WorldWideScience

Sample records for novel foods

  1. Placing on the market of novel foods or novel ingredients in Europe “novel food procedure”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Carole

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available « Novel Foods » concerned foods and food ingredients that have not been used for human consumption to a significant degree within the Community before 15 May 1997. Regulation (EC No 258/97 of 27 January 1997 lays out detailed rules for the authorisation of novel foods and novel food ingredients. In order to ensure the highest level of protection of human health, novel foods must undergo a safety assessment before being placed on the EU market. The application must be in accordance with Commission Recommendation 97/618/EC concerning the scientific information and the safety assessment. A proposal of the revision of this regulation of has been adopted in order to reflect the fact that genetically modified (GM food no longer falls under its scope, to create a more favourable legislative environment for innovation in the food industry, and to better facilitate foodstuffs trade between Europe and the rest of the world. The consumer would also benefit from a wider choice of safe novel foods.

  2. Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniak Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

  3. Review of conventional and novel food processing methods on food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanga, Sai Kranthi; Singh, Ashutosh; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2017-07-03

    With the turn of this century, novel food processing techniques have become commercially very important because of their profound advantages over the traditional methods. These novel processing methods tend to preserve the characteristic properties of food including their organoleptic and nutritional qualities better when compared with the conventional food processing methods. During the same period of time, there is a clear rise in the populations suffering from food allergies, especially infants and children. Though, this fact is widely attributed to the changing livelihood of population in both developed and developing nations and to the introduction of new food habits with advent of novel foods and new processing techniques, their complete role is still uncertain. Under the circumstance, it is very important to understand the structural changes in the protein as food is processed to comprehend whether the specific processing technique (conventional and novel) is increasing or mitigating the allergenicity. Various modern means are now being employed to understand the conformational changes in the protein which can affect the allergenicity. In this review, the processing effects on protein structure and allergenicity are discussed along with the insinuations of recent studies and techniques for establishing a platform to investigate future pathway to reduce or eliminate allergenicity in the population.

  4. Novel foods dossier analysis (Annex 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cachapa Rodrigues, I.

    2009-01-01

    In the NFR case study by Isabel Cachapa Rodrigues three novel foods dossiers have been analysed. The dossiers have been chosen from the UK because in this country they are made available on the internet. Remarkably in all three a qualification other than novel food would have been defendable. These

  5. Consumer Acceptance of Novel Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of novel foods depends to a considerable extent on whether consumers accept those innovations. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge relevant to consumer acceptance of innovations in food. A broad range of theories and approaches to assess consumer response to

  6. Grey Area Novel Foods: An Investigation into Criteria with Clear Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, C.; Bosch, van den R.; Iburg, S.; Moes, de K.; Paans, E.; Sutherland Borja, S.; Velde, van der H.; Kranen, van H.; Loveren, van H.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Verhagen, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the European Union novel foods are defined by the Novel Foods Regulation as food products and food ingredients that have not been consumed to a significant degree in the European Union before May 1997. However, there are new foods for some reason not considered as novel foods, although it may not

  7. Exploring novel food proteins and processing technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Foods rich in protein are nowadays high in demand worldwide. To ensure a sustainable supply and a high quality of protein foods, novel food proteins and processing technologies need to be explored to understand whether they can be used for the development of high-quality protein foods. Therefore,

  8. Allergenicity assessment strategy for novel food proteins and protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert

    2016-08-01

    To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed according to the European food legislation. Allergenicity risk assessment might pose some major difficulties, since detailed guidance on how to assess the allergenic potential of novel foods is not available. At present, the approach relies mostly on the guidance of allergenicity assessment for genetically modified (GM) plant foods. The most recent one was proposed by EFSA (2010 and 2011); "weight-of-evidence approach". However this guidance is difficult to interpret, not completely applicable or validated for novel foods and therefore needs some adjustments. In this paper we propose a conceptual strategy which is based on the "weight-of-evidence approach" for food derived from GM plants and other strategies that were previously published in the literature. This strategy will give more guidance on how to assess the allergenicity of novel food proteins and protein sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anaphylactic reactions to novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballardini, Natalia; Nopp, Anna; Hamsten, Carl

    2017-01-01

    sequence homology to chicken a-parvalbumin, as the main cross-reactive allergen. We conclude that crocodile meat can be a potent food allergen and patients with allergy to chicken meat should be advised to avoid intake of meat from crocodile species. Both foods and people travel around the world......Availability of "exotic" foods is steadily increasing. In this report, we describe the first case of anaphylaxis to crocodile meat. The patient was a 13-year-old boy with severe immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to chicken meat. When tasting crocodile meat for the first time, he developed...... and accessibility to exotic foods is steadily growing. As a result, novel allergic cross-reactivities are likely to become a challenge in the management of food allergy and, as our report illustrates, cross-reactivity has to be considered even between foods that might not intuitively be perceived as related....

  10. Recent developments in novel freezing and thawing technologies applied to foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu; Sun, Jincai

    2017-11-22

    This article reviews the recent developments in novel freezing and thawing technologies applied to foods. These novel technologies improve the quality of frozen and thawed foods and are energy efficient. The novel technologies applied to freezing include pulsed electric field pre-treatment, ultra-low temperature, ultra-rapid freezing, ultra-high pressure and ultrasound. The novel technologies applied to thawing include ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, high voltage electrostatic field (HVEF), and radio frequency. Ultra-low temperature and ultra-rapid freezing promote the formation and uniform distribution of small ice crystals throughout frozen foods. Ultra-high pressure and ultrasound assisted freezing are non-thermal methods and shorten the freezing time and improve product quality. Ultra-high pressure and HVEF thawing generate high heat transfer rates and accelerate the thawing process. Ultrasound and radio frequency thawing can facilitate thawing process by volumetrically generating heat within frozen foods. It is anticipated that these novel technologies will be increasingly used in food industries in the future.

  11. Current (Food) Allergenic Risk Assessment: Is It Fit for Novel Foods? Status Quo and Identification of Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Holzhauser, Thomas; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Molina, Elena; Roncada, Paola; Rodrigues, Pedro; Verhoeckx, Kitty; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Food allergies are recognized as a global health concern. In order to protect allergic consumers from severe symptoms, allergenic risk assessment for well-known foods and foods containing genetically modified ingredients is installed. However, population is steadily growing and there is a rising need to provide adequate protein-based foods, including novel sources, not yet used for human consumption. In this context safety issues such as a potential increased allergenic risk need to be assessed before marketing novel food sources. Therefore, the established allergenic risk assessment for genetically modified organisms needs to be re-evaluated for its applicability for risk assessment of novel food proteins. Two different scenarios of allergic sensitization have to be assessed. The first scenario is the presence of already known allergenic structures in novel foods. For this, a comparative assessment can be performed and the range of cross-reactivity can be explored, while in the second scenario allergic reactions are observed toward so far novel allergenic structures and no reference material is available. This review summarizes the current analytical methods for allergenic risk assessment, highlighting the strengths and limitations of each method and discussing the gaps in this assessment that need to be addressed in the near future. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  13. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  14. Allergenicity assessment strategy for novel food proteins and protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert

    To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed

  15. Risk management and risk assessment of novel plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Søborg, Inge; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2008-01-01

    and definitions to be used in determining novelty of a plant food and also propose a safety assessment approach for novel plant food with no or limited documented history of safe consumption. A 2-step management procedure is recommended for a smooth introduction of fruits and vegetables; first to establish...

  16. Novel immunotherapy and treatment modality for severe food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Sakura; Yanagida, Noriyuki; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, many studies on oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been conducted; however, few have focused on severe food allergies. The purpose of this review was to assess the efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapies for patients with severe food allergy. We reviewed multiple immunotherapy reports published within a few years or reports focusing on severe food allergies. We also investigated recent studies on OIT and novel food allergy management. Immunotherapies targeting low-dose antigen exposure and oral food challenges using low-dose target volumes may be safer than conventional OIT. It is necessary to consider which immunotherapy regimen is appropriate based on allergy severity of the patient.

  17. Food Allergies: Novel Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Costanzo, Margherita; Paparo, Lorella; Cosenza, Linda; Di Scala, Carmen; Nocerino, Rita; Aitoro, Rosita; Canani, Roberto Berni

    2016-01-01

    Childhood food allergy (FA) rates have rapidly increased with significant direct medical costs for the health care system and even larger costs for the families with a food-allergic child. The possible causes of food allergy become the target of intense scrutiny in recent years. Increasing evidence underline the importance in early life of gut microbiome in the development of allergic diseases. There are a range of factors in the modern environment that may be associated with changes to both the gut microbiome and risk of FA, such as mode of delivery, antibiotic exposure, infant feeding practices, farming environment, and country of origin. Knowledge of the relationship between early life gut microbiome and allergic diseases may facilitate development of novel preventive and treatment strategies. Based on our current knowledge, there are no currently available approved therapies for food allergy. More studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of allergen-specific and allergen-nonspecific approaches, as well as combination approaches.

  18. Effect of novel food processing methods on packaging: structure, composition, and migration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, V; Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Gontard, N

    2010-11-01

    Classical stabilization techniques (thermal treatments) usually involve food to be packed after being processed. On the contrary and increasingly, novel food processing methods, such as high pressure or microwaves, imply that both packaging and foodstuff undergo the stabilization treatment. Moreover, novel treatments (UV light, irradiation, ozone, cold plasma) are specifically used for disinfection and sterilization of the packaging material itself. Therefore, in the last several years a number of papers have focused on the effects of these new treatments on food-packaging interactions with a special emphasis on chemical migration and safety concerns. New packaging materials merged on the market with specific interest regarding the environment (i.e. bio-sourced materials) or mechanical and barrier properties (i.e. nanocomposites packaging materials). It is time to evaluate the knowledge about how these in-package food technologies affect food/packaging interactions, and especially for novel biodegradable and/or active materials. This article presents the effect of high pressure treatment, microwave heating, irradiation, UV-light, ozone and, cold plasma treatment on food/packaging interactions.

  19. Why do unusual novel foods like insects lack sensory appeal? Investigating the underlying sensory perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Tibboel, Claudia Joyce; Stieger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Unusual novel foods like insects generally hold little sensory appeal for consumers, but little is known about the underlying sensory perceptions and how the properties of the food contribute to acceptance. This study examined the sensory perceptions of 3 unusual novel foods (lamb brain, frog

  20. Safety of Ecklonia cava phlorotannins as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    /97. The novel food is a phlorotannin-rich alcohol extract of Ecklonia cava, which is an edible marine brown alga species. The information provided on the composition, the specifications, the production process and the batch-to-batch variability of the novel food is sufficient and does not raise safety concerns......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of Ecklonia cava phlorotannins (marketed as SeaPolynolTM) as a novel food submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258....... The intention is to market the novel food as a food supplement for healthy individuals over the age of 12 years. A subchronic repeated dose oral toxicity study in rodents tested the novel food at daily doses of 0, 375, 750 and 1,500 mg/kg body weight (bw). The Panel considers the middose as the no...

  1. Involving children in cooking activities: A potential strategy for directing food choices toward novel foods containing vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allirot, Xavier; da Quinta, Noelia; Chokupermal, Krithika; Urdaneta, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Involving children in cooking has been suggested as a strategy to improve dietary habits in childhood. Interventions in schools including cooking, gardening and tasting activities have showed promising results. Several cross-sectional surveys demonstrated associations between frequency of involvement in food preparation and better diet quality. However, experimental studies confirming the beneficial effect of cooking on food choices in children are missing from the literature. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in cooking on their willingness to taste novel foods, food intake, liking and hunger. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 137 children between 7 and 11 years old. 69 children (COOK group) participated in the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple/beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. 68 children (CONTROL group) participated, instead, in a creative workshop. Afterwards, the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple/beetroot juice, potato vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the COOK vs. CONTROL group (P = 0.037). The overall willingness to taste the unfamiliar foods was also higher in the COOK group (P = 0.011). The liking for the whole afternoon snack (P = 0.034), for 2 of 3 unfamiliar foods and for 1 of 3 familiar foods was higher in the COOK group (P food intake and hunger/satiety scores. This study demonstrated that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct food choices towards foods containing vegetables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Gareth

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption

  3. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2004-01-01

    E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from......The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties...... of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin...

  4. History of safe use as applied to the safety assessment of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, A; Jonas, D; Cockburn, A; Davi, A; Edwards, G; Hepburn, P; Herouet-Guicheney, C; Knowles, M; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Samuels, F

    2007-12-01

    Very few traditional foods that are consumed have been subjected to systematic toxicological and nutritional assessment, yet because of their long history and customary preparation and use and absence of evidence of harm, they are generally regarded as safe to eat. This 'history of safe use' of traditional foods forms the benchmark for the comparative safety assessment of novel foods, and of foods derived from genetically modified organisms. However, the concept is hard to define, since it relates to an existing body of information which describes the safety profile of a food, rather than a precise checklist of criteria. The term should be regarded as a working concept used to assist the safety assessment of a food product. Important factors in establishing a history of safe use include: the period over which the traditional food has been consumed; the way in which it has been prepared and used and at what intake levels; its composition and the results of animal studies and observations from human exposure. This paper is aimed to assist food safety professionals in the safety evaluation and regulation of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms, by describing the practical application and use of the concept of 'history of safe use'.

  5. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal,

  6. Fermented food in the context of a healthy diet: how to produce novel functional foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-11-01

    This review presents an overview of recent studies on the production of functional fermented foods, of both traditional and innovative natures, and the mapping of the functional compounds involved. The functional aspects of fermented foods are mostly related to the concept of probiotic bacteria or the targeted microbial generation of functional molecules, such as bioactive peptides, during food fermentation. Apart from conventional yoghurt and fermented milks, several fermented nondairy foods are globally gaining in interest, in particular from soy or cereal origin, sometimes novel but often originating from ethnic (Asian) diets. In addition, a range of functional nonmicrobial compounds may be added to the fermented food matrix. Overall, a wide variety of potential health benefits is being claimed, yet often poorly supported by mechanistic insights and rarely demonstrated with clinical trials or even animal models. Although functional foods offer considerable market potential, several issues still need to be addressed. As most of the studies on functional fermented foods are of a rather descriptive and preliminary nature, there is a clear need for mechanistic studies and well controlled in-vivo experiments.

  7. Novel Biocontrol Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food Production Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jessica A; Chandry, P Scott; Kaur, Mandeep; Kocharunchitt, Chawalit; Bowman, John P; Fox, Edward M

    2018-01-01

    High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol methods and their

  8. Tasty but nasty? Exploring the role of sensory-liking and food appropriateness in the willingness to eat unusual novel foods like insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Stieger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Unusual novel foods like insects are generally not considered to be appropriate as food in cultures where they are not commonly eaten, and are often rejected for reasons other than their intrinsic sensory properties. This study explores how the levels of sensory-liking and food appropriateness

  9. Novel Biocontrol Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food Production Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol

  10. Novel Biocontrol Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jessica A.; Chandry, P. Scott; Kaur, Mandeep; Kocharunchitt, Chawalit; Bowman, John P.; Fox, Edward M.

    2018-01-01

    High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol methods and their

  11. Applications of Novel Techniques to Health Foods, Medical and Agricultural Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Baianu, I. C.; Lozano, P. R.; Prisecaru, V. I.; Lin, H. C.

    2004-01-01

    Selected applications of novel techniques in Agricultural Biotechnology, Health Food formulations and Medical Biotechnology are being reviewed with the aim of unraveling future developments and policy changes that are likely to open new niches for Biotechnology and prevent the shrinking or closing the existing ones. Amongst the selected novel techniques with applications to both Agricultural and Medical Biotechnology are: immobilized bacterial cells and enzymes, microencapsulation and liposom...

  12. Novel foods and food allergies : an exploratory study of novel foods as allergy management strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy represents an increasing concern to society. It is defined as an inappropriate immunological reaction to normally harmless food components and affects 5-8% of children and 1-2% of adults. Since at the time of writing no cure for food allergy exists, food allergic consumers need to avoid

  13. Novel sensors for food inspection modelling, fabrication and experimentation

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul Rahman, Mohd Syaifudin; Yu, Pak-Lam

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses presents recent developments of novel planar interdigital sensors for food inspection. It covers the fundamentals of sensors, their design, modelling and simulations, fabrications, characterizations, experimental investigations and analyses. This book will be useful for the engineers and researchers especially higher undergraduate, postgraduate students as well as practitioners working on the development of Electromagnetic Sensors.

  14. A novel approach for food intake detection using electroglottography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many methods for monitoring diet and food intake rely on subjects self-reporting their daily intake. These methods are subjective, potentially inaccurate and need to be replaced by more accurate and objective methods. This paper presents a novel approach that uses an electroglottograph (EGG) device for an objective and automatic detection of food intake. Thirty subjects participated in a four-visit experiment involving the consumption of meals with self-selected content. Variations in the electrical impedance across the larynx caused by the passage of food during swallowing were captured by the EGG device. To compare performance of the proposed method with a well-established acoustical method, a throat microphone was used for monitoring swallowing sounds. Both signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of 30 s and processed to extract wavelet features. Subject-independent classifiers were trained, using artificial neural networks, to identify periods of food intake from the wavelet features. Results from leave-one-out cross validation showed an average per-epoch classification accuracy of 90.1% for the EGG-based method and 83.1% for the acoustic-based method, demonstrating the feasibility of using an EGG for food intake detection. (paper)

  15. Safety of synthetic trans-resveratrol as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    food is not nutritionally disadvantageous. In accordance with the EFSA Scientific opinion on genotoxicity testing strategies, the Panel considers that the negative in vivo genotoxicity assay is sufficient to rule out the concern based on the positive in vitro chromosomal aberration tests. Reduced body......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked for an opinion on the safety of synthetic trans-resveratrol as a novel food with a purity of ≥99% (w/w). The Panel considers that the information provided on the composition...... and specifications of the novel food is sufficient. The applicant intends to market the novel food as a food supplement in capsule or tablet form at daily doses up to 150 mg/day. The Panel considers that resveratrol does not have a nutritionally relevant role in the human diet and that the consumption of the novel...

  16. Safety of hydroxytyrosol as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on hydroxytyrosol, which is chemically synthesised, as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The information provided on the comp......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on hydroxytyrosol, which is chemically synthesised, as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The information provided...... of hydroxytyrosol from the consumption of olive oils and olives, which has not been associated with adverse effects, and considering the similar kinetics of hydroxytyrosol in rats and humans, the Panel considers that the MoE for the NF at the intended uses and use levels is sufficient for the target population....... The Panel concludes that the novel food, hydroxytyrosol, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels....

  17. Novel Protein Foods in catering. Outline of the options project plan; Novel Protein Foods in catering. Verkenning van de mogelijkheden projectplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londo, H.M.; De Kuijer, O.C.H. [KDO Advies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the project on the title subject is to develop and introduce new product concepts on the basis of Novel Protein Foods (NPF) in the catering sector. An overview is given of the chances, relevant parties and future images with respect to products, market, technology, environmental impacts and energy conservation. [Dutch] In het project duurzame voedselketens en energiebesparing (DKE) zijn Novem en Stichting Agro Keten Kennis (AKK) op zoek naar mogelijkheden om de milieu- en energiebelasting binnen de sector voeden te verkleinen. Een aantal projectideeen is hier inmiddels voor geselecteerd, varierend van optimalisaties in bestaande voedselketens tot ideeen voor nieuwe ketens. Een interessante keten in dit kader is Novel Protein Foods (NPF) in de catering. NPF worden momenteel vooral als (vlees)alternatief geconsumeerd en via de normale retail-kanalen afgezet. Aangezien de gemiddelde Nederlander bijna 40% van zijn maaltijden 'buiten de deur' consumeert, heeft de introductie van NPF in een cateringketen perspectief. Een verkenning is uitgevoerd van de kansen van deze nieuwe keten, de te betrekken partijen en de mogelijke toekomstbeelden in termen van producten, markt, technologie, milieu- en energie-effecten. De verkenning bestond uit een aantal verkennende gesprekken met partijen in de keten, een brainstormbijeenkomst met geinteresseerde partijen, een gezamenlijke presentatie en berekeningen aan het potentieel aan energiebesparing.

