WorldWideScience

Sample records for novoi stranitse istorii

  1. Istorii s risunkami

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Akvarellide autorina tuntud Sveta Aleksejeva tööst raamatute illustreerijana. Tema illustreeritud raamatutest tuli Leelo Märjamaa "Cupido & Psyche" konkursil "25 kaunimat raamatut" 5 kaunima eesti 2002. a. lasteraamatu hulka ja Enrico S. Conti "The stone-dragons of Metsamaa" sai samasuguse tunnustuse aastaid tagasi

  2. Spiral volostnoi istorii / Olga Tarassova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarassova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Haldusreformi käigus plaanivad Jõhvi vald ja linn ühineda ühtseks haldusüksuseks. Jõhvi linnavolikogu esimees, ajaloolane Vallo Reimaa annab ülevaate nimetatud piirkonna haldusjaotusest alates 1816. a.

  3. Tshorno-belõje kartinki istorii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ekskursioon "Seenioride reede" Kumus 29. veebruaril tutvustab Liina Siibi koostatud näitust "Reis maale. Etnograafilised tüübid fotos". Näha etnograafilised fotod Eestist, põhirõhuga Johannes Pääsukese Setumaa ja Saaremaa piltidel. Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis avatud näitusest "Igatsedes mägesid. Šveitsi maastikud Balti kunstis". Vahendatakse Balti kunstnike joonistusi Šveitsi-reisidelt ja Šveitsi maastikumaalijate loomingut. Kuraator Kadri Polli

  4. Pamjatnik istorii i iskusstva / Lev Livshits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Лившиц, Лев, 1924-2013

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Toomkiriku hoonest ja seal asuvatest kunstiväärtustest: Christian Ackermanni teostatud altar ja kantsel, Arent Passeri loodud P. De la Gardie sarkofaag ja epitaaf, S. Greighi hauamonument, F. v. Tiesenhauseni mälestusobelisk

  5. Analiz istorii razvitiya menegmenta vo vremya 20 veka .

    OpenAIRE

    Shchupakov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of the work will be considered theoretical bases of formation of the major management schools in the twentieth century. As will be disclosed such topics as: the classical school of scientific management, the school of "human relations" and behavioral sciences and features modern approaches to management. In the second part touched upon the practical application of theoretical approaches to management, as well as the influence of the theoretical approaches to the development ...

  6. Piratskije istorii - eto nastojashtsheje zolotoje dno / Ilja Svensson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Svensson, Ilja

    2006-01-01

    Gore Verbinski lavastatud piraadi-triloogia teine film "Kariibi mere piraadid : Surnud mehe aardekirst" ("Pirates of the Caribbean : Dead Man's Chest") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ülevaatlikult ka esimese filmiga seonduvast. Augustis lõppevad kolmanda filmi võtted

  7. Poslednije imperii v istorii / Emmanuel Todd ; interv. Veera Medvedjeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Todd, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Prantsuse ajaloolane, demograaf ja poliitiliste protsesside uurija räägib Ameerika Ühendriikide poliitikast Iraagis ja katsetest kujundada Euroopa Liidus venevastaseid hoiakuid, ajaloo ümbermõtestamisest ja kasutamisest poliitikas, Balti riikide taotlustest kujundada Venemaale vastanduvat rahvusajalugu

  8. De Novo> Discovery of Structured ncRNA Motifs in Genomic Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzo, Walter L; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    De novo discovery of "motifs" capturing the commonalities among related noncoding ncRNA structured RNAs is among the most difficult problems in computational biology. This chapter outlines the challenges presented by this problem, together with some approaches towards solving them, with an emphas...... on an approach based on the CMfinder CMfinder program as a case study. Applications to genomic screens for novel de novo structured ncRNA ncRNA s, including structured RNA elements in untranslated portions of protein-coding genes, are presented.......De novo discovery of "motifs" capturing the commonalities among related noncoding ncRNA structured RNAs is among the most difficult problems in computational biology. This chapter outlines the challenges presented by this problem, together with some approaches towards solving them, with an emphasis...

