1.5NPKM, hereafter manure). Compared with Control, manure significantly increased all tested parameters. SOC and TN in fractions distributed as MOC > iPOC > cfPOC > ffPOC with the highest increase in cfPOC (329.3%) and cfPTN (431.1%), and the lowest in MOC (40.8%) and MTN (45.4%) under manure. SOC significantly positively correlated with MBC, cfPOC, ffPOC, iPOC and MOC (R(2) = 0.51-0.84, P fertilization for improving soil fertility while straw return should take into account climate factors in Chinese croplands.

  2. Pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tuber (Phytophtora infestans occurring in treatments with foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact plot experiment (2008-2010 established in Bałcyny (NE Poland. Three potato cultivars were grown: medium-early ‘Adam’, medium-late ‘Pasja Pomorska’, and late ‘Ślęza’. The experimental factors were foliar fertilizers applied alone or in combination (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn, Solubor DF and two levels of soil mineral fertilization (N1P1K1-80 kg N × ha-1, 80 kg P × ha-1, 120 K × ha-1; N2P2K2-120 kg N × ha-1, 144 kg P × ha-1, 156 K × ha-1. The experimental materials comprised potato tubers. The symptoms of soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, late blight (Phytophthora infestans and dry rot (Fusarium spp. were evaluated in 5 kg potato samples, and were expressed as the percentage mass of infected tubers. The rates of common scab (Streptomyces scabies and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani infection were estimated on 100 tubers collected randomly after harvest, according to a nine-point scale, and were presented as a percentage infection index. In the laboratory, fungi were isolated on PDA medium from potato tubers immediately after harvest and after five-month storage. The incidence of tuber diseases depended on potato cultivars affected. The severity of tuber diseases varied between treatments with two levels of NPK fertilization and foliar fertilization. The lowest number of Fusarium-infected tubers was obtained from treatments where three foliar fertilizers were applied in combination, which was confirmed by the lowest abundance of fungal isolates. More fungi were isolated from potato tubers after harvest than after storage, but pathogens were more frequently isolated from stored tubers. After harvest, the lowest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated from the tubers of cv. ‘Adam’ in the non-fertilized treatment, and after storage – from the tubers of the late cultivars in the treatment with three foliar fertilizers applied in combination.

  3. Effect of Various Nitrogen Fertilizers and Their Levels on Big-Arch Shelter Cucumber Yield and Water Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaopeng Ou Yang; Xurong Mei; Yuzhong Li; Jiaxuan Guo

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are mainly cultivated through facility in early spring and late autumn in Northern of China. In the case of a serious shortage of water resources, water use efficiency of greenhouse vegetable is of an important scientific significance in both water and fertilizer management. On the basis of pan Evaporation (Ep) and real-time monitoring of soil moisture content, the amount of water irrigation adequate to big-arch shelter cucumber growth, water dissipation, yield and water use effici...

  4. Changes in the biological diversity and concentration of total DNA under the influence of mineral fertilizers in agrochernozemic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkhakakhova, Azida; Kutovaya, Olga; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Pavlyuchenko, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Chernozems represent the most valuable soil resource for Russian agriculture. Their sustainable use in intensive farming systems with preservation of the biological diversity and biological activity of these soils is of crucial importance for the agri-environmental security of Russia. We studied the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers on the biological activity of chernozems on experimental fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast). Soil samples were taken at the end of April 2013 from the plow horizon on trials with different rates of fertilization: NPK-0, NPK-60, and NPK-120 (kg/ha); a long-term fallow plot was used as an absolute control. The biological activity was analyzed by routine inoculation methods and by the molecular biology techniques based on DNA isolation from the soil samples. Quantitative parameters of the isolated and purified DNA were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DNA preparations with added intercalating dyes; GelDoc XR system and Image Lab and TotalLab Quant. software were used. Microbiological studies showed the high biological activity of the chernozems soil in all the trials. No significant differences were found between the trials for the microbiological processes of the carbon cycle. There was a weakly expressed tendency for an increase in the activity of actinomycetes from the soil with zero fertilization (5.11 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum (NPK-120) fertilization (5.69 log10CFU/g) and the fallow soil (5.73 log10CFU/g); the number of cultivated micromycetes decreased from the soil with zero fertilization (4.76 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum fertilization (4.14 log10CFU/g) and to the fallow soil (4.1 log10CFU/g). A less equilibrium state is typical of the microorganisms participating in the nitrogen cycle. The number of cultivated aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria somewhat increased in the fertilized trials (NPK-60, NPK-120

  5. Effect of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities within aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoke; Mahamood, Md; Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    A long-term fertilization experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different fertilization practices on nematode community composition within aggregates in a wheat-maize rotation system. The study was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment involved the following four treatments: no fertilizer, inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM) and NPK plus maize straw (NPKS). Soil samples were taken at 0-20 cm depth during the wheat harvest stage. Based on our results, NPKS contributed to soil aggregation and moisture retention, with a positive effect on soil total nitrogen accumulation, particularly within small macroaggregates (0.25-1 mm) and microaggregates (nematode community. Both manure application and straw incorporation increased the nematode functional metabolic footprints within all aggregates. Additionally, the functional metabolic footprints decreased with a decline in aggregate size. The accumulation of total nitrogen within nematodes. In our study, both crop straw incorporation and inorganic fertilizer application effectively improved soil physicochemical properties and were also beneficial for nematode survival within small aggregate size fractions. PMID:27502433

  6. Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weixin; Luo, Jiafa; Li, Jie; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2013-11-01

    The influence of inorganic fertilizer and compost on background nitrous oxide (N2O) and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions were examined over a maize-wheat rotation year from June 2008 to May 2009 in a fluvo-aquic soil in Henan Province of China where a field experiment had been established in 1989 to evaluate the long-term effects of manure and fertilizer on soil organic status. The study involved five treatments: compost (OM), fertilizer NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium, NPK), half compost N plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NK (NK), and control without any fertilizer (CK). The natural logarithms of the background N2O fluxes were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with soil temperature, but not with soil moisture, during the maize or wheat growing season. The 18-year application of compost alone and inorganic fertilizer not only significantly (P<0.05) increased soil organic carbon (SOC) by 152% and 10-43% (respectively), but also increased background N2O emissions by 106% and 48-76% (respectively) compared with the control. Total N in soils was a better indicator for predicting annual background N2O emission than SOC. The estimated emission factor (EF) of mineralized N, calculated by dividing annual N2O emission by mineralized N was 0.13-0.19%, significantly (P<0.05) lower than the EF of added N (0.30-0.39%). The annual N2O emission in the NPK, HOM and OM soils amended with 300 kg ha(-1) organic or inorganic N was 1427, 1325 and 1178 g N ha(-1), respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference between the NPK and OM. The results of this study indicate that soil indigenous N was less efficiently converted into N2O compared with exogenous N. Increasing SOC by compost application, then partially increasing N supply to crops instead of adding inorganic N fertilizer, may be an effective measure to mitigate N2O emissions from arable soils in the North China plain. PMID:23229048

  7. Soil Aggregates and Organic Carbon Distribution in Red Soils after Long-term Fertilization with Different Fertilizer Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Red soils, a typical Udic Ferrosols, widespread throughout the subtropical and tropical region in southern China, support the majority of grain production in this region. The red soil is naturally low in pH values, cation exchange capacity, fertility, and compaction, resulting in low organic matter contents and soil aggregation. Application of chemical fertilizers and a combination of organic-chemical fertilizers are two basic approaches to improve soil structure and organic matter contents. We studied the soil aggregation and the distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in red soils with a long-term fertilization experiment during 1988-2009. We established treatments including 1) NPK and NK in the chemical fertilizer plots, 2) CK (Control), and 3) CK+ Peanut Straw (PS), CK+ Rice Straw (RS), CK+ Fresh Radish (FR), and CK + Pig Manure (PM) in the organic-chemical fertilizer plots. Soil samples were fractionated into 6 different sized aggregate particles through the dry-wet sieving method according to the hierarchical model of aggregation. Organic carbon in the aggregate/size classes was analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of mechanically stable aggregates in red soils after long-term fertilization decreased with the size, from > 5mm, 5 ~ 2 mm, 2 ~ 1 mm, 1~ 0.25 mm, to fertilizer application alone, the addition of pig manure and green manure can significantly improve the distribution of aggregates in the 5-2 mm, 2-1 mm and 1-0.25 mm classes. The organic carbon (OC) contents in red soils were all increased after the long-term fertilization. Compared with Treatment NK, soil OC in Treatment NPK was increased by 45.4%. Compared with Treatment CK (low chemical fertilizer), organic fertilizer addition increased soil OC. The OC in the different particle of water-stable aggregates were all significantly increased after long-term fertilization. OC mainly existed in the macroaggregate (> 0.25 mm) of red soils after the long-term fertilization, and the

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from rape field as affected by nitrogen fertilizer management: A case study in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Jinshui; Zhao, Jinsong; Ruan, Leilei; Malghani, Saadatullah

    2011-03-01

    Agricultural soils are one of the major sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2O) emission. Red soil, one of the typical agricultural soils in sub-tropical China, plays an important role in the global N 2O flux emissions. To determine its N mineralization potential, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a rape field under red soil at the experimental station of Heshengqiao at Xianning, Hubei, China. To estimate N-induced N 2O flux, we examined N 2O flux during the growth stages of the rape field including four treatments: fertilizer PK (N0), fertilizer NPK (60 kg N ha -1) (N1), fertilizer NPK (120 kg N ha -1) (N2), fertilizer NPK (240 kg N ha -1) (N3). There were distinct variations in soil N 2O fluxes (from 0.16 to 0.90 kg N ha -1), with higher values being observed during the spring and autumn while low values were observed during winter season. Among different treatments, N fertilization significantly increased the N 2O fluxes, with highest fluxes from N3 while lowest values being observed from N0 treatment. This suggested increased microbial activity in response to increased N fertilizer application. It was interesting to note that fertilizer-induced emissions decreased as the applied fertilizer amount was increased. During the whole growing season, N 2O flux did not correlate with soil temperature, but it significantly correlated to other environmental variables; water-filled pore space (WFPS), soil NO 3--N and NH 4+-N contents, which suggests the need for efficient water use and low inorganic nitrogen fertilizer management practices.

  9. Efeito da calagem e adubação da seringueira no estado nutricional e produção de borracha seca Effect of liming and fertilization on nutritional state and dry rubber production of rubber-tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonias de Castro Virgens Filho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da calagem e da adubação NPK no estado nutricional e na produção de borracha seca do clone RRIM 600. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas foram testados duas testemunhas (sem adubação e sem calagem; sem adubação e com calagem, e seis tratamentos com calagem e adubação (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 e N2P2K2. Os níveis anuais de NPK utilizados corresponderam a 40 e 80 kg ha-1 de N, 17,5 e 35,0 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 0, 33,2 e 66,4 kg ha-1 de K2O. Nas subparcelas foram utilizados os sistemas de explotação ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2,5% LaPa 1/1 10/y e ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5,0% LaPa 1/1 10/y. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre os teores de N, P, S, Cu e Zn nas folhas. A aplicação de N, nas duas doses, não elevou o seu teor nas folhas. O aumento nas doses de K2O na presença de N2P2 promoveu decréscimo no teor de zinco. A maior produção de borracha seca (1.778,9 kg ha-1, na média dos três anos, foi obtida no tratamento N2P2K1 + calagem nos dois sistemas de explotação.The effects of lime and NPK application on nutritional state and dry rubber production of clone RRIM 600 were evaluated. The experimental design was a randomized split-plot with four replicates. In the plots were tested two controls (without fertilizer and without lime; without fertilizer and with lime and six treatments with lime and NPK fertilization (N1P1K0, N2P2K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K1, N1P1K2 and N2P2K2. The two sub-treatments were the following tapping systems: ½S d/4 6 d/7 ET 2.5% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S1 and ½S d/6 6 d/7 ET 5.0% LaPa 1/1 10/y (S2. The NPK levels used, in kg ha-1 y-1, were represented by 40 and 80 of N; 17.5 and 35.0 of P2O5 and 0, 33.2 and 66.4 of K2O. There was a significant effect of treatments on the N, P, S, Cu and Zn content in leaves. The N applied to soil up to the second dosage was not enough to increase the N level in leaves

  10. The Fertile Grounds Initiative: A new way to close nutrient flows at regional level resulting in better agricultural productivity and less environmental losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Christy; van Duivenbooden, Niek; Noij, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    The threat of declining soil fertility levels is well known. Yet, and despite numerous efforts, we seem incapable of changing the current situation of sink areas in developed countries and depletion areas in developing countries. With negative consequences (i.e. loss in productive capacity and loss in environmental quality) in both areas. Moreover, due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows become increasingly disconnected. Soil nutrient depletion cannot simply be compensated for with mineral fertilisers, for the following reasons: • mineral fertilisers are often not affordable for smallholders and fertiliser subsidy systems are not always successful • mineral fertilisers do not contain organic matter and therefore do not halt the degradation of the soil • mineral fertilisers work best in combination with organic sources of nutrients (compost, farm yard manure, etc.) • To halt soil degradation an integrated approach is needed, including reducing losses of nutrients and organic matter from soils at risk. Presently, more actors are getting involved in reallocation of nutrients, especially in the energy and waste sector. Time has come for a new approach to bring together demands and supplies for nutrients. We therefore present the Fertile Grounds Initiative: a broker for nutrient supply and demand in the region. The Fertile Grounds Initiative is based on the findings that: • Organic ánd mineral nutrients are required for increased and sustainable production; • Nutrients have a value and should be treated as such; • Due to globalization and urbanization nutrient flows are ever more polarized between depletion and concentration areas; • The demand for energy poses new threats and opportunities for nutrient management. In the Fertile Grounds Initiative nutrient suppliers from the energy sector, waste management, fertilizer companies, etc. and demands for nutrients from farmers are brought together in a dynamic platform. This platform acts as a

  11. Three-decade long fertilization-induced soil organic carbon sequestration depends on edaphic characteristics in six typical croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feng; Li, Jianwei; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin; Cai, Zejiang; Gao, Hongjun; Ma, Junyong; Cui, Xian; Xu, Minggang

    2016-08-01

    Fertilizations affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content but the relative influences of the edaphic and climate factors on SOC storage are rarely studied across wide spatiotemporal scales. This study synthesized long-term datasets of fertilization experiments in six typical Chinese croplands, and calculated annual C input from crops and manure amendments, changes in SOC storage (ΔSOC) and C sequestration efficiency (i.e. the percentage of soil C change per unit of C input, hereafter referred as CSE) in 0–20 cm soil over three decades. Three fertilization treatments include no fertilization (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK) and combined chemical fertilizers and manure (NPKM). Results showed significant fertilization effects on C input and ΔSOC (NPKM>NPK>CK), and significantly higher CSE in Qiyang at Hunan than Zhengzhou at Henan and Heihe at Heilongjiang. The variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed more variance of CSE can be explained by edaphic factors (up to 39.7%) than other factors. Furthermore, soil available N content and pH were identified as the major soil properties explaining CSE variance. This study demonstrated key controls of soil fertility factors on SOC sequestration and informs the need to develop strategic soil management plan to promote soil carbon sequestration under long-term intensive fertilization.

  12. Three-decade long fertilization-induced soil organic carbon sequestration depends on edaphic characteristics in six typical croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feng; Li, Jianwei; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin; Cai, Zejiang; Gao, Hongjun; Ma, Junyong; Cui, Xian; Xu, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Fertilizations affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content but the relative influences of the edaphic and climate factors on SOC storage are rarely studied across wide spatiotemporal scales. This study synthesized long-term datasets of fertilization experiments in six typical Chinese croplands, and calculated annual C input from crops and manure amendments, changes in SOC storage (ΔSOC) and C sequestration efficiency (i.e. the percentage of soil C change per unit of C input, hereafter referred as CSE) in 0-20 cm soil over three decades. Three fertilization treatments include no fertilization (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK) and combined chemical fertilizers and manure (NPKM). Results showed significant fertilization effects on C input and ΔSOC (NPKM>NPK>CK), and significantly higher CSE in Qiyang at Hunan than Zhengzhou at Henan and Heihe at Heilongjiang. The variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed more variance of CSE can be explained by edaphic factors (up to 39.7%) than other factors. Furthermore, soil available N content and pH were identified as the major soil properties explaining CSE variance. This study demonstrated key controls of soil fertility factors on SOC sequestration and informs the need to develop strategic soil management plan to promote soil carbon sequestration under long-term intensive fertilization. PMID:27492771

  13. Effect of organic amendments on half-highbush blueberry production and soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Warman, P.R.; Shanmugam, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    Five treatments were compared using two half-highbush blueberry cultivars (cv Chippewa and Polaris) transplanted and grown for their first three growing seasons at a site in Boutiliers Point, N.S., a Gibraltar brown sandy loam (Ferro-Humic Podzol). The five treatments were as follows: Alfalfa meal + rock P + wood ash; NPK fertilizer; Municipal Solid Waste (MSWC) compost; Ruminant compost; food waste, manure and yardwaste compost (FMYC). All amendments were weighed and applied in a...

  14. Effect of complex fertilizers used in early crop potato culture on loamy sand soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wanda Wadas; Tomasz Dziugieł

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a high tuber yield of early crop potato good conditions for plant growth must be ensured. Potato has a relatively shallow root system and requires significant nutrient inputs to maintain tuber productivity and quality. The paper presents the results of the research on the effect of complex fertilizers type NPK MgS with and without microelements from the nitrophoska (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13) and the amophoska group (Polimag S), and single-nutrient fertili...

  15. Converging strategies by farmers and scientists to improve soil fertility and enhance crop production in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Saidou, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Farmer perception, indigenous knowledge, extensive cassava, earthworm casts, arbuscular mycorrhiza, crop rotation, nutrient uptake, soil fertility, co-research, land tenure.Farmers in the transitional zone of Benin claim that extensive cassava cropping and prior cotton fertiliser enhance yield of subsequent maize. To cope with labour shortage, farmers have adapted fertiliser practices by mixing NPK-SB and urea. We agreed with farmers through a Stakeholder Learning Group to study the...

  16. 利用硫铵母液生产NPK复肥%NPK compound fertilizer production from ammonium sulfate mother liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    念吉红

    2015-01-01

    介绍云峰分公司利用硫铵母液生产55% (15-30-10) NPK复肥的工艺流程、控制指标及特点.利用硫铵母液生产NPK复肥,可利用废弃资源,降低生产成本,同时增加了NPK复肥中的S含量,具有很好的应用前景.

  17. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1 ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK, e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP. Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura.The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibble tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1 with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant of a NPK-enriched zeolite

  18. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N.

  19. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N. PMID:26553169

  20. Climate Change: Natural Water and Fertilization Effects on Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.) Yield in Monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    were observed between the rainfall quantity and the yield (0: R=0.7489***, N: R=0.8974***, NP: R=0.8020***, NK: R=0.7370***, NPK: R=0.9047***, mean R2=0.8180; 66.9%) during the vegetation period. v., The increase in grain yield per mm rainfall ranged from 3.0 to 6.4 kg . ha-1 in the case of optimum rainfall supplies, while the quantity of rainfall during the vegetation period required for the production of 1 kg air-dry yield ranged from 1529 to 3360 liters in the case of maximum yield. vi., Based on the meteorological database for the 44 years of the long-term experiment (1961-2004) the frequency of years in which the rainfall was optimum for various levels of nutrient supply was as follows: control: 2%, N: 7%, NP: 7%, NK: 9%, NPK: 7%, giving an average of 6% over the treatments. This suggests that the occurrence of optimum rainfall supplies and the possibility of achieving optimum yields in a rye monoculture will be decline in the future. vii., The yield average of rye grown in a monoculture on calcareous sandy soil (Őrbottyán) was 86% less than that achieved in a biculture on acidic sandy soil (Nyírlugos) under the similar fertilization and rainfall conditions. viii., The results show rye production is totally (66.9%) dependent on rainfall and fertilization changes. Key words: rye, monoculture, rainfall, artificial fertilization, yield Introduction: Climate change is recognized as a serious environmental issue (Easterling et al., 1999; Johnston, 2000; Harnos, 2005). It has repeatedly affected much or all of the earth (Láng, 2005). Available evidence suggests that such changes are not only possible but likely in the future, potentially with large impacts on ecosystems and societies (Barrow et al., 2000; NRC, 2002; Hulme et al., 2002; Rajendra, 2004; Márton, 2004; 2005ab). During the 20th Century green house gases, especially CO2, in the atmosphere increased markedly (Szász, 2005). Nearly concurrently with this, relative global temperatures of the 19th Century

  1. 吉林省水稻施肥现状的调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Rice Fertilization Status in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈娟; 高强

    2011-01-01

    本文以调查问卷的形式,对吉林省水稻综合生产能力、科学施肥技术水平、测土配方施肥等一些问题作了细致的凋研.通过分析调查110个农户的数据,结果表明:吉林省在氮磷钾肥料施用上存在不合理现象,氮肥普遍施用量过高,而磷钾肥施用则明显不足,最适宜施肥范围农户仅占17%.从施用肥料的偏生产力看,水稻磷钾肥的偏生产力过低,氮肥的偏生产力也有待提高.%In this paper, we made a careful investigation of rice production capacity, science and technology level and some problems such as soil fertilizer based on the questionnaire in Jilin Province.Through analysis of the data of 110 farmers, the results showed there was an unreasonable phenomenon in the use of NPK fertilizers.The quantity of nitrogen fertilizer is too high, but the quantity of phosphate and potash fertilizer is considerably low.The most appropriate application of fertilizer only account for 17% of farmers.The rice yield increase of phosphate and potash fertilizer was too low, and rice yield increase of nitrogen could also be raised.

  2. The Influence of Seed Rate and Fertilizer Type on Growth of Tridax procumbens in Subhumid Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onifade, OS.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Forage production of Tridax procumbens was examined from three seed rates (20, 40 and 60 kg/ha, four types of fertilizer [(unfertilized control, single superphosphate (SSP, 18 % P, NPK (20 : 10 : 10, and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, 25 % N] and four harvest stages (6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post sowing, WPS. Fertilizer rates used were 20 kg/ha P for (SSP and 50 kg/ha N for each of NPK and CAN. Plant height (cm, density (plants/m2 and spread (cm were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Sampling for yield estimation in each plot was done at 6, 9, 12 and 15 WPS. Mean plant height with respect to seed rate, fertilizer type and growth stage significantly (P 2000 kg DM/ha. Application of SSP, NPK and CAN gave more total DM yields than the unfertilized control plot respectively by about 69, 75 and 75 %. Total DM yield varied from 1024 kg DM/ha when T. procumbens was harvested at an earlier stage (6 WPS to 2130 kg DM/ha at a later harvest (12 WPS. The main CP of leaf was significantly (P <0.05 affected by ail the treatments imposed.

  3. Impact of Long-Term Fertilization Practice on Soil Structure Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Vogel, Hans-Jörg;

    2014-01-01

    The study characterized soil structure development and evolution in six plots that were amended with varying amounts of animal manure (AM) and NPK fertilizer over a period of 106 years in a long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Two intact soil cores (10-cm diameter and 8-cm...... tall) and bulk soil samples were extracted from a depth between 5 and 15-cm from each plot. Soil properties including texture, organic carbon, soil–water characteristic, air permeability and diffusivity were measured and analyzed along with X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. Long-term applications...... of AM and NPK had a major impact on soil organic carbon content which increased from 0.015 kg kg− 1 (unfertilized plot) to 0.024 kg kg− 1 (well fertilized plot, 30 T ha− 1 2y− 1 AM with NPK). Total porosity linearly followed the organic carbon gradient, increasing from 0.36 to 0.43 m3 m− 3. The water...

  4. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization of Boreal Forest Land on Greenhouse Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, L.; Sathre, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Forest growth on mineral soils in boreal regions is often limited by a low availability of nitrogen (N), and fertilization has shown particular promise in increasing yields in productive boreal forests. In this study we analyze the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing forest biomass production through N fertilization and using the increased production for bioenergy and biomaterials in place of non-renewable fuels and materials. We begin with a stand-level analysis of the radiative forcing implications of forest fertilization and biomass substitution, with explicit consideration of the temporal patterns of GHG emissions to and removals from the atmosphere. We model and compare the production and use of biomass from a hectare of fertilized and non-fertilized forest land in northern Sweden. We calculate the annual net emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 for each system, over a 225-year period with 1-year time steps. We calculate the annual atmospheric concentration decay of each of these emissions, and calculate the resulting annual changes in instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing. We find that forest fertilization can significantly increase biomass production, which increases the potential for material and energy substitution. The average carbon stock in tree biomass, forest soils and wood products all increase when fertilization is used. The additional GHG emissions due to fertilizer production and application are small compared to increases in carbon stock and substitution benefits. By the end of the 225-year simulation period, the cumulative radiative forcing reduction of the fertilized stand is over twice that of the non-fertilized stand. We then consider a steady-state landscape-level scenario where 10% of Swedish forest land is fertilized. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net GHG benefits

  5. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  6. Effect of Different Fertilizer Treatments on Quantity of Soil Microbes and Structure of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacterial Community in a Calcareous Purple Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The quantity of soil microbes and the structure of ammonium oxidizing bacterial (AOB) community were analyzed using the dilution plate counting and most probable number method (MPN), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. Fertilizer application tended to increase the number of soil microbes and alter the AOB community compared to the control with no fertilizer application (CK). Among the eight fertilizer treatments, soil samples from the treatments of mineral fertilizers (e.g., N, P, K) in combination with farmyard manure (M) had greater numbers of soil microbes and more complex structure of AOB community than those receiving mineral fertilizers alone. The principal component analyses (PCA) for ammonium oxidizing bacterial community structure showed that the eight fertilizer treatments could be divided into two PCA groups (PCA1 and PCA2). For the soil sampled after rice harvest, PCA1 included NP, NM, NPM and NPKM fertilizer treatments, while PCA2 was consisted of CK, N, M and NPK fertilizer treatments. For soil samples collected after wheat harvest, PCA1 was consisted of M, NM, NPM and NPKM fertilizer treatments, while PCA2 was composed of CK, N, NP and NPK fertilizer treatments. For a given rotation, the richness of AOB community in PCA1 was greater than that in PCA2. In addition, AOB community structure was more complex in the soil after rice harvest than that after wheat harvest. The results indicated that different fertilizer treatments resulted in substantial changes of soil microbe number and AOB community. Furthermore, mineral fertilizers (N, NP, NPK) combined with farmyard manure were effective for increasing the quantity of soil microbes, enriching AOB community, and improving the soil biofertility.

  7. NPK and flavonoids affecting insect populations in Dimorphandra mollis seedlings=NPK e flavonoides afetando populações de insetos em mudas de Dimorphandra mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Silva Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the influence of different levels of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K, and flavonoids on the population of insects in Dimorphandra mollis Benth (Leguminosae seedlings. The treatments associated with the highest level of attacks by Frankliniella schulzei (Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae were 600 mg dm-3 of P and 50 mg dm-3 of K. The highest level of attacks by Coccidae occurred for 300 of P and 150 and 250 mg dm-3 of K. The last two treatments also exhibited the highest level of attacks by Pseudococcidae. On the other hand, the control exhibited higher levels of flavonoids and a lower level of insect attacks. We observed a small positive effect of N levels on attack by F. schulzei. The levels of N, P and K negatively affected the levels of flavonoids in the leaves of D. mollis. We detected no significant effects of flavonoid levels on the populations of Coccidae, Pseudoccocidae and F. schulzei. Higher numbers of Coccidae and Pseudococcidae were observed in the abaxial face of apical leaves. However, higher numbers of F. schulzei were observed on the adaxial face at lower heights in the canopy. The preferred treatment for the production of D. mollis seedlings is the control (without fertilization because it showed higher flavonoid levels than other treatments and did not result in higher insect numbers.O estudo avaliou a influência de diferentes níveis de nitrogênio (N, fósforo (P e potássio (K e flavonoides sobre a população de insetos em mudas de Dimorphandra mollis Benth (Leguminosae. Os tratamentos associados com maiores níveis de ataque de Frankliniella schulzei (Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae foram 600 mg dm-3 de P e 50 mg dm-3 de K. Os maiores níveis de ataque de Coccidae ocorreu para 300 de P e 150 e 250 mg dm-3 de K. Os dois últimos tratamentos também exibiram altos níveis de ataque de Pseudococcidae. Por outro lado, o controle exibiu maior nível de flavonoides e menor nível de ataque de

  8. Soil Insect Diversity and Abundance Following Different Fertilizer Treatments on the Loess Plateau of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ying-hua; LU Ping; YANG Xue-yun; ZHANG Fu-dao

    2013-01-01

    The presence of abundant and diverse communities of macro-arthropods is considered an indicator of sustainability in agroecosystems. This study was designed to investigate the effects of different fertilizer treatments on abundance and diversity of insects of arable loess soil on the Loess Plateau of China. These regimes included a control with no fertilizer addition or manure, treatments with application of mineral fertilizers (N, NK, NP, PK, NPK), treatments with NPK in combination with organic materials such as wheat straw or maize stalk, treatments with two rates of organic manure application;and different crop rotations (Rot.1:winter wheat summer maize;Rot.2:winter wheat summer maize soybean intercropping;and Rot.3:winter wheat or rapeseed summer maize soybean intercropping). Soil macro-arthropods were collected from the plough layer (0-20 cm) and sorted by hand after each harvest in June and October 2001 and 2002. A total of 3 132 individuals were collected, from 7 orders and 55 families, dominated by Formicidae (61.72%) and Staphylinidae (14.24%). The results showed that individuals and groups were significantly influenced by sampling dates, while groups were significantly influenced by the fertilization treatments. Soil insect biodiversity, as determined by the Shannon index, was significantly influenced by fertilization and sampling dates. The abundance of soil insects was positively and significantly correlated with soil moisture content in October 2002. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and incorporation of organic materials were favorable factors for abundance and diversity in arable loess soil.

  9. Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sørheim, Roald

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and Fullgjødsel® 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and Fullgjødsel® gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28 mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160 kg N ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as Fullgjødsel® NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended.

  10. Effect of Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizers on microbial biomass and Functional Diversity of a Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Wei-Dong; ZHU Yong-Guan; FU Bo-Jie; HAN Xiao-Zeng; ZHANG Lei; HE Ji-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with seven N, P, K-fertilizer treatments, i.e., control (no fertilizer), NP, NK, PK, NPK, NP2K, and NPK2 where P2 and K2 indicate double amounts of P and K fertilizers respectively, was conducted to examine the effect of long-term continuous application of chemical fertilizers on microbial biomass and functional diversity of a black soil (Udoll in the USDA Soil Taxonomy) in Northeast China. The soil microbial biomass C ranged between 94 and 145 mg kg-1, with the NK treatment showing a lower biomass; the functional diversity of soil microbial community ranged from 4.13 to 4.25, with an increasing tendency from control to double-fertilizer treatments, and to triple-fertilizer treatments. The soil microbial biomass, and the microbial functional diversity and evenness did not show any significant differences among the different fertilizer treatments including control, suggesting that the long-term application of chemical fertilization would not result in significant changes in the microbial characteristics of the black soil.

  11. Natural fertility in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, E G

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that modernization trends in the Philippines led to an increase in fecundity and natural fertility between 1953-1972 was tested, using data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey. More specifically, it was hypothesized that increases in education, income levels, urbanization, female labor force participation, and other factors exerted a positive influence on the population's health and nutritional status and increased the risk of pregnancy by diminishing the strength of sexual taboos and by decreasing the incidence of breastfeeding. These changes, in turn, had a positive impact on natural fertility. Natural fertility was defined as marital fertility in the absence of specific efforts to control fertility. The use of natural fertility instead of fecundity allowed for the influence of behavioral patterns, such as breastfeeding and sexual taboos, on fertility. Period analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for each 5 year period between 1953-72 and cohort analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for the birth cohorts, aged 55-59, 50-54, 45-49, 40-44, and 35-39 in 1973 were undertaken. The effect of fertility control was determined by using an index derived from an equation provided by Coale and Trussell. Findings of both the period and cohort analysis supported the hypothesis. Period analysis revealed that natural fertility increased between 1953-57 and 1969-72 by 10% and that the greatest increase occurred during the 1950s when Philippine society experienced major modernization changes. The increases in natural fertility were accompanied by corresponding increases in fertility regulation in each time period. These trends tended to cancel each other out and resulted in a relatively stable total marital fertility rate throughout the time period. Cohort analysis revealed that only the total marital fertility rate of the youngest cohort was influenced by fertility regulation. The level of natural fertility for all cohorts as a group

  12. Inventarisatie en heronderzoek van monsters NPK meststoffen in verband met afwijkingen ten opzichte van de gestelde norm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanen, van A.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Bannink, H.; Booiman-Hagens, G.M.; Bovens-van de Burgt, M.F.; Jong, de J.

    1989-01-01

    I.v.m. geconstateerde afwijkingen van monsters NPK meststoffen t.o.v. de gestelde norm zijn de wettelijk voorgeschreven EEG-methoden voor gehalten aan P2O5, oplosbaar in water, en neutraal ammoniumcitraat op dupliceerbaarheid en op reproduceerbaarheid volgens de Meststoffenwet onderzocht.

  13. Long-term organic and inorganic fertilizations enhanced basic soil productivity in a lfuvo-aquic soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Yan; WU Xue-ping; GONG Fu-fei; XU Ming-gang; ZHANG Hui-min; CHEN Li-ming; HUANG Shao-min; CAI Dian-xiong

    2015-01-01

    The improvement of soil productivity depends on a rational input of water and nutrients, optimal ifeld management, and the increase of basic soil productivity (BSP). In this study, BSP is deifned as the productive capacity of a farmland soil with its own physical and chemical properties for a speciifc crop season under local ifeld management. Based on 19-yr data of the long-term agronomic experiments (1989–2008) on a lfuvo-aquic soil in Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China, the decision support system for agrotechnology transfer (DSSAT ver. 4.0) crop growth model was used to simulate yields by BSP of winter wheat (Triticum aestiviumL.) and summer maize (Zea maysL.) to examine the relationship between BSP and soil organic carbon (SOC) under long-term fertilization. Five treatments were included: (1) no fertilization (control), (2) nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), (3) NPK plus manure (NPKM), (4) 1.5 times of NPKM (1.5NPKM), and (5) NPK plus straw (NPKS). After 19 yr of treatments, the SOC stock increased 16.7, 44.2, 69.9, and 25.2% under the NPK, NPKM, 1.5NPKM, and NPKS, respectively, compared to the initial value. Among various nutrient factors affecting contribution per-centage of BSP to winter wheat and summer maize, SOC was a major affecting factor for BSP in the lfuvo-aquic soil. There were signiifcant positive correlations between SOC stock and yields by BSP of winter wheat and summer maize (P<0.01), and yields by BSP of winter wheat and summer maize increased 154 and 132 kg ha–1 when SOC stock increased 1 t C ha–1. Thus, increased SOC accumulation is a crucial way for increasing BSP in lfuvo-aquic soil.The manure or straw combined application with chemical fertilizers signiifcantly enhanced BSP compared to the application of chemical fertilizers alone.

  14. Fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK e seus efeitos sobre a produção e qualidade de frutos de laranja (Citrus sinensis O. 'Valência' Fertigation with different doses of NPK and its effect on fruit yield and quality of valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZA HELENA DUENHAS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Três Irmãos, no município de Pratânia, Estado de São Paulo, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da fertirrigação com diferentes doses de NPK aplicadas por meio de um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão na cultura da laranja em comparação com a adubação convencional irrigada e não irrigada. A avaliação dos efeitos da irrigação e da fertirrigação na cultura foi feita com base na produção e qualidade dos frutos colhidos, na análise de solo da camada de 0-20 cm e na análise de folhas. Os tratamentos não influenciaram significativamente a produtividade de acordo com a análise estatística realizada, embora se tenha observado uma tendência de maior produtividade nos tratamentos de fertirrigação para uma mesma dose. A análise de qualidade dos frutos não mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os teores de alguns dos elementos obtidos na análise de solo apresentaram diferenças significativas proporcionadas pela irrigação e/ou modo de aplicação dos fertilizantes à cultura. A análise de folhas diferiu quanto aos teores de Ca, Mg e K.The experiment was carried out in Fazenda Três Irmãos, in the municipal district of Pratânia, State of São Paulo, with the objective of studying the effect of fertigation with different rates of applied NPK through a microsprinkler irrigation system for an orange crop in comparison with conventional fertilization with and without irrigation. The evaluation of the irrigation and fertigation effects on the crop was done considering the production and quality of the fruits, the 0-20 cm layer soil analysis and the leaves analyzes. The treatments did not influence the productivity significantly, although a tendency of larger productivity was observed for the fertigation treatments. The quality of the fruits was also not affected. The results of soil analysis indicated differences for some of the elements due to the irrigation

  15. Use of slow-release fertilizer on the production of sweet potatoes plantlets in tray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of plantlets in containers generally requires the use of fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of sweet potato in styrofoam trays using slow-release fertilizer. The experiment was carried out, under a screen-protected nursery, in a factorial scheme 5x5, with five doses of slow-release fertilizer NPK 19-06-10 (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 g per 25 kg de substrate and five times of plantlets permanence in tray (14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days after planting the cuttings. The number and dry matter of roots and leaves were evaluated. The number of roots was not influenced by fertilizer addition. In general, there is not damage to plantlets growth until the highest dose used. Therefore, the fertilizer addition increases the sweet potato plants growth and the dose of 200 g per 25 kg of substrate is responsible for the best results.

  16. New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gorecka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, animal bones as the source of phosphorus and wood ash as the source of potassium and micronutrients. Bioavailability of fertilization components was increased by mineralization with sulfuric acid, which transformed keratinous nitrogen of poultry feathers into ammonia nitrogen, hydroxyapatite phosphorus to bioavailable orthophosphate. Also, mineralization of organic content of the materials was achieved. The method of production and the composition of NPKS fertilizer, the content of which was adjusted to the requirements of oil seed rape was provided. The fertilization properties were checked in germination tests.

  17. Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsozué, D.; Nghonda, J. P.; Mekem, D. L.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), direct seeding (DS) and tillage seeding (TS) on Sorghum yields, soil fertility and the rehabilitation of degraded soils was evaluated in northern Cameroon. Field work consisted of visual examination, soil sampling, yield and rainfall data collection. Three fertilization rates (F1: 100 kg ha-1 NPK + 25 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC, F2: 200 kg ha-1 NPK + 50 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC and F3: 300 kg ha-1 NPK + 100 kg ha-1 of urea in DMC) were applied to each cropping system (DS, TS and DMC), resulting in nine experimental plots. Two types of chemical fertilizer were used (NPK 22.10.15 and urea) and applied each year from 2002 to 2012. Average Sorghum yields were 1239, 863 and 960 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F1, 1658, 1139 and 1192 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F2, and 2270, 2138 and 1780 kg ha-1 in DMC, DS and TS, respectively, at F3. pH values were 5.2-5.7 under DMC, 4.9-5.3 under DS and TS and 5.6 in the control sample. High values of cation exchange capacity were recorded in the control sample, TS system and F1 of DMC. Base saturation rates, total nitrogen and organic matter contents were higher in the control sample and DMC than in the other systems. All studied soils were permanently not suitable for Sorghum due to the high percentage of nodules. F1 and F2 of the DS were currently not suitable, while F1 and F3 of DMC, F3 of DS and F1, F2 and F3 of TS were marginally suitable for Sorghum due to low pH values.

  18. Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsozué

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC, direct seeding (DS and tillage seeding (TS on Sorghum yields, soil fertility and the rehabilitation of degraded soils was evaluated in northern Cameroon. Field work consisted of visual examination, soil sampling, yield and rainfall data collection. Three fertilization rates (F1: 100 kg ha−1 NPK + 25 kg ha−1 of urea in DMC, F2: 200 kg ha−1 NPK + 50 kg ha−1 of urea in DMC and F3: 300 kg ha−1 NPK + 100 kg ha−1 of urea in DMC were applied to each cropping system (DS, TS and DMC, resulting in nine experimental plots. Two types of chemical fertilizer were used (NPK 22.10.15 and urea and applied each year from 2002 to 2012. Average Sorghum yields were 1239, 863 and 960 kg ha−1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F1, 1658, 1139 and 1192 kg ha−1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F2, and 2270, 2138 and 1780 kg ha−1 respectively in DMC, DS and TS at F3. pH values were 5.2 to 5.7 under DMC, 4.9 to 5.3 under DS and TS, and 5.6 in the control sample. High values of cation exchange capacity were recorded in the control sample, TS system and F1 of DMC. Base saturation rates, total nitrogen and organic matter contents were high in the control sample and the DMC than in the others systems. All studied soils were permanently not suitable for Sorghum due to the high percentage of nodules. F1 and F2 of the DS were currently not suitable, while F1 and F3 of DMC, F3 of DS and F1, F2 and F3 of TS were marginally suitable for Sorghum due to low soil pH values.

  19. Effects of enhancing soil organic carbon sequestration in the topsoil by fertilization on crop productivity and stability: Evidence from long-term experiments with wheat-maize cropping systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo; Sun, Nan; Wu, Lianhai; Xu, Minggang; Bingham, Ian J; Li, Zhongfang

    2016-08-15

    Although organic carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has been recommended as a 'win-win strategy' for mitigating climate change and ensuring food security, great uncertainty still remains in identifying the relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and crop productivity. Using data from 17 long-term experiments in China we determined the effects of fertilization strategies on SOC stocks at 0-20cm depth in the North, North East, North West and South. The impacts of changes in topsoil SOC stocks on the yield and yield stability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) were determined. Results showed that application of inorganic fertilizers (NPK) plus animal manure over 20-30years significantly increased SOC stocks to 20-cm depth by 32-87% whilst NPK plus wheat/maize straw application increased it by 26-38% compared to controls. The efficiency of SOC sequestration differed between regions with 7.4-13.1% of annual C input into the topsoil being retained as SOC over the study periods. In the northern regions, application of manure had little additional effect on yield compared to NPK over a wide range of topsoil SOC stocks (18->50MgCha(-1)). In the South, average yield from manure applied treatments was 2.5 times greater than that from NPK treatments. Moreover, the yield with NPK plus manure increased until SOC stocks (20-cm depth) increased to ~35MgCha(-1). In the northern regions, yield stability was not increased by application of NPK plus manure compared to NPK, whereas in the South there was a significant improvement. We conclude that manure application and straw incorporation could potentially lead to SOC sequestration in topsoil in China, but beneficial effects of this increase in SOC stocks to 20-cm depth on crop yield and yield stability may only be achieved in the South. PMID:27100005

  20. Effects of enhancing soil organic carbon sequestration in the topsoil by fertilization on crop productivity and stability: Evidence from long-term experiments with wheat-maize cropping systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo; Sun, Nan; Wu, Lianhai; Xu, Minggang; Bingham, Ian J; Li, Zhongfang

    2016-08-15

    Although organic carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has been recommended as a 'win-win strategy' for mitigating climate change and ensuring food security, great uncertainty still remains in identifying the relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and crop productivity. Using data from 17 long-term experiments in China we determined the effects of fertilization strategies on SOC stocks at 0-20cm depth in the North, North East, North West and South. The impacts of changes in topsoil SOC stocks on the yield and yield stability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) were determined. Results showed that application of inorganic fertilizers (NPK) plus animal manure over 20-30years significantly increased SOC stocks to 20-cm depth by 32-87% whilst NPK plus wheat/maize straw application increased it by 26-38% compared to controls. The efficiency of SOC sequestration differed between regions with 7.4-13.1% of annual C input into the topsoil being retained as SOC over the study periods. In the northern regions, application of manure had little additional effect on yield compared to NPK over a wide range of topsoil SOC stocks (18->50MgCha(-1)). In the South, average yield from manure applied treatments was 2.5 times greater than that from NPK treatments. Moreover, the yield with NPK plus manure increased until SOC stocks (20-cm depth) increased to ~35MgCha(-1). In the northern regions, yield stability was not increased by application of NPK plus manure compared to NPK, whereas in the South there was a significant improvement. We conclude that manure application and straw incorporation could potentially lead to SOC sequestration in topsoil in China, but beneficial effects of this increase in SOC stocks to 20-cm depth on crop yield and yield stability may only be achieved in the South.

  1. Long-term fertilization modifies the structures of soil fulvic acids and their binding capability with Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Wu, Minjie; Li, Chunping; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The binding characteristics of organic ligands and minerals in fulvic acids (FAs) with Al are essential for understanding soil C sequestration, remain poorly understood. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) analysis was applied for the first time to explore the binding of Al with organic ligands and minerals in soil FAs. For these analyses, two contrasting treatments were selected from a long-term (i.e., 22-year) fertilization experiment: chemical (NPK) fertilization and swine manure (SM) fertilization. The results showed that the long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to soils had little effect on the compositions of the fluorescent substances and organic ligands in the soil FAs. However, long-term SM fertilization increased the weathered Al and Si concentrations in the soil FAs compared with long-term chemical fertilization. Furthermore, organic ligands in the soil FAs were mainly bound with Al in the NPK treatment, whereas both organic ligands and minerals (Al-O-Si, Si-O) were bound with Al under the M fertilization conditions. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrated that amorphous and short-range-ordered nanominerals were abundant in the soil FAs from the SM plot in contrast to the soil FAs from the NPK plot. This result illustrates the role nanominerals play in the preservation of soil FAs by during long-term organic fertilization. In summary, the combination of FTIR and 2D correlation spectroscopy is a promising approach for the characterization of the binding capability between soil FAs and Al, and a better understanding FA-Al binding capability will greatly contribute to global C cycling. PMID:25137372

  2. Long-term fertilization modifies the structures of soil fulvic acids and their binding capability with Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Wu, Minjie; Li, Chunping; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The binding characteristics of organic ligands and minerals in fulvic acids (FAs) with Al are essential for understanding soil C sequestration, remain poorly understood. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) analysis was applied for the first time to explore the binding of Al with organic ligands and minerals in soil FAs. For these analyses, two contrasting treatments were selected from a long-term (i.e., 22-year) fertilization experiment: chemical (NPK) fertilization and swine manure (SM) fertilization. The results showed that the long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to soils had little effect on the compositions of the fluorescent substances and organic ligands in the soil FAs. However, long-term SM fertilization increased the weathered Al and Si concentrations in the soil FAs compared with long-term chemical fertilization. Furthermore, organic ligands in the soil FAs were mainly bound with Al in the NPK treatment, whereas both organic ligands and minerals (Al-O-Si, Si-O) were bound with Al under the M fertilization conditions. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrated that amorphous and short-range-ordered nanominerals were abundant in the soil FAs from the SM plot in contrast to the soil FAs from the NPK plot. This result illustrates the role nanominerals play in the preservation of soil FAs by during long-term organic fertilization. In summary, the combination of FTIR and 2D correlation spectroscopy is a promising approach for the characterization of the binding capability between soil FAs and Al, and a better understanding FA-Al binding capability will greatly contribute to global C cycling.

  3. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  4. Determination of Cd, Cr and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba SP (Brazil); Santos, Dario [Federal University of São Paulo, R. Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270, Diadema SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco José, E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A validated method for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Laboratory samples were comminuted and homogenized by cryogenic or planetary ball milling, pressed into pellets and analyzed by LIBS. The experimental setup was designed by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm with 10 Hz repetition rate, and the intensity signals from Cd II 214.441 nm, Cr II 267.716 nm and Pb II 220.353 nm emission lines were measured by using a spectrometer furnished with an intensified charge-coupled device. LIBS parameters (laser fluence, lens-to-sample distance, delay time, integration time gate, number of sites and number of laser pulses per site) were chosen after univariate experiments with a pellet of NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer). Calibration and validation were carried out with 30 fertilizer samples from single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, monoammonium phosphate, and NPK mixtures. Good results were obtained by using 30 pulses of 50 J cm{sup −2} (750 μm spot size), 2.0 μs delay time and 5.0 μs integration time gate. No significant differences between Cd, Cr, and Pb mass fractions determined by the proposed LIBS method and by ICP OES after microwave-assisted acid digestion (AOAC 2006.03 Official Method) were found at 95% confidence level. The limits of detection of 1 mg kg{sup −1} Cd, 2 mg kg{sup −1} Cr and 15 mg kg{sup −1} Pb and the precision (coefficients of variation of results ranging from 2% to 15%) indicate that the proposed LIBS method can be recommended for the determination of these analytes in phosphate fertilizers. - Highlights: • First LIBS application for quantitative Cd, Cr and Pb determination in fertilizers. • LIBS method was validated for analysis of phosphate fertilizers pressed pellets. • LIBS sample throughput is remarkably better than already existing methods.

  5. Effect of Long-Term Different Fertilization on Maize Yield Stability in the Northeast Black Soil Region%长期不同施肥对东北黑土区玉米产量稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洪军; 彭畅; 张秀芝; 李强; 朱平

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]This research was conducted to reveal the stability difference and dynamic of maize yield in the Northeast Black Soil region of China, and to provide scientific references for establishing the optimal fertilization pattern and promoting the sustainable production of maize.[Method]Based on the long-term experiment on Black Soil fertility and fertilizer efficiency in Gongzhuling city of Jilin province, the respond of maize yield and soil nutrient to eight fertilization patterns were analyzed: non-fertilization (CK), application of single chemical NP (NP), application of single chemical NK (NK), application of single chemical PK (PK), application of single chemical NPK (NPK), mixed application of low amounts of chemical fertilizer and manure (M1NPK), chemical fertilizer plus maize straw (SNPK), and mixed application of high amount chemical fertilizer and manure M2NPK).[Result]It was discovered that maize yield in chemical fertilizer plus organic manure treatments showed a significant increasing trend. There were no significant differences in average yields among the M1NPK, SNPK, and NPK treatments, in which the same N amounts were applied. The NPK treatment had a higher maize yield than the M1NPKand SNPK treatments in the first eleven years, but the result was the opposite in the recent fourteen years. Maize average yields of chemical fertilizer treatments showed an order of NPK>NP>NK>PK and CK during a 25 year period. The yield effects of chemical fertilizers N, P, and K were 33.0, 16.2, and 5.3 kg·kg-1 respectively. The application of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer had a higher sustainable yield index (SYI) from 0.712 to 0.798, but theSYI was very low in imbalance fertilization and no fertilizer treatments. The coefficient variation (CV) of maize yield was greater in the CK, PK, or NK treatments, which ranged from 18.5% to 34.7%, while the organic and inorganic fertilizer treatments had a lower CV of between 10.8%-13.0%. The average

  6. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Arabzadeh, Somayeh; Hossein, Ghamartaj; Rashidi, Batool Hossein; Hosseini, Marziyeh Agha; Zeraati, Hojjat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) wa...

  7. Effects of Medium,NPK Proportion and Nitrogen Concentration on Vegetative Growth of Oncidium%基质、氮磷钾比例和氮肥浓度对文心兰生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓荣; 廖飞雄; 王碧青; 徐晔春

    2011-01-01

    为提高文心兰的栽培管理水平,为合理施肥提供参考依据,以文心兰切花品种'黄金二号'为试验材料,对不同基质、不同氮磷钾配比及氮肥浓度3个因素进行组合筛选.试验结果显示,水苔与木炭等比例混合基质有利于促进一年生文心兰植株生长,与对照相比,对次代新芽生长达到显著性差异.有利于芽高生长发育的组合是水苔+木炭(1:1),氮磷钾施肥比例30:10:10,氮肥浓度200 mg/L;假球茎发育阶段以水苔+木炭(1:1),氮磷钾施肥比例20:20:20,氮肥浓度100 mg/L为最好;次代新芽以水苔+木炭(1:1),氮磷钾肥比例为20:20:20,氮肥浓度为200 mg/L时生长好.%In order to improve cultivation management level and provide reference for fertilization of Oncidium reasonably, research was conducted to investigate the interaction of different medium, NPK Proportion and nitrogen concentration combinations on growth of ‘ Oncidium Goldiana × O. Guiena Gold’. Plants grown in the sphagnum moss: charcoal (1:1) promoted shoot, pseudobulb and significantly enhanced secondary shoot growth.Combinations of sphagnum moss: charcoal (1:1), 30 N:10 P2O5:10 K2O and 200 mg/L nitrogen accelerated shoot growth. While giving combinations of sphagnum moss: charcoal(1:1), 20 N:20 P2O5:20 K2O and 100 mg/L nitrogen boosted pseudobulb growth, at the same time enhanced secondary shoot growth only increasing nitrogen from 100 mg/L to 200 mg/L.

  8. Use of organic fertilizer and bio fertilizer in a modern planting system to increase the productivity of vanilla plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanilla is a plant belonging to the orchid family and native to Mexico. In Malaysia, research and cultivation of vanilla plants are becoming more popular and intensive because the plant has a high commercial value. Fertilizing of vanilla plants is important to enhance the nutrients needed by the plants for growth and vanilla pod production. In 1999, research in MARDI showed that the use of chemical fertilizer NPK (15:15:15) was suitable for vanilla plants. For plants that have not produced vanilla pods foliar fertilizer must be sprayed and foliar fertilizer application must be reduced at pod production stage. The fertilizer programme is almost similar to those of other vanilla producing countries such as Indonesia and Mexico. In Indonesia, studies on organic farming of vanilla have been conducted. They have produced chemical-free vanilla fertilizer products such as Bio-Fob, Bio-TRIBA and Organo TRIBA Compost. We in Malaysian Nuclear Agency conducted a study on the effects of organic and bio fertilizers on vanilla at the vanilla experimental plot. This plot adopts the modern system of vanilla planting. The study involved the use of organic and bio fertilizer products produced in Nuclear Malaysia such as Organik NF, plant growth promoter and phosphate solubiliser and imported commercial orchid mycorrhizal bio fertilizer from Korea. The application of these fertilizers is by placing the fertilizers on the planting media in poly bags with replications according to the treatments. Observations were made weekly for 15 weeks by measuring of parameters including the bud growth and leaf number. These data are plotted in graphical form for evaluation.(author)

  9. [Effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic carbon pool and carbon sequestration under double rice cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Tao; Liao, Yu-Lin; Zheng, Sheng-Xian; Nie, Jun; Lu, Yan-Hong; Xie, Jian

    2013-03-01

    This paper studied the effects of 30 years (1981-2010) fertilization with chemical N, P, and K, pig manure (PM), and rice straw (RS) on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and its components contents under intensive double rice cropping. The experiment was established on a typic Hapli-Stagnic Anthrosols in Hunan in 1981, and the soil samples were collected in November 2010. In treatment NPK, the contents of SOC, particulate organic C (POC), and KMnO4-oxidizable C (KMnO4-C) were higher than those in treatments NP and NK. The combined application of chemical and organic fertilizers (treatments NK+PM, NP+RS, and NPK+RS) made the contents of SOC, POC, and KMnO4-C have a significant increase, as compared with chemical fertilizations. Treatment NK+PM had the highest contents of SOC (84.71 t C.hm-2), POC (8.94 t C.hm-2), and KMnO4-C (21.09 t C.hm-2) in top soil (0-45 cm), followed by treatment NPK+RS. Treatment NK+PM had the highest C sequestration (485 kg C.hm-2.a-1) , followed by treatment NPK+RS (375 kg C.hm-2.a-1). The C sequestration efficiency (CSE) of SOC in the treatments of chemical fertilizers plus pig manure or rice straw was obviously higher than that in the treatments of chemical fertilizations, and the CSE of the POC in fertilization treatments (ranging from 0.4% and 1.2%) was lower than that of the KMnO4-C (ranging from 3.0% to 8.3%). By using the values of humification constant (h) and the decay constant (k) in Jenkinson' s equation, it was possible to predict the SOC storages in different treatments in the year 2010; and by using Jenkinson' s equation, it was possible to calculate the C input required to maintain the SOC storages in the year 1981 (AE). The increase of the SOC in treatments NK+PM, NP+RS, and NPK+RS was due to the annual C input being higher than the AE. It was considered that in the double rice cropping areas in subtropical region of China, long-term application of chemical fertilizers combined with pig manure or rice straw could promote the

  10. A simple and fast method for assessment of the nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium rating of fertilizers using high-resolution continuum source atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechlin, Marcos André; Fortunato, Felipe Manfroi; Moutinho da Silva, Ricardo; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta, E-mail: anchieta@iq.unesp.br

    2014-11-01

    The determination of N, P, and K in fertilizers by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry is proposed. Under optimized conditions, measurements of the diatomic molecules NO and PO at 215.360 and 247.620 nm, respectively, and K using the wing of the alternative line at 404.722 nm allowed calibration curves to be constructed in the ranges 500–5000 mg L{sup −1} N (r = 0.9994), 100–2000 mg L{sup −1} P (r = 0.9946), and 100–2500 mg L{sup −1} K (r = 0.9995). Commercial fertilizers were analyzed by the proposed method and the concentrations of N, P, and K were found to be in agreement with those obtained by Kjeldahl, spectrophotometric, and flame atomic emission spectrometry methods, respectively, at a 95% confidence level (paired t-test). A phosphate rock certified reference material (CRM) was analyzed and the results for P and K were in agreement with the reference values. Recoveries from spiked CRM were in the ranges 97–105% (NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N), 95–103% (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N), 93–103% (urea-N), 99–108% (P), and 99–102% (K). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) for N, P, and K were 6, 4, and 2%, respectively. - Highlights: • A single technique is proposed to analyze NPK fertilizer. • HR-CS FAAS is proposed for the first time for N, P and K determination in fertilizers. • The method employs the same sample preparation and dilution for the three analytes. • Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} allows analysis of fertilizers with different nitrogen species. • Proposal provides advantages over traditional methods in terms of cost and time.

  11. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Fernández-Sanjurjo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We used soil columns to study nutrients release from two compressed NPK fertilizers. The columns were filled with soil material from the surface horizon of a granitic soil. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16 were placed into the soil, and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. These nutrients were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first percolates, reaching a steady state when 1426 mm water have percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in the geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K, Ca and Mg were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with composition 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident.

  12. Soil organic carbon dynamics and its response to organic amendments under long-term fertilization in intensive rice systems in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, X.; Xu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Paddy soil makes a major rice contribution to the global food supply, but only little is known about the soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamic and its relationship with management practices. This paper presents a study of four long-term experiment sites in subtropical China, which have had a double-rice system since 1980’s with various fertilization treatments. The main fertilization treatments are non-fertilization (Control), mineral nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium combination (NPK), and mineral NPK combined with organic amendments (e.g., livestock’s manure, green manure and straw). There are two types of treatments for the combined treatments: (1) the same rate (S-N) of mineral N fertilizer application, and (2) the same amount of total N (i.e., the sum of mineral N and organic-N) application with the reduced rate (R-N) of mineral N fertilizer application. Our study indicates that all fertilization treatments significantly increase above-ground carbon biomass and SOC. Compared with the NPK treatment, the S-N treatment showed significant effect on carbon biomass whereas the R-N treatment showed no effects on carbon biomass. The soil carbon sequestration rates at the four sites were 0.08-0.17 t ha-1 yr-1 for the NPK treatment and 0.17-0.82 t ha-1 yr-1 for the S-N and R-N combined treatments. Our analyses show that annual carbon sequestration responds positively, but non-linearly to annual carbon input at all sites, suggesting that these paddy fields may be getting close to carbon saturation.

  13. Controlled release fertilizer and container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Gasparin; Maristela Machado Araujo; Cleber Witt Saldanha; Caira Viñas Tolfo

    2015-01-01

    Growing demand for native tree seedlings will require improvements in quality standards of production processes through the use of more efficient cultivation techniques. This study evaluated the effects of different doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF) and different container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida seedlings. We examined the effects of five different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g L-1 substrate) of CRF (18-5-9 NPK) and three different container volumes...

  14. Evaluation of health state and growth of Gypsophila paniculata L. and Gypsophila repens L. groving in soil in variable fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Warner; Wojciech Antkowiak

    2013-01-01

    The influence of NPK fertilization on plant growth and roots yield of Gypsophila paniculata and Gypsophila repens was investigated. The nutrients were applied in different proportions. The health state of Gypsophila was also analyzed. The pathogens isolated from plants showing the diseases symptoms represented eight species: Alternaria dianthicola Neergaard; Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc.; Fusarium culmorum (W. G.Smith) Sacc.; F.equiseti (Cola) Sacc.; F.oxysporum Schlecht., Snyder et Hansen;...

  15. [Effects of different fertilizer species on carbon and nitrogen leaching in a reddish paddy soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi-Yu; Zou, Jing-Dong; Xu, Li-Li; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Feng-Ting; Dai, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Zhong-Qiang; Sun, Xiao-Min

    2014-08-01

    Enhanced fertilization could decrease nitrogen utilization rate and increase carbon and nitrogen leaching, leading to water pollution in agricultural ecosystem. A long-term field experiment had been established on a reddish paddy soil of Qianyanzhou Ecological Experimental Station (114 degrees 53'E, 26 degrees 48'N) in Jiangxi Province in 1998. Soil solution samples were collected by clay tube and vacuum pump. Four fertilizer species treatments were selected: control with no fertilizer (CK), straw return (ST), nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium mineral fertilizers (NPK) and pig manure (OM), aiming to evaluate the effects of different species of fertilizer on carbon and nitrogen leaching in a double rice cropping system. The results showed that: (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+) -N) was the major type of N in soil leachate in reddish paddy soil. The application of NPK could significantly increase the ammonium nitrogen concentration (1.2 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.1 mg x L(-1)) compared with the CK, ST and OM treatments, and the application of OM could significantly increase the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (27.3 mg x L(-1) +/- 1.6 mg x L(-1)) in soil leachate. The carbon and nitrogen leaching were more notable in the vegetative growth stage than the reproductive growth stage of rice (P soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents. The NPK was best beneficial to improve TN contents and OM to improve SOC contents. (3) The DOC contents in soil leachate and SOC in paddy soil had a positive correlation (P soil leachate and TN contents in paddy soil had a positive correlation (P < 0.01).

  16. Carbon and nitrogen allocations in corn grown in Central and Northeast China:different responses to fertilization treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Hui-tian; L Jia-long; XU Ming-gang; ZHANG Wen-ju; HUANG Shao-min; PENG Chang; CHEN Li-ming

    2015-01-01

    In order to reveal the impact of various fertilization strategies on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) accumulation and al ocation in corn (Zea mays L.), corn was grown in the ifelds where continuous fertilization management had been lasted about 18 years at two sites located in Central and Northeast China (Zhengzhou and Gongzhuling), and biomass C and N contents in different organs of corn at harvest were analyzed. The fertilization treatments included non-fertilizer (control), chemical fertilizers of either nitrogen (N), or nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), or phosphorus and potassium (PK), or nitrogen, phospho-rus and potassium (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM), 150%of the NPKM (1.5NPKM), and NPK plus straw (NPKS). The results showed that accumulated C in aboveground ranged from 2 550–5 630 kg ha–1 in the control treatment to 9 300–9 610 kg ha–1 in the NPKM treatment, of which 57–67%and 43–50%were al ocated in the non-grain organs, respectively. Accumulated N in aboveground ranged from 44.8–55.2 kg ha–1 in the control treatment to 211–222 kg ha–1 in the NPKM treatment, of which 35–48% and 33–44% were al ocated in the non-grain parts, respectively. C al ocated to stem and leaf for the PK treatment was 65 and 49%higher than that for the NPKM treatment at the both sites, respectively, while N al ocated to the organs for the PK treatment was 18 and 6%higher than that for the NPKM treatment, respectively. This study demonstrated that responses of C and N al ocation in corn to fertilization strategies were different, and C al ocation was more sensitive to fertilization treatments than N al ocation in the area.

  17. Insights into complexation of dissolved organic matter and Al(III) and nanominerals formation in soils under contrasting fertilizations using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils. PMID:24997950

  18. Insights into complexation of dissolved organic matter and Al(III) and nanominerals formation in soils under contrasting fertilizations using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils.

  19. The critical soil P levels for crop yield, soil fertility and environmental safety in different soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Z.H.; Li, H.G.; Yang, X.Y.; Zhou, B.K.; Shi, X.J.; Wang, B.R.; Li, D.C.; Shen, J.B.; Chen, Q.; Qin, W.; Oenema, O.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is important for achieving optimal crop production, but excessive soil P levels may create a risk of P losses and associated eutrophication of surface waters. The aim of this study was to determine critical soil P levels for achieving optimal crop yields and minimal P

  20. Influência de lâminas de água e adubação mineral na nutrição e produtividade de arroz de terras altas Influence of water levels and mineral fertilization on nutrition and yield of upland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. C. Crusciol

    2003-08-01

    IAC 201 under two levels of mineral fertilizer. Experiments were conducted in the growing seasons of 1994/95 and 1995/96 on a Typic Haplustox, in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments were five water levels: natural rain and four water levels provided by sprinkler irrigation. Water level 2 (L2 was based on the crop coefficient (Kc for upland rice. L1 and L3 were then defined as 0.5 and 1.5 times the Kcs used in L2, respectively. For water level 4 (L4, Kc = 1.95 was used during the entire plant cycle. The same treatments were applied in 1995/96 in a split-plot scheme. The subplots consisted in two NPK-fertilization levels (AD1 - 12 kg ha-1 of N, 90 of P2O5, and 30 of K2O; and AD2 - 24 kg ha-1 of N, 180 of P2O5, and 60 of K2O. Low water availability during the vegetative and reproductive phases decreased the dry matter yield, nutrient contents, and nutrient uptake. Sprinkler irrigation increased grain yield and nutrient exportation, independent of the water level. In soils with appropriate nutrient levels for the dryland system, the irrigated rice did not respond to increased mineral fertilization, despite the larger nutrient uptake.

  1. Fertility potential of rabbit bucks fed maize-based diets containing graded levels of fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Idahor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1-contaminated maize-based diets have been reported to be mycotoxic in animal species, yet more validated data and biomarkers are needed. In this study, Fumonisin B1 (FB1 infected yellow-maize was used to formulate Diets 1, 2 and 3, containing 1,700, 1,800 and 1,900µg FB1/kg diet, respectively. Sixty sexually matured bucks and does were used, but only the bucks were fed the FB1-contaminated diets for eight weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the treated bucks were mated to the dry does that were fed FB1-free yellow maize-based diet. Effects on testis and live weight, feed utilisation, conception rate, embryo development and spermatozoa production per gram testis were monitored. Results indicated significant depression (P<0.05 in feed intake, from 546.77±12.09g/week in Diet 1 with the lowest FB1 concentration, to 509.84±21.98g/week in Diet 3 with the highest FB1 concentration in the diets. Weight gain was drastically reduced (P<0.05 from 34.13±9.32g/week in Diet 1 to 20.38±22.13g/week in Diet 3. Meanwhile, some of the untreated does were pregnant in all the treatments, indicating that FB1 concentration at 2.0mg/kg diet may not be spermaticidal and there were no abnormalities in the embryos. It was observed that the paired testis weight value in Diet 1 (3.06±0.31 was not significantly different (P>0.05 from that of Diet 3 (2.94±0.23. The testicular elements were distorted by the dietary FB1, but did not follow a definite pattern. Spermatozoa production per gram testis values (31.1 – 37.3 x 106 recorded were much higher than 24 x 106 for a healthy rabbit buck. Consequently, FB1 concentration < 2.0mg/kg diet may not affect the fertility potentials of bucks orally dosed for a relatively short period. This observation further elucidates earlier discoveries that FB1 is not a reproductive toxicant. Hence, the United States Food and Drug Administration proposed a guideline of 2.0mg total fumonisins/kg diet, to be adopted with

  2. Plant and soil fungal but not soil bacterial communities are linked in long-term fertilized grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, Noriko A.; Leite, Marcio F. A.; Pan, Yao; de Hollander, Mattias; van Veen, Johannes A.; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2016-03-01

    Inorganic fertilization and mowing alter soil factors with subsequent effects–direct and indirect - on above- and below-ground communities. We explored direct and indirect effects of long-term fertilization (N, P, NPK, Liming) and twice yearly mowing on the plant, bacterial and fungal communities and soil factors. We analyzed co-variation using 16S and 18S rRNA genes surveys, and plant frequency and edaphic factors across treatments. The plant and fungal communities were distinct in the NPK and L treatments, while the bacterial communities and soil factors were distinct in the N and L treatments. Plant community diversity and evenness had low diversity in the NPK and high diversity in the liming treatment, while the diversity and evenness of the bacterial and fungal communities did not differ across treatments, except of higher diversity and evenness in the liming treatment for the bacteria. We found significant co-structures between communities based on plant and fungal comparisons but not between plant and bacterial nor bacterial and fungal comparisons. Our results suggested that the plant and fungal communities are more tightly linked than either community with the bacterial community in fertilized soils. We found co-varying plant, bacterial and fungal taxa in different treatments that may indicate ecological interactions.

  3. Association between fertilin beta, protamines 1 and 2 and spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein mRNA levels, fertilization ability of human spermatozoa, and quality of preimplantation embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kempisty

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization involves a series of cellular interactions culminating in the fusion of gamete membranes, creating a zygote and then an embryo. During the process of human fertilization in vivo or in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF, sperm must be capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction, binding to the zona pellucida (ZP, and penetrating the ZP to fuse with the oolema. The key role in this process is played by fertilin beta. Protamines and histones are the proteins that bind to sperm chromatin and contribute in chromatin remodeling during early spermiogenesis. It has been suggested that these proteins may also participate in successful fertilization and embryo development. Using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR reaction (QR-PCR methods and zygote and embryo scoring, we compared fertilin beta, protamine 1 (PRM1, protamine 2 (PRM2, spermatid-specific linker histone 1 (HILS1 mRNAs levels, in vitro fertilization ability of mature spermatozoa, and quality of embryos obtained from in vitro fertilization (IVF. We found significantly lower contents of fertilin beta transcript in spermatozoa from patients in which IVF fertilization failed (p<0.001. We also noticed a correlation between high levels of fertilin beta and increased quality of embryos (p<0.05. We observed an increase in PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels in spermatozoa obtained from patients with successful in vitro fertilization versus compared to the number of these transcripts isolated from spermatozoa of patients in which in vitro fertilization failed (P<0.001, (P<0.001, respectively. We found direct correlation between PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA levels to the quality of embryos (r=0.31, P=0.012, (r=0.31, P=0.011, respectively. The differences in HILS1 mRNA contents between these two groups were not statistically significant (P>0,05. We did not observe an association between HILS1 transcript contents and qu