  18. Report of the safety and wholesomeness of irradiated foods by the advisory committee on irradiated and novel foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Following the conclusions of the Joint Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods(JECFI) an Advisory Committee on Irradiated and Novel Foods (ACINF) was set up to review the position relating to the irradiation of food and to report and advise on its findings to the Ministries of Health and Agriculture, with a view to changing legislation in the U.K. The advisory committee concluded that there were no justifications, on public health grounds, for the present U.K. regulations not to be amended and that the irradiation of foods up to an overall average dose of 10 Gy by X-rays and γ-rays up to 5 MeV, or for electrons up to 10 MeV, should be permitted. The committee recommended that food irradiation procedures and consumption patterns should be monitored. (UK)

  19. Designing food supply chains- a structured methodology: a case on novel protein foods

    OpenAIRE

    Apaiah, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis proposes and implements a structured methodology to aid in chain design and the evaluation and decision making processes that accompany it.It focusesonhow to design the entire chain from start to finish, so that the consumer gets a product that he/she wants, i.e.concentrating on product attributes rather than on the delivery of the product. The novel protein food (NPF) case from the PROFETAS program was used to develop the methodology. Two attributes of quality were investigated w...

  20. Shopping for food with children: A strategy for directing their choices toward novel foods containing vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allirot, Xavier; Maiz, Edurne; Urdaneta, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Involving children in the different steps of meal preparation has been suggested as a strategy for enhancing dietary habits in childhood. It has previously been shown that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct their food choices towards foods containing vegetables. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in food purchasing on food choices, intake, liking and appetite. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 86 children (from 8 to 10 years old). Forty-three children (PURCHASE group) participated in a workshop dedicated to purchasing the necessary ingredients online for the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple and beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. Forty-three children (CONTROL group) participated instead in a creativity workshop. Afterwards, all the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple and beetroot juice, potatoes vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the PURCHASE (0.70 ± 0.14) vs. CONTROL (0.19 ± 0.07) group (P = 0.003). The liking for 1 of the 3 unfamiliar foods was higher in the PURCHASE group (P < 0.05). We did not find any difference between the two groups in food intake estimation and in the levels of subjective appetite. This study demonstrates that involving children in purchasing food can help in directing their food choices towards unfamiliar foods containing vegetables. It highlights the importance of involving children in the different steps of meal preparation for decreasing food neophobia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flavour aspects of pea and its protein preparations in relation to novel protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.

    2005-01-01

    This research is part of the multidisciplinary program, PROFETAS (PROtein Foods Environment Technology And Society), which aimed to feasibly shift from animal proteins to pea proteins for the development of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) with desirable flavour. The aim of this research is to investigate

  2. Guidance on the preparation and presentation of an application for authorisation of a novel food in the context of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    . This guidance presents a common format for the organisation of the information to be presented in order to assist the applicant in preparing a well-structured application to demonstrate the safety of the novel food. The application should be comprehensive and complete. This guidance outlined the data needed......Following the adoption of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council on novel foods, the European Commission requested EFSA to update and develop scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of applications for authorisation of novel foods...... for the safety assessments of novel foods. Requirements which should be covered in all applications relate to the description of the novel food, production process, compositional data, specification, proposed uses and use levels, and anticipated intake of the novel food. Further sections on the history of use...

  3. Insects are not ‘the new sushi’: theories of practice and the acceptance of novel foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    House, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Food geographies have long grappled with the interplay between production and consumption. Theories of practice offer productive new ways of conceptualising the mutual implication of supply and demand in shaping food consumption, yet little work has approached the subject of novel foods from this

  4. Novel meat-enriched foods for older consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Hamid, Nazimah S A; Staincliffe, Maryann; Davies, Briar; Knowles, Scott O

    2018-02-01

    Red meat enriched versions of bread, spaghetti, yoghurt, ice cream and chocolate were prototyped and assessed for some of their physical, chemical and microbiological properties, as well as sensory appeal. The protein content of the products were significantly increased and their colour went darker with meat enrichment (pice cream meltability and yoghurt apparent viscosity decreased with meat enrichment (pice cream and spaghetti were not affected (p>0.05) but that of non-flavoured ice cream and yoghurt went down (pindustry stretch its established business models, and encouraging further development of novel food choices for elderly and other groups of consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, E; Visalberghi, E

    2001-11-01

    Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.

  6. Toxicants exposures as novel zoonoses: reflections on sustainable development, food safety and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoli, C; Mantovani, A

    2010-12-01

    The modern concept of zoonosis considers any detriment to the health and/or quality of human life resulting from relationships with (other) vertebrate or edible or toxic invertebrate animals. Whereas exposure to toxicants through foods of animal origin (a.o.) is a well-established issue, hereby we discuss it as novel zoonoses, from the standpoints of health implications as well as similarities and differences with classical zoonoses caused by biological agents. Novel toxicant-related zoonoses are linked with new issues in food safety, such as the environment-feed-food chain. In fact, the potential effect of the combined and repeated exposure to dietary toxicants is generally long-term and not readily discernible. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in staple foods of a.o. are discussed as a telling example of a food safety issue summing up critical points covered by the definition of sustainable development, also implicating health risks for generations to come. We suggest some critical points to implement the veterinary public health action in sustainable food safety, such as enhancement of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points systems for toxicological risk management. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Novel natural food antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry.

  8. Safety of UV-treated milk as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    nature raised by Member States. The novel food is cow’s milk (whole, semi-skimmed or skimmed) to which a treatment with ultraviolet (UV) radiation is applied after pasteurisation in order to extend the shelf life of the milk. This treatment results in an increase in the vitamin D3 concentrations......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on UV-treated milk as a novel food submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97, taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific...... of infants (up to 1 year of age). The Panel considers that it is unlikely that tolerable upper intake levels established by EFSA for children aged 1–10 years, adolescents and adults will be exceeded. The Panel considers that the novel food is not nutritionally disadvantageous. The data provided do not give...

  9. A model for consumers' preferences for Novel Protein Foods and environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.

    2005-01-01

    We develop an environmental Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model, which includes the economic functions of the environment, to investigate the impacts of consumers' preference changes towards the enhanced consumption of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) and towards a higher willingness to pay for

  10. Norepinephrine in the Medial Pre-frontal Cortex Supports Accumbens Shell Responses to a Novel Palatable Food in Food-Restricted Mice Only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Claudio Latagliata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrate: (1 that different classes of addictive drugs require intact norepinephrine (NE transmission in the medial pre Frontal Cortex (mpFC to promote conditioned place preference and to increase dopamine (DA tone in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc Shell; (2 that only food-restricted mice require intact NE transmission in the mpFC to develop conditioned preference for a context associated with milk chocolate; and (3 that food-restricted mice show a significantly larger increase of mpFC NE outflow then free fed mice when experiencing the palatable food for the first time. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that only the high levels of frontal cortical NE elicited by the natural reward in food restricted mice stimulate mesoaccumbens DA transmission. To this aim we investigated the ability of a first experience with milk chocolate to increase DA outflow in the accumbens Shell and c-fos expression in striatal and limbic areas of food–restricted and ad-libitum fed mice. Moreover, we tested the effects of a selective depletion of frontal cortical NE on both responses in either feeding group. Only in food-restricted mice milk chocolate induced an increase of DA outflow beyond baseline in the accumbens Shell and a c-fos expression larger than that promoted by a novel inedible object in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, depletion of frontal cortical NE selectively prevented both the increase of DA outflow and the large expression of c-fos promoted by milk chocolate in the NAc Shell of food-restricted mice. These findings support the conclusion that in food-restricted mice a novel palatable food activates the motivational circuit engaged by addictive drugs and support the development of noradrenergic pharmacology of motivational disturbances.

  11. Evaluation of a Novel Single-administration Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Seasonally Varied Dietary Patterns among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca K; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Christian, Parul; Leclerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Wu, Lee S F; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    Novel dietary assessment methods are needed to study chronic disease risk in agrarian cultures where food availability is highly seasonal. In 16,320 rural Nepalese women, we tested a novel food frequency questionnaire, administered once, to assess past 7-day intake and usual frequency of intake throughout the year for year-round foods and when in season for seasonal foods. Spearman rank correlations between usual and past 7-day intakes were 0.12-0.85 and weighted kappa statistics, representing chance-corrected agreement, were 0.10-0.80, with better agreement for frequently consumed foods. The questionnaire performed well, but may require refinement for settings of extremely low dietary diversity.

  12. Scientific opinion on the safety of synthetic L-ergothioneine (Ergoneine®) as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    concerns. The applicant intends to use the novel food in quantities of up to 5 mg per serving in alcohol-free beverages, cereal bars, milk, fresh dairy products and chocolate. The applicant also proposes to provide the novel food as a food supplement, with a daily dose of up to 30 mg/day for adults and 20......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on synthetic l-ergothioneine, marketed as Ergoneine®, as a novel food submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European...... Parliament and of the Council. The novel food, synthetic l-ergothioneine, is produced by a one-pot patented manufacturing process. Chemically, l-ergothioneine is a derivative of thiolhistidine, and it is naturally present in a number of foodstuffs such as mushrooms, some varieties of black and red beans...

  13. Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance costs. They should not damage the product and must meet hygienic conditions. The additive manufacturing (AM process is able to manufacture parts without significant restrictions, and is Polyamide approved as food contact material by FDA. This paper presents that, taking the best of plastic flexibility, AM allows the implementation of novel actuators, original compliant mechanisms and practical grippers that are cheap, light, fast, small and easily adaptable to specific food products. However, if they are not carefully designed, the results can present problems, such as permanent deformations, low deformation limits, and low operation speed. We present possible solutions for the use of AM to design proper robot grippers for food handling. Some successful results, such as AM actuators based on deformable air chambers, AM compliant mechanisms, and grippers developed in a single part will be introduced and discussed.

  14. Novel silver-based nanoclay as an antimicrobial in polylactic acid food packaging coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, Maria A; Fernandez, Patricia; Ocio, Maria J; Lagaron, Jose M

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive performance study of polylactic acid (PLA) biocomposites, obtained by solvent casting, containing a novel silver-based antimicrobial layered silicate additive for use in active food packaging applications. The silver-based nanoclay showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Despite the fact that no exfoliation of the silver-based nanoclay in PLA was observed, as suggested by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments, the additive dispersed nicely throughout the PLA matrix to a nanoscale, yielding nanobiocomposites. The films were highly transparent with enhanced water barrier and strong biocidal properties. Silver migration from the films to a slightly acidified water medium, considered an aggressive food simulant, was measured by stripping voltammetry. Silver migration accelerated after 6 days of exposure. Nevertheless, the study suggests that migration levels of silver, within the specific migration levels referenced by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), exhibit antimicrobial activity, supporting the potential application of this biocidal additive in active food-packaging applications to improve food quality and safety.

  15. Reliability and validity of a novel tool to comprehensively assess food and beverage marketing in recreational sport settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Rachel J L; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Olstad, Dana Lee; Carson, Valerie; Mâsse, Louise C; Storey, Kate; Kirk, Sara F L; Raine, Kim D

    2018-05-31

    Current methods for evaluating food marketing to children often study a single marketing channel or approach. As the World Health Organization urges the removal of unhealthy food marketing in children's settings, methods that comprehensively explore the exposure and power of food marketing within a setting from multiple marketing channels and approaches are needed. The purpose of this study was to test the inter-rater reliability and the validity of a novel settings-based food marketing audit tool. The Food and beverage Marketing Assessment Tool for Settings (FoodMATS) was developed and its psychometric properties evaluated in five public recreation and sport facilities (sites) and subsequently used in 51 sites across Canada for a cross-sectional analysis of food marketing. Raters recorded the count of food marketing occasions, presence of child-targeted and sports-related marketing techniques, and the physical size of marketing occasions. Marketing occasions were classified by healthfulness. Inter-rater reliability was tested using Cohen's kappa (κ) and intra-class correlations (ICC). FoodMATS scores for each site were calculated using an algorithm that represented the theoretical impact of the marketing environment on food preferences, purchases, and consumption. Higher FoodMATS scores represented sites with higher exposure to, and more powerful (unhealthy, child-targeted, sports-related, large) food marketing. Validity of the scoring algorithm was tested through (1) Pearson's correlations between FoodMATS scores and facility sponsorship dollars, and (2) sequential multiple regression for predicting "Least Healthy" food sales from FoodMATS scores. Inter-rater reliability was very good to excellent (κ = 0.88-1.00, p marketing in recreation facilities, the FoodMATS provides a novel means to comprehensively track changes in food marketing environments that can assist in developing and monitoring the impact of policies and interventions.

  16. Safety of Novel Protein Sources (Insects, Microalgae, Seaweed, Duckweed, and Rapeseed) and Legislative Aspects for Their Application in Food and Feed Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Noordam, M.Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Novel protein sources (like insects, algae, duckweed, and rapeseed) are expected to enter the European feed and food market as replacers for animal-derived proteins. However, food safety aspects of these novel protein sources are not well-known. The aim of this article is to review the state of the

  17. Dissolution of xylitol from a food supplement administered with a novel slow-release pacifier: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, T; Pienihakkinen, K; Alanen, P; Jokela, J; Söderling, E

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the pattern of release and salivary xylitol concentrations during sucking of a slow-release pacifier used to deliver a novel food supplement. The food supplement tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and 0.5 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12). The reference tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and was used by 10 adults (mean age 32 years) in the study. Whole saliva samples were collected with 2.5 min intervals during pacifier sucking. The salivary xylitol concentrations were determined using an enzyme assay kit. All subjects showed salivary xylitol concentrations exceeding 1% at least at one collection point. The xylitol and xylitol-Bb-12 tablets showed similar dissolving with no clear concentration peaks (comparison of saliva collection times; p = 0.139). Xylitol released from the food supplement, delivered with the novel pacifier, may result in salivary xylitol concentrations high enough to inhibit mutans streptococci in vivo.

  18. Development of a Novel Food Waste Collection Kiosk and Waste-to-Energy Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Franchetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. generates more than 37 million metric tons of food waste each year, and over 95% of it is disposed of at U.S. landfills. This paper describes the development of a novel food waste collection kiosk and business model called “Greenbox” that will collect and store food waste from households and restaurants with incentives for user participation to spur food waste-to-energy production in a local community. Greenbox offers a low-cost collection point to divert food waste from landfills, reduce greenhouse gases from decomposition, and aid in generating cleaner energy. A functional prototype was successfully developed by a team of engineering students and a business model was created as part of a senior design capstone course. Each Greenbox unit has the potential to reduce 275 metric tons of food waste per year, remove 1320 kg of greenhouse gases, and create 470,000 liters of methane gas while providing a payback period of 4.2 years and a rate of return of 14.9%.

  19. Toddlers' food preferences. The impact of novel food exposure, maternal preferences and food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anika J; Mallan, Kimberley M; Byrne, Rebecca; Magarey, Anthea; Daniels, Lynne A

    2012-12-01

    Food preferences have been identified as a key determinant of children's food acceptance and consumption. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence children's liking for fruits, vegetables and non-core foods. Participants were Australian mothers (median age at delivery=31years, 18-46years) and their two-year-old children (M=24months, SD=1month; 52% female) allocated to the control group (N=245) of the NOURISH RCT. The effects of repeated exposure to new foods, maternal food preferences and child food neophobia on toddlers' liking of vegetables, fruits and non-core foods and the proportion never tried were examined via hierarchical regression models; adjusting for key maternal (age, BMI, education) and child covariates (birth weight Z-score, gender), duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction to solids. Maternal preferences corresponded with child preferences. Food neophobia among toddlers was associated with liking fewer vegetables and fruits, and trying fewer vegetables. Number of repeated exposures to new food was not significantly associated with food liking at this age. Results highlight the need to: (i) encourage parents to offer a wide range of foods, regardless of their own food preferences, and (ii) provide parents with guidance on managing food neophobia. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Everyday food is safe! Consumer versus expert hazard identification of two novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit

    Novel foods have been the object of intense public debate in recent years. Despite efforts to communicate the outcomes of risk assessments to consumers, public confidence in the management of potential risks associated has been low. Various reasons behind this has identified, chiefly a disagreement...... in terms of detailed chains of cause-effect relationships, but consumers used abstract concepts when they reasoned about biological processes. Outcome uncertainty played an enormous role in consumers' perception of risk, which was in contrast to experts, who often declined to elaborate on consequences...... between technical experts and consumers e.g. over the nature of the hazards on which risk assessments should focus and perceptions of insufficient openness about uncertainties in risk assessment. The consumers part of the EU-project, NOFORISK, investigate the disagreement by comparing laypeople...

  1. Utilization of Okara-Tempeh as Novel Food Material (B. LIVING SCIENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    河端, 信; 田口, 邦子; 大槻, 耕三; Makoto, Kawabata; Kuniko, Taguchi; Kozo, Ohtsuki; 京都府立大学生活科学部食物学科食品学講座; 光華女子短期大学家政科; 京都府立大学生活科学部食物学科食品学講座; Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of Food Science & Nutrition Kyoto Prefectural University; Kohka Women's Junior College; Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of Food Science & Nutrition Kyoto Prefectural University

    1990-01-01

    Okara-tempeh, fermented soybean pulp with Rhizopus oligosporus, was blanched for 3-4 minutes per 100g by electronic range and ground twice with meat chopper and stored in the freezer at -20℃. The functional properties, water holding capacity, oil retention, emulsifying capacity etc. and some organoleptic tests were performed to investigate the possibility of utilization as the novel food material. Present study indicated that Okara-tempeh is not only excellent dietary fiber supplement but als...

  2. Introduction of a novel food processing technology- food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of food with ionizing radiation for its preservation is a resurging technology which was lying dormant since its introduction after the discovery on the use of x-ray as an effective way to kill bacteria in food. Large research programmes were initiated on the use of gamma rays for food preservation in many countries and some of the conclusions derived are discussed. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Phytosterol-based edible oleogels: A novel way of replacing saturated fat in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, A; Dalkas, G; Clegg, P S; Euston, S R

    2018-06-01

    This article presents a summary of recent results relating to phytosterol oleogels. Oleogels represent a novel way of replacing saturated fat in food, whilst phytosterols have been shown to actively lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- cholesterol levels. There are a number of technical challenges to exploiting phytosterol oleogels, including a high sensitivity to water. To facilitate their incorporation into food, the fundamental physiochemical processes which mediate the formation of these gels and two different approaches to produce phytosterol oleogels that are stable in the presence of water were explored as part of the recent Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)-Diet and Health Research Industry Club (DRINC)-funded Edible Oleogels for Reduction of Saturated Fat project. This report summarises the findings, which will support the development of healthier food products that are lower in saturated fat and acceptable to consumers.

  4. The growing price gap between more and less healthy foods: analysis of a novel longitudinal UK dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R V Jones

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The UK government has noted the public health importance of food prices and the affordability of a healthy diet. Yet, methods for tracking change over time have not been established. We aimed to investigate the prices of more and less healthy foods over time using existing government data on national food prices and nutrition content. METHODS: We linked economic data for 94 foods and beverages in the UK Consumer Price Index to food and nutrient data from the UK Department of Health's National Diet and Nutrition Survey, producing a novel dataset across the period 2002-2012. Each item was assigned to a food group and also categorised as either "more healthy" or "less healthy" using a nutrient profiling model developed by the Food Standards Agency. We tested statistical significance using a t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation 2012 price/1000 kcal was £2.50 (0.29 for less healthy items and £7.49 (1.27 for more healthy items. The ANOVA results confirmed that all prices had risen over the period 2002-2012, but more healthy items rose faster than less healthy ones in absolute terms:£0.17 compared to £0.07/1000 kcal per year on average for more and less healthy items, respectively (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2002, more healthy foods and beverages have been consistently more expensive than less healthy ones, with a growing gap between them. This trend is likely to make healthier diets less affordable over time, which may have implications for individual food security and population health, and it may exacerbate social inequalities in health. The novel data linkage employed here could be used as the basis for routine food price monitoring to inform public health policy.

  5. AllergenOnline: A peer-reviewed, curated allergen database to assess novel food proteins for potential cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ferreira, Fatima; Sampson, Hugh A; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Baumert, Joseph L; Bohle, Barbara; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Wise, John; Taylor, Steve L

    2016-05-01

    Increasingly regulators are demanding evaluation of potential allergenicity of foods prior to marketing. Primary risks are the transfer of allergens or potentially cross-reactive proteins into new foods. AllergenOnline was developed in 2005 as a peer-reviewed bioinformatics platform to evaluate risks of new dietary proteins in genetically modified organisms (GMO) and novel foods. The process used to identify suspected allergens and evaluate the evidence of allergenicity was refined between 2010 and 2015. Candidate proteins are identified from the NCBI database using keyword searches, the WHO/IUIS nomenclature database and peer reviewed publications. Criteria to classify proteins as allergens are described. Characteristics of the protein, the source and human subjects, test methods and results are evaluated by our expert panel and archived. Food, inhalant, salivary, venom, and contact allergens are included. Users access allergen sequences through links to the NCBI database and relevant references are listed online. Version 16 includes 1956 sequences from 778 taxonomic-protein groups that are accepted with evidence of allergic serum IgE-binding and/or biological activity. AllergenOnline provides a useful peer-reviewed tool for identifying the primary potential risks of allergy for GMOs and novel foods based on criteria described by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (2003). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb

    Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage component.