  9. V Tallinne natshalis sjomki novoi rossiiskoi komedii "Damõ v Amsterdame"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna vanalinnas filmib Venemaa stuudio Sony Pictures Entertainment koostöös Eesti Taska Filmiga komöödiat "Daamid Amsterdamis", režissööriks Andrei Tomashevski, produtsentideks Kristian Taska ja Sergei Gribkov, "daamide" rollides Igor Kassilov ja Sergei Tshvanov

  10. Gorod-port v uslovijahh novoi Jevropõ / Mihhail Tuzhikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuzhikov, Mihhail

    2004-01-01

    Riias toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverentsil "Kaasaegne sadamalinn uues Euroopas" esinesid ettekannetega Boris Usanov, Riho Rasmann ja Andris Zorgevits, kes rääkisid Peterburi, Tallinna ning Riia kui sadamalinnade arengusuundadest, regioonide koostööst

  11. De novo> assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang

    2015-01-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-...

  12. Starõje kozõri v novoi igre / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Eesti arstkond on veendunud, et senise rahastamissüsteemiga jätkates pole edaspidi võimalik osutada samas mahus tervishoiuteenuseid ja 17. jaanuari tervishoiutöötajate streik on endiselt päevakorras

  13. Zimnij put’ u Puškina. (Nacional’naja priroda kuchnja istorii kak kul’tury)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanickij, Aleksandr

    1998-01-01

    In The Snowstorm, Captain's daughter and Eugene Onegin (chapter V, The dream of Tatyana) Pushkin's heroes of adventurous or sentimental novels are becoming partly fairy tales heroes and their roads in lives are receiving national and historical meaning. First, the adventurous way for the hero is laid by the fairy nature. Acting like a storm reforming the world, nature is continued in history (the 1812 war), or tallies with history (Pugachev's rebellion). The storm joins a...

  14. Review of the Book: Trepavlov V.V., Belyakov A.V. Sibirskie tsarevichi v istorii Rossii [The Siberian Princes in the History of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Maslyuzhenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the new book by Russian historians V.V. Trepavlov and A.V. Be­lyakov dedicated to the Siberian princes and their role in national history. The first part of the book is dedicated to the struggle of Kuchum Khan and his descendants for revenge in Siberia and the restoration of the Siberian Khanate, and the second one – to the conditions of the Kuchumovichi’s appearances in the Moscow state, their inhabitancy, the role in political processes and the further disappearance of the dynasty. The book is written on the basis of a large number of archival documents, mainly from the Russian State Archives of Ancient Acts (RGADA. It allowed reconstructing the rich tapestry of the Kuchumovichi’s life in Siberia and the Moscow state based on the methods and traditions of political history, studies of everyday life, prosopography, microhistory and genealogy. On the one hand, the book will be important for studies of Siberia, because the Siberian kings and princes in the Moscow state tried, if possible, to keep their familiar surroundings for a long time that preserved some distinctive features of their prior life’s period, which cannot be directly reconstructed with local materials. On the other hand, many nuances of the everyday life of these dynasts and their entourage can characterize not only the Siberian aristocracy but also the relevant layers of Moscow society as a whole, for which the Eastern traditions were also not immune to. Therein, we get an interesting slice of the Moscow society of the 16th–17th centuries: notably, the gradual forfeiture of the princes directly coincided with the exhaustion of the post-Horde and Eastern traditions in Russia as a whole. Despite some minor shortcomings, the materials of the monograph are so manifold so each reader will find in it some of his or her own interesting aspects, and will get an idea of an interesting slice of the Russian history of the 16th–17th centuries.

  15. Utshjonõi malõi, no pedant... / Sergei Maltsev, Mihhail Petrov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltsev, Sergei

    2001-01-01

    Vastukaja Sergei Issakovi retsensioonile "Jamõ i uhabõ "Revelskogo trakta" ajalehes "Vesti : Nedelja Pljus" Feb/16 lk. 24 Vladimir Illjashevitshi raamatust "Revelskii trakt : istorii o russkoi Pribaltike" : Tallinn, 2001

  16. Naučnaja korrespondencija v istorii češskoj slavistiki kak evrističeskaja problema (I. Polivka i F. Vollman v dialoge učitelja i učenika o metodologii specializacii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelenková, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, Supplementum 2 (2012), s. 223-235 ISSN 1212-1509 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Polívka, Jiří * Wollman, Frank * correspondence * Comenius University in Bratislava * comparative studies * literary history Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  17. Episteemilise loogika mõningad aspektid / Ene Grauberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grauberg, Ene, 1944-

    2004-01-01

    Episteemiline loogika on modaalse loogika alasüsteemi loogika teooria, mis kasutab episteemilise operaatoreid ...teab,et..., ...eeldab,et.... Tema aineks on neid operaatoreid sisaldavate otsustuste õige organiseerimise reeglid ja tingimused. Varem ilmunud: Metod modelirovanija i nekotorõje filosofskije problemõ istorii i metodologii jestestvoznanija. Tallinn, 1975.

  18. Irreversible impacts of heat on the emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic BVOC and green leaf volatiles from several tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kleist

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will induce extended heat waves to parts of the vegetation more frequently. High temperatures may act as stress (thermal stress on plants changing emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. As BVOCs impact the atmospheric oxidation cycle and aerosol formation, it is important to explore possible alterations of BVOC emissions under high temperature conditions. Applying heat to European beech, Palestine oak, Scots pine, and Norway spruce in a laboratory setup either caused the well-known exponential increases of BVOC emissions or induced irreversible changes of BVOC emissions. Considering only irreversible changes of BVOC emissions as stress impacts, we found that high temperatures decreased the de novo> emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. This behaviour was independent of the tree species and whether the de novo> emissions were constitutive or induced by biotic stress.

    In contrast, application of thermal stress to conifers amplified the release of monoterpenes stored in resin ducts of conifers and induced emissions of green leaf volatiles. In particular during insect attack on conifers, the plants showed de novo> emissions of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOCs, which exceeded constitutive monoterpene emissions from pools. The heat-induced decrease of de novo> emissions was larger than the increased monoterpene release caused by damage of resin ducts. For insect-infested conifers the net effect of thermal stress on BVOC emissions could be an overall decrease.

    Global change-induced heat waves may put hard thermal stress on plants. If so, we project that BVOC emissions increase is more than predicted by models only in areas predominantly covered with conifers that do not emit high amounts of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOCs. Otherwise overall effects of high temperature stress will be lower increases of BVOC emissions than predicted by algorithms that do

  19. Polaridades expoliadoras: La escritura sobre la colonización del cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá, Ana Lúcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the representation of the body as a verbal construction in three novels of the writer Castro Soromenho (A Chaga, Terra Morta y Viragem. They recount the Portuguese colonial system in Angola during the Estado Novo> («New State», under the regimes of assimilation and forced labor. The colonized bodies are socially represented as products to be used, transformed and denied, a three element process based on the concept of race. In the selected texts, the strategies of belittling are presented through symbolic and written processes of deformation and dehumanization under the colonial machinery, considering the colonization as a system that controls the body and the identities.

    Este texto tiene como objetivo analizar la representación del cuerpo como una construcción verbal en tres novelas del escritor Castro Soromenho (A Chaga, Terra Morta y Viragem que relatan el sistema colonial portugués en Angola durante el Estado Nuevo, bajo los regímenes de la asimilación y del trabajo forzado. Los cuerpos de los colonizados se representan socialmente como productos para ser utilizados, transformados y negados, constituyendo estos tres elementos procesos utilitarios e imaginarios basados en el concepto de «raza». En los textos seleccionados, se presentan las estrategias de desvalorización del ser humano a través de procesos simbólicos y escritos de deformación y despersonalización bajo la maquinaria colonial, como un sistema controlador del cuerpo y de las identidades.

  20. Gamma-radiography of the bronze door of the royal cathedral at Gniezno; Gammagraphy de la porte en bronze de la cathedrale royale de Gniezno; Gamma-radiorentgenografiya bronzovykh dverej korolevskogo kafedral'nogo sobora v Gnezno; Gammagrafia de la puerta de bronce de la real catedral de Gniezno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewski, Z [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland)

    1962-01-15

    parties et comment le metal liquide avait ete achemine vers le moule. De plus, les radiologues desiraient determiner dans quelle mesure les examens radiographiques peuvent contribuer a la solution de ce genre de probleme. Pour obtenir des radiographies de la porte tout entiere, on a du recourir a la gammagraphie. On a utilise a cet effet le {sup 137}Cs et l'on a pris une centaine de radiographies. (author) [Spanish] El conocimiento de la tecnologia empleada en la elaboracion de objetos de interes historico reviste considerable interes para la historia de la tecnica. En Polonia existe un objeto muy interesante: la puerta de la catedral de Gniezno, fundida en bronce en el siglo XII. Esta puerta consta de dos hojas que se diferencian por el caracter de sus bajorrelieves, por sus dimensiones y por el procedimiento empleado en su construccion. La cara exterior de cada hoja esta dividida en nueve paneles con figuras esculpidas. Todas las escenas en bajorrelieve estan rodeadas de una orla enmarcada a su vez por una moldura. La investigacion de la tecnologia empleada en el medioevo para conseguir tan importante obra de fundicion ofrecia interes tanto para la historia del arte como para la historia de la fundicion. En este caso, se trataba de confirmar si cada hoja de la puerta habia sido fundida en una sola pieza o en varias, asi como averiguar la forma en que el metal liquido habia sido llevado hasta el molde de fundicion. Ademas, los radiologos deseaban averiguar hasta que punto las investigaciones radiograficas permiten resolver este tipo de problemas. Para lograr radiografias de la totalidad de la puerta fue preciso recurrir a la gammagrafia. Con este objeto se utilizo el isotopo {sup 137}Cs, obteniendose un centenar de radiografias. (author) [Russian] Znanie tekhnologii istoricheskikh ob{sup e}ktov vazhno dlya izucheniya istorii tekhniki. V Pol'she imeetsya ochen' interesnyj ob{sup e}kt: dveri kafedral'nogo sobora v Gnezno, otlitye iz bronzy v 12 veke. EHti dveri sostoyat iz

  1. Disintegration-Rate Determination by 4 {pi} Counting; Determination du taux de desintegrations par comptage 4 {pi}; Opredelenie skorosti raspada pri pomotsi 4 {pi} schetchikov; Determinacion de la velocidad de desintegracion por recuento 4 {pi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, Brian D [Chemistry Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1960-06-15

    The history of the development of the 4 {pi} counting method is reviewed. The unique properties of the 4 {pi} counter system are described and the criteria are specified which place disintegration rate measurements, made with the system, on an absolute basis. The types of radioactive decay process to which the method is applicable are outlined, together with the various errors to which a given measurement is liable. Departure of response probability from unity, absorption of radiation in the source-mounting system, and source self-absorption are discussed in detail. (author) [French] L'auteur fait l'historique des progres de la methode de comptage 4 {pi}. Il decrit les proprietes remarquables du dispositif de comptage 4 {pi} et precise les conditions dans lesquelles les mesures du taux de desintegration se font avec ce dispositif sur une base absolue. Il donne un apercu des types de processus de desintegration radioactive, ainsi que de diverses erreurs auxquelles est sujette une mesure donnee. Il examine en detail le cas ou la probabilite de reponse s'ecarte de l'unite, l'absorption des rayonnements dans le support de la source et l'autoabsorption de la source. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria el autor expone el desarrollo del metodo de recuento 4 {pi}. Describe las caracteristicas particulares de este metodo y explica las razones por las que las mediciones de la velocidad de desintegracion efectuadas segun ese procedimiento tienen un caracter absoluto. Se indican, asimismo, los tipos de procesos de desintegracion radiactiva a los que se puede aplicar el metodo, asi como los diferentes defectos de que puede adolecer una medicion determinada. Tambien se estudia detenidamente el caso en que la probabilidad de respuesta no es igual a la unidad, la absorcion de radiaciones en el soporte de la fuente y la autoabsorcion de la misma. (author) [Russian] Daetsya obzor istorii razvitiya metoda scheta s pomoshch'yu 4 {pi} schetchikov. Privoditsya opisanie unikal'nykh svojstv

  2. Non-Destructive Methods for Determining Burn-Up in Nuclear Fuel; Methodes Non Destructives d'Evaluation du Taux de Combustion dans le Combustible Nucleaire; Metody opredeleniya vygoraniya v yadernom toplive bez razrusheniya obraztsa; Metodos No Destructivos para Determinai el Grado de Combustion de los Elementos Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonnagle, W. J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    jadernyh reaktorah bez razrushenija obrazca javljajutsja poleznymi i zhelatel'nymi. Ideal'nym byl by metod, ne trebujushhij special'nyh dannyh o nejtronnom spektre, istorii radiacii ili vremeni ohlazhdenija. Obluchennye toplivnye jelementy sami po sebe javljajutsja nositeljami informacii o stepeni vygoranija topliva. Jeta informacija soderzhitsja v forme radioaktivnyh i stabil'nyh izotopov, obrazujushhihsja v processe delenija. K sozhaleniju,kak pri metodah analiza topliva bez razrushenija obrazca, tak i s razrusheniem obrazca nejtronnyj spektr, istorija radiacii i period ohlazhdenija vlijajut na jetu informaciju. Tochno tak zhe nedostatok tochnyh jadernyh dannyh, takih, kak znachenija jadernyh poperechnyh sechenij, vlijaet na ljubye vychislenija, kotorye mozhno bylo by proizvesti. Drugoj trudnost'ju pri analizah bez razrushenija obrazca javljaetsja nalichie polej vysokoj radiacii, kotoraja vnosit dopolnitel'nyj ''shum'' v fon pri izmerenijah. Razrabotka poleznyh i real'nyh standartov javljaetsja trudnym delom. Metody analiza stepeni vygoranija bez razrushenija obrazca osobenno polezny togda, kogda trebuetsja bystro i jekonomichno, dazhe pri sushhestvujushhem polozhenii s ih nedostatkom, poluchit' zhelatel'nuju tochnost' priblizitel'noj velichiny vygoranija. Ispol'zovalos' neskol'ko metodov dlja opredelenija stepeni vygoranija bez razrushenija obrazca; vedetsja ih ocenka ili oni predlagajutsja. Ispol'zovalis' razlichnye tipy spektrometrov, v tom chisle spektrometry s izognutym kristallom, magnitnyj komptonovskij spektrometr, komptonovskij spektrometr na sovpadenija i scintilljacionnyj spektrometr dlja analiza gamma-izluchenija radioaktivnogo materiala, obrazujushhegosja vo vremja processa delenija. Drugie metody analiza bez razrushenija obrazca vkljuchajut aktivaciju fol'gi, propuskanie nejtronov, aktivacionnyj analiz, izmerenie zahvata gamma-luchej i izmerenie mgnovennyh i zapazdyvajushhih nejtronov. Rassmatrivajutsja osnovnye principy kazhdogo iz vyshenazvannyh metodov i

  3. Special Nuclear Material Control by the Power Reactor Operator; Controle des Matieres Nucleaires Speciales par l'Exploitant d'une Centrale Nucleaire; Spetsial'nyj kontrol' nalichiya yadernykh materialov operatorom ehnergeticheskogo reaktora; Control de Materiales Nucleares Especiales por Parte de Quienes Operan el Reactor de Potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordin, R. A. [Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Boston, MA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    debido a un control deficiente de los combustibles nucleares y a la falta de precision en las operaciones contables. La administracion de materiales nucleares requiere que los explotadores de los reactores de potencia lleven una contabilidad completa y detallada. No es necesario que los documentos sean complejos si lo que se pretende es que sean completos y adecuados. En realidad, la sencillez es sobremanera conveniente. A pesar de que el combustible nuclear es un combustible nuevo y totalmente distinto de los de tipo tradicional, no hay que rodear su utilizacion de ninguna aureola de misterio. El control de los materiales nucleares no es una simple labor de inventario, sino que constituye la base de muchas otras operaciones inherentes a la explotacion de los reactores de potencia, por ejemplo: el transporte del combustible irradiado, su regeneracion con la correspondiente contabilizacion del combustible recuperado y del material producido durante el funcionamiento del reactor, y, por ultimo, el establecimiento de un sistema de seguros adecuado. (author) [Russian] Otnositel'no novoe i chrezvychajno cennoe toplivo dlja proizvodstva jelektrojenergii, a imenno uran, trebuet ochen' tshhatel'nogo ucheta s momenta, kogda operator reaktora prinimaet na sebja material'nuju otvetstvennost' za jetot material, i do togo momenta, kogda jetot material v vide chastichno otrabotannogo topliva peredaetsja na druguju ustanovku, gde regeneriruetsja ostavshajasja chast' ego pervonachal'noj cennosti. Bol'shaja chast' operatorov jenergeticheskih reaktorov, do pojavlenija v svet jadernoj jenergetiki, rabotala na jelektrostancijah s obychnym iskopaemym toplivom i /zhe davno vyrabotala dostatochno polnye i nadezhnye formy kontrolja za ego rashodovaniem. Operator reaktora dolzhen raspolagat' ne menee nadezhnymi sposobami ucheta jadernyh materialov, ispol'zuemyh na ego ustanovke. Jekspluatacija jenergeticheskih reaktorov ne imeet bol'shoj istorii, i na protjazhenii otnositel'no korotkogo perioda

  4. Effect of the plutonium isotopic composition on the performance of fast reactors; Effet de la composition isotopique du plutonium sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Vliyanie izotopnogo sostava plutoniya na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Efectos de la composicion isotopica del plutonio sobre el funcionamiento de los reactores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiftah, S [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (Israel)

    1962-03-15

    fisionables por neutrones termicos ({sup 239}Pu y {sup 241}Pu), cuanto mas impuro sea el plutonio, tanto menor sera la masa critica y mayor la razon de reproduccion. Tomando como ejemplo el reactor de 1500 l, se comprobo ademas que al eliminar un 40 por ciento del sodio inicialmente presente en el cuerpo, la variacion de reactividad tiende a ser negativa a medida que aumenta la proporcion de isotopos superiores contenidos en el combustible de plutonio (en forma de metal, oxido o carburo). (author) [Russian] Izotopnyj sostav plutoniya, kotoryj dolzhen ispol'zovat'sya v kachestve goryuchego dlya reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh, budet zaviset' ot istochnika polucheniya plutoniya. V printsipe vozmozhny tri razlichnykh istochnika: a) proizvodyashchie reaktory; b) teplovye ehnergeticheskie reaktory (ispol'zuyushchie v kachestve topliva estestvennyj ili obogashchennyj uran); c) zony vosproizvodstv a reaktora na bystrykh nejtronakh. V osnovnom istochnik (a) i v nekotorom otnoshenii istochnik (s) budut davat' sravnitel'no 'chistyj' plutonij, t.e. glavnym obrazom plutonij-239, togda kak plutonij iz istochnika (b) budet 'gryaznym', t.e. plutoniem, bogatym izotopami plutoniya-240, plutoniya-241 i plutoniya-242. Stepen' 'zagryazneniya' budet zaviset' ot tipa reaktora, velichiny vygoraniya i voobshche ot istorii oblucheniya topliva. V takom sluchae voznikaet vopros, mozhno li ispol'zovat' v kachestve goryuchego dlya reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh lyubye vidy plutoniya. Dlya izucheniya vliyaniya razlichnogo izotopnogo sostava plutonievogo topliva v metallicheskom, oksidnom i karbidnom vide na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh byli osushchestvleny ogranichennye serii podschetov po 16-gruppovoj diffuzionnoj teorii sfericheskoj geometrii s pomoshch'yu 16-gruppovogo komplekta poperechnykh sechenij, razrabotannogo nedavno Iftakhom, Okrentom i Mol'dauerom s ispol'zovaniem trekh razlichnykh vidov plutoniya, nachinaya s chistogo plutoniya-239 i povyshaya kolichestvo bolee vysokikh izotopov