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Sample records for novos taxa lepidoptera

  1. A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi

    2013-01-01

    , Isocitrate dehydrogenase, Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and Carbamoylphosphate synthase domain protein). Fifty-two taxa representing nearly all established subfamilies and tribes of Gelechiidae, and about 10% of described gelechiid genera, in addition to five...

  2. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    , Madeira and Azores) 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. Th e route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confi ned to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks...

  3. Novos táxons em Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae New taxa in Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos: Oncideres sparsemaculatus sp. nov., da Guatemala (San Marcos; Oncideres estebani sp. nov. da Costa Rica (Alajuela; Neohylus alexandrei sp. nov. e Hypsioma bahiensis, sp. nov. do Brasil (Rondônia e Bahia, respectivamente; Paraplerodia gen. nov., espécie-tipo, P. acarinata sp. nov., Hesycha biguttata sp. nov., Trestonia lateapicata sp. nov. e Pseudobeta transversa sp. nov. da Bolívia (Santa Cruz.New taxa described: Oncideres sparsemaculatus sp. nov., from Guatemala (San Marcos; Oncideres estebani sp. nov. from Costa Rica (Alajuela; Neohylus alexandrei sp. nov. and Hypsioma bahiensis, sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia and Bahia, respectively; Paraplerodia gen. nov., type species, P. acarinata sp. nov., Hesycha biguttata sp. nov., Trestonia lateapicata sp. nov. and Pseudobeta transversa sp. nov. from Bolívia (Santa Cruz.

  4. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31 spe....... maderensis ssp. maderensis (Bethune-Baker, 1891) (n. syn). Agrotis selvagensis Pinker & Bacallado, 1978 is a synonym of A. lanzarotensis Rebel, 1894 (n. syn) and Agrotis trux spp. maderensis Pinker, 1971 is a synonym of A. trux ssp. trux (Hübner, 1824) (n. syn.)....

  5. NOVOS PARASITÓIDES EM OVOS DE Dirphia Araucariae (LEPIDOPTERA, ATTACIDAE NEW PARASITOIDS IN EGGS OF Dirphia araucariae (LEP.; ATTACIDAE

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    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

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    Foram observados novos parasitóides nos ovos de Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908 (Lepidoptera, Attacidae. A porcentagem do parasitismo em ovos do hospedeiro, coletados na Fazenda Marabá, Município de Congonhinhas (PR foi de 20,71%, e as espécies de parasitóides identificadas e suas freqüências do: Anastatus sp (0,45%; A. charitos De Santis, 1982 (1,08%; A. (Proanastatus excavatus (De Santis, 1952 (1,97%; Ooencyrtus sp (17,86%; O. blastothricoide De Santis, 1988 (43,65%; e O. dirphiae De Santis, 1988 (34,99%.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Anastatus spp; Araucaria angustifolia; controle biológico; lagarta-da-araucária; Ooencyrtus spp; pinheiro-do-Paraná.

    The parasitism in Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908 (Lepidoptera, Attacidae was studied and the parasitoids observed on its eggs collected in 'Fazenda Marabá’, Municipality of Congonhinhas, State of Paraná, Brazil, were the following: Anastatus sp.; A. charitos De Santis, 1982; A. (Proanastatus excavatus (De Santis, 1952; Ooencyrtus sp.; O. blastothricoide De Santis, 1988, and O. dirphiae De Santis, 1988, with a frequency of 0.45%, 1.08%, 1.97%, 17.86%, 43.65% and 34.99%, respectively.

    KEY-WORDS: Biological control; Paraná-pine.

  6. Novos táxons de Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New taxa of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Neotropical Region

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    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos da Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (também do Panamá; do Panamá: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; da Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; do Equador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; do Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., espécie-tipo, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; do Brasil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Cotycuara.New taxa described from Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (also from Panama; from Panama: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; from Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; from Ecuador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; from Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., type species, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; from Brazil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. A key to the species of Cotycuara is added.

  7. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of midgut tissues of four non-model insects pertaining to Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazara, Rajesh K; Cardoso, Christiane; Bellieny-Rabelo, Daniel; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R; Venancio, Thiago M

    2017-09-05

    Despite the great morphological diversity of insects, there is a regularity in their digestive functions, which is apparently related to their physiology. In the present work we report the de novo midgut transcriptomes of four non-model insects from four distinct orders: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Musca domestica (Diptera), Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) and Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera). We employed a computational strategy to merge assemblies obtained with two different algorithms, which substantially increased the quality of the final transcriptomes. Unigenes were annotated and analyzed using the eggNOG database, which allowed us to assign some level of functional and evolutionary information to 79.7% to 93.1% of the transcriptomes. We found interesting transcriptional patterns, such as: i) the intense use of lysozymes in digestive functions of M. domestica larvae, which are streamlined and adapted to feed on bacteria; ii) the up-regulation of orthologous UDP-glycosyl transferase and cytochrome P450 genes in the whole midguts different species, supporting the existence of an ancient defense frontline to counter xenobiotics; iii) evidence supporting roles for juvenile hormone binding proteins in the midgut physiology, probably as a way to activate genes that help fight anti-nutritional substances (e.g. protease inhibitors). The results presented here shed light on the digestive and structural properties of the digestive systems of these distantly related species. Furthermore, the produced datasets will also be useful for scientists studying these insects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: a new parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: um novo parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae is recorded as parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae é registrado como parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  9. Description of the ova and ovipositional strategies of six sterrhine taxa from Madrid, including comparative data with other species of this subfamily (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Sterrhinae

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    King, Gareth Edward

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Original data are presented which describe ova of the following six taxa in the Sterrhinae Meyrick, 1892: Idaea litigiosaria (Boisduval, 1840, Idaea sericeata calvaria Wehrli, 1927, Idaea ochrata albida (Zerny, 1936, Idaea incisaria (Staudinger, 1892, Idaea cervantaria (Millière, 1869 and >em>Scopula (Glossotrophia asellaria dentatolineata Wehrli, 1926. Subsequent analysis of SEM imaging provides data related to the chorion structure, as well as that associated with the strategies adopted by females at oviposition under laboratory conditions; comparative data are provided of other European sterrhines.Se presentan datos inéditos que describen los huevos de los siguientes taxones de Sterrhinae Meyrick, 1892: Idaea litigiosaria (Boisduval, 1840, Idaea sericeata calvaria Wehrli, 1927, Idaea ochrata albida (Zerny, 1936, Idaea incisaria (Staudinger, 1892, Idaea cervantaria (Millière, 1869 and Scopula (Glossotrophia asellaria dentatolineata Wehrli, 1926. Se ofrece un análisis pormenorizado de las imágenes MEB en cuanto a la estructura del corión se refiere, además de una descripción de las estrategias de la puesta adoptadas por parte de las hembras en condiciones de laboratorio. Se ofrecen datos comparativos con otras especies europeas de Sterrhinae.

  10. Novos pontos de corte de sensibilidade nas taxas de resistência antimicrobiana de cepas invasivas de pneumococo New susceptibility breakpoints in antimicrobial resistance rates of invasive pneumococcal strains

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    Paula Carolina Bejo Wolkers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar impacto dos novos pontos de corte de sensibilidade à penicilina nas taxas de resistência de cepas de pneumococo obtidas de crianças com pneumonia. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no laboratório de análises clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas de Uberlândia, Uberlândia (MG, a partir de amostras de pacientes internados foram enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo (SP, para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a dezembro de 2008 foram enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz 330 cepas de pneumococo, sendo 195 (59% provenientes de pacientes com diagnóstico de pneumonia. Destas, foram analisadas 100 cepas de pacientes com idade ≤ 12 anos; a idade dos pacientes variou de 1 a 12,6 anos, com média de 2,4 e mediana de 1,7 anos; 47 pacientes eram do sexo masculino; as fontes de recuperação foram sangue (42% e líquido pleural (58%. Foram detectadas 35 cepas oxacilina-resistentes: segundo os critérios do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI de 2007 [concentração inibitória mínima (CIM ≤ 0,06 µg/mL para sensibilidade (S, 0,12 a 1 µg/mL para resistência intermediária (RI e ≥ 2 µg/mL para resistência plena (RP], 22 cepas apresentaram RI e 11, RP para penicilina. De acordo com os critérios atuais do CLSI de 2008 (≤ 2 µg/mL para S, 4 µg/mL para RI e ≥ 8 µg/mL para RP apenas uma cepa confirmou RI à penicilina. Detectou-se resistência a cotrimoxazol (80%, tetraciclina (21%, eritromicina (13%, clindamicina (13% e ceftriaxona (uma cepa, simultaneamente resistente a penicilina. CONCLUSÕES: Com a aplicação dos novos pontos de corte para sensibilidade in vitro, as taxas de resistência a penicilina caíram 97%, de 33 para 1%.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of new penicillin susceptibility breakpoints on resistance rates of pneumococcal strains collected from children with pneumonia. METHODS

  11. Incomplete sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, based on de novo transcriptome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter W; Mank, Judith E; Wedell, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Males and females experience differences in gene dose for loci in the nonrecombining region of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. If not compensated, this leads to expression imbalances, with the homogametic sex on average exhibiting greater expression due to the doubled gene dose. Many organisms with heteromorphic sex chromosomes display global dosage compensation mechanisms, which equalize gene expression levels between the sexes. However, birds and Schistosoma have been previously shown to lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation mechanisms, and the status in other female heterogametic taxa including Lepidoptera remains unresolved. To further our understanding of dosage compensation in female heterogametic taxa and to resolve its status in the lepidopterans, we assessed the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. As P. interpunctella lacks a complete reference genome, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly combined with orthologous genomic location prediction from the related silkworm genome, Bombyx mori, to compare Z-linked and autosomal gene expression levels for each sex. We demonstrate that P. interpunctella lacks complete Z chromosome dosage compensation, female Z-linked genes having just over half the expression level of males and autosomal genes. This finding suggests that the Lepidoptera and possibly all female heterogametic taxa lack global dosage compensation, although more species will need to be sampled to confirm this assertion.

  12. Interplay between De Novo Biosynthesis and Sequestration of Cyanogenic Glucosides in Arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel

    (Zygaenidae, Lepidoptera) both sequester (take up and accumulate) the CNglcs linamarin and lotaustralin from their food plants (Fabacea) and biosynthesize them de novo from valine and isoleucine. The presented research demonstrates that de novo biosynthesis of CNglcs in Z. filipendulae is dependent...

  13. Preliminary assessment of biogeographic affinities of selected insect taxa of the state of Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Jones; Alejandro Obregon-Zuniga; Sandra Guzman-Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The biogeographic affinites of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperidae), damsel and dragonflies (Odonata), and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reported from the State of Sonora, Mexico were analyzed using published species lists. The combined distribution of these taxa was proportionally greater (47.4%) for those species within the Mega-Mexico3...

  14. Review of Lepidoptera with trophic relationships to Picea abies (L. in the conditions of Czechia

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    Modlinger Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.

  15. Large-Scale Evolutionary Patterns of Host Plant Associations in the Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menken, S.B.J.; Boomsma, J.J.; van Nieukerken, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterized evolutionary patterns of host plant use across about 2500 species of British Lepidoptera, using character optimization and independent phylogenetic contrasts among 95 operational taxa, and evaluated the extent to which caterpillars are monophagous, use woody host plants, and feed...

  16. Bacterial Symbionts in Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paniaqua Voirol, Luis R.; Frago, Enric; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2018-01-01

    The insect’s microbiota is well acknowledged as a “hidden” player influencing essential insect traits. The gut microbiome of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) has been shown to be highly variable between and within species, resulting in a controversy on the functional relevance of gut microbes in

  17. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our...... experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 experiments including all to date published and many unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  18. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  19. Mapas de taxas epidemiológicas: uma abordagem Bayesiana

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    Assunção Renato Martins

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentamos métodos estatísticos desenvolvidos recentemente para a análise de mapas de taxas de morbidade quando as unidades geográficas possuem pequenas populações de risco. Eles adotam a abordagem Bayesiana e utilizam métodos computacionais intensivos para estimação do risco de cada área. O objetivo dos métodos é separar a variabilidade das taxas devida às diferenças entre as regiões do risco subjacente daquela devida à pura flutuação aleatória. As estimativas de risco possuem um erro quadrático médio total menor que as estimativas usuais. Aplicamos esses novos métodos para estimar o risco de mortalidade infantil nos municípios de Minas Gerais em 1994.

  20. About the scientific names of paraphyletic taxa

    OpenAIRE

    TIMM, Tarmo

    2012-01-01

    The 'naturality' of monophyletic taxa in comparison with that of paraphyletic ones is discussed, with examples from Clitellata. Regular scientific names for paraphyletic taxa are inevitable in a workable biological classification.

  1. Bacterial Symbionts in Lepidoptera: Their Diversity, Transmission, and Impact on the Host

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    Luis R. Paniagua Voirol

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The insect’s microbiota is well acknowledged as a “hidden” player influencing essential insect traits. The gut microbiome of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera has been shown to be highly variable between and within species, resulting in a controversy on the functional relevance of gut microbes in this insect order. Here, we aim to (i review current knowledge on the composition of gut microbial communities across Lepidoptera and (ii elucidate the drivers of the variability in the lepidopteran gut microbiome and provide an overview on (iii routes of transfer and (iv the putative functions of microbes in Lepidoptera. To find out whether Lepidopterans possess a core gut microbiome, we compared studies of the microbiome from 30 lepidopteran species. Gut bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae families were the most widespread across species, with Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, and Enterococcus being the most common genera. Several studies indicate that habitat, food plant, and age of the host insect can greatly impact the gut microbiome, which contributes to digestion, detoxification, or defense against natural enemies. We mainly focus on the gut microbiome, but we also include some examples of intracellular endosymbionts. These symbionts are present across a broad range of insect taxa and are known to exert different effects on their host, mostly including nutrition and reproductive manipulation. Only two intracellular bacteria genera (Wolbachia and Spiroplasma have been reported to colonize reproductive tissues of Lepidoptera, affecting their host’s reproduction. We explore routes of transmission of both gut microbiota and intracellular symbionts and have found that these microbes may be horizontally transmitted through the host plant, but also vertically via the egg stage. More detailed knowledge about the functions and plasticity of the microbiome in Lepidoptera may provide novel leads

  2. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  3. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera

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    Erik van Nieukerken

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; S. schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae in Argentina, Misiones; S. costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and S. intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; S. molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species O. conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species N. gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877, comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n. Three specimens are briefly described, but left unnamed: Ozadelpha specimen EvN4680, Neotrifurcula specimen EvN4504 and Neotrifurcula specimen RH2.

  4. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Doorenweerd, C.; Nishida, K.; Snyers, C.

    2016-01-01

    After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new

  5. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nishida, Kenji; Snyers, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae) in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; Stigmella schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae) in Argentina, Misiones; Stigmella costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and Stigmella intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; Stigmella molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877), comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n. Three specimens are briefly described, but left unnamed: Ozadelpha specimen EvN4680, Neotrifurcula specimen EvN4504 and Neotrifurcula specimen RH2. PMID:27917037

  6. Antibiosis among selected paspalum taxa to the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty six accessions of the warm-season perennial grass, Paspalum spp., were evaluated for response to the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), an important pest of turfgrass. In growth chamber, excised clipping studies, P. vaginatum 03-539-31 and P. vaginatum 03-525-22 were the most ...

  7. Determinantes Macroeconômicos da Estrutura a Termo da Taxa de Juros

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Yuri Azevedo Pinto dos

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho propõe a implementação de um modelo de três fatores em que os movimentos da Estrutura a Termo da Taxa de Juros são determinados por variáveis macroeconômicas observáveis. Desenvolvi o estudo com base na metodologia elaborada por Huse (2007), que propôs um novo modelo baseado nos estudos de Nelson e Siegel (1987) e Diebold e Li (2006). Os fatores utilizados foram: taxa de câmbio em reais por dólar, expectativa da taxa de inflação para daqui a doze meses, spread do Credit Default ...

  8. Potential impact of genetically modified Lepidoptera-resistant Brassica napus in biodiversity hotspots: Sicily as a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manachini, Barbara; Bazan, Giuseppe; Schicchi, Rosario

    2018-03-14

    The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed. Here we consider the potential exposure of butterflies as results of possible cultivation or naturalization of spilled seed in Sicily (Italy). Diurnal Lepidoptera, which are pollinators, can be exposed directly to the insecticidal proteins as larvae (mainly of Pieridae) through the host and through the pollen that can deposit on other host plants. Adults can be exposed via pollen and nectar. The flight periods of butterflies were recorded, and they were found to overlap for about 90% of the flowering period of B. napus for the majority of the species. In addition, B. napus has a high potential to hybridise with endemic taxa belonging to the B. oleracea group. This could lead to an exposure of non-target Lepidoptera if introgression of the Bt gene into a wild population happens. A rank of the risk for butterflies and wild relatives of oilseed rape is given. We conclude that, in environmental risk assessments, attention should be paid to plant-insect interaction especially in a biodiversity hotspot such as Sicily. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Sims

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Speyeria (Nymphalidae are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants. Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.

  10. Ecological niches of open ocean phytoplankton taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Vogt, Meike; Payne, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We characterize the realized ecological niches of 133 phytoplankton taxa in the open ocean based on observations from the MAREDAT initiative and a statistical species distribution model (MaxEnt). The models find that the physical conditions (mixed layer depth, temperature, light) govern large...... conditions in the open ocean. Our estimates of the realized niches roughly match the predictions of Reynolds' C-S-R model for the global ocean, namely that taxa classified as nutrient stress tolerant have niches at lower nutrient and higher irradiance conditions than light stress tolerant taxa. Yet...

  11. In vitro propagation of endangered Dianthus taxa

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    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of recent researches regarding the in vitro culture of 30 endangered Dianthus taxa is presented in this paper. Various in vitro protocols developed for selected rare and threatened Dianthus taxa are analysed in order to provide a useful synthesis of the data obtained with the main principles, techniques and recommendations for futher research and practice. The recapitulated data presented in this review can be used as a tool for the micropropagation of other endangered Dianthus taxa, enabling their propagation and obtaining a sufficient amount of plants for reintroduction. In addition, the obtained results represent the basis for ex situ conservation of the investigated taxa, especially for medium-term and long-term conservation (cryopreservation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  12. Novos táxons em Heteropsini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae New taxa of Heteropsini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Dilma Solange Napp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Potisangaba gen. nov., espécie-tipo P. panama sp. nov., são descritos do Panamá (Colon e três novas espécies são descritas em Chrysoprasis: C. principalis sp. nov. de Trinidad y Tobago (Trinidad, C. grupiara sp. nov. do Brasil (Rondônia e C. morana sp. nov. da Bolívia (Santa Cruz.Potisangaba gen. nov., type species, P. panama sp. nov., are described from Panama (Colon and three new species are described in Chrysoprasis: C. principalis sp. nov. from Trinidad y Tobago (Trinidad, C. grupiara from Brazil (Rondônia and C. morana sp. nov. from Bolivia (Santa Cruz.

  13. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  14. Indicator taxa revisited: useful for conservation planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Aim:  Indicators for biodiversity are needed to facilitate the identification of complementary reserve networks for biodiversity conservation. One widely adopted approach is to use indicator taxa, i.e. a single taxon such as birds or butterflies, despite the ongoing debate regarding their usefuln......Aim:  Indicators for biodiversity are needed to facilitate the identification of complementary reserve networks for biodiversity conservation. One widely adopted approach is to use indicator taxa, i.e. a single taxon such as birds or butterflies, despite the ongoing debate regarding...

  15. Pyrrhopyginae: gêneros novos e revalidados (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae Pyrrhopyginae: new and revalidated genera (Lepidoptera, Hespe-riidae

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    Olaf H.H. Mielke

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The following new genera with their type-species are described: Oxynetrini: Cyclopyge gen. n. - type-species: Pyrrhopyge roscius Hopffer, 1874; Pyrrhopygini: Arnysoria gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] galgala Hewitson, 1866, Chalypyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] chalybea Scudder, 1872, Creonpyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] creon H. Druce, 1874, Cyanopyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge sangaris Skinner, 1921, Gunayan gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] rhacia Hewitson, 1875, Jonaspyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] Jonas C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859, Melanopyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] maculosa Hewitson, 1866, Mimardaris gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyga [sic] sela Hewitson, 1866, Mysarbia gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge sejanus Hopffer, 1874, Ochropyge gen. n. - type species: Pyrrhopyge ruficauda Hayward, 1932. Apyrrothrix Lindsey, 1921 and Yanguna Watson, 1893 are revalidated. The following are revalidated combinations: Apyrrothrix araxes (Hewitson, 1867, Apyrrothrix arizonae (Godman & Salvin, 1893, Yanguna cometes cometes (Cramer, 1770, Yanguna cometes cometides Mabille & Boullet, 1908, Yanguna cometes staudingeri (Plštz, 1879, Yanguna cosyra (H. Druce, 1875, Yanguna spatlosa spatlosa (Hewitson, 1871, Yanguna spatlosa aspllos Mabille & Boullet, 1908, Yanguna spatlosa mabillei H.H. Druce, 1909, Yanguna tetricus Bell, 1931, Yanguna thelersa (Hewitson, 1866, The following are new combinations: Cyclopyge roscius roscius (Hopffer, 1874, Cyclopyge roscius flavomaculata (Bell, 1937, Cyclopyge roscius iphimedia (Plštz, 1886, Yanguna erebus (Plštz, 1879, Gunayan rhacia (Hewitson, 1875, Gunayan rubrlcollts (Sepp, [1841], Gunayan timaeus (Bell, 1931, Chalypyge chalybea chalybea (Scudder, 1872, Chalypyge chalybea chlorts (Evans, 1951, Chalypyge zereda zereda (Hewitson, 1866, Chalypyge zereda hygieia (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867, Chalypyge zereda insana (Staudinger, 1876, Chalypyge zereda rufinucha (Godman & Salvin, 1879, Chalypyge zereda rufipectus (Godman & Salvin, 1879, Chalypyge zereda zepha (Evans, 1951, Ochropyge ruficauda (Hayward, 1932, Melanopyge cossea (H. Druce, 1875, Melanopyge erythrosticta (Godman & Salvin, 1879, Melanopyge hoffmannl (Freeman, 1977, Melanopyge maculosa (Hewitson, 1866, Melanopyge mulleri (Bell, 1934, Jonaspyge Jonas (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859, Jonaspyge aesculapus (Staudinger, 1876, Jonaspyge tzotzlll (Freemann, 1969, Creonpyge creon creon (H. Druce, 1874, Creonpyge creon lillana (Nicolay & Small, 1969, Creonpyge creon laylori (Nicolay & Small, 1981, Cyanopyge sangaris (Skinner, 1921, Mysarbia sejanus sejanus (Hoppfer, 1874, Mysarbia sejanus erythrostigma (Ršber, 1925, Arnysoria galgala (Hewitson, 1866, Mimardaris aetata (Godman & Salvin, 1879, Mimardaris Umax (Evans, 1951, Mimardaris mlnthe (Godman & Salvin, 1879, Mimardaris montra (Evans, 1951, Mimardaris pityusa (Hewitson, 1875, Mimardaris porus poms (Evans, 1951, Mimardaris porus mortis (Evans, 1951, Mimardaris sela sela (Hewitson, 1866, Mimardaris sela aequatorea (Róber, 1925, Mimardaris sela chanchamayonis (Draudt, 1924, Mimardaris sela periphema (Hewitson, [1875], and Mimardaris sela peruviana (Draudt, 1921. The following is a new synonym: Tamyris hygieia C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867 of Pyrrhopyga [sic] zereda Hewitson, 1866. Mysarbia sejanus stolli Mielke, ssp. n. is a replacement name for Papilio thasus Stoll, 1781, preoccupied by Stoll, 1780.

  16. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  17. Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

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    Pasi Sihvonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers, with approximately 23,000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.

  18. De Novo Glutamine Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiao; Shi, Xinchong; Zhang, Linqi; Yi, Chang; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of de novo glutamine (Gln) synthesis in the proliferation of C6 glioma cells and its detection with 13N-ammonia. Methods: Chronic Gln-deprived C6 glioma (0.06C6) cells were established. The proliferation rates of C6 and 0.06C6 cells were measured under the conditions of Gln deprivation along with or without the addition of ammonia or glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitor. 13N-ammonia uptake was assessed in C6 cells by gamma counting and in rats with C6 and 0.06C6 xenografts by micro–positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. The expression of GS in C6 cells and xenografts was assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: The Gln-deprived C6 cells showed decreased proliferation ability but had a significant increase in GS expression. Furthermore, we found that low concentration of ammonia was sufficient to maintain the proliferation of Gln-deprived C6 cells, and 13N-ammonia uptake in C6 cells showed Gln-dependent decrease, whereas inhibition of GS markedly reduced the proliferation of C6 cells as well as the uptake of 13N-ammoina. Additionally, microPET/computed tomography exhibited that subcutaneous 0.06C6 xenografts had higher 13N-ammonia uptake and GS expression in contrast to C6 xenografts. Conclusion: De novo Gln synthesis through ammonia–glutamate reaction plays an important role in the proliferation of C6 cells. 13N-ammonia can be a potential metabolic PET tracer for Gln-dependent tumors. PMID:27118759

  19. New insights on Lepidoptera of Southern Italy with description of the male of Coenotephria antonii Hausmann 2011 (Lepidoptera

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    M. Infusino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern Italy is of particular biogeographic interest due to the location at the center of the Mediterranean Basin and its great environmental heterogeneity. Despite the faunistic interest of this territory, many insect taxa are still little investigated. Among insects, Lepidoptera have a relatively well known fauna, significantly increased in recent years, but there are still some gaps of knowledge in several habitats. The aim of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of the Macrolepidoptera of Southern Italy, focusing our study in Calabria, and to offer some thoughts on the role played by the Mediterranean mountain forests for the biodiversity conservation. Samplings were carried out in three mountainous areas of Calabria (Pollino Massif, Sila Massif and Serre Mountains in May-November 2015 and in April-November 2016, using UV-LED light traps. We found ten species of high faunistic interest. Three species, Nebula senectaria, Perizoma lugdunaria and Acasis appensata, were for the first time recorded from Southern Italy, while seven were for the first time recorded from Calabria: Coenotephria antonii, Thera obeliscata, Triphosa dubitata, Trichopteryx carpinata, Asteroscopus sphinx, Lithophane semibrunnea and Sideridis reticulata. Of great interest was the discovery of the first male certainly attributable to Coenotephria antonii, endemic of Southern Italy, here described for the first time. The results exposed confirm that the fauna of Southern Italy is of great conservation value, hosting endemisms and several relict populations of European and Asiatic species with differentiated genetic lineages highly vulnerable to the climate change expected for the coming decades.

  20. DNA barcodes reveal that the widespread European tortricid moth Phalonidia manniana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a mixture of two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutanen, Marko; Aarvik, Leif; Huemer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During efforts to generate DNA barcodes for all North European Lepidoptera, Phalonidia manniana (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1839) was found to comprise two genetically distinct clusters. Morphological investigation further supports the existence of two distinct taxa, P. manniana and P. udana Guenée......, 1845, sp. rev. Their biologies also differ, P. manniana feeding in stems of Mentha and Lycopus (Lamiaceae) and P. udana feeding in stems of Lysimachia thyrsiflora and L. vulgaris (Primulaceae). We provide re-descriptions of both taxa and DNA barcodes for North European Phalonidia and Gynnidomorpha....... Phalonidia tolli Razowski, 1960, syn. nov., is considered a junior synonym of Pudana. Phalonidia udana is widely distributed in the North Palaearctic, whereas it seems to be rare or missing in large parts of Central Europe. The study demonstrates the usefulness of DNA barcoding in revealing cryptic species....

  1. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  2. A Molecular View of Autophagy in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Romanelli, Davide; Casati, Barbara; Franzetti, Eleonora; Tettamanti, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Metamorphosis represents a critical phase in the development of holometabolous insects, during which the larval body is completely reorganized: in fact, most of the larval organs undergo remodeling or completely degenerate before the final structure of the adult insect is rebuilt. In the past, increasing evidence emerged concerning the intervention of autophagy and apoptosis in the cell death processes that occur in larval organs of Lepidoptera during metamorphosis, but a molecular characteri...

  3. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.

  4. Keystone taxa as drivers of microbiome structure and functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samiran; Schlaeppi, Klaus; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2018-05-22

    Microorganisms have a pivotal role in the functioning of ecosystems. Recent studies have shown that microbial communities harbour keystone taxa, which drive community composition and function irrespective of their abundance. In this Opinion article, we propose a definition of keystone taxa in microbial ecology and summarize over 200 microbial keystone taxa that have been identified in soil, plant and marine ecosystems, as well as in the human microbiome. We explore the importance of keystone taxa and keystone guilds for microbiome structure and functioning and discuss the factors that determine their distribution and activities.

  5. Pesquisa de novos elementos Pesquisa de novos elementos

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    Gil Mário de Macedo Grassi

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the discovery of new elements synthesized by man. The introduction discusses in general the theories about nuclear transmutation, which is the method employed in these syntheses. The study shows the importance of the Periodical Table since it is through this table that one can reach a prevision of new elements and its, properties. The discoveries of the transuranic elements, together wich the data of their first preparations are also tabulated The stability of these elements is also discussed, and future speculations are showedNeste trabalho estuda-se, teoricamente, a descoberta de novos elementos sintetizados pelo homem Na introdução apresentamos um apanhado geral sobre as teorias a respeito da transmutação nuclear, que é o método utilizado nestas sínteses. Em seguida, mostramos a importância da Tabela Periódica, pois é através dela que se chega à previsão dos novos elementos e de suas propriedades. As descobertas dos transurânicos, Já realizadas com êxito, juntamente com os dados de suas primeiras preparações são tabelados. A estabilidade destes novos elementos também é discutida, e apresentadas futuras especulações.

  6. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...

  7. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  8. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  9. A taxa de câmbio no centro da teoria do desenvolvimento

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    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta as principais ideias da macroeconomia estruturalista do desenvolvimento - a teoria por trás de novo-desenvolvimentismo. Seu foco é a taxa de câmbio que é pela primeira vez colocada no centro da economia do desenvolvimento. A teoria econômica geralmente vê a taxa de câmbio como um problema de curto prazo a ser discutido na macroeconomia. A macroeconomia estruturalista do desenvolvimento mostra que há, nos países em desenvolvimento, a tendência à sobreapreciação cíclica da taxa de câmbio causada pela falta de neutralização da doença holandesa e por entradas de capital excessivas. Em consequência, considera a taxa de câmbio cronicamente sobreapreciada e, por isso, um grande obstáculo ao crescimento econômico. No processo de desenvolvimento, a taxa de câmbio tem a função de um interruptor de luz que conecta ou desconecta as empresas nacionais que utilizam a tecnologia no estado da arte mundial dos mercados mundiais.This paper presents the main ideas of structuralist development macroeconomics - the theory behind new developmentalism. Its focus is on the exchange rate that is positioned for the first time in the core of development economics. Economic theory usually views the exchange rate as a short term problem to be discussed in open macroeconomics. Structuralist development macroeconomics argues that there is in developing countries a tendency to the cyclical overvaluation of the exchange rate caused by the lack of neutralization of the Dutch disease and by excessive capital inflows. In consequence it views the exchange rate as chronically overvalued, and, for that reason, a major obstacle to economic growth. In the development process, the exchange rate has the role of light switch that connects or disconnects the national business enterprises utilizing technology in the world state of the art from world markets.

  10. A Molecular View of Autophagy in Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Romanelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamorphosis represents a critical phase in the development of holometabolous insects, during which the larval body is completely reorganized: in fact, most of the larval organs undergo remodeling or completely degenerate before the final structure of the adult insect is rebuilt. In the past, increasing evidence emerged concerning the intervention of autophagy and apoptosis in the cell death processes that occur in larval organs of Lepidoptera during metamorphosis, but a molecular characterization of these pathways was undertaken only in recent years. In addition to developmentally programmed autophagy, there is growing interest in starvation-induced autophagy. Therefore we are now entering a new era of research on autophagy that foreshadows clarification of the role and regulatory mechanisms underlying this self-digesting process in Lepidoptera. Given that some of the most important lepidopteran species of high economic importance, such as the silkworm, Bombyx mori, belong to this insect order, we expect that this information on autophagy will be fully exploited not only in basic research but also for practical applications.

  11. Testing DNA barcode performance in 1000 species of European lepidoptera: large geographic distances have small genetic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Sefc, Kristina M; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria) that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%), while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good) and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory) had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number) cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections.

  12. Testing DNA barcode performance in 1000 species of European lepidoptera: large geographic distances have small genetic impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Huemer

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%, while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections.

  13. A Public Trial De Novo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Jane Bjørn; Gad, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the concept of “industrial interests” and examines its role in a topical controversy about a large research grant from a private foundation, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, to the University of Copenhagen. The authors suggest that the debate took the form of a “public trial” w.......” The article ends with a discussion of some implications of the analysis, including that policy making, academic research, and public debates might benefit from more detailed accounts of interests and stakes.......This article addresses the concept of “industrial interests” and examines its role in a topical controversy about a large research grant from a private foundation, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, to the University of Copenhagen. The authors suggest that the debate took the form of a “public trial......” where the grant and close(r) intermingling between industry and public research was prosecuted and defended. First, the authors address how the grant was framed in the media. Second, they redescribe the case by introducing new “evidence” that, because of this framing, did not reach “the court...

  14. de novo computational enzyme design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanghellini, Alexandre

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology as well as metabolic engineering are poised to transform industrial biotechnology by allowing us to design cell factories for the sustainable production of valuable fuels and chemicals. To deliver on their promises, such cell factories, as much as their brick-and-mortar counterparts, will require appropriate catalysts, especially for classes of reactions that are not known to be catalyzed by enzymes in natural organisms. A recently developed methodology, de novo computational enzyme design can be used to create enzymes catalyzing novel reactions. Here we review the different classes of chemical reactions for which active protein catalysts have been designed as well as the results of detailed biochemical and structural characterization studies. We also discuss how combining de novo computational enzyme design with more traditional protein engineering techniques can alleviate the shortcomings of state-of-the-art computational design techniques and create novel enzymes with catalytic proficiencies on par with natural enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos: Publications and status of described taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Javier H; Urteaga, Diego; Teso, Valeria

    2015-10-28

    Zulma Ageitos de Castellanos was an Argentinian malacologist working in the "Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo" at La Plata University where she taught invertebrate zoology between 1947 and 1990. Her scientific publications are listed in chronological order. Described genus-group and species-group taxa are listed. Information about the type locality and type material, and taxonomic remarks are also provided. Finally, type material of all described taxa was requested and, when located, illustrated.

  16. The chemistry of antipredator defense by secondary compounds in neotropical lepidoptera: facts, perspectives and caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trigo José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense against predation in butterflies and moths has been studied since nineteenth century. A classical example is that of the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, which feed on leaves of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae, sequestering cardenolides. The adults are protected against predation by birds. Several other substances may be involved in chemical defense, such as iridoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids, aristolochic acids, glycosidase inhibitors and pyrazines. The acquisition of these substances by lepidopterans can be due to sequestration from larval or adult host plants or de novo biosynthesis. Many Lepidoptera are known to be unpalatable, including the butterflies Troidini (Papilionidae, Pierinae (Pieridae, Eurytelinae, Melitaeinae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, Heliconiinae and Acraeinae (Nymphalidae, and Arctiidae moths, but knowledge of the chemical substances responsible for property is often scarce. This review discusses mainly three topics: field and laboratory observations on rejection of butterflies and moths by predators, correlation between unpalatability and chemicals found in these insects, and bioassays that test the activity of these chemicals against predators. Perspectives and future directions are suggested for this subject.

  17. Braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose no Brasil High-dose rate brachytherapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carlos Barros Esteves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose foi introduzida em nosso meio em janeiro de 1991. Desde então, houve uma mudança significativa na abordagem das neoplasias malignas em relação às vantagens do novo método, e também resolução da demanda reprimida de braquiterapia para as neoplasias ginecológicas. Nos primeiros dez anos de atividade, o Brasil tratou, em 31 serviços, 26.436 pacientes com braquiterapia, sendo mais de 50% das pacientes portadoras de neoplasias do colo uterino. Este estudo mostra o número e o perfil de pacientes tratados com esse método e a sua distribuição no território nacional, deixando explícito o benefício da braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose para o Brasil.High-dose rate brachytherapy was first introduced in Brazil in January 1991. Significant changes in the management of malignant neoplasms were observed since utilization of high-dose rate brachytherapy. The high number of gynecological patients awaiting for brachytherapy also decreased during this period. In the first ten years 26,436 patients were treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy. More than 50% of these patients presented neoplasms of the uterine cervix. In this study we present the number and profile of the patients treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy as well as the distribution of these patients in the Brazilian territory, proving the benefit of the use of high-dose rate brachytherapy in Brazil.

  18. Two new genera of metalmark butterflies of North and Central America (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysol Trujano-Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera of Riodinidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera are described, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. (Neoapodemia nais (W. H. Edwards, 1876, comb. n., N. chisosensis Freeman, 1964, comb. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. (Plesioarida palmerii palmerii (W. H. Edwards, 1870, comb. n., P. palmerii arizona (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. palmerii australis (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. hepburni hepburni (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. hepburni remota (Austin, 1991, comb. n., P. murphyi (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. hypoglauca hypoglauca (Godman & Salvin, 1878, comb. n., P. hypoglauca wellingi (Ferris, 1985, comb. n., P. walkeri (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. selvatica (De la Maza & De la Maza, 2017, comb. n.. Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. is distributed in the southwestern USA and northeastern Mexico, while Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. is present from the southern USA to Central America. Species of these genera were previously classified as Apodemia C. Felder & R. Felder but molecular and morphological evidence separate them as new taxa. Morphological diagnoses and descriptions are provided for both new genera, including the main distinctive characters from labial palpi, prothoracic legs, wing venation and genitalia, as well as life history traits. A molecular phylogeny of one mitochondrial gene (COI and two nuclear genes (EF-1a and wg are also presented of most species of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n., Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n., and sequences of specimens from all tribes of Riodinidae. We compare the characters of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. and discuss the differences that support the description of these new taxa. This is a contribution to the taxonomy of the Riodinidae of North America of which the generic diversity is greater than previously recognized.

  19. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Molecular Phylogeny of the Small Ermine Moth Genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hubert; Lieshout, Niek; Van Ginkel, Wil E.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their host-plant associations. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny to provide a solid framework for these studies, and to obtain insight into the history of host-plant use and the biogeography of the genus. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequences from an internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) and from the 16S rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase (COII) mitochondrial genes were collected from 20–23 (depending on gene) species and two outgroup taxa to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Palaearctic members of this genus. Sequences were analysed using three different phylogenetic methods (parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference). Conclusions/Significance Roughly the same patterns are retrieved irrespective of the method used, and they are similar among the three genes. Monophyly is well supported for a clade consisting of the Japanese (but not the Dutch) population of Yponomeuta sedellus and Y. yanagawanus, a Y. kanaiellus–polystictus clade, and a Rosaceae-feeding, western Palaearctic clade (Y. cagnagellus–irrorellus clade). Within these clades, relationships are less well supported, and the patterns between the different gene trees are not so similar. The position of the remaining taxa is also variable among the gene trees and rather weakly supported. The phylogenetic information was used to elucidate patterns of biogeography and resource use. In the Palaearctic, the genus most likely originated in the Far East, feeding on Celastraceae, dispersing to the West concomitant with a shift to Rosaceae and further to Salicaceae. The association of Y. cagnagellus with Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae), however, is a reversal. The only oligophagous species, Y. padellus, belongs

  1. UniNovo: a universal tool for de novo peptide sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyowon; Kim, Sangtae; Pevzner, Pavel A

    2013-08-15

    Mass spectrometry (MS) instruments and experimental protocols are rapidly advancing, but de novo peptide sequencing algorithms to analyze tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra are lagging behind. Although existing de novo sequencing tools perform well on certain types of spectra [e.g. Collision Induced Dissociation (CID) spectra of tryptic peptides], their performance often deteriorates on other types of spectra, such as Electron Transfer Dissociation (ETD), Higher-energy Collisional Dissociation (HCD) spectra or spectra of non-tryptic digests. Thus, rather than developing a new algorithm for each type of spectra, we develop a universal de novo sequencing algorithm called UniNovo that works well for all types of spectra or even for spectral pairs (e.g. CID/ETD spectral pairs). UniNovo uses an improved scoring function that captures the dependences between different ion types, where such dependencies are learned automatically using a modified offset frequency function. The performance of UniNovo is compared with PepNovo+, PEAKS and pNovo using various types of spectra. The results show that the performance of UniNovo is superior to other tools for ETD spectra and superior or comparable with others for CID and HCD spectra. UniNovo also estimates the probability that each reported reconstruction is correct, using simple statistics that are readily obtained from a small training dataset. We demonstrate that the estimation is accurate for all tested types of spectra (including CID, HCD, ETD, CID/ETD and HCD/ETD spectra of trypsin, LysC or AspN digested peptides). UniNovo is implemented in JAVA and tested on Windows, Ubuntu and OS X machines. UniNovo is available at http://proteomics.ucsd.edu/Software/UniNovo.html along with the manual.

  2. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadley, M R; Willey, N J [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences

    1998-12-31

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 {mu}g radiolabelled Cs g{sup -1} soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author).

  3. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadley, M.R.; Willey, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 μg radiolabelled Cs g -1 soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author)

  4. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadley, M.R.; Willey, N.J. [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 {mu}g radiolabelled Cs g{sup -1} soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author).

  5. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  6. Male secondary sexu al characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint, Zsolt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera. Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  7. Clepsis dumicolana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), new to the Belgian fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Prins, W.; Baugnée, J.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    On 17 August 2008 a specimen of Clepsis dumicolana (Zeller, 1847) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was caught at Liège, leg. J.-Y. Baugnée. It was resting on Hedera helix, in the vicinity of the Kennedy bridge. During the following days, about 40 specimens were seen in two localities of the slope to the

  8. Fauna Simalurensis. Lepidoptera Rhopalocera: fam. Satyridae, Morphidae & Nymphalidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eecke, van R.

    1913-01-01

    Continuing the enumeration of the Lepidoptera from Simalur and neighbouring islets, collected by Mr. Edw. Jacobson, I have to notice only one new form of Cethosia and of Acca among a number of 16 species of Nymphalidae. The Satyridae were represented by one species and the Morphidae by two.

  9. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  10. Conservation of silk genes in Trichoptera and Lepidoptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yonemura, N.; Mita, K.; Tamura, T.; Sehnal, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2009), s. 641-653 ISSN 0022-2844 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : silk evolution * Trichoptera * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2009

  11. Redescubrimiento de Mimoniades baroni (Godman & Salvin, 1895 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrrhopyginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Lamas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el redescubrimiento de Mimoniades baroni (Godman & Salvin, 1895 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrrhopyginae, en Cajamarca, Perú. La especie no había sido registrada desde su descripción original, hace casi 110 años.

  12. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  13. Mammal taxa constituting potential coevolved reservoirs of filoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, A.Townsend; Papes, Monica; Carroll, Darin S.

    2007-01-01

    -term coevolved reservoir of the filoviruses based on a coarse, regional classification of occurrences; here, we greatly refine the geographic data set for the mammalian taxa based on rich occurrence data sets and range interpolations from ecological niche models for each species involved. This improved detail...

  14. The effectiveness of surrogate taxa to conserve freshwater biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Underwood, Zachary E.; Rahel, Frank J.; Walters, Annika W.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing protected areas has long been an effective conservation strategy, and is often based on more readily surveyed species. The potential of any freshwater taxa to be a surrogate of other aquatic groups has not been fully explored. We compiled occurrence data on 72 species of freshwater fish, amphibians, mussels, and aquatic reptiles for the Great Plains, Wyoming. We used hierarchical Bayesian multi-species mixture models and MaxEnt models to describe species distributions, and program Zonation to identify conservation priority areas for each aquatic group. The landscape-scale factors that best characterized aquatic species distributions differed among groups. There was low agreement and congruence among taxa-specific conservation priorities (<20%), meaning that no surrogate priority areas would include or protect the best habitats of other aquatic taxa. We found that common, wide-ranging aquatic species were included in taxa-specific priority areas, but rare freshwater species were not included. Thus, the development of conservation priorities based on a single freshwater aquatic group would not protect all species in the other aquatic groups.

  15. High congruence of isotope sewage signals in multiple marine taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Rod M.; Gorman, Daniel; Hindell, Jeremy S.; Kildea, Timothy N.; Schlacher, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sewage inputs are routinely mapped with stable isotopes ( 15 N) in organisms. • We tested whether choice of species influences spatial 15 N distributions. • Spatial gradients were consistent between algae, seagrasses, crabs, and fish. • A match of sewage-N signals in multiple marine taxa has not been reported before. • Spatially-coupled transfers in the food web produce the congruence of N imprints. -- Abstract: Assessments of sewage pollution routinely employ stable nitrogen isotope analysis (δ 15 N) in biota, but multiple taxa are rarely used. This single species focus leads to underreporting of whether derived spatial N patterns are consistent. Here we test the question of ‘reproducibility’, incorporating ‘taxonomic replication’ in the measurement of δ 15 N gradients in algae, seagrasses, crabs and fish with distance from a sewage outfall on the Adelaide coast (southern Australia). Isotopic sewage signals were equally strong in all taxa and declined at the same rate. This congruence amongst taxa has not been reported previously. It implies that sewage-N propagates to fish via a tight spatial coupling between production and consumption processes, resulting from limited animal movement that closely preserves the spatial pollution imprint. In situations such as this where consumers mirror pollution signals of primary producers, analyses of higher trophic levels will capture a broader ambit of ecological effects

  16. Self-pollination rate and floral-display size in Asclepias syriaca (Common Milkweed) with regard to floral-visitor taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Aaron F; Barrows, Edward M

    2014-06-23

    Animals fertilize thousands of angiosperm species whose floral-display sizes can significantly influence pollinator behavior and plant reproductive success. Many studies have measured the interactions among pollinator behavior, floral-display size, and plant reproductive success, but few studies have been able to separate the effects of pollinator behavior and post-pollination processes on angiosperm sexual reproduction. In this study, we utilized the highly self-incompatible pollinium-pollination system of Asclepias syriaca (Common Milkweed) to quantify how insect visitors influenced male reproductive success measured as pollen removal, female reproductive success measured as pollen deposition, and self-pollination rate. We also determined how floral-display size impacts both visitor behavior and self-pollination rate. Four insect taxonomic orders visited A. syriaca: Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera. We focused on three groups of visitor taxa within two orders (Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) with sample sizes large enough for quantitative analysis: Apis mellifera (Western Honey Bee), Bombus spp. (bumble bees) and lepidopterans (butterflies and moths). Qualitatively, lepidopterans had the highest pollinator importance values, but the large variability in the lepidopteran data precluded meaningful interpretation of much of their behavior. The introduced A. mellifera was the most effective and most important diurnal pollinator with regard to both pollen removal and pollen deposition. However, when considering the self-incompatibility of A. syriaca, A. mellifera was not the most important pollinator because of its high self-pollination rate as compared to Bombus spp. Additionally, the rate of self-pollination increased more rapidly with the number of flowers per inflorescence in A. mellifera than in the native Bombus spp. Apis mellifera's high rate of self-pollination may have significant negative effects on both male and female reproductive successes

  17. Análise comparativa de risco de câmbio e das taxas de juros na crise cambial de 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Rosseti Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available É nos momentos de crise que os novos paradigmas surgem em substituição dos antigos, ocorrendo, assim, o renovar das formas de se entender os mecanismos de funcionamento da sociedade, as relações de produção e os modelos de consumo. A crise cambial brasileira de 1999 trouxe dificuldades para a população e para o país, exigindo mudanças de postura do governo e dos organismos da sociedade. A crise provocou uma retração de produção do Brasil, uma elevação dos juros e, por conseguinte, do endividamento do país. Uma crise que teve como centro a taxa de câmbio acabou tendo seus maiores desdobramentos nas taxas de juros, tanto do governo como no mercado. Este trabalho de pesquisa procura analisar o comportamento dos juros efetivamente praticados no mundo financeiro nacional, a partir da flutuação das taxas de câmbio, no ano da crise. Para tanto, são estudados os números diários e mensais de relatórios do Banco Central e os dados da evolução dessas taxas.

  18. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Zanuncio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae during egg stage (48.9%, a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae during larval stages (10% and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae during pupal stage (52.2%. The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%.Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae é uma espécie brasileira nativa, comumente encontrada em plantios de Eucalyptus. Um estudo da mortalidade por fatores bióticos desse desfolhador foi feito em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar os inimigos naturais e seu impacto sobre esse lepidóptero. Euselasia eucerus possui fatores bióticos de mortalidade durante todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Os mais importantes foram Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé e Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae durante a fase de ovo (48,9%, um Diptera: Tachinidae durante a fase de larva (10% e Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae durante a fase pupal (52,2%. A taxa de parasitismo foi mais elevada na parte basal de plantas de eucalipto (37,8%.

  19. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Regier

    Full Text Available Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies.483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes, from which maximum likelihood tree estimates and bootstrap percentages were obtained using GARLI. Assessment of heuristic search effectiveness showed that better trees and higher bootstrap percentages probably remain to be discovered even after 1000 or more search replicates, but further search proved impractical even with grid computing. Other analyses explored the effects of sampling nonsynonymous change only versus partitioned and unpartitioned total nucleotide change; deletion of rogue taxa; and compositional heterogeneity. Relationships among the non-ditrysian lineages previously inferred from morphology were largely confirmed, plus some new ones, with strong support. Robust support was also found for divergences among non-apoditrysian lineages of Ditrysia, but only rarely so within Apoditrysia. Paraphyly for Tineoidea is strongly supported by analysis of nonsynonymous-only signal; conflicting, strong support for tineoid monophyly when synonymous signal was added back is shown to result from compositional heterogeneity.Support for among-superfamily relationships outside the Apoditrysia is now generally strong. Comparable support is mostly lacking within Apoditrysia, but dramatically increased bootstrap percentages for some nodes after rogue taxon removal, and concordance with other evidence, strongly suggest that our picture of apoditrysian phylogeny is approximately correct. This study highlights the challenge of finding optimal topologies when analyzing hundreds of taxa. It also shows that some nodes get strong support only when

  20. de novo'' aneurysms following endovascular procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briganti, F.; Cirillo, S.; Caranci, F.; Esposito, F.; Maiuri, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two personal cases of ''de novo'' aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) occurring 9 and 4 years, respectively, after endovascular carotid occlusion are described. A review of the 30 reported cases (including our own two) of ''de novo'' aneurysms after occlusion of the major cerebral vessels has shown some features, including a rather long time interval after the endovascular procedure of up to 20-25 years (average 9.6 years), a preferential ACoA (36.3%) and internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) (33.3%) location of the ''de novo'' aneurysms, and a 10% rate of multiple aneurysms. These data are compared with those of the group of reported spontaneous ''de novo'' aneurysms after SAH or previous aneurysm clipping. We agree that the frequency of ''de novo'' aneurysms after major-vessel occlusion (two among ten procedures in our series, or 20%) is higher than commonly reported (0 to 11%). For this reason, we suggest that patients who have been submitted to endovascular major-vessel occlusion be followed up for up to 20-25 years after the procedure, using non-invasive imaging studies such as MR angiography and high-resolution CT angiography. On the other hand, periodic digital angiography has a questionable risk-benefit ratio; it may be used when a ''de novo'' aneurysm is detected or suspected on non-invasive studies. The progressive enlargement of the ACoA after carotid occlusion, as described in our case 1, must be considered a radiological finding of risk for ''de novo'' aneurysm formation. (orig.)

  1. Mapas de taxas epidemiológicas: uma abordagem Bayesiana Maps of epidemiological rates: a Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Martins Assunção

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentamos métodos estatísticos desenvolvidos recentemente para a análise de mapas de taxas de morbidade quando as unidades geográficas possuem pequenas populações de risco. Eles adotam a abordagem Bayesiana e utilizam métodos computacionais intensivos para estimação do risco de cada área. O objetivo dos métodos é separar a variabilidade das taxas devida às diferenças entre as regiões do risco subjacente daquela devida à pura flutuação aleatória. As estimativas de risco possuem um erro quadrático médio total menor que as estimativas usuais. Aplicamos esses novos métodos para estimar o risco de mortalidade infantil nos municípios de Minas Gerais em 1994.This article presents statistical methods recently developed for the analysis of maps of disease rates when the geographic units have small populations at risk. They adopt the Bayesian approach and use intensive computational methods for estimating risk in each area. The objective of the methods is to separate the variability of rates due to differences between regions from the background risk due to pure random fluctuation. Risk estimates have a total mean quadratic error smaller than usual estimates. We apply these new methods to estimate infant mortality risk in the municipalities of the State of Minas Gerais in 1994.

  2. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  3. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae, parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Camargo

    Full Text Available Abstract The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886 using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003 information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  4. Agaricus section Xanthodermatei: a phylogenetic reconstruction with commentary on taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Richard W; Callac, Philippe; Guinberteau, Jacques; Challen, Michael P; Parra, Luis A

    2005-01-01

    Agaricus section Xanthodermatei comprises a group of species allied to A. xanthodermus and generally characterized by basidiomata having phenolic odors, transiently yellowing discolorations in some parts of the basidiome, Schaeffer's reaction negative, and mild to substantial toxicity. The section has a global distribution, while most included species have distributions restricted to regions of single continents. Using specimens and cultures from Europe, North America, and Hawaii, we analyzed DNA sequences from the ITS1+2 region of the nuclear rDNA to identify and characterize phylogenetically distinct entities and to construct a hypothesis of relationships, both among members of the section and with representative taxa from other sections of the genus. 61 sequences from affiliated taxa, plus 20 from six (or seven) other sections of Agaricus, and one Micropsalliota sequence, were evaluated under distance, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. We recognized 21 discrete entities in Xanthodermatei, including 14 established species and 7 new ones, three of which are described elsewhere. Four species from California, New Mexico, and France deserve further study before they are described. Type studies of American taxa are particularly emphasized, and a lectotype is designated for A. californicus. Section Xanthodermatei formed a single clade in most analyses, indicating that the traditional sectional characters noted above are good unifying characters that appear to have arisen only once within Agaricus. Deep divisions within the sequence-derived structure of the section could be interpreted as subsections in Xanthodermatei; however, various considerations led us to refrain from proposing new supraspecific taxa. The nearest neighbors of section Xanthodermatei are putatively in section Duploannulati.

  5. Previdência e Taxa de Juros no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Bolarinwa Ogundairo

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relaciona a alta taxa de juros real brasileira com o elevado gasto em previdência sob um regime de repartição. Para tanto, utilizamos uma versão padrão do modelo de gerações sobrepostas, com um regime de previdência misto (isto é, parte capitalização e parte repartição. O modelo é calibrado para a economia brasileira no período 2000-2014. Considera-se um estado estacionário inicial de modo a reproduzir a taxa de juros real média nesse período, sob um regime totalmente do tipo repartição. Simula-se então uma mudança para replicar os gastos em previdência do Chile, um país com um sistema majoritariamente do tipo capitalização. Em nossa especificação preferida, o modelo prevê uma queda de 1 ponto percentual na taxa de juros real (ao ano de longo prazo. Isso corresponde a 18% do diferencial médio de juros entre Brasil e Chile no período 2000-2014.

  6. Leaf structural adaptations of two Limonium miller (Plumbaginales, Plumbaginaceae taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Lana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonium gmelinii (Willd. O. Kuntze 1891 subsp. hungaricum (Klokov Soó is Pannonian endemic subspecies that inhabits continental halobiomes, while Limonium anfractum (Salmon Salmon 1924 is one of the indicators of halophyte vegetation of marine rocks and its distribution is restricted to the southern parts of Mediterranean Sea coast. In this work, micromorphological and anatomical characters of leaves of these two Limonium taxa were analyzed, in order to examine their adaptations to specific environmental conditions on saline habitats. The results showed that both taxa exhibited strong xeromorphic adaptations that reflected in flat cell walls of epidermal cells, thick cuticle, high palisade/spongy tissue ratio, high index of palisade cells, the presence of sclereid idioblasts in leaf mesophyll and mechanical tissue by phloem and xylem. Both taxa are crynohalophytes and have salt glands on adaxial and abaxial epidermis for excretion of surplus salt. Relatively high dimensions of mesophyll cells, absence of non-glandular hairs and unprotected stomata slightly increased above the level of epidermal cells, are also adaptations to increased salinity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  7. Trophic ecology of Lepidoptera larvae associated with woody vegetation in a savanna ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, CH

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of a Lepidoptera community and deals with the trophic ecology of the 27 species of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on the eight dominant woody plants in the Burkea africana-Eragrostis pallens savanna...

  8. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  9. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  10. A new skipper species for Peru: Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeña, José Alfredo; Huamaní, Erick; Delgado, Rómulo; Lamas, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez para Perú al raro hespérido Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), previamente citado de Ecuador y Bolivia. The rare skipper Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), previously cited from Ecuador and Bolivia is reported for the first time in Peru.

  11. DNA barcodes of caterpillars (Lepidoptera) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Hrček, Jan; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2013), s. 107-109 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0515678 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2013

  12. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems ...

  13. The richness and diversity of Lepidoptera species in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family Nymphalidae was the most dominant one in the parc with 32.48%. The diversity index (H' and H'max) and the equitability (E) calculated for the 6 types of habitats is H'= 2,74 bits, H'max = 4,09 bits and E = 0,67 bits, meaning that the Lepidoptera species are at equilibrium with the different types of habitat which ...

  14. DeNovoGUI: an open source graphical user interface for de novo sequencing of tandem mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Thilo; Weilnböck, Lisa; Rapp, Erdmann; Huber, Christian G; Martens, Lennart; Vaudel, Marc; Barsnes, Harald

    2014-02-07

    De novo sequencing is a popular technique in proteomics for identifying peptides from tandem mass spectra without having to rely on a protein sequence database. Despite the strong potential of de novo sequencing algorithms, their adoption threshold remains quite high. We here present a user-friendly and lightweight graphical user interface called DeNovoGUI for running parallelized versions of the freely available de novo sequencing software PepNovo+, greatly simplifying the use of de novo sequencing in proteomics. Our platform-independent software is freely available under the permissible Apache2 open source license. Source code, binaries, and additional documentation are available at http://denovogui.googlecode.com .

  15. A unique guild of Lepidoptera associated with the glacial relict populations of Labrador tea (Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753) in Central European peatlands (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 166 (2014), s. 319-327 ISSN 0300-5267 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insecta * Lepidoptera * relict peat bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014

  16. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems for studying the role of phenotypic plasticity within generations. As ectotherms, they are highly sensitive to environmental variation, and indeed many butterflies show adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. Here, we synthesize what is known about trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera, compile evidence for different environmental cues that are important drivers of trans-generational effects, and point out which offspring traits are mainly impacted. Finally, we emphasize directions for future research that are needed for better understanding of the adaptive nature of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera in particular, but potentially also in other organisms.

  17. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Drezen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses, have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species.

  19. Teoria da estrutura a termo das taxas de juros

    OpenAIRE

    Cox,John C.; Ingersoll Jr.,Jonathan E.; Ross,Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Este estudo usa um modelo intertemporal de equilíbrio geral de precificação de ativos para estudar a estrutura a termo das taxas de juros. Nesse modelo, expectativas, aversão ao risco, alternativas de investimento e preferências quanto ao momento do consumo atuam na determinação dos preços. Muitos fatores tradicionalmente mencionados como influentes sobre a estrutura a termo são, assim, incluídos de uma maneira plenamente condizente com o comportamento maximizador e as expectativas racionais....

  20. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  1. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.

  2. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  3. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  4. Biological characteristics of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenopetra: Eulophidae in the hosts Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rodrigues Ferreira Calado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a pupal endoparasitoid of lepidoptera and it has been studied as a potential agent for biological control of pests. For developing techniques to breed parasitoids, there is a need to choose the appropriate alternative host, thus, this article aims to evaluate the biological characteristics of T. diatraeae with regard to the hosts Bombyx mori Linneaus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae and Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, in laboratory. Twelve pupae of B. mori and twelve pupae of D. saccharalis, within 72 and 24 h of life, respectively, were exposed to parasitism by 21 female parasitoids at 25 ± 1°C, with relative humidity 70 ± 10% and photophase of 14 h. Life-cycle duration (egg – adult of T. diatraeae was 19.44 ± 0.12 days in pupae of D. saccharalis and 18.00 ± 0.05 days in pupae of B. mori, the emergence of parasitoid progeny was 66.60% in pupae of D. saccharalis, and 75.00% in pupae of B. mori. The progeny of T. diatraeae was 354.50 ± 43.21 per pupa of D. saccharalis and 469.11 ± 15.19 per pupa of B. mori. Trichospilus diatraeae showed suitability to the host and its ability to parasitize various hosts.

  5. Early Cretaceous greenhouse pumped higher taxa diversification in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lili; Li, Shuqiang

    2018-05-24

    The Cretaceous experienced one of the most remarkable greenhouse periods in geological history. During this time, ecosystem reorganizations significantly impacted the diversification of many groups of organisms. The rise of angiosperms marked a major biome turnover. Notwithstanding, relatively little remains known about how the Cretaceous global ecosystem impacted the evolution of spiders, which constitute one of the most abundant groups of predators. Herein, we evaluate the transcriptomes of 91 taxa representing more than half of the spider families. We add 23 newly sequenced taxa to the existing database to obtain a robust phylogenomic assessment. Phylogenetic reconstructions using different datasets and methods obtain novel placements of some groups, especially in the Synspermiata and the group having a retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA). Molecular analyses indicate an expansion of the RTA clade at the Early Cretaceous with a hunting predatory strategy shift. Fossil analyses show a 7-fold increase of diversification rate at the same period, but this likely owes to the first occurrences spider in amber deposits. Additional analyses of fossil abundance show an accumulation of spider lineages in the Early Cretaceous. We speculate that the establishment of a warm greenhouse climate pumped the diversification of spiders, in particular among webless forms tracking the abundance of insect prey. Our study offers a new pathway for future investigations of spider phylogeny and diversification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  7. Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, M.; Raup, D. M.

    1996-01-01

    The incompleteness of the fossil record hinders the inference of evolutionary rates and patterns. Here, we derive relationships among true taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and observed taxonomic ranges. We use these relationships to estimate original distributions of taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and completeness (proportion of taxa preserved), given only the observed ranges. No data on occurrences within the ranges of taxa are required. When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability, and completeness is exact. However, reasonable approximations are possible given non-exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variation in preservability. Thus, the approaches we describe have great potential in studies of taphonomy, evolutionary rates and patterns, and genealogy. Analyses of Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician trilobite species, Paleozoic crinoid genera, Jurassic bivalve species, and Cenozoic mammal species yield the following results: (1) The preservation probability inferred from stratigraphic ranges alone agrees with that inferred from the analysis of stratigraphic gaps when data on the latter are available. (2) Whereas median durations based on simple tabulations of observed ranges are biased by stratigraphic resolution, our estimates of median duration, extinction rate, and completeness are not biased.(3) The shorter geologic ranges of mammalian species relative to those of bivalves cannot be attributed to a difference in preservation potential. However, we cannot rule out the contribution of taxonomic practice to this difference. (4) In the groups studied, completeness (proportion of species [trilobites, bivalves, mammals] or genera [crinoids] preserved) ranges from 60% to 90%. The higher estimates of completeness at smaller geographic scales support previous suggestions that the incompleteness of the fossil record reflects loss of

  8. Extreme-Scale De Novo Genome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georganas, Evangelos [Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Hofmeyr, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Genome Inst.; Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Buluc, Aydin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Genome Inst.; Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Genome Inst.; Rokhsar, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Yelick, Katherine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Genome Inst.

    2017-09-26

    De novo whole genome assembly reconstructs genomic sequence from short, overlapping, and potentially erroneous DNA segments and is one of the most important computations in modern genomics. This work presents HipMER, a high-quality end-to-end de novo assembler designed for extreme scale analysis, via efficient parallelization of the Meraculous code. Genome assembly software has many components, each of which stresses different components of a computer system. This chapter explains the computational challenges involved in each step of the HipMer pipeline, the key distributed data structures, and communication costs in detail. We present performance results of assembling the human genome and the large hexaploid wheat genome on large supercomputers up to tens of thousands of cores.

  9. Wegener's granulomatosis occurring de novo during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfhaily, F; Watts, R; Leather, A

    2009-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is rarely diagnosed during the reproductive years and uncommonly manifests for the first time during pregnancy. We report a case of de novo WG presenting at 30 weeks gestation with classical symptoms of WG (ENT, pulmonary). The diagnosis was confirmed by radiological, laboratory, and histological investigations. With a multidisciplinary approach, she had a successful vaginal delivery of a healthy baby. She was treated successfully by a combination of steroids, azathioprine and intravenous immunoglobulin in the active phase of disease for induction of remission and by azathioprine and steroids for maintenance of remission. The significant improvement in her symptoms allowed us to continue her pregnancy to 37 weeks when delivery was electively induced. Transplacental transmission of PR3-ANCA occurred but the neonate remained well. This case of de novo WG during pregnancy highlights the seriousness of this disease and the challenge in management of such patients.

  10. Review of the Eulamprotes wilkella species-group based on morphology and DNA barcodes, with descriptions of new taxa (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huemer, Peter; Elsner, Gustav; Karsholt, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Eulamprotes wilkella species-group is revised based on morphological characters and on DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (Cytochrome c Oxidase 1) gene. Adult morphology combined with sequence information for 9 species supports the existence of 12 species, 7 of which are described as new to science: E...

  11. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  12. MRUniNovo: an efficient tool for de novo peptide sequencing utilizing the hadoop distributed computing framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Chen, Tao; He, Qiang; Zhu, Yunping; Li, Kenli

    2017-03-15

    Tandem mass spectrometry-based de novo peptide sequencing is a complex and time-consuming process. The current algorithms for de novo peptide sequencing cannot rapidly and thoroughly process large mass spectrometry datasets. In this paper, we propose MRUniNovo, a novel tool for parallel de novo peptide sequencing. MRUniNovo parallelizes UniNovo based on the Hadoop compute platform. Our experimental results demonstrate that MRUniNovo significantly reduces the computation time of de novo peptide sequencing without sacrificing the correctness and accuracy of the results, and thus can process very large datasets that UniNovo cannot. MRUniNovo is an open source software tool implemented in java. The source code and the parameter settings are available at http://bioinfo.hupo.org.cn/MRUniNovo/index.php. s131020002@hnu.edu.cn ; taochen1019@163.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Antibiosis in Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flávio Gonçalves

    (Sinapis arvensis), wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), cauliflower. (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Chinese ..... seeds: Phytochemical characterization and antioxidant potential. Food Chem. 101: 549-558. Filgueira FAR (2008). Novo manual de olericultura: Agrotecnologia.

  14. Aukštaitijos nacionalinio parko dieniniai drugiai (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera)

    OpenAIRE

    Baltakienė, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Magistro darbe pateikti Aukštaitijos nacionaliniame parke dieninių drugių (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) faunos tyrimų rezultatai. Tyrimo metu aptikta 70 dieninių drugių rūšių. Aukštaitijos nacionaliniame parke 2002 metais buvo vykdomi tyrimai, užregistruotos 78 dieninių drugių rūšys (Švitra, Dapkus 2002). Tyrimų rezultatuose palyginta dieninių drugių faunos sudėtis Lietuvoje ir Aukštaitijos nacionaliniame parke. Pateikiama trumpa kiekvienos šeimos charakteristika ir apibūdintos aptiktos rūšys. N...

  15. De valkruidmineervlinder Digitivalva arnicella in Nederland: herontdekking en behoud (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Koster, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of Digitivalva arnicella in the Netherlands: rediscovery and conservation (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae) Digitivalva arnicella (Heyden, 1863), previously only known from two localities before 1902, has been rediscovered in eight localities in the northern part of the

  16. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  17. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciana Bueno dos Reis; Dias Filho, Manoel Martins; Fernandes, Marcelo Adorna; Penteado-Dias, Angelica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae). The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae) were obtained. Seven species of Ichneu...

  18. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade; Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects). The most abundant ...

  19. Primary controls on species richness in higher taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabosky, Daniel L

    2010-12-01

    The disparity in species richness across the tree of life is one of the most striking and pervasive features of biological diversity. Some groups are exceptionally diverse, whereas many other groups are species poor. Differences in diversity among groups are frequently assumed to result from primary control by differential rates of net diversification. However, a major alternative explanation is that ecological and other factors exert primary control on clade diversity, such that apparent variation in net diversification rates is a secondary consequence of ecological limits on clade growth. Here, I consider a likelihood framework for distinguishing between these competing hypotheses. I incorporate hierarchical modeling to explicitly relax assumptions about the constancy of diversification rates across clades, and I propose several statistics for a posteriori evaluation of model adequacy. I apply the framework to a recent dated phylogeny of ants. My results reject the hypothesis that net diversification rates exert primary control on species richness in this group and demonstrate that clade diversity is better explained by total time-integrated speciation. These results further suggest that it may not possible to estimate meaningful speciation and extinction rates from higher-level phylogenies of extant taxa only.

  20. De novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimaru, Y; Ito, T; Marubashi, S; Kawamoto, K; Tomokuni, A; Asaoka, T; Wada, H; Eguchi, H; Mori, M; Doki, Y; Nagano, H

    2015-04-01

    Long-term immunosuppression is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Especially, the immunosuppression in pancreas transplantation is more intensive than that in other organ transplantation because of its strong immunogenicity. Therefore, it suggests that the risk of post-transplant de novo malignancy might increase in pancreas transplantation. However, there have been few studies of de novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of de novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation in Japan. Post-transplant patients with de novo malignancy were surveyed and characterized in Japan. Among 107 cases receiving pancreas transplantation in Japan between 2001 and 2010, de novo malignancy developed in 9 cases (8.4%): post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in 6 cases, colon cancer in 1 case, renal cancer in 1 case, and brain tumor in 1 case. We clarified the incidence of de novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Description and phylogenetic analysis of the Calycopidina (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini: a subtribe of detritivores Descrição e análise filogenética de Calycopidina (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini: uma subtribo de detritívoros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Duarte

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Description and phylogenetic analysis of the Calycopidina (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini: a subtribe of detritivores. The purpose of this paper is to establish a phylogenetic basis for a new Eumaeini subtribe that includes those lycaenid genera in which detritivory has been recorded. Morphological characters were coded for 82 species of the previously proposed "Lamprospilus Section" of the Eumaeini (19 of these had coding identical to another species, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using the 63 distinct ingroup terminal taxa and six outgroups belonging to four genera. Taxonomic results include the description in the Eumaeini of Calycopidina Duarte & Robbins new subtribe (type genus Calycopis Scudder, 1876, which contains Lamprospilus Geyer, Badecla Duarte & Robbins new genus (type species Thecla badaca Hewitson, Arzecla Duarte & Robbins new genus (type species Thecla arza Hewitson, Arumecla Robbins & Duarte, Camissecla Robbins & Duarte, Electrostrymon Clench, Rubroserrata K. Johnson & Kroenlein revalidated status, Ziegleria K. Johnson, Kisutam K. Johnson & Kroenlein revalidated status, and Calycopis. Previous "infratribe" names Angulopina K. Johnson & Kroenlein, 1993, and Calycopina K. Johnson & Kroenlein, 1993, are nomenclaturally unavailable and polyphyletic as proposed. New combinations include Badecla badaca (Hewitson, Badecla picentia (Hewitson, Badecla quadramacula (Austin & K. Johnson, Badecla lanckena (Schaus, Badecla argentinensis (K. Johnson & Kroenlein, Badecla clarissa (Draudt, Arzecla arza (Hewitson, Arzecla tarpa (Godman & Salvin, Arzecla canacha (Hewitson, Arzecla calatia (Hewitson, Arzecla tucumanensis (K. Johnson & Kroenlein, Arzecla sethon (Godman & Salvin, Arzecla nubilum (H. H. Druce, Arzecla paralus (Godman & Salvin, Arzecla taminella (Schaus, Arzecla albolineata (Lathy, Electrostrymon denarius (Butler & H.Druce, Electrostrymon guzanta (Schaus, Electrostrymon perisus (H. H. Druce, Rubroserrata

  2. Novos paradigmas literários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Azevedo Duarte Guimarães

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo estuda a emergência de novos paradigmas literários, procurando refletir acerca das textualidades contemporâneas. Focaliza os hipertextos informatizados e a poesia multimídia, com o intuito de desvendar como estão sendo criados novos procedimentos expressivos e em que medida eles podem ser identificados com reflexões teóricas anteriores acerca do texto literário impresso. Remete a questões ligadas à leitura dos diferentes tipos de signos e aos modos como eles se integram para a constituição dessas novíssimas linguagens híbridas em novos suportes.El artículo estudia la emergencia de nuevos paradigmas literarios, procurando reflejar acerca de las textualidades contemporáneas. Enfoca los hipertextos informatizados y la poesía multimedia, intentando desvendar cómo están siendo creados nuevos procedimientos expresivos y en qué medida ellos pueden ser identificados a reflexiones teóricas anteriores acerca del texto literario impreso. Remite a cuestiones ligadas a la lectura de los diferentes tipos de signos y a los modos cómo ellos se interaccionan para la constitución de los novísimos lenguajes híbridos en nuevos supuestos.This article investigates the emergence of new literary paradigms as it tries to understand new contemporary textualities. It analyses some hypertexts and multimedia poetry trying to trace how new expressive procedures are being created. How can these new languages be identified and what are their relations to previous theories which dealt with the literary printed text? This study approaches questions linked to the reading of different types of signs and the modes they function towards the fabrication of these new hybrid languages.

  3. De novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Ansgar W; Weiler-Norman, Christina; Burdelski, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The Kings College group was the first to describe a clinical syndrome similar to autoimmune hepatitis in children and young adults transplanted for non-immune mediated liver diseases. They coined the term "de novo autoimmune hepatitis". Several other liver transplant centres confirmed this observation. Even though the condition is uncommon, patients with de novo AIH are now seen in most of the major transplant centres. The disease is usually characterized by features of acute hepatitis in otherwise stable transplant recipients. The most characteristic laboratory hallmark is a marked hypergammaglobulinaemia. Autoantibodies are common, mostly ANA. We described also a case of LKM1-positivity in a patients transplanted for Wilson's disease, however this patients did not develop clinical or histological features of AIH. Development of SLA/LP-autoantibodies is also not described. Therefore, serologically de novo AIH appears to correspond to type 1 AIH. Like classical AIH patients respond promptly to treatment with increased doses of prednisolone and azathioprine, while the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine or tacrolimus areof very limited value - which is not surprising, as almost all patients develop de novo AIH while receiving these drugs. Despite the good response to treatment, most patients remain a clinical challenge as complete stable remissions are uncommon and flares, relapses and chronic disease activity can often occur. Pathogenetically this syndrome is intriguing. It is not clear, if the immune response is directed against allo-antigens, neo-antigens in the liver, or self-antigens, possibly shared by donor and host cells. It is very likely that the inflammatory milieu due to alloreactive cells in the transplanted organ contribute to the disease process. Either leading to aberrant antigen presentation, or providing co-stimulatory signals leading to the breaking of self-tolerance. The development of this disease in the presence of treatment with calcineurin

  4. Critical Taxonomic Appraisal of Some Taxa of Pedicularis from Indian Himalayas Belonging to Section Siphonanthae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Garg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The existing confusion on the taxonomic status of five taxa of Pedicularis viz. P. punctata Decne, P. siphonantha D. Don, P. hookeriana Wall. ex Benth., P. megalantha D. Don and P. hoffmeisteri Kl. ex Kl. & Garcke is resolved on the basis of critical morphological study. These taxa belong to section Siphonanthae, subgenus Longirostres. Pennell’s view of segregating these taxa into distinct species is defended and upheld.

  5. De Novo Construction of Redox Active Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, C C; Sheehan, M M; Ennist, N M; Kodali, G; Bialas, C; Englander, M T; Discher, B M; Dutton, P L

    2016-01-01

    Relatively simple principles can be used to plan and construct de novo proteins that bind redox cofactors and participate in a range of electron-transfer reactions analogous to those seen in natural oxidoreductase proteins. These designed redox proteins are called maquettes. Hydrophobic/hydrophilic binary patterning of heptad repeats of amino acids linked together in a single-chain self-assemble into 4-alpha-helix bundles. These bundles form a robust and adaptable frame for uncovering the default properties of protein embedded cofactors independent of the complexities introduced by generations of natural selection and allow us to better understand what factors can be exploited by man or nature to manipulate the physical chemical properties of these cofactors. Anchoring of redox cofactors such as hemes, light active tetrapyrroles, FeS clusters, and flavins by His and Cys residues allow cofactors to be placed at positions in which electron-tunneling rates between cofactors within or between proteins can be predicted in advance. The modularity of heptad repeat designs facilitates the construction of electron-transfer chains and novel combinations of redox cofactors and new redox cofactor assisted functions. Developing de novo designs that can support cofactor incorporation upon expression in a cell is needed to support a synthetic biology advance that integrates with natural bioenergetic pathways. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  7. Phylogeography and genetic diversity of a widespread Old World butterfly, Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce Naomi E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary genetics provides a rich theoretical framework for empirical studies of phylogeography. Investigations of intraspecific genetic variation can uncover new putative species while allowing inference into the evolutionary origin and history of extant populations. With a distribution on four continents ranging throughout most of the Old World, Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae is one of the most widely distributed species of butterfly. It is placed in a monotypic genus with no commonly accepted subspecies. Here, we investigate the demographic history and taxonomic status of this widespread species, and screen for the presence or absence of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Results We performed phylogenetic, population genetic, and phylogeographic analyses using 1799 bp of mitochondrial sequence data from 57 specimens collected throughout the species' range. Most of the samples (>90% were nearly genetically identical, with uncorrected pairwise sequence differences of 0 – 0.5% across geographic distances > 9,000 km. However, five samples from central Thailand, Madagascar, northern Australia and the Moluccas formed two divergent clades differing from the majority of samples by uncorrected pairwise distances ranging from 1.79 – 2.21%. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that L. boeticus is almost certainly monophyletic, with all sampled genes coalescing well after the divergence from three closely related taxa included for outgroup comparisons. Analyses of molecular diversity indicate that most L. boeticus individuals in extant populations are descended from one or two relatively recent population bottlenecks. Conclusion The combined analyses suggest a scenario in which the most recent common ancestor of L. boeticus and its sister taxon lived in the African region approximately 7 Mya; extant lineages of L. boeticus began spreading throughout the Old World at least 1.5 Mya. More recently, expansion after

  8. DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Coddington

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios “barcodes” (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families—taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75–100%. Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5% occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However

  9. Characterization of transcriptome in the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and gene expression analysis during developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-An; Wu, Hai-Jing; Xue, Hao; Ju, Xing-Rong; Song, Wei; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2017-07-30

    The Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a worldwide pest that causes serious damage to stored foods. Although many efforts have been conducted on this species due to its economic importance, the study of genetic basis of development, behavior and insecticide resistance has been greatly hampered due to lack of genomic information. In this study, we used high throughput sequencing platform to perform a de novo transcriptome assembly and tag-based digital gene expression profiling (DGE) analyses across four different developmental stages of P. interpunctella (egg, third-instar larvae, pupae and adult). We obtained approximate 9gigabyte (GB) of clean data and recovered 84,938 unigenes, including 37,602 clusters and 47,336 singletons. These unigenes were annotated using BLAST against the non-redundant protein databases and then functionally classified based on Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases (KEGG). A large number of differentially expressed genes were identified by pairwise comparisons among different developmental stages. Gene expression profiles dramatically changed between developmental stage transitions. Some of these differentially expressed genes were related to digestion and cuticularization. Quantitative real-time PCR results of six randomly selected genes conformed the findings in the DGEs. Furthermore, we identified over 8000 microsatellite markers and 97,648 single nucleotide polymorphisms which will be useful for population genetics studies of P. interpunctella. This transcriptomic information provided insight into the developmental basis of P. interpunctella and will be helpful for establishing integrated management strategies and developing new targets of insecticides for this serious pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A conformação estrutural da taxa de juros

    OpenAIRE

    Reinert, José Nilson

    2010-01-01

    Trata da conformação da taxa de juros no longo prazo. Aborda o tema dentro da teoria marxista e apresenta o volume de reservas formadas ao longo dos ciclos econômicos como determinante principal da taxa de juros. Analisa dados da economia norte-americana, visando ilustrar as hopóteses apresentadas.

  11. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Immatures in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Corrêa Varella

    Full Text Available We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L. fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.

  12. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  13. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.

  14. Effects of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids on the larvae of polyphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James S; Feeny, Paul

    1983-06-01

    Six benzylisoquinoline alkaloids were fed to the larvae of three polyphagous Lepidoptera species: Hyphantria cunea, Spodoptera eridania, and Lymantria dispar. Exposure of last instar larvae to alkaloid-containing diets over a 24-h period resulted in reduced feeding rates and reduced growth efficiencies. Lymantria dispar larvae reared from eggs on alkaloid diets took longer to reach the fifth instar, attained lower larval weights, and showed reduced survivorship. The benzylisoquinolines tested were not equally effective as toxins or feeding inhibitors. Some produced dramatic effects while others produced no effects. The relative responses of the three caterpillar species to the six alkaloids were similar. Those benzylisoquinolines with a methylene-dioxyphenyl (1,3-benzodioxole) group were consistently the most toxic or repellent while laudanosine, a relatively simple benzylisoquinoline, was generally innocuous. Available host records indicate that benzylisoquinoline-containing plants are avoided by the larvae of these moth species.

  15. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukusic Pete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  16. Antimicrobial peptide capsids of de novo design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Emiliana; Alkassem, Hasan; Lamarre, Baptiste; Faruqui, Nilofar; Bella, Angelo; Noble, James E; Micale, Nicola; Ray, Santanu; Burns, Jonathan R; Yon, Alexander R; Hoogenboom, Bart W; Ryadnov, Maxim G

    2017-12-22

    The spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics poses the need for antimicrobial discovery. With traditional search paradigms being exhausted, approaches that are altogether different from antibiotics may offer promising and creative solutions. Here, we introduce a de novo peptide topology that-by emulating the virus architecture-assembles into discrete antimicrobial capsids. Using the combination of high-resolution and real-time imaging, we demonstrate that these artificial capsids assemble as 20-nm hollow shells that attack bacterial membranes and upon landing on phospholipid bilayers instantaneously (seconds) convert into rapidly expanding pores causing membrane lysis (minutes). The designed capsids show broad antimicrobial activities, thus executing one primary function-they destroy bacteria on contact.

  17. De novo pathway-based biomarker identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcaraz, Nicolas; List, Markus; Batra, Richa

    2017-01-01

    in a large cohort of breast cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that MGs are considerably more stable than SG models, while also providing valuable insight into the cancer hallmarks that drive them. In addition, when tested on an independent benchmark non-TCGA dataset, MG features......Gene expression profiles have been extensively discussed as an aid to guide the therapy by predicting disease outcome for the patients suffering from complex diseases, such as cancer. However, prediction models built upon single-gene (SG) features show poor stability and performance on independent...... on their molecular subtypes can provide a detailed view of the disease and lead to more personalized therapies. We propose and discuss a novel MG approach based on de novo pathways, which for the first time have been used as features in a multi-class setting to predict cancer subtypes. Comprehensive evaluation...

  18. The second Afrotropical Lepidoptera Workshop in Uganda – A contribution to the Lepidoptera fauna of Kibale National Park and the Mpanga Forest Reserve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, T.; Akite, P.; Barnett, M.; Collins, S. C.; Dobson, J.; Fric, Zdeněk; Henning, G.; Kühne, L.; Mey, W.; Ochse, M.; Przybylowicz, L.; Sáfián, S.; Schutte, R.; Selb, H.; Ward, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2017), s. 77-105 ISSN 0013-8843 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Uganda * Lepidoptera * Afrotropical Region https://www.dropbox.com/s/qqt4jqut03sljqi/Baron_2017_Uganda.pdf?dl=0

  19. Climate, vegetation, distribution of taxa and diversity: A synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazrul-Islam, A K.M. [Ecology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Dhaka, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2005-07-15

    An attempt has been made to investigate from a range of viewpoints the principle of the climatic control of plant distribution. The accumulated plant weight (w) is related to the incoming solar radiation (S) and is dependent on leaf area index, the incoming solar radiation and the efficiency of solar radiation to dry matter conversion. A review is presented and a model is discussed in order to stimulate interest and knowledge in this crucial and central theme of ecology. The aim is to develop a model based on eco-physiological principles to predict the major vegetational zones of the globe. Predictions were based on various plant responses, such as low temperature survival and evapo-transpiration. Taxonomic diversity declined in a poleward direction; for both the northern and southern hemispheres family diversity is greatest near the equator, declined markedly from latitude 30 deg. to 90 deg. Strong correlation between family diversity and absolute minimum temperature exists and a regression line suggests a decrease of 3.3 families per deg. C reductions in minimum temperature. Analysis of the islands ecology differing in areas at various altitudes of the present and past has been most productive in providing means of investigating dispersal and migration and vertical diversity. Experimental studies have been attempted in herbaceous vegetation at different latitudes (tundra and British Isles) by clearing the native species (Carex bigelowii, Eriphorum vaginatum) of the area and by introducing exotic species such as Lolium perenne. The cover of the exotic species subsequently declined and ultimately became extinct and was covered by the native species. In order to investigate the climatic control of the distribution of taxa it becomes necessary to split the life (life cycles) of a plant into a number of stages, each of which is a link in the chain of survival and each of which can dominate the control of distribution. When a stage of life cycle is broken then

  20. Climate, vegetation, distribution of taxa and diversity: A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrul-Islam, A.K.M.

    2005-07-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate from a range of viewpoints the principle of the climatic control of plant distribution. The accumulated plant weight (w) is related to the incoming solar radiation (S) and is dependent on leaf area index, the incoming solar radiation and the efficiency of solar radiation to dry matter conversion. A review is presented and a model is discussed in order to stimulate interest and knowledge in this crucial and central theme of ecology. The aim is to develop a model based on eco-physiological principles to predict the major vegetational zones of the globe. Predictions were based on various plant responses, such as low temperature survival and evapo-transpiration. Taxonomic diversity declined in a poleward direction; for both the northern and southern hemispheres family diversity is greatest near the equator, declined markedly from latitude 30 deg. to 90 deg. Strong correlation between family diversity and absolute minimum temperature exists and a regression line suggests a decrease of 3.3 families per deg. C reductions in minimum temperature. Analysis of the islands ecology differing in areas at various altitudes of the present and past has been most productive in providing means of investigating dispersal and migration and vertical diversity. Experimental studies have been attempted in herbaceous vegetation at different latitudes (tundra and British Isles) by clearing the native species (Carex bigelowii, Eriphorum vaginatum) of the area and by introducing exotic species such as Lolium perenne. The cover of the exotic species subsequently declined and ultimately became extinct and was covered by the native species. In order to investigate the climatic control of the distribution of taxa it becomes necessary to split the life (life cycles) of a plant into a number of stages, each of which is a link in the chain of survival and each of which can dominate the control of distribution. When a stage of life cycle is broken then

  1. DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DOS CASOS NOVOS DE TUBERCULOSE PULMONAR NOS MUNICÍPIOS DA REGIÃO NORTE DO BRASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ribeiro Barbosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A Tuberculose é uma endemia de grande impacto na saúde pública brasileira, e o uso de mapas para análise da espacialização de indicadores torna-se uma importante ferramenta para subsidiar as ações de controle dessa doença. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a distribuição espacial dos casos novos de tuberculose pulmonar na região Norte do Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico que utiliza a distribuição espacial de dados secundários de casos novos de tuberculose diagnosticados em residentes nos municípios do Norte do Brasil nos anos de 2005 a 2010. Analisou-se os principais indicadores da doença. Foram diagnosticados 41.832 casos novos de Tuberculose; o estado do Amazonas registrou a maior incidência; 84,9% dos casos foram classificados como Tuberculose pulmonar; a taxa de letalidade foi de 5,43%. Os municípios com as maiores médias anuais de casos novos foram Manaus, Belém e Ananindeua. O percentual de co-infecção com o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana foi de 4,17%; 1533 casos foram registrados em menores de 15 anos. A taxa de cura foi menor que 85% em mais de 80% dos municípios. Os indicadores de Tuberculose na Região Norte do Brasil estão aquém das metas preconizadas pelo Ministério da saúde, apontando para a necessidade de implementação de políticas de saúde voltadas para populações residentes em áreas de maior risco.

  2. A transcontinental challenge--a test of DNA barcode performance for 1,541 species of Canadian Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zahiri

    Full Text Available This study provides a first, comprehensive, diagnostic use of DNA barcodes for the Canadian fauna of noctuoids or "owlet" moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea based on vouchered records for 1,541 species (99.1% species coverage, and more than 30,000 sequences. When viewed from a Canada-wide perspective, DNA barcodes unambiguously discriminate 90% of the noctuoid species recognized through prior taxonomic study, and resolution reaches 95.6% when considered at a provincial scale. Barcode sharing is concentrated in certain lineages with 54% of the cases involving 1.8% of the genera. Deep intraspecific divergence exists in 7.7% of the species, but further studies are required to clarify whether these cases reflect an overlooked species complex or phylogeographic variation in a single species. Non-native species possess higher Nearest-Neighbour (NN distances than native taxa, whereas generalist feeders have lower NN distances than those with more specialized feeding habits. We found high concordance between taxonomic names and sequence clusters delineated by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system with 1,082 species (70% assigned to a unique BIN. The cases of discordance involve both BIN mergers and BIN splits with 38 species falling into both categories, most likely reflecting bidirectional introgression. One fifth of the species are involved in a BIN merger reflecting the presence of 158 species sharing their barcode sequence with at least one other taxon, and 189 species with low, but diagnostic COI divergence. A very few cases (13 involved species whose members fell into both categories. Most of the remaining 140 species show a split into two or three BINs per species, while Virbia ferruginosa was divided into 16. The overall results confirm that DNA barcodes are effective for the identification of Canadian noctuoids. This study also affirms that BINs are a strong proxy for species, providing a pathway for a rapid, accurate estimation of animal diversity.

  3. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  4. Can RNA-Seq resolve the rapid radiation of advanced moths and butterflies (Hexapoda: Lepidoptera: Apoditrysia)? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Adam L; Cummings, Michael P; Mitter, Kim T; Mitter, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the insect order Lepidoptera have robustly resolved family-level divergences within most superfamilies, and most divergences among the relatively species-poor early-arising superfamilies. In sharp contrast, relationships among the superfamilies of more advanced moths and butterflies that comprise the mega-diverse clade Apoditrysia (ca. 145,000 spp.) remain mostly poorly supported. This uncertainty, in turn, limits our ability to discern the origins, ages and evolutionary consequences of traits hypothesized to promote the spectacular diversification of Apoditrysia. Low support along the apoditrysian "backbone" probably reflects rapid diversification. If so, it may be feasible to strengthen resolution by radically increasing the gene sample, but case studies have been few. We explored the potential of next-generation sequencing to conclusively resolve apoditrysian relationships. We used transcriptome RNA-Seq to generate 1579 putatively orthologous gene sequences across a broad sample of 40 apoditrysians plus four outgroups, to which we added two taxa from previously published data. Phylogenetic analysis of a 46-taxon, 741-gene matrix, resulting from a strict filter that eliminated ortholog groups containing any apparent paralogs, yielded dramatic overall increase in bootstrap support for deeper nodes within Apoditrysia as compared to results from previous and concurrent 19-gene analyses. High support was restricted mainly to the huge subclade Obtectomera broadly defined, in which 11 of 12 nodes subtending multiple superfamilies had bootstrap support of 100%. The strongly supported nodes showed little conflict with groupings from previous studies, and were little affected by changes in taxon sampling, suggesting that they reflect true signal rather than artifacts of massive gene sampling. In contrast, strong support was seen at only 2 of 11 deeper nodes among the "lower", non-obtectomeran apoditrysians. These represent a much

  5. Can RNA-Seq resolve the rapid radiation of advanced moths and butterflies (Hexapoda: Lepidoptera: Apoditrysia? An exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Bazinet

    Full Text Available Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the insect order Lepidoptera have robustly resolved family-level divergences within most superfamilies, and most divergences among the relatively species-poor early-arising superfamilies. In sharp contrast, relationships among the superfamilies of more advanced moths and butterflies that comprise the mega-diverse clade Apoditrysia (ca. 145,000 spp. remain mostly poorly supported. This uncertainty, in turn, limits our ability to discern the origins, ages and evolutionary consequences of traits hypothesized to promote the spectacular diversification of Apoditrysia. Low support along the apoditrysian "backbone" probably reflects rapid diversification. If so, it may be feasible to strengthen resolution by radically increasing the gene sample, but case studies have been few. We explored the potential of next-generation sequencing to conclusively resolve apoditrysian relationships. We used transcriptome RNA-Seq to generate 1579 putatively orthologous gene sequences across a broad sample of 40 apoditrysians plus four outgroups, to which we added two taxa from previously published data. Phylogenetic analysis of a 46-taxon, 741-gene matrix, resulting from a strict filter that eliminated ortholog groups containing any apparent paralogs, yielded dramatic overall increase in bootstrap support for deeper nodes within Apoditrysia as compared to results from previous and concurrent 19-gene analyses. High support was restricted mainly to the huge subclade Obtectomera broadly defined, in which 11 of 12 nodes subtending multiple superfamilies had bootstrap support of 100%. The strongly supported nodes showed little conflict with groupings from previous studies, and were little affected by changes in taxon sampling, suggesting that they reflect true signal rather than artifacts of massive gene sampling. In contrast, strong support was seen at only 2 of 11 deeper nodes among the "lower", non-obtectomeran apoditrysians. These

  6. Phylogenetic molecular species delimitations unravel potential new species in the pest genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Dumas

    Full Text Available Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence. As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808, S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833 and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904 with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852. They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858 and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities.

  7. COSPEDTree: COuplet Supertree by Equivalence Partitioning of Taxa Set and DAG Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sourya; Mukherjee, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    From a set of phylogenetic trees with overlapping taxa set, a supertree exhibits evolutionary relationships among all input taxa. The key is to resolve the contradictory relationships with respect to input trees, between individual taxa subsets. Formulation of this NP hard problem employs either local search heuristics to reduce tree search space, or resolves the conflicts with respect to fixed or varying size subtree level decompositions. Different approximation techniques produce supertrees with considerable performance variations. Moreover, the majority of the algorithms involve high computational complexity, thus not suitable for use on large biological data sets. Current study presents COSPEDTree, a novel method for supertree construction. The technique resolves source tree conflicts by analyzing couplet (taxa pair) relationships for each source trees. Subsequently, individual taxa pairs are resolved with a single relation. To prioritize the consensus relations among individual taxa pairs for resolving them, greedy scoring is employed to assign higher score values for the consensus relations among a taxa pair. Selected set of relations resolving individual taxa pairs is subsequently used to construct a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Vertices of DAG represents a taxa subset inferred from the same speciation event. Thus, COSPEDTree can generate non-binary supertrees as well. Depth first traversal on this DAG yields final supertree. According to the performance metrics on branch dissimilarities (such as FP, FN and RF), COSPEDTree produces mostly conservative, well resolved supertrees. Specifically, RF metrics are mostly lower compared to the reference approaches, and FP values are lower apart from only strictly conservative (or veto) approaches. COSPEDTree has worst case time and space complexities of cubic and quadratic order, respectively, better or comparable to the reference approaches. Such high performance and low computational costs enable COSPEDTree to be

  8. Los "intelectuales" y el Estado Novo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís REIS TORGAL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El concepto de “intelectual” es difícil de definir y sin duda se debate constantemente. Sin embargo, es importante reflexionar sobre él a fin de comprender su significado y los problemas que implica. Sea como fuere, a un Estado autoritario “moderno” se le supone una única ideología que tiene que difundirse por medio de una propaganda bien organizada, proceso en el que los intelectuales desempeñan un papel significativo. El “Nuevo Estado” de Salazar encaja en esta categoría y sin duda el conocimiento acerca de sus “intelectuales” es fundamental. En este artículo, el objetivo es proporcionar algunos ejemplos interesantes de “intelectuales” o de simples “funcionarios políticos” con inclinación intelectual a fin de indicar el sentido y complejidad de un estudio con una dimensión distinta sobre este asunto. A este fin han sido seleccionadas tres personalidades responsables de la actividad ideológica y cultural de gran relieve en el Estado de Salazar: António Ferro, João Ameal y Costa Brochado. Palabras clave: Estado Novo; Authotitarianism; Salazar, António de Oliveira; Intellectuals; Ferro, António; Brochado, Idalino da Costa; Ameal, João. ABSTRACT: The concept of the “intellectual” is difficult to define and undoubtedly constantly debated. It is nevertheless important to reflect on it in order to understand its meaning and the problems involved with it. Be that as it may, a “modern” authoritarian State presumes a single ideology which has to be diffused by means of well-organised propaganda, in which process “intellectuals” play a significant role. Salazar’s “New State” fits this category and, undoubtedly, knowledge about its “intellectuals” is fundamental. The objective in this article is to provide some interesting examples of “intellectuals” or simple “political functionar- ies” with an intellectual bent so as to indicate the sense and complexity of a study of a

  9. Previsão da taxa de juros utilizando o modelo de Vasicek

    OpenAIRE

    Schoof, Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho estuda a previsão da taxa de juros com foco em uma estratégia de investimento. Inicialmente é feita a parametrização da taxa de juros com o modelo de Vasicek para posterior aplicação do modelo autorregressivo tanto na taxa de juros quanto nos parâmetros do Vasicek. O instrumento financeiro escolhido para verificar a eficácia da metodologia proposta foi o constant matutity swap aplicado em alguns vértices. Os resultados variaram significativamente para os diferentes horizontes de...

  10. Icarus: visualizer for de novo assembly evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheenko, Alla; Valin, Gleb; Prjibelski, Andrey; Saveliev, Vladislav; Gurevich, Alexey

    2016-11-01

    : Data visualization plays an increasingly important role in NGS data analysis. With advances in both sequencing and computational technologies, it has become a new bottleneck in genomics studies. Indeed, evaluation of de novo genome assemblies is one of the areas that can benefit from the visualization. However, even though multiple quality assessment methods are now available, existing visualization tools are hardly suitable for this purpose. Here, we present Icarus-a novel genome visualizer for accurate assessment and analysis of genomic draft assemblies, which is based on the tool QUAST. Icarus can be used in studies where a related reference genome is available, as well as for non-model organisms. The tool is available online and as a standalone application. http://cab.spbu.ru/software/icarus CONTACT: aleksey.gurevich@spbu.ruSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Diagnosis and management of de novo epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louise, Tyvaert

    2018-03-01

    The diagnosis of de novo epilepsy is complex. An accurate diagnostic approach has to be followed based on specific key steps. Epileptic seizure or non-epileptic malaise: risk of diagnosis error around 20%. Facing a first unprovoked seizure, the practitioner has to know the risk factors specifically linked to an increase risk of seizure recurrence. In presence of these factors, an antiepileptic drug would be indicated. The first antiepileptic drug has to be highly selected according to the epilepsy type and causes but also to the patient characteristics (sex, age, comorbidities, associated drugs, profession, and way of life…) An exhaustive patient Education needs to support the first antiepileptic drug prescription: (sleep and nutritional advices, benefit of observance, antiepileptic drugs features and side effects, follow-up, prognosis…) A regular follow-up is essential to control the observance, tolerability and efficacy of the antiepileptic drug, and to control also the good acceptance of the disease. A systematic research of common comorbidities may be also performed. Electroencephalogram and antiepileptic drugs levels are unnecessary in the classical follow up of known epileptic patients (except specific cases). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) — I. 2. Section Phoma: Additional taxa with very small conidia and taxa with conidia up to 7 µm long

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruyter, de J.; Noordeloos, M.E.; Boerema, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-seven taxa in section Phoma with conidia not exceeding 7 µm in length are keyed out and described on account of their characteristics in vitro. Four new species are introduced: Phoma aurea de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma crystallifer de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma flavescens de

  13. De novo origin of human protein-coding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Dong Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA-seq data indicate that these genes have their highest expression levels in the cerebral cortex and testes, which might suggest that these genes contribute to phenotypic traits that are unique to humans, such as improved cognitive ability. Our results are inconsistent with the traditional view that the de novo origin of new genes is very rare, thus there should be greater appreciation of the importance of the de novo origination of genes.

  14. De Novo Origin of Human Protein-Coding Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA–seq data indicate that these genes have their highest expression levels in the cerebral cortex and testes, which might suggest that these genes contribute to phenotypic traits that are unique to humans, such as improved cognitive ability. Our results are inconsistent with the traditional view that the de novo origin of new genes is very rare, thus there should be greater appreciation of the importance of the de novo origination of genes. PMID:22102831

  15. Identifying wrong assemblies in de novo short read primary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-05

    Aug 5, 2016 ... Most of these assemblies are done using some de novo short read assemblers and other related approaches. .... benchmarking projects like Assemblathon 1, Assemblathon ... from a large insert library (at least 1000 bases).

  16. Arginine de novo and nitric oxide production in disease states

    OpenAIRE

    Luiking, Yvette C.; Ten Have, Gabriella A. M.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Arginine is derived from dietary protein intake, body protein breakdown, or endogenous de novo arginine production. The latter may be linked to the availability of citrulline, which is the immediate precursor of arginine and limiting factor for de novo arginine production. Arginine metabolism is highly compartmentalized due to the expression of the enzymes involved in arginine metabolism in various organs. A small fraction of arginine enters the NO synthase (NOS) pathway. Tetrahydrobiopterin ...

  17. De Novo Collapsing Glomerulopathy in a Renal Allograft Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanodia K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG, characterized histologically by segmental/global glomerular capillary collapse, podocyte hypertrophy and hypercellularity and tubulo-interstitial injury; is characterized clinically by massive proteinuria and rapid progressive renal failure. CG is known to recur in renal allograft and rarely de novo. We report de novo CG 3 years post-transplant in a patient who received renal allograft from haplo-identical type donor.

  18. Language and national identity in Novo Cinema Galego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brais ROMERO SUÁREZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The talk of town since its inception in 2010, the Cinema Novo Galego has been successful in all competitions and festivals that has been present. From the FIPRESCI prize in Cannes to the Best Emerging Director at Locarno, this new wave of cinema places Galicia in the world film stage. But does Novo Cinema Galego an accurate representation of Galicia? What's the role of Galicia in this movement?

  19. The butterfly fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod Region inventarisation experience (Insecta: Lepidoptera and its use for the regional Red Data Book building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav K. Korb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussed is an inventory of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod region, its current status and prospects of its study. At the moment 1412 species of Lepidoptera are known from this area, but according to preliminary estimates the total number of species of Lepidoptera in this area amounts probably between 1800 and 2000. The necessity of the inclusion of 66 species of Lepidoptera in the Red Data Book of the Nizhny Novgorod region (approximately 4.5% of its current fauna and about 3.2% of its expected fauna is discussed. The necessity of the exception of 49 species of Lepidoptera by the Red Data Book of Nizhny Novgorod region is shown. The prospects for the protection of the Lepidoptera fauna within this area are discussed. Proposed is the usage of the IUCN status criteria for regional Red List with their modification in the area of the species.

  20. Multilevel regularized regression for simultaneous taxa selection and network construction with metagenomic count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenqiu; Sun, Fengzhu; Braun, Jonathan; McGovern, Dermot P B; Piantadosi, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Identifying disease associated taxa and constructing networks for bacteria interactions are two important tasks usually studied separately. In reality, differentiation of disease associated taxa and correlation among taxa may affect each other. One genus can be differentiated because it is highly correlated with another highly differentiated one. In addition, network structures may vary under different clinical conditions. Permutation tests are commonly used to detect differences between networks in distinct phenotypes, and they are time-consuming. In this manuscript, we propose a multilevel regularized regression method to simultaneously identify taxa and construct networks. We also extend the framework to allow construction of a common network and differentiated network together. An efficient algorithm with dual formulation is developed to deal with the large-scale n ≪ m problem with a large number of taxa (m) and a small number of samples (n) efficiently. The proposed method is regularized with a general Lp (p ∈ [0, 2]) penalty and models the effects of taxa abundance differentiation and correlation jointly. We demonstrate that it can identify both true and biologically significant genera and network structures. Software MLRR in MATLAB is available at http://biostatistics.csmc.edu/mlrr/. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Toxicities of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentine, Joseph A; Jansson, Richard K; Starner, Van R; Halliday, W Ross

    2002-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to five species of Lepidoptera was investigated using diet and foliar bioassays. The emamectin benzoate homologues B1a and B1b were equally toxic in the diet and foliar assays to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Heliothis virescens (F.), Tricoplusia ni (Hübner), and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), within each of these species. Plutella xylostella (L.) was the most sensitive species to emamectin benzoate. The AB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound in the diet assay. However, in the foliage assay AB1a was 4.4-fold less toxic to S. exigua than the parent compound. The MFB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound to P. xylostella, and 3.1 to 6.2 times as toxic as the parent compound to the other species in the diet assay. The order of toxicity of the photodegradates were AB1a > MFB1a > FAB1a > 8,9-Z-MAB1a > PAB1a.

  2. The nutrient value of Imbrasia belina Lepidoptera: Saturnidae (madora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigbinde, A O; Adamolekun, B

    1998-05-01

    To determine the pattern of consumption of Imbrasia belina (madora) and other edible insects and also compare the nutrient values of madora larvae and two of its variants (Anaphe venata and Cirina forda) to those of some conventional sources of protein. University of Zimbabwe. 100 workers who admitted to a history of entomophagy. Popularity score of madora compared with those of other edible insects and approximate compositions of nutrients in the larvae compared with standard proteins. Most respondents (65%) were introduced to entomophagy by their parents. Termites were the most frequently consumed, followed by madora. More respondents ate insects because of their perceived nutritional value than because of their relative availability. There was no association of entomophagy with significant side effects. The protein, fat and mineral contents of the larvae were superior to those of beef and chicken. There were no major differences in the nutrient composition of the three Lepidoptera variants. The high nutrient value and low cost of these larvae make them an important protein supplement, especially for people in the low income group.

  3. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-12-30

    A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI 'barcode' region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular 'barcode'. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics.

  4. Potential Positive Effects of Pesticides Application on (Walker (Lepidoptera: Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the pink stem borer (PSB Sesamia inferens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae has become a rice pest in some rice-producing regions. The cause of this shift from secondary to major pest is unknown. The major purpose of this study was to examine the effect of five commonly used pesticides in rice fields on reproduction of PSB and on biochemical substances of rice plants. The results showed that the weight of pupae developed from 1st instar larvae treated with 2 mg/L triazophos and the number of eggs laid by emerged females from the treatment were significantly greater than those of the control, increasing by 26.2% and 47%, respectively. In addition, a nontarget insecticide, pymetrozine 100 mg/L, and a target insecticide, chlorantraniliprole 2 mg/L, stimulated reproduction of PSB. Biochemical measurement showed that foliar sprays of these pesticides resulted in significant reductions of contents of resistant substances, flavonoids and phenolic acids, in rice plants. For example, flavonoids and phenolic acids of rice plants treated with triazophos reduced by 48.5% and 22.4%, respectively, compared to the control. Therefore, we predicted that the application of some pesticides, eg triazophos and chlorantraniliprole, may be the cause of the increase in the population numbers of PSB in rice fields.

  5. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  7. The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transtilla (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) discovered in northeastern Mexico feeding on Sapindaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, is an important pest of a wide variety fruits and their seeds. We discovered and report for the first time A. transitella feeding on Sapindaceae in wild populations of U. speciosa (Endl.) in northeastern Mexico. We provid...

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  9. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  10. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  11. First record of Citheronia regalis (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) feeding on Cotinus obovatus (Anacardiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The regal moth (Citheronia regalis F.; Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is reported for the first time feeding on foliage of the American smoketree (Cotinus obovatus Raf.; Anacardiaceae), an endemic tree with a relictual distribution on calcareous soils in the southern United States. This record...

  12. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of the invasive Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early and late stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untr...

  13. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  14. THE PROTECTED SPECIES OF LEPIDOPTERA IN THE LANDSCAPE RESERVE ‘ZVANETS’ (BELARUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulak, A. V.; Yakovlev, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains the data on distribution, population, habitats and phenology of 16 species of lepidopteran insects (Insecta: Lepidoptera), inhabiting the landscape reserve “Zvanets” (Belarus, Brest region) and listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus: Rhyparioides metelkana, Pericallia matronula, Callimorpha dominula, Arytrura musculus, Diachrysia zosimi, Chariaspilates formosaria, Scopula caricaria, Gagitodes sagittata, Lycaena dispar, Euphydryas aurinia, Eu. maturna, Melitaea ...

  15. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.; Via, Allegra; Brandã o, Marcelo M.; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  16. Eurema brigitta (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) – a new record of butterfly for Socotra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Rindoš, Michal; Hula, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 221-225 ISSN 0374-1036 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Rhopalocera * Papilionoidea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2016 https://www.biotaxa.org/AEMNP/article/view/35064

  17. Extrafloral nectar feeding by Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vila

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Adults of the dry area specialist Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini are here recorded feeding on extrafloral nectar of the large cactus Neoraimondia arequipensis var. gigantea (Werdermann & Backeberg Ritter. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to lycaenid survival in a xeric environment, pollination and mate location.

  18. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  19. Mass migration of Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper, 1789) in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 125 (2004), s. 19-22 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Noctuidae * Chrysodeixis chalcites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  20. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  1. Cucullia umbratica (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a new European noctuid in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Handfield

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a noctuid new for North America, Cucullia umbratica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is reported from the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada. A male and a female from the Islands are illustrated as well as specimens of the superficially similar species Cucullia intermedia Speyer, 1870. The male genitalia of both species are illustrated.

  2. Phylogeography of Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): a case of too many poorly circumscribed subspecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-191 ISSN 0342-7536 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Koramius charltonius * Lepidoptera * Central Asia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  4. PECULIARITIES OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE NOCTUIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLAND OF CHECHEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the species composition of the noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae of the island of Chechen of the North-West Caspian sea, their spatial distribution,  dissemination  and analysis of the most common and indigenous species.

  5. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  6. On the status and position of Melitaea minerva var. palamedes Groum-Grshimailo, 1890 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 177 (2017), s. 17-22 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Melitaea palamedes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2016

  7. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  8. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were

  9. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; van Nieukerken, E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  10. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  11. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  12. Contrasting patterns of evolutionary constraint and novelty revealed by comparative sperm proteomic analysis in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Emma; Forsythe, Desiree; Borziak, Kirill; Karr, Timothy L; Walters, James R; Dorus, Steve

    2017-12-02

    Rapid evolution is a hallmark of reproductive genetic systems and arises through the combined processes of sequence divergence, gene gain and loss, and changes in gene and protein expression. While studies aiming to disentangle the molecular ramifications of these processes are progressing, we still know little about the genetic basis of evolutionary transitions in reproductive systems. Here we conduct the first comparative analysis of sperm proteomes in Lepidoptera, a group that exhibits dichotomous spermatogenesis, in which males produce a functional fertilization-competent sperm (eupyrene) and an incompetent sperm morph lacking nuclear DNA (apyrene). Through the integrated application of evolutionary proteomics and genomics, we characterize the genomic patterns potentially associated with the origination and evolution of this unique spermatogenic process and assess the importance of genetic novelty in Lepidopteran sperm biology. Comparison of the newly characterized Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) sperm proteome to those of the Carolina sphinx moth (Manduca sexta) and the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) demonstrated conservation at the level of protein abundance and post-translational modification within Lepidoptera. In contrast, comparative genomic analyses across insects reveals significant divergence at two levels that differentiate the genetic architecture of sperm in Lepidoptera from other insects. First, a significant reduction in orthology among Monarch sperm genes relative to the remainder of the genome in non-Lepidopteran insect species was observed. Second, a substantial number of sperm proteins were found to be specific to Lepidoptera, in that they lack detectable homology to the genomes of more distantly related insects. Lastly, the functional importance of Lepidoptera specific sperm proteins is broadly supported by their increased abundance relative to proteins conserved across insects. Our results identify a burst of genetic novelty

  13. Clinicopathologic factors associated with de novo metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tiansheng; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2016-12-01

    While breast cancers with distant metastasis at presentation (de novo metastasis) harbor significantly inferior clinical outcomes, there have been limited studies analyzing the clinicopathologic characteristics in this subset of patients. In this study, we analyzed 6126 breast cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 to identify factors associated with de novo metastatic breast cancer. When compared to patients without metastasis at presentation, race, histologic grade, estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) and HER2 statuses were significantly associated with de novo metastasis in the entire cohort, whereas age, histologic grade, PR and HER2 status were the significant parameters in the subset of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIB/III). The patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer had a significant older mean age and a lower proportion of HER2-positive tumors when compared to those with metastatic recurrence. Further, the HER2-rich subtype demonstrated a drastically higher incidence of de novo metastasis when compared to the luminal and triple-negative breast cancers in the entire cohort [odds ratio (OR)=5.68 and 2.27, respectively] and in the patients with locally advanced disease (OR=4.02 and 2.12, respectively), whereas no significant difference was seen between de novo metastatic cancers and those with metastatic recurrence. Moreover, the luminal and HER2-rich subtypes showed bone-seeking (OR=1.92) and liver-homing (OR=2.99) characteristics, respectively, for the sites of de novo metastasis, while the latter was not observed in those with metastatic recurrence. Our data suggest that an algorithm incorporating clinicopathologic factors, especially histologic grade and receptor profile, remains of significant benefit during decision making in newly diagnosed breast cancer in the pursuit of precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. NovoPen Echo® insulin delivery device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyllested-Winge J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacob Hyllested-Winge,1 Thomas Sparre,2 Line Kynemund Pedersen2 1Novo Nordisk Pharma Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 2Novo Nordisk A/S, Søborg, Denmark Abstract: The introduction of insulin pen devices has provided easier, well-tolerated, and more convenient treatment regimens for patients with diabetes mellitus. When compared with vial and syringe regimens, insulin pens offer a greater clinical efficacy, improved quality of life, and increased dosing accuracy, particularly at low doses. The portable and discreet nature of pen devices reduces the burden on the patient, facilitates adherence, and subsequently contributes to the improvement in glycemic control. NovoPen Echo® is one of the latest members of the NovoPen® family that has been specifically designed for the pediatric population and is the first to combine half-unit increment (=0.5 U of insulin dosing with a simple memory function. The half-unit increment dosing amendments and accurate injection of 0.5 U of insulin are particularly beneficial for children (and insulin-sensitive adults/elders, who often require small insulin doses. The memory function can be used to record the time and amount of the last dose, reducing the fear of double dosing or missing a dose. The memory function also provides parents with extra confidence and security that their child is taking insulin at the correct doses and times. NovoPen Echo is a lightweight, durable insulin delivery pen; it is available in two different colors, which may help to distinguish between different types of insulin, providing more confidence for both users and caregivers. Studies have demonstrated a high level of patient satisfaction, with 80% of users preferring NovoPen Echo to other pediatric insulin pens. Keywords: NovoPen Echo®, memory function, half-unit increment dosing, adherence, children, adolescents 

  15. A new LED lamp for the collection of nocturnal Lepidoptera and a spectral comparison of light-trapping lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Brehm, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Most nocturnal Lepidoptera can be attracted to artificial light sources, particularly to those that emit a high proportion of ultraviolet radiation. Here, I describe a newly developed LED lamp set for the use in the field that is lightweight, handy, robust, and energy efficient. The emitted electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to the peak sensitivity in most Lepidoptera eye receptors (ultraviolet, blue and green). Power LEDs with peaks at 368 nm (ultraviolet), 450 nm (blue), 530 nm (green), a...

  16. First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile. The trees Haplorhus peruviana Engl. and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae are mentioned as the first host plant records for the little known native moth Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. This is also the first record of Anacardiaceae as host plant for a Neotropical species of Iridopsis Warren, 1894.

  17. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) — I. 2. Section Phoma: Additional taxa with very small conidia and taxa with conidia up to 7 µm long

    OpenAIRE

    Gruyter, de, J.; Noordeloos, M.E.; Boerema, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-seven taxa in section Phoma with conidia not exceeding 7 µm in length are keyed out and described on account of their characteristics in vitro. Four new species are introduced: Phoma aurea de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma crystallifer de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma flavescens de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema and Phoma subherbarum de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema. As new names are proposed Phoma chenopodiicola de Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema, Phoma pereupyrena de Gruyter, Noordel...

  18. Caracterização de novos isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis para o controle de importantes insetos-praga da agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Boni Campanini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner produz um corpo de inclusão paraesporal (cristal de natureza proteica, formado durante a esporulação, que atua de forma eficiente no controle de insetos-praga de culturas economicamente importantes. Esse cristal é constituído de proteínas Cry, que são codificadas pelos genes cry; um isolado pode ser caracterizado pelo conteúdo de genes cry que apresenta. Visando caracterizar novos isolados no combate de insetos-praga pertencentes às ordens Lepidoptera e Coleoptera, 76 isolados bacterianos foram analisados molecularmente e tiveram seu potencial de controle avaliado por meio de bioensaios com larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, Sphenophorus levis Vaurie e Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus. As análises moleculares indicaram 11 isolados (14,5% da coleção, contendo genes lepidóptero-específicos e 17 (22,37% com genes coleóptero-específicos. As análises de patogenicidade revelaram dois isolados com alto potencial de controle para lagartas de S. frugiperda, um para larvas de S. levis e seis prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento das larvas de T. molitor. Esses isolados de B. thuringiensis podem ser promissores no controle biológico das referidas pragas.

  19. De novo status epilepticus with isolated aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flügel, Dominique; Kim, Olaf Chan-Hi; Felbecker, Ansgar; Tettenborn, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Sudden onset of aphasia is usually due to stroke. Rapid diagnostic workup is necessary if reperfusion therapy is considered. Ictal aphasia is a rare condition but has to be excluded. Perfusion imaging may differentiate acute ischemia from other causes. In dubious cases, EEG is required but is time-consuming and laborious. We report a case where we considered de novo status epilepticus as a cause of aphasia without any lesion even at follow-up. A 62-year-old right-handed woman presented to the emergency department after nurses found her aphasic. She had undergone operative treatment of varicosis 3 days earlier. Apart from hypertension and obesity, no cardiovascular risk factors and no intake of medication other than paracetamol were reported. Neurological examination revealed global aphasia and right pronation in the upper extremity position test. Computed tomography with angiography and perfusion showed no abnormalities. Electroencephalogram performed after the CT scan showed left-sided slowing with high-voltage rhythmic 2/s delta waves but no clear ictal pattern. Intravenous lorazepam did improve EEG slightly, while aphasia did not change. Lumbar puncture was performed which likely excluded encephalitis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical pathological diffusion imaging (restriction) and cortical hyperperfusion in the left parietal region. Intravenous anticonvulsant therapy under continuous EEG resolved neurological symptoms. The patient was kept on anticonvulsant therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging after 6 months showed no abnormalities along with no clinical abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were only subtle, and EEG was without clear ictal pattern, so the diagnosis of aphasic status remains with some uncertainty. However, status epilepticus can mimic stroke symptoms and has to be considered in patients with aphasia even when no previous stroke or structural lesions are detectable and EEG shows no epileptic discharges. Epileptic origin is

  20. Biophysical characterization of a de novo elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Kelly Nicole

    Natural human elastin is found in tissue such as the lungs, arteries, and skin. This protein is formed at birth with no mechanism present to repair or supplement the initial quantity formed. As a result, the functionality and durability of elastin's elasticity is critically important. To date, the mechanics of this ability to stretch and recoil is not fully understood. This study utilizes de novo protein design to create a small library of simplistic versions of elastin-like proteins, demonstrate the elastin-like proteins, maintain elastin's functionality, and inquire into its structure using solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Elastin is formed from cross-linked tropoelastin. Therefore, the first generation of designed proteins consisted of one protein that utilized homogony of interspecies tropoelastin by using three common domains, two hydrophobic and one cross-linking domains. Basic modifications were made to open the hydrophobic region and also to make the protein easier to purify and characterize. The designed protein maintained its functionality, self-aggregating as the temperature increased. Uniquely, the protein remained self-aggregated as the temperature returned below the critical transition temperature. Self-aggregation was additionally induced by increasing salt concentrations and by modifying the pH. The protein appeared to have little secondary structure when studied with solution NMR. These results fueled a second generation of designed elastin-like proteins. This generation contained variations designed to study the cross-linking domain, one specific hydrophobic domain, and the effect of the length of the elastin-like protein. The cross-linking domain in one variation has been significantly modified while the flanking hydrophobic domains have remained unchanged. This characterization of this protein will answer questions regarding the specificity of the homologous nature of the cross-linking domain of tropoelastin across species. A second

  1. Phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits explains dispersal limitation and genomic differentiation of Streptomyces sister-taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudoir, Mallory J; Buckley, Daniel H

    2018-06-07

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a pattern of biogeography observed broadly in plants and animals but largely undocumented in terrestrial microbial systems. Although patterns of microbial biogeography across broad taxonomic scales have been described in a range of contexts, the mechanisms that generate biogeographic patterns between closely related taxa remain incompletely characterized. Adaptive processes are a major driver of microbial biogeography, but there is less understanding of how microbial biogeography and diversification are shaped by dispersal limitation and drift. We recently described a latitudinal diversity gradient of species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity in Streptomyces by using a geographically explicit culture collection. Within this geographically explicit culture collection, we have identified Streptomyces sister-taxa whose geographic distribution is delimited by latitude. These sister-taxa differ in geographic distribution, genomic diversity, and ecological traits despite having nearly identical SSU rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomic analysis reveals genomic differentiation of these sister-taxa consistent with restricted gene flow across latitude. Furthermore, we show phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits between the sister-taxa suggesting that thermal trait adaptation limits dispersal and gene flow across climate regimes as defined by latitude. Such phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits is commonly associated with latitudinal diversity gradients for plants and animals. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that the Streptomyces latitudinal diversity gradient was formed as a result of historical demographic processes defined by dispersal limitation and driven by paleoclimate dynamics.

  2. A distributional and cytological survey of the presently recognized taxa of Hibiscus section Furcaria (Malvaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Douglas Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus section Furcaria is a natural group of plants that presently includes 109 recognized taxa. Taxa are found in subsaharan Africa, India, southeastern Asia, Malesia, Australia, islands of the Pacific basin, the Caribbean, North, Central, and South America. The basic chromosome number is x = 18. In nature, ploidy levels range from diploid to decaploid. The taxa exhibit a remarkable amount of genome diversity. At least 13 genomes have been identified, some distributed widely and others with more restricted distributions. No modern taxonomic monograph ofHibiscus section Furcaria exists, but a number of regional studies have appeared that are essentially global in extent. Also, a number of studies of chromosome numbers and genome relationships have been published. The present paper includes a census of all the presently accepted taxa, the geographical distribution of each taxon, and chromosome numbers and genome designations of the 49 taxa for which the information is available. Important mechanisms of speciation include genome divergence at the diploid level, followed by hybridization and allopolyploidy, significant species radiation at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels, and the development of even higher levels of allopolyploids.

  3. A Methodology to Model Environmental Preferences of EPT Taxa in the Machangara River Basin (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Jerves-Cobo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rivers have been frequently assessed based on the presence of the Ephemeroptera— Plecoptera—Trichoptera (EPT taxa in order to determine the water quality status and develop conservation programs. This research evaluates the abiotic preferences of three families of the EPT taxa Baetidae, Leptoceridae and Perlidae in the Machangara River Basin located in the southern Andes of Ecuador. With this objective, using generalized linear models (GLMs, we analyzed the relation between the probability of occurrence of these pollution-sensitive macroinvertebrates families and physicochemical water quality conditions. The explanatory variables of the constructed GLMs differed substantially among the taxa, as did the preference range of the common predictors. In total, eight variables had a substantial influence on the outcomes of the three models. For choosing the best predictors of each studied taxa and for evaluation of the accuracy of its models, the Akaike information criterion (AIC was used. The results indicated that the GLMs can be applied to predict either the presence or the absence of the invertebrate taxa and moreover, to clarify the relation to the environmental conditions of the stream. In this manner, these modeling tools can help to determine key variables for river restoration and protection management.

  4. The "most wanted" taxa from the human microbiome for whole genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A Fodor

    Full Text Available The goal of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP is to generate a comprehensive catalog of human-associated microorganisms including reference genomes representing the most common species. Toward this goal, the HMP has characterized the microbial communities at 18 body habitats in a cohort of over 200 healthy volunteers using 16S rRNA gene (16S sequencing and has generated nearly 1,000 reference genomes from human-associated microorganisms. To determine how well current reference genome collections capture the diversity observed among the healthy microbiome and to guide isolation and future sequencing of microbiome members, we compared the HMP's 16S data sets to several reference 16S collections to create a 'most wanted' list of taxa for sequencing. Our analysis revealed that the diversity of commonly occurring taxa within the HMP cohort microbiome is relatively modest, few novel taxa are represented by these OTUs and many common taxa among HMP volunteers recur across different populations of healthy humans. Taken together, these results suggest that it should be possible to perform whole-genome sequencing on a large fraction of the human microbiome, including the 'most wanted', and that these sequences should serve to support microbiome studies across multiple cohorts. Also, in stark contrast to other taxa, the 'most wanted' organisms are poorly represented among culture collections suggesting that novel culture- and single-cell-based methods will be required to isolate these organisms for sequencing.

  5. Roles of epi-anecic taxa of earthworms in the organic matter recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffner, Kevin; Monard, Cécile; Santonja, Mathieu; Pérès, Guénola; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Given their impact on soil functioning and their interactions with soil organisms, earthworms contribute to the recycling of organic matter and participate significantly in the numerous ecosystem services provided by soils. Most studies on the role of earthworms in organic matter recycling were conducted at the level of the four functional groups (epigeic, epi-anecic, anecic strict and endogeic), but their effects at taxa level remain largely unknown. Still, within a functional group, anatomic and physiologic earthworm taxa traits are different, which should impact organic matter recycling. This study aims at determining, under controlled conditions, epi-anecic taxa differences in (i) leaf litter mass loss, (ii) assimilation and (iii) impact on microorganisms communities implied in organic matter degradation. In seperate microcosms, we chose 4 epi anecic taxa (Lumbricus rubellus, Lumbricus festivus, Lumbricus centralis and Lumbricus terrestris). Each taxon was exposed separately to leaves of three different plants (Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne and Corylus avellana). In the same microcosm, leaves of each plant was both placed on the surface and buried 10cm deep. The experiment lasted 10 days for half of the samples and 20 days for the second half. Microorganisms communities were analysed using TRFLP in each earthworm taxon burrow walls at 20 days. We observed differences between epi-anecic taxa depending on species of plant and the duration of the experiment. Results are discussed taking into account physical and chemical properties of these 3 trophic resources (e.g. C/N ratio, phenolic compounds, percentage of lignin and cellulose...).

  6. Benefits to poorly studied taxa of conservation of bird and mammal diversity on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare; Holmes, Nick; Tershy, Bernie; Spatz, Dena; Croll, Donald A

    2015-02-01

    Protected area delineation and conservation action are urgently needed on marine islands, but the potential biodiversity benefits of these activities can be difficult to assess due to lack of species diversity information for lesser known taxa. We used linear mixed effects modeling and simple spatial analyses to investigate whether conservation activities based on the diversity of well-known insular taxa (birds and mammals) are likely to also capture the diversity of lesser known taxa (reptiles, amphibians, vascular land plants, ants, land snails, butterflies, and tenebrionid beetles). We assembled total, threatened, and endemic diversity data for both well-known and lesser known taxa and combined these with physical island biogeography characteristics for 1190 islands from 109 archipelagos. Among physical island biogeography factors, island area was the best indicator of diversity of both well-known and little-known taxa. Among taxonomic factors, total mammal species richness was the best indicator of total diversity of lesser known taxa, and the combination of threatened mammal and threatened bird diversity was the best indicator of lesser known endemic richness. The results of other intertaxon diversity comparisons were highly variable, however. Based on our results, we suggest that protecting islands above a certain minimum threshold area may be the most efficient use of conservation resources. For example, using our island database, if the threshold were set at 10 km(2) and the smallest 10% of islands greater than this threshold were protected, 119 islands would be protected. The islands would range in size from 10 to 29 km(2) and would include 268 lesser known species endemic to a single island, along with 11 bird and mammal species endemic to a single island. Our results suggest that for islands of equivalent size, prioritization based on total or threatened bird and mammal diversity may also capture opportunities to protect lesser known species endemic to

  7. Purine biosynthesis de novo by lymphocytes in gout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoun, P.; Chanard, J.; Brami, M.; Funck-Brentano, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A method of measurement in vitro of purine biosynthesis de novo in human circulating blood lymphocytes is proposed. The rate of early reactions of purine biosynthesis de novo was determined by the incorporation of [ 14 C]formate into N-formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide when the subsequent reactions of the metabolic pathway were completely inhibited by the antibiotic azaserine. Synthesis of 14 C-labelled N-formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide by lymphocytes was measured in healthy control subjects and patients with primary gout or hyperuricaemia secondary to renal failure, with or without allopurinol therapy. The average synthesis was higher in gouty patients without therapy than in control subjects, but the values contained overlap the normal range. In secondary hyperuricaemia the synthesis was at same value as in control subjects. These results are in agreement with the inconstant acceleration of purine biosynthesis de novo in gouty patients as seen by others with measurement of [ 14 C]glycine incorporation into urinary uric acid. (author)

  8. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  9. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil of Six Pinus Taxa Native to China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Zhouqi

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana) were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%–20.55%), bornyl acetale (3.32%–12.71%), β-caryophellene (18.26%–26.31%), α-...

  10. Automatic selection of reference taxa for protein-protein interaction prediction with phylogenetic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Martin; Maetschke, S.R.; Ragan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Phylogenetic profiling methods can achieve good accuracy in predicting protein–protein interactions, especially in prokaryotes. Recent studies have shown that the choice of reference taxa (RT) is critical for accurate prediction, but with more than 2500 fully sequenced taxa publicly......: We present three novel methods for automating the selection of RT, using machine learning based on known protein–protein interaction networks. One of these methods in particular, Tree-Based Search, yields greatly improved prediction accuracies. We further show that different methods for constituting...... phylogenetic profiles often require very different RT sets to support high prediction accuracy....

  11. Catalog of taxa introduced by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen (1939-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affenzeller, Susanne; Steiner, Gerhard

    2017-10-17

    Luitfried Salvini-Plawen was one of the most distinguished researchers for molluscan phylogenetic systematics of the last decades. In his publications he described a total of 193 species: 134 Solenogastres, 34 Caudofoveata, 14 interstitial Gastropoda, one polyplacophoran and the remaining comprising Cnidaria, Priapulida, Kamptozoa, and Echinodermata. In addition, he introduced 47 genus-group names and 54 names for family-level and higher taxa. This catalog comprises lists of all taxon names published by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen. The catalog entries contain taxonomic information, original citations, type localities and type collections. It aims to facilitate further research on these and related taxa.

  12. Airline Maintenance Manpower Optimization from the De Novo Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, James J. H.; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    Human resource management (HRM) is an important issue for today’s competitive airline marketing. In this paper, we discuss a multi-objective model designed from the De Novo perspective to help airlines optimize their maintenance manpower portfolio. The effectiveness of the model and solution algorithm is demonstrated in an empirical study of the optimization of the human resources needed for airline line maintenance. Both De Novo and traditional multiple objective programming (MOP) methods are analyzed. A comparison of the results with those of traditional MOP indicates that the proposed model and solution algorithm does provide better performance and an improved human resource portfolio.

  13. Persistent hyperthyroidism and de novo Graves' ophthalmopathy after total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wei Lin; Loh, Wann Jia; Lee, Lianne Ai Ling; Chng, Chiaw Ling

    2017-01-01

    We report a patient with Graves' disease who remained persistently hyperthyroid after a total thyroidectomy and also developed de novo Graves' ophthalmopathy 5 months after surgery. She was subsequently found to have a mature cystic teratoma containing struma ovarii after undergoing a total hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy for an incidental ovarian lesion. It is important to investigate for other causes of primary hyperthyroidism when thyrotoxicosis persists after total thyroidectomy.TSH receptor antibody may persist after total thyroidectomy and may potentially contribute to the development of de novo Graves' ophthalmopathy.

  14. Demanda dos principais metais e novos materiais : analise de tendencias

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Trigueiro de Sousa

    1990-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho são analisadas algumas tendências na área de novos materiais na tentativa de obter um melhor entendimento das repercussões das atuais inovações tecnológicas para o setor mineral. Inicialmente são revisados os principais estudos sobre as mudanças ocorridas por volta de 1972/74 no comportamento da demanda dos metais mais importantes. Entre as possíveis causas, está o progresso técnico, que tornou possível o surgimento de novos materiais e o aperfeiçoamento de outros em us...

  15. Biologia de Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em milho Biology of Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva Fagundes Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é uma nova praga da espiga de milho no Brasil, sendo seu estudo importante em áreas de produção de sementes porque os grãos atacados pelas lagartas não germinam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sua biologia em condições de laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 65±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 35,2 dias. O período de incubação foi de 4,1 dias. A duração média da fase larval foi de 21,1 dias, sendo observados cinco ínstares larvais. A fase pupal durou 8,4 dias e o peso de pupa de machos e fêmeas foi de 12,4 e 11,3mg, respectivamente. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 118 ovos, apresentando um período de pré-oviposição de 10,7 dias e de oviposição de 14,0 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 37,02 e 44,16 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,48. As lagartas danificam os estilo-estigmas e os grãos em estado leitoso por meio de pequenos orifícios de entrada, prejudicando o endosperma e principalmente a região do embrião, inutilizando-os para sementes. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho fornecem subsídios para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto, especialmente em áreas de produção de sementes.The caterpillar Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a new pest of corn ear in Brazil, and its study is important in seed fields. The aim of this was to study the biology of this pest under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 65±10% of RH and 14-hours of photophase. The biological cycle (egg-adult was of 35.2 days. The incubation period was of 4.1 days. The average larval development time was of 21.1 days, and 5 instars were observed. The pupal period was of 8.4 days and the pupae weight was of 12.4 and 11.3 mg for males and females, respectively. The females laid an average of 118 eggs with a pre-oviposition period of 10.7 days and an oviposition time of 14.0 days. The

  16. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. ITS2 secondary structure improves phylogeny estimation in a radiation of blue butterflies of the subgenus Agrodiaetus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current molecular phylogenetic studies of Lepidoptera and most other arthropods are predominantly based on mitochondrial genes and a limited number of nuclear genes. The nuclear genes, however, generally do not provide sufficient information for young radiations. ITS2 , which has proven to be an excellent nuclear marker for similarly aged radiations in other organisms like fungi and plants, is only rarely used for phylogeny estimation in arthropods, although universal primers exist. This is partly due to difficulties in the alignment of ITS2 sequences in more distant taxa. The present study uses ITS2 secondary structure information to elucidate the phylogeny of a species-rich young radiation of arthropods, the butterfly subgenus Agrodiaetus. One aim is to evaluate the efficiency of ITS2 to resolve the phylogeny of the subgenus in comparison with COI , the most important mitochondrial marker in arthropods. Furthermore, we assess the use of compensatory base changes in ITS2 for the delimitation of species and discuss the prospects of ITS2 as a nuclear marker for barcoding studies. Results In the butterfly family Lycaenidae, ITS2 secondary structure enabled us to successfully align sequences of different subtribes in Polyommatini and produce a Profile Neighbour Joining tree of this tribe, the resolution of which is comparable to phylogenetic trees obtained with COI+COII . The subgenus Agrodiaetus comprises 6 major clades which are in agreement with COI analyses. A dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA traced the origin of most Agrodiaetus clades to separate biogeographical areas in the region encompassing Eastern Anatolia, Transcaucasia and Iran. Conclusions With the inclusion of secondary structure information, ITS2 appears to be a suitable nuclear marker to infer the phylogeny of young radiations, as well as more distantly related genera within a diverse arthropod family. Its phylogenetic signal is comparable to the

  18. Hydropus paradoxus var. xerophyticus and a key to the taxa known from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteve-Raventós, F.; Villarreal, M.; Heykoop, M.

    2002-01-01

    Hydropus paradoxus var. xerophyticus, characterized by its long cystidia, broad spores and habitat in xerophytic basic pastures with communities of Thymus-Lavandula spp. is described as a new taxon from Spain. In addition, a key to 22 taxa known from Europe is given.

  19. PERENNIAL HELIANTHUS TAXA IN TÂRGU-MURES CITY AND ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILEP RITA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although in the neighbouring countries several perennial Helianthus taxa have been recorded in the last decade, in Romania only three have been identified so far. The literature and herbaria data of Târgu-Mures date back to the end of the XIXth century, and only refer to H. × multiflorus and H. tuberosus. The aim of this study was to identify the perennial Helianthus taxa in this region and to prepare their current distribution map. The survey was conducted in Târgu Mures city and the neighbouring villages: Livezeni, Sântana de Mures, Sâncraiu de Mures, Sângeorgiu de Mures, and Corunca. Four taxa were identified: H. pauciflorus Nutt., H. × laetiflorus Pers., H. tuberosus L. s.str., and Helianthus tuberosus L. s.l. The first two taxa are cultivated as ornamental plants, H. tuberosus s. str. is cultivated in a few farms, whereas H. tuberosus s. l. is an invasive species that spreads along the rivers.

  20. Pyrosequencing detects human and animal pathogenic taxa in the grapevine endosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sohail; Bulgari, Daniela; Bergna, Alessandro; Pancher, Michael; Quaglino, Fabio; Casati, Paola; Campisano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Generally, plants are not considered as hosts for human and animal pathogens (HAP). The recent produce-associated outbreaks of food-borne diseases have drawn attention toward significant deficiencies in our understanding of the ecology of HAP, and their potential for interkingdom transfer. To examine the association of microorganisms classified as HAP with plants, we surveyed the presence and distribution of HAP bacterial taxa (henceforth HAPT, for brevity's sake) in the endosphere of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) both in the plant stems and leaves. An enrichment protocol was used on leaves to detect taxa with very low abundance in undisturbed tissues. We used pyrosequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA gene. We identified several HAPT, and focused on four genera (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Burkholderia). The majority of the bacterial sequences in the genus Propionibacterium, from grapevine leaf and stem, were identified as P. acnes. Clostridia were detected in leaves and stems, but their number was much higher in leaves after enrichment. HAPT were indentified both in leaves and wood of grapevines. This depicts the ability of these taxa to be internalized within plant tissues and maintain their population levels in a variety of environments. Our analysis highlighted the presence of HAPT in the grapevine endosphere and unexpected occurrence of these bacterial taxa in this atypical environment.

  1. Signals of speciation: Volatile organic compounds resolve closely related sagebrush taxa, suggesting their importance in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidre M. Jaeger; Justin B. Runyon; Bryce A. Richardson

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the environmental adaptation and fitness of plants. Comparison of the qualitative and quantitative differences in VOCs among closely related taxa and assessing the effects of environment on their emissions are important steps to deducing VOC function and evolutionary importance.

  2. Taxa de juros e default em mercados de empréstimos colateralizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Faustino Batista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga como variações nas taxas de juros afetam a probabilidade de default (PD em um modelo de equilíbrio geral com mercados incompletos e exigência de colateral. Teoricamente, a PD possui relação positiva com taxa de juro real do empréstimo e negativa com a taxa de juro real da economia. Empiricamente, essas relações são confirmadas por meio da estimação do modelo de risco proporcional de Cox para uma grande amostra de empréstimos colateralizados. Dentre as variáveis de controle, há características do indivíduo, do contrato e da economia como um todo. Intuitivamente, uma taxa de juro real básica mais baixa implica menor retorno das operações de tesouraria, levando os bancos a ampliarem suas carteiras de crédito, emprestando para indivíduos mais arriscados.

  3. Comparative epidermal anatomical studies in six taxa of genus Nephrolepis Swart in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Fajuke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies in six taxa of genus Nephrolepis; N. biserrata, N. cordifolia, N. exaltata (i & (ii, N. biserrata var. furcans and N. undulata were carried out with a view to identify anatomic characters of taxonomic values. Both qualitative and quantitative anatomical studies were carried out. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Anatomical characters studied include venation patterns, trichome types, presence and absence of stomata and values of the stomatal index which are valuable in delimiting the species. The overall results showed overlaps in the quantitative anatomical attributes of the Nephrolepis taxa studied suggesting that they belong to the same genus. Qualitative anatomical attributes that separated the genus into distinct taxa are the presence of simple multicellular glandular trichomes in N. biserrata and simple multicellular non-glandular trichomes in N. exaltata (i and N. exalta (ii while N. biserrata var. furcans and N. undulata have simple unicellular non-glandular trichomes and absence of trichome in N. cordifolia. Presence of anisocytic, diacytic or anomocytic stomata were of diagnostic important in the six taxa.

  4. Comparative lophotrochozoan neurogenesis and larval neuroanatomy: recent advances from previously neglected taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, A

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a number of neurodevelopmental studies of hitherto neglected taxa have become available, contributing to questions relating to the evolution of the nervous system of Lophotrochozoa (Spiralia + Lophophorata). As an example, neurogenesis of echiurans showed that these worm-shaped spiralia...

  5. Spatial structure of a natural mixed topodeme of subalpine Sorbus taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Gömöry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and genetic variation of a population of Sorbus chamaemespilus (L. Crantz and putative hybrids between S. chamaemespilus, S. aria and S. aucuparia growing in the nature reserve Skalnä Alpa (central Slovakia were studied. The analysis of spatial patterns using Ripley's K-function revealed a significant clustering of the adults of both S. chamaemespilus and hybrid taxa at distances up to ~15 m and a strong affinity between both taxonomical groups, indicating similar ecological requirements. Bivariate point-pattern analysis considering cardinal direction showed that juvenile individuals of S. chamaemespilus are clustered around the adults up to the distance of ~2 m, whereas in hybrid taxa with larger and more dense crowns, juveniles are clustered at distances more than ~3 m from the adults. The analysis of genetic variation in a subset of adult shrubs using 4 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that unlike expected, there was no variation in S. chamaemespilus but several genotypes were found in the group of hybrid taxa. Implications for the reproduction system and conservation of the investigated taxa are discussed.

  6. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1987-01-01

    12 new species and 3 new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards from Greece and Turkey are described or defined. The new taxa are: T. (L.) montifer tasucuensis, T. (L.) musensis, T. (L.) vermooleni, T. (L.) lyrion, Tipula (Lunatipula) paravelox, T. (L.) soosi izmirensis, T. (L.) brinki, T. (L.)

  7. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1979-01-01

    Eight new species and three new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described and their affinities are discussed. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) rocina from Spain, T. (L.) antichasia, T. (L.) hera, T. (L.) klytaimnestra, T. (L.) pythia. T. (L.) caudispina parnonensis, T. (L.) penelope

  8. Verificação do poder preditivo do spread entre as taxas de juros de longo e curto prazos na variação das taxas de curto prazo no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Arlete da

    2006-01-01

    A Hipótese das Expectativas (HE) é testada na Estrutura a Termo das Taxas de Juros brasileira (ETTJ) no sentido de se verificar se a inclinação da curva de juros, representada pelo spread entre as taxas de juros de longo e curto prazos, pode explicar as variações das taxas de juros de curto prazo no Brasil. Foram utilizadas séries com médias mensais das taxas de juros de um, três e seis meses, de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2006, empregando metodologia baseada em regressões individuais. Os r...

  9. Model-Based GUI Testing Using Uppaal at Novo Nordisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Hjort, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    This paper details a collaboration between Aalborg University and Novo Nordiskin developing an automatic model-based test generation tool for system testing of the graphical user interface of a medical device on an embedded platform. The tool takes as input an UML Statemachine model and generates...

  10. Engineering and introduction of de novo disulphide bridges in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The engineeringof de novo disulphide bridges has been explored as a means to increase the thermal stability of enzymes in the rationalmethod of protein engineering. In this study, Disulphide by Design software, homology modelling and moleculardynamics simulations were used to select appropriate amino acid pairs for ...

  11. De novo synthesis of milk triglycerides in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary gland (MG) de novo lipogenesis contributes significantly to milk fat in animals but little is known in humans. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the incorporation of 13C carbons from [U-13C]glucose into fatty acids (FA) and glycerol in triglycerides (TG) will be greater: 1) in milk tha...

  12. Response monitoring in de novo patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Willemssen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD is accompanied by dysfunctions in a variety of cognitive processes. One of these is error processing, which depends upon phasic decreases of medial prefrontal dopaminergic activity. Until now, there is no study evaluating these processes in newly diagnosed, untreated patients with PD ("de novo PD". METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report large changes in performance monitoring processes using event-related potentials (ERPs in de novo PD-patients. The results suggest that increases in medial frontal dopaminergic activity after an error (Ne are decreased, relative to age-matched controls. In contrast, neurophysiological processes reflecting general motor response monitoring (Nc are enhanced in de novo patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It may be hypothesized that the Nc-increase is at costs of dopaminergic activity after an error; on a functional level errors may not always be detected and correct responses sometimes be misinterpreted as errors. This pattern differs from studies examining patients with a longer history of PD and may reflect compensatory processes, frequently occurring in pre-manifest stages of PD. From a clinical point of view the clearly attenuated Ne in the de novo PD patients may prove a useful additional tool for the early diagnosis of basal ganglia dysfunction in PD.

  13. Foldability of a Natural De Novo Evolved Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungard, Dixie; Copple, Jacob S; Yan, Jing; Chhun, Jimmy J; Kumirov, Vlad K; Foy, Scott G; Masel, Joanna; Wysocki, Vicki H; Cordes, Matthew H J

    2017-11-07

    The de novo evolution of protein-coding genes from noncoding DNA is emerging as a source of molecular innovation in biology. Studies of random sequence libraries, however, suggest that young de novo proteins will not fold into compact, specific structures typical of native globular proteins. Here we show that Bsc4, a functional, natural de novo protein encoded by a gene that evolved recently from noncoding DNA in the yeast S. cerevisiae, folds to a partially specific three-dimensional structure. Bsc4 forms soluble, compact oligomers with high β sheet content and a hydrophobic core, and undergoes cooperative, reversible denaturation. Bsc4 lacks a specific quaternary state, however, existing instead as a continuous distribution of oligomer sizes, and binds dyes indicative of amyloid oligomers or molten globules. The combination of native-like and non-native-like properties suggests a rudimentary fold that could potentially act as a functional intermediate in the emergence of new folded proteins de novo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards accurate de novo assembly for genomes with repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucur, Doina

    2017-01-01

    De novo genome assemblers designed for short k-mer length or using short raw reads are unlikely to recover complex features of the underlying genome, such as repeats hundreds of bases long. We implement a stochastic machine-learning method which obtains accurate assemblies with repeats and

  15. On the performance of de novo pathway enrichment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Richa; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Gitzhofer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    De novo pathway enrichment is a powerful approach to discover previously uncharacterized molecular mechanisms in addition to already known pathways. To achieve this, condition-specific functional modules are extracted from large interaction networks. Here, we give an overview of the state...

  16. De Novo Coding Variants Are Strongly Associated with Tourette Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willsey, A Jeremy; Fernandez, Thomas V; Yu, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and de novo variant detection have proven a powerful approach to gene discovery in complex neurodevelopmental disorders. We have completed WES of 325 Tourette disorder trios from the Tourette International Collaborative Genetics cohort and a replication sample of 186 ...

  17. Illumina-based de novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq technology to perform de novo assembly of heart and musk gland transcriptomes from the Chinese forest musk deer. A total of 239,383 transcripts and 176,450 unigenes were obtained, of which 37,329 unigenes were matched to known sequences in the NCBI nonredundant ...

  18. De novo structural modeling and computational sequence analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different bioinformatics tools and machine learning techniques were used for protein structural classification. De novo protein modeling was performed by using I-TASSER server. The final model obtained was accessed by PROCHECK and DFIRE2, which confirmed that the final model is reliable. Until complete biochemical ...

  19. Direct Visualization of De novo Lipogenesis in Single Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Increased de novo lipogenesis is being increasingly recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Despite recent advances in fluorescence microscopy, autoradiography and mass spectrometry, direct observation of de novo lipogenesis in living systems remains to be challenging. Here, by coupling stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy with isotope labeled glucose, we were able to trace the dynamic metabolism of glucose in single living cells with high spatial-temporal resolution. As the first direct visualization, we observed that glucose was largely utilized for lipid synthesis in pancreatic cancer cells, which occurs at a much lower rate in immortalized normal pancreatic epithelial cells. By inhibition of glycolysis and fatty acid synthase (FAS), the key enzyme for fatty acid synthesis, we confirmed the deuterium labeled lipids in cancer cells were from de novo lipid synthesis. Interestingly, we also found that prostate cancer cells exhibit relatively lower level of de novo lipogenesis, but higher fatty acid uptake compared to pancreatic cancer cells. Together, our results demonstrate a valuable tool to study dynamic lipid metabolism in cancer and other disorders.

  20. Particulated articular cartilage: CAIS and DeNovo NT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Jack; Cole, Brian J; Sherman, Seth; Karas, Vasili

    2012-03-01

    Cartilage Autograft Implantation System (CAIS; DePuy/Mitek, Raynham, MA) and DeNovo Natural Tissue (NT; ISTO, St. Louis, MO) are novel treatment options for focal articular cartilage defects in the knee. These methods involve the implantation of particulated articular cartilage from either autograft or juvenile allograft donor, respectively. In the laboratory and in animal models, both CAIS and DeNovo NT have demonstrated the ability of the transplanted cartilage cells to "escape" from the extracellular matrix, migrate, multiply, and form a new hyaline-like cartilage tissue matrix that integrates with the surrounding host tissue. In clinical practice, the technique for both CAIS and DeNovo NT is straightforward, requiring only a single surgery to affect cartilage repair. Clinical experience is limited, with short-term studies demonstrating both procedures to be safe, feasible, and effective, with improvements in subjective patient scores, and with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of good defect fill. While these treatment options appear promising, prospective randomized controlled studies are necessary to refine the indications and contraindications for both CAIS and DeNovo NT.

  1. Influence of anglers' specializations on catch, harvest, and bycatch of targeted taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Wiley, Christopher L.; Martin, Dustin R.

    2016-01-01

    Fishery managers often use catch per unit effort (CPUE) of a given taxon derived from a group of anglers, those that sought said taxon, to evaluate fishery objectives because managers assume CPUE for this group of anglers is most sensitive to changes in fish taxon density. Further, likelihood of harvest may differ for sought and non-sought taxa if taxon sought is a defining characteristic of anglers’ attitude toward harvest. We predicted that taxon-specific catch across parties and reservoirs would be influenced by targeted taxon after controlling for number of anglers in a party and time spent fishing (combine to quantify fishing effort of party); we also predicted similar trends for taxon-specific harvest. We used creel-survey data collected from anglers that varied in taxon targeted, from generalists (targeting “anything” [no primary target taxa, but rather targeting all fishes]) to target specialists (e.g., anglers targeting largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides) in 19 Nebraska reservoirs during 2009–2011 to test our predictions. Taxon-specific catch and harvest were, in general, positively related to fishing effort. More importantly, we observed differences of catch and harvest among anglers grouped by taxon targeted for each of the eight taxa assessed. Anglers targeting a specific taxon had the greatest catch for that taxon and anglers targeting anything typically had the second highest catch for that taxon. In addition, anglers tended to catch more of closely related taxa and of taxa commonly targeted with similar fishing techniques. We encourage managers to consider taxon-specific objectives of target and non-target catch and harvest.

  2. Differential growth responses of soil bacterial taxa to carbon substrates of varying chemical recalcitrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, K.C.; Karaoz, U.; Hanson, C.A.; Santee, C.A.; Bradford, M.A.; Treseder, K.K.; Wallenstein, M.D.; Brodie, E.L.

    2011-04-18

    Soils are immensely diverse microbial habitats with thousands of co-existing bacterial, archaeal, and fungal species. Across broad spatial scales, factors such as pH and soil moisture appear to determine the diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities. Within any one site however, bacterial taxon diversity is high and factors maintaining this diversity are poorly resolved. Candidate factors include organic substrate availability and chemical recalcitrance, and given that they appear to structure bacterial communities at the phylum level, we examine whether these factors might structure bacterial communities at finer levels of taxonomic resolution. Analyzing 16S rRNA gene composition of nucleotide analog-labeled DNA by PhyloChip microarrays, we compare relative growth rates on organic substrates of increasing chemical recalcitrance of >2,200 bacterial taxa across 43 divisions/phyla. Taxa that increase in relative abundance with labile organic substrates (i.e., glycine, sucrose) are numerous (>500), phylogenetically clustered, and occur predominantly in two phyla (Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria) including orders Actinomycetales, Enterobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodocyclales, Alteromonadales, and Pseudomonadales. Taxa increasing in relative abundance with more chemically recalcitrant substrates (i.e., cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein) are fewer (168) but more phylogenetically dispersed, occurring across eight phyla and including Clostridiales, Sphingomonadalaes, Desulfovibrionales. Just over 6% of detected taxa, including many Burkholderiales increase in relative abundance with both labile and chemically recalcitrant substrates. Estimates of median rRNA copy number per genome of responding taxa demonstrate that these patterns are broadly consistent with bacterial growth strategies. Taken together, these data suggest that changes in availability of intrinsically labile substrates may result in predictable shifts in soil bacterial composition.

  3. Trait-based diversification shifts reflect differential extinction among fossil taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter J; Estabrook, George F

    2014-11-18

    Evolution provides many cases of apparent shifts in diversification associated with particular anatomical traits. Three general models connect these patterns to anatomical evolution: (i) elevated net extinction of taxa bearing particular traits, (ii) elevated net speciation of taxa bearing particular traits, and (iii) elevated evolvability expanding the range of anatomies available to some species. Trait-based diversification shifts predict elevated hierarchical stratigraphic compatibility (i.e., primitive→derived→highly derived sequences) among pairs of anatomical characters. The three specific models further predict (i) early loss of diversity for taxa retaining primitive conditions (elevated net extinction), (ii) increased diversification among later members of a clade (elevated net speciation), and (iii) increased disparity among later members in a clade (elevated evolvability). Analyses of 319 anatomical and stratigraphic datasets for fossil species and genera show that hierarchical stratigraphic compatibility exceeds the expectations of trait-independent diversification in the vast majority of cases, which was expected if trait-dependent diversification shifts are common. Excess hierarchical stratigraphic compatibility correlates with early loss of diversity for groups retaining primitive conditions rather than delayed bursts of diversity or disparity across entire clades. Cambrian clades (predominantly trilobites) alone fit null expectations well. However, it is not clear whether evolution was unusual among Cambrian taxa or only early trilobites. At least among post-Cambrian taxa, these results implicate models, such as competition and extinction selectivity/resistance, as major drivers of trait-based diversification shifts at the species and genus levels while contradicting the predictions of elevated net speciation and elevated evolvability models.

  4. Floral traits driving reproductive isolation of two co-flowering taxa that share vertebrate pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Joel A.; Quirino, Zelma G. M.; Machado, Isabel C.

    2015-01-01

    Floral attributes evolve in response to frequent and efficient pollinators, which are potentially important drivers of floral diversification and reproductive isolation. In this context, we asked, how do flowers evolve in a bat–hummingbird pollination system? Hence, we investigated the pollination ecology of two co-flowering Ipomoea taxa (I. marcellia and I. aff. marcellia) pollinated by bats and hummingbirds, and factors favouring reproductive isolation and pollinator sharing in these plants. To identify the most important drivers of reproductive isolation, we compared the flowers of the two Ipomoea taxa in terms of morphometry, anthesis and nectar production. Pollinator services were assessed using frequency of visits, fruit set and the number of seeds per fruit after visits. The studied Ipomoea taxa differed in corolla size and width, beginning and duration of anthesis, and nectar attributes. However, they shared the same diurnal and nocturnal visitors. The hummingbird Heliomaster squamosus was more frequent in I. marcellia (1.90 visits h−1) than in I. aff. marcellia (0.57 visits h−1), whereas glossophagine bats showed similar visit rates in both taxa (I. marcellia: 0.57 visits h−1 and I. aff. marcellia: 0.64 visits h−1). Bat pollination was more efficient in I. aff. marcellia, whereas pollination by hummingbirds was more efficient in I. marcellia. Differences in floral attributes between Ipomoea taxa, especially related to the anthesis period, length of floral parts and floral arrangement in the inflorescence, favour reproductive isolation from congeners through differential pollen placement on pollinators. This bat–hummingbird pollination system seems to be advantageous in the study area, where the availability of pollinators and floral resources changes considerably throughout the year, mainly as a result of rainfall seasonality. This interaction is beneficial for both sides, as it maximizes the number of potential pollen vectors for plants and

  5. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects. The most abundant species were Godartiana muscosa , Mechanitis lysimnia , Hermeuptychia sp and Mechanitis polymnia casabranca , which are bio-indicators of disturbed and/or urban environments. On the other hand, it was found rare species, such as Notascea brevispula . Different species were constant and others occurred in only a short period of the year. The diversity and abundance were higher in hot and rainy months. The diversity index Shannon-Wiener and Simpsom indicate a median diversity and equitability index point absence of dominance.

  6. Genome-wide patterns and properties of de novo mutations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francioli, Laurent C.; Polak, Paz P.; Koren, Amnon; Menelaou, Androniki; Chun, Sung; Renkens, Ivo; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Swertz, Morris; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Ommen, Gertjan; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Ye, Kai; Guryev, Victor; Arndt, Peter F.; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.

    Mutations create variation in the population, fuel evolution and cause genetic diseases. Current knowledge about de novo mutations is incomplete and mostly indirect(1-10). Here we analyze 11,020 de novo mutations from the whole genomes of 250 families. We show that de novo mutations in the offspring

  7. Genome-wide patterns and properties of de novo mutations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francioli, L.C.; Polak, P.P.; Koren, A.; Menelaou, A.; Chun, S.; Renkens, I.; van Duijn, C.M.; Swertz, M.A.; Wijmenga, C.; van Ommen, G.J.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ye, K.; Guryev, V.; Arndt, P.F.; Kloosterman, W.P.; Bakker, P.I.W.; Sunyaev, S.R.; Dijk, F.; Neerincx, P.B.T.; Pulit, S.L.; Deelen, P.; Elbers, C.C.; Palamara, P.F.; Pe'er, I.; Abdellaoui, A.; van Oven, M.; Vermaat, M.; Li, M.; Laros, J.F.J.; Stoneking, M.; de Knijff, P.; Kayser, M.; Veldink, J.H.; Van den Berg, L.H.; Byelas, H.; den Dunnen, J.T.; Dijkstra, M.; Amin, N.; van der Velde, K.J.; Hottenga, J.J.; van Setten, J.; van Leeuwen, E.M.; Kanterakis, A.; Kattenberg, V.M.; Karssen, L.C.; van Schaik, B.D.C.; Bot, J.; Nijman, I.J.; van Enckevort, D.; Mei, H.; Koval, V.; Estrada, K.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Lameijer, E.W.; Moed, M.H.; Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Handsaker, R.E.; McCarroll, S.A.; Vuzman, D.; Sohail, M.; Hormozdiari, F.; Marschall, T.; Schönhuth, A.; Beekman, M.; de Craen, A.J.; Suchiman, H.E.D.; Hofman, A.; Oostra, B.; Isaacs, A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Willemsen, G.; Platteel, M.; Pitts, S.J.; Potluri, S.; Sundar, P.; Cox, D.R.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Du, Y.; Chen, R.; Cao, H.; Li, N.; Cao, S.; Wang, J.; Bovenberg, J.A.; Brandsma, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations create variation in the population, fuel evolution and cause genetic diseases. Current knowledge about de novo mutations is incomplete and mostly indirect. Here we analyze 11,020 de novo mutations from the whole genomes of 250 families. We show that de novo mutations in the offspring of

  8. Siete nuevos registros de Arctiini (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae para Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Grados

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta siete nuevos registros de Arctiini (Erebidae: Lepidoptera para Perú. Algunas de las especies son raras en colecciones. Cada nuevo reporte pertenece a géneros diferentes, proporcionando para cada género las especies que ocurren en el Perú, basado en colecciones y las fuentes bibliográficas de las descripciones originales. Se da a conocer un nuevo sinónimo para Agyrtiola niepeltiGaede, 1926.

  9. First records of Hypolycaena anara Larsen, 1986 from Cameroon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Leština, D.; Janšta, P.; Brattström, O.; Espeland, M.; Sáfián, Sz.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 170 (2015), s. 235-239 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Lycaenidae * faunistics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.408, year: 2015 http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=45541421008

  10. Sexual differences in weight loss upon eclosion are related to life history strategy in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Freerk; Javoiš, Juhan; Esperk, Toomas; Teder, Tiit; Davis, Robert B; Tammaru, Toomas

    2011-06-01

    Given that immature and adult insects have different life styles, different target body compositions can be expected. For adults, such targets will also differ depending on life history strategy, and thus vary among the sexes, and in females depend on the degree of capital versus income breeding and ovigeny. Since these targets may in part be approximated by loss of substances upon eclosion, comparing sexual differences in such losses upon eclosion among species that differ in life history would provide insights into insect functional ecology. We studied weight loss in eclosing insects using original data on pupal and adult live weights of 38 species of Lepidoptera (mainly Geometridae) and further literature data on 15 species of Lepidoptera and six representatives of other insect orders, and applied the phylogenetic independent contrasts approach. In addition, data on live and dry weights of pupae of four species of Lepidoptera are presented. We documented that Lepidoptera typically lose a large proportion (20-80%) of their pupal weight upon adult eclosion. Sexual differences in weight loss varied between absent and strongly male biased. Most of the weight loss was water loss, and sexual differences in adult water content correlate strongly with differences in weight loss. Using feeding habits (feeds or does not feed as an adult) and female biased sexual size dimorphism as measures of degree of capital breeding, we found that the difference among the sexes in weight loss tends to be more pronounced in capital breeding species. Additionally, females of more pro-ovigenic species (large proportion of eggs mature upon emergence) tend to have higher water contents. Our results suggests that metamorphosis is generally facilitated by a high water content, while adults excrete water upon eclosion to benefit flight unless water has been allocated to eggs, or is treated as a capital resource for adult survival or future allocation to eggs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Silk recycling in larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaik, Haq Abdul; Mishra, Archana; Sehnal, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, JAN 27 (2017), s. 61-65 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 907 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Pyralidae * silk recycling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2017/01/09.pdf

  12. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, M. C.; Ferreira, A. M. R. M.; Zanuncio, T. V.; Zanuncio, J. C.; Bernardino, A. S.; Espindula, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, specially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae (T1), compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera:...

  13. Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera) fauna of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Farzana Khan Perveen; Haroon

    2015-01-01

    The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera)are well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabrici...

  14. Notas sinonímicas sobre Hesperiidae neotropicais, com descrições de novos gêneros, espécies e subespécies (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Celaenorrhinus shema mercedensis, ssp. n. de La Mercede e Rio Colorado, Peru e Cochabamba, Bolívia; Phocides pialia intermedia, ssp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Corticea diamantina, sp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Artines tobiasi sp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Cymaenes albiventris albiventris, sp. n. do Maranhão, Brasil; Cymaenes albiventris capixaba, ssp. n. do Espirito Santo, Brasil; Papias cascatona, sp. n. de Minas Geras, Brasil; Lerema caraca, sp. n. de Minas Gerais e Espirito Santo, Brasil; Vettius ploetzii morretesi, ssp. n. do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Propapias, gen. n., tipo: Rhinthon proximus Bell, 1934, única espécie incluída. Celaenorrhinus songoensis saroma Evans, 1952, comb. n.; Celaenorrhinus songoensis tonio Evans, 1952, comb. n. Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883, comb. n. e sp. rev. Lerema duroca lenta Evans, 1955, stat. n. Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937, comb. n. e stat. n., Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936, comb. n. e stat. n., Phocides zancleius 1932 syn. n. de Phocides pialia (Hewitson, 1857; Dalla eburones elna Evans, 1955 syn. n. de Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937; Staphylus holaphegges Dyar, 1913 syn. n. de Eprius veleda veleda (Godman, 1901; Eprius veleda palta Evans, 1955 syn. n. de Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936; Lerema elgina Schaus, 1902 syn. n. de Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883. Dalla Mabille, 1904 syn. n. de Eumesia Felder &. Felder, 1867, n. rev, Eumesiinae Felder & Felder, 1867, n. rev.Celaenorrhinus shema mercedensis, ssp. n. from La Merced and Rio Colorado, Peru, and Cochabamba, Bolívia; Phocides pialia intermedia, ssp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Corticea diamantina, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Artines tobiasi, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Cymaenes albiventris albiventris, sp. n. from Maranhão, Brazil; Cymaenes albiventris capixaba, ssp. n. from Espírito Santo, Brazil; Papias cascatona, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Lerema caraca, sp. n. from Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, Brazil; Vettius ploetzii morretesi, ssp. n. from Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Propapias, gen. n., type: Rhinthon proximus Bell, 1934, sole species included. Celaenorrhinus songoensis saroma Evans, 1952, comb n.; Celaenorrhinus songoensis tonio Evans, 1952, comb. n., Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883, comb n. and sp. rev., Lerema duroca lenta Evans, 1955, stat. n., Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937, comb. n. and stat. n., Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936, comb. n. and stat. n., Phocides zancleius Bell, 1932 syn. n. of Phocides pialia (Hewitson, 1857; Dalla eburones elna Evans, 1955; syn. n. of Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937; Staphylus holaphegges Dyar, 1913 syn. n. of Eprius veleda veleda (Godman, 1901; Eprius veleda palia Evans, 1955 syn. n. of Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936; Lerema elgina Schaus, 1902 syn. n. of Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883. Dalla Mabille, 1904 syn. n. of Eumesia Felder & Felder, 1867, n. rev. Eumesiinae Felder & Felder, 1867, n. rev.

  15. Ambiguous taxa: Effects on the characterization and interpretation of invertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Bilger, Michael D.; Haigler, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Damaged and immature specimens often result in macroinvertebrate data that contain ambiguous parent-child pairs (i.e., abundances associated with multiple related levels of the taxonomic hierarchy such as Baetis pluto and the associated ambiguous parent Baetis sp.). The choice of method used to resolve ambiguous parent-child pairs may have a very large effect on the characterization of invertebrate assemblages and the interpretation of responses to environmental change because very large proportions of taxa richness (73-78%) and abundance (79-91%) can be associated with ambiguous parents. To address this issue, we examined 16 variations of 4 basic methods for resolving ambiguous taxa: RPKC (remove parent, keep child), MCWP (merge child with parent), RPMC (remove parent or merge child with parent depending on their abundances), and DPAC (distribute parents among children). The choice of method strongly affected assemblage structure, assemblage characteristics (e.g., metrics), and the ability to detect responses along environmental (urbanization) gradients. All methods except MCWP produced acceptable results when used consistently within a study. However, the assemblage characteristics (e.g., values of assemblage metrics) differed widely depending on the method used, and data should not be combined unless the methods used to resolve ambiguous taxa are well documented and are known to be comparable. The suitability of the methods was evaluated and compared on the basis of 13 criteria that considered conservation of taxa richness and abundance, consistency among samples, methods, and studies, and effects on the interpretation of the data. Methods RPMC and DPAC had the highest suitability scores regardless of whether ambiguous taxa were resolved for each sample separately or for a group of samples. Method MCWP gave consistently poor results. Methods MCWP and DPAC approximate the use of family-level identifications and operational taxonomic units (OTU), respectively. Our

  16. Contrasting spatial patterns and ecological attributes of soil bacterial and archaeal taxa across a landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constancias, Florentin; Saby, Nicolas P A; Terrat, Sébastien; Dequiedt, Samuel; Horrigue, Wallid; Nowak, Virginie; Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Biju-Duval, Luc; Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Ranjard, Lionel

    2015-06-01

    Even though recent studies have clarified the influence and hierarchy of environmental filters on bacterial community structure, those constraining bacterial populations variations remain unclear. In consequence, our ability to understand to ecological attributes of soil bacteria and to predict microbial community response to environmental stress is therefore limited. Here, we characterized the bacterial community composition and the various bacterial taxonomic groups constituting the community across an agricultural landscape of 12 km(2) , by using a 215 × 215 m systematic grid representing 278 sites to precisely decipher their spatial distribution and drivers at this scale. The bacterial and Archaeal community composition was characterized by applying 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing directly to soil DNA from samples. Geostatistics tools were used to reveal the heterogeneous distribution of bacterial composition at this scale. Soil physical parameters and land management explained a significant amount of variation, suggesting that environmental selection is the major process shaping bacterial composition. All taxa systematically displayed also a heterogeneous and particular distribution patterns. Different relative influences of soil characteristics, land use and space were observed, depending on the taxa, implying that selection and spatial processes might be differentially but not exclusively involved for each bacterial phylum. Soil pH was a major factor determining the distribution of most of the bacterial taxa and especially the most important factor explaining the spatial patterns of α-Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes. Soil texture, organic carbon content and quality were more specific to a few number of taxa (e.g., β-Proteobacteria and Chlorobi). Land management also influenced the distribution of bacterial taxa across the landscape and revealed different type of response to cropping intensity (positive, negative, neutral or hump-backed relationships

  17. Conditionally Rare Taxa Contribute but Do Not Account for Changes in Soil Prokaryotic Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Kaminsky

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rare biosphere is predicted to aid in maintaining functional redundancy as well as contributing to community turnover across many environments. Recent developments have partially confirmed these hypotheses, while also giving new insights into dormancy and activity among rare communities. However, less attention has been paid to the rare biosphere in soils. This study provides insight into the rare biosphere’s contribution to soil microbial diversity through the study of 781 soil samples representing 24 edaphically diverse sites. Results show that Bray–Curtis dissimilarity for time-sensitive conditionally rare taxa (CRT does not correlate with whole community dissimilarity, while dissimilarity for space-sensitive CRT only weakly correlate with whole community dissimilarity. This adds to current understanding of spatiotemporal filtering of rare taxa, showing that CRT do not account for community variance across tested soils, but are under the same selective pressure as the whole community.

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of six pinus taxa native to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Zhouqi

    2015-05-21

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana) were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%-20.55%), bornyl acetale (3.32%-12.71%), β-caryophellene (18.26%-26.31%), α-guaiene (1.23%-8.19%), and germacrene D (1.26%-9.93%). Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential by three assays (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS) and tested for their total phenolic content. The results showed that all essential oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant activities and these strongly suggest that these pine needles may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and medical purposes.

  19. Ecological patterns, diversity and core taxa of microbial communities in groundwater-fed rapid gravity filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Here, we document microbial communities in rapid gravity filtration units, specifically serial rapid sand filters (RSFs), termed prefilters (PFs) and after- filters (AFs), fed with anoxic groundwaters low in organic carbon to prepare potable waters. A comprehensive 16S rRNA-based amplicon...... sequencing survey revealed a core RSF microbiome comprising few bacterial taxa (29–30 genera) dominated by Nitrospirae, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria, with a strikingly high abundance (75–87±18%) across five examined waterworks in Denmark. Lineages within the Nitrospira genus consistently comprised...... the second most and most abundant fraction in PFs (27±23%) and AFs (45.2±23%), respectively, and were far more abundant than typical proteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, suggesting a physiology beyond nitrite oxidation for Nitrospira. Within the core taxa, sequences closely related to types...

  20. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  1. Bias and sensitivity in the placement of fossil taxa resulting from interpretations of missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    The utility of fossils in evolutionary contexts is dependent on their accurate placement in phylogenetic frameworks, yet intrinsic and widespread missing data make this problematic. The complex taphonomic processes occurring during fossilization can make it difficult to distinguish absence from non-preservation, especially in the case of exceptionally preserved soft-tissue fossils: is a particular morphological character (e.g., appendage, tentacle, or nerve) missing from a fossil because it was never there (phylogenetic absence), or just happened to not be preserved (taphonomic loss)? Missing data have not been tested in the context of interpretation of non-present anatomy nor in the context of directional shifts and biases in affinity. Here, complete taxa, both simulated and empirical, are subjected to data loss through the replacement of present entries (1s) with either missing (?s) or absent (0s) entries. Both cause taxa to drift down trees, from their original position, toward the root. Absolute thresholds at which downshift is significant are extremely low for introduced absences (two entries replaced, 6% of present characters). The opposite threshold in empirical fossil taxa is also found to be low; two absent entries replaced with presences causes fossil taxa to drift up trees. As such, only a few instances of non-preserved characters interpreted as absences will cause fossil organisms to be erroneously interpreted as more primitive than they were in life. This observed sensitivity to coding non-present morphology presents a problem for all evolutionary studies that attempt to use fossils to reconstruct rates of evolution or unlock sequences of morphological change. Stem-ward slippage, whereby fossilization processes cause organisms to appear artificially primitive, appears to be a ubiquitous and problematic phenomenon inherent to missing data, even when no decay biases exist. Absent characters therefore require explicit justification and taphonomic

  2. Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.

    2011-01-01

    It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

  3. Immunological change in a parasite-impoverished environment: divergent signals from four island taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon S Beadell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines of native Hawaiian avifauna due to the human-mediated emergence of avian malaria and pox prompted an examination of whether island taxa share a common altered immunological signature, potentially driven by reduced genetic diversity and reduced exposure to parasites. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing parasite prevalence, genetic diversity and three measures of immune response in two recently-introduced species (Neochmia temporalis and Zosterops lateralis and two island endemics (Acrocephalus aequinoctialis and A. rimitarae and then comparing the results to those observed in closely-related mainland counterparts. The prevalence of blood parasites was significantly lower in 3 of 4 island taxa, due in part to the absence of certain parasite lineages represented in mainland populations. Indices of genetic diversity were unchanged in the island population of N. temporalis; however, allelic richness was significantly lower in the island population of Z. lateralis while both allelic richness and heterozygosity were significantly reduced in the two island-endemic species examined. Although parasite prevalence and genetic diversity generally conformed to expectations for an island system, we did not find evidence for a pattern of uniformly altered immune responses in island taxa, even amongst endemic taxa with the longest residence times. The island population of Z. lateralis exhibited a significantly reduced inflammatory cell-mediated response while levels of natural antibodies remained unchanged for this and the other recently introduced island taxon. In contrast, the island endemic A. rimitarae exhibited a significantly increased inflammatory response as well as higher levels of natural antibodies and complement. These measures were unchanged or lower in A. aequinoctialis. We suggest that small differences in the pathogenic landscape and the stochastic history of mutation and genetic drift are likely to be important in

  4. Late Silurian fish microfossils from an East Baltic-derived erratic from Oosterhaule, with a description of new acanthodian taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergoossen, JMJ

    1999-01-01

    Fish microfossils were extracted from an erratic. The taxa from the rich microvertebrate fauna of late Pridolian (latest Silurian) age ( P. punctatus Zone) are listed. A full description is given of two new Gomphonchus taxa, G. mediocostatus and G. boekschoteni. On the basis of old and new material,

  5. Combining phylogenomics and fossils in higher-level squamate reptile phylogeny: molecular data change the placement of fossil taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Kuczynski, Caitlin A; Townsend, Ted; Reeder, Tod W; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Sites, Jack W

    2010-12-01

    Molecular data offer great potential to resolve the phylogeny of living taxa but can molecular data improve our understanding of relationships of fossil taxa? Simulations suggest that this is possible, but few empirical examples have demonstrated the ability of molecular data to change the placement of fossil taxa. We offer such an example here. We analyze the placement of snakes among squamate reptiles, combining published morphological data (363 characters) and new DNA sequence data (15,794 characters, 22 nuclear loci) for 45 living and 19 fossil taxa. We find several intriguing results. First, some fossil taxa undergo major changes in their phylogenetic position when molecular data are added. Second, most fossil taxa are placed with strong support in the expected clades by the combined data Bayesian analyses, despite each having >98% missing cells and despite recent suggestions that extensive missing data are problematic for Bayesian phylogenetics. Third, morphological data can change the placement of living taxa in combined analyses, even when there is an overwhelming majority of molecular characters. Finally, we find strong but apparently misleading signal in the morphological data, seemingly associated with a burrowing lifestyle in snakes, amphisbaenians, and dibamids. Overall, our results suggest promise for an integrated and comprehensive Tree of Life by combining molecular and morphological data for living and fossil taxa.

  6. Non-linear dose response of a few plant taxa to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.T.; Patel, B.B.; Pius, J.; Narula, B.; Shankhadarwar, S.; Rane, V.A.; Venu-Babu, P.; Eapen, S.; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Micronuclei induction serves as an essential biomarker of radiation stress in a living system, and the simplicity of its detection technique has made it a widely used indicator of radiation damage. The present study was conducted to reveal the cytological dose-response of a few plant taxa, viz., Allium cepa var. aggregatum Linn., Allium sativum Linn., Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, to low LET gamma radiation with special emphasis on the pattern of micronuclei induced across low and high dose regimes. A tri-phasic non-linear dose-response pattern was observed in the four taxa studied, characterized by a low dose linear segment, a plateau and a high dose linear segment. Despite a similar response trend, the critical doses where the phase transitions occurred varied amongst the plant taxa, giving an indication to their relative radiosensitivities. E. crassipes and A. sativum, with their lower critical doses for slope modifications of phase transitions, were concluded as being more radiosensitive as compared to C. comosum and A. cepa, which had relatively higher critical doses. (author)

  7. Uptake and accumulation of arsenic by 11 Pteris taxa from southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.B. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lan, C.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Baker, A.J.M. [School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC 3010 (Australia); Qin, Y.R. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Shu, W.S. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, G.Z. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: lsdyzhh@zsu.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    A field survey was conducted at a deserted arsenic (As) mine in Guangxi Province, China to explore new potential As hyperaccumulators. In addition, young plants of 11 Pteris taxa were grown in glasshouse conditions for 12 weeks on As-amended soils with 0, 50 and 200 mg As kg{sup -1}. Results of the field survey showed that the fern Pteris fauriei accumulated over 1000 mg As kg{sup -1} in its fronds. Of the 11 Pteris taxa, Pteris aspericaulis, Pteris cretica var. nervosa, P. fauriei, Pteris multifida, P. multifida f. serrulata, and Pteris oshimensis were all found to hyperaccumulate As in addition to P. cretica 'Albo-Lineata' and Pteris vittata (already reported as As hyperaccumulators). However, Pteris ensiformis, Pteris semipinnata and Pteris setuloso-costulata showed no evidence of As hyperaccumulation. Results also revealed a constitutive property of As hyperaccumulation in different populations of P. cretica var. nervosa, P. multifida, P. oshimensis and P. vittata. - Eight Pteris taxa show the ability to hyperaccumulate As under glasshouse conditions.

  8. Evidence of Taxa-, Clone-, and Kin-discrimination in Protists: Ecological and Evolutionary Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    Unicellular eukaryotes, or protists, are among the most ancient organisms on Earth. Protists belong to multiple taxonomic groups; they are widely distributed geographically and in all environments. Their ability to discriminate among con- and heterospecifics has been documented during the past decade. Here we discuss exemplar cases of taxa-, clone-, and possible kin-discrimination in five major lineages: Mycetozoa ( Dictyostelium , Polysphondylium ), Dikarya ( Saccharomyces ), Ciliophora ( Tetrahymena ), Apicomplexa ( Plasmodium ) and Archamoebae ( Entamoeba ). We summarize the proposed genetic mechanisms involved in discrimination-mediated aggregation (self versus different), including the csA , FLO and trg (formerly lag ) genes, and the Proliferation Activation Factors (PAFs), which facilitate clustering in some protistan taxa. We caution about the experimental challenges intrinsic to studying recognition in protists, and highlight the opportunities for exploring the ecology and evolution of complex forms of cell-cell communication, including social behavior, in a polyphyletic, still superficially understood group of organisms. Because unicellular eukaryotes are the evolutionary precursors of multicellular life, we infer that their mechanisms of taxa-, clone-, and possible kin-discrimination gave origin to the complex diversification and sophistication of traits associated with species and kin recognition in plants, fungi, invertebrates and vertebrates.

  9. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Aspectos biológicos da Traça-da-Batatinha Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Biologic aspects of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas características biológicas de Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae criadas em tubérculos de batata, foram estudadas em laboratório a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 33,4 dias e das fêmeas foi de 31,7 dias, a sobrevivência foi de 100% até o sexto dia para ambos os sexos, e o número médio total de ovos por fêmea de P. operculella foi 195, com viabilidade de 46,3%, quando esses foram alimentados com solução de mel a 10%.Some biologic characteristics of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae reared in potato tubers was studied in laboratory at 25 ± 1ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 10% and photophase of 14 hours. The male longevity it was 33.4 days and the female longevity it was 31.4 days, the survivor it was 100% until the 6º day for both sex, the total number of eggs per female of P. operculella it was 195, with viability of 46.3%, when these adults received a solution of honey at 10%.

  11. Some extinct plant taxa on the territory of Novi Sad and their vulnerability status in Vojvodina and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đakić Žarko S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural habitats on the territory of Novi Sad are almost fully destroyed today, as well as their characteristic plant taxa. The reason for disappearance of natural habitats is the development of suburban communities, which is an irreversible process. Plant taxa, specific for wet, salty, and sandy ecosystems grew on those habitats twenty years ago and earlier. This paper presents the overview of 9 taxa (Suaeda maritima subsp. maritima, Androsace elongata subsp. elongata, Cirsium boujartii subsp. boujartii, Aster sedifolius subsp. canus, Blackstonia perfoliata subsp. serotina, Plantago maritima subsp. maritima, Salvia nutans, Allium angulosum, and Typha schuttleworthii. These taxa presented integral parts of autochthonous flora of Novi Sad. Since some of these taxa were found in the field 21 years ago and some even 93 years ago, they are extinct from the flora of Novi Sad.

  12. Valor econômico: relevância da taxa de criação de valor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é debater em favor de uma taxa de criação de valor como a variável mais relevante para a avaliação de investimentos, considerando aquela taxa como uma variável fundamental para a equalização das taxas de lucro no sistema capitalista. A taxa de criação de valor é o resultado da diferença entre a taxa de retorno sobre o capital investido e o custo médio ponderado de capital, isto é, o spread na metodologia do valor econômico adicionado, como mostramos nesse artigo.

  13. Diversity and dynamics of dominant and rare bacterial taxa in replicate sequencing batch reactors operated under different solids retention time

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik

    2014-10-19

    In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was applied in order to provide a better insight on the diversity and dynamics of total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa in replicate lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at different solids retention time (SRT). Rank-abundance curves showed few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a long tail of rare OTUs in all reactors. Results revealed that there was no detectable effect of SRT (2 vs. 10 days) on Shannon diversity index and OTU richness of both dominant and rare taxa. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa were highly dynamic during the entire period of stable reactor performance. Also, the rare taxa were more dynamic than the dominant taxa despite expected low invasion rates because of the use of sterile synthetic media.

  14. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: IV - Café Mundo Novo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1952-06-01

    Full Text Available Em um conjunto de cafeeiros existentes em Mundo Novo, hoje Urupês, na região Araraquarense do Estado de São Paulo, foram feitas seleções de vários cafeeiros baseando-se no seu aspecto vegetativo, na produção existente na época da seleção e na provável produção do ano seguinte. Estudou-se a origem da plantação inicial desse café, tanto em Urupês como em Jaú, chegando-se à conclusão de que é provavelmente originário desta última localidade. Progênies do café "Mundo Novo", anteriormente conhecido por "Sumatra" e derivado de plantas selecionadas em Urupês e Jaú, acham-se em estudo em seis localidades do Estado : Campinas, Ribeirão Prêto, Pindorama, Mococa, Jaú e Monte Alegre do Sul. No presente trabalho são apenas aproveitados dados referentes à variabilidade morfológica e característicos da produção das progênies dos primeiros cafeeiros selecionados em Urupês e estudados em Campinas, Jaú, Pindorama e Mococa. Em tôdas as localidades, observou-se variação nos caracteres morfológicos das progênies, verificando-se a ocorrência de plantas quase improdutivas. A maioria das progênies, no entanto, se caracteriza por acentuado vigor vegetativo. Foram estudadas as produções totais das progénies e das plantas, no período 1946-1951, notando-se que algumas progénies se salientaram pela elevada produção em tôdas as localidades. Os tipos de sementes "moca", "concha" e "chato" foram determinados em amostras de tôdas as plantas, por um período de três anos, notando-se que a variação ocorrida é da mesma ordem que a encontrada em outros cafeeiros em seleção. Procurou-se eliminar, pela seleção, cafeeiros com elevada produção de frutos sem sementes em uma ou duas lojas, característico êsse que parece ser hereditário. Os resultados obtidos de cruzamento entre os melhores cafeeiros "Mundo Novo" de Campinas e plantas da variedade murta, indicaram que esses cafeeiros são do tipo bourbon. Provavelmente

  15. Recurrence risk in de novo structural chromosomal rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Benno; Kotzot, Dieter

    2007-08-01

    According to the textbook of Gardner and Sutherland [2004], the standard on genetic counseling for chromosome abnormalities, the recurrence risk of de novo structural or combined structural and numeric chromosome rearrangements is less than 0.5-2% and takes into account recurrence by chance, gonadal mosaicism, and somatic-gonadal mosaicism. However, these figures are roughly estimated and neither any systematic study nor exact or evidence-based risk calculations are available. To address this question, an extensive literature search was performed and surprisingly only 29 case reports of recurrence of de novo structural or combined structural and numeric chromosomal rearrangements were found. Thirteen of them were with a trisomy 21 due to an i(21q) replacing one normal chromosome 21. In eight of them low-level mosaicism in one of the parents was found either in fibroblasts or in blood or in both. As a consequence of the low number of cases and theoretical considerations (clinical consequences, mechanisms of formation, etc.), the recurrence risk should be reduced to less than 1% for a de novo i(21q) and to even less than 0.3% for all other de novo structural or combined structural and numeric chromosomal rearrangements. As the latter is lower than the commonly accepted risk of approximately 0.3% for indicating an invasive prenatal diagnosis and as the risk of abortion of a healthy fetus after chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis is higher than approximately 0.5%, invasive prenatal investigation in most cases is not indicated and should only be performed if explicitly asked by the parents subsequent to appropriate genetic counseling. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Novos encontros de anofelíneos em recipientes artificiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Assinalam-se novos encontros de anofelíneos em recipientes artificiais. Um deles diz respeito a formas imaturas de Anopheles bellator em criadouros experimentais e outro é concernente ao achado de An. albitarsis l.s., em recipiente abandonado. Tecem-se considerações sobre a pressão seletiva representada pela produção, cada vez maior, de objetos descartáveis.

  17. [Analysis of phylogenetic criteria for estimation of the rank of taxa in methane-oxidizing bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V

    2011-01-01

    To determine a possibility of application of phylogenetic criteria for estimating the taxa rank, the intra- and interspecies, as well as intergeneric relatedness of methanotrophs on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was estimated. We used sequences of 16S rRNA genes of the studied isolates of obligate methanotrophs which have been deposited in UCM (Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms), and of type strains of other obligate methanotrophs species (from GenBank database). It is shown, that the levels of interspecies and intergeneric relatedness in different families of methanotrophs are not identical, and therefore they can be used for differentiation of taxa only within one family. The carried out analysis has shown, that it is necessary to reconsider taxonomic position: (1) of two phenotypically similar species of Methylomonas (M. aurantiaca and M. fodinarum), similarity of 16S rRNA genes which is 99.4%, similarity of their total DNA--up to 80% that rather testifies to strain differences, than to species differences; (2) of species Methylomicrobium agile and M album which are phylogenetically more related to genus Methylobacter (97% of affinity), than Methylomicrobium (94% of affinity); (3) of genera of the family Beijerinckiaceae (Methylocella and Methylocapsa), and also genera of the family Methylocystaceae (Methylosinus and Methylocystis), whereas high level of relatedness (97% and more) of these bacteria with other methanotrophic genera (within one family) practically corresponds to a range of relatedness of species (within some genera) in the family Methylococcaceae. When determining phylogenetic criteria which can characterize the ranks of taxa, it was revealed, that the levels of interspecies relatedness of methanotrophic genera of the families Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae (97.8-99.1% and 97.8%, accordingly) considerably exceed the level of genera formation in the family Methylococcaceae (94.0-98.2%) and, moreover, approach the value of

  18. Análise do impacto das taxas de juros no desempenho financeiro dos bancos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Moreira Zittei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A rentabilidade dos bancos é geralmente considerada um fator relevante para garantir a solidez do sistema financeiro, reduzindo os riscos associados aos eventos de insolvência nesse setor. No Brasil, há discussões quanto aos lucros das instituições financeiras que atuam no país, centradas no argumento de que tais lucros seriam supostamente muito elevados, onerando demasiadamente o setor produtivo. As instituições bancárias incorporaram processos como forma de adequação ao mercado. Um desses processos é a taxa de juros que representa a remuneração adicional ao capital emprestado, de forma que mantenha a valorização econômica da moeda, com inferência direta pela variação do tempo na atividade de crédito. Este estudo busca analisar o impacto das taxas de juros no desempenho financeiro dos bancos brasileiros. Os dados extraídos compreenderam os períodos de 2009 a 2012 de nove instituições bancárias, que representam 64% dos maiores bancos. Para a coleta dos dados, foi utilizado o sistema de informações cadastrais e contábeis do Banco Central do Brasil e o sistema de informações sobre operações bancárias do Banco Central do Brasil. Os resultados, apurados com o uso da metodologia de dados em regressão linear múltipla e testes não paramétricos demonstram, inicialmente, que a taxa de juros tem forte relação com o lucro líquido de todas as instituições, na medida em que tem uma oscilação na taxa juros, e, consequentemente, terá no lucro. Assim, foram obtidas evidências de que as taxas de juros implicam rentabilidade no setor bancário nacional.

  19. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, Camila de Andrade [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Stein, Airton Tetelbom [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grupo Hospitalar Conceição (GHC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Lucia Campos, E-mail: luciapell.pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%), which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality.

  20. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Andrade Brum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. Objective: To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. Methods: This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Results: Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%, which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. Conclusion: It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality.

  1. Generative Recurrent Networks for De Novo Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anvita; Müller, Alex T; Huisman, Berend J H; Fuchs, Jens A; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2018-01-01

    Generative artificial intelligence models present a fresh approach to chemogenomics and de novo drug design, as they provide researchers with the ability to narrow down their search of the chemical space and focus on regions of interest. We present a method for molecular de novo design that utilizes generative recurrent neural networks (RNN) containing long short-term memory (LSTM) cells. This computational model captured the syntax of molecular representation in terms of SMILES strings with close to perfect accuracy. The learned pattern probabilities can be used for de novo SMILES generation. This molecular design concept eliminates the need for virtual compound library enumeration. By employing transfer learning, we fine-tuned the RNN's predictions for specific molecular targets. This approach enables virtual compound design without requiring secondary or external activity prediction, which could introduce error or unwanted bias. The results obtained advocate this generative RNN-LSTM system for high-impact use cases, such as low-data drug discovery, fragment based molecular design, and hit-to-lead optimization for diverse drug targets. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brum, Camila de Andrade; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%), which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality

  3. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  4. Diversity among Cynodon accessions and taxa based on DNA amplification fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, S; Taliaferro, C M; Anderson, M P; de los Reyes, B G; Edwards, R M

    1999-06-01

    The genus Cynodon (Gramineae), comprised of 9 species, is geographically widely distributed and genetically diverse. Information on the amounts of molecular genetic variation among and within Cynodon taxa is needed to enhance understanding of phylogenetic relations and facilitate germplasm management and breeding improvement efforts. Genetic relatedness among 62 Cynodon accessions, representing eight species, was assessed using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF). Ten 8-mer oligonucleotides were used to amplify specific Cynodon genomic sequences. The DNA amplification products of individual accessions were scored for presence (1) or absence (0) of bands. Similarity matrices were developed and the accessions were grouped by cluster (UPGMA) and principal coordinate analysis. Analyses were conducted within ploidy level (2x = 18 and 4x = 36) and over ploidy levels. Each primer revealed polymorphic loci among accessions within species. Of 539 loci (bands) scored, 496 (92%) were polymorphic. Cynodon arcuatus was clearly separated from other species by numerous monomorphic bands. The strongest species similarities were between C. aethiopicus and C. arcuatus, C. transvaalensis and C. plectostachyus, and C. incompletus and C. nlemfuensis. Intraspecific variation was least for C. aethiopicus, C. arcuatus, and C. transvaalensis, and greatest for C. dactylon. Accessions of like taxonomic classification were generally clustered, except the cosmopolitan C. dactylon var. dactylon and C. dactylon var. afganicus. Within taxa, accessions differing in chromosome number clustered in all instances indicating the 2x and 4x forms to be closely related. Little, if any, relationship was found between relatedness as indicated by the DAF profiles and previous estimates of hybridization potential between the different taxa.

  5. Diversity of Dominant Bacterial Taxa in Activated Sludge Promotes Functional Resistance following Toxic Shock Loading

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-12-14

    Examining the relationship between biodiversity and functional stability (resistance and resilience) of activated sludge bacterial communities following disturbance is an important first step towards developing strategies for the design of robust biological wastewater treatment systems. This study investigates the relationship between functional resistance and biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa by subjecting activated sludge samples, with different levels of biodiversity, to toxic shock loading with cupric sulfate (Cu[II]), 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP), or 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Respirometric batch experiments were performed to determine the functional resistance of activated sludge bacterial community to the three toxicants. Functional resistance was estimated as the 30 min IC50 or the concentration of toxicant that results in a 50% reduction in oxygen utilization rate compared to a referential state represented by a control receiving no toxicant. Biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-T-RFLP) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Statistical analysis of 30 min IC50 values and PCR-T-RFLP data showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between functional resistance and microbial diversity for each of the three toxicants tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a positive correlation between biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge and functional resistance. In this system, activated sludge bacterial communities with higher biodiversity are functionally more resistant to disturbance caused by toxic shock loading. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Comportamento e informação na estrutura a termo das taxas de juros do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Novy, Luiz Gustavo Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    O comportamento da curva que relaciona o rendimento dos títulos de desconto negociados no sistema financeiro nacional e o seu prazo de vencimento, ou seja, da estrutura a termo das taxas de juros, é minusciosamenteestudado através da análise de componentes. principais. Através de duas equações de regressão busca-se discutir as ·informações implícitas nas taxas de juros a termo sobre as taxas de juros e prêmios esperados para o futuro.

  7. Descriptions of new Genera and species of the so-called Glyphipterygidae Sensu Meyrick, 1913 (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diakonoff, A.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of a revision of the so-called family Glyphipterygidae sensu Meyrick, 1913, for the series "Microlepidoptera Palaearctica", several new taxa came to light. In order to facilitate the edition of the revision and to publish these new taxa without further delay, they are being described

  8. A proposal for a multivariate quantitative approach to infer karyological relationships among taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Peruzzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Until now, basic karyological parameters have been used in different ways by researchers to infer karyological relationships among organisms. In the present study, we propose a standardized approach to this aim, integrating six different, not redundant, parameters in a multivariate PCoA analysis. These parameters are chromosome number, basic chromosome number, total haploid chromosome length, MCA (Mean Centromeric Asymmetry, CVCL (Coefficient of Variation of Chromosome Length and CVCI (Coefficient of Variation of Centromeric Index. The method is exemplified with the application to several plant taxa, and its significance and limits are discussed in the light of current phylogenetic knowledge of these groups.

  9. Seed protein variations of Salicornia L. and allied taxa in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprak, A E; Yurdakulol, E

    2007-06-01

    Electrophoretic seed protein patterns of a number of accessions of Salicornia europaea L. sl., S. prostrata Palas, S. fragilis P.W. Ball and Tutin, Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A. J. Scott, Sarcocornia perennis (Miller.) A. J. Scott, Arthrocnemum glaucum (Del.) Ung.-Sternb., Microcnemum coralloides (Loscos and Pardo) subsp. anatolicum Wagenitz and Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pall.) Bieb. were electrophoretically analysed on SDS-PAGE. In total 48 different bands were identified. The obtained data have been treated numerically using the cluster analysis method of unweighted pair group (UPGMA). Finally it was determined that all species separated according to seed protein profiles. And the cladogram obtained studied taxa have been given.

  10. Mariposas del estado de Morelos, México (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea Butterflies of the state of Morelos, Mexico (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Luna-Reyes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se conjuntó la información disponible para obtener una lista exhaustiva de los ropalóceros del estado de Morelos: 331 taxones de nivel específico pertenecientes a 154 géneros; 18 subfamilias y 5 familias, a partir de 29 981 ejemplares provenientes de las colecciones mexicanas y extranjeras de lepidópteros en la megabase MARIPOSA, la hemerobibliografía especializada y los inventarios faunísticos previos. Con base en estos datos se trazó un esbozo histórico de las recolecciones y recolectores, destacando lo realizado en Morelos desde el siglo XVI. Se compara su riqueza con la de estados contiguos y se advierte mayor similitud con la de Guerrero, con más del 90%. Se encontró que Cuernavaca es la localidad más diversa del estado, puesto que contiene más de la mitad de las especies; en 21 localidades está representado el 95% de los papilionoideos, que han sido satisfactoriamente recolectadas. Los municipios mejor estudiados son Tepoztlán, Tlaquiltenango y Huitzilac. Destaca el estado de Morelos por el alto porcentaje de taxones endémicos de México que presenta, esto es, un tercio del total para el país.We set the information available for a comprehensive list of the state of Morelos Rhopalocera: 331 taxa specific level, contained in 154 genera, 18 subfamilies and 5 families from 29 981 lepidopterists specimens from Mexican and foreign collections contained in the megabase MARIPOSA, it is specialized in wildlife inventories. Based on this, we performed a historical sketch of collecting and collectors, highlighting the work in the state since the sixteenth century. We compared the richness with contiguous states, we found a greater similarity with the state of Guerrero, with more than 90%. We found that Cuernavaca is the town with more diversity, as it contains more than half of the species in the state, 21 sites have been successfully collected, they represented in 95% of the Papilionoidea. Municipalities best studied were Tepoztlan

  11. Claves para el reconocimiento taxonómico dentario en taxa del Superorden Squalomorphi de Chile (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii Taxonomic dental keys for the Chilean taxa of the Superorder Squalomorphi (Chondricthyes: Elasmobranchii

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    Sylvia Sáez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una serie de claves para el reconocimiento dentario de diferentes taxa del Superorden Squalomorphi de Chile. Se seleccionaron características dentarias externas que permitan obtener una observación más expedita que conduzcan a un estudio más acabado, de la diagnosis de los diferentes taxa constituyentes de este grupo de peces, haciéndolas extensibles para estudios de piezas dentales fósiles.A series of taxonomic dental keys is presented for the Chilean taxa of the Superorder Squalomorphi. External dental characteristics were selected for easier observation, leading to more thorough studies. This allows diagnoses of the different taxa comprising this group of fishes and, moreover, can be extended to studies of fossil teeth.

  12. Web Access to Digitised Content of the Exhibition Novo Mesto 1848-1918 at the Dolenjska Museum, Novo Mesto

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    Majda Pungerčar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTFor the first time, the Dolenjska museum Novo mesto provided access to digitised museum resources when they took the decision to enrich the exhibition Novo mesto 1848-1918 by adding digital content. The following goals were identified: the digital content was created at the time of exhibition planning and design, it met the needs of different age groups of visitors, and during the exhibition the content was accessible via touch screen. As such, it also served for educational purposes (content-oriented lectures or problem solving team work. In the course of exhibition digital content was accessible on the museum website http://www.novomesto1848-1918.si. The digital content was divided into the following sections: the web photo gallery, the quiz and the game. The photo gallery was designed in the same way as the exhibition and the print catalogue and extended by the photos of contemporary Novo mesto and accompanied by the music from the orchestron machine. The following themes were outlined: the Austrian Empire, the Krka and Novo mesto, the town and its symbols, images of the town and people, administration and economy, social life and Novo mesto today followed by digitised archive materials and sources from that period such as the Commemorative book of the Uniformed Town Guard, the National Reading Room Guest Book, the Kazina guest book, the album of postcards and the Diploma of Honoured Citizen Josip Gerdešič. The Web application was also a tool for a simple and on line selection of digitised material and the creation of new digital content which proved to be much more convenient for lecturing than Power Point presentations. The quiz consisted of 40 questions relating to the exhibition theme and the catalogue. Each question offered a set of three answers only one of them being correct and illustrated by photography. The application auto selected ten questions and valued the answers immediately. The quiz could be accessed

  13. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

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    Sven Sehlmeyer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  14. Theoretical study of electromagnetic transport in Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus wing scales

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    J. Sackey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the electromagnetic energies developed in the scales of the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus. The Green tensor method was used to calculate and simulate the energies at specific wavelengths. Scattering of electromagnetic waves within the scales was simulated at different wavelengths (λ with the corresponding maximum energy occurred at λ = 0.45 μm. The study shows that the design of wing’s cross-ribs maximizes the eigenmode of electromagnetic energy. This shows promising applications in bio-sensors of Solar light and likewise in waveguide for photonic transmission.

  15. Reproducción de Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae en Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica

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    Renán Calvo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A group of Annona cherimolia (Mill:Annonaceae trees was studied in Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica (June 1991-August 1992 to record egg-laying sites of the butterfly Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae. Used fruits often dehydrated and fell before maturity. Eggs are laid in fruits independently of fruit ontologic state and of height above ground. Tree parts less frequently used to lay eggs are flower primordia, leaves and stems, but the larvae move to fruits when food reserves are depleted. Pupation occurs outside the fruit. Pupae emit sound, possible for defence.

  16. Elusive Parnassius mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae: habitat selection, sex determination and sex ratio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašánek, Petr; Bartoňová, Alena; Marec, František; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 180 (2017), s. 561-569 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA AV ČR IAA600960925; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-13713S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Papilionidae * habitat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2016

  17. The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil

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    Aurélio R. Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910 was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae under laboratory conditions.

  18. Influence of the irradiated diet on the longevity and reproduction of Cyric cephalonic a (Stain ton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: parlayed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Graziela dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The present work aims to irradiate diets with multiple doses, as recommended by the Decree DINAL n.o 09 of 08/03/1985 to disinfestation of insects, which means, the dose of 1,0 kGy and observes the longevity and reproduction of C. cephalonica (Staint., 1865) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)

  19. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  20. Genetic divergence and evidence for sympatric host-races in the highly polyphagous brown tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.F.; Wang, H.L.; Svensson, G.P.; Frago Clols, E.; Anderbrant, O.

    2014-01-01

    The brown tail moth (BTM) Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus 1758) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is a forest and ornamental pest in Europe and the United States. Its extreme polyphagy, and documented phenological shift associated with host use suggest the presence of distinct host-races. To test this

  1. Sphragis in Parnassius mnemosyne (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): male-derived insemination plugs loose efficiency with progress of female flight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašánek, Petr; Konvička, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2009), s. 1206-1211 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Apollo butterflies * insect behaviour * Lepidoptera ecology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  2. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  3. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  4. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  5. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  6. First record Cydia alazon (Diakonoff, 1976) from La Palma Islands (Canary Islands, Spain) with taxonomic and ecological notes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 136 (2006), s. 371-378 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Tortricidae * Cydia alazon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  7. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitoids of Lepidoptera caterpillars feeding on Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bueno dos Reis Fernandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae were obtained. Seven species of Ichneumonidae were reared from leaf rollers: Meniscomorpha sp. (Banchinae and Leurus caeruliventris (Cresson (Metopiinae from Dichomeris sp. (Gelechiidae; Mesochorus sp.1 (Mesochorinae [as a parasitoid of Hypomicrogaster sp. (Braconidae, Microgastrinae], Campoplex sp. (Campopleginae and Leurus sp. from Olethreutinae sp. (Tortricidae; Sphelodon annulicornis Morley (Banchinae and Eutanygaster brevipennis Cameron (Cremastinae were also reared from two unidentified species of Gelechiidae. The other eight species were reared from the larvae of exposed feeders: Diradops sp. (Banchinae from Miselia albipuncta Hampson (Noctuidae, Casinaria sp. (Campopleginae from Hymenomima conia Prout (Geometridae, Charops sp. (Campopleginae from Bagisara paulensis Schaus (Noctuidae and Oxydia vesulia (Cramer (Geometridae, two species of Hyposoter Förster (Campopleginae from Semaeopus sp. (Geometridae and H. conia, two species of Microcharops Roman (Campopleginae from B. paulensis and an unidentified species of Limacodidae and Mesochorus sp. 2 [reared from what was probably Aleiodes sp. (Braconidae, Rogadinae] from an unidentified species of Noctuidae.Parasitóides da família Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera foram obtidos durante um inventário de larvas de Lepidoptera sobre Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. As larvas de Lepidoptera foram coletadas sobre as plantas que ocorrem nas bordas de caminhos em três áreas preservadas de mata do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Quinze esp

  8. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations

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    Yang Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. Results We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. Conclusions We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  9. TAXAS DE INFECÇÃO HOSPITALAR EM UMA UNIDADE DE TERAPIA INTENSIVA NEONATAL

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    Waleska de Oliveira Bittencourt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva quantitativa que teve o seguinte objetivo: identificar as taxas de infecção hospitalar relacionadas ao trato vascular em recém-nascidos hospitalizados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um Hospital Universitário localizado no estado do Rio de Janeiro no período de 2005 a 2007. A amostra foi constituída todos os recém-nascidos internados em 2005 e 2007. Os resultados indicaram que, embora a taxa de infecções hospitalares em 2007 seja menor que no ano de 2005, a proporção de infecções relacionadas ao trato vascular sofreu um discreto aumento considerando as demais topografias. Embora a educação continuada seja empregada na unidade, acredita-se que fatores como a alta rotatividade de profissionais e o uso de mais cateteres venosos centrais na rotina reduzam sua efetividade. Desta forma, foram elaboradas algumas propostas para a redução das infecções hospitalares na unidade estudada.

  10. Selection of morphological features of pollen grains for chosen tree taxa

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    Agnieszka Kubik-Komar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The basis of aerobiological studies is to monitor airborne pollen concentrations and pollen season timing. This task is performed by appropriately trained staff and is difficult and time consuming. The goal of this research is to select morphological characteristics of grains that are the most discriminative for distinguishing between birch, hazel and alder taxa and are easy to determine automatically from microscope images. This selection is based on the split attributes of the J4.8 classification trees built for different subsets of features. Determining the discriminative features by this method, we provide specific rules for distinguishing between individual taxa, at the same time obtaining a high percentage of correct classification. The most discriminative among the 13 morphological characteristics studied are the following: number of pores, maximum axis, minimum axis, axes difference, maximum oncus width, and number of lateral pores. The classification result of the tree based on this subset is better than the one built on the whole feature set and it is almost 94%. Therefore, selection of attributes before tree building is recommended. The classification results for the features easiest to obtain from the image, i.e. maximum axis, minimum axis, axes difference, and number of lateral pores, are only 2.09 pp lower than those obtained for the complete set, but 3.23 pp lower than the results obtained for the selected most discriminating attributes only.

  11. Comparative Anatomical Investigations on six Endemic Tanacetum (Asteraceae) Taxa from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, M.; Kartal, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tanacetum is one of the large genera, belonging to the Anthemideae tribe of Asteraceae family and has numerous medicinal plants and widely usage in folk medicine. In this study, anatomical features of six endemic species to Turkey viz. Tanacetum albipannosum, T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, T. cappadocicum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, were investigated for the first time. The specimens were collected from their natural habitats in Sivas province (Turkey). Transverse sections of root, stem, petiole and leaflet were observed under light microscope for various anatomical features. The results showed that, root included periderm in the outer. There were parenchymatous cortex, endodermis and pericycle under the periderm respectively. Primary xylem ridges were triarch in T. albipannosum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, pentarch in T. cappadocicum and hexarch in T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, and pith was filled with xylem elements. Stem was made up epidermis, parenchymatous cortex, endodermis, vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith from exterior to interior. T. heterotomum had a cavity formed by the disintegration of the cells in the center. The amphistomatic leaflets had a single layered epidermis with usually silvery or whitish tomentose indumentum and equifacial mesophyll. Stomata are anomocytic. There were significant difference among examined taxa in respect to contour of petiole, structure of cortex parenchyma and organization of vascular bundles. The anatomical characteristic features of petiole proved to be a useful tool for the taxonomic discrimination of the six studied taxa. (author)

  12. Taxonomic significance of leaf micromorphology in some selected taxa of Acanthaceae (Peninsular Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.; Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Ruzi, A. R.; Idris, S.

    2014-09-01

    Comparative leaf micromorphology study was conducted in eight taxa of Acanthaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. Eight chosen taxa were Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, A. ilicifolius L., A. volubilis Wall, A. montanus T. Anderson, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees, Asystasia gangetica subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu, Chroesthes longifolia (Wight) B. Hansen and Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek. The objective of this study was to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification and also as supportive data in classification. The procedures involved such as dehydration, critical point drying, gold coated and examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings in this study have demonstrated the similarities and variations in leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in type of epicuticular waxes, cuticular ornamentations, stomata characteristics and in the presence of trichomes. Six types of epicuticular waxes and five types of trichomes were observed. Variations in cuticular ornamentations and stomata structure can be used to differentiate species. One diagnostic character was found and proven to be very useful to identify Acanthus via the presence of simple trichomes (short-conicle like). In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that leaf micromorphological characteristics have taxonomic significance that can be useful in classifications and identification especially at species level.

  13. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil of Six Pinus Taxa Native to China

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    Qing Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%–20.55%, bornyl acetale (3.32%–12.71%, β-caryophellene (18.26%–26.31%, α-guaiene (1.23%–8.19%, and germacrene D (1.26%–9.93%. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential by three assays (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS and tested for their total phenolic content. The results showed that all essential oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant activities and these strongly suggest that these pine needles may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and medical purposes.

  14. Unraveling Trichoderma species in the attine ant environment: description of three new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Quimi Vidaurre; Meirelles, Lucas Andrade; Chaverri, Priscila; Rodrigues, Andre

    2016-05-01

    Fungus-growing "attine" ants forage diverse substrates to grow fungi for food. In addition to the mutualistic fungal partner, the colonies of these insects harbor a rich microbiome composed of bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Previous work reported some Trichoderma species in the fungus gardens of leafcutter ants. However, no studies systematically addressed the putative association of Trichoderma with attine ants, especially in non-leafcutter ants. Here, a total of 62 strains of Trichoderma were analyzed using three molecular markers (ITS, tef1 and rpb2). In addition, 30 out of 62 strains were also morphologically examined. The strains studied correspond to the largest sampling carried out so far for Trichoderma in the attine ant environment. Our results revealed the richness of Trichoderma in this environment, since we found 20 Trichoderma species, including three new taxa described in the present work (Trichoderma attinorum, Trichoderma texanum and Trichoderma longifialidicum spp. nov.) as well as a new phylogenetic taxon (LESF 545). Moreover, we show that all 62 strains grouped within different clades across the Trichoderma phylogeny, which are identical or closely related to strains derived from several other environments. This evidence supports the transient nature of the genus Trichoderma in the attine ant colonies. The discovery of three new species suggests that the dynamic foraging behavior of these insects might be responsible for accumulation of transient fungi into their colonies, which might hold additional fungal taxa still unknown to science.

  15. Nuclear DNA content and base composition in 28 taxa of Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaté, K; Brown, S; Durand, P; Bureau, J M; De Nay, D; Trinh, T H

    2001-08-01

    The nuclear DNA content of 28 taxa of Musa was assessed by flow cytometry, using line PxPC6 of Petunia hybrida as an internal standard. The 2C DNA value of Musa balbisiana (BB genome) was 1.16 pg, whereas Musa acuminata (AA genome) had an average 2C DNA value of 1.27 pg, with a difference of 11% between its subspecies. The two haploid (IC) genomes, A and B, comprising most of the edible bananas, are therefore of similar size, 0.63 pg (610 million bp) and 0.58 pg (560 million bp), respectively. The genome of diploid Musa is thus threefold that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome sizes in a set of triploid Musa cultivars or clones were quite different, with 2C DNA values ranging from 1.61 to 2.23 pg. Likewise, the genome sizes of tetraploid cultivars ranged from 1.94 to 2.37 pg (2C). Apparently, tetraploids (for instance, accession I.C.2) can have a genome size that falls within the range of triploid genome sizes, and vice versa (as in the case of accession Simili Radjah). The 2C values estimated for organs such as leaf, leaf sheath, rhizome, and flower were consistent, whereas root material gave atypical results, owing to browning. The genomic base composition of these Musa taxa had a median value of 40.8% GC (SD = 0.43%).

  16. Integrated analyses resolve conflicts over squamate reptile phylogeny and reveal unexpected placements for fossil taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod W Reeder

    Full Text Available Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes are a pivotal group whose relationships have become increasingly controversial. Squamates include >9000 species, making them the second largest group of terrestrial vertebrates. They are important medicinally and as model systems for ecological and evolutionary research. However, studies of squamate biology are hindered by uncertainty over their relationships, and some consider squamate phylogeny unresolved, given recent conflicts between molecular and morphological results. To resolve these conflicts, we expand existing morphological and molecular datasets for squamates (691 morphological characters and 46 genes, for 161 living and 49 fossil taxa, including a new set of 81 morphological characters and adding two genes from published studies and perform integrated analyses. Our results resolve higher-level relationships as indicated by molecular analyses, and reveal hidden morphological support for the molecular hypothesis (but not vice-versa. Furthermore, we find that integrating molecular, morphological, and paleontological data leads to surprising placements for two major fossil clades (Mosasauria and Polyglyphanodontia. These results further demonstrate the importance of combining fossil and molecular information, and the potential problems of estimating the placement of fossil taxa from morphological data alone. Thus, our results caution against estimating fossil relationships without considering relevant molecular data, and against placing fossils into molecular trees (e.g. for dating analyses without considering the possible impact of molecular data on their placement.

  17. Integrated analyses resolve conflicts over squamate reptile phylogeny and reveal unexpected placements for fossil taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Tod W; Townsend, Ted M; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Noonan, Brice P; Wood, Perry L; Sites, Jack W; Wiens, John J

    2015-01-01

    Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are a pivotal group whose relationships have become increasingly controversial. Squamates include >9000 species, making them the second largest group of terrestrial vertebrates. They are important medicinally and as model systems for ecological and evolutionary research. However, studies of squamate biology are hindered by uncertainty over their relationships, and some consider squamate phylogeny unresolved, given recent conflicts between molecular and morphological results. To resolve these conflicts, we expand existing morphological and molecular datasets for squamates (691 morphological characters and 46 genes, for 161 living and 49 fossil taxa, including a new set of 81 morphological characters and adding two genes from published studies) and perform integrated analyses. Our results resolve higher-level relationships as indicated by molecular analyses, and reveal hidden morphological support for the molecular hypothesis (but not vice-versa). Furthermore, we find that integrating molecular, morphological, and paleontological data leads to surprising placements for two major fossil clades (Mosasauria and Polyglyphanodontia). These results further demonstrate the importance of combining fossil and molecular information, and the potential problems of estimating the placement of fossil taxa from morphological data alone. Thus, our results caution against estimating fossil relationships without considering relevant molecular data, and against placing fossils into molecular trees (e.g. for dating analyses) without considering the possible impact of molecular data on their placement.

  18. Taxa de corte sustentável para manejo das florestas tropicais

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    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985086Existe uma grande lacuna dos planos de manejo de florestas tropicais com relação à intensidade de extração e às taxas de corte, usualmente sendo definidas de forma arbitrária. Este trabalho visa definir intensidades de corte diferenciadas para grupos de espécies arbóreas comerciais, com diferentes ritmos de crescimento, por unidade de produção, no estado do Amazonas. Utilizou-se o incremento periódico anual percentual em volume, de 26 espécies arbóreas, obtido de parcelas permanentes. O incremento periódico anual, percentual em volume, para efeito diferenciador, considerou 1% como diferença limite. Foram identificadas três intensidades de corte, para as classes comerciais: 24,4% (grupo I, 35,4% (grupo II e 42,4% (grupo III. Considerando a exploração total sustentável por hectare, para as 26 espécies, seria de 11,5 m³ha-1 com intensidade de corte de 37%. O procedimento de cálculo é simples e pode ser utilizado pelos órgãos fiscalizadores, certificadores ou legisladores como balizador do ciclo de corte e taxa de corte.

  19. Seasonality of helminth infection in wild red deer varies between individuals and between parasite taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, Gregory F; Kenyon, Fiona; Morris, Alison; Morris, Sean; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2018-03-09

    Parasitism in wild mammals can vary according to myriad intrinsic and extrinsic factors, many of which vary seasonally. However, seasonal variation in parasitism is rarely studied using repeated samples from known individuals. Here we used a wild population of individually recognized red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Isle of Rum to quantify seasonality and intrinsic factors affecting gastrointestinal helminth parasitism over the course of a year. We collected 1020 non-invasive faecal samples from 328 known individuals which we then analysed for propagules of three helminth taxa: strongyle nematodes, the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and the tissue nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi. Zero-inflated Poisson models were used to investigate how season, age and sex were associated with parasite prevalence and count intensity, while Poisson models were used to quantify individual repeatability within and between sampling seasons. Parasite intensity and prevalence varied according to all investigated factors, with opposing seasonality, age profiles and sex biases between parasite taxa. Repeatability was moderate, decreased between seasons and varied between parasites; both F. hepatica and E. cervi showed significant between-season repeatability, while strongyle nematode counts were only repeatable within-season and showed no repeatability within individuals across the year.

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of various leaf extracts of Amphoricarpos vis. (Asteraceae taxa

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    Gavrilović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of diethyl ether, 80% methanol and 50% acetone extracts of the leaves of three Amphoricarpos taxa (Asteraceae; A. neumayerianus, A. autariatus ssp. autariatus and A. autariatus ssp. bertisceus from the Balkan Peninsula were investigated. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution assay against eight bacterial and eight fungal species. The in vitro antioxidative activity was assessed by the DPPH assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. The most sensitive bacterial species were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The best antibacterial potential was obtained for the methanol extract of A. neumayerianus, while the diethyl ether extract of this species showed the lowest effect. In general, the tested extracts showed higher activity than the commercial antibiotics streptomycin and ampicillin. Also, all micromycetes were sensitive to the tested extracts. The most sensitive was Trichoderma viride. The highest and lowest antifungal effect was determined in A. a. ssp. autariatus for the diethyl ether and acetone extracts, respectively. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined in the methanol extract of A. a. autariatus. The best antioxidative activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of A. a. ssp. autariatus as comparing to matching extracts from the other two taxa.

  1. Integrated Analyses Resolve Conflicts over Squamate Reptile Phylogeny and Reveal Unexpected Placements for Fossil Taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Tod W.; Townsend, Ted M.; Mulcahy, Daniel G.; Noonan, Brice P.; Wood, Perry L.; Sites, Jack W.; Wiens, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are a pivotal group whose relationships have become increasingly controversial. Squamates include >9000 species, making them the second largest group of terrestrial vertebrates. They are important medicinally and as model systems for ecological and evolutionary research. However, studies of squamate biology are hindered by uncertainty over their relationships, and some consider squamate phylogeny unresolved, given recent conflicts between molecular and morphological results. To resolve these conflicts, we expand existing morphological and molecular datasets for squamates (691 morphological characters and 46 genes, for 161 living and 49 fossil taxa, including a new set of 81 morphological characters and adding two genes from published studies) and perform integrated analyses. Our results resolve higher-level relationships as indicated by molecular analyses, and reveal hidden morphological support for the molecular hypothesis (but not vice-versa). Furthermore, we find that integrating molecular, morphological, and paleontological data leads to surprising placements for two major fossil clades (Mosasauria and Polyglyphanodontia). These results further demonstrate the importance of combining fossil and molecular information, and the potential problems of estimating the placement of fossil taxa from morphological data alone. Thus, our results caution against estimating fossil relationships without considering relevant molecular data, and against placing fossils into molecular trees (e.g. for dating analyses) without considering the possible impact of molecular data on their placement. PMID:25803280

  2. Assessing the completeness of the fossil record using brachiopod Lazarus taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearty, W.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lazarus taxa, organisms that disappear from the fossil record only to reappear later, provide a unique opportunity to assess the completeness of the fossil record. In this study, we apply logistic regression to quantify the associations of body size, geographic extent, and species diversity with the probability of being a Lazarus genus using the Phanerozoic fossil record of brachiopods. We find that both the geographic range and species diversity of a genus are inversely associated with the probability of being a Lazarus taxon in the preceding or succeeding stage. In contrast, body size exhibits little association with the probability of becoming a Lazarus taxon. A model including species diversity and geographic extent as predictors performs best among all combinations examined, whereas a model including only shell size as a predictor performs the worst - even worse than a model that assumes Lazarus taxa are randomly drawn from all available genera. These findings suggest that geographic range and species richness data can be used to improve estimates of extensions on the observed fossil ranges of genera and, thereby, better correct for sampling effects in estimates of taxonomic diversity change through the Phanerozoic.

  3. Uma estimação Econométrica da taxa de câmbio do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Del Fiori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é modelar a taxa de câmbio do Chile, tendo por base dois modelos aplicados para a estimação da taxa de câmbio do Peru. O objetivo deste trabalho é averiguar qual dentre esses dois modelos aplicados para o caso do Peru é o mais adequado para o caso chileno, aplicando-se o critério de Akaike e o teste de Wald. Foi estimada uma relação de longo prazo (cointegração entre as variáveis do modelo. Assim, foi encontrada uma relação de longo prazo entre a taxa de câmbio e a taxa de juros e o risco-país para o caso chileno.

  4. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  5. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Plant Chemistry, Growth, Yield of Resistant Soybean, and Feeding of a Target Lepidoptera Pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifei, Zhang; Yang, Dai; Guijun, Wan; Bin, Liu; Guangnan, Xing; Fajun, Chen

    2018-04-25

    Atmospheric CO2 level arising is an indisputable fact in the future climate change, as predicted, it could influence crops and their herbivorous insect pests. The growth and development, reproduction, and consumption of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on resistant (cv. Lamar) and susceptible (cv. JLNMH) soybean grown under elevated (732.1 ± 9.99 μl/liter) and ambient (373.6 ± 9.21 μl/liter) CO2 were examined in open-top chambers from 2013 to 2015. Elevated CO2 promoted the above- and belowground-biomass accumulation and increased the root/shoot ratio of two soybean cultivars, and increased the seeds' yield for Lamar. Moreover, elevated CO2 significantly reduced the larval and pupal weight, prolonged the larval and pupal life span, and increased the feeding amount and excretion amount of two soybean cultivars. Significantly lower foliar nitrogen content and higher foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were observed in the sampled foliage of resistant and susceptible soybean cultivars grown under elevated CO2, which brought negative effects on the growth of S. litura, with the increment of foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were greater in the resistant soybean in contrast to the susceptible soybean. Furthermore, the increment of larval consumption was less than 50%, and the larval life span was prolonged more obvious of the larvae fed on resistant soybean compared with susceptible soybean under elevated CO2. It speculated that the future climatic change of atmospheric CO2 level arising would likely cause the increase of the soybean yield and the intake of S. litura, but the resistant soybean would improve the resistance of the target Lepidoptera pest, S. litura.

  6. Uncovering Clinical Features of De Novo Philadelphia Positive Myelodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Aristides; Chen, Chen; Mims, Martha; Rivero, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is cytogenetically heterogeneous and retains variable risk for acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Though not yet fully understood, there is an association between genetic abnormalities and defects in gene expression. The functional role for infrequent cytogenetic alteration remains unclear. An uncommon chromosomic abnormality is the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. Here, we report a patient with Ph+ MDS treated with low dose Dasatinib who achieved hematologic response for 7 months. In addition, we also examined the English literature on all de novo Ph + MDS cases between 1996 and 2015 to gain insight into clinical features and outcome.

  7. Perspective on Biotransformation and De Novo Biosynthesis of Licorice Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yujia; Lv, Bo; Feng, Xudong; Li, Chun

    2017-12-27

    Licorice, an important herbal medicine, is derived from the dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza genus plants. It has been widely used in food, pharmaceutical, tobacco, and cosmetics industries with high economic value. However, overexploitation of licorice resources has severely destroyed the local ecology. Therefore, producing bioactive compounds of licorice through the biotransformation and bioengineering methods is a hot spot in recent years. In this perspective, we comprehensively summarize the biotransformation of licorice constituents into high-value-added derivatives by biocatalysts. Furthermore, successful cases and the strategies for de novo biosynthesizing compounds of licorice in microbes have been summarized. This paper will provide new insights for the further research of licorice.

  8. De Novo and Recurrence of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Matthew; Abdelmalek, Manal

    2017-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developing countries. Approximately 25% of patients with NAFLD develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH-related cirrhosis is now a leading listing indication for liver transplantation in the United States. Although posttransplant survival for NASH-related cirrhosis is comparable with that of other liver diseases, many patients have features of metabolic syndrome, which can contribute to a recurrence of NAFLD or NASH. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of de novo and recurrence of NASH after liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The historical town core and traffic in Novo mesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Jankovič

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical town core of Novo mesto is subject to intolerable traffic conditions. Individual car use is suffocating the town core, but simultaneously good access is essential for shopkeepers and other inhabitants since buses don’t go there. The project proposes changes to the traffic regime, its basic goals are to redesign the town square into a pedestrian place and to eliminate transitory traffic by rerouting vehicles to less burdened side roads. It introduces short-term parking, smaller parking garages in the core and larger parking spaces on the edge and routes the buses through the town core.

  10. Model-Based GUI Testing Using Uppaal at Novo Nordisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjort, Ulrik H.; Illum, Jacob; Larsen, Kim G.; Petersen, Michael A.; Skou, Arne

    This paper details a collaboration between Aalborg University and Novo Nordiskin developing an automatic model-based test generation tool for system testing of the graphical user interface of a medical device on an embedded platform. The tool takes as input an UML Statemachine model and generates a test suite satisfying some testing criterion, such as edge or state coverage, and converts the individual test case into a scripting language that can be automatically executed against the target. The tool has significantly reduced the time required for test construction and generation, and reduced the number of test scripts while increasing the coverage.

  11. Novo-desenvolvimento, capital social e desigualdade social

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    Ana Cristina de Oliveira Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a tendência de enfrentamento da desigualdade social a partir, no campo econômico, da versão do novo-desenvolvimentismo e, no campo político e ideológico, a partir da noção de capital social, na tentativa de realizar um "capitalismo com face mais humana". Discutiremos duas ordens de questões, considerando a especificidade da formação social brasileira de capitalismo dependente: 1 a “construção de Estados fortes” para

    assegurar as condições de acumulação do capital, ampliando as margens do mercado de consumo, aliviando a pobreza e controlando possíveis tensões políticas e 2 a difusão da necessidade de construir uma sociedade em harmonia, que se traduz na incorporação da ética empreendedora dos empresários em todas as esferas sociais. Entendemos que este escopo político-econômico revela uma nova pedagogia da hegemonia, sustentada numa suposta alternativa
    de gerenciamento das novas expressões da “questão social”, voltada para educar o conformismo e ocultar o conflito de classes.
    Palavras-chave:  questão social; novo-desenvolvimentismo; capital social; inclusão forçada

  12. De novo biosynthesis of anthocyanins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Michael; Hansson, Anders; Fischer, David; Dürr, Lara; Naesby, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) are plant secondary metabolites responsible for most of the red, purple and blue colors of flowers, fruits and vegetables. They are increasingly used in the food and beverage industry as natural alternative to artificial colorants. Production of these compounds by fermentation of microorganisms would provide an attractive alternative. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for de novo production of the three basic anthocyanins, as well as the three main trans-flavan-3-ols. Enzymes from different plant sources were screened and efficient variants found for most steps of the biosynthetic pathway. However, the anthocyanidin synthase was identified as a major obstacle to efficient production. In yeast, this enzyme converts the majority of its natural substrates leucoanthocyanidins into the off-pathway flavonols. Nonetheless, de novo biosynthesis of ACNs was shown for the first time in yeast and for the first time in a single microorganism. It provides a framework for optimizing the activity of anthocyanidin synthase and represents an important step towards sustainable industrial production of these highly relevant molecules in yeast.

  13. Origins of De Novo Genes in Human and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Orera, Jorge; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Chiva, Cristina; Sabidó, Eduard; Kondova, Ivanela; Bontrop, Ronald; Marqués-Bonet, Tomàs; Albà, M Mar

    2015-12-01

    The birth of new genes is an important motor of evolutionary innovation. Whereas many new genes arise by gene duplication, others originate at genomic regions that did not contain any genes or gene copies. Some of these newly expressed genes may acquire coding or non-coding functions and be preserved by natural selection. However, it is yet unclear which is the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of de novo gene emergence. In order to obtain a comprehensive view of this process, we have performed in-depth sequencing of the transcriptomes of four mammalian species--human, chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse--and subsequently compared the assembled transcripts and the corresponding syntenic genomic regions. This has resulted in the identification of over five thousand new multiexonic transcriptional events in human and/or chimpanzee that are not observed in the rest of species. Using comparative genomics, we show that the expression of these transcripts is associated with the gain of regulatory motifs upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) and of U1 snRNP sites downstream of the TSS. In general, these transcripts show little evidence of purifying selection, suggesting that many of them are not functional. However, we find signatures of selection in a subset of de novo genes which have evidence of protein translation. Taken together, the data support a model in which frequently-occurring new transcriptional events in the genome provide the raw material for the evolution of new proteins.

  14. A simple method suitable to study de novo root organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong eChen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available De novo root organogenesis is the process in which adventitious roots regenerate from detached or wounded plant tissues or organs. In tissue culture, appropriate types and concentrations of plant hormones in the medium are critical for inducing adventitious roots. However, in natural conditions, regeneration from detached organs is likely to rely on endogenous hormones. To investigate the actions of endogenous hormones and the molecular mechanisms guiding de novo root organogenesis, we developed a simple method to imitate natural conditions for adventitious root formation by culturing Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants on B5 medium without additive hormones. Here we show that the ability of the leaf explants to regenerate roots depends on the age of the leaf and on certain nutrients in the medium. Based on these observations, we provide examples of how this method can be used in different situations, and how it can be optimized. This simple method could be used to investigate the effects of various physiological and molecular changes on the regeneration of adventitious roots. It is also useful for tracing cell lineage during the regeneration process by differential interference contrast observation of -glucuronidase staining, and by live imaging of proteins labeled with fluorescent tags.

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly of Setatria italica variety Taejin

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    Yeonhwa Jo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica belonging to the family Poaceae is an important millet that is widely cultivated in East Asia. Of the cultivated millets, the foxtail millet has the longest history and is one of the main food crops in South India and China. Moreover, foxtail millet is a model plant system for biofuel generation utilizing the C4 photosynthetic pathway. In this study, we carried out de novo transcriptome assembly for the foxtail millet variety Taejin collected from Korea using next-generation sequencing. We obtained a total of 8.676 GB raw data by paired-end sequencing. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRR3406552. The Trinity program was used to de novo assemble 145,332 transcripts. Using the TransDecoder program, we predicted 82,925 putative proteins. BLASTP was performed against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of identified proteins, resulting in 20,555 potentially novel proteins. Taken together, this study provides transcriptome data for the foxtail millet variety Taejin by RNA-Seq.

  16. De novo transcriptome assembly of the mycoheterotrophic plant Monotropa hypopitys

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    Alexey V. Beletsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monotropa hypopitys (pinesap is a non-photosynthetic obligately mycoheterotrophic plant of the family Ericaceae. It obtains the carbon and other nutrients from the roots of surrounding autotrophic trees through the associated mycorrhizal fungi. In order to understand the evolutionary changes in the plant genome associated with transition to a heterotrophic lifestyle, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of M. hypopitys using next-generation sequencing. We obtained the RNA-Seq data from flowers, flower bracts and roots with haustoria using Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. The raw data obtained in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRP069226. A total of 10.3 GB raw sequence data were obtained, corresponding to 103,357,809 raw reads. A total of 103,025,683 reads were filtered after removing low-quality reads and trimming the adapter sequences. The Trinity program was used to de novo assemble 98,349 unigens with an N50 of 1342 bp. Using the TransDecoder program, we predicted 43,505 putative proteins. 38,416 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database using BLASTX. The obtained transcriptomic data will be useful for further studies of the evolution of plant genomes upon transition to a non-photosynthetic lifestyle and the loss of photosynthesis-related functions.

  17. Ecological characterization and molecular differentiation of Culex pipiens complex taxa and Culex torrentium in eastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittra, Carina; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Vitecek, Simon; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Zechmeister, Thomas; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-11

    Culex pipiens complex taxa differ in behaviour, ecophysiology and epidemiologic importance. Despite their epidemiologic significance, information on genetic diversity, occurrence and seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of the Cx. pipiens complex is still insufficient. Assessment of seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of Culex pipiens forms and their congener Cx. torrentium is crucial for the understanding of their vector-pathogen dynamics. Female mosquitoes were trapped from April-October 2014 twice a month for a 24-h time period with BG-sentinel traps at 24 sampling sites in eastern Austria, using carbon dioxide as attractant. Ecological forms of Cx. pipiens s.l. and their hybrids were differentiated using the CQ11 locus, and Cx. pipiens forms and their congener Cx. torrentium using the ACE-2 gene. Differential exploitation of ecological niches by Cx. pipiens forms and Cx. torrentium was analysed using likelihood ratio tests. Possible effects of environmental parameters on these taxa were tested using PERMANOVA based on distance matrices and, if significant, were modelled in nMDS ordination space to estimate non-linear relationships. For this study, 1476 Culex spp. were sampled. Culex pipiens f. pipiens representing 87.33 % of the total catch was most abundant, followed by hybrids of both forms (5.62 %), Cx. torrentium (3.79 %) and Cx. pipiens f. molestus (3.25 %). Differences in proportional abundances were found between land cover classes. Ecological parameters affecting seasonal and spatial distribution of these taxa in eastern Austria are precipitation duration, air temperature, sunlight and the interaction term of precipitation amount and the Danube water level, which can be interpreted as a proxy for breeding habitat availability. The Cx. pipiens complex of eastern Austria comprises both ecologically different forms, the mainly ornithophilic form pipiens and the mainly mammalophilic and anthropophilic form molestus. Heterogeneous agricultural

  18. Coralsnake Venomics: Analyses of Venom Gland Transcriptomes and Proteomes of Six Brazilian Taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Steven D; da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Qiu, Lijun; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Saddi, Vera Aparecida; Pires de Campos Telles, Mariana; Grau, Miguel L; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2017-06-08

    Venom gland transcriptomes and proteomes of six Micrurus taxa ( M. corallinus , M. lemniscatus carvalhoi , M. lemniscatus lemniscatus , M. paraensis , M. spixii spixii , and M. surinamensis ) were investigated, providing the most comprehensive, quantitative data on Micrurus venom composition to date, and more than tripling the number of Micrurus venom protein sequences previously available. The six venomes differ dramatically. All are dominated by 2-6 toxin classes that account for 91-99% of the toxin transcripts. The M. s. spixii venome is compositionally the simplest. In it, three-finger toxins (3FTxs) and phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s) comprise >99% of the toxin transcripts, which include only four additional toxin families at levels ≥0.1%. Micrurus l. lemniscatus venom is the most complex, with at least 17 toxin families. However, in each venome, multiple structural subclasses of 3FTXs and PLA₂s are present. These almost certainly differ in pharmacology as well. All venoms also contain phospholipase B and vascular endothelial growth factors. Minor components (0.1-2.0%) are found in all venoms except that of M. s. spixii . Other toxin families are present in all six venoms at trace levels (venom components differ in each venom. Numerous novel toxin chemistries include 3FTxs with previously unknown 8- and 10-cysteine arrangements, resulting in new 3D structures and target specificities. 9-cysteine toxins raise the possibility of covalent, homodimeric 3FTxs or heterodimeric toxins with unknown pharmacologies. Probable muscarinic sequences may be reptile-specific homologs that promote hypotension via vascular mAChRs. The first complete sequences are presented for 3FTxs putatively responsible for liberating glutamate from rat brain synaptosomes. Micrurus C-type lectin-like proteins may have 6-9 cysteine residues and may be monomers, or homo- or heterodimers of unknown pharmacology. Novel KSPIs, 3× longer than any seen previously, appear to have arisen in three

  19. Coralsnake Venomics: Analyses of Venom Gland Transcriptomes and Proteomes of Six Brazilian Taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Aird

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Venom gland transcriptomes and proteomes of six Micrurus taxa (M. corallinus, M. lemniscatus carvalhoi, M. lemniscatus lemniscatus, M. paraensis, M. spixii spixii, and M. surinamensis were investigated, providing the most comprehensive, quantitative data on Micrurus venom composition to date, and more than tripling the number of Micrurus venom protein sequences previously available. The six venomes differ dramatically. All are dominated by 2–6 toxin classes that account for 91–99% of the toxin transcripts. The M. s. spixii venome is compositionally the simplest. In it, three-finger toxins (3FTxs and phospholipases A2 (PLA2s comprise >99% of the toxin transcripts, which include only four additional toxin families at levels ≥0.1%. Micrurus l. lemniscatus venom is the most complex, with at least 17 toxin families. However, in each venome, multiple structural subclasses of 3FTXs and PLA2s are present. These almost certainly differ in pharmacology as well. All venoms also contain phospholipase B and vascular endothelial growth factors. Minor components (0.1–2.0% are found in all venoms except that of M. s. spixii. Other toxin families are present in all six venoms at trace levels (<0.005%. Minor and trace venom components differ in each venom. Numerous novel toxin chemistries include 3FTxs with previously unknown 8- and 10-cysteine arrangements, resulting in new 3D structures and target specificities. 9-cysteine toxins raise the possibility of covalent, homodimeric 3FTxs or heterodimeric toxins with unknown pharmacologies. Probable muscarinic sequences may be reptile-specific homologs that promote hypotension via vascular mAChRs. The first complete sequences are presented for 3FTxs putatively responsible for liberating glutamate from rat brain synaptosomes. Micrurus C-type lectin-like proteins may have 6–9 cysteine residues and may be monomers, or homo- or heterodimers of unknown pharmacology. Novel KSPIs, 3× longer than any seen

  20. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

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    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences.

  2. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  3. Eucalyptus cloeziana AS A NEW HOST TO Hylesia paulex (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

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    Alexandre Igor Azevedo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified Lepidoptera species was found defoliating Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae in a cerrado area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pupae of this insect, collected in the area, were brought to the laboratory and maintained in Petri dishes (9.0 cm x 1.5 cm under 25 ± 2oC, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and 12 hours photophase to obtain adults and eggs. This insect was identified as Hylesia paulex Dognin (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, and, in that way, the objective of the present study was to register for the first time its herbivory in E. cloeziana plants. Newly-emerged caterpillars were reared in 10 plastic pots (500ml, with 30 caterpillars per pot and fed, daily, with fresh leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae. The egg incubation period of H. paulex was 32.00 ± 1.19 days. The total duration of the seven instars of this insect was 67.83 ± 0.84 days. Hylesia paulex completed its life cycle with E. cloeziana plants, what proves its adaptability to this kind of exotic Myrtaceae in Brazil.

  4. Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae larvae cause severe economic damage on cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae, in the horticultural fields in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Overuse of broad spectrum insecticides affects the action of natural enemies of this insect on cabbage. The objectives of this work were to identify the parasitoids of P. xylostella and to determine their influence on larva and pupa mortality. Weekly collections of larvae and pupae were randomly conducted in cabbage crops during spring 2006 and 2007. The immature forms collected were classified according to their developmental stage: L1 and L2 (Ls = small larvae, L3 (Lm = medium larvae, L4 (Ll = large larvae, pre-pupae and pupae (P. Each individual was observed daily in the laboratory until the adult pest or parasitoid emergence. We identified parasitoids, the number of instar and the percentage of mortality of P. xylostella for each species of parasitoid. Parasitoids recorded were: Diadegma insulare (Cresson, 1875 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and an unidentified species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera. Besides parasitoids, an unidentified entomopathogenic fungus was also recorded in 2006 and 2007. In 2006, the most successful parasitoids were D. insulare and O. sokolowskii, while in 2007 only D. insulare exerted a satisfactory control and it attacked the early instars of the pest.

  5. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  6. Poorly known microbial taxa dominate the microbiome of permafrost thaw ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzbacher, Christian; Nilsson, R Henrik; Rautio, Milla; Peura, Sari

    2017-08-01

    In the transition zone of the shifting permafrost border, thaw ponds emerge as hotspots of microbial activity, processing the ancient carbon freed from the permafrost. We analyzed the microbial succession across a gradient of recently emerged to older ponds using three molecular markers: one universal, one bacterial and one fungal. Age was a major modulator of the microbial community of the thaw ponds. Surprisingly, typical freshwater taxa comprised only a small fraction of the community. Instead, thaw ponds of all age classes were dominated by enigmatic bacterial and fungal phyla. Our results on permafrost thaw ponds lead to a revised perception of the thaw pond ecosystem and their microbes, with potential implications for carbon and nutrient cycling in this increasingly important class of freshwaters.

  7. Morphological diagnoses of higher taxa in Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata in support of a new classification

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    Timothy D. O'Hara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new classification of Ophiuroidea, considering family rank and above, is presented. The new family and superfamily taxa in O’Hara et al. (2017 were proposed to ensure a better readability of the new phylogeny but are unavailable under the provisions of the ICZN. Here, the morphological diagnoses to all 33 families and five superfamilies are provided. Ten new families, Ophiosphalmidae fam. nov., Ophiomusaidae fam. nov., Ophiocamacidae fam. nov., Ophiopteridae fam. nov., Clarkcomidae fam. nov., Ophiopezidae fam. nov., Ophiernidae fam. nov., Amphilimnidae fam. nov., Ophiothamnidae fam. nov. and Ophiopholidae fam. nov., are described. The family Ophiobyrsidae Matsumoto, 1915, not yet discovered in the previous publication, is added, based on new molecular data. A new phylogenetic reconstruction is presented. Definitions of difficult-to-apply morphological characters are given.

  8. TESTING BAYESIAN ALGORITHMS TO DETECT GENETIC STRUCTURE IN TWO CLOSELY RELATED OAK TAXA

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    Cristian Mihai Enescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the Bayesian algorithm implemented in the software STRUCTURE in order to detect the number of clusters, by using microsatellite data from four oak species. Several assignment models, with or without a priori grouping of individuals to species, were proposed. Better results were obtained by using the sampling location information and when only two taxa were analyzed. Particularly, pedunculate oak and sessile oak formed distinct clusters whatever the assignment model we use. By contrast, no separation between the two oaks from series Lanuginosae was observed. This can be explained, on one hand, by the small sampling size for Italian oak, or by the genetic similarities of the two pubescent oaks, namely Quercus pubescens and Q. virgiliana, on the other hand. Our findings support the hypothesis according which Italian oak is an intraspecific taxonomic unit of pubescent oak.

  9. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G

    2003-04-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere.

  10. Ecological patterns, diversity and core taxa of microbial communities in groundwater-fed rapid gravity filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    the second most and most abundant fraction in PFs (27±23%) and AFs (45.2±23%), respectively, and were far more abundant than typical proteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, suggesting a physiology beyond nitrite oxidation for Nitrospira. Within the core taxa, sequences closely related to types...... with ability to oxidize ammonium, nitrite, iron, manganese and methane as primary growth substrate were identified and dominated in both PFs (73.6±6%) and AFs (61.4±21%), suggesting their functional importance. Surprisingly, operational taxonomic unit richness correlated strongly and positively with sampling...... location in the drinking water treatment plant (from PFs to AFs), and a weaker negative correlation held for evenness. Significant spatial heterogeneity in microbial community composition was detected in both PFs and AFs, and was higher in the AFs. This is the first comprehensive documentation of microbial...

  11. Higher taxa as surrogates of species richness of spiders in insect-resistant transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Lin; Min-Sheng You; Liette Vasseur; Guang Yang; Feng-Jing Liu; Feng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity assessments can often be time- and resource-consuming.Several alternative approaches have been proposed to reduce sampling efforts,including indicator taxa and surrogates.In this study,we examine the reliability of higher taxon surrogates to predict species richness in two experimental rice fields of Fujian Province,southeastern China during 2005 and 2009.Spider samples in transgenic and nontransgenic plots were collected using a suction sampler.Both the genus and family surrogates had significant and positive linear relationships with species richness in the transgenic and nontransgenic rice fields.The rice varieties did not significantly influence the linear relationships.Our findings suggest that higher-taxon surrogacy could be a useful alternative to complete species inventory for risk assessments of transgenic rice.

  12. Theoretical size distribution of fossil taxa: analysis of a null model

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    Hughes Barry D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article deals with the theoretical size distribution (of number of sub-taxa of a fossil taxon arising from a simple null model of macroevolution. Model New species arise through speciations occurring independently and at random at a fixed probability rate, while extinctions either occur independently and at random (background extinctions or cataclysmically. In addition new genera are assumed to arise through speciations of a very radical nature, again assumed to occur independently and at random at a fixed probability rate. Conclusion The size distributions of the pioneering genus (following a cataclysm and of derived genera are determined. Also the distribution of the number of genera is considered along with a comparison of the probability of a monospecific genus with that of a monogeneric family.

  13. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  14. Host-specificity among abundant and rare taxa in the sponge microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveillaud, Julie; Maignien, Loïs; Murat Eren, A; Huber, Julie A; Apprill, Amy; Sogin, Mitchell L; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Microbial communities have a key role in the physiology of the sponge host, and it is therefore essential to understand the stability and specificity of sponge-symbiont associations. Host-specific bacterial associations spanning large geographic distance are widely acknowledged in sponges. However, the full spectrum of specificity remains unclear. In particular, it is not known whether closely related sponges host similar or very different microbiota over wide bathymetric and geographic gradients, and whether specific associations extend to the rare members of the sponge microbiome. Using the ultra-deep Illumina sequencing technology, we conducted a comparison of sponge bacterial communities in seven closely related Hexadella species with a well-resolved host phylogeny, as well as of a distantly related sponge Mycale. These samples spanned unprecedentedly large bathymetric (15-960 m) gradients and varying European locations. In addition, this study included a bacterial community analysis of the local background seawater for both Mycale and the widespread deep-sea taxa Hexadella cf. dedritifera. We observed a striking diversity of microbes associated with the sponges, spanning 47 bacterial phyla. The data did not reveal any Hexadella microbiota co-speciation pattern, but confirmed sponge-specific and species-specific host-bacteria associations, even within extremely low abundant taxa. Oligotyping analysis also revealed differential enrichment preferences of closely related Nitrospira members in closely related sponges species. Overall, these results demonstrate highly diverse, remarkably specific and stable sponge-bacteria associations that extend to members of the rare biosphere at a very fine phylogenetic scale, over significant geographic and bathymetric gradients.

  15. Biomarker responses to environmental contamination in estuaries: A comparative multi-taxa approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Irina A; Reis-Santos, Patrick; França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique; Fonseca, Vanessa F

    2017-08-01

    Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems subjected to numerous anthropogenic pressures with consequent environmental quality degradation. In this study, multiple biomarker responses [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage (DNAd)] were determined in two fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Pomatoschistus microps) and four macroinvertebrate species (Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon, Hediste diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) from the Ria de Aveiro and Tejo estuaries over distinct months. Two sites per estuarine system were selected based on anthropogenic pressures and magnitude of environmental contamination. Antioxidant enzyme activities in fish species suggested a ubiquitous response to oxidative stress, while biotransformation and effect biomarkers exhibited higher spatial and temporal variation. In invertebrate species, biotransformation enzyme activity was clearly less variable than in fish evidencing lower xenobiotic transformation capability. Overall, largest biomarker responses were found in the most contaminated sites (Tejo), yet species-specific patterns were evident. These should be factored in multi-taxa approaches, considering that the differential functional traits of species, such as habitat use, life-stage, feeding or physiology can influence exposure routes and biomarker responses. The Integrated Biomarker Response index highlighted patterns in biomarker responses which were not immediately evident when analyzing biomarkers individually. Overall, results provided insights into the complexity of species responses to contamination in naturally varying estuarine environments. Ultimately, multi-taxa and multi-biomarker approaches provide a comprehensive and complementary view of ecosystem health, encompassing diverse forms of biological integration and exposure routes, and allow the validation of results among markers

  16. Comparative genomics in the Asteraceae reveals little evidence for parallel evolutionary change in invasive taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Bock, Dan G; Hahn, Min A; Heredia, Sylvia M; Turner, Kathryn G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-05-01

    Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has given rise to many notorious invasive species. Using publicly available transcriptome assemblies from 35 Asteraceae, including six major invasive species, we examined evidence for micro- and macro-evolutionary genomic changes associated with invasion. To detect episodes of positive selection repeated across multiple introductions, we conducted comparisons between native and introduced genotypes from six focal species and identified genes with elevated rates of amino acid change (dN/dS). We then looked for evidence of positive selection at a broader phylogenetic scale across all taxa. As invasive species may experience founder events during colonization and spread, we also looked for evidence of increased genetic load in introduced genotypes. We rarely found evidence for parallel changes in orthologous genes in the intraspecific comparisons, but in some cases we identified changes in members of the same gene family. Using among-species comparisons, we detected positive selection in 0.003-0.69% and 2.4-7.8% of the genes using site and stochastic branch-site models, respectively. These genes had diverse putative functions, including defence response, stress response and herbicide resistance, although there was no clear pattern in the GO terms. There was no indication that introduced genotypes have a higher proportion of deleterious alleles than native genotypes in the six focal species, suggesting multiple introductions and admixture mitigated the impact of drift. Our findings provide little evidence for common genomic responses in invasive taxa of the Asteraceae and hence suggest that multiple evolutionary pathways may lead to adaptation during introduction and spread in these species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Molecular evolutionary patterns of NAD+/Sirtuin aging signaling pathway across taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Gaur

    Full Text Available A deeper understanding of the conserved molecular mechanisms in different taxa have been made possible only because of the evolutionary conservation of crucial signaling pathways. In the present study, we explored the molecular evolutionary pattern of selection signatures in 51 species for 10 genes which are important components of NAD+/Sirtuin pathway and have already been directly linked to lifespan extension in worms and mice. Selection pressure analysis using PAML program revealed that MRPS5 and PPARGC1A were under significant constraints because of their functional significance. FOXO3a also displayed strong purifying selection. All three sirtuins, which were SIRT1, SIRT2 and SIRT6, displayed a great degree of conservation between taxa, which is consistent with the previous report. A significant evolutionary constraint is seen on the anti-oxidant gene, SOD3. As expected, TP53 gene was under significant selection pressure in mammals, owing to its major role in tumor progression. Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP genes displayed the most sites under positive selection. Further 3D structural analysis of PARP1 and PARP2 protein revealed that some of these positively selected sites caused a change in the electrostatic potential of the protein structure, which may allow a change in its interaction with other proteins and molecules ultimately leading to difference in the function. Although the functional significance of the positively selected sites could not be established in the variants databases, yet it will be interesting to see if these sites actually affect the function of PARP1 and PARP2.

  18. Determining Clostridium difficile intra-taxa diversity by mining multilocus sequence typing databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Marina; Ríos-Chaparro, Dora Inés; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Ramírez, Juan David

    2017-03-14

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a highly discriminatory typing strategy; it is reproducible and scalable. There is a MLST scheme for Clostridium difficile (CD), a gram positive bacillus causing different pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. This work was aimed at describing the frequency of sequence types (STs) and Clades (C) reported and evalute the intra-taxa diversity in the CD MLST database (CD-MLST-db) using an MLSA approach. Analysis of 1778 available isolates showed that clade 1 (C1) was the most frequent worldwide (57.7%), followed by C2 (29.1%). Regarding sequence types (STs), it was found that ST-1, belonging to C2, was the most frequent. The isolates analysed came from 17 countries, mostly from the United Kingdom (UK) (1541 STs, 87.0%). The diversity of the seven housekeeping genes in the MLST scheme was evaluated, and alleles from the profiles (STs), for identifying CD population structure. It was found that adk and atpA are conserved genes allowing a limited amount of clusters to be discriminated; however, different genes such as drx, glyA and particularly sodA showed high diversity indexes and grouped CD populations in many clusters, suggesting that these genes' contribution to CD typing should be revised. It was identified that CD STs reported to date have a mostly clonal population structure with foreseen events of recombination; however, one group of STs was not assigned to a clade being highly different containing at least nine well-supported clusters, suggesting a greater amount of clades for CD. This study shows the usefulness of CD-MLST-db as a tool for studying CD distribution and population structure, identifying the need for reviewing the usefulness of sodA as housekeeping gene within the MLST scheme and suggesting the existence of a greater amount of CD clades. The study also shows the plausible exchange of genetic material between STs, contributing towards intra-taxa genetic diversity.

  19. Taxas de eventos para as fontes astrofísicas do detector Mario Schenberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, C. S.; Araujo, J. C. N.; Miranda, O. D.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg será sensível a sinais que cheguem à Terra com amplitude h~10-21 e dentro da faixa em frequências que varia de 3,0 a 3,4 kHz. As principais fontes astrofísicas em condições de gerar um sinal detectável pela antena Schenberg são: colapsos estelares que produzam eventos do tipo supernova; instabilidades hidrodinâmicas em estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos modos fluído (modos f) de estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos primeiros modos quadrupolares de buracos negros com massa ~ 3,8 M¤; coalescências de estrelas de nêutrons e buracos negros em sistemas binários e, ainda, espiralações de mini-buracos negros. Neste trabalho nós determinamos as taxas de eventos para o Schenberg associadas a dois tipos de fontes: através da de-excitação dos modos f de estrelas de nêutrons e através da coalescência de mini-buracos negros de 0,5 M¤ (que atualmente têm sido colocados como possíveis candidatos a objetos massivos do halo Galáctico). Nós mostramos que esses tipos de fontes poderão produzir sinais em ondas gravitacionais com uma taxa em torno de um evento por ano dentro da banda do Schenberg.

  20. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  1. Diverse, rare microbial taxa responded to the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea hydrocarbon plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Sara; Grim, Sharon; Sogin, Mitchell; Bracco, Annalisa; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; Joye, Samantha B

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil well blowout generated an enormous plume of dispersed hydrocarbons that substantially altered the Gulf of Mexico's deep-sea microbial community. A significant enrichment of distinct microbial populations was observed, yet, little is known about the abundance and richness of specific microbial ecotypes involved in gas, oil and dispersant biodegradation in the wake of oil spills. Here, we document a previously unrecognized diversity of closely related taxa affiliating with Cycloclasticus, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae and describe their spatio-temporal distribution in the Gulf's deepwater, in close proximity to the discharge site and at increasing distance from it, before, during and after the discharge. A highly sensitive, computational method (oligotyping) applied to a data set generated from 454-tag pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene V4-V6 regions, enabled the detection of population dynamics at the sub-operational taxonomic unit level (0.2% sequence similarity). The biogeochemical signature of the deep-sea samples was assessed via total cell counts, concentrations of short-chain alkanes (C1-C5), nutrients, (colored) dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, as well as methane oxidation rates. Statistical analysis elucidated environmental factors that shaped ecologically relevant dynamics of oligotypes, which likely represent distinct ecotypes. Major hydrocarbon degraders, adapted to the slow-diffusive natural hydrocarbon seepage in the Gulf of Mexico, appeared unable to cope with the conditions encountered during the DWH spill or were outcompeted. In contrast, diverse, rare taxa increased rapidly in abundance, underscoring the importance of specialized sub-populations and potential ecotypes during massive deep-sea oil discharges and perhaps other large-scale perturbations.

  2. Towards stressor-specific macroinvertebrate indices: Which traits and taxonomic groups are associated with vulnerable and tolerant taxa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Elisabeth; Haase, Peter; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sundermann, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring of macroinvertebrate communities is frequently used to define the ecological health status of rivers. Ideally, biomonitoring should also give an indication on the major stressors acting on the macroinvertebrate communities supporting the selection of appropriate management measures. However, most indices are affected by more than one stressor. Biological traits (e.g. size, generation time, reproduction) could potentially lead to more stressor-specific indices. However, such an approach has rarely been tested. In this study we classify 324 macroinvertebrate taxa as vulnerable (decreasing abundances) or tolerant (increasing abundances) along 21 environmental gradients (i.e. nutrients, major ions, oxygen and micropollutants) from 422 monitoring sites in Germany using Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN). Subsequently, we investigate which biological traits and taxonomic groups are associated with taxa classified as vulnerable or tolerant with regard to specific gradients. The response of most taxa towards different gradients was similar and especially high for correlated gradients. Traits associated with vulnerable taxa across most gradients included: larval aquatic life stages, isolated cemented eggs, reproductive cycle per year macrophytes, microphytes, silt or mud and a body size >2-4cm. Our results question whether stressor-specific indices based on macroinvertebrate assemblages can be achieved using single traits, because we observed that similar taxa responded to different gradients and also similar traits were associated with vulnerable and tolerant taxa across a variety of water quality gradients. Future studies should examine whether combinations of traits focusing on specific taxonomic groups achieve higher stressor specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined "de novo" and "ex novo" lipid fermentation in a mix-medium of corncob acid hydrolysate and soybean oil by Trichosporon dermatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Luo, Mu-Tan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Qi, Gao-Xiang; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Can; Li, Hai-Long; Chen, Xin-De

    2017-01-01

    Microbial oil is one important bio-product for its important function in energy, chemical, and food industry. Finding suitable substrates is one key issue for its industrial application. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates can be utilized by oleaginous microorganisms with two different bio-pathways (" de novo " lipid fermentation and " ex novo " lipid fermentation). To date, most of the research on lipid fermentation has focused mainly on only one fermentation pathway and little work was carried out on both " de novo " and " ex novo " lipid fermentation simultaneously; thus, the advantages of both lipid fermentation cannot be fulfilled comprehensively. In this study, corncob acid hydrolysate with soybean oil was used as a mix-medium for combined " de novo " and " ex novo " lipid fermentation by oleaginous yeast Trichosporon dermatis . Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates (sugars and soybean oil) in the medium can be utilized simultaneously and efficiently by T. dermatis . Different fermentation modes were compared and the batch mode was the most suitable for the combined fermentation. The influence of soybean oil concentration, inoculum size, and initial pH on the lipid fermentation was evaluated and 20 g/L soybean oil, 5% inoculum size, and initial pH 6.0 were suitable for this bioprocess. By this technology, the lipid composition of extracellular hydrophobic substrate (soybean oil) can be modified. Although adding emulsifier showed little beneficial effect on lipid production, it can modify the intracellular lipid composition of T. dermatis . The present study proves the potential and possibility of combined " de novo " and " ex novo " lipid fermentation. This technology can use hydrophilic and hydrophobic sustainable bio-resources to generate lipid feedstock for the production of biodiesel or other lipid-based chemical compounds and to treat some special wastes such as oil-containing wastewater.

  4. 76 FR 68767 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0689] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification Process... for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification Process (Evaluation of...

  5. De novo mutation in the dopamine transporter gene associates dopamine dysfunction with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, P J; Campbell, N G; Sharma, S

    2013-01-01

    De novo genetic variation is an important class of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, whole-exome sequencing of ASD families has identified a novel de novo missense mutation in the human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT) gene, which results in a Thr to Met substitution...

  6. De novo mutations in synaptic transmission genes including DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p...... = 8.2 × 10(-4)), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have...... analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the "classical" epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1...

  7. Genes from scratch--the evolutionary fate of de novo genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötterer, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Although considered an extremely unlikely event, many genes emerge from previously noncoding genomic regions. This review covers the entire life cycle of such de novo genes. Two competing hypotheses about the process of de novo gene birth are discussed as well as the high death rate of de novo genes. Despite the high death rate, some de novo genes are retained and remain functional, even in distantly related species, through their integration into gene networks. Further studies combining gene expression with ribosome profiling in multiple populations across different species will be instrumental for an improved understanding of the evolutionary processes operating on de novo genes. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Object-Based Image Analysis for Detection of Japanese Knotweed s.l. taxa (Polygonaceae in Wales (UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jones

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Knotweed s.l. taxa are amongst the most aggressive vascular plant Invasive Alien Species (IAS in the world. These taxa form dense, suppressive monocultures and are persistent, pervasive invaders throughout the more economically developed countries (MEDCs of the world. The current paper utilises the Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA approach of Definiens Imaging Developer software, in combination with very high spatial resolution (VHSR colour infra-red (CIR and visible‑band (RGB aerial photography in order to detect Japanese Knotweed s.l. taxa in Wales (UK. An algorithm was created using Definiens in order to detect these taxa, using variables found to effectively distinguish them from landscape and vegetation features. The results of the detection algorithm were accurate, as confirmed by field validation and desk‑based studies. Further, these results may be incorporated into Geographical Information Systems (GIS research as they are readily transferable as vector polygons (shapefiles. The successful detection results developed within the Definiens software should enable greater management and control efficacy. Further to this, the basic principles of the detection process could enable detection of these taxa worldwide, given the (relatively limited technical requirements necessary to conduct further analyses.

  9. Multiple stressor effects on marine infauna: responses of estuarine taxa and functional traits to sedimentation, nutrient and metal loading

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne

    2017-09-14

    Sedimentation, nutrients and metal loading to coastal environments are increasing, associated with urbanization and global warming, hence there is a growing need to predict ecological responses to such change. Using a regression technique we predicted how maximum abundance of 20 macrobenthic taxa and 22 functional traits separately and interactively responded to these key stressors. The abundance of most taxa declined in response to sedimentation and metal loading while a unimodal response was often associated with nutrient loading. Optimum abundances for both taxa and traits occurred at relatively low stressor levels, highlighting the vulnerability of estuaries to increasing stressor loads. Individual taxa were more susceptible to stress than traits, suggesting that functional traits may be less sensitive for detecting changes in ecosystem health. Multiplicative effects were more common than additive interactions. The observed sensitivity of most taxa to increasing sedimentation and metal loading and the documented interaction effects between multiple stressors have important implications for understanding and managing the ecological consequences of eutrophication, sedimentation and contaminants on coastal ecosystems.

  10. Peptide de novo sequencing of mixture tandem mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Hotta, Stéphanie Yuki Kolbeck; Braga, Thiago Verano

    2016-01-01

    they decrease the identification performance using database search engines. De novo sequencing approaches are expected to be even more sensitive to the reduction in mass spectrum quality resulting from peptide precursor co-isolation and thus prone to false identifications. The deconvolution approach matched...... complementary b-, y-ions to each precursor peptide mass, which allowed the creation of virtual spectra containing sequence specific fragment ions of each co-isolated peptide. Deconvolution processing resulted in equally efficient identification rates but increased the absolute number of correctly sequenced...... peptides. The improvement was in the range of 20–35% additional peptide identifications for a HeLa lysate sample. Some correct sequences were identified only using unprocessed spectra; however, the number of these was lower than those where improvement was obtained by mass spectral deconvolution. Tight...

  11. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Esther [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Kaech, Andres [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Lucas, Miriam S. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  12. De-novo design of antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Zeitler

    Full Text Available This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of "healthy" food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents.

  13. De novo SOX11 mutations cause Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Koshimizu, Eriko; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Phadke, Shubha; Kou, Ikuyo; Shiina, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshifumi; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Shintaro; Yamashita, Michiaki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kodera, Hirofumi; Miyatake, Satoko; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Ikegawa, Shiro; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2014-06-02

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is a congenital disorder characterized by growth deficiency, intellectual disability, microcephaly, characteristic facial features and hypoplastic nails of the fifth fingers and/or toes. We previously identified mutations in five genes encoding subunits of the BAF complex, in 55% of CSS patients. Here we perform whole-exome sequencing in additional CSS patients, identifying de novo SOX11 mutations in two patients with a mild CSS phenotype. sox11a/b knockdown in zebrafish causes brain abnormalities, potentially explaining the brain phenotype of CSS. SOX11 is the downstream transcriptional factor of the PAX6-BAF complex, highlighting the importance of the BAF complex and SOX11 transcriptional network in brain development.

  14. De novo transcriptome assembly of shrimp Palaemon serratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Perina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp Palaemon serratus is a coastal decapod crustacean with a high commercial value. It is harvested for human consumption. In this study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq 2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of P. serratus. RNA was isolated from muscle of adults individuals and, from a pool of larvae. A total number of 4 cDNA libraries were constructed, using the TruSeq RNA Sample Preparation Kit v2. The raw data in this study was deposited in NCBI SRA database with study accession number of SRP090769. The obtained data were subjected to de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity software, and coding regions were predicted by TransDecoder. We used Blastp and Sma3s to annotate the identified proteins. The transcriptome data could provide some insight into the understanding of genes involved in the larval development and metamorphosis.

  15. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang; Huang, Shujia; Sun, Yuhui; Tong, Xin; Xie, Yinlong; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Hailong; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Jian; Li, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Fang; Sun, Peng; Liu, Siyang; Gao, Peng; Huang, Haodong; Sun, Jing; Chen, Dan; He, Guangzhu; Huang, Weihua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Yue; Tellier, Laurent C A M; Liu, Xiao; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Bolund, Lars; Krogh, Anders; Kristiansen, Karsten; Drmanac, Radoje; Drmanac, Snezana; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Yingrui; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should aid in translating genotypes to phenotypes for the development of personalized medicine.

  16. Application of Generative Autoencoder in De Novo Molecular Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Olivecrona, Marcus; Engkvist, Ola; Bajorath, Jürgen; Chen, Hongming

    2018-01-01

    A major challenge in computational chemistry is the generation of novel molecular structures with desirable pharmacological and physiochemical properties. In this work, we investigate the potential use of autoencoder, a deep learning methodology, for de novo molecular design. Various generative autoencoders were used to map molecule structures into a continuous latent space and vice versa and their performance as structure generator was assessed. Our results show that the latent space preserves chemical similarity principle and thus can be used for the generation of analogue structures. Furthermore, the latent space created by autoencoders were searched systematically to generate novel compounds with predicted activity against dopamine receptor type 2 and compounds similar to known active compounds not included in the trainings set were identified. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. De novo development of artistic creativity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2011-10-01

    The case of an 82-year-old female with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), who developed unusual artistic creativity after development of her disease, is described. The possible pathogenetic mechanism is discussed. The patient showed no inclination toward visual arts during her premorbid years. However, 4 years after development of AD suggestive symptoms she started painting beautiful pictures rather impulsively. Some such paintings have been appreciated even by a qualified art expert. Such de novo development of artistic creativity had been described earlier in subjects with the semantic form of fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), but not in AD. The prevailing concept of lateralized compromise and paradoxical functional facilitation, proposed in connection with FTD subjects, may not be applicable in AD subjects where the affection is more diffuse and more posterior in the brain. Hence, the likely pathogenetic mechanism involved in the case described may remain uncertain. Possibilities are discussed.

  18. Novo teste para diagnóstico das afasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Albernaz

    1953-06-01

    Full Text Available Um novo teste para diagnóstico e contrôle do tratamento das diferentes formas de afasia, especialmente adaptado para a língua portuguêsa, é apresentado e descrito em detalhe. O teste, que será de valor para clínicos e psicólogos interessados no tratamento e reabilitação de pacientes afásicos, se executa em cêrca de 30 minutos, interpreta-se fàcilmente e fornece os elementos necessários para o planejamento da reeducação da linguagem. Além disso, a repetição do teste de tempos em tempos indicará os progressos do paciente e sugerirá modificações do plano de tratamento no momento oportuno.

  19. De novo identification of viral pathogens from cell culture hologenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patowary Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast, specific identification and surveillance of pathogens is the cornerstone of any outbreak response system, especially in the case of emerging infectious diseases and viral epidemics. This process is generally tedious and time-consuming thus making it ineffective in traditional settings. The added complexity in these situations is the non-availability of pure isolates of pathogens as they are present as mixed genomes or hologenomes. Next-generation sequencing approaches offer an attractive solution in this scenario as it provides adequate depth of sequencing at fast and affordable costs, apart from making it possible to decipher complex interactions between genomes at a scale that was not possible before. The widespread application of next-generation sequencing in this field has been limited by the non-availability of an efficient computational pipeline to systematically analyze data to delineate pathogen genomes from mixed population of genomes or hologenomes. Findings We applied next-generation sequencing on a sample containing mixed population of genomes from an epidemic with appropriate processing and enrichment. The data was analyzed using an extensive computational pipeline involving mapping to reference genome sets and de-novo assembly. In depth analysis of the data generated revealed the presence of sequences corresponding to Japanese encephalitis virus. The genome of the virus was also independently de-novo assembled. The presence of the virus was in addition, verified using standard molecular biology techniques. Conclusions Our approach can accurately identify causative pathogens from cell culture hologenome samples containing mixed population of genomes and in principle can be applied to patient hologenome samples without any background information. This methodology could be widely applied to identify and isolate pathogen genomes and understand their genomic variability during outbreaks.

  20. The limits of de novo DNA motif discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Simcha

    Full Text Available A major challenge in molecular biology is reverse-engineering the cis-regulatory logic that plays a major role in the control of gene expression. This program includes searching through DNA sequences to identify "motifs" that serve as the binding sites for transcription factors or, more generally, are predictive of gene expression across cellular conditions. Several approaches have been proposed for de novo motif discovery-searching sequences without prior knowledge of binding sites or nucleotide patterns. However, unbiased validation is not straightforward. We consider two approaches to unbiased validation of discovered motifs: testing the statistical significance of a motif using a DNA "background" sequence model to represent the null hypothesis and measuring performance in predicting membership in gene clusters. We demonstrate that the background models typically used are "too null," resulting in overly optimistic assessments of significance, and argue that performance in predicting TF binding or expression patterns from DNA motifs should be assessed by held-out data, as in predictive learning. Applying this criterion to common motif discovery methods resulted in universally poor performance, although there is a marked improvement when motifs are statistically significant against real background sequences. Moreover, on synthetic data where "ground truth" is known, discriminative performance of all algorithms is far below the theoretical upper bound, with pronounced "over-fitting" in training. A key conclusion from this work is that the failure of de novo discovery approaches to accurately identify motifs is basically due to statistical intractability resulting from the fixed size of co-regulated gene clusters, and thus such failures do not necessarily provide evidence that unfound motifs are not active biologically. Consequently, the use of prior knowledge to enhance motif discovery is not just advantageous but necessary. An implementation of

  1. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all

  2. Pollen morphology and its relationship to the taxonomy of the some taxa of helichrysum gaertner (asteraceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiran, O.; Bagci, E.

    2017-01-01

    Palynological studies of Helichrysum chionophilum, Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum arenarium subsp. aucheri, Helichrysum graveolens, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum and H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum (Asteraceae) from Turkey have been carried out. H. chionophilum, H. noeanum and H. arenarium subsp. aucheri are endemics to Turkey. Pollen features of both taxa were observed with the Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pollen type of both taxa were determined as tricolporate, pollen shapes were spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, reticular pollen ornamentation was observed. The studies show that the pollen of the six taxa are very similar regarding pollen shapes, apertures, and ornamentation, but may be distinguished by colpus length (Clg), pore width (Plt) and pore length (Plg). The findings obtained from the study are discussed with each other and the genus patterns. (author)

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis of lufenuron-resistant and susceptible strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Antonio Rogério Bezerra; Fresia, Pablo; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis; Omoto, Celso

    2015-11-21

    The evolution of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has resulted in large economic losses and disturbances to the environment and agroecosystems. Resistance to lufenuron, a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor insecticide, was recently documented in Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda. Thus, we utilized large-scale cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis) to compare the pattern of gene expression between lufenuron-resistant (LUF-R) and susceptible (LUF-S) S. larvae in an attempt to identify the molecular basis behind the resistance mechanism(s) of S. frugiperda to this insecticide. A transcriptome was assembled using approximately 19.6 million 100 bp-long single-end reads, which generated 18,506 transcripts with a N50 of 996 bp. A search against the NCBI non-redundant database generated 51.1% (9,457) functionally annotated transcripts. A large portion of the alignments were homologous to insects, with the majority (45%) being similar to sequences of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Moreover, 10% of the alignments were similar to sequences of various species of Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with 3% of them being similar to sequences of S. frugiperda. A comparative analysis of the gene expression between LUF-R and LUF-S S. frugiperda larvae identified 940 differentially expressed transcripts (p ≤ 0.05, t-test; fold change ≥ 4). Six of them were associated with cuticle metabolism. Of those, four were overexpressed in LUF-R larvae. The machinery involved with the detoxification process was represented by 35 differentially expressed transcripts; 24 of them belonging to P450 monooxygenases, four to glutathione-S-transferases, six to carboxylases and one to sulfotransferases. RNA-Seq analysis was validated for a number of selected candidate transcripts by using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). The gene expression profile of LUF-R larvae of S. frugiperda differs from LUF-S larvae. In general, gene expression is much

  4. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Results Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L., Manduca sexta (L., Pieris rapae (L. and Heliothis virescens (F. treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel, and Lymantria dispar (L. treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII. Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII following antibiotic

  5. Identifying the plant-associated microbiome across aquatic and terrestrial environments: the effects of amplification method on taxa discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackrel, Sara L. [Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, 1101 E 57th Street Chicago IL 60637 USA; Owens, Sarah M. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Gilbert, Jack A. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; The Microbiome Center, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave Chicago IL 60637 USA; Pfister, Catherine A. [Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, 1101 E 57th Street Chicago IL 60637 USA

    2017-01-25

    Plants in terrestrial and aquatic environments contain a diverse microbiome. Yet, the chloroplast and mitochondria organelles of the plant eukaryotic cell originate from free-living cyanobacteria and Rickettsiales. This represents a challenge for sequencing the plant microbiome with universal primers, as ~99% of 16S rRNA sequences may consist of chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences. Peptide nucleic acid clamps offer a potential solution by blocking amplification of host-associated sequences. We assessed the efficacy of chloroplast and mitochondria-blocking clamps against a range of microbial taxa from soil, freshwater and marine environments. While we found that the mitochondrial blocking clamps appear to be a robust method for assessing animal-associated microbiota, Proteobacterial 16S rRNA binds to the chloroplast-blocking clamp, resulting in a strong sequencing bias against this group. We attribute this bias to a conserved 14-bp sequence in the Proteobacteria that matches the 17-bp chloroplast-blocking clamp sequence. By scanning the Greengenes database, we provide a reference list of nearly 1500 taxa that contain this 14-bp sequence, including 48 families such as the Rhodobacteraceae, Phyllobacteriaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Kiloniellaceae and Caulobacteraceae. To determine where these taxa are found in nature, we mapped this taxa reference list against the Earth Microbiome Project database. These taxa are abundant in a variety of environments, particularly aquatic and semiaquatic freshwater and marine habitats. To facilitate informed decisions on effective use of organelle-blocking clamps, we provide a searchable database of microbial taxa in the Greengenes and Silva databases matching various n-mer oligonucleotides of each PNA sequence.

  6. S1 satellite DNA repetitive units display identical structure and overall variability in all Anatolian brown frog taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Orfeo; Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni

    2016-02-01

    S1 satellite DNA from Palearctic brown frogs has a species-specific structure in all European species. We characterized S1 satellite DNA from the Anatolian brown frogs Rana macrocnemis, R. camerani, and R. holtzi in order to define their taxonomic rank and the structure of this satellite in this frog lineage. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested with KpnI, EcoRV, NdeI, NheI, or StuI produced the same pattern of satellite DNA bands. Moreover, quantitative dot blots showed that this satellite DNA accounts for 0.1 % of the genome in all taxa. Analysis of the overall genomic variability of the S1a repeat sequence in specimens from various populations demonstrated that this repetitive unit also has the same size (476 bp), the same most common sequence (MCS) and the same overall variability in all three taxa, and also in R. macrocnemis tavasensis. The S1a repetitive unit presents three deletions of 9, 8 and 1 bp compared to the 494-bp S1a repeat from European frogs. The S1a MCS has three variable positions (sequence WWTK in positions 183-186), due to the presence of two repeat subpopulations with motifs AATG and WWTT in all taxa. Unlike previously analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequences that show considerable variations among these taxa, no difference could be detected in the structure and variability of the S1 satellite repetitive units. This suggests that these taxa should belong to a single species. Our results indicate that this satellite DNA variety probably formed when the Anatolian lineage radiated from common ancestor about 4 mya, and since then has maintained its structure in all four taxa examined.

  7. Cinema utópico: a construção de um novo homem e um novo mundo

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Savernini Lopes

    2011-01-01

    O cinema, desde seus primórdios, prefigurou o espaço cibernético como um novo espaço imaterial construído coletivamente. A concepção desse outro lugar não físico para o qual o homem poderia migrar estabelece para o cinema e para o ciberespaço uma relação direta com as utopias. Na acepção do romance filosófico de Thomas More, a Utopia define-se como um outro espaço não-existente, irrealizável e ideal que diagnostica o atual. O cinema carregaria caracteres fundamentais da Utopia tanto no que se...

  8. Determinação da taxa metabólica basal em cutias, Dasyprocta azarae, por calorimetria indireta Determination of the basal metabolic rate in agoutis, Dasyprocta azarae, by indirect calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald F.V. Brito

    2010-06-01

    necessidade de novos estudos sobre o metabolismo de Dasyprocta azarae, sugerindo-se a realização de aferição da taxa metabólica basal e aferição simultânea da concentração sérica de testosterona, estradiol e cortisol para os três grupos.The best way to compare different organisms is the basal metabolic rate, a fundamental interrelation existent among all living beings. Direct measures of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations by evaluation of inspired and expired air can be used to measure metabolic rate. So, this research was done in order to measure basal and specific metabolic rates in agoutis (Dasyprocta azarae, and reexamine the scaling of basal metabolism in this species. There were used 34 adult healthy agoutis (9 non-castrated males, 9 castrated males, and 16 females, that belong to the wild animal scientific breeding facility of the Natural History Museum of the Curitiba city, State of Paraná, Brazil. After a six-hour fasting the animals were placed in special boxes under controlled temperature (22.0±1.0ºC, and submitted to measuring of the basal metabolic rate, by indirect calorimetry. It was used the Deltatrac®II metabolic monitor, usually indicated to measure carbon dioxide production (VCO2 and oxygen consumption (VO2 in human beings, by measuring variations in the concentration of VCO2 and of VO2, with a precision of 0.01%. The specific metabolic rate was calculated after determination of the basal metabolic rate and the obtained data were analyzed by inductive statistics. The hypotheses tests for comparison among samples indicated that the specific metabolic rate is higher in non-castrated males than in females and castrated males (significance of 5%, and that the specific metabolic rate of females and castrated males are equivalent (significance of 1%. In addition, analysis of the correlation of experimental points indicates that another variable beyond body size affects the metabolic rate of non-castrated males (significance of 1%, and

  9. FIELD MONITORING OF TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a economically important pest of processed and fresh tomatoes, both in greenhouses and open field crops. Currently, the pest threatens other cultivated solanaceous plants such as eggplant and potato. In this article we review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. In this article we describestrategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection and population monitoring. Monitoring of Tuta absoluta was carried out in Imbabura Province in Ecuador. The parameters of using the pheromone traps Delta VI are described.

  10. A new species of solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from caterpillars of toxic butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Scott R; Jones, Guinevere Z

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae.

  11. Nonbreeding-Season Drivers of Population Dynamics in Seasonal Migrants: Conservation Parallels Across Taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For seasonal migrants, logistical constraints have often limited conservation efforts to improving survival and reproduction during the breeding season only. Yet, mounting empirical evidence suggests that events occurring throughout the migratory life cycle can critically alter the demography of many migrant species. Herein, we build upon recent syntheses of avian migration research to review the role of non-breeding seasons in determining the population dynamics and fitness of diverse migratory taxa, including salmonid fishes, marine mammals, ungulates, sea turtles, butterflies, and numerous bird groups. We discuss several similarities across these varied migrants: (i non-breeding survivorship tends to be a strong driver of population growth; (ii non-breeding events can affect fitness in subsequent seasons through seasonal interactions at individual- and population-levels; (iii broad-scale climatic influences often alter non-breeding resources and migration timing, and may amplify population impacts through covariation among seasonal vital rates; and (iv changes to both stationary and migratory non-breeding habitats can have important consequences for abundance and population trends. Finally, we draw on these patterns to recommend that future conservation research for seasonal migrants will benefit from: (1 more explicit recognition of the important parallels among taxonomically diverse migratory animals; (2 an expanded research perspective focused on quantification of all seasonal vital rates and their interactions; and (3 the development of detailed population projection models that account for complexity and uncertainty in migrant population dynamics.

  12. Metagenomic identification of bacterioplankton taxa and pathways involved in microcystin degradation in lake erie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Mou

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs that produce microcystins are appearing in an increasing number of freshwater ecosystems worldwide, damaging quality of water for use by human and aquatic life. Heterotrophic bacteria assemblages are thought to be important in transforming and detoxifying microcystins in natural environments. However, little is known about their taxonomic composition or pathways involved in the process. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the metagenomes of Lake Erie free-living bacterioplankton assemblages in laboratory microcosms amended with microcystins relative to unamended controls. A diverse array of bacterial phyla were responsive to elevated supply of microcystins, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subdivisions and Verrucomicrobia. At more detailed taxonomic levels, Methylophilales (mainly in genus Methylotenera and Burkholderiales (mainly in genera Bordetella, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Polaromonas, Ralstonia, Polynucleobacter and Variovorax of Betaproteobacteria were suggested to be more important in microcystin degradation than Sphingomonadales of Alphaproteobacteria. The latter taxa were previously thought to be major microcystin degraders. Homologs to known microcystin-degrading genes (mlr were not overrepresented in microcystin-amended metagenomes, indicating that Lake Erie bacterioplankton might employ alternative genes and/or pathways in microcystin degradation. Genes for xenobiotic metabolism were overrepresented in microcystin-amended microcosms, suggesting they are important in bacterial degradation of microcystin, a phenomenon that has been identified previously only in eukaryotic systems.

  13. Erotylidae (Insecta, Coleoptera of Poland – problematic taxa, updated keys and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Ruta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New data concerning the occurrence of pleasing fungus beetles (Coleoptera: Erotylidae in Poland are given, with a focus on rare and difficult to identify Central European taxa. Cryptophilus cf. integer (Heer (Cryptophilinae is reported from the Polish territory for the first time based on adult and larval specimens collected in the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland. Identification problems concerning species of Cryptophilus introduced to Europe are discussed. Triplax carpathica Reitter (Erotylinae is recorded from the Białowieża Primeval Forest, which is the first known non-Carpathian finding of this species, located in the close proximity of the Polish-Belarussian UNESCO World Heritage Site “Białowieża Forest”. Discussion of T. carpathica being conspecific with Siberian T. rufiventris Gebler is provided. New Polish localities of several other Erotylidae are reported, and an updated key to Central European species of Triplax is given. The Triplax key is supplemented with dorsal and ventral habitus images of all treated Triplax species. One of the rarest Central European erotyline species Combocerus glaber (Schaller is recorded from xerothermic grasslands in North-West Poland.

  14. Erotylidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) of Poland - problematic taxa, updated keys and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Rafał; Jałoszyński, Paweł; Sienkiewicz, Paweł; Konwerski, Szymon

    2011-01-01

    New data concerning the occurrence of pleasing fungus beetles (Coleoptera: Erotylidae) in Poland are given, with a focus on rare and difficult to identify Central European taxa. Cryptophilus cf. integer (Heer) (Cryptophilinae) is reported from the Polish territory for the first time based on adult and larval specimens collected in the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland. Identification problems concerning species of Cryptophilus introduced to Europe are discussed. Triplax carpathica Reitter (Erotylinae) is recorded from the Białowieża Primeval Forest, which is the first known non-Carpathian finding of this species, located in the close proximity of the Polish-Belarussian UNESCO World Heritage Site "Białowieża Forest". Discussion of Triplax carpathica being conspecific with Siberian Triplax rufiventris Gebler is provided. New Polish localities of several other Erotylidae are reported, and an updated key to Central European species of Triplax is given. The Triplax key is supplemented with dorsal and ventral habitus images of all treated Triplax species. One of the rarest Central European erotyline species Combocerus glaber (Schaller) is recorded from xerothermic grasslands in North-West Poland.

  15. Erotylidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) of Poland – problematic taxa, updated keys and new records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Rafał; Jałoszyński, Paweł; Sienkiewicz, Paweł; Konwerski, Szymon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract New data concerning the occurrence of pleasing fungus beetles (Coleoptera: Erotylidae) in Poland are given, with a focus on rare and difficult to identify Central European taxa. Cryptophilus cf. integer (Heer) (Cryptophilinae) is reported from the Polish territory for the first time based on adult and larval specimens collected in the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland. Identification problems concerning species of Cryptophilus introduced to Europe are discussed. Triplax carpathica Reitter (Erotylinae) is recorded from the Białowieża Primeval Forest, which is the first known non-Carpathian finding of this species, located in the close proximity of the Polish-Belarussian UNESCO World Heritage Site “Białowieża Forest”. Discussion of Triplax carpathica being conspecific with Siberian Triplax rufiventris Gebler is provided. New Polish localities of several other Erotylidae are reported, and an updated key to Central European species of Triplax is given. The Triplax key is supplemented with dorsal and ventral habitus images of all treated Triplax species. One of the rarest Central European erotyline species Combocerus glaber (Schaller) is recorded from xerothermic grasslands in North-West Poland. PMID:22140339

  16. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not

  17. Phylogenetic overview of the genus Genea (Pezizales, Ascomycota) with an emphasis on European taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Pablo; Cabero, Julio; Moreno, Gabriel; Bratek, Zoltán; van Vooren, Nicolas; Kaounas, Vasileios; Konstantinidis, Giorgos; Agnello, Carlo; Merényi, Zsolt; Smith, Matthew E; Vizzini, Alfredo; Trappe, James M

    2016-01-01

    We constructed a comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Genea, with new molecular data from samples collected in several countries in temperate and Mediterranean Europe, as well as North America. Type specimens and authentic material of most species were examined to support identifications. The molecular identity of the most common species in Genea was compared with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), D1-D2 domains of 28S nuc rDNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α ene (TEF1) profiles of 10 recently proposed taxa, G. brunneocarpa, G. compressa, G. dentata, G. fageticola, G. lobulata, G. oxygala, G. pinicola, G. pseudobalsleyi, G. pseudoverrucosa and G. tuberculata, supporting their status as distinct species. Genea mexicana and G. thaxteri on the one hand and G. sphaerica and G. lespiaultii on the other are closely related. Multiple lineages were recorded for G. verrucosa and G. fragrans, but we found no morphological traits to discriminate among them, so we tentatively interpreted them as cryptic species. A key to species of the genus Genea is provided to facilitate identification. We provide macroscopic images of fresh specimens and of representative spores of most species. Finally, we conducted a molecular analysis of the divergence time for Genea and discuss the implications of our results. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. Comments on Triassic pterosaurs with discussion about ontogeny and description of new taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W.A. Kellner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eudimorphodon ranzii was the first Triassic pterosaur to be described and several specimens have been referred to this taxon mainly based on the presence of multicuspid teeth. Since this dental feature has been observed in several other pterosaurs, the revision of some specimens assigned to Eudimorphodon shows that they represent new taxa as follows: Arcticodactyluscromptonellus (comb. nov., Austriadraco dallavecchiai (gen. et sp. nov. and Bergamodactyluswildi (gen. et sp. nov.. A preliminary analysis of pterosaur ontogeny resulted in the recognition of six distinct ontogenetic stages (OS1-6. According to this classification, the holotype of Arcticodactyluscromptonellus has reached OS2, and although being ontogenetically much younger than others, the conspicuous anatomical differences lead to its exclusion from Eudimorphodon. The holotypes of Austriadraco dallavecchiai,Bergamodactyluswildi and Carniadactylus rosenfeldi have reached at least OS5, which demonstrates that the anatomical differences among them cannot be explained by ontogeny. Moreover, Bergamodactyluswildi reaches about 60% of the maximized wingspan of Carniadactylus rosenfeldi and further concurs that these specimens collected in distinct Triassic Islands of Europe are not conspecific. The present study increases the diversity of Triassic flying reptiles and further pushes the origins of this clade back to at least the Middle Triassic.

  19. Transcriptomic underpinning of toxicant-mediated physiological function alterations in three terrestrial invertebrate taxa: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulle, Franck [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Morgan, A. John [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 915, Cardiff, CF10 3US Wales (United Kingdom); Cocquerelle, Claude [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Vandenbulcke, Franck, E-mail: franck.vandenbulcke@univ-lille1.f [Univ Lille Nord de France, F59000 Lille (France); LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-09-15

    Diverse anthropogenic activities often lead to the accumulation of inorganic and organic residues in topsoils. Biota living in close contact with contaminated soils may experience stress at different levels of biological organisation throughout the continuum from the molecular-genetic to ecological and community levels. To date, the relationship between changes at the molecular (mRNA expression) and biochemical/physiological levels evoked by exposures to chemical compounds has been partially established in a limited number of terrestrial invertebrate species. Recently, the advent of a family of transcriptomic tools (e.g. Real-time PCR, Subtractive Suppressive Hybridization, Expressed Sequence Tag sequencing, pyro-sequencing technologies, Microarray chips), together with supporting informatic and statistical procedures, have permitted the robust analyses of global gene expression changes within an ecotoxicological context. This review focuses on how transcriptomics is enlightening our understanding of the molecular-genetic responses of three contrasting terrestrial macroinvertebrate taxa (nematodes, earthworms, and springtails) to inorganics, organics, and agrochemicals. - Environmental toxicology and transcriptomics in soil macroinvertebrates.

  20. Taxa-area Relationship (TAR) of Microbial Functional Genes with Long-TGerm Fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian; Xue, Kai; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Hirsch, Penny; Mcgrath, Steve; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Diversity and spatial patterns in plant and animal communities are well documented as a positive-power law of a taxa-area relationship (TAR). At present little is known whether this also applies to soil microbial communities and whether long-term fertilization has an influence on the underlying microbial diversity. To test the effects of long-term fertilization on above-ground botanical diversity and below-ground microbial diversity, a nested sampling approach on Park Grass plots (12d& 11/2c) of Rothamsted Reseach in United Kingdom, both at ~;; pH 5 but with plant diversities of between 42 and 13 respectively were used. GeoChip 3.0, covering approximately 57, 000 gene sequences of 292 gene families involved in nitrogen, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus cycling, metal reduction and resistance, and organic contaminant degradation, was used to determine the gene area relationships for both functional and phylogenetic groups and the relationship to plant diversity. Our analysis indicated that the microbial communities were separated by different plant diversity based on DCA. The soil microbial diversity was in accord with plant diversity. Soil microbial community exhibited different z value with different plant diversity, z = 0.0449 with higher plant diversity and z = 0.0583 with lower plant diversity (P< 0.0001). These results suggest that the turnover in space of microorganisms may be higher with long-term fertilization.

  1. Chemical cocktails in aquatic systems: Pesticide effects on the response and recovery of >20 animal taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Relyea, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Natural systems are often exposed to individual insecticides or combinations of multiple insecticides. Using an additive and substitutive design, we examined how populations and communities containing >20 animal taxa are affected by four insecticides applied individually and as a mixture for 18 wks in aquatic mesocosms. The four insecticides had distinct lethal effects on the response and recovery of cladocerans, copepods, amphipods, isopods, and amphibians but not snails. The lethal effect on cladocerans and copepods induced trophic cascades that facilitated algal blooms and abiotic changes (higher pH and dissolved oxygen, but lower light transmission). Exposure to endosulfan resulted in a lag effect reducing cladocerans and spring-breeding amphibian abundance. The reduction in spring-breeding amphibian abundance led to cascading indirect effects on summer-breeding amphibians. Finally, the mixture treatment had lethal effects throughout the community that led to long-term effects on amphibian mass and unique indirect consequences on phytoplankton and abiotic variables. - Highlights: • Insecticides had unique direct and indirect effects on response and recovery. • Due to lag effects, endosulfan was more toxic than expected based on 4d tests. • Variation in oviposition phenology led to positive effects on amphibians. • Lethal direct effects of mixtures were pervasive and led to unique indirect effects. - Insecticides applied individually and in a mixture have complex direct and indirect consequences on aquatic system response and recovery

  2. Transcriptomic underpinning of toxicant-mediated physiological function alterations in three terrestrial invertebrate taxa: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brulle, Franck; Morgan, A. John; Cocquerelle, Claude; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Diverse anthropogenic activities often lead to the accumulation of inorganic and organic residues in topsoils. Biota living in close contact with contaminated soils may experience stress at different levels of biological organisation throughout the continuum from the molecular-genetic to ecological and community levels. To date, the relationship between changes at the molecular (mRNA expression) and biochemical/physiological levels evoked by exposures to chemical compounds has been partially established in a limited number of terrestrial invertebrate species. Recently, the advent of a family of transcriptomic tools (e.g. Real-time PCR, Subtractive Suppressive Hybridization, Expressed Sequence Tag sequencing, pyro-sequencing technologies, Microarray chips), together with supporting informatic and statistical procedures, have permitted the robust analyses of global gene expression changes within an ecotoxicological context. This review focuses on how transcriptomics is enlightening our understanding of the molecular-genetic responses of three contrasting terrestrial macroinvertebrate taxa (nematodes, earthworms, and springtails) to inorganics, organics, and agrochemicals. - Environmental toxicology and transcriptomics in soil macroinvertebrates.

  3. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics for zoonotic infectious diseases: deciphering variables influencing disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Sarah S T; Gonzalez, Andrew; Millien, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic disease transmission systems involve sets of species interacting with each other and their environment. This complexity impedes development of disease monitoring and control programs that require reliable identification of spatial and biotic variables and mechanisms facilitating disease emergence. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a framework that simultaneously examines all species involved in disease emergence by integrating concepts and methods from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics (MTILG) can reveal how interspecific interactions and landscape variables influence disease emergence patterns. We test the potential of our MTILG-based framework by modelling the emergence of a disease system across multiple species dispersal, interspecific interaction, and landscape scenarios. Our simulations showed that both interspecific-dependent dispersal patterns and landscape characteristics significantly influenced disease spread. Using our framework, we were able to detect statistically similar inter-population genetic differences and highly correlated spatial genetic patterns that imply species-dependent dispersal. Additionally, species that were assigned coupled-dispersal patterns were affected to the same degree by similar landscape variables. This study underlines the importance of an integrated approach to investigating emergence of disease systems. MTILG is a robust approach for such studies and can identify potential avenues for targeted disease management strategies.

  4. TYPHLOREICHEIA DELLA SARDEGNA: DESCRIZIONE DI TRE NUOVI TAXA E DATI GEONEMICI INEDITI (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Magrini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nella presente nota vengono descritti tre nuovi taxa di Typhloreicheia Holdhaus, 1924 del Sud della Sardegna e riportati nuovi dati geonemici relativi a Typhloreicheia degiovannii Magrini, 2003 e Typhloreicheia raymondi (Putzeys, 1869. T. petriolii n. sp. di Monte Idda (San Priamo, Muravera, Cagliari, appartenente al “gruppo occulta”, sensu Magrini & Bulirsch 2002, diversa da tutte le altre specie del gruppo per l’edeago meno incurvato ventralmente, l’apice meno inflesso, la lamella copulatrice più corta e ristretta apicalmente anziché dilatata. T. abbazzii n. sp. di Arbus (San Gavino Monreale, Medio Campidano, caratterizzata da un edeago con apice fortemente ricurvo ventralmente e lamella copulatrice costituita da grosse spine evanescenti posizionate lungo il margine inferiore dell’apice dell’edeago, caratteri che pongono la nuova specie in posizione isolata nell’ambito del genere. T. leoi pilosa n. ssp. del Parco di Monte Marganai, loc. Mamenga (Carbonia-Iglesias, appartenente al “gruppo angelae”, sensu Magrini 2003. La nuova razza si differenzia dalla forma tipica essenzialmente per la morfologia esterna: presenza di setole discali elitrali su tutte le interstrie (dalla due alla sette, solo nelle interstrie 3-5-7 nella forma tipica e per l’habitus nettamente più dilatato, specialmente a livello delle elitre, come indicano le misure riportate nel testo.

  5. On the Origin of De Novo Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Wen; Chen, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Hagmann, Jörg; Han, Ting-Shen; Zou, Yu-Pan; Ge, Song; Guo, Ya-Long

    2016-08-03

    De novo genes, which originate from ancestral nongenic sequences, are one of the most important sources of protein-coding genes. This origination process is crucial for the adaptation of organisms. However, how de novo genes arise and become fixed in a population or species remains largely unknown. Here, we identified 782 de novo genes from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and divided them into three types based on the availability of translational evidence, transcriptional evidence, and neither transcriptional nor translational evidence for their origin. Importantly, by integrating multiple types of omics data, including data from genomes, epigenomes, transcriptomes, and translatomes, we found that epigenetic modifications (DNA methylation and histone modification) play an important role in the origination process of de novo genes. Intriguingly, using the transcriptomes and methylomes from the same population of 84 accessions, we found that de novo genes that are transcribed in approximately half of the total accessions within the population are highly methylated, with lower levels of transcription than those transcribed at other frequencies within the population. We hypothesized that, during the origin of de novo gene alleles, those neutralized to low expression states via DNA methylation have relatively high probabilities of spreading and becoming fixed in a population. Our results highlight the process underlying the origin of de novo genes at the population level, as well as the importance of DNA methylation in this process. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Glucagon infusion increases rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Mitsuo; Maeda, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masami; Yamashita, Kamejiro

    1987-01-01

    Based on the parallel increases of glucagon, the second peak of hepatic cAMP, and the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the prereplicative period in regenerating rate liver after a 70% hepatectomy, it was hypothesized that glucagon is responsible for the increased rate of purine synthesis de novo. To test this hypothesis, the effect of glucagon or dibutyryl cAMP infusion on the rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver was studied. Glucagon infusion but not insulin or glucose infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo, which was assayed by [ 14 C]glycine or [ 14 C]formate incorporation, by 2.7- to 4.3-fold. Glucagon infusion increased cAMP concentrations by 4.9-fold and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations by 1.5-fold in liver but did not change the specific activity of amidophosphoribosyltransferase or purine ribonucleotide concentrations. Dibutyryl cAMP infusion also increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo by 2.2- to 4.0-fold. Because glucagon infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the presence of unchanged purine ribonucleotide concentrations, it is concluded that glucagon after infusion or in animals after a 70% hepatectomy is playing an anabolic role to increase the rate of purine synthesis de novo by increasing cAMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations

  7. Role of de novo biosynthesis in ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taipale

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine have traditionally been assumed to originate as evaporation from specialized storage pools. More recently, the significance of de novo emissions, originating directly from monoterpene biosynthesis, has been recognized. To study the role of biosynthesis at the ecosystem scale, we measured monoterpene emissions from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. The interpretation of the measurements was based on a correlation analysis and a hybrid emission algorithm describing both de novo and pool emissions. During the measurement period May–August 2007, the monthly medians of daytime emissions were 200, 290, 180, and 200 μg m−2 h−1. The emissions were partly light dependent, probably due to de novo biosynthesis. The emission potential for both de novo and pool emissions exhibited a decreasing summertime trend. The ratio of the de novo emission potential to the total emission potential varied between 30 % and 46 %. Although the monthly changes were not significant, the ratio always differed statistically from zero, suggesting that the role of de novo biosynthesis was observable. Given the uncertainties in this study, we conclude that more accurate estimates of the contribution of de novo emissions are required for improving monoterpene emission algorithms for Scots pine dominated forests.

  8. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  9. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Dirlene Aparecida de; Teixeira, Isabel Ribeiro do Valle

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO O monitoramento de populações de Lepidoptera fornece informações importantes para avaliar a dinâmica e as mudanças ecológicas nos ecossistemas. Neste trabalho avaliou-se e caracterizou-se a Lepidofauna da mata do IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho - MG, estabelecendo um padrão para inúmeros fragmentos semelhantes na região. Em 12 meses de levantamento foram capturados 590 indivíduos de 69 espécies, distribuídas em 10 famílias. A família mais abundante foi Nymphalidae (73,56% dos indivídu...

  10. First report of Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on African mahogany Khaya ivorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The mahogany shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller is an important economic pest in all American tropical forests, because it prevents monoculture of valuable timber trees species like mahogany and cedar. The shoot borer damages several tree structures, especially the apical shoots, impairing the formation of the commercial stem. This pest can attack the plants during the year and one larva per plant is enough to cause significant damage. In infested areas, the attack can reach up to 100 % of the trees. The Australian cedar and African mahogany have been cultivated in Brazil for timber production, because they are considered resistant to H. grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae attack. However, in this work we report for the first time the H. grandella attack to African mahogany Khaya ivorensis.

  11. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  12. Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of the Antennal Sensilla of Monema flavescens Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Liu, H; Zhang, J T; Liu, J; Zheng, H; Ren, Y

    2017-04-01

    Monema flavescens Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) is a serious polyphagous defoliator. Using scanning electron microscopy, the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of this pest was examined for a better understanding of the mechanisms of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical communications. The antennae of M. flavescens were filiform in shape, and 11 morphological types of sensilla were found in both sexes. Six types of likely chemosensory sensilla were identified: uniporous sensilla chaetica, multiporous sensilla trichodea, and four types of multiporous sensilla basiconica. The sensilla identified as likely mechanoreceptors included two subtypes of aporous sensilla chaetica, aporous sensilla coeloconica, aporous sensilla styloconica, and Böhm's bristles, whereas the position of the antennae was monitored by Böhm's bristles.

  13. Stichelia pelotensis (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae: conservation, notes, and rediscovery of an endangered butterfly from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Russo Siewert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stichelia pelotensis (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae is an endemic and threatened butterfly from the Pampa biome in southern Brazil, and has not been recorded in its type locality in the last 56 years. Recently, a population was found in two sites from extreme south Brazil, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul state. These records are an important find given the conservation status of S. pelotensis, since all the information gathered is new and involve the natural history of this species. The information obtained is useful for the management, monitoring and conservation priorities of this species and its associated habitats, since its known distribution is restricted to a narrow area in the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain inside this threatened biome in southern Brazil.

  14. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

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    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  15. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes, and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, J. C.; Leskey, T. C.; Walgenbach, J. F.; Klingeman, W. E.; Kain, D. P.; Zhang, A.

    2017-01-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 ± 644 and 3095 ± 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, excee...

  16. More complex than expected: Cold hardiness and the concentration of cryoprotectants in overwintering larvae of five Erebia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Zahradníčková, Helena; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, NOV 02 (2017), s. 470-480 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-33733S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Satyrinae Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 https://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2017/01/60.pdf

  17. Outbreaks of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in tomato plantations in Espírito Santo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Santos Andrade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae has been reported in various crops in recent years in Brazil. The outbreaks of S. eridania were observed in regions of tomato production in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The chemical control used as the main method of control pests, without the agronomic observations of integrated pest management, is a probable cause of such outbreaks in tomato in these regions.

  18. First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde, Liliana; Berta, D. Carolina; Gomez, Marcelo Geronimo

    2012-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina). Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Le...

  19. Characterization of the damage of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to structures of cotton plants

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Karen B dos; Meneguim, Ana M; Santos, Walter J dos; Neves, Pedro M O J; Santos, Rachel B dos

    2010-01-01

    The cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum, hosts various pests that damage different structures. Among these pests, Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are considered important. The objectives of this study were to characterize and to quantify the potential damage of S. eridania and S. cosmioides feeding on different structures of cotton plants. For this purpose, newly-hatched larvae were reared on the following plant parts: leaf and flower bud;...

  20. Espécies de Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Alfredo Di Mare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Based on literature, collections and sampled butterflies, a list of twelve species of Adelpha Hübner occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State is presented, including host plants. Adelpha epizygis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha falcipennis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha goyama Schaus, 1902 and Adelpha isis (Drury, 1782 are new reports to Rio Grande do Sul. The species are illustrated and keyed.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on phases of evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera pyralidae) in artificial diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.A.D.

    1991-04-01

    The effects of the increase in the gamma radiation ( 60 Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera Pyraliade) are studied. A cobalt 60 source type gamma beam 650 was used and the activity was of approximately 2.91 x 10 14 Bq. The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with temperature at 25 ± 2 0 C and relative humidity of 70 ± 10%. (M.A.C.)

  2. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nympha...

  3. Cluster biodiversity as a multidimensional structure evolution strategy: checkerspot butterflies of the group Euphydryas aurinia (Rottemburg, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Bolshakov, L. V.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2016), s. 441-457 ISSN 0307-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphydryas aurinia * biodiversity * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.474, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12167/abstract

  4. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Baseline Susceptibility of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to the Novel Insecticide Spinetoram in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidi; Zhang, Jingming; Zhang, Pengjun; Lin, Wencai; Lin, Qingsheng; Li, Zhenyu; Hang, Fang; Zhang, Zhijun; Lu, Yaobin

    2015-04-01

    Spinetoram is a spinosyn, which is a unique class of natural insecticide. Because of its novel mode of action, spinetoram is more potent and faster acting than other insecticides, even the older spinosyn product, spinosad. On account of being efficient on insect order Lepidoptera, spinetoram provides a new alternative for control of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), which are resistant to other chemicals. To determine the current situation of resistance of P. xylostella to spinetoram, the susceptibility of 16 P. xylostella populations from different regions of China or different time in addition to the population from laboratory was assessed using a leaf dip bioassay. The variation in spinetoram susceptibility among the 16 field populations was narrow, with median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) ranging from 0.131 to 1.001 mg/liter. Toxicity ratios (TRs) ranged from 1.5 to 7.6 and were 5.6 and 7.6 for populations SY-2 and FX-1, respectively, indicating some low level of tolerance in these populations. A discriminating concentration (a concentration that can detect the occurrence of resistance in a population) of 10 mg/liter, which was identified based on the pooled toxicological data, caused 100% mortality in all nine tested populations. The baseline susceptibility data reflect the natural variation of the P. xylostella populations to spinetoram rather than variation caused by previous exposure. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  7. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Sequencing and de novo assembly of 150 genomes from Denmark as a population reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maretty, Lasse; Jensen, Jacob Malte; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    or by performing local assembly. However, these approaches are biased against discovery of structural variants and variation in the more complex parts of the genome. Hence, large-scale de novo assembly is needed. Here we show that it is possible to construct excellent de novo assemblies from high......-coverage sequencing with mate-pair libraries extending up to 20 kilobases. We report de novo assemblies of 150 individuals (50 trios) from the GenomeDenmark project. The quality of these assemblies is similar to those obtained using the more expensive long-read technology. We use the assemblies to identify a rich set...

  9. Eculizumab for drug-induced de novo posttransplantation thrombotic microangiopathy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, Kassem; Logan, Merranda S; Batal, Ibrahim; Gabardi, Steven; Rennke, Helmut G; Abdi, Reza

    2015-02-01

    De novo thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) following renal transplantation is a severe complication associated with high rates of allograft failure. Several immunosuppressive agents are associated with TMA. Conventional approaches to managing this entity, such as withdrawal of the offending agent and/or plasmapheresis, often offer limited help, with high rates of treatment failure and graft loss. We herein report a case of drug induced de novo TMA successfully treated using the C5a inhibitor eculizumab in a renal transplant patient. This report highlights a potentially important role for eculizumab in settings where drug-induced de novo TMA is refractory to conventional therapies.

  10. The Endemic Plant Taxa of the Köprülü Kanyon National Park and Its Surroundings (Antalya-Isparta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan ÖZÇELİK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted in 2003-2004 in order to identify the endemic plants of the Köprülü Kanyon National Park (Antalya-Isparta and its surroundings. A total of 230 endemic taxa belonging to 29 families were determined in the national park and its surroundings. There are 229 taxa belonging to Angiospermae subdivision and 1 taxon belonging to Gymnospermae subdivision in these collected and identified endemic taxa from the research area. There is no endemic taxon in the Bryophyta and Pteridophyta divisions of the park. 218 of the 229 taxa belonging to the Angiospermae subdivision are in the Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledoneae class and other 11 are in the Liliopsida (Monocotyledoneae class. 18 taxa of the vascular plants are specific to the research area. 44 of endemic taxa are included in the endangered category. The number of priority conservation requiring taxa is 21. Endemic taxon number is almost 25% of total flora of the area. The top five families with the highest number of taxa in the study area are Lamiaceae (38, Caryophyllaceae (37, Asteraceae (26, Scrophulariaceae (20, Fabaceae (16 (Table 2. The 10 largest genera with the highest number of taxa are as follows: Silene (15, Astragalus (9, Sideritis (8, Verbascum (7, Centaurea (7, Stachys (6, Helichrysum (6, Alkanna (6, Veronica (5 and Minuartia (5. The distributions according to the phytogeographical regions of the endemic plants identified from the area is as follows: 59.565% Mediterranean elements (137 taxa, 23.478% Irano-Turanian elements (54 taxa, 0.304% Euro-Siberian elements (7 taxa and 13.913% with unknown phytogeographical region (32 taxa. The distributions of these taxa according to the conservation status is as follows: CR (Critically Endangered: 3, EN (Endangered: 22, VU (Vulnerable: 34, LR (Low Risk: 164, (cd (Conservation Dependent: 29, (lc (Least Concern: 106, (nt (Near Threatened: 29. In this study, menacing factors on the flora and vegetation of the area and

  11. De novo assembly and phasing of a Korean human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Sun; Rhie, Arang; Kim, Junsoo; Lee, Sangjin; Sohn, Min-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Uk; Hastie, Alex; Cao, Han; Yun, Ji-Young; Kim, Jihye; Kuk, Junho; Park, Gun Hwa; Kim, Juhyeok; Ryu, Hanna; Kim, Jongbum; Roh, Mira; Baek, Jeonghun; Hunkapiller, Michael W; Korlach, Jonas; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Changhoon

    2016-10-13

    Advances in genome assembly and phasing provide an opportunity to investigate the diploid architecture of the human genome and reveal the full range of structural variation across population groups. Here we report the de novo assembly and haplotype phasing of the Korean individual AK1 (ref. 1) using single-molecule real-time sequencing, next-generation mapping, microfluidics-based linked reads, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing approaches. Single-molecule sequencing coupled with next-generation mapping generated a highly contiguous assembly, with a contig N50 size of 17.9 Mb and a scaffold N50 size of 44.8 Mb, resolving 8 chromosomal arms into single scaffolds. The de novo assembly, along with local assemblies and spanning long reads, closes 105 and extends into 72 out of 190 euchromatic gaps in the reference genome, adding 1.03 Mb of previously intractable sequence. High concordance between the assembly and paired-end sequences from 62,758 BAC clones provides strong support for the robustness of the assembly. We identify 18,210 structural variants by direct comparison of the assembly with the human reference, identifying thousands of breakpoints that, to our knowledge, have not been reported before. Many of the insertions are reflected in the transcriptome and are shared across the Asian population. We performed haplotype phasing of the assembly with short reads, long reads and linked reads from whole-genome sequencing and with short reads from 31,719 BAC clones, thereby achieving phased blocks with an N50 size of 11.6 Mb. Haplotigs assembled from single-molecule real-time reads assigned to haplotypes on phased blocks covered 89% of genes. The haplotigs accurately characterized the hypervariable major histocompatability complex region as well as demonstrating allele configuration in clinically relevant genes such as CYP2D6. This work presents the most contiguous diploid human genome assembly so far, with extensive investigation of

  12. TAXA DE CRESCIMENTO DO ALMEIRÃO SUBMETIDO AO DÉFICIT DE ÁGUA NO SOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rangel Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a influencia do déficit hídrico sobre o desenvolvimento do almeirão (Cichorium intybus L. cultivar folha amarela. Foi elaborado um experimento em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Engenharias da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, em Alegre, ES. O experimento constitui-se de quatro tratamentos, sendo 80, 60, 40 e 20% da água disponível no solo, com quatro repetições, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A época de avaliação foi aos 35 dias após início dos tratamentos. As variáveis avaliadas foram: taxa de biomassa fresca e seca da parte aérea, taxa do sistema radicular fresco e seco e taxa da área foliar. Os resultados demonstraram que os maiores valores, em taxa de crescimento, das variáveis avaliadas foram obtidos quando se utilizou até 80% da água disponível, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos.

  13. Diversity of kelp holdfast-associated fauna in an Arctic fjord - inconsistent responses to glacial mineral sedimentation across different taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Kelp forests are complex underwater habitats that support diverse assemblages of animals ranging from sessile filter feeding invertebrates to fishes and marine mammals. In this study, the diversity of invertebrate fauna associated with kelp holdfasts was surveyed in a high Arctic glacial fjord (76 N, Hornsund, Svalbard). The effects of algal host identity (three kelp species: Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta), depth (5 and 10 m) and glacier-derived disturbance (three sites with varying levels of mineral sedimentation) on faunal species richness and composition were studied based on 239 collected algal holdfasts. The species pool was mostly made up by three taxa: colonial Bryozoa and Hydrozoa, and Polychaeta. While the all-taxa species richness did not differ between depths, algal hosts and sites, the patterns varied when the two colonial sessile filter-feeding taxa were analysed alone (Hydrozoa and Bryozoa). The Hydrozoa sample species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were the highest at undisturbed sites, whereas Bryozoa species richness was higher in sediment-impacted localities, indicating relative insensitivity of this phylum to the increased level of mineral suspension in the water column. The average taxonomic distinctness of Bryozoa did not vary between sites. The species composition of kelp-associated fauna varied between sites and depths for the whole community and the most dominant taxa (Bryozoa, Hydrozoa). The high load of inorganic suspension and sedimentation did not cause pauperization of kelp holdfast-associated fauna but instead triggered the changes in species composition and shifts between dominant taxonomic groups.

  14. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Paläearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1977-01-01

    21 new species and one new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described and their affinities are discussed. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) hermes from Marocco, T.(L.) parallela from the Iberian peninsula, T.(L.) xyrophora from Italy and France, T.(L.) lubenauorum and rauschorum from Italy,

  15. prepare_taxa_charts.py: A Python program to automate generation of publication ready taxonomic pie chart images from QIIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhujani, Vijay; Badapanda, Chandan

    2017-06-01

    QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is one of the most popular open-source bioinformatics suite for performing metagenome, 16S rRNA amplicon and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) data analysis. Although, it is very comprehensive and powerful tool, it lacks a method to provide publication ready taxonomic pie charts. The script plot_taxa_summary . py bundled with QIIME generate a html file and a folder containing taxonomic pie chart and legend as separate images. The images have randomly generated alphanumeric names. Therefore, it is difficult to associate the pie chart with the legend and the corresponding sample identifier. Even if the option to have the legend within the html file is selected while executing plot_taxa_summary . py , it is very tedious to crop a complete image (having both the pie chart and the legend) due to unequal image sizes. It requires a lot of time to manually prepare the pie charts for multiple samples for publication purpose. Moreover, there are chances of error while identifying the pie chart and legend pair due to random alphanumeric names of the images. To bypass all these bottlenecks and make this process efficient, we have developed a python based program, prepare_taxa_charts . py , to automate the renaming, cropping and merging of taxonomic pie chart and corresponding legend image into a single, good quality publication ready image. This program not only augments the functionality of plot_taxa_summary . py but is also very fast in terms of CPU time and user friendly.

  16. 14C labelling of algal pigments to estimate the contribution of different taxa to primary production in natural seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, Winfried W.C.; Kraaij, Gijs W; Buma, Anita

    1993-01-01

    Several attempts have been made in the past to measure taxon-specific growth rates in natural phytoplankton populations in order to evaluate the conditions leading to success of individual taxa, to estimate the specific role of the various taxonomic components of algae in the food web and in

  17. Composition of the essential oils from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and several closely related taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Hendriks, Henk; Scheffer, Johannes J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The volatile constituents from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and of several closely related Valeriana taxa were investigated by GC and GCMS (EI and NICI) analysis. Seeds were obtained from different botanical gardens in Europe, and the plants investigated were grown in an

  18. Efeito da temperatura e velocidade do ar sobre a taxa de secagem da madeira de Pinus elliottii Engelm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio José Santini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito da temperatura e velocidade do ar sobre a taxa de secagem, peças de madeira de Pinus elliottii de 25 x 125 x 750 mm foram submetidas à secagem em estufa semi-industrial de convecção forçada. O processo foi conduzido para duas temperaturas e duas velocidades de ar e controlado por meio de um sistema computadorizado. Os resultados mostraram que a taxa de secagem tem uma relação diretamente proporcional com a temperatura, velocidade do ar e umidade da madeira. Por meio da análise de regressão múltipla detectou-se efeito estatisticamente significativo da temperatura e da velocidade do ar sobre a taxa e o tempo de secagem, com um nível de confiança de 99%. Como a importância da velocidade do ar na secagem decresce com a diminuição do teor de umidade, sugere-se, por razões de economia, mais investigações acerca das relações entre as duas variáveis durante o período de taxa de secagem decrescente.

  19. On five Compositae taxa which are confusingly illustrated in fl oristic publications for Andorra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Raab-Straube, E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Five Compositae taxa which are illustrated in floristic publications for Andorra are questionable records which appear to have never been collected there in the wild.

    Se comentan cinco taxones de compuestas que aparecen confusamente ilustrados en publicaciones florísticas de Andorra y que nunca se han recolectado en territorio andorrano.

  20. Phytophthora taxa associated with cultivated Agathosma, with emphasis on the P. citricola complex and P. capensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Denman, S.; Kirk, S.A.; Botha, W.J.; Mostert, L.; McLeod, A.

    2010-01-01

    Agathosma species, which are indigenous to South Africa, are also cultivated for commercial use. Recently growers experienced severe plant loss, and symptoms shown by affected plants suggested that a soilborne disease could be the cause of death. A number of Phytophthora taxa were isolated from

  1. Quantitative predictions from competition theory with incomplete information on model parameters tested against experiments across diverse taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Fort, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    We derive an analytical approximation for making quantitative predictions for ecological communities as a function of the mean intensity of the inter-specific competition and the species richness. This method, with only a fraction of the model parameters (carrying capacities and competition coefficients), is able to predict accurately empirical measurements covering a wide variety of taxa (algae, plants, protozoa).

  2. Neue taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus). IV. Fortsetzung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1982-01-01

    13 new species and two new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) mallorca from Mallorca, T. (L.) bimacula minos from Crete, T. (L.) simova from Thasos, T. (L.) artemis asiaeminoris, T. (L.) christophi, T. (L.) franzressli, T. (L.) horsti, T. (L.)

  3. Neue taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus). III. Fortsetzung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1980-01-01

    Six new species and three new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described respectively characterized. The geographical variation of some species is illustrated. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) iberica spimila from Morocco, T. (L.) capra from Italy, T. (L.) profdrassi and T. (L.)

  4. Diversity and dynamics of dominant and rare bacterial taxa in replicate sequencing batch reactors operated under different solids retention time

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik; Garcia Tellez, Berenice; Rao, Hari Ananda; Lamendella, Regina; Saikaly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was applied in order to provide a better insight on the diversity and dynamics of total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa in replicate lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at different

  5. SSR markers reveal the genetic diversity of Asian Cercis taxa at the U.S. National Arboretum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbud (Cercis L. species) is a popular landscape plant grown widely in the United States. There are more than twenty cultivars of eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.) and at least three cultivars of Asian taxa (primarily C. chinensis Bunge) in the trade. The U.S. National Arboretum (USNA) has ...

  6. Quais Fatores Influenciam a Taxa de Aprovação na Disciplina de Anatomia Humana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Silva-e-Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO A Anatomia Humana (AH é uma disciplina básica para todos os estudantes dos cursos superiores das áreas da saúde e biológica. A maior parte a considera de conteúdo difícil. O ensino da AH precisa ser repensado no contexto da política atual de acesso amplo ao ensino superior. E corresponder ao dever das instituições de proporcionar ao estudante uma formação de qualidade com vistas à formação de um profissional crítico e de perfil criativo frente às distintas situações do cotidiano. É preciso entender possíveis fatores que levam às elevadas taxas de reprovação nesta disciplina. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi relacionar o resultado do vestibular/Enem com hábitos de estudo e desejo profissional no desempenho acadêmico da disciplina dos alunos dos cursos de Educação Física, Ciências Biológicas e Nutrição do IF Sudeste MG. Foram entrevistados 129 alunos. A pontuação do vestibular/Enem foi maior entre os aprovados em AH; não houve entre os grupos diferença quantitativa nas horas de estudo e tampouco na escolha do curso, que ocorreu por opção do aluno (versus por falta de opção.

  7. Evaluating green infrastructure in urban environments using a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Pedro; Correia, Otília; Lecoq, Miguel; Munzi, Silvana; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Gonçalves, Paula; Rebelo, Rui; Antunes, Cristina; Silva, Patrícia; Freitas, Catarina; Lopes, Nuno; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Forested areas within cities host a large number of species, responsible for many ecosystem services in urban areas. The biodiversity in these areas is influenced by human disturbances such as atmospheric pollution and urban heat island effect. To ameliorate the effects of these factors, an increase in urban green areas is often considered sufficient. However, this approach assumes that all types of green cover have the same importance for species. Our aim was to show that not all forested green areas are equal in importance for species, but that based on a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach it is possible to value green infrastructure in urban environments. After evaluating the diversity of lichens, butterflies and other-arthropods, birds and mammals in 31 Mediterranean urban forests in south-west Europe (Almada, Portugal), bird and lichen functional groups responsive to urbanization were found. A community shift (tolerant species replacing sensitive ones) along the urbanization gradient was found, and this must be considered when using these groups as indicators of the effect of urbanization. Bird and lichen functional groups were then analyzed together with the characteristics of the forests and their surroundings. Our results showed that, contrary to previous assumptions, vegetation density and more importantly the amount of urban areas around the forest (matrix), are more important for biodiversity than forest quantity alone. This indicated that not all types of forested green areas have the same importance for biodiversity. An index of forest functional diversity was then calculated for all sampled forests of the area. This could help decision-makers to improve the management of urban green infrastructures with the goal of increasing functionality and ultimately ecosystem services in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological diversity of Salix taxa in Cu, Pb and Zn phytoextraction from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Rutkowski, Paweł; Goliński, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Szentner, Kinga; Waliszewska, Bogusława; Stolarski, Mariusz; Szczukowski, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the efficiency of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) phytoextraction by 145 Salix taxa cultivated in an area affected by industrial activity. Survivability and biomass of plants were also analyzed. The highest Cu, Pb and Zn content in shoots was 33.38 ± 2.91 (S. purpurea × viminalis 8), 24.64 ± 1.97 (S. fragilis 1) and 58.99 ± 4.30 (S. eriocephala 7) mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively. In the case of unwashed leaves, the highest content of these metals was 135.06 ± 8.14 (S. purpurea 26), 67.98 ± 5.27 (S. purpurea 45) and 142.56 ± 12.69 (S. alba × triandra 2) mg kg -1 dw, while in washed leaves it was 106.02 ± 11.12 (S. purpurea 45), 55.06 ± 5.75 (S. purpurea 45) and 122.87 ± 12.33 (S. alba × triandra 2) mg kg -1 dw, respectively. The differences between the highest and lowest values for Cu, Pb and Zn were 545%, 20500% and 535% in shoots; 2692%, 2560% and 7500% in unwashed leaves; and 3286%, 2221% and 6950% in washed leaves, respectively. S. acutifolia was able to effectively accumulate all three metals jointly, producing shoots that were well developed in both length and diameter when compared with the other tested willows-an ability that would suggest its high suitability for practical application.

  9. Supporting biodiversity by prescribed burning in grasslands - A multi-taxa approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Magura, Tibor; Török, Péter; Kelemen, András; Tóth, Katalin; Horváth, Roland; Nagy, Dávid D; Debnár, Zsuzsanna; Zsigrai, György; Kapocsi, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2016-12-01

    There are contrasting opinions on the use of prescribed burning management in European grasslands. On the one hand, prescribed burning can be effectively used for the management of open landscapes, controlling dominant species, reducing accumulated litter or decreasing wildfire risk. On the other hand burning can have a detrimental impact on grassland biodiversity by supporting competitor grasses and by threatening several rare and endangered species, especially arthropods. We studied the effects of prescribed burning in alkaline grasslands of high conservation interest. Our aim was to test whether dormant-season prescribed burning can be an alternative conservation measure in these grasslands. We selected six sites in East-Hungary: in three sites, a prescribed fire was applied in November 2011, while three sites remained unburnt. We studied the effects of burning on soil characteristics, plant biomass and on the composition of vegetation and arthropod assemblages (isopods, spiders, ground beetles and rove beetles). Soil pH, organic matter, potassium and phosphorous did not change, but soluble salt content increased significantly in the burnt sites. Prescribed burning had several positive effects from the nature conservation viewpoint. Shannon diversity and the number of flowering shoots were higher, and the cover of the dominant grass Festuca pseudovina was lower in the burnt sites. Graminoid biomass was lower, while total, green and forb biomass were higher in the burnt plots compared to the control. The key finding of our study was that prescribed burning did not decrease the abundance and diversity of arthropod taxa. Species-level analyses showed that out of the most abundant invertebrate species, 10 were not affected, 1 was negatively and 1 was positively affected by burning. Moreover, our results suggest that prescribed burning leaving unburnt patches can be a viable management tool in open landscapes, because it supports plant diversity and does not threaten

  10. Retroelement insertional polymorphisms, diversity and phylogeography within diploid, D-genome Aegilops tauschii (Triticeae, Poaceae) sub-taxa in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Rahiminejad, Mohammad Reza; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2008-04-01

    The diploid goat grass Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14) is native to the Middle East and is the D-genome donor to hexaploid bread wheat. The aim of this study was to measure the diversity of different subspecies and varieties of wild Ae. tauschii collected across the major areas where it grows in Iran and to examine patterns of diversity related to the taxa and geography. Inter-retroelement amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers were used to analyse the biodiversity of DNA from 57 accessions of Ae. tauschii from northern and central Iran, and two hexaploid wheats. Key Results Eight IRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 171 distinct DNA fragments between 180 and 3200 bp long from the accessions, of which 169 were polymorphic. On average, about eight fragments were amplified with each primer combination, with more bands being amplified from accessions from the north-west of the country than from other accessions. The IRAP markers showed high levels of genetic diversity. Analysis of all accessions together did not allow the allocation of individuals to taxa based on morphology, but showed a tendency to put accessions from the north-west apart from others regions. It is speculated that this could be due to different activity of retroelements in the different regions. Within the two taxa with most accessions, there was a range of IRAP genotypes that could be correlated closely with geographical origin. This supports suggestions that the centre of origin of the species is towards the south-east of the Caspian Sea. IRAP is an appropriate marker system to evaluate genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships within the taxa, but it is too variable to define the taxa themselves, where more slowly evolving morphological, DNA sequence or chromosomal makers may be more appropriate.

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deden Derajat Matra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana L. (Mangosteen, of the family Clusiaceae, is one of the economically important tropical fruits in Indonesia. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of Garcinia mangostana L. through RNA-Seq technology. We obtained the raw data from 12 libraries through Ion Proton System. Clean reads of 191,735,809 were obtained from 307,634,890 raw reads. The raw data obtained in this study can be accessible in DDBJ database with accession number of DRA005014 with bioproject accession number of PRJDB5091. We obtained 268,851 transcripts as well as 155,850 unigenes, having N50 value of 555 and 433 bp, respectively. Transcript/unigene length ranged from 201 to 5916 bp. The unigenes were annotated with two main databases from NCBI and UniProtKB, respectively having annotated-sequences of 73,287 and 73,107, respectively. These transcriptomic data will be beneficial for studying transcriptome of Garcinia mangostana L.

  12. Massively parallel de novo protein design for targeted therapeutics

    KAUST Repository

    Chevalier, Aaron; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Rocklin, Gabriel J.; Hicks, Derrick R.; Vergara, Renan; Murapa, Patience; Bernard, Steffen M.; Zhang, Lu; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Yao, Guorui; Bahl, Christopher D.; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Goreshnik, Inna; Fuller, James T.; Koday, Merika T.; Jenkins, Cody M.; Colvin, Tom; Carter, Lauren; Bohn, Alan; Bryan, Cassie M.; Ferná ndez-Velasco, D. Alejandro; Stewart, Lance; Dong, Min; Huang, Xuhui; Jin, Rongsheng; Wilson, Ian A.; Fuller, Deborah H.; Baker, David

    2017-01-01

    De novo protein design holds promise for creating small stable proteins with shapes customized to bind therapeutic targets. We describe a massively parallel approach for designing, manufacturing and screening mini-protein binders, integrating large-scale computational design, oligonucleotide synthesis, yeast display screening and next-generation sequencing. We designed and tested 22,660 mini-proteins of 37-43 residues that target influenza haemagglutinin and botulinum neurotoxin B, along with 6,286 control sequences to probe contributions to folding and binding, and identified 2,618 high-affinity binders. Comparison of the binding and non-binding design sets, which are two orders of magnitude larger than any previously investigated, enabled the evaluation and improvement of the computational model. Biophysical characterization of a subset of the binder designs showed that they are extremely stable and, unlike antibodies, do not lose activity after exposure to high temperatures. The designs elicit little or no immune response and provide potent prophylactic and therapeutic protection against influenza, even after extensive repeated dosing.

  13. Sequencing and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Brachypodium sylvaticum (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E. Fox

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We report the de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptomes of Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false-brome accessions from native populations of Spain and Greece, and an invasive population west of Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Methods and Results: More than 350 million sequence reads from the mRNA libraries prepared from three B. sylvaticum genotypes were assembled into 120,091 (Corvallis, 104,950 (Spain, and 177,682 (Greece transcript contigs. In comparison with the B. distachyon Bd21 reference genome and GenBank protein sequences, we estimate >90% exome coverage for B. sylvaticum. The transcripts were assigned Gene Ontology and InterPro annotations. Brachypodium sylvaticum sequence reads aligned against the Bd21 genome revealed 394,654 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and >20,000 simple sequence repeat (SSR DNA sites. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of transcriptome sequencing of invasive plant species with a closely related sequenced reference genome. The sequences and identified SNP variant and SSR sites will provide tools for developing novel genetic markers for use in genotyping and characterization of invasive behavior of B. sylvaticum.

  14. LESSONS IN DE NOVO PEPTIDE SEQUENCING BY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Chalkley, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become the method of choice for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of protein mixtures isolated from all kinds of living organisms. The raw data in these studies are MS/MS spectra, usually of peptides produced by proteolytic digestion of a protein. These spectra are “translated” into peptide sequences, normally with the help of various search engines. Data acquisition and interpretation have both been automated, and most researchers look only at the summary of the identifications without ever viewing the underlying raw data used for assignments. Automated analysis of data is essential due to the volume produced. However, being familiar with the finer intricacies of peptide fragmentation processes, and experiencing the difficulties of manual data interpretation allow a researcher to be able to more critically evaluate key results, particularly because there are many known rules of peptide fragmentation that are not incorporated into search engine scoring. Since the most commonly used MS/MS activation method is collision-induced dissociation (CID), in this article we present a brief review of the history of peptide CID analysis. Next, we provide a detailed tutorial on how to determine peptide sequences from CID data. Although the focus of the tutorial is de novo sequencing, the lessons learned and resources supplied are useful for data interpretation in general. PMID:25667941

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  16. Spaced Seed Data Structures for De Novo Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanç Birol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo assembly of the genome of a species is essential in the absence of a reference genome sequence. Many scalable assembly algorithms use the de Bruijn graph (DBG paradigm to reconstruct genomes, where a table of subsequences of a certain length is derived from the reads, and their overlaps are analyzed to assemble sequences. Despite longer subsequences unlocking longer genomic features for assembly, associated increase in compute resources limits the practicability of DBG over other assembly archetypes already designed for longer reads. Here, we revisit the DBG paradigm to adapt it to the changing sequencing technology landscape and introduce three data structure designs for spaced seeds in the form of paired subsequences. These data structures address memory and run time constraints imposed by longer reads. We observe that when a fixed distance separates seed pairs, it provides increased sequence specificity with increased gap length. Further, we note that Bloom filters would be suitable to implicitly store spaced seeds and be tolerant to sequencing errors. Building on this concept, we describe a data structure for tracking the frequencies of observed spaced seeds. These data structure designs will have applications in genome, transcriptome and metagenome assemblies, and read error correction.

  17. De novo protein structure generation from incomplete chemical shift assignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yang [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States); Vernon, Robert; Baker, David [University of Washington, Department of Biochemistry and Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Bax, Ad [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)], E-mail: bax@nih.gov

    2009-02-15

    NMR chemical shifts provide important local structural information for proteins. Consistent structure generation from NMR chemical shift data has recently become feasible for proteins with sizes of up to 130 residues, and such structures are of a quality comparable to those obtained with the standard NMR protocol. This study investigates the influence of the completeness of chemical shift assignments on structures generated from chemical shifts. The Chemical-Shift-Rosetta (CS-Rosetta) protocol was used for de novo protein structure generation with various degrees of completeness of the chemical shift assignment, simulated by omission of entries in the experimental chemical shift data previously used for the initial demonstration of the CS-Rosetta approach. In addition, a new CS-Rosetta protocol is described that improves robustness of the method for proteins with missing or erroneous NMR chemical shift input data. This strategy, which uses traditional Rosetta for pre-filtering of the fragment selection process, is demonstrated for two paramagnetic proteins and also for two proteins with solid-state NMR chemical shift assignments.

  18. Massively parallel de novo protein design for targeted therapeutics

    KAUST Repository

    Chevalier, Aaron

    2017-09-26

    De novo protein design holds promise for creating small stable proteins with shapes customized to bind therapeutic targets. We describe a massively parallel approach for designing, manufacturing and screening mini-protein binders, integrating large-scale computational design, oligonucleotide synthesis, yeast display screening and next-generation sequencing. We designed and tested 22,660 mini-proteins of 37-43 residues that target influenza haemagglutinin and botulinum neurotoxin B, along with 6,286 control sequences to probe contributions to folding and binding, and identified 2,618 high-affinity binders. Comparison of the binding and non-binding design sets, which are two orders of magnitude larger than any previously investigated, enabled the evaluation and improvement of the computational model. Biophysical characterization of a subset of the binder designs showed that they are extremely stable and, unlike antibodies, do not lose activity after exposure to high temperatures. The designs elicit little or no immune response and provide potent prophylactic and therapeutic protection against influenza, even after extensive repeated dosing.

  19. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.

  20. Massively parallel de novo protein design for targeted therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Aaron; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Rocklin, Gabriel J.; Hicks, Derrick R.; Vergara, Renan; Murapa, Patience; Bernard, Steffen M.; Zhang, Lu; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Yao, Guorui; Bahl, Christopher D.; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Goreshnik, Inna; Fuller, James T.; Koday, Merika T.; Jenkins, Cody M.; Colvin, Tom; Carter, Lauren; Bohn, Alan; Bryan, Cassie M.; Fernández-Velasco, D. Alejandro; Stewart, Lance; Dong, Min; Huang, Xuhui; Jin, Rongsheng; Wilson, Ian A.; Fuller, Deborah H.; Baker, David

    2018-01-01

    De novo protein design holds promise for creating small stable proteins with shapes customized to bind therapeutic targets. We describe a massively parallel approach for designing, manufacturing and screening mini-protein binders, integrating large-scale computational design, oligonucleotide synthesis, yeast display screening and next-generation sequencing. We designed and tested 22,660 mini-proteins of 37–43 residues that target influenza haemagglutinin and botulinum neurotoxin B, along with 6,286 control sequences to probe contributions to folding and binding, and identified 2,618 high-affinity binders. Comparison of the binding and non-binding design sets, which are two orders of magnitude larger than any previously investigated, enabled the evaluation and improvement of the computational model. Biophysical characterization of a subset of the binder designs showed that they are extremely stable and, unlike antibodies, do not lose activity after exposure to high temperatures. The designs elicit little or no immune response and provide potent prophylactic and therapeutic protection against influenza, even after extensive repeated dosing. PMID:28953867

  1. De novo malignancy is associated with renal transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Kun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Lee, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Hu, Rey-Heng; Lee, Po-Huang

    2011-04-01

    Despite the objections to transplant tourism raised by the transplant community, many patients continue travel to other countries to receive commercial transplants. To evaluate some long-term complications, we reviewed medical records of 215 Taiwanese patients (touring group) who received commercial cadaveric renal transplants in China and compared them with those of 321 transplant recipients receiving domestic cadaveric renal transplants (domestic group) over the same 20-year period. Ten years after transplant, the graft and patient survival rates of the touring group were 55 and 81.5%, respectively, compared with 60 and 89.3%, respectively, of the domestic group. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. The 10-year cumulative cancer incidence of the touring group (21.5%) was significantly higher than that of the domestic group (6.8%). Univariate and multivariate stepwise regression analyses (excluding time on immunosuppression, an uncontrollable factor) indicated that transplant tourism was associated with significantly higher cancer incidence. Older age at transplantation was associated with a significantly increased cancer risk; however, the risk of de novo malignancy significantly decreased with longer graft survival. Thus, renal transplant tourism may be associated with a higher risk of post-transplant malignancy, especially in patients of older age at transplantation. © 2011 International Society of Nephrology

  2. Programming peptidomimetic syntheses by translating genetic codes designed de novo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Anthony C; Tan, Zhongping; Nalam, Madhavi N L; Lin, Hening; Qu, Hui; Cornish, Virginia W; Blacklow, Stephen C

    2003-05-27

    Although the universal genetic code exhibits only minor variations in nature, Francis Crick proposed in 1955 that "the adaptor hypothesis allows one to construct, in theory, codes of bewildering variety." The existing code has been expanded to enable incorporation of a variety of unnatural amino acids at one or two nonadjacent sites within a protein by using nonsense or frameshift suppressor aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) as adaptors. However, the suppressor strategy is inherently limited by compatibility with only a small subset of codons, by the ways such codons can be combined, and by variation in the efficiency of incorporation. Here, by preventing competing reactions with aa-tRNA synthetases, aa-tRNAs, and release factors during translation and by using nonsuppressor aa-tRNA substrates, we realize a potentially generalizable approach for template-encoded polymer synthesis that unmasks the substantially broader versatility of the core translation apparatus as a catalyst. We show that several adjacent, arbitrarily chosen sense codons can be completely reassigned to various unnatural amino acids according to de novo genetic codes by translating mRNAs into specific peptide analog polymers (peptidomimetics). Unnatural aa-tRNA substrates do not uniformly function as well as natural substrates, revealing important recognition elements for the translation apparatus. Genetic programming of peptidomimetic synthesis should facilitate mechanistic studies of translation and may ultimately enable the directed evolution of small molecules with desirable catalytic or pharmacological properties.

  3. Dominant de novo DSP mutations cause erythrokeratodermia-cardiomyopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Lynn M; Kam, Chen Y; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Zhou, Jing; Craiglow, Brittany G; Sidbury, Robert; Mathes, Erin F; Maguiness, Sheilagh M; Crumrine, Debra A; Williams, Mary L; Hu, Ronghua; Lifton, Richard P; Elias, Peter M; Green, Kathleen J; Choate, Keith A

    2016-01-15

    Disorders of keratinization (DOK) show marked genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. In most cases, disease is primarily cutaneous, and further clinical evaluation is therefore rarely pursued. We have identified subjects with a novel DOK featuring erythrokeratodermia and initially-asymptomatic, progressive, potentially fatal cardiomyopathy, a finding not previously associated with erythrokeratodermia. We show that de novo missense mutations clustered tightly within a single spectrin repeat of DSP cause this novel cardio-cutaneous disorder, which we term erythrokeratodermia-cardiomyopathy (EKC) syndrome. We demonstrate that DSP mutations in our EKC syndrome subjects affect localization of desmosomal proteins and connexin 43 in the skin, and result in desmosome aggregation, widening of intercellular spaces, and lipid secretory defects. DSP encodes desmoplakin, a primary component of desmosomes, intercellular adhesion junctions most abundant in the epidermis and heart. Though mutations in DSP are known to cause other disorders, our cohort features the unique clinical finding of severe whole-body erythrokeratodermia, with distinct effects on localization of desmosomal proteins and connexin 43. These findings add a severe, previously undescribed syndrome featuring erythrokeratodermia and cardiomyopathy to the spectrum of disease caused by mutation in DSP, and identify a specific region of the protein critical to the pathobiology of EKC syndrome and to DSP function in the heart and skin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. De Novo Design of Bioactive Small Molecules by Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Daniel; Friedrich, Lukas; Grisoni, Francesca; Schneider, Gisbert

    2018-01-01

    Generative artificial intelligence offers a fresh view on molecular design. We present the first-time prospective application of a deep learning model for designing new druglike compounds with desired activities. For this purpose, we trained a recurrent neural network to capture the constitution of a large set of known bioactive compounds represented as SMILES strings. By transfer learning, this general model was fine-tuned on recognizing retinoid X and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists. We synthesized five top-ranking compounds designed by the generative model. Four of the compounds revealed nanomolar to low-micromolar receptor modulatory activity in cell-based assays. Apparently, the computational model intrinsically captured relevant chemical and biological knowledge without the need for explicit rules. The results of this study advocate generative artificial intelligence for prospective de novo molecular design, and demonstrate the potential of these methods for future medicinal chemistry. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. De novo Biosynthesis of "Non-Natural" Thaxtomin Phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Michael; Francis, Daniel; Micklefield, Jason

    2018-03-30

    Thaxtomins are diketopiperazine phytotoxins produced by Streptomyces scabies and other actinobacterial plant pathogens that inhibit cellulose biosynthesis in plants. Due to their potent bioactivity and novel mode of action there has been considerable interest in developing thaxtomins as herbicides for crop protection. To address the need for more stable derivatives, we have developed a new approach for structural diversification of thaxtomins. Genes encoding the thaxtomin NRPS from S. scabies, along with genes encoding a promiscuous tryptophan synthase (TrpS) from Salmonella typhimurium, were assembled in a heterologous host Streptomyces albus. Upon feeding indole derivatives to the engineered S. albus strain, tryptophan intermediates with alternative substituents are biosynthesized and incorporated by the NRPS to deliver a series of thaxtomins with different functionalities in place of the nitro group. The approach described herein, demonstrates how genes from different pathways and different bacterial origins can be combined in a heterologous host to create a de novo biosynthetic pathway to "non-natural" product target compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. De novo DNA methylation during monkey pre-implantation embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Niu, Yuyu; Sun, Yi Eve; Lu, Hanlin; Chen, Yongchang; Li, Siguang; Kang, Yu; Luo, Yuping; Si, Chenyang; Yu, Juehua; Li, Chang; Sun, Nianqin; Si, Wei; Wang, Hong; Ji, Weizhi; Tan, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Critical epigenetic regulation of primate embryogenesis entails DNA methylome changes. Here we report genome-wide composition, patterning, and stage-specific dynamics of DNA methylation in pre-implantation rhesus monkey embryos as well as male and female gametes studied using an optimized tagmentation-based whole-genome bisulfite sequencing method. We show that upon fertilization, both paternal and maternal genomes undergo active DNA demethylation, and genome-wide de novo DNA methylation is also initiated in the same period. By the 8-cell stage, remethylation becomes more pronounced than demethylation, resulting in an increase in global DNA methylation. Promoters of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation are preferentially remethylated at the 8-cell stage, suggesting that this mode of energy metabolism may not be favored. Unlike in rodents, X chromosome inactivation is not observed during monkey pre-implantation development. Our study provides the first comprehensive illustration of the 'wax and wane' phases of DNA methylation dynamics. Most importantly, our DNA methyltransferase loss-of-function analysis indicates that DNA methylation influences early monkey embryogenesis.

  7. A crise financeira global e depois: um novo capitalismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A crise financeira global de 2008 foi conseqüência do processo de financeirização, a criação maciça de riqueza financeira fictícia iniciada da década de 1980, e da hegemonia de uma ideologia reacionária, o neoliberalismo, baseada em mercados auto-regulados e eficientes. Dessa crise emergirá um novo capitalismo, embora sua natureza seja de difícil previsão. Não será financeirizado, mas serão retomadas as tendências presentes nos trinta anos dourados em direção ao capitalismo global e baseado no conhecimento, além da tendência de expansão da democracia, tornando-a mais social e participativa.The 2008 global financial crisis was a consequence of the processes of financialization, the massive creation of fictitious financial wealth which began in the 1980's, and of the hegemony of a reactionary ideology, neoliberalism, based on the belief of the self-regulating capacity and efficiency of markets. From this crisis a new capitalism will emerge, althought its chacarteristics are hard to foresee. It will not be financial, but the tendencies of the 30 "golden years" toward global and knowledge-based capitalism, and the tendency of expansion of democracy will be among them.

  8. Enzyme-like replication de novo in a microcontroller environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The desire to start evolution from scratch inside a computer memory is as old as computing. Here we demonstrate how viable computer programs can be established de novo in a Precambrian environment without supplying any specific instantiation, just starting with random bit sequences. These programs are not self-replicators, but act much more like catalysts. The microcontrollers used in the end are the result of a long series of simplifications. The objective of this simplification process was to produce universal machines with a human-readable interface, allowing software and/or hardware evolution to be studied. The power of the instruction set can be modified by introducing a secondary structure-folding mechanism, which is a state machine, allowing nontrivial replication to emerge with an instruction width of only a few bits. This state-machine approach not only attenuates the problems of brittleness and encoding functionality (too few bits available for coding, and too many instructions needed); it also enables the study of hardware evolution as such. Furthermore, the instruction set is sufficiently powerful to permit external signals to be processed. This information-theoretic approach forms one vertex of a triangle alongside artificial cell research and experimental research on the creation of life. Hopefully this work helps develop an understanding of how information—in a similar sense to the account of functional information described by Hazen et al.—is created by evolution and how this information interacts with or is embedded in its physico-chemical environment.

  9. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This publication results from the second FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Project (CRP) on Inherited Sterility in Lepidoptera (caterpillars of moths). The present CRP and a previous one entitled 'Radiation Induced F{sub 1} Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control' were initiated in response to requests from Member States for the development of environment friendly alternatives to current control of moth pests. The first five-year CRP (1987-1991) dealt primarily with aspects such as determining the effects of various radiation dose levels on the resulting sterility in the treated parents and their F{sub 1} progeny in different Lepidoptera species. In addition, models were developed on the suppressive effects of F{sub 1} sterility on field populations, and some studies were conducted in laboratory or field cages to assess the impact of inherited sterility on pest suppression. The research results were published in 1993 in the IAEA Panel Proceedings Series. This follow-up CRP (1994-1998) has built on the results of the first CRP and has focused on addressing a more challenging phase, consisting of rearing key pest moths and evaluating their application for pest control purposes. The specific objective of the CRP was therefore to assess the potential of suppressing populations of caterpillar pests in the field by inherited sterility methods, i.e. by rearing and releasing irradiated moths and/or their progeny in combination with other biological control methods. The ultimate goal is to have alternative environment-friendly control methods available to be able to reduce the vast quantities of insecticide that are used in agriculture to combat Lepidoptera pests and that adversely affect the trade balance of developing countries because they must use hard currency to import them. The two FAO/IAEA sponsored Lepidoptera CRPs have resulted in expanded research and implementation programmes on F{sub 1} sterility in combination with natural enemies. Such programmes are

  10. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This publication results from the second FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Project (CRP) on Inherited Sterility in Lepidoptera (caterpillars of moths). The present CRP and a previous one entitled 'Radiation Induced F 1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control' were initiated in response to requests from Member States for the development of environment friendly alternatives to current control of moth pests. The first five-year CRP (1987-1991) dealt primarily with aspects such as determining the effects of various radiation dose levels on the resulting sterility in the treated parents and their F 1 progeny in different Lepidoptera species. In addition, models were developed on the suppressive effects of F 1 sterility on field populations, and some studies were conducted in laboratory or field cages to assess the impact of inherited sterility on pest suppression. The research results were published in 1993 in the IAEA Panel Proceedings Series. This follow-up CRP (1994-1998) has built on the results of the first CRP and has focused on addressing a more challenging phase, consisting of rearing key pest moths and evaluating their application for pest control purposes. The specific objective of the CRP was therefore to assess the potential of suppressing populations of caterpillar pests in the field by inherited sterility methods, i.e. by rearing and releasing irradiated moths and/or their progeny in combination with other biological control methods. The ultimate goal is to have alternative environment-friendly control methods available to be able to reduce the vast quantities of insecticide that are used in agriculture to combat Lepidoptera pests and that adversely affect the trade balance of developing countries because they must use hard currency to import them. The two FAO/IAEA sponsored Lepidoptera CRPs have resulted in expanded research and implementation programmes on F 1 sterility in combination with natural enemies. Such programmes are under way in Tunisia

  11. Rapid centriole assembly in Naegleria reveals conserved roles for both de novo and mentored assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K; Levy, Yaron Y; Levitan, Edward; Chen, Sean; Cande, W Zacheus; Lai, Elaine Y; Fulton, Chandler

    2016-03-01

    Centrioles are eukaryotic organelles whose number and position are critical for cilia formation and mitosis. Many cell types assemble new centrioles next to existing ones ("templated" or mentored assembly). Under certain conditions, centrioles also form without pre-existing centrioles (de novo). The synchronous differentiation of Naegleria amoebae to flagellates represents a unique opportunity to study centriole assembly, as nearly 100% of the population transitions from having no centrioles to having two within minutes. Here, we find that Naegleria forms its first centriole de novo, immediately followed by mentored assembly of the second. We also find both de novo and mentored assembly distributed among all major eukaryote lineages. We therefore propose that both modes are ancestral and have been conserved because they serve complementary roles, with de novo assembly as the default when no pre-existing centriole is available, and mentored assembly allowing precise regulation of number, timing, and location of centriole assembly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. De Novo Human Cardiac Myocytes for Medical Research: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Hamel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of cellular reprogramming technology has revolutionized biomedical research. De novo human cardiac myocytes can now be obtained from direct reprogramming of somatic cells (such as fibroblasts, from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which are reprogrammed from somatic cells, and from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Such de novo human cardiac myocytes hold great promise for in vitro disease modeling and drug screening and in vivo cell therapy of heart disease. Here, we review the technique advancements for generating de novo human cardiac myocytes. We also discuss several challenges for the use of such cells in research and regenerative medicine, such as the immature phenotype and heterogeneity of de novo cardiac myocytes obtained with existing protocols. We focus on the recent advancements in addressing such challenges.

  13. Novel de novo BRCA2 mutation in a patient with a family history of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas V O; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Jønson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    whole blood. The paternity was determined by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray analysis. Parental origin of the de novo mutation was determined by establishing mutation-SNP haplotypes by variant specific PCR, while de novo and mosaic status was investigated by sequencing of DNA from......BACKGROUND: BRCA2 germ-line mutations predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. Mutations are widespread and unclassified splice variants are frequently encountered. We describe the parental origin and functional characterization of a novel de novo BRCA2 splice site mutation found in a patient...... and synthesis of a truncated BRCA2 protein. The aberrant splicing was verified by RT-PCR analysis on RNA isolated from whole blood of the affected patient. The mutation was not found in any of the patient's parents or in the mother's carcinoma, showing it is a de novo mutation. Variant specific PCR indicates...

  14. Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin’s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Alade Adewole

    Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin's cyst: A case report ... 6 by 5 cm. The cervix, uterus, adnexa and Pouch of Douglas (POD) were normal. .... of vaginal cancer.2–4 Although, DES exposed daughters have an.

  15. Relaciones polen-vegetación de algunos taxa de la estepa patagónica (Argentina Pollen-vegetation relationships of some taxa from the Patagonian steppe (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIA S. BURRY

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de un análisis de regresión lineal simple a datos de lluvia de polen y de vegetación, en una zona de la Patagonia (Provincia de Chubut, Argentina permitió relacionar cuantitativamente los porcentajes de lluvia polínica y de cobertura de la vegetación para los taxa Poaceae, Papilionoideae, tipo Senecio y Mulinum spinosum. Se obtuvo un buen ajuste de las rectas de regresión para cada uno de los taxa considerados, con coeficientes de correlación r de Pearson altos para M. spinosum (0,82 y tipo Senecio (0,81 y coeficientes algo menores en el caso de Poaceae (0,66 y Papilionoideae (0,61. Estas regresiones permitieron inferir la presencia o ausencia de polen regional y el valor predictivo de la presencia de polen en ausencia de la vegetación que lo produce. Al respecto, la lluvia de polen estudiada incluye el aporte regional (excepto Papilionoideae aun cuando M. spinosum tiene una baja contribución. Esta sobrerrepresentación es atribuible al transporte de larga distancia, a través de los vientos que provienen del oeste. Estas relaciones cuantitativas nos permitirán extrapolar cambios vegetacionales pasados en estos taxa a partir de espectros de polen fósil para el área de estudioThe use of simple linear regression to data of pollen rain and vegetation cover in Patagonia (Province of Chubut, Argentina allowed us to develop quantitative relationships between modern pollen rain perecentages and vegetation cover for the taxa Poaceae, Papilionoideae, Senecio type, and Mulinum spinosum. The analysis revealed a good fit of data to regression lines for all taxa, with high Pearson r coefficient values in the case of M. spinosum (0.82 and Senecio type (0.81, and somewhat lower values in the case of Poaceae (0.66 and Papilionoideae (0.61. These regressions allowed us to infer the presence or absence of regional pollen and predict the quantity of pollen in the absence of the vegetation producing it. In this regard, the studied pollen

  16. A dinâmica da taxa de lucro, da taxa de juros e do grau de utilização da capacidade produtiva em um modelo pós-keynesiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dias de Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar, por meio de simulação computacional, as trajetórias dinâmicas da taxa de acumulação de capital, da taxa de lucro, da taxa de juros e do grau de utilização da capacidade diante de mudanças exógenas do ritmo do progresso tecnológico e da propensão a poupar dos capitalistas. A simulação foi realizada a partir de um modelo macrodinâmico pós-keynesiano que leva em consideração a interação entre o lado real e monetário da economia. Dentre outros resultados, as simulações mostraram que: (i a taxa de lucro é significativamente elástica com relação a um choque tecnológico positivo, ao passo que a taxa de juros e o grau de utilização da capacidade são pouco sensíveis a esse tipo de choque; e (ii a confirmação do paradoxo da frugalidade, segundo o qual o aumento da propensão a poupar dos capitalistas acaba por reduzir o nível da poupança agregada, a taxa de lucro e o grau de utilização da capacidade.The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamic path of the profit rate, the interest rate, the rate of capital accumulation and the degree of utilization of the productive capacity - face exogenous changes of the intensity of technological progress and the propensity to save of capitalists within a Post-Keynesian macroeconomic dynamic model that join the real and monetary side of the economy. The computational simulation allowed investigating the degree of proximity of the model to the dynamics of a real economy. The simulation showed, amongst other results, that: (i the profit rate is significantly elastic with regard to the rate of technological progress, while the interests rate and the degree of utilization of the capacity are little sensible to this variable; and (ii the confirmation of the paradox of the thrift, according to which an increase of the propensity to save of the capitalists reduces the level of the aggregate saving.

  17. Estimation of taxa included in the first volume of the Red Data Book of the Republic of Mordovia (Russia using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy A. Khapugin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an estimation of taxa included in the first volume of the Red Data Book of the Republic of Mordovia using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Each taxon is provided by a category and all criteria appropriate for it within the region. The paper contains the estimation results of 177 taxa of vascular plants, mosses and algae from the first volume Red Data Book of the Republic of Mordovia (second edition. Of these, 137 are Threatened: 73 taxa are Critically Endangered (category CR, 41 taxa Endangered (category EN, 23 are Vulnerable (category VU, 31 taxa are Near Threatened (category NT. Nine taxa are in the category Data Deficient (DD, due to a lack of sufficient factual material needed for the evaluation. Another 59 taxa of the Red Data Book of the Republic of Mordovia (35 macromycetes and 24 lichens were not evaluated in the present study, also due to the lack of sufficient data needed for an evaluation. Therefore, these taxa are temporarily in the category Not Evaluated (NE. But they could be assigned to one of the threatened categories when evaluated in the future, according to the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria. This paper is considered as a base for establishing the Red List of plant taxa of the Republic of Mordovia in the future.

  18. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  19. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  20. The NOVO Network: the original scientific basis for its establishment and our R&D vision

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel, Jørgen; Edwards, Kasper; Dellve, L.; Schiller, B.; Westgaard, Rolf H.

    2017-01-01

    The NOVO network is a Nordic non-governmental professional association whose aims are to foster the scientific progress, knowledge and development of the working environment within Healthcare as an integrated part of production system development. The vision is a “Nordic Model for Sustainable Systems” in the healthcare sector. It was founded in 2006 in Copenhagen and was financially supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers from 2007 to 2015. The motivation to establish the NOVO Network ar...

  1. De novo nonsense mutations in ASXL1 cause Bohring-Opitz syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoischen, Alexander; van Bon, Bregje W M; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    Bohring-Opitz syndrome is characterized by severe intellectual disability, distinctive facial features and multiple congenital malformations. We sequenced the exomes of three individuals with Bohring-Opitz syndrome and in each identified heterozygous de novo nonsense mutations in ASXL1, which...... is required for maintenance of both activation and silencing of Hox genes. In total, 7 out of 13 subjects with a Bohring-Opitz phenotype had de novo ASXL1 mutations, suggesting that the syndrome is genetically heterogeneous....

  2. Um novo escore para dependência a nicotina e uma nova escala de conforto do paciente durante o tratamento do tabagismo A new nicotine dependence score and a new scale assessing patient comfort during smoking cessation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Scholz Issa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é considerado a maior causa evitável de morbidade e mortalidade. O manuseio farmacológico da síndrome de abstinência de nicotina possibilita melhores taxas de cessação. Desenvolvemos um sistema de coleta de dados em nosso programa de assistência ao fumante, que inclui dois instrumentos novos: um escore para dependência de nicotina em fumantes de Smoking is considered the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of nicotine withdrawal syndrome enables better cessation rates. In our smoking cessation program, we have developed a data collection system, which includes two new instruments: a score that assesses nicotine dependence in smokers of < 10 cigarettes/day; and a patient comfort scale to be used during smoking cessation treatment. Here, we describe the two instruments, both of which are still undergoing validation.

  3. A revision of the genus Antepione Packard with description of the new genus Pionenta Ferris (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Clifford D

    2010-12-14

    Based on genitalic studies, the new genus Pionenta is established for two taxa formerly placed under Antepione. The taxa hewesata and ochreata (and previously associated synonyms) are now synonomized as Pionenta ochreata. Three species of Antepione are now recognized: Antepione thisoaria, Antepione imitata, Antepione tiselaaria with the taxa comstocki, constans, and indiscretata synonomized under Antepione imitata. No new species are described. Adults and genitalia are illustrated, including type specimens.

  4. Selecting Superior De Novo Transcriptome Assemblies: Lessons Learned by Leveraging the Best Plant Genome.

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    Loren A Honaas

    Full Text Available Whereas de novo assemblies of RNA-Seq data are being published for a growing number of species across the tree of life, there are currently no broadly accepted methods for evaluating such assemblies. Here we present a detailed comparison of 99 transcriptome assemblies, generated with 6 de novo assemblers including CLC, Trinity, SOAP, Oases, ABySS and NextGENe. Controlled analyses of de novo assemblies for Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa transcriptomes provide new insights into the strengths and limitations of transcriptome assembly strategies. We find that the leading assemblers generate reassuringly accurate assemblies for the majority of transcripts. At the same time, we find a propensity for assemblers to fail to fully assemble highly expressed genes. Surprisingly, the instance of true chimeric assemblies is very low for all assemblers. Normalized libraries are reduced in highly abundant transcripts, but they also lack 1000s of low abundance transcripts. We conclude that the quality of de novo transcriptome assemblies is best assessed through consideration of a combination of metrics: 1 proportion of reads mapping to an assembly 2 recovery of conserved, widely expressed genes, 3 N50 length statistics, and 4 the total number of unigenes. We provide benchmark Illumina transcriptome data and introduce SCERNA, a broadly applicable modular protocol for de novo assembly improvement. Finally, our de novo assembly of the Arabidopsis leaf transcriptome revealed ~20 putative Arabidopsis genes lacking in the current annotation.

  5. De novo FBXO11 mutations are associated with intellectual disability and behavioural anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Daniel; Kuechler, Alma; Grimmel, Mona; Becker, Jessica; Peters, Sophia; Sturm, Marc; Hundertmark, Hela; Schmidt, Axel; Kreiß, Martina; Strom, Tim M; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Haack, Tobias B; Beck-Wödl, Stefanie; Cremer, Kirsten; Engels, Hartmut

    2018-05-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) has an estimated prevalence of 1.5-2%. In most affected individuals, its genetic basis remains unclear. Whole exome sequencing (WES) studies have identified a multitude of novel causative gene defects and have shown that a large proportion of sporadic ID cases results from de novo mutations. Here, we present two unrelated individuals with similar clinical features and deleterious de novo variants in FBXO11 detected by WES. Individual 1, a 14-year-old boy, has mild ID as well as mild microcephaly, corrected cleft lip and alveolus, hyperkinetic disorder, mild brain atrophy and minor facial dysmorphism. WES detected a heterozygous de novo 1 bp insertion in the splice donor site of exon 3. Individual 2, a 3-year-old boy, showed ID and pre- and postnatal growth retardation, postnatal mild microcephaly, hyperkinetic and restless behaviour, as well as mild dysmorphism. WES detected a heterozygous de novo frameshift mutation. While ten individuals with ID and de novo variants in FBXO11 have been reported as part of larger studies, only one of the reports has some additional clinical data. Interestingly, the latter individual carries the identical mutation as our individual 2 and also displays ID, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, behavioural anomalies, and dysmorphisms. Thus, we confirm deleterious de novo mutations in FBXO11 as a cause of ID and start the delineation of the associated clinical picture which may also comprise postnatal microcephaly or borderline small head size and behavioural anomalies.

  6. De novo giant A2 aneurysm following anterior communicating artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tarik F; Hafez, Ahmad; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Raj, Rahul; Niemela, Mika; Lehto, Hanna; Numminen, Jussi; Jarvelainen, Juha; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2015-01-01

    De novo intracranial aneurysms are reported to occur with varying incidence after intracranial aneurysm treatment. They are purported to be observed, however, with increased incidence after Hunterian ligation; particularly in cases of carotid artery occlusion for giant or complex aneurysms deemed unclippable. We report a case of right-sided de novo giant A2 aneurysm 6 years after an anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm clipping. We believe this de novo aneurysm developed in part due to patient-specific risk factors but also a significant change in cerebral hemodynamics. The ACoA became occluded after surgery that likely altered the cerebral hemodynamics and contributed to the de novo aneurysm. We believe this to be the first reported case of a giant de novo aneurysm in this location. Following parent vessel occlusion (mostly of the carotid artery), there are no reports of any de novo aneurysms in the pericallosal arteries let alone a giant one. The patient had a dominant right A1 and the sudden increase in A2 blood flow likely resulted in increased wall shear stress, particularly in the medial wall of the A2 where the aneurysm occurred 2 mm distal to the A1-2 junction. ACoA preservation is a key element of aneurysm surgery in this location. Suspected occlusion of this vessel may warrant closer radiographic follow-up in patients with other risk factors for aneurysm development.

  7. Estrutura a termo da taxa de juros e imunização: novas perspectivas na gestão do risco de taxa de juros em fundo de pensão

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Sérgio Jurandyr; Motta,Luis Felipe Jacques da

    2007-01-01

    O termo imunização denota a construção de uma carteira de títulos de forma a torná-la imune a variações nas taxas de juros. No caso dos fundos de pensão, o objetivo da imunização é distribuir os recebimentos intermediários e finais dos ativos de acordo com a previsão para o fluxo de pagamentos dos benefícios. Nesse sentido, o artigo busca comparar o desempenho de duas alternativas de imunização ao método tradicional que restringe o gerenciamento do risco de taxa de juros à compatibilização da...

  8. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    simply reducing its biomass. Individual measures often do not solve the real problem. In Timisoara, the fight against such a quarantine organism became in fact obligatory by administrative decision in 2007. A. artemisiifolia has been fought by grubbing and repeated cutting (in parks, along the main roads. This taxa respond to the cutting by producing more secondary branches. Under these conditions we determined and compared several eco-physiological parameters. SLA and SLW are good indicators of leaf toughness. LWL is useful measure of the physiological water status of plants. Leaves of Ambrosia are highly plastic in response to their growing conditions, varying greatly in morphology, anatomy and physiology.

  9. The Evolution of Diapsid Reproductive Strategy with Inferences about Extinct Taxa.

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    Jason R Moore

    Full Text Available Diapsids show an extremely wide range of reproductive strategies. Offspring may receive no parental care, care from only one sex, care from both parents, or care under more complex regimes. Young may vary from independent, super-precocial hatchlings to altricial neonates needing much care before leaving the nest. Parents can invest heavily in a few young, or less so in a larger number. Here we examine the evolution of these traits across a composite phylogeny spanning the extant diapsids and including the limited number of extinct taxa for which reproductive strategies can be well constrained. Generalized estimating equation(GEE-based phylogenetic comparative methods demonstrate the influences of body mass, parental care strategy and hatchling maturity on clutch volume across the diapsids. The influence of polygamous reproduction is not important despite a large sample size. Applying the results of these models to the dinosaurs supports the hypothesis of paternal care (male only in derived non-avian theropods, previously suggested based on simpler analyses. These data also suggest that sauropodomorphs did not care for their young. The evolution of parental-care occurs in an almost linear series of transitions. Paternal care rarely gives rise to other care strategies. Where hatchling condition changes, diapsids show an almost unidirectional tendency of evolution towards increased altriciality. Transitions to social monogamy from the ancestral state in diapsids, where both sexes are polygamous, are common. In contrast, once evolved, polygyny and polyandry are very evolutionarily stable. Polygyny and maternal care correlate, as do polyandry and paternal care. Ancestral-character estimation (ACE of these care strategies with the character transition likelihoods estimated from the original data gives good confidence at most important nodes. These analyses suggest that the basalmost diapsids had no parental care. Crocodilians independently evolved

  10. De novo ORFs in Drosophila are important to organismal fitness and evolved rapidly from previously non-coding sequences.

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    Josephine A Reinhardt

    Full Text Available How non-coding DNA gives rise to new protein-coding genes (de novo genes is not well understood. Recent work has revealed the origins and functions of a few de novo genes, but common principles governing the evolution or biological roles of these genes are unknown. To better define these principles, we performed a parallel analysis of the evolution and function of six putatively protein-coding de novo genes described in Drosophila melanogaster. Reconstruction of the transcriptional history of de novo genes shows that two de novo genes emerged from novel long non-coding RNAs that arose at least 5 MY prior to evolution of an open reading frame. In contrast, four other de novo genes evolved a translated open reading frame and transcription within the same evolutionary interval suggesting that nascent open reading frames (proto-ORFs, while not required, can contribute to the emergence of a new de novo gene. However, none of the genes arose from proto-ORFs that existed long before expression evolved. Sequence and structural evolution of de novo genes was rapid compared to nearby genes and the structural complexity of de novo genes steadily increases over evolutionary time. Despite the fact that these genes are transcribed at a higher level in males than females, and are most strongly expressed in testes, RNAi experiments show that most of these genes are essential in both sexes during metamorphosis. This lethality suggests that protein coding de novo genes in Drosophila quickly become functionally important.

  11. Radioisotope devices at Novo-Krivorozhskij-ore-enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitskij, V.Ya.; Kucher, V.G.; Ministerstvo Chernoj Metallurgii Ukrainskoj SSR, Dnepropetrovsk, Bazovaya Opytno-Konstruktorskaya Izotopnaya lab.)

    1975-01-01

    Use of the ''Ferrite'' analyzers, AZhR and PAZh-1 and the GR-7 gamma relay in different engineering areas of the Novo-Krivorozh ore-enrichment plant is evaluated. The ''Ferrite'' radioisotopic analyzer was designed for rapid roentgeno-radiometric determination of the total iron and iron group element contents in powdered samples of ores and products of their treatment. From the density of the flux of the characteristic radiation it is possible to determine quantitatively the content of the element of interest in the analyzed material. The radioisotpic analyzer AZhR-1 is distinguished by its high efficiency in the analysis for total iron on products of processing of iron ore raw materials. The use of this apparatus allows complete replacement of the chemical method for rapid analysis of concentrates by the roentgeno-radiometric method, which decreases the total analytical work on determination of total iron and speeds up output of information on concentrate quality. The radioisotopic gamma analyzer PAZh-1 is designed for automatic and either continuous or discrete measurement of the total iron content in iron ore materials ground to 50 mm, carried on a conveyor, without selection or preparation of the samples for analysis. The analyzer operates on the principle of measuring the average frequency of impingement on a detector of gamma quanta back-scattered by the analyzed material. This frequency is determined by the percentage content of total iron in the material. The apparatus operates continuously. The mean square deviation of the apparatus values from chemical data is 0.93% Fesub(total). Use of the apparatus greatly increases the operativeness of the control and decreases the laboriousness of raw material sampling in an engineering stream. The radioisotopic data units GR-7 are designed for control of the level of materials in hoppers for recovery and burning of agglomerates. Use of this apparatus showed its great advantage over data units of other types

  12. Internet e Cultura: um novo olhar, veloz e voraz

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    Wilson de Oliveira Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em cada piscadela que damos, um novo mundo enxergamos. Com a globalização, o modo de ver o mundo muda radicalmente, principalmente devido ao complexo ritmo ditado pelas relações entre o meio ambiente e seus usuários. De forma sintetizada, podemos explicar que a globalização é resultado da terceira revolução tecnológica (tecnologias ligadas à busca, processamento, difusão e transmissão de informações; inteligência artificial; engenharia genética, da formação de áreas de livre comércio e blocos econômicos interligados (como o Mercosul, a União Européia e o Nafta e da crescente interligação e interdependência dos mercados físicos e financeiros em escala planetária. Essa trinca é responsável pela alteração, principalmente, da nova forma de enxergarmos a cultura, aceitando que a mundialização da cultura é um processo em curso, não concluído ainda, na qual as formas culturais nacionais ou locais entram em contato rapidamente. Com isso, quedam as barreiras territoriais, forçam as mediações e criam, no dizer de Featherstone, a "terceira cultura", entendendo como "um conjunto de práticas, conhecimentos, convenções e estilos de vida que se desenvolvem de modo a se tornar cada vez mais independente dos Estados-Nação".

  13. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B; O'Brien, Thomas J; Stevenson, David M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using (13)C-labeled sugars and [(15)N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2015, Pisithkul et al.

  14. Potencial forrageiro de novos clones de capim-elefante

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    Botrel Milton de Andrade

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de novos clones selecionados de capim-elefante. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Gado de Leite, em Coronel Pacheco -- MG, por um período de dois anos. Foi avaliado o potencial forrageiro de 20 clones de capim-elefante, obtidos pelo programa de melhoramento, e mais duas cultivares tradicionais (Cameroon e Taiwan A-146 usadas como testemunhas. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. As adubações para estabelecimento e manutenção foram realizadas de acordo com a análise do solo, visando suprir as exigências nutricionais do capim-elefante. Observaram-se diferenças significativas entre os clones, quanto ao potencial para produção de forragem, à relação folha/colmo e ao perfilhamento aéreo e basal. A maioria dos clones avaliados apresentou maior produção de matéria seca que as cultivares tradicionais, Cameroon e Taiwan A-146, durante o período seco e chuvoso. Não houve diferença significativa no teor de proteína bruta da matéria seca das cultivares controles (Cameroon e Taiwan A-146 e dos clones avaliados, em ambas as estações (águas e seca. O clone F 27-01, lançado pela Embrapa Gado de Leite com o nome de cultivar Pioneiro, destacou-se para quase todas as características agronômicas estudadas.

  15. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.; Stevenson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. PMID:26070680

  16. Two new Neonerita Hampson species with redescription of Neonerita dorsipuncta Hampson, 1901 (Lepidoptera: Erebiidae: Arctiinae: Phaegopterina

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    Michel Laguerre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Neonerita are described from Guatemala and French Guiana: Neonerita bernardoespinozai sp. nov. and Neonerita martinezi sp. nov. Detailed species descriptions are based upon morphological and molecular characters as well as distribution data. These new taxa are discussed and compared to Neonerita dorsipuncta, species with which both new species were confused with up to now.

  17. Variabilidade espacial da biomassa da forragem e taxa de lotação animal em pastagem de capim Marandu

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    Sabino Pereira da Silva Neto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a modelagem variográfica da disponibilidade de matéria seca da Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu e a simulação da taxa de lotação animal por meio do ajuste dos modelos esférico, exponencial e gaussiano ao semivariograma experimental, bem como a robustez das predições. A biomassa da gramínea foi coletada em 50 pontos em uma área de 36,22 ha. A simulação da taxa de lotação foi realizada com base na disponibilidade de folhas verdes em cada ponto amostrado, consumo diário de matéria seca por cada unidade animal (UA e o tempo de pastejo. Os dados referentes às variáveis foram submetidos à análise descritiva, estudo geoestatístico e interpolação por krigagem ordinária. A modelagem variográfica da disponibilidade de matéria seca do capim marandu e a taxa de lotação foram caracterizadas pelos modelos esférico, exponencial e gaussiano. Entretanto, apesar da aparente precisão dos ajustes, o modelo esférico apresentou melhor inferência, segundo o critério de informação de Akaike e soma dos erros ao quadrado. Assim, a adoção de modelos com ajustes de critérios somente visuais levam a estimativas da disponibilidade de biomassa de forragem e da taxa de lotação animal que não refletem a realidade da área. Palavras–chave: Estrutura do pasto. Carga animal. Distribuição espacial. Pecuária de precisão. Produção animal. Semivariograma.

  18. Previsão dos preços de commodities por meio das taxas de câmbio

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    Davi Rosolen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura modelar e prever o comportamento dos preços de commodities utilizando taxas de câmbio de países exportadores de commodities. A compreensão do comportamento desses preços é importante para um apropriado controle da inflação e planejamento da produção. Os resultados obtidos apontam para uma relação de causalidade entre a taxa de câmbio e os preços de commodities para os países estudados, com exceção da África do Sul e Argentina. Para Austrália, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Colômbia e Nova Zelândia, a taxa de câmbio se mostra uma informação significativa para previsões de preços de commodities para o período dentro da amostra. No caso da Austrália e do Canadá, a relação também é significativa para o período fora da amostra. Os resultados encontrados confirmam os obtidos por Chen, Rogoff e Rossi (2010, além de estender aquele trabalho aos casos da Argentina, Brasil e Colômbia.

  19. Desempenho exportador brasileiro recente e taxa de câmbio real: uma análise setorial

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    Kannebley Júnior Sérgio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga a relação entre medidas alternativas de taxa de câmbio real e a evolução do quantum exportado para 13 setores exportadores nacionais, no período de 1985 a 1998. É possível concluir, por meio de análise descritiva e econométrica, que não existe uma relação de longo prazo estável entre a evolução do nível da taxa de câmbio real e o quantum exportado para a maioria dos setores analisados. Argumenta-se, entretanto, que a manutenção de um nível de taxa real de câmbio capaz de preservar a rentabilidade e/ou competitividade dos setores exportadores é condição necessária, porém não suficiente, para a expansão das exportações ao longo do tempo.

  20. Cambro-ordovician sea-level fluctuations and sequence boundaries: The missing record and the evolution of new taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, O.; Miller, J.F.; Leslie, Stephen A.; Repetski, J.E.; Ethington, Raymond L.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of early Palaeozoic conodont faunas shows a clear connection to sea-level changes. One way that this connection manifests itself is that thick successions of carbonates are missing beneath major sequence boundaries due to karstification and erosion. From this observation arises the question of how many taxa have been lost from different conodont lineages in these incomplete successions. Although many taxa suffered extinction due to the environmental stresses associated with falling sea-levels, some must have survived in these extreme conditions. The number of taxa missing in the early Palaeozoic tropics always will be unclear, but it will be even more difficult to evaluate the missing record in detrital successions of higher latitudes. A common pattern in the evolution of Cambrian-Ordovician conodont lineages is appearances of new species at sea-level rises and disappearances at sea-level drops. This simple picture can be complicated by intervals that consistently have no representatives of a particular lineage, even after extensive sampling of the most complete sections. Presumably the lineages survived in undocumented refugia. In this paper, we give examples of evolution in Cambrian-Ordovician shallowmarine conodont faunas and highlight problems of undiscovered or truly missing segments of lineages. ?? The Palaeontological Association.