  7. A novel processed food classification system applied to Australian food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, S A; Lacy, K E; Grimes, C A; Woods, J; Campbell, K J; Nowson, C A

    2017-08-01

    The extent of food processing can affect the nutritional quality of foodstuffs. Categorising foods by the level of processing emphasises the differences in nutritional quality between foods within the same food group and is likely useful for determining dietary processed food consumption. The present study aimed to categorise foods within Australian food composition databases according to the level of food processing using a processed food classification system, as well as assess the variation in the levels of processing within food groups. A processed foods classification system was applied to food and beverage items contained within Australian Food and Nutrient (AUSNUT) 2007 (n = 3874) and AUSNUT 2011-13 (n = 5740). The proportion of Minimally Processed (MP), Processed Culinary Ingredients (PCI) Processed (P) and Ultra Processed (ULP) by AUSNUT food group and the overall proportion of the four processed food categories across AUSNUT 2007 and AUSNUT 2011-13 were calculated. Across the food composition databases, the overall proportions of foods classified as MP, PCI, P and ULP were 27%, 3%, 26% and 44% for AUSNUT 2007 and 38%, 2%, 24% and 36% for AUSNUT 2011-13. Although there was wide variation in the classifications of food processing within the food groups, approximately one-third of foodstuffs were classified as ULP food items across both the 2007 and 2011-13 AUSNUT databases. This Australian processed food classification system will allow researchers to easily quantify the contribution of processed foods within the Australian food supply to assist in assessing the nutritional quality of the dietary intake of population groups. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Construction of a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering the endogenous toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Kang, Zhen; Cao, Wenlong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-02-10

    Bacillus subtilis as an important workhorse that has been widely used to produce enzymes and metabolites. To broaden its applications, especially in the food and feed industry, we constructed a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering its type II toxin-antitoxin system. The expression of the toxin EndoA, encoded by the chromosomal ydcE gene, was regulated by an endogenous, xylose-inducible promoter, while the ydcD gene, which encodes the unstable antitoxin EndoB, was inserted into a food-grade vector backbone, where its expression was driven by the native, constitutive promoter PylxM. By maintaining the xylose concentration above 2.0 g L(-1), this auto-regulated expression system was absolutely stable after 100 generations. Compared with traditional antibiotic-dependent expression systems, this novel expression system resulted in greater biomass and higher titers of desired products (enzymes or metabolites). Our results demonstrate that this stable, food-grade expression system is suitable for enzyme production and pathway engineering, especially for the production of food-grade enzymes and metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Are campus food environments healthy? A novel perspective for qualitatively evaluating the nutritional quality of food sold at foodservice facilities at a Brazilian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulz, Isadora Santos; Martins, Paula Andréa; Feldman, Charles; Veiros, Marcela Boro

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this novel study was to evaluate the food environment at a Brazilian university, encompassing 6 restaurants and 13 snack bars. The investigation uniquely analyses the food environment (barriers, facilitators, type of foods and prices). This was a food-based analysis of the nutritional quality of the products sold on campus. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used, applying the classic Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Restaurants (NEMS-R) adapted for Brazil and an original methodology to evaluate and classify qualitatively the nutritional quality and characteristics of the food. A census of all campus food environments was applied. The main results show most food and beverage products were made with processed ingredients and had a lower nutritional quality and price when compared with similar products made on premises, that is, processed iced tea compared with fresh tea ( p flour salgados compared with baked wholegrain flour salgados ( p flour biscuits compared with those made with whole grains ( p = .028). Only 16% of the outlets provided food ingredients or nutritional information of products available. The overall options for healthy food choices and good nutritional quality on campus were mostly limited by the availability and higher prices of products. These findings could be used to develop new policy perspectives for the offering of healthy food items and to facilitate better food choices among students in a healthier food environment.

  10. The growing price gap between more and less healthy foods: analysis of a novel longitudinal UK dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas R V; Conklin, Annalijn I; Suhrcke, Marc; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The UK government has noted the public health importance of food prices and the affordability of a healthy diet. Yet, methods for tracking change over time have not been established. We aimed to investigate the prices of more and less healthy foods over time using existing government data on national food prices and nutrition content. We linked economic data for 94 foods and beverages in the UK Consumer Price Index to food and nutrient data from the UK Department of Health's National Diet and Nutrition Survey, producing a novel dataset across the period 2002-2012. Each item was assigned to a food group and also categorised as either "more healthy" or "less healthy" using a nutrient profiling model developed by the Food Standards Agency. We tested statistical significance using a t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. The mean (standard deviation) 2012 price/1000 kcal was £2.50 (0.29) for less healthy items and £7.49 (1.27) for more healthy items. The ANOVA results confirmed that all prices had risen over the period 2002-2012, but more healthy items rose faster than less healthy ones in absolute terms:£0.17 compared to £0.07/1000 kcal per year on average for more and less healthy items, respectively (pfoods and beverages have been consistently more expensive than less healthy ones, with a growing gap between them. This trend is likely to make healthier diets less affordable over time, which may have implications for individual food security and population health, and it may exacerbate social inequalities in health. The novel data linkage employed here could be used as the basis for routine food price monitoring to inform public health policy.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety of refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    . With the exceptions of SDA and GLA, these FAs are widely present in common foods. The NFI is intended to be used in a range of foods and food supplements to provide approximately 200 mg of SDA per day. Upon digestion, FAs are used primarily as an energy source. ALA and SDA can be elongated and desaturated to produce......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on refined Buglossoides oil as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is produced from the seeds...... eicosapentaenoic acid. In human studies using various sources of SDA, no increase or small increases in SDA were observed in blood cell membranes or in total plasma. The proposed specifications for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and erucic acid, which are undesirable substances,do not give rise to concern in view...

  12. A Novel Wearable Device for Food Intake and Physical Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Presence of speech and motion artifacts has been shown to impact the performance of wearable sensor systems used for automatic detection of food intake. This work presents a novel wearable device which can detect food intake even when the user is physically active and/or talking. The device consists of a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle, an accelerometer, and a data acquisition module connected to the temple of eyeglasses. Data from 10 participants was collected while they performed activities including quiet sitting, talking, eating while sitting, eating while walking, and walking. Piezoelectric strain sensor and accelerometer signals were divided into non-overlapping epochs of 3 s; four features were computed for each signal. To differentiate between eating and not eating, as well as between sedentary postures and physical activity, two multiclass classification approaches are presented. The first approach used a single classifier with sensor fusion and the second approach used two-stage classification. The best results were achieved when two separate linear support vector machine (SVM classifiers were trained for food intake and activity detection, and their results were combined using a decision tree (two-stage classification to determine the final class. This approach resulted in an average F1-score of 99.85% and area under the curve (AUC of 0.99 for multiclass classification. With its ability to differentiate between food intake and activity level, this device may potentially be used for tracking both energy intake and energy expenditure.

  13. Retaining Oxidative Stability of Emulsified Foods by Novel Nonmigratory Polyphenol Coated Active Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-07-13

    Oxidation causes lipid rancidity, discoloration, and nutrient degradation that decrease shelf life of packaged foods. Synthetic additives are effective oxidation inhibitors, but are undesirable to consumers who prefer "clean" label products. The aim of this study was to improve oxidative stability of emulsified foods by a novel nonmigratory polyphenol coated active packaging. Polyphenol coatings were applied to chitosan functionalized polypropylene (PP) by laccase assisted polymerization of catechol and catechin. Polyphenol coated PP exhibited both metal chelating (39.3 ± 2.5 nmol Fe(3+) cm(-2), pH 4.0) and radical scavenging (up to 52.9 ± 1.8 nmol Trolox eq cm(-2)) capacity, resulting in dual antioxidant functionality to inhibit lipid oxidation and lycopene degradation in emulsions. Nonmigratory polyphenol coated PP inhibited ferric iron promoted degradation better than soluble chelators, potentially by partitioning iron from the emulsion droplet interface. This work demonstrates that polyphenol coatings can be designed for advanced material chemistry solutions in active food packaging.

  14. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  15. Scientific opinion on the safety of proline-specific oligopeptidase as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    and of the Council, taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. The novel food is an enzyme preparation of prolyl-oligopeptidase produced with a genetically modified Aspergillus niger self clone strain. The target population is the general adult population......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on proline-specific oligopeptidase (Tolerase® G) as a novel food ingredient submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament...

  16. Prompts to eat novel and familiar fruits and vegetables in families with 1-3 year-old children: Relationships with food acceptance and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Lisa R; Mokdad, Cassandra; Martin, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Toddlers often go through a picky eating phase, which can make it difficult to introduce new foods into the diet. A better understanding of how parents' prompts to eat fruits and vegetables are related to children's intake of these foods will help promote healthy eating habits. 60 families recorded all toddler meals over one day, plus a meal in which parents introduced a novel fruit/vegetable to the child. Videos were coded for parent and child behaviors. Parents completed a feeding style questionnaire and three 24-h dietary recalls about their children's intake. Parents made, on average, 48 prompts for their children to eat more during the main meals in a typical day, mostly of the neutral type. Authoritarian parents made the most prompts, and used pressure the most often. In the novel food situation, it took an average of 2.5 prompts before the child tasted the new food. The most immediately successful prompt for regular meals across food types was modeling. There was a trend for using another food as a reward to work less well than a neutral prompt for encouraging children to try a novel fruit or vegetable. More frequent prompts to eat fruits and vegetables during typical meals were associated with higher overall intake of these food groups. More prompts for children to try a novel vegetable was associated with higher overall vegetable intake, but this pattern was not seen for fruits, suggesting that vegetable variety may be more strongly associated with intake. Children who ate the most vegetables had parents who used more "reasoning" prompts, which may have become an internalized motivation to eat these foods, but this needs to be tested explicitly using longer-term longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel sample preparation method using rapid nonheated saponification method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In-Seek; Kwak, Byung-Man; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Leem, Donggil; Yoon, Taehyung; Yoon, Changyong; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Jin-Man

    2012-10-01

    In this study, nonheated saponification was employed as a novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. Cholesterol content was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The cholesterol extraction method was optimized for maximum recovery from baby food and infant formula. Under these conditions, the optimum extraction solvent was 10 mL ethyl ether per 1 to 2 g sample, and the saponification solution was 0.2 mL KOH in methanol. The cholesterol content in the products was determined to be within the certified range of certified reference materials (CRMs), NIST SRM 1544 and SRM 1849. The results of the recovery test performed using spiked materials were in the range of 98.24% to 99.45% with an relative standard devitation (RSD) between 0.83% and 1.61%. This method could be used to reduce sample pretreatment time and is expected to provide an accurate determination of cholesterol in emulsified food matrices such as infant formula and baby food. A novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method using nonheated saponification was developed for cholesterol detection in emulsified foods. Recovery tests of CRMs were satisfactory, and the recoveries of spiked materials were accurate and precise. This method was effective and decreased the time required for analysis by 5-fold compared to the official method. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. A novel procedure for the assessment of the antioxidant capacity of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Harashima, Mai; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Sakakibara, Yoichi

    2016-08-15

    Carbonylation, an oxidative modification of the amino group of arginine and lysine residues caused by reactive oxygen species, has emerged as a new type of oxidative damage. Protein carbonylation has been shown to exert adverse effects on various protein functions. Recently, the role of food components in the attenuation of oxidative stress has been the focus of many studies. Most of these studies focused on the chemical properties of food components. However, it is also important to determine their effects on protein functions via post-translational modifications. In this study, we developed a novel procedure for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food components. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced protein carbonylation in HL-60 cells was quantitatively analyzed by using fluorescent dyes (Cy5-hydrazide dye and IC3-OSu dye), followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence determination. Among a panel of food components tested, quinic acid, kaempferol, saponin, squalene, trigonelline, and mangiferin were shown to be capable of suppressing protein carbonylation in HL-60 cells. Our results demonstrated that this fluorescence labeling/SDS-PAGE procedure allows for the detection of oxidative stress-induced protein carbonylation with high sensitivity and quantitative accuracy. This method should be useful for the screening of new antioxidant food components as well as the analysis of their suppression mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Photocrosslinker technology: An antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamaldehyde cross-linked low-density polyethylene (Cin-C-LDPE) as a novel food wrapper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukumar, H M; Umesha, S

    2017-12-01

    In recent years much attention has been devoted to active packaging technologies that offer new opportunities for the food industry and food preservation. The spoilage of food products during post process handling leads to food contamination and causes life-threatening food-borne illness. The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 090 is one of the food-borne pathogens associated with food poisoning that leads to an outbreak of perilous human infections worldwide. The development of resistance in bacteria and diffusion of coated synthetic preservatives into food are the major problem in food packaging industries. In the present work, we have developed a new food wrap method by cross-linking cinnamaldehyde on low-density polyethylene (Cin-C-LDPE) using novel photocrosslinker technology. The cinnamaldehyde showed potent antimicrobial activity (145mg/mL of MIC) against MRSA 090 and radical scavenging activity (RSA). The cinnamaldehyde was successfully cross-linked to LDPE and exhibited excellent antibiofilm properties against MRSA090 compared to bare LDPE. This positive interaction of developed Cin-C-LDPE against MRSA090 biofilm was confirmed by SEM and FT-IR studies, and results showed the damaged cell membrane architecture, inturn abridged adherence of MRSA090. The Cin-C-LDPE wrapped chicken, mutton, cheese, and grapes showed 2.5±0.15 log MRSA 090 reduction at the end of 10th day compared to the bare LDPE wrapped food samples. This clearly concludes that for the first time we have developed a novel Cin-C-LDPE food wrap technology effectively involved in biocidal activity against MRSA090. Applying this new strategy to develop food wrap containing nontoxic natural antimicrobial to target cell membrane components is the upcoming challenging and promising research gap remains in the food packaging industry for the future world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel Techniques and Their Wide Applications to Health Foods, Medical and Agricultural Biotechnology in Relation to Policy Making on Genetically Modified Crops and Foods

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C; Lozano, P; Lin, H C

    2004-01-01

    Selected applications of novel techniques in Agricultural Biotechnology, Health Food formulations and Medical Biotechnology are being reviewed with the aim of unraveling future developments and policy changes that are likely to open new markets for Biotechnology and prevent the shrinking or closing of existing ones. Amongst the selected novel techniques with applications in both Agricultural and Medical Biotechnology are: immobilized bacterial cells and enzymes, microencapsulation and liposome production, genetic manipulation of microorganisms, development of novel vaccines from plants, epigenomics of mammalian cells and organisms, and biocomputational tools for molecular modeling related to disease and Bioinformatics. Both fundamental and applied aspects of the emerging new techniques are being discussed in relation to their anticipated, marked impact on future markets and present policy changes that are needed for success in either Agricultural or Medical Biotechnology. The novel techniques are illustrated ...

  1. Consumer concerns and expectations about novel food processing technologies: effects on product liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Armand V

    2003-06-01

    Eighty-eight consumers participated in a blind pre-test in which they rated their baseline preference for chocolate pudding, their liking of three tasted brands of chocolate pudding, and their level of concern for 20 different food processing and preservation technologies. All returned one month later and tasted the same puddings, but this time they were informed that they had been processed by one of several different novel or traditional food processing techniques. Different sub-groups were informed of the name of the process, the name plus a factual description of the process, or the name, the factual description, plus a benefit statement. Ratings of expected liking were obtained before and after viewing the samples, but before tasting them. Finally, subjects tasted and rated the products for actual liking and a sub-group rated their concern levels for the same 20 technologies rated in the pre-test. Pre-test results showed females to have significantly higher concern levels for all technologies. Individuals who had demonstrated a willingness to consume foods processed by one novel technology (irradiation) had lower concern ratings for all technologies. Ratings of concern were negatively correlated with expected liking for products believed to be processed by the technologies. Expected liking ratings were positively influenced by visual exposure to the product and by a safety and benefit statement. Linear regression of the change in product liking as a function of whether products were better or worse than expected supported an assimilation model of the effect of disconfirmed expectations on liking/disliking. Lastly, post-test concern levels for many of the technologies were reduced by participation in the study.

  2. Identification and Characterization of T5-Like Bacteriophages Representing Two Novel Subgroups from Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domonkos Sváb

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, interest in the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogens has increased, particularly for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella strains among them. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of 12 novel T5-like bacteriophages from confiscated food samples. All bacterophages effectively lysed E. coli K-12 strains and were able to infect pathogenic E. coli strains representing enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC, enteropathogenic (EPEC, enterotoxigenic (ETEC, and enteroinvasive (EIEC pathotypes, Shigella dysenteriae, S. sonnei strains, as well as multidrug-resistant (MDR E. coli and multiple strains representing different Salmonella enterica serovars. All the bacteriophages exhibited Siphoviridae morphology. Whole genome sequencing of the novel T5-like bacteriophages showed that they represent two distinct groups, with the genome-based grouping correlating to the different host spectra. As these bacteriophages are of food origin, their stability and lack of any virulence genes, as well as their broad and mutually complementary host spectrum makes these new T5-like bacteriophages valuable candidates for use as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogenic enterobacteria.

  3. Exploring or avoiding novel food resources? The novelty conflict in an invasive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Daniel; Griffin, Andrea S; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Boyce, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    For an animal invading a novel region, the ability to develop new behaviors should facilitate the use of novel food resources and hence increase its survival in the new environment. However, the need to explore new resources may entail costs such as exposing the animal to unfamiliar predators. These two opposing forces result in an exploration-avoidance conflict, which can be expected to interfere with the acquisition of new resources. However, its consequences should be less dramatic in highly urbanized environments where new food opportunities are common and predation risk is low. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by presenting three foraging tasks to introduced common mynas (Acridotheres tristis) from environments with low and high urbanization levels from Australia. Individuals from the highly urbanized environments, where mynas are both more opportunistic when foraging and less fearful to predators, resolved a technical task faster than those from less urbanized environments. These differences did not reflect innovative 'personalities' and were not confounded by sex, morphology or motivational state. Rather, the principal factors underlying differences in mynas' problem-solving ability were neophobic-neophilic responses, which varied across habitats. Thus, mynas seem to modulate their problem-solving ability according to the benefits and costs of innovating in their particular habitat, which may help us understand the great success of the species in highly urbanized environments.

  4. An Overview on Novel Microbial Determination Methods in Pharmaceutical and Food Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Nemati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional microbiological methods tend to be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Rapid and novel methods in microbiological tests provide more sensitive, precise and reproducible results compared with conventional methods. In microbiology, the most rapid testing methods belong to the field of biotechnology such as PCR, ELISA, ATP bioluminescence and etc. Nevertheless impedance microbiology, biosensors and analytical procedures to determine microbial constituents are of significance. The present review article was conducted using internet databases and related scientific literatures and articles that provide information on developments in the rapid methods in microbiology. The main focus is on the application of rapid methods in microbial quality control of pharmaceutical products. Reviewed literature showed that rapid methods and automation in microbiology is an advanced area for studying and applying of improved methods in the early detection, and characterization of microorganisms and their products in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrials as well as environmental monitoring and clinical applications. It can be concluded that rapid methods and automation in microbiology should continue as potent and efficient technologies to develop the novel tests to be performed in the future because of the ever-increasing concerns about the safety of food and pharmaceutical products. However the main issues to be considered are the scale up of developed methods and the regulatory requirements.

  5. The food metabolome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalbert, Augustin; Brennan, Lorraine; Manach, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    to the diet. By its very nature it represents a considerable and still largely unexploited source of novel dietary biomarkers that could be used to measure dietary exposures with a high level of detail and precision. Most dietary biomarkers currently have been identified on the basis of our knowledge of food......The food metabolome is defined as the part of the human metabolome directly derived from the digestion and biotransformation of foods and their constituents. With >25,000 compounds known in various foods, the food metabolome is extremely complex, with a composition varying widely according...... by the recent identification of novel biomarkers of intakes for fruit, vegetables, beverages, meats, or complex diets. Moreover, examples also show how the scrutiny of the food metabolome can lead to the discovery of bioactive molecules and dietary factors associated with diseases. However, researchers still...

  6. The response of the Advisory Committee on Irradiated and Novel Foods (ACINF) to comments received on the ''Report on the safety and wholesomeness of irradiated foods'' (HMSO -ISBN 0 11 321059 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The Advisory Committee on Irradiated and Novel Foods (ACINF) replies to comments received on the publication of the Report on the Safety and Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods. Comments were received concerning the assessment of the potential risks of food irradiation versus possible benefits, the effects of irradiation on vitamin levels, the production of free radicals and toxic substances, the likelihood of the irradiation of unfit foods, the effects on food additives and packaging, dose rates and radioactivity levels. The ACINF did not consider any of the fears to be justified or any comments would cause a change in advice given in the report. Recommendations were made. (U.K.)

  7. Dryland Agrivoltaics: A novel approach to collocating food production and solar renewable energy to maximize food production, water savings, and energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Gafford, G.; Escobedo, E. B.; Smith, J.; Raub, H.; Jimenez, J. R.; Sutter, L., Jr.; Barnett-Moreno, I.; Blackett, D. T.; Thompson, M. S.; Minor, R. L.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional understanding of land use asserts an inherent "zero-sum-game" of competition between renewable energy and agricultural food production. This discourse is so fundamentally entrenched that it drives most current policy around conservation practices, land and water allotments for agriculture, and permitting for large-scale renewable energy installations. We are investigating a novel approach to solve a problem key to our environment and economy in drylands by creating a hybrid of collocated "green" agriculture and "grey" solar photovoltaic (PV) infrastructure to maximize agricultural production while improving renewable energy production. We are monitoring atmospheric microclimatic conditions, soil moisture, plant ecophysiological function, and biomass production within both this novel "agrivoltaics" ecosystem and in traditional PV installations and agricultural settings (control plot) to quantify tradeoffs associated with this approach. We have found that levels of soil moisture remained higher after each irrigation event within the soils under the agrivoltaics installation than the traditional agricultural setting due to the shading provided by the PV panels overhead. We initiated a drought treatment, which underscored the water-savings under the agrivoltaics installation and increased water use efficiency in this system. We hypothesized that we will see more temperature and drought stresses on photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in the control plants relative to the agrivoltaic installation, and we found that several food crops either experienced significantly more production within the agrivoltaics area, whereas others resulted in nearly equal production but at significant water savings. Combined with localized cooling of the PV panels resulting from the transpiration from the vegetative "understory", we are finding a win-win-win at the food-water-energy nexus. photo credit: Bob Demers/UANews

  8. Novel Production Protocol for Small-scale Manufacture of Probiotic Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerik, Nieke; Wacoo, Alex Paul; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco

    2016-01-01

    A novel dried bacterial consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106 is cultured in 1 L of milk. This fresh starter can be used for the production of fermented milk and other fermented foods either at home or at small-scale in rural settings. For the fresh starter, 1 L of milk is pasteurized in a pan that fits into a larger pan containing water, placed on a source of heat. In this water bath, the milk is heated and incubated at 85 °C for 30 min. Thereafter, the milk is cooled down to 45 °C, transferred to a vacuum flask, inoculated with the dried bacteria and left for at least 16 hr between 30 °C and 45 °C. For the purpose of frequent home production, the fresh starter is frozen into ice cubes, which can be used for the production of small volumes of up to 2 L of fermented milk. For the purpose of small-scale production in resource-poor countries, pasteurization of up to 100 L of milk is conducted in milk cans that are placed in a large sauce pan filled with water and heated on a fire at 85 °C for 30 min, and subsequently cooled to 45 °C. Next, the 100 L batch is inoculated with the 1 L freshly prepared starter mentioned before. To assure an effective fermentation at a temperature between 30 and 45 °C, the milk can is covered with a blanket for 12 hr. For the production of non-dairy fermented foods, the fresh starter is left in a cheese cloth for 12 hr, and the drained-off whey can be subsequently used for the inoculation of a wide range of food raw materials, including vegetables and cereal-based foods. PMID:27684196

  9. Real-time pathogen monitoring during enrichment: a novel nanotechnology-based approach to food safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemaier, Kristin; Carruthers, Erin; Curry, Adam; Kuroda, Melody; Fallows, Eric; Thomas, Joseph; Sherman, Douglas; Muldoon, Mark

    2015-04-02

    We describe a new approach for the real-time detection and identification of pathogens in food and environmental samples undergoing culture. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanoparticles are combined with a novel homogeneous immunoassay to allow sensitive detection of pathogens in complex samples such as stomached food without the need for wash steps or extensive sample preparation. SERS-labeled immunoassay reagents are present in the cultural enrichment vessel, and the signal is monitored real-time through the wall of the vessel while culture is ongoing. This continuous monitoring of pathogen load throughout the enrichment process enables rapid, hands-free detection of food pathogens. Furthermore, the integration of the food pathogen immunoassay directly into the enrichment vessel enables fully biocontained food safety testing, thereby significantly reducing the risk of contaminating the surrounding environment with enriched pathogens. Here, we present experimental results showing the detection of E. coli, Salmonella, or Listeria in several matrices (raw ground beef, raw ground poultry, chocolate milk, tuna salad, spinach, brie cheese, hot dogs, deli turkey, orange juice, cola, and swabs and sponges used to sample a stainless steel surface) using the SERS system and demonstrate the accuracy of the approach compared to plating results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Applications of Novel X-Ray Imaging Modalities in Food Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Schou

    science for understanding and designing food products. In both of these aspects, X-ray imaging methods such as radiography and computed tomography provide a non-destructive solution. However, since the conventional attenuation-based modality suers from poor contrast in soft matter materials, modalities...... with improved contrast are needed. Two possible candidates in this regard are the novel X-ray phase-contrast and X-ray dark-eld imaging modalities. The contrast in phase-contrast imaging is based on dierences in electron density which is especially useful for soft matter materials whereas dark-eld imaging....... Furthermore, the process of translating the image in image analysis was addressed. For improved handling of multimodal image data, a multivariate segmentation scheme of multimodal X-ray tomography data was implemented. Finally, quantitative data analysis was applied for treating the images. Quantitative...

  11. Novel food packaging systems with natural antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Esmer, Ozlem Kizilirmak

    2015-10-01

    A new type of packaging that combines food packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods to enhance product microbial safety and to extend shelf-life is attracting interest in the packaging industry. Several antimicrobial compounds can be combined with different types of packaging materials. But in recent years, since consumer demand for natural food ingredients has increased because of safety and availability, these natural compounds are beginning to replace the chemical additives in foods and are perceived to be safer and claimed to alleviate safety concerns. Recent research studies are mainly focused on the application of natural antimicrobials in food packaging system. Biologically derived compounds like bacteriocins, phytochemicals, enzymes can be used in antimicrobial food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of most important knowledge about application of natural antimicrobial packagings with model food systems and their antimicrobial effects on food products.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety of cranberry extract powder as a novel food ingredient pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    concentrate through an ethanolic extraction using an adsorptive resin column to retain the phenolic components. The Panel considers that the production process is sufficiently described and does not raise concerns about the safety of the novel food. The NF is intended to be added to beverages and yogurts...... to provide 80 mg PACs per serving. The target population is the adult general population. The mean and 95th percentile estimates for the all-user intakes from all proposed food-uses are 68 and 192 mg/day, respectively, for female adults, and 74 mg/day and 219 mg/day, respectively, for male adults. Taking......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on ‘cranberry extract powder’ as a novel food (NF) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council...

  13. Novel approaches in food microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.; Spek, H.D. van; Keijser, B.; Brul, S.

    2004-01-01

    The development of genomics technologies for guiding the predictive modeling of microorganism behavior to make food preservation treatments effective, are discussed. A fully genomewide description of cellular response to environmental conditions lies in the combination of a transcriptome and

  14. Attitudes and intentions toward purchasing novel foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch, Craig S; Tapsell, Linda C; Williams, Peter G

    2005-01-01

    To identify the nature, strength, and relative importance of influences on intentions to consume foods that are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. Community-based residents living in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Two subsamples were surveyed via questionnaire: community members who responded to a local media advertisement (n = 79), and subjects in a dietary intervention trial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 50). Using the TPB variables-intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control-questionnaire items were constructed to measure intention to consume omega-3-enriched novel foods. The results from subsamples did not differ and were combined for analysis. The determinants of intention defined in the TPB were investigated using multiple linear regressions. Regression analysis showed that the model was a significant determinant of intention (R2 = .725; P intention, whereas subjective norms and control beliefs were not. With attitude having the greatest influence on intentions, immediate prospects for modifying behavior are likely to come through a change in attitude, specifically in beliefs about the effectiveness of enriched products in achieving specific health benefits. Promoters of omega-3-enriched foods would be advised to direct their promotions toward changing the attitudes of consumers about the effectiveness of the functional ingredient.

  15. Three-Step Test System for the Identification of Novel GABAA Receptor Modulating Food Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Sümeyye; Eulenburg, Volker; Kreis, Wolfgang; Villmann, Carmen; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Potentiation of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-induced GABA A receptor (GABA A R) activation is a common pathway to achieve sedative, sleep-enhancing, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Presently, a three-component test system was established for the identification of novel GABA A R modulating food plants. In the first step, potentiation of GABA-induced response of the GABA A R was analysed by two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) for activity on human α1β2-GABA A R expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Positively tested food plants were then subjected to quantification of GABA content by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) to exclude test foods, which evoke a TEVC-response by endogenous GABA. In the third step, specificity of GABA A -modulating activity was assessed by TEVC analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the homologous glycine receptor (GlyR). The three-component test was then applied to screen 10 aqueous extracts of food plants for their GABA A R activity. Thus, hop cones (Humulus lupulus) and Sideritis sipylea were identified as the most potent specific GABA A R modulators eliciting significant potentiation of the current by 182 ± 27 and 172 ± 19 %, respectively, at the lowest concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. The extracts can now be further evaluated by in vivo studies and by structural evaluation of the active components.

  16. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The unconvincing product - Consumer versus expert hazard identification: A mental models study of novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    and experts understanding of benefits and risks associated with three Novel foods (a potato, rice and functional food ingredients) using a relatively new methodology for the study of risk perception called Mental models. Mental models focus on the way people conceptualise hazardous processes and allows...... researchers to pit a normative analysis (expert mental models) against a descriptive analysis (consumer mental models). Expert models were elicited by means of a three-wave Delphi procedure from altogether 24 international experts and consumers models from in-dept interviews with Danish consumers. The results...... revealed that consumers´ and experts' mental models differed in connection to scope. Experts focused on the types of hazards for which risk assessments can be conducted under current legal frameworks whereas consumers were concerned about issues that lay outside the scope of current legislation. Experts...

  18. Safety of betaine as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on betaine as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The information provided on the composition, the specifications, the batch......-to-batch variability, stability and production process of the NF is sufficient and does not raise concerns about the safety of the NF. The NF is proposed to be used in foods intended to meet additional requirements for intense muscular effort with a maximum intake of 2.5 g/day of betaine for sports people above 10...... as not sufficient. However, the total exposure to betaine from the diet (about 830 mg/day) is not known to be associated with adverse effects. Moreover, no adverse effects on platelet counts were noted in human intervention studies with exposure levels of 4 g/day of betaine for up to 6 months. A significant...

  19. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Statement on the safety of lacto-N-neotetraose and 2'-O-fucosyllactose as novel food ingredients in food supplements for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on the safety of lacto-N-neotetraose and 2'‑O-fucosyllactose as novel food ingredients in food supplements for children (excluding infants...... of 1.5 g for LNnT and 3 g for 2’-FL for children (4–18 years of age). In this scientific assessment, maximum daily intakes from food supplements for toddlers, children and teenagers are presented and two scenarios are calculated in which the maximum daily intakes from food supplements are added...... in intake levels which were reported to cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms in adults....

  20. Effect of Age and Food Novelty on Food Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulmont-Rosse, C.; Moller, P.; Issanchou, S.; Köster, E.P.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of age of the consumer and food novelty on incidentally learned food memory was investigated by providing a meal containing novel and familiar target items under the pretense of a study on hunger feelings to 34 young and 36 older participants in France and to 24 young and 20 older

  1. Novel Random PBS-Based Copolymers Containing Aliphatic Side Chains for Sustainable Flexible Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Guidotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of biodegradable and biobased plastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In this framework, the present paper describes the synthesis of novel PBS (poly(butylene succinate-based random copolymers with different composition containing glycol sub-units characterized by alkyl pendant groups of different length. The prepared samples were subjected to molecular, thermal, diffractometric and mechanical characterization. The barrier performances to O2, CO2 and N2 gases were also evaluated, envisioning for these new materials an application in food packaging. The presence of the side alkyl groups did not alter the thermal stability, whereas it significantly reduced the sample crystallinity degree, making these materials more flexible. The barrier properties were found to be worse than PBS; however, some of them were comparable to, or even better than, those of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE, widely employed for flexible food packaging. The entity of variations in the final properties due to copolymerization were more modest in the case of the co-unit with short side methyl groups, which, when included in the PBS crystal lattice, causes a more modest decrement of crystallinity degree.

  2. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Exploring Current and Novel Methods for the Detection and Diagnosis of Food Allergy: the Clinical Approach * Adriano Mari and Enrico Scala...

  3. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  4. Safety evaluation of phytosterol esters. Part 3. Two-generation reproduction study in rats with phytosterol esters - A novel functional food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Wijnands, M.V.W.; Richold, M.; Hepburn, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Phytosterol esters (PE) are intended for use as a novel food ingredient with plasma cholesterol lowering activity which works by inhibiting the absorption of cholesterol from the gut. Although PE are naturally present in the normal diet, the levels are insufficiently large to ensure lowering of

  5. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  6. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-03

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  8. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Harray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP. These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality, dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  9. The Development of Sustainable Saltwater-Based Food Production Systems: A Review of Established and Novel Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Gunning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for seafood products on the global market is rising, particularly in Asia, as affluence and appreciation of the health benefits of seafood increase. This is coupled with a capture fishery that, at best, is set for stagnation and, at worst, significant collapse. Global aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of the food industry and currently accounts for approximately 45.6% of the world’s fish consumption. However, the rapid development of extensive and semi-extensive systems, particularly intensive marine-fed aquaculture, has resulted in worldwide concern about the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of such systems. In recent years, there has been a significant amount of research conducted on the development of sustainable saltwater-based food production systems through mechanical (e.g., recirculatory aquaculture (RAS systems methods and ecosystem-based approaches (e.g., integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA. This review article will examine the potential negative impacts of monocultural saltwater aquaculture operations and review established (RAS and novel (IMTA; constructed wetlands; saltwater aquaponics saltwater-based food production systems and discuss their (potential contribution to the development of sustainable and environmentally-friendly systems.

  10. Novel insights into the microbiology of fermented dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macori, Guerrino; Cotter, Paul D

    2018-02-01

    Fermentation is a traditional approach to food preservation that, in addition to improving food safety, also confers enhanced organoleptic, nutritional, and health-promoting attributes upon those foods. Dairy products can be fermented by a diverse microbiota. The accompanying microbes can be studied using a variety of different, including 'omics'-based, approaches that can reveal their composition and functionality. These methods have increasingly been recently applied to study fermented dairy foods from the perspective of genetic diversity, functionality and succession. The insights provided by these studies are summarised in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel immunotherapy approaches to food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayen, Simone M; Kostadinova, Atanaska I; Garssen, Johan; Otten, Henny G; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite reaching high percentages of desensitization using allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) in patients with food allergy, recent studies suggest only a low number of patients to reach persistent clinical tolerance. This review describes current developments in strategies to

  12. Production of the natural iron chelator deferriferrichrysin from Aspergillus oryzae and evaluation as a novel food-grade antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todokoro, Takehiko; Fukuda, Katsuharu; Matsumura, Kengo; Irie, Motoko; Hata, Yoji

    2016-07-01

    Deferriferrichrysin (Dfcy) is a siderophore found in foods fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and is a promising candidate for an antioxidant food additive because of its high binding constant toward iron. However, the Dfcy concentration is typically low in foods and cultures. We optimised culture conditions to improve Dfcy production to 2800 mg L(-1) from 22.5 mg L(-1) under typical conditions. Then, we evaluated the potential of Dfcy as a food additive by measuring its safety, stability, and antioxidant activity. Dfcy was sufficiently stable that over 90% remained after pasteurisation at 63 °C for 30 min at pH 3-11, or after sterilisation at 120 °C for 4 min at pH 4-6. Dfcy showed high antioxidant activity in an oil-in-water model, where inhibition of lipid oxidation was measured by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. Dfcy decreased PV and TBARS by 83% and 75%, respectively. Antioxidant activity of Dfcy was equal to or higher than that of the synthetic chelator EDTA. Our study provides the first practical method for production of Dfcy. Dfcy can be a novel food-grade antioxidant and the first natural alternative to the synthesised iron chelator EDTA. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety of ‘heat-treated milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA NDA Panel was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘pasteurised milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food (NF) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Pasteurised or ultra-high-temp......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA NDA Panel was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘pasteurised milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food (NF) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Pasteurised or ultra......-high-temperature-treated milk is used for the fermentation process with B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964. After fermentation the product is heat treated for one hour at 75 °C to ensure the absence of viable B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964. The Panel considers the information provided on the identity and characterisation of B...

  14. Safety of dried aerial parts of Hoodia parviflora as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    provided on the composition, the specifications, the production process, the batch-to-batch variability and the stability of the NF is sufficient and does not raise safety concerns. The applicant intends to use the NF in a number of energy-reduced/sugar-free/no-added-sugar foods in quantities of up to 15......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the dried aerial parts of Hoodia parviflora as a novel food (NF) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The information...... mg per serving. The applicant also proposes to provide the NF as a food supplement. The target population proposed by the applicant is adults. The highest intake estimates were found in the group of elderly (≥ 65 years) individuals, with a high intake of 1.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day. One 90-day...

  15. β-casein as a functional food component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    Milk is a complex mixture of various components which include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals. Milk proteins can be divided into two classes: whey proteins (20%) and caseins (80% of total milk protein). As thermal treatment is a traditional method of food preservation, interactions...... with novel textures, is highly valuable to the dairy industry. Understanding interactions that undergo during food processing is necessary for proper design of process. For example control of aggregation is required to achieve desired texture of the final product....... which can improve stability and safety of food. Traditional methods of food preservation and sterilization require high temperature, which may result in undesirable changes such as change of color or texture. Development of novel food processing methods, which allow to create new milk-based products...

  16. Development of novel wireless sensor for food quality detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son Nguyen, Dat; Le, Nguyen Ngan; Lam, Tan Phat; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric; Dang, Mau Chien; Tedjini, Smail

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a wireless sensor for the monitoring of food quality. We integrate sensing capability into ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags through the relationship between the physical read-range and permittivity of the object we label with the RFID tags. Using the known variations of food permittivity as a function of time, we can detect the contamination time at which a food product becomes unacceptable for consumption based on the measurement of read-range with the as-designed sensing tags. This low-cost UHF RFID passive sensor was designed and experimentally tested on beef, pork, and cheese with the same storage conditions as in supermarkets. The agreement between the experimental and simulation results show the potential of this technique for practical application in food-quality tracking. (paper)

  17. Safety of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (PQQ), trade name BioPQQTM, as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. PQQ is produced...... by fermentation using Hyphomicrobium denitrificans CK-275 and purification process. PQQ has a minimum purity of 99.0%. The information provided on the composition, specifications, batch-to-batch variability, stability and production process of PQQ is sufficient and does not raise safety concerns. The applicant...... intends to market PQQ for use in food supplements for healthy adults, except pregnant and lactating women, at a maximum proposed level of consumption of 20 mg/day (corresponding to 0.29 mg/kg bw per day for a 70-kg person). The proposed level of consumption is at least 250 times higher than the estimated...

  18. Current Demands for Food-Approved Liposome Nanoparticles in Food and Safety Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety of food is a noteworthy issue for consumers and the food industry. A number of complex challenges associated with food engineering and food industries, including quality food production and safety of the food through effective and feasible means can be explained by nanotechnology. However, nanoparticles have unique physicochemical properties compared to normal macroparticles of the same composition and thus could interact with living system in surprising ways to induce toxicity. Further, few toxicological/safety assessments have been performed on nanoparticles, thereby necessitating further research on oral exposure risk prior to their application to food. Liposome nanoparticles are viewed as attractive novel materials by the food and medical industries. For example, nanoencapsulation of bioactive food compounds is an emerging application of nanotechnology. In several food industrial practices, liposome nanoparticles have been utilized to improve flavoring and nutritional properties of food, and they have been examined for their capacity to encapsulate natural metabolites that may help to protect the food from spoilage and degradation. This review focuses on ongoing advancements in the application of liposomes for food and pharma sector.

  19. A novel framework for analysing stakeholder interest in healthy foods: A case study on iodine biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of novel strategies to prevent micronutrient malnutrition, such as biofortification, limited understanding of stakeholders often hampers their success. We build upon the existing literature on protection motivations (PMT) and technology acceptance (TAM) to develop an integrated PMTAM model for analyzing stakeholders' reactions, on both the supply and demand sides. Regarding the latter, the case of the iodine biofortified food chain is used to evaluate African households' interest. All model constructs, and threat appraisal in particular, are decisive in determining the uptake of biofortification, while also social demographics and own nutrition status play an important role.

  20. Emotions in consumer research : An application to novel food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades the general public has been confronted with a continuous stream of radically new food products as well as technologies that can be used to improve food production and food products. It is rather difficult, however, to convince consumers to accept these new products. For

  1. Food Applications and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  2. Computerized screening for novel producers of Monascus-like food pigments in Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Meyer, Anne S.

    2008-01-01

    , rubropunctamine, and citrinin. The cross hits were then manually identified on the basis of their UV-vis and mass spectra. X-hitting was found to be a good tool in the rapid screening of crude pigment extracts. Monascus pigments were discovered in the extracts of two closely related species of Penicillium...... Penicillium extracts showed the presence of citrinin. Thus, the present study brought out two novel promising sources of yellow, orange, and purple-red Monascus-like food pigments in the species of Penicillia that do not produce citrinin and opened the door to look for several more new promising sources...... that were only distantly related to the genus Monascus. Monascorubrin, xanthomonasin A, and threonine derivatives of rubropunctatin were identified in the extract of Penicillium aculeatum IBT 14263, and monascorubrin was identified in the extract of Penicillium pinophilum IBT 13104. None of the tested...

  3. Development of novel tools to measure food neophobia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Marie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    The main tool currently used to measure food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale, FNS, developed by Pliner & Hobden, 1992) may not remain optimal forever. It was developed around 25 years ago, and the perception and availability of “novel” and “ethnic” foods may have changed in the meantime. Cons...

  4. Use of Foodomics for Control of Food Processing and Assessing of Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josić, D; Peršurić, Ž; Rešetar, D; Martinović, T; Saftić, L; Kraljević Pavelić, S

    Food chain, food safety, and food-processing sectors face new challenges due to globalization of food chain and changes in the modern consumer preferences. In addition, gradually increasing microbial resistance, changes in climate, and human errors in food handling remain a pending barrier for the efficient global food safety management. Consequently, a need for development, validation, and implementation of rapid, sensitive, and accurate methods for assessment of food safety often termed as foodomics methods is required. Even though, the growing role of these high-throughput foodomic methods based on genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic techniques has yet to be completely acknowledged by the regulatory agencies and bodies. The sensitivity and accuracy of these methods are superior to previously used standard analytical procedures and new methods are suitable to address a number of novel requirements posed by the food production sector and global food market. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Current strategies for improving food bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, O P; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Novel concepts and methodologies are emerging that hold great promise for the directed improvement of food-related bacteria, specifically lactic acid bacteria. Also, the battle against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria can now be fought more effectively. Here we describe recent advances in

  6. Novel therapies in the management of food allergy: Oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies using anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody in food allergy management are limited, but show promising results. The possible applications are for increasing the sensitivity threshold to certain foods such as peanut, and also for use in combination with OIT to enhance safety and rapidity of the OIT process; however, ...

  7. Modelling consumer preferences for novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgopolova, Irina; Teuber, Ramona; Bruschi, Viola

    2017-01-01

    Advances in the bioeconomy lead to a range of innovative products appearing at the consumer markets. However, these products often face consumer resistance. In this chapter we test if a reference point effects approach can provide more information about consumers decision-making regarding novel f...

  8. The applications of nanotechnology in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Ladan; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential of application in the food industry and processing as new tools for pathogen detection, disease treatment delivery systems, food packaging, and delivery of bioactive compounds to target sites. The application of nanotechnology in food systems will provide new methods to improve safety and the nutritional value of food products. This article will review the current advances of applications of nanotechnology in food science and technology. Also, it describes new current food laws for nanofood and novel articles in the field of risk assessment of using nanotechnology in the food industry.

  9. Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides: New and Novel Sources, Characterisation Strategies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hayes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available By 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but additionally have nutritional and health maintenance and well-being benefits. Proteins provide energy, but additionally have a wide range of functions from enzymatic activities in the body to bioactivities including those associated with heart health, diabetes-type 2-prevention and mental health maintenance; stress relief as well as a plethora of other health beneficial attributes. Furthermore, proteins play an important role in food manufacture and often provide the binding, water- or oil-holding, emulsifying, foaming or other functional attributes required to ensure optimum sensory and taste benefits for the consumer. The purpose of this issue is to highlight current and new protein sources and their associated functional, nutritional and health benefits as well as best practices for quantifying proteins and bioactive peptides in both a laboratory and industry setting. The bioaccessibility, bioavailability and bioactivities of proteins from dairy, cereal and novel sources including seaweeds and insect protein and how they are measured and the relevance of protein quality measurement methods including the Protein Digestibility Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS and Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS are highlighted. In addition, predicted future protein consumption trends and new markets for protein and peptide products are discussed.

  10. Feasibility of a novel participatory multi-sector continuous improvement approach to enhance food security in remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, J; Bailie, R; van den Boogaard, C; Wood, B; Liberato, S C; Ferguson, M; Coveney, J; Jaenke, R; Ritchie, J

    2017-12-01

    Food insecurity underlies and compounds many of the development issues faced by remote Indigenous communities in Australia. Multi-sector approaches offer promise to improve food security. We assessed the feasibility of a novel multi-sector approach to enhance community food security in remote Indigenous Australia. A longitudinal comparative multi-site case study, the Good Food Systems Good Food for All Project, was conducted (2009-2013) with four Aboriginal communities. Continuous improvement meetings were held in each community. Data from project documents and store sales were used to assess feasibility according to engagement, uptake and sustainability of action, and impact on community diet, as well as identifying conditions facilitating or hindering these. Engagement was established where: the community perceived a need for the approach; where trust was developed between the community and facilitators; where there was community stability; and where flexibility was applied in the timing of meetings. The approach enabled stakeholders in each community to collectively appraise the community food system and plan action. Actions that could be directly implemented within available resources resulted from developing collaborative capacity. Actions requiring advocacy, multi-sectoral involvement, commitment or further resources were less frequently used. Positive shifts in community diet were associated with key areas where actions were implemented. A multi-sector participatory approach seeking continuous improvement engaged committed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal stakeholders and was shown to have potential to shift community diet. Provision of clear mechanisms to link this approach with higher level policy and decision-making structures, clarity of roles and responsibilities, and processes to prioritise and communicate actions across sectors should further strengthen capacity for food security improvement. Integrating this approach enabling local decision-making into

  11. Development of a novel approach for the production of dried genomic DNA for use as standards for qualitative PCR testing of food-borne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapmann, S.; Catalani, P.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    As part of a multi-centre European project, FOOD-PCR, the feasibility of a novel approach for production of dried bacterial DNA that could be used as certified reference materials (CRM) was assessed. Selected strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157...

  12. Novel therapies in the management of food allergy: Oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies using anti-IgE antibody in food allergy management are limited, but show promising results. Possible applications are for increasing the threshold of sensitivity to certain foods such as peanut,[7,8] and combined with OIT to enhance safety and rapidity of the OIT process.[9,10] Anti-IgE is however not yet licensed for ...

  13. Novel Natural Products for Healthy Ageing from the Mediterranean Diet and Food Plants of Other Global Sources-The MediHealth Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Halabalaki, Maria; Schwaiger, Stefan; Adamopoulos, Nicolas; Allouche, Noureddine; Fiebich, Bernd L; Hermans, Nina; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Kesternich, Victor; Pieters, Luc; Schönbichler, Stefan; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tran, Hung; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Viljoen, Alvaro; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Wolfrum, Christian; Xynos, Nikos; Stuppner, Hermann

    2018-05-06

    There is a rapid increase in the percentage of elderly people in Europe. Consequently, the prevalence of age-related diseases will also significantly increase. Therefore, the main goal of MediHealth, an international research project, is to introduce a novel approach for the discovery of active agents of food plants from the Mediterranean diet and other global sources that promote healthy ageing. To achieve this goal, a series of plants from the Mediterranean diet and food plants from other origins are carefully selected and subjected to in silico, cell-based, in vivo (fly and mouse models), and metabolism analyses. Advanced analytical techniques complement the bio-evaluation process for the efficient isolation and identification of the bioactive plant constituents. Furthermore, pharmacological profiling of bioactive natural products, as well as the identification and synthesis of their metabolites, is carried out. Finally, optimization studies are performed in order to proceed to the development of innovative nutraceuticals, dietary supplements or herbal medicinal products. The project is based on an exchange of researchers between nine universities and four companies from European and non-European countries, exploiting the existing complementary multidisciplinary expertise. Herein, the unique and novel approach of this interdisciplinary project is presented.

  14. Assessment of food safety practices of food service food handlers (risk assessment data): testing a communication intervention (evaluation of tools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin; Eversley, Tiffany; Fillion, Katie; Maclaurin, Tanya; Powell, Douglas

    2010-06-01

    Globally, foodborne illness affects an estimated 30% of individuals annually. Meals prepared outside of the home are a risk factor for acquiring foodborne illness and have been implicated in up to 70% of traced outbreaks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has called on food safety communicators to design new methods and messages aimed at increasing food safety risk-reduction practices from farm to fork. Food safety infosheets, a novel communication tool designed to appeal to food handlers and compel behavior change, were evaluated. Food safety infosheets were provided weekly to food handlers in working food service operations for 7 weeks. It was hypothesized that through the posting of food safety infosheets in highly visible locations, such as kitchen work areas and hand washing stations, that safe food handling behaviors of food service staff could be positively influenced. Using video observation, food handlers (n = 47) in eight food service operations were observed for a total of 348 h (pre- and postintervention combined). After the food safety infosheets were introduced, food handlers demonstrated a significant increase (6.7%, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval) in mean hand washing attempts, and a significant reduction in indirect cross-contamination events (19.6%, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval). Results of the research demonstrate that posting food safety infosheets is an effective intervention tool that positively influences the food safety behaviors of food handlers.

  15. Food odors trigger an endocrine response that affects food ingestion and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R

    2015-08-01

    Food odors stimulate appetite and innate food-seeking behavior in hungry animals. The smell of food also induces salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. Conversely, sustained odor exposure may induce satiation. We demonstrate novel effects of food odors on food ingestion, metabolism and endocrine signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Acute exposure to attractive vinegar odor triggers a rapid and transient increase in circulating glucose, and a rapid upregulation of genes encoding the glucagon-like hormone adipokinetic hormone (AKH), four insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and some target genes in peripheral tissues. Sustained exposure to food odors, however, decreases food intake. Hunger-induced strengthening of synaptic signaling from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to brain neurons increases food-seeking behavior, and conversely fed flies display reduced food odor sensitivity and feeding. We show that increasing the strength of OSN signaling chronically by genetic manipulation of local peptide neuromodulation reduces feeding, elevates carbohydrates and diminishes lipids. Furthermore, constitutively strengthened odor sensitivity altered gene transcripts for AKH, DILPs and some of their targets. Thus, we show that food odor can induce a transient anticipatory endocrine response, and that boosted sensitivity to this odor affects food intake, as well as metabolism and hormonal signaling.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety of synthetic N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on synthetic N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid (NANA) as a novel food (NF) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The information...... on the composition, the specifications, the batch-to-batch variability, stability and production process of the NF is sufficient and does not raise concerns about the safety of the NF. The NF is intended to be marketed as an ingredient in formulae and foods for infants and young children as well as an ingredient...... in a variety of foods and in food supplements for the general population. NANA is naturally present in human milk, in a bound and free form. The Margin of Exposure, which was based on the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 493 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day from a subchronic study and the anticipated...

  17. Spiroketalcarminic Acid, a Novel Minor Anthraquinone Pigment in Cochineal Extract Used in Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusai; Harikai, Naoki; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Cochineal extract prepared from the scale insect Dactylopus coccus (American cochineal) has been used as a natural red dye for food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. The major pigment in cochineal extract is carminic acid (CA), an anthraquinone glucoside, and several minor pigments have been previously reported. Our investigation aimed at establishing the safety of cochineal dye products using ultra performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-electrospray ionization-time of flight (UPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF)/MS found an unknown minor pigment, spiroketalcarminic acid (1), in three commercial cochineal extract samples; cochineal extract used in food additives, carmine that is an aluminum salt of cochineal extract used as natural dye, and a research reagent of CA. The purification of 1 from cochineal extract involved sequential chromatographic techniques, including preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Two dimensional (2D)-NMR and mass analyses established the structure of 1 to be a novel anthraquinone with an unusual 6,5-spiroketal system instead of the C-glucosyl moiety of CA. The absolute stereochemistry of the spiroketal moiety in 1 was determined by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) correlations and optical rotation. No data corresponding to 1 had previously been reported for extracts of dried cochineal insects and traditional art products dyed with cochineal extract, indicating that 1 is likely produced during the preparation of commercial cochineal extract.

  18. Clustering of fast-food restaurants around schools: a novel application of spatial statistics to the study of food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Melly, Steven J; Sanchez, Brisa N; Patel, Aarti; Buka, Stephen; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2005-09-01

    We examined the concentration of fast food restaurants in areas proximal to schools to characterize school neighborhood food environments. We used geocoded databases of restaurant and school addresses to examine locational patterns of fast-food restaurants and kindergartens and primary and secondary schools in Chicago. We used the bivariate K function statistical method to quantify the degree of clustering (spatial dependence) of fast-food restaurants around school locations. The median distance from any school in Chicago to the nearest fast-food restaurant was 0.52 km, a distance that an adult can walk in little more than 5 minutes, and 78% of schools had at least 1 fast-food restaurant within 800 m. Fast-food restaurants were statistically significantly clustered in areas within a short walking distance from schools, with an estimated 3 to 4 times as many fast-food restaurants within 1.5 km from schools than would be expected if the restaurants were distributed throughout the city in a way unrelated to school locations. Fast-food restaurants are concentrated within a short walking distance from schools, exposing children to poor-quality food environments in their school neighborhoods.

  19. Parental modelling and prompting effects on acceptance of a novel fruit in 2-4-year-old children are dependent on children's food responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jackie; Bennett, Carmel; Fogel, Anna; Harris, Gillian; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-02-14

    Few children consume the recommended portions of fruit or vegetables. This study examined the effects of parental physical prompting and parental modelling in children's acceptance of a novel fruit (NF) and examined the role of children's food-approach and food-avoidance traits on NF engagement and consumption. A total of 120 caregiver-child dyads (fifty-four girls, sixty-six boys) participated in this study. Dyads were allocated to one of the following three conditions: physical prompting but no modelling, physical prompting and modelling or a modelling only control condition. Dyads ate a standardised meal containing a portion of a fruit new to the child. Parents completed measures of children's food approach and avoidance. Willingness to try the NF was observed, and the amount of the NF consumed was measured. Physical prompting but no modelling resulted in greater physical refusal of the NF. There were main effects of enjoyment of food and food fussiness on acceptance. Food responsiveness interacted with condition such that children who were more food responsive had greater NF acceptance in the prompting and modelling conditions in comparison with the modelling only condition. In contrast, children with low food responsiveness had greater acceptance in the modelling control condition than in the prompting but no modelling condition. Physical prompting in the absence of modelling is likely to be detrimental to NF acceptance. Parental use of physical prompting strategies, in combination with modelling of NF intake, may facilitate acceptance of NF, but only in food-responsive children. Modelling consumption best promotes acceptance in children with low food responsiveness.

  20. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Brodmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available, publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  1. Complexity and conundrums. Citizens' evaluations of potentially contentious novel food technologies using a deliberative discourse approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greehy, Gráinne M; McCarthy, Mary B; Henchion, Maeve M; Dillon, Emma J; McCarthy, Sinéad N

    2013-11-01

    This research considers the processes involved in the formation of attitudes by citizens on potentially contentious novel food technologies (NFTs). Observations of one-to-one deliberative discourses between food scientists and citizens, during which they discussed these technologies, form the basis of this enquiry. This approach enables an exploration of how individuals construct meaning around as well as interpret information about the technologies. Thematic analysis identifies key features that provide the frameworks for citizens' evaluations. How individuals make sense of these technologies is shaped by their beliefs, values and personal characteristics; their perceptions of power and control over the development and sale of NFT related products; and, the extent to which these products are relevant to their personal lives. Internal negotiations between these influences are evident, and evaluations are based on the relative importance of each influence to the individual. Internal conflicts and tensions are associated with citizens' evolving evaluative processes, which may in turn present as attitude ambivalence and instability. Many challenges are linked with engaging with the general public about these technologies, as levels of knowledge, understanding and interest vary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging Food Processing Technologies and Factors Impacting their Industrial Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Anushree; Rajauria, Gaurav; O'Donnell, Colm P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2018-06-04

    Innovative food processing technologies have been widely investigated in food processing research in recent years. These technologies offer key advantages for advancing the preservation and quality of conventional foods, for combatting the growing challenges posed by globalization, increased competitive pressures and diverse consumer demands. However, there is a need to increase the level of adoption of novel technologies to ensure the potential benefits of these technologies are exploited more by the food industry. This review outlines emerging thermal and non-thermal food processing technologies with regard to their mechanisms, applications and commercial aspects. The level of adoption of novel food processing technologies by the food industry is outlined and the factors that impact their industrial adoption are discussed. At an industry level, the technological capabilities of individual companies, their size, market share as well as their absorptive capacity impact adoption of a novel technology. Characteristics of the technology itself such as costs involved in its development and commercialization, associated risks and relative advantage, its level of complexity and compatibility influence the technology's adoption. The review concludes that a deep understanding of the development and application of a technology along with the factors influencing its acceptance are critical for its commercial adoption.

  3. Collation of Scientific Evidence on Consumer Acceptance of New Food Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, A. R. H; van Trijp, H. C. M.; Hofenk,, D.

    The current report investigates consumer acceptance of new food technologies by reviewing the scientific literature. The review is organised along three routes to consumer acceptance of new technologies: The consumer benefit road: the central road of technology features influencing experienced...... be made how the different roads contribute to consumer acceptance or rejection of a novel food technology dependent on technology characteristics. A checklist for the introduction of novel food technologies taking account of all the roads and the technology is presented at the end of this report.......; and Novel packaging and storage technologies is reviewed along these roads. The results show that research remains fragmented in approach and usually adopts the point of view of a single road to consumer acceptance of a novel technology. Nevertheless by combining the available evidence recommendation can...

  4. Who started first? Bird species visiting novel birdfeeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Morelli, Federico; Skórka, Piotr; Goławski, Artur; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Pape Møller, Anders; Mitrus, Cezary; Wysocki, Dariusz; Zduniak, Piotr

    2015-07-07

    Adapting to exploit new food sources may be essential, particularly in winter, when the impact of food limitation on survival of individuals is critical. One of the most important additional sources of food for birds in human settlements is birdfeeders. At a large spatial scale, we experimentally provided birdfeeders with four different kinds of food to analyze exploitation and use of a novel food supply provided by humans. Nine species started foraging at the new birdfeeders. The species that exploited the new feeders the fastest was the great tit. Use of novel food sources was faster in urban habitats and the presence of other feeders reduced the time until a new feeder was located. Urbanization may be associated with behavioural skills, technical innovations and neophilia resulting in faster discovery of new food sources. This process is accelerated by the experience of feeder use in the vicinity, with a strong modifying effect of the number of domestic cats.

  5. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  6. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  7. Linear programming to build food-based dietary guidelines: Romanian food baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Robertson, Aileen; Hondru, Gabriela

    approach using linear programming methodology to design national dietary recommendations which aim to prevent both NCDs and micronutrient deficiencies and still be affordable by low income groups. This new approach is applied within the context of food availability in Romania in 2014. Eating the same food...... every day is unrealistic and too monotonous to be maintained, so this novel approach is used to select a wide range of diverse foods that can be recommended for a period of up to, for example, one month. The following are the key findings of this report. • The simplest version of the Romanian food.......65 lei (~€ 4.46) for a day. • Key nutrients, primarily vitamin D, calcium, potassium and iron, were found to control the overall price. • The least expensive basket (one day’s rations) is monotonous and the linear programming approach is used to select a wide range of foods that can be recommended...

  8. Changing memory of food enjoyment to increase food liking, choice and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-10-28

    Novel ways to increase liking and intake of food are needed to encourage acceptance of healthier food. How enjoyable we remember food to have been is likely to be a significant predictor of food choice. Two studies examined whether remembered enjoyment of eating a food can be increased and whether this makes individuals more likely to eat that food in the future. In Study One, a simple manipulation of instructing participants to rehearse what they found enjoyable about a food immediately after eating it was used to increase remembered enjoyment (relative to controls). In a separate study; Study Two, the effect of increasing remembered enjoyment on food choice was tested by examining whether the manipulation to increase remembered enjoyment resulted in participants choosing to eat more of a food as part of a later buffet lunch. The experimental manipulation increased remembered enjoyment for the food (Study One). A change in remembered enjoyment was shown to have a significant effect on the amount of a food participants chose to eat the following day for lunch (Study Two). The present studies suggest that remembered enjoyment can be increased via a simple act of rehearsal, resulting in a later increase in the amount of food chosen and eaten. Interventions based on altering remembered enjoyment of healthy food choices warrant further investigation.

  9. Tritordeum: a novel cereal for food processing with good acceptability and significant reduction in gluten immunogenic peptides in comparison with wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Luis; Comino, Isabel; Vivas, Santiago; Rodríguez-Martín, Laura; Giménez, María J; Pastor, Jorge; Sousa, Carolina; Barro, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Tritordeum is a novel cereal obtained from the hybridization between durum wheat and a wild barley. This study evaluates acceptance, digestibility and immunotoxic properties of tritordeum, a novel cereal for food processing. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in a study with different diets to compare tritordeum bread with wheat and gluten-free breads. Tritordeum breads had a similar acceptance to the wheat bread usually consumed, and the acceptance was significantly higher than the gluten-free bread and standardized wheat bread supplied in the study. There was no evidence for gastrointestinal symptoms among volunteers during the study. The reductions in the numbers of immunogenic epitopes in tritordeum in comparison with wheat were 78% for α-gliadins, 57% for γ-gliadins and 93% for ω-gliadins. The analysis of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stool samples showed a significantly lower excretion in the tritordeum ingestion phase than in the wheat ingestion phase. These results suggest that tritordeum may be an option of interest for general food processing, and especially for those who want to reduce their intake of gluten. However, it is not suitable for celiac disease sufferers as it contains gluten. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  11. Immunology of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A

    2017-07-18

    Many consider food allergy as the "second wave" of the allergy epidemic following the "first wave" of respiratory allergy, i.e., asthma and allergic rhinitis, plaguing westernized countries, with up to 8% of young children and 2%-3% of adults in the United States now affected by hypersensitivity reactions to various foods. In the past decade, there have been great strides in our understanding of the underlying immunopathogenesis of these disorders, which have led to improved diagnostic techniques, management strategies, and therapeutic approaches. Here we will review the most recent understanding of basic mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergies and novel therapeutic approaches under investigation for both the prevention and treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety of alginate-konjac-xanthan polysaccharide complex (PGX) as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    is an off-white granular powder composed of three non-starch polysaccharides: konjac glucomannan, xanthan gum and sodium alginate. The information provided on the composition, the specifications, the batch-to-batch variability and the stability of the NF is sufficient and does not raise safety concerns...... population proposed by the applicant is adults from 18 to 64 years of age. Considering the no observed adverse effect level of 1.8 g/kg body weight (bw) per day in a subchronic toxicity study with PGX and the highest mean and 95th percentile anticipated daily intake of NF from fortified foods, the margin...... of exposure (MoE) is 12 and 6, respectively, whereas the MoE for the NF from food supplements is 9. The Panel concludes that the safety of the novel food, PGX, for the intended uses and use levels as proposed by the applicant, has not been established....

  14. Novel Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Sensors and Nanoprobes for the Characterization of Food and Biological Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Demirci Çekiç, Sema; Üzer, Ayşem; Çelik, Saliha Esin; Bener, Mustafa; Bekdeşer, Burcu; Can, Ziya; Sağlam, Şener; Önem, Ayşe Nur; Erçağ, Erol

    2018-01-11

    Since an unbalanced excess of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) causes various diseases, determination of antioxidants that can counter oxidative stress is important in food and biological analyses. Optical/electrochemical nanosensors have attracted attention in antioxidant activity (AOA) assessment because of their increased sensitivity and selectivity. Optical sensors offer advantages such as low cost, flexibility, remote control, speed, miniaturization and on-site/in situ analysis. Electrochemical sensors using noble metal nanoparticles on modified electrodes better catalyze bioelectrochemical reactions. We summarize the design principles of colorimetric sensors and nanoprobes for food antioxidants (including electron-transfer based and ROS/RNS scavenging assays) and important milestones contributed by our laboratory. We present novel sensors and nanoprobes together with their mechanisms and analytical performances. Our colorimetric sensors for AOA measurement made use of cupric-neocuproine and ferric-phenanthroline complexes immobilized on a Nafion membrane. We recently designed an optical oxidant/antioxidant sensor using N , N -dimethyl- p -phenylene diamine (DMPD) as probe, from which ROS produced colored DMPD-quinone cationic radicals electrostatically retained on a Nafion membrane. The attenuation of initial color by antioxidants enabled indirect AOA estimation. The surface plasmon resonance absorption of silver nanoparticles as a result of enlargement of citrate-reduced seed particles by antioxidant addition enabled a linear response of AOA. We determined biothiols with Ellman reagent-derivatized gold nanoparticles.

  15. Food availability and livelihood strategies among rural households across Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichern, Jannike; Wijk, van Mark T.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Frelat, Romain; Asten, van Piet J.A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite continuing economic growth, Uganda faces persistent challenges to achieve food security. The effectiveness of policy and development strategies to help rural households achieve food security must improve. We present a novel approach to relate spatial patterns of food security to livelihood

  16. Modified lysozymes as novel broad spectrum natural antimicrobial agents in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminlari, Ladan; Hashemi, Marjan Mohammadi; Aminlari, Mahmoud

    2014-06-01

    In recent years much attention and interest have been directed toward application of natural antimicrobial agents in foods. Some naturally occurring proteins such as lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, and lysozyme have received considerable attention and are being considered as potential antimicrobial agents in foods. Lysozyme kills bacteria by hydrolyzing the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall of certain bacterial species, hence its application as a natural antimicrobial agent has been suggested. However, limitations in the action of lysozyme against only Gram-positive bacteria have prompted scientists to extend the antimicrobial effects of lysozyme by several types of chemical modifications. During the last 2 decades extensive research has been directed toward modification of lysozyme in order to improve its antimicrobial properties. This review will report on the latest information available on lysozyme modifications and examine the applicability of the modified lysozymes in controlling growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in foods. The results of modifications of lysozyme using its conjugation with different small molecule, polysaccharides, as well as modifications using proteolytic enzymes will be reviewed. These types of modifications have not only increased the functional properties of lysozyme (such as solubility and heat stability) but also extended the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme. Many examples will be given to show that modification can decrease the count of Gram-negative bacteria in bacterial culture and in foods by as much as 5 log CFU/mL and in some cases essentially eliminated Escherichia coli. In conclusion this review demonstrates that modified lysozymes are excellent natural food preservatives, which can be used in food industry. The subject described in this review article can lead to the development of methods to produce new broad-spectrum natural antimicrobial agents, based on modification of chicken egg white lysozyme, which

  17. Antidiabetic effects of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum, a novel food additive in China, on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zheng-Mao; Hu, Xin-Zhong; Wu, Rui-Qin; Xu, Chao

    2009-09-25

    Since ancient times, practicians of traditional Chinese medicine have discovered that Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. (Asteraceae) seed powder was useful for the treatment of diabetes. Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum (ASK gum), which is extracted from seed powder of the plant, is a novel food additive favored by the food industry in China. The objective of this study was to determine the antidiabetic function of ASK gum on type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced with high fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). The effects of ASK gum on hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation in type 2 diabetic rats were evaluated. The results were compared to those of normal rats and diabetic rats treated with metformin. The addition of ASK gum to the rats' food supply significantly lowered fasting blood glucose, glycated serum protein, serum cholesterol, and serum triglyceride in type 2 diabetic rats, and significantly elevated liver glucokinase, liver glycogen, and serum high density protein cholesterol in the diabetic rats. ASK gum significantly reduced insulin resistance and liver fat accumulation of type 2 diabetes. Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. gum can alleviate hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Advances in food allergy in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    This review highlights research advances in food allergy that were published in the Journal in 2015. The world of food allergy research continues to rapidly accelerate, with increasing numbers of outstanding submissions to the Journal. In 2015, important studies on the epidemiology of food allergy were published, suggesting differential rates of food allergy in specific racial and ethnic groups. Even more importantly, studies were published identifying specific risk factors for the development of peanut allergy, as well as specific prevention strategies. We also saw new studies on the diagnosis of food allergy and potential approaches to the treatment of food allergy, as well as novel mechanistic studies helping to explain the immunologic correlates of food allergy and food desensitization. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Tsakanikas

    Full Text Available Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  20. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  1. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Mitropoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed.

  2. A Novel Reference Plasmid for the Qualitative Detection of Genetically Modified Rice in Food and Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Genetically modified (GM technology has been used in rice to confer herbicide tolerance and pathogen or insect resistance. China invests heavily in research on GM rice. By the end of 2014, at least 250 transgenic rice lines had been developed in China. To monitor the presence of GM rice in food and feed, we collected information on foreign elements from 250 transgenic rice lines and found 5 elements, including the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S, the ubiquitin gene (Ubi, the bar gene, and the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (Hpt, that are commonly present in GM rice. Therefore, we constructed a novel plasmid (pBJGMM001 that contains fragments of these elements and two endogenous reference genes (the sucrose phosphate synthase gene, SPS, and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene, PEPC. pBJGMM001 can serve as a standard for detecting 96% of GM rice lines in China. The primers, amplicons, reaction mixture, and PCR program were developed based on Chinese National Standards. The protocol was validated and determined to be suitable for practical use in monitoring and identifying GM rice.

  3. A novel reference plasmid for the qualitative detection of genetically modified rice in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Dong, Mei; An, Na; Liang, Lixia; Wan, Yusong; Jin, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Genetically modified (GM) technology has been used in rice to confer herbicide tolerance and pathogen or insect resistance. China invests heavily in research on GM rice. By the end of 2014, at least 250 transgenic rice lines had been developed in China. To monitor the presence of GM rice in food and feed, we collected information on foreign elements from 250 transgenic rice lines and found 5 elements, including the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS), the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S), the ubiquitin gene (Ubi), the bar gene, and the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (Hpt), that are commonly present in GM rice. Therefore, we constructed a novel plasmid (pBJGMM001) that contains fragments of these elements and two endogenous reference genes (the sucrose phosphate synthase gene, SPS, and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene, PEPC). pBJGMM001 can serve as a standard for detecting 96% of GM rice lines in China. The primers, amplicons, reaction mixture, and PCR program were developed based on Chinese National Standards. The protocol was validated and determined to be suitable for practical use in monitoring and identifying GM rice.

  4. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  5. Novel probiotics and prebiotics: road to the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Verhagen, Hans; Rowland, Ian; Heimbach, Jim; Bañares, Silvia; Young, Tony; Nomoto, Koji; Lalonde, Mélanie

    2015-04-01

    Novel probiotics and prebiotics designed to manipulate the gut microbiota for improving health outcomes are in demand as the importance of the gut microbiota in human health is revealed. The regulations governing introduction of novel probiotics and prebiotics vary by geographical region. Novel foods and foods with health claims fall under specific regulations in several countries. The paper reviews the main requirements of the regulations in the EU, USA, Canada and Japan. We propose a number of areas that need to be addressed in any safety assessment of novel probiotics and prebiotics. These include publication of the genomic sequence, antibiotic resistance profiling, selection of appropriate in vivo model, toxicological studies (including toxin production) and definition of target population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Consistent relationships between sensory properties of savory snack foods and calories influence food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, S E; Doerflinger, A; Davidson, T L

    2006-11-01

    Determine the influence of experience with consistent or inconsistent relationships between the sensory properties of snack foods and their caloric consequences on the control of food intake or body weight in rats. Rats received plain and BBQ flavored potato chips as a dietary supplement, along with ad lib rat chow. For some rats the potato chips were a consistent source of high fat and high calories (regular potato chips). For other rats, the chips provided high fat and high calories on some occasions (regular potato chips) and provided no digestible fat and fewer calories at other times (light potato chips manufactured with a fat substitute). Thus, animals in the first group were given experiences that the sensory properties of potato chips were strong predictors of high calories, while animals in the second group were given experiences that the sensory properties of potato chips were not predictors of high calories. Juvenile and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following exposure to varying potato chip-calorie contingencies, intake of a novel, high-fat snack food and subsequent chow intake were assessed. Body weight gain and body composition as measured by DEXA were also measured. In juvenile animals, exposure to a consistent relationship between potato chips and calories resulted in reduced chow intake, both when no chips were provided and following consumption of a novel high-fat, high-calorie snack chip. Long-term experience with these contingencies did not affect body weight gain or body composition in juveniles. In adult rats, exposure to an inconsistent relationship between potato chips and calories resulted in increased consumption of a novel high-fat, high-calorie snack chip premeal along with impaired compensation for the calories contained in the premeal. Consumption of foods in which the sensory properties are poor predictors of caloric consequences may alter subsequent food intake.

  7. When does food refusal require professional intervention?

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, Terence M.; Farrow, Claire V.; Martin, Clarissa I.; Isherwood, Elaine; Halford, Jason C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Food refusal can have the potential to lead to nutritional deficiencies, which increases the risk of a variety of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Deciding when food refusal requires professional intervention is complicated by the fact that there is a natural and appropriate stage in a child's development that is characterised by increased levels of rejection of both previously accepted and novel food items. Therefore, choosing to intervene is difficult, which if handled badly can ...

  8. Nanosystems in Edible Coatings: A Novel Strategy for Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Zambrano-Zaragoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. Reducing particle size to nanometric scale gives materials distinct and improved properties compared to larger systems. For food applications, this technology allows the incorporation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can be released during storage periods to increase the shelf life of diverse products, including whole and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and cheese, among others. Edible coatings are usually prepared with natural polymers that are non-toxic, economical, and readily available. Nanosystems, in contrast, may also be prepared with biodegradable synthetic polymers, and liquid and solid lipids at room temperature. In this review, recent developments in the use of such nanosystems as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and nanoemulsions, are discussed critically. The use of polymers as the support matrix for nanodispersions to form edible coatings for food preservation is also analyzed, but the central purpose of the article is to describe available information on nanosystems and their use in different food substrates to help formulators in their work.

  9. Nanosystems in Edible Coatings: A Novel Strategy for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Zaragoza, María L.; González-Reza, Ricardo; Miranda-Linares, Verónica; Bernal-Couoh, Tania F.; Mendoza-Elvira, Susana; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2018-01-01

    Currently, nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. Reducing particle size to nanometric scale gives materials distinct and improved properties compared to larger systems. For food applications, this technology allows the incorporation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can be released during storage periods to increase the shelf life of diverse products, including whole and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and cheese, among others. Edible coatings are usually prepared with natural polymers that are non-toxic, economical, and readily available. Nanosystems, in contrast, may also be prepared with biodegradable synthetic polymers, and liquid and solid lipids at room temperature. In this review, recent developments in the use of such nanosystems as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and nanoemulsions, are discussed critically. The use of polymers as the support matrix for nanodispersions to form edible coatings for food preservation is also analyzed, but the central purpose of the article is to describe available information on nanosystems and their use in different food substrates to help formulators in their work. PMID:29494548

  10. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of a novel process for converting food waste to ethanol and co-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Jacqueline; Babbitt, Callie; Winer, Martin; Hilton, Brian; Williamson, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-fermentation using SSF at ambient temperature has potential as an ethanol pathway. • Bio-refinery GHG emissions are similar to corn and MSW ethanol production processes. • Net production GHG impact is negative with inclusion of waste disposal avoidance. • Food waste diversion from landfills is the largest contributor to GHG benefits. - Abstract: Waste-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to provide renewable transportation fuel while mitigating feedstock risks and land use conflicts. It also has the potential to reduce environmental impacts from waste management such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. This paper analyzes the life cycle GHG emissions associated with a novel process for the conversion of food processing waste into ethanol (EtOH) and the co-products of compost and animal feed. Data are based on a pilot plant co-fermenting retail food waste with a sugary industrial wastewater, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process at room temperature with a grinding pretreatment. The process produced 295 L EtOH/dry t feedstock. Lifecycle GHG emissions associated with the ethanol production process were 1458 gCO 2 e/L EtOH. When the impact of avoided landfill emissions from diverting food waste to use as feedstock are considered, the process results in net negative GHG emissions and approximately 500% improvement relative to corn ethanol or gasoline production. This finding illustrates how feedstock and alternative waste disposal options have important implications in life cycle GHG results for waste-to-energy pathways

  11. Field validation of secondary data sources: a novel measure of representativity applied to a Canadian food outlet database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Christelle M; Kestens, Yan

    2013-06-19

    Validation studies of secondary datasets used to characterize neighborhood food businesses generally evaluate how accurately the database represents the true situation on the ground. Depending on the research objectives, the characterization of the business environment may tolerate some inaccuracies (e.g. minor imprecisions in location or errors in business names). Furthermore, if the number of false negatives (FNs) and false positives (FPs) is balanced within a given area, one could argue that the database still provides a "fair" representation of existing resources in this area. Yet, traditional validation measures do not relax matching criteria, and treat FNs and FPs independently. Through the field validation of food businesses found in a Canadian database, this paper proposes alternative criteria for validity. Field validation of the 2010 Enhanced Points of Interest (EPOI) database (DMTI Spatial®) was performed in 2011 in 12 census tracts (CTs) in Montreal, Canada. Some 410 food outlets were extracted from the database and 484 were observed in the field. First, traditional measures of sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) accounting for every single mismatch between the field and the database were computed. Second, relaxed measures of sensitivity and PPV that tolerate mismatches in business names or slight imprecisions in location were assessed. A novel measure of representativity that further allows for compensation between FNs and FPs within the same business category and area was proposed. Representativity was computed at CT level as ((TPs +|FPs-FNs|)/(TPs+FNs)), with TPs meaning true positives, and |FPs-FNs| being the absolute value of the difference between the number of FNs and the number of FPs within each outlet category. The EPOI database had a "moderate" capacity to detect an outlet present in the field (sensitivity: 54.5%) or to list only the outlets that actually existed in the field (PPV: 64.4%). Relaxed measures of sensitivity and PPV

  12. Food Engineering at Multiple Scales: Case Studies, Challenges and the Future—A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Y.; Fryer, P.J.; Knorr, D.; Schuchmann, H.P.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Trystram, G.; Windhab, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    A selection of Food Engineering research including food structure engineering, novel emulsification processes, liquid and dry fractionation, Food Engineering challenges and research with comments on European Food Engineering education is covered. Food structure engineering is discussed by using

  13. DNA microarray technology in nutraceutical and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Stratton, Yiwen; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K

    2004-04-15

    The quality and quantity of diet is a key determinant of health and disease. Molecular diagnostics may play a key role in food safety related to genetically modified foods, food-borne pathogens and novel nutraceuticals. Functional outcomes in biology are determined, for the most part, by net balance between sets of genes related to the specific outcome in question. The DNA microarray technology offers a new dimension of strength in molecular diagnostics by permitting the simultaneous analysis of large sets of genes. Automation of assay and novel bioinformatics tools make DNA microarrays a robust technology for diagnostics. Since its development a few years ago, this technology has been used for the applications of toxicogenomics, pharmacogenomics, cell biology, and clinical investigations addressing the prevention and intervention of diseases. Optimization of this technology to specifically address food safety is a vast resource that remains to be mined. Efforts to develop diagnostic custom arrays and simplified bioinformatics tools for field use are warranted.

  14. Multiphase porous media modelling: A novel approach to predicting food processing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Imran H; Joardder, M U H; Kumar, Chandan; Karim, M A

    2018-03-04

    The development of a physics-based model of food processing is essential to improve the quality of processed food and optimize energy consumption. Food materials, particularly plant-based food materials, are complex in nature as they are porous and have hygroscopic properties. A multiphase porous media model for simultaneous heat and mass transfer can provide a realistic understanding of transport processes and thus can help to optimize energy consumption and improve food quality. Although the development of a multiphase porous media model for food processing is a challenging task because of its complexity, many researchers have attempted it. The primary aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the multiphase models available in the literature for different methods of food processing, such as drying, frying, cooking, baking, heating, and roasting. A critical review of the parameters that should be considered for multiphase modelling is presented which includes input parameters, material properties, simulation techniques and the hypotheses. A discussion on the general trends in outcomes, such as moisture saturation, temperature profile, pressure variation, and evaporation patterns, is also presented. The paper concludes by considering key issues in the existing multiphase models and future directions for development of multiphase models.

  15. Evidence of a role for GABA in benzodiazepine effects on food preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, H M; Green, S E

    1981-01-01

    It has previously been shown that chronic treatment with the GABA-transaminase inhibitor ethanolamine-O-sulphate (EOS), which elevates brain GABA levels by around 200%, selectivity enhances novel food consumption in rats treated with chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and given a food preference test. To replicate and extend these findings, the effects of two doses of CDP with and without EOS pretreatment were compared with those of EOS or saline alone. EOS alone had no significant effects except to decrease eating rate but, in combination with 2.5 mg/kg CDP, it antagonised the increase in weight of familiar food eaten found with CDP alone and marginally increased weight eaten and duration of novel foot eating episodes. EOS magnified the effects of 5.0 mg/kg CDP to increase markedly the weight eaten and duration of episodes for novel chocolate drops. As no additive effects of EOS and CDP on rate of eating were found, the results are consistent with a facilitation of novel food consumption by an anxiolytic action of the two drugs, rather than by a rate-retarding action which might bias animals toward novel food. Finally, that EOS alone did not mimic the effects of CDP suggests that the role of GABA in the anxiolytic action of CDP may be indirect.

  16. Development and Psychometric Testing of a Novel Food Service Satisfaction Questionnaire for Food Service Staff of Aged Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Hamilton, J; Scupham, R; Matwiejczyk, L; Prichard, I; Farrer, O; Yaxley, A

    2018-01-01

    Food service staff are integral to delivery of quality food in aged care homes yet measurement of their satisfaction is unable to be performed due to an absence of a valid and reliable questionnaire. The aim of this study was to develop and perform psychometric testing for a new Food Service Satisfaction Questionnaire developed in Australia specifically for use by food service staff working in residential aged care homes (Flinders FSSQFSAC). A mixed methods design utilizing both a qualitative (in-depth interviews, focus groups) and a quantitative approach (cross sectional survey) was used. Content validity was determined from focus groups and interviews with food service staff currently working in aged care homes, related questionnaires from the literature and consultation with an expert panel. The questionnaire was tested for construct validity and internal consistency using data from food service staff currently working in aged care homes that responded to an electronic invitation circulated to Australian aged care homes using a national database of email addresses. Construct validity was tested via principle components analysis and internal consistency through Cronbach's alpha. Temporal stability of the questionnaire was determined from food service staff undertaking the Flinders FSSQFSAC on two occasions, two weeks apart, and analysed using Pearson's correlations. Content validity for the Flinders FSSQFSAC was established from a panel of experts and stakeholders. Principle components analysis revealed food service staff satisfaction was represented by 61-items divided into eight domains: job satisfaction (α=0.832), food quality (α=0.871), staff training (α=0.922), consultation (α=0.840), eating environment (α=0.777), reliability (α=0.695), family expectations (α=0.781) and resident relationships (α=0.429), establishing construct validity in all domains, and internal consistency in all (α>0.5) except for "resident relationships" (α=0.429). Test

  17. The impact of junk food marketing regulations on food sales: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovic, Y; Noel, J K; Ungemack, J A; Burleson, J A

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of junk food broadcast marketing policies on nationwide junk food sales and identify policy characteristics effective in reducing sales. Country policy data (n = 79) were categorized in a thorough literature review and analysed using a repeated measures design against data on food sales per capita. Study conducted in United States, 2017. Countries with junk food broadcast marketing policies saw a decrease in junk food sales per capita after implementation, while those without said policies saw an increase (p = 0.013). Countries with statutory policies saw a decrease in sales per capita, while those with only self-regulation saw an increase (p = 0.004). Audience restrictions (p = 0.024) and standardized nutrition criteria (p = 0.008) were policy characteristics significantly associated with a decrease in sales per capita. Utilizing a novel approach to evaluate junk food broadcast marketing policies, the study demonstrated that countries with statutory policies saw a significant decrease in junk food sales per capita not seen in countries with no or only self-regulatory policies. To effectively reduce exposure to child-targeted junk food marketing, governments should establish strong, comprehensive statutory regulations. Additionally, countries that implement junk food marketing policies can use food sales data to track policy effectiveness. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Food choice in the laboratory pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Traci; Garlick, Dennis; Blaisdell, Aaron P

    2012-09-01

    Although food reward plays a large role in learning and behavioral experiments, there have been few studies examining the most motivating food reward for pigeons. Brown (1969) found that pigeons had a tendency to prefer peas, while Killeen et al. (1993) found pigeons to prefer peas and popcorn in Experiment 1A. We looked to further explore these options as well as expand upon the types of foods examined beyond mainly grains and seeds. Pigeons were presented with six novel foods (granulated peanuts, popping corn, freeze-dried mealworms, bread crumbs, split peas, and sunflower hearts) allocated into two sets of three food items. Once the most consumed food from each food set was determined, they were pooled together with sorghum seeds (a familiar food) to form a third set. Sunflower hearts were the most consumed of all the food items, followed by corn and granulated peanuts. We discuss the potential factors mediating consumption choice, including nutritional profile and food particle size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of novel adsorbents for radiostrontium reduction in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puziy, A.M.; Bengtsson, G.B.; Hansen, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Distribution coefficients, pH dependence, isotherms, kinetics and breakthrough curves of Sr binding have been measured on several types of adsorbents (carbons modified with titanium silicate, crystalline titanium silicate, mixed titanium-manganese oxide, and synthetic zeolites A4 and P) from different water solutions. It is concluded that acid-base properties of the adsorbent is very important for Sr binding. Titanium silicate based adsorbents had reduced chemical stability in an artificial food fluid below pH 2, the mixed titanium manganese oxide below pH 6, zeolite A4 below pH 5 and zeolite P below pH 7. Consideration is given to the feasibility of the adsorbents for food decontamination. (author)

  20. Characterization of antimicrobial properties on the growth of S. aureus of novel renewable blends of gliadins and chitosan of interest in food packaging and coating applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Saiz, P; Lagaron, J M; Hernandez-Muñoz, P; Ocio, M J

    2008-05-10

    The biocide properties of chitosan-based materials have been known for many years. However, typical antimicrobial formulations of chitosan, mostly chitosonium salts, are known to be very water sensitive materials which may impair their use in many application fields such as food packaging or food coating applications. This first work reports on the development and characterization of the antimicrobial properties of novel fully renewable blends of chitosan with more water-resistant gliadin proteins isolated from wheat gluten. Chitosan release to the nutrient broth from a wide range of blends was studied making use of the ninhydrin method. The results indicated that both pure chitosan and its blends with gliadins presented significant antimicrobial activity, which increased with increasing the amount of chitosan in the composite formulation as expected. The gliadins-chitosan blends showed good transparency and film-forming properties and better water resistance than pure chitosan. The release tests revealed that dissolution of the biocide glucosamine groups, i.e. the chitosan water soluble fractions, also increased with the amount of chitosan present in the formulation. The release of these groups was for the first time directly correlated with the antimicrobial properties exhibited by the blends. Thus, incorporation of chitosan into an insoluble biopolymer matrix was revealed as a very feasible strategy to generate novel chitosan-based antimicrobial materials with potential advantages, for instance active food packaging applications.

  1. Using Power Ultrasound to Accelerate Food Freezing Processes: Effects on Freezing Efficiency and Food Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peizhi; Zhu, Zhiwei; Sun, Da-Wen

    2018-05-31

    Freezing is an effective way of food preservation. However, traditional freezing methods have the disadvantages of low freezing efficiency and generation of large ice crystals, leading to possible damage of food quality. Power ultrasound assisted freezing as a novel technique can effectively reduce the adverse effects during freezing process. This paper gives an overview on recent researches of power ultrasound technique to accelerate the food freezing processes and illustrates the main principles of power ultrasound assisted freezing. The effects of power ultrasound on liquid food, model solid food as well as fruit and vegetables are discussed, respectively, from the aspects of increasing freezing rate and improving microstructure. It is shown that ultrasound assisted freezing can effectively improve the freezing efficiency and promote the formation of small and evenly distributed ice crystals, resulting in better food quality. Different inherent properties of food samples affect the effectiveness of ultrasound application and optimum ultrasound parameters depend on the nature of the samples. The application of ultrasound to the food industry is more likely on certain types of food products and more efforts are still needed to realize the industrial translation of laboratory results.

  2. Developing a molecular roadmap of drug-food interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Jensen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that consumption of food -especially fruits and vegetables- can alter the effects of drugs by interfering either with their pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic processes. Despite the recognition of such drug-food associations as an important element for successful therapeutic interventions, a systematic approach for identifying, predicting and preventing potential interactions between food and marketed or novel drugs is not yet available. The overall objective of this work was to sketch a comprehensive picture of the interference of ∼ 4,000 dietary components present in ∼1800 plant-based foods with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics processes of medicine, with the purpose of elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved. By employing a systems chemical biology approach that integrates data from the scientific literature and online databases, we gained a global view of the associations between diet and dietary molecules with drug targets, metabolic enzymes, drug transporters and carriers currently deposited in DrugBank. Moreover, we identified disease areas and drug targets that are most prone to the negative effects of drug-food interactions, showcasing a platform for making recommendations in relation to foods that should be avoided under certain medications. Lastly, by investigating the correlation of gene expression signatures of foods and drugs we were able to generate a completely novel drug-diet interactome map.

  3. A novel strategy with standardized reference extract qualification and single compound quantitative evaluation for quality control of Panax notoginseng used as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J

    2013-10-25

    Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functional food. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20 min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanostructured bioactive polymers used in food-packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, Andreea L; Dimov, Tatiana V; Grumezescu, Alexandru M; Gestal, Monica C; Chifiriuc, Mariana C

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective packaging materials is crucial, because food microorganisms determine economic and public health issues. The current paper describes some of the most recent findings in regards of food preservation through novel packaging methods, using biodegradable polymers, efficient antimicrobial agents and nanocomposites with improved mechanical and oxidation stability, increased biodegradability and barrier effect comparatively with conventional polymeric matrices.

  5. Measurement of Food Safety Culture using Survey and Maturity Profiling Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen, Lone; Griffiths, Mansel; Maclaurin, Tanya; Chapman, Ben; Wallace, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture is defined by dimensions and characteristics that can be used to measure food safety culture in food manufacturing through a food safety maturity model. Maturity models from quality, health care, and information technology have been used since early 1970 and this work presents a novel food safety culture maturity model with five capability areas and food safety pinpointed behaviours specific to functions and levels in a food manufacturing company. A survey tool linked t...

  6. Fiber Based Mid Infrared Supercontinuum Source for Spectroscopic Analysis in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Keiding, Søren Rud

    Optimization of sustainable food production is a worldwide challenge that is undergoing continuous development as new technologies emerge. Applying solutions for food analysis with novel bright and broad mid-infrared (MIR) light sources has the potential to meet the increasing demands for food...

  7. Developing a framework of gastronomic systems research to unravel drivers of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Rosa Paula; de Guia, Annalyn; Demont, Matty

    2017-10-01

    Nutritional and dietary interventions and the introduction of novel food products and ingredients require a thorough understanding of the drivers of food choice, which are embedded in local context and culture. We developed a framework of "gastronomic systems research" (GSR) to understand culture-specific consumer food choice, and contextualise it to a target population of urban, middle- to high-income Filipino consumers to assess the domestic niche market potential of traditional rice varieties in the Philippines. The GSR framework was contextualised through expert elicitation involving chefs and nutritionists, and validated through a consumer survey conducted during a food exposition. Using the GSR framework, we determined indicative rice consumption patterns of the target population and the specific rice quality attributes they require for specific rice-based dishes and rice consumption occasions. The GSR framework also reveals possible entry points for nutritional and dietary interventions and the introduction of novel food products and ingredients. The GSR framework, therefore, has the potential to aid policymakers and food value chain stakeholders in designing culture-sensitive and context-appropriate interventions not only to help consumers improve their diets, but also to help farmers access niche markets for novel food products and ingredients and thereby improve their livelihoods and preserve cultural heritage.

  8. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  9. Food Allergy: What We Know Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lindsey E; Stewart, Patricia H; deShazo, Richard D

    2017-04-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune reaction that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food. Prevalence rates of food allergy continue to increase worldwide, sparking continual research efforts in finding a suitable and safe cure. Food avoidance, the current standard of care, can be difficult to achieve. This review aims to provide a broad overview of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy, highlighting its epidemiology, masqueraders, immunopathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up and available preventative and treatment strategies. This review also discusses novel, investigative therapies that offer promising therapeutic options, yet require continued research efforts to determine safety effects. Inducing tolerance, whether by immunotherapy or by the administration of monoclonal antibodies, allows us to move toward a cure for food allergy, which could vastly change this field of allergic diseases in the coming decades. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complex social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Daros, R R; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2014-12-01

    Animals are often reluctant to consume novel feeds. Research suggests that social housing can reduce fearfulness in animals. The aim of this study was to test the prediction that social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves. Beginning immediately at birth, Holstein bull calves were either reared individually (n=18) or in a complex social group with other calves and cows (n=18). In food neophobia tests, calves were exposed to 2 identical buckets, one empty and the other filled with a novel food (chopped hay in trial 1 and chopped carrots in trial 2). Calves were tested for 30 min/d on 3 consecutive days starting at 70 d of age. Regardless of the type of food, socially housed calves consumed more of the novel feed compared with individually housed calves. In trial 1, intake of hay as fed averaged 35 ± 6 versus 18 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves. In trial 2, intake of chopped carrots as fed averaged 27 ± 6 versus 6 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves, respectively. Social rearing decreased the latency to eat the novel feed. Calves housed in a complex social group began eating the hay after 1:23 ± 1:13 versus 3:58 ± 1:10 min:s for individually housed calves. Latency to begin eating the chopped carrots averaged 3:09 ± 1:17 versus 6:38 ± 1:13 min:s for socially versus individually housed calves. Treatment had no effect on time spent eating, latency to approach the food bucket or the empty bucket in either trial, or on time spent manipulating the empty bucket. These results indicate that housing dairy calves in a complex social group reduces food neophobia. More generally, this study contributes to a series of studies showing that calves raised in more complex social environments may be better able to transition to other changes in their environment. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumers’ perceptions of HPP and PEF food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Mette Sonne; Grunert, Klaus G; Olsen, Nina V.

    2012-01-01

    for their future success. It is up to food producers and food scientists to provide the evidence that will convince consumers that these new technologies are safe to use. Originality/value – This research contributes to the limited knowledge on consumer attitudes towards food products produced by HPP and PEF. From...... consequences with product attributes related to the nutritional value and the taste of the products produced by means of these novel technologies. Also the environmental benefits from processing foods by applying these technologies were seen as highly positive characteristics of the technologies. However, many...... a general perspective, the research expands the body of knowledge on consumer perception of food technologies....

  12. Food additives and their health implications on children in Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food additives and their health implications on children in Africa: a systematic review. ... Research Journal of Health Sciences ... at which many food industries turn out novel 'chemicals' aimed at increasing the acceptability of their products.

  13. Pink slimed: Media framing of novel food technologies and risk related to ground beef and processed foods in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Kristin K; Chung, Jennifer H; Su, Leona Yi-Fan; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2018-09-01

    In March 2012 ABC World News Report aired a series of reports on lean finely textured beef (LFTB) that resulted in a 10-year low for beef prices and the bankruptcy of a major firm that produced LFTB. Using a random sample survey, we tested the effects of the media frame "pink slime" and industry frame "lean finely textured beef," alongside media use, food-related knowledge, trust in food-related institutions and preference for local, fresh, organic and GMO-free foods on perceptions of risk related to ground beef containing pink slime/LFTB, processed foods and red meat. The "pink slime" frame was strongly and positively associated with risk related to ground beef, but not risk related to red meat or processed foods. Attention to news stories about pink slime/LFTB was strongly associated with risk related to ground beef and processed foods, but not red meat. We found varying effects of food values, knowledge and trust on all three dependent variables. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phage therapy in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersen, Lorraine; O'Mahony, Jim; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia; Coffey, Aidan

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in modern technologies, the food industry is continuously challenged with the threat of microbial contamination. The overuse of antibiotics has further escalated this problem, resulting in the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens. Efforts to develop new methods for controlling microbial contamination in food and the food processing environment are extremely important. Accordingly, bacteriophages (phages) and their derivatives have emerged as novel, viable, and safe options for the prevention, treatment, and/or eradication of these contaminants in a range of foods and food processing environments. Whole phages, modified phages, and their derivatives are discussed in terms of current uses and future potential as antimicrobials in the traditional farm-to-fork context, encompassing areas such as primary production, postharvest processing, biosanitation, and biodetection. The review also presents some safety concerns to ensure safe and effective exploitation of bacteriophages in the future.

  15. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  16. Community food webs data and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Joel E; Newman, Charles M

    1990-01-01

    Food webs hold a central place in ecology. They describe which organisms feed on which others in natural habitats. This book describes recently discovered empirical regularities in real food webs: it proposes a novel theory unifying many of these regularities, as well as extensive empirical data. After a general introduction, reviewing the empirical and theoretical discoveries about food webs, the second portion of the book shows that community food webs obey several striking phenomenological regularities. Some of these unify, regardless of habitat. Others differentiate, showing that habitat significantly influences structure. The third portion of the book presents a theoretical analysis of some of the unifying empirical regularities. The fourth portion of the book presents 13 community food webs. Collected from scattered sources and carefully edited, they are the empirical basis for the results in the volume. The largest available set of data on community food webs provides a valuable foundation for future s...

  17. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  18. Landmarks in the historical development of twenty first century food processing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, N N; Koubaa, Mohamed; Roohinejad, Shahin; Juliano, Pablo; Alpas, Hami; Inácio, Rita S; Saraiva, Jorge A; Barba, Francisco J

    2017-07-01

    Over a course of centuries, various food processing technologies have been explored and implemented to provide safe, fresher-tasting and nutritive food products. Among these technologies, application of emerging food processes (e.g., cold plasma, pressurized fluids, pulsed electric fields, ohmic heating, radiofrequency electric fields, ultrasonics and megasonics, high hydrostatic pressure, high pressure homogenization, hyperbaric storage, and negative pressure cavitation extraction) have attracted much attention in the past decades. This is because, compared to their conventional counterparts, novel food processes allow a significant reduction in the overall processing times with savings in energy consumption, while ensuring food safety, and ample benefits for the industry. Noteworthily, industry and university teams have made extensive efforts for the development of novel technologies, with sound scientific knowledge of their effects on different food materials. The main objective of this review is to provide a historical account of the extensive efforts and inventions in the field of emerging food processing technologies since their inception to present day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. On-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography: A novel approach for the analysis of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Birgit; Wocheslander, Stefan; Lander, Vera; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-05-29

    A novel methodology for the automated qualitative and quantitative determination of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods via on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography (LC-GC) was established. The approach is based on the LC pre-separation of acetylated phytosterols and their corresponding oxides using silica as stationary phase and a mixture of n-hexane/methyl tert-butyl ether/isopropanol as eluent. Two LC-fractions containing (i) 5,6-epoxy- and 7-hydroxyphytosterols, and (ii) 7-ketophytosterols are transferred on-line to the GC for the analysis of their individual compositions on a medium polar trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane capillary column. Thus, conventionally employed laborious off-line purification and enrichment steps can be avoided. Validation data, including recovery, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method, were elaborated using an enriched margarine as example. The margarine was subjected to a heating procedure in order to exemplarily monitor the formation of phytosterol oxidation products. Quantification was performed using on-line LC-GC-FID, identification of the analytes was based on on-line LC-GC-MS. The developed approach offers a new possibility for the reliable and fast analysis of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Centre for Food Innovation -- Research Areas and Potential Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    barley, and rice  frozen red meat (beef, veal, lamb)  processed foods, particularly baby food, wine and beer  fruit juice UNCLASSIFIED 3...support gut health ( probiotics /prebiotics/bacteriocins), development of snack products (bars, FD fruit, HPP fruit, FD yoghurt etc.), novel ingredients

  1. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... to which they are likely to buy products with particular functional properties. Various cross-cultural and demographic differences in acceptance found in the literature are reviewed, as well as barriers to dietary change. In conclusion, it is argued that understanding consumer's risk perceptions...

  2. Outstanding animal studies in allergy I. From asthma to food allergy and anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Roth-Walter, Franziska

    2017-06-01

    Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results. Instead of model antigens, gradually relevant allergens such as house dust mite in asthma, and food allergens like peanut, apple and peach in food allergy research were used. Novel engineered mouse models such as a mouse with a T-cell receptor for house dust mite allergen Der p 1, or with transgenic human hFcγR genes, facilitated the investigation of single molecules of interest. Whole-body plethysmography has become a state-of-the-art in-vivo readout in asthma research. In food allergy and anaphylaxis research, novel techniques were developed allowing real-time monitoring of in-vivo effects following allergen challenge. Networks to share tissues were established as an effort to reduce animal experiments in allergy which cannot be replaced by in-vitro measures. Natural and artificial animal models were used to explore the pathophysiology of asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis and to improve prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Especially the novel mouse models mimicking molecular aspects of the complex immune network in asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis will facilitate proof-of-concept studies under controlled conditions.

  3. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental approaches to predict allergenic potential of novel food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    2013-01-01

    ’t know under what circumstances oral tolerance develops. With all these unanswered questions, it is a big challenge to designan animal model that, with relatively few animals, is able to predict if a food protein is a potential allergen. An even larger challenge is to predict its potency, a prerequisite...... for risk evaluation.Attempts have been made to rank proteins according to their allergenic potency based on the magnitude of the IgE response in experimental animals. This ranking has not included abundance as a parameter. We may be able to predict potential allergenicity i.e. hazard but our lack......There are many unanswered questions relating to food allergy sensitization in humans. We don’t know under what circumstances sensitization takes place i.e. route (oral, dermal, respiratory), age, dose, frequencyof exposure, infection or by-stander effect of other allergens. In addition we don...

  5. A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, H; Hamada, H; Tsushima, H; Mihara, H; Muraki, H

    1987-10-15

    A strong fibrinolytic activity was demonstrated in the vegetable cheese Natto, which is a typical soybean food eaten in Japan. The average activity was calculated at about 40 CU (plasmin units)/g wet weight. This novel fibrinolytic enzyme, named nattokinase, was easily extracted with saline. The mol. wt and pI were about 20,000 and 8.6, respectively. Nattokinase not only digested fibrin but also the plasmin substrate H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA (S-2251), which was more sensitive to the enzyme than other substrates tried. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate and 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl-o,o-dimethylphosphate strongly inhibited this fibrinolytic enzyme.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of novel lipidated neuromedin U analogs with increased stability and effects on food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Louise S.; Pedersen, Søren L.; van Witteloostuijn, Søren Blok

    2015-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a 25 amino acid peptide expressed and secreted in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. Data have shown that peripheral administration of human NMU decreases food intake and body weight and improves glucose tolerance in mice, suggesting that NMU receptors constitute a possible...... anti-diabetic and anti-obesity drug target. However, the clinical use of native NMU is hampered by a poor pharmacokinetic profile. In the current study, we report in vitro and in vivo data from a series of novel lipidated NMU analogs. In vitro plasma stability studies of native NMU were performed...... was investigated using a human embryonic kidney 293-based inositol phosphate accumulation assay. All lipidated analogs had preserved in vitro activity on both NMU receptors with potency improving as the lipidation site was moved away from the receptor-interacting C-terminal octapeptide segment. In vivo efficacy...

  7. Food web framework for size-structured populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Martin; Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    . Parameter values are determined from cross-species analysis of fish communities as life-history omnivory is widespread in aquatic systems, but may be reparameterised for other systems. An ensemble of food webs is generated and the resulting communities are analysed at four levels of organisation: community......We synthesise traditional unstructured food webs, allometric body size scaling, trait-based modelling, and physiologically structured modelling to provide a novel and ecologically relevant tool for size-structured food webs. The framework allows food web models to include ontogenetic growth...... level, species level, trait level, and individual level. The model may be solved analytically by assuming that the community spectrum follows a power law. The analytical solution provides a baseline expectation of the results of complex food web simulations, and agrees well with the predictions...

  8. Consumer-led development of novel sea buckthorn-based beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Julie; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene; Giacalone, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In the context of a growing interest toward foods of local origin, this research explored consumer perceptions of novel sea-buckthorn-based beverages (SBBs), developed by combining sea-buckthorn (hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries in combination with other locally sourced ingredients. Specifically...... characteristics were the most important drivers of consumer preferences within this product category. Practical Applications This study offers new insights into consumers’ perception of novel food products of local origin. A key issue with such ingredients is that they have unique sensory properties which...... are unfamiliar to many consumers. We suggest evidence-based directions for product development and identify potential barriers to adoption that food producers should be aware of. Methodologically, this study shows a stepwise approach to consumer-driven product development that effectively differentiated between...

  9. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there are emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. Therefore, the safety concerns and regulatory policies on its manufacturing, processing, packaging, and consumption are briefly addressed. At the end of this article, the perspectives of nanotechnology in active and intelligent packaging applications are highlighted.

  10. Food Allergy: Review, Classification and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cianferoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies, defined as an immune response to food proteins, affect as many as 8% of young children and 2% of adults in westernized countries, and their prevalence appears to be rising like all allergic diseases. In addition to well-recognized urticaria and anaphylaxis triggered by IgE antibody-mediated immune responses, there is an increasing recognition of cell-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic esophagitis and food protein-induced enterocolitis. New knowledge is being developed on the pathogenesis of both IgE and non-IgE mediated disease. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and initiating therapy if ingestion occurs. However, novel strategies are being studied, including sublingual/oral immunotherapy and others with a hope for future.

  11. Food allergen analysis for processed food using a novel extraction method to eliminate harmful reagents for both ELISA and lateral-flow tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Oyama, Yuriko; Tsuruma, Rieko; Saito, Eriko; Saito, Yoshikazu; Ozu, Takeshi; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakai, Shinobu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Shoji, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used to determine food allergens in food products. However, a significant number of ELISAs give an erroneous result, especially when applied to highly processed food. Accordingly, an improved ELISA, which utilizes an extraction solution comprising the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and reductant 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), has been specially developed to analyze food allergens in highly processed food by enhancing analyte protein extraction. Recently, however, the use of 2-ME has become undesirable. In the present study, a new extraction solution containing a human- and eco-friendly reductant, which is convenient to use at the food manufacturing site, has been established. Among three chemicals with different reducing properties, sodium sulfite, tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine, and mercaptoethylamine sodium sulfite was selected as a 2-ME substitute. The protein extraction ability of SDS/0.1 M sodium sulfite solution was comparable to that of SDS/2-ME solution. Next, the ELISA performance for egg, milk, wheat, peanut, and buckwheat was evaluated by using model-processed foods and commercially available food products. The data showed that the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA significantly correlated with the SDS/2-ME ELISA for all food allergens examined (p analysis of food allergens in processed food, showing consistency with the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA results. Accordingly, a harmonized analysis system for processed food comprising a screening LF test and a quantitative ELISA with identical extraction solution has been established. The ELISA based on the SDS/0.1 M sulfite extraction solution has now been authorized as the revised official method for food allergen analysis in Japan.

  12. The food metabolome: a window over dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalbert, Augustin; Brennan, Lorraine; Manach, Claudine; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Dragsted, Lars O; Draper, John; Rappaport, Stephen M; van der Hooft, Justin J J; Wishart, David S

    2014-06-01

    The food metabolome is defined as the part of the human metabolome directly derived from the digestion and biotransformation of foods and their constituents. With >25,000 compounds known in various foods, the food metabolome is extremely complex, with a composition varying widely according to the diet. By its very nature it represents a considerable and still largely unexploited source of novel dietary biomarkers that could be used to measure dietary exposures with a high level of detail and precision. Most dietary biomarkers currently have been identified on the basis of our knowledge of food compositions by using hypothesis-driven approaches. However, the rapid development of metabolomics resulting from the development of highly sensitive modern analytic instruments, the availability of metabolite databases, and progress in (bio)informatics has made agnostic approaches more attractive as shown by the recent identification of novel biomarkers of intakes for fruit, vegetables, beverages, meats, or complex diets. Moreover, examples also show how the scrutiny of the food metabolome can lead to the discovery of bioactive molecules and dietary factors associated with diseases. However, researchers still face hurdles, which slow progress and need to be resolved to bring this emerging field of research to maturity. These limits were discussed during the First International Workshop on the Food Metabolome held in Glasgow. Key recommendations made during the workshop included more coordination of efforts; development of new databases, software tools, and chemical libraries for the food metabolome; and shared repositories of metabolomic data. Once achieved, major progress can be expected toward a better understanding of the complex interactions between diet and human health. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Minimally Processed Functional Foods: Technological and Operational Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    This paper offers a concise review of technical and operational concepts underpinning commercialization of minimally processed functional foods (FFs), foods with fresh-like qualities commanding premium prices. The growing number of permitted nutritional content/health claims, many of which relate to well-being, coupled with emerging extraction and food processing technologies offers new exciting opportunities for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) specializing in fresh produce to play an active role in the health market. Supporting SMEs, governments could benefit from savings in healthcare costs and value creation in the economy. Consumers could benefit from novel FF formats such as refrigerated RTE (ready-to-eat) meals, a variety of fresh-like meat-, fish-, and egg-based products, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, cereal-based fermented foods and beverages. To preserve these valuable commodities, mild biological (enzymatic treatment, fermentation and, bio-preservation) and engineering solutions are needed. The latter include nonthermal techniques such as high-pressure treatment, cook-chill, sous-vide, mirco-encapsulation, vacuum impregnation and others. "De-constructive" culinary techniques such as 3D food printing and molecular gastronomy as well as developments in nutrigenomics and digital technologies facilitate novel product formats, personalization and access to niche markets. In the operational sense, moving from nourishment to health improvement demands a shift from defensive market-oriented to offensive market-developing strategies including collaborative networks with research organizations. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. DIGESTIBILITY AND ORAL TOLERANCE IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish allergens from non-allergens when exposed to foods orally, both in terms of oral tolerance and allergic antibody ...

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of “ r apeseed protein isolate ” as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    is an aqueous extract with at least 90 % protein, isolated from rapeseed press cake originating from so-called canola varieties. The applicant intends to market the NF for the same food products, at similar concentrations and for corresponding purposes, as soy protein isolates. Total protein intake of "heavy......, appears to be similar. The Panel notes the source and nature of the novel food, the absence of a nutritional disadvantage at the proposed uses and use levels, the low concentrations of potentially adverse components in the NF, and the absence of toxicologically relevant effects in subchronic studies...

  16. Foreign object detection in multispectral X-ray images of food items using sparse discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsson, Gudmundur; Jensen, Janus Nørtoft; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive food inspection and quality assurance are becoming viable techniques in food production due to the introduction of fast and accessible multispectral X-ray scanners. However, the novel devices produce massive amount of data and there is a need for fast and accurate algorithms for proc......Non-invasive food inspection and quality assurance are becoming viable techniques in food production due to the introduction of fast and accessible multispectral X-ray scanners. However, the novel devices produce massive amount of data and there is a need for fast and accurate algorithms...... computational properties, which allows for fast classification of items in new images....

  17. Co-encapsulation of curcumin and resveratrol into novel nutraceutical hyalurosomes nano-food delivery system based on oligo-hyaluronic acid-curcumin polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunjing; Yin, Jungang; Chen, Daquan

    2018-02-01

    In this work, in order to enhance the stability, bioavailability and antioxidant activity of insoluble antioxidants used into juice, yoghourt and nutritional supplements, the oligo-hyalurosomes nano-delivery system (CRHs) based on oligo-hyaluronic acid -curcumin (oHC) polymer loaded curcumin(Cur) and resveratrol (Res) was fabricated with new nanotechnolgy. The rosy biodegradable amphiphilic oHC polymer was successfully synthesized and used to fabricate the hyalurosomes containing both Cur and Res, called CRHs. The CRHs can spontaneously self-assemble into nano-sized spherical shape of average particle size 134.5±5.1nm and Zeta potential -29.4±1.2 at pH 7.4 PBS conditions. In vitro gastrointestinal release test showed a perfect stability and outstanding sustained release character. Moreover, compared to the single formulations and liposomes, CRHs showed a dose-dependent manner with a higher radical scavenging activity. Therefore, the novel CRHs nano-food manifested the hopeful properties for the new effective gastrointestinal formulation and promising new nano-food delivery system in the use of juice, yoghourt and nutritional supplements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Marketability of food supplements - criteria for the legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitweg-Lehmann, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart. All vitamins, minerals and other substances used have to meet the legal conditions. Food business operators have to make sure that their products do not contain medicinal ingredients based on their pharmacologic effect. It is prohibited to place medicinal products as food supplements on the market. Furthermore, food business operators have to make sure that their products are not non-authorized novel foods according to the novel food regulation (EC) no. 258/97. Also, food supplements have to meet the requirements of article 14 of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 concerning the safety of foodstuff. Food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. For food supplements that fail the German food-related legal standards but are legally manufactured in another EU member state or are legally put into circulation, the importer requires the so-called general disposition, which must be applied for at the BVL according to § 54 of the German Food and Feed Act. Another possibility for food which fails to meet German food law is to apply for a certificate of exemption according to § 68 of the Food and Feed Act. The food business operator has to meet the harmonized regulations concerning maximum and minimum levels of additives, flavors and enzymes. The packaging has to meet the compulsory labeling as well the voluntary labeling, like health claims. The BVL is also the relevant authority for other tasks concerning food supplements. A figure shows all

  19. Use of Novel High-Protein Functional Food Products as Part of a Calorie-Restricted Diet to Reduce Insulin Resistance and Increase Lean Body Mass in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. Johnston

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions in insulin resistance (IR can be achieved by either calorie restriction or by the increase of lean mass. However, calorie restriction usually results in significant loss of lean mass. A 6-week randomized controlled feeding trial was conducted to determine if a calorie-restricted, high-protein diet (~125 g protein/day consumed evenly throughout the day using novel functional foods would be more successful for reducing IR in comparison to a conventional diet (~80 g protein/day with a similar level of calorie restriction. Healthy adults (age 20–75 years; body mass index, 20–42 kg/m2 with raised triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratios were randomly assigned to the control group (CON: test foods prepared using gluten-free commercial pasta and cereal or to the high-protein group (HPR: test foods prepared using novel high-protein pasta and cereal both rich in wheat gluten. Mean weight loss did not differ between groups (−2.7 ± 2.6 and −3.2 ± 3.0 kg for CON (n = 11 and HPR (n = 10 respectively, p = 0.801; however, the 6-week change in fat-free mass (FFM differed significantly between groups (−0.5 ± 1.5 and +1.5 ± 3.8 kg for CON and HPR respectively, p = 0.008. IR improved in HPR vs. CON participants (homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance [HOMAIR] change: −1.7 ± 1.4 and −0.7 ± 0.7 respectively; p = 0.020. The change in HOMA-IR was related to the change in FFM among participants (r = −0.511, p = 0.021. Thus, a high-protein diet using novel functional foods combined with modest calorie restriction was 140% more effective for reducing HOMA-IR in healthy adults compared to a lower protein, standard diet with an equal level of calorie restriction.

  20. Development of microbial biosensors for food analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasiak, Justyna

    in order to fulfill the needs of different fields, from environmental sciences to food industry. Moreover, they can be an answer for the need of novel, less expensive and environmentally neutral methods of analysis particularly in food ingredients assessment. The aim of this PhD thesis was to develop...... heteropolysaccharide commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent and food stabilizer. The chemical analysis of the pectin carbohydrate composition is a significant issue during the study of its function and properties. Arabinoxylan is one of the main non-starch polysaccharide derived from the cell wall of cereal...... grains. It is a dietary fiber, with potential as a functional food ingredient. In this study, reporter strains targeting specifically L-rhamnose, L-arabinose and Dxylose using three different signal transducers: bioluminescence (luxCDABE), fluorescence (gfp) and ice nucleation (inaZ) were developed...

  1. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojia; Hwang, Huey-Min

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there are emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. Therefore, the safety concerns and regulatory policies on its manufacturing, processing, packaging, and consumption are briefly addressed. At the end of this article, the perspectives of nanotechnology in active and intelligent packaging applications are highlighted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Developing novel one-step processes for obtaining food-grade O/W emulsions from pressurized fluid extracts: processes description, state of the art and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, Diego Tresinari; MEIRELES, Maria Angela de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this work, a novel on-line process for production of food-grade emulsions containing oily extracts, i.e. oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, in only one step is presented. This process has been called ESFE, Emulsions from Supercritical Fluid Extraction. With this process, emulsions containing supercritical fluid extracts can be obtained directly from plant materials. The aim in the conception of this process is to propose a new rapid way to obtain emulsions from supercritical fluid extr...

  3. Training motor responses to food: A novel treatment for obesity targeting implicit processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Lawrence, Natalia S; Kemps, Eva; Veling, Harm

    2016-11-01

    The present review first summarizes results from prospective brain imaging studies focused on identifying neural vulnerability factors that predict excessive weight gain. Next, findings from cognitive psychology experiments evaluating various interventions involving food response inhibition training or food response facilitation training are reviewed that appear to target these neural vulnerability factors and that have produced encouraging weight loss effects. Findings from both of these reviewed research fields suggest that interventions that reduce reward and attention region responses to high calorie food cues and increase inhibitory region responses to high calorie food cues could prove useful in the treatment of obesity. Based on this review, a new conceptual model is presented to describe how different cognitive training procedures may contribute to modifying eating behavior and important directions for future research are offered. It is concluded that there is a need for evaluating the effectiveness of more intensive food response training interventions and testing whether adding such training to extant weight loss interventions increases their efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality-related enzymes in plant-based products: effects of novel food processing technologies part 2: pulsed electric field processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is an effective technique for the preservation of pumpable food products as it inactivates vegetative microbial cells at ambient to moderate temperature without significantly affecting the nutritional and sensorial quality of the product. However, conflicting views are expressed about the effect of PEF on enzymes. In this review, which is part 2 of a series of reviews dealing with the effectiveness of novel food preservation technologies for controlling enzymes, the scientific literature over the last decade on the effect of PEF on plant enzymes is critically reviewed to shed more light on the issue. The existing evidence indicates that PEF can result in substantial inactivation of most enzymes, although a much more intense process is required compared to microbial inactivation. Depending on the processing condition and the origin of the enzyme, up to 97% inactivation of pectin methylesterase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase as well as no inactivation have been reported following PEF treatment. Both electrochemical effects and Ohmic heating appear to contribute to the observed inactivation, although the relative contribution depends on a number of factors including the origin of the enzyme, the design of the PEF treatment chamber, the processing condition, and the composition of the medium.

  5. Food chain design using multi criteria decision making, an approach to complex design issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Apaiah, R.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a food supply chain for a completely new product involves many stakeholders and knowledge from disciplines in natural and social sciences. This paper describes how Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) facilitated designing a food supply chain in a case of Novel Protein Foods. It made the

  6. Harmonisation of selected food-related regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolle, A.; Sperner, B.; Krausse, G.

    1997-01-01

    Many rules concerning food were issued in the European Union during the last few years. The most important of these and especially those which are not yet integrated into German law shall be dealt with in this review. Thus, based on Directive 89/107/EEC, which deals with food additives in general, three specific directives were created, i. e. Directive 94/35/EC about sweetening agents, Directive 94/36/EC concerning colouring agents and the so called Miscellaneous Directive (95/2/EC). The provisions contained in all of these are supposed to be enacted this year via a new national ,,Zusatzstoff-Zulassungsverordnung. In this context, it has to be considered that the time set for the integration of these directives into national rules has already expired. This means that the provisions included therein can already be applied in Germany. This is also the case with Directive 96/33/EC, which leads to a complementation of the Rückstandshöchstmengen-Verordnung, and Directives 94/54/EC and 96/21/EC, which contain additional labelling requirements not yet included in the Lebensmittel-Kennzeichnungsverordnung. Several more changes of the Lebensmittel-Kennzeichnungsverordnung are required until August 1998 in order to integrate Directive 97/4/EC. Further directives for which these deadlines have not yet been reached are Directive 96/8/EC concerning low calory food for weight reduction and Directive 96/93/EC about certificates for animals and animal products. In addition to directives, EC-regulations also have to be considered, which are directly valid in the Member States. Important food-related regulations issued this year are Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 about novel food and novel food ingredients and Regulation (EC) No. 820/97 concerning the registration and labelling of cattle and beef. While the first of these is already valid, the provisions included in the latter have to be implemented in part till the beginning of next year. Further rules in other areas are planned, for

  7. Image Analysis for X-ray Imaging of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur

    for quality and safety evaluation of food products. In this effort the fields of statistics, image analysis and statistical learning are combined, to provide analytical tools for determining the aforementioned food traits. The work demonstrated includes a quantitative analysis of heat induced changes......X-ray imaging systems are increasingly used for quality and safety evaluation both within food science and production. They offer non-invasive and nondestructive penetration capabilities to image the inside of food. This thesis presents applications of a novel grating-based X-ray imaging technique...... and defect detection in food. Compared to the complex three dimensional analysis of microstructure, here two dimensional images are considered, making the method applicable for an industrial setting. The advantages obtained by grating-based imaging are compared to conventional X-ray imaging, for both foreign...

  8. Next-generation approaches to the microbial ecology of food fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Bokulich1,2,3 & David A. Mills1,2,3*

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Food fermentations have enhanced human health since the dawnof time and remain a prevalent means of food processing andpreservation. Due to their cultural and nutritional importance,many of these foods have been studied in detail using moleculartools, leading to enhancements in quality and safety. Furthermore,recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologyare revolutionizing the study of food microbial ecology,deepening insight into complex fermentation systems. Thisreview provides insight into novel applications of selectmolecular techniques, particularly next-generation sequencingtechnology, for analysis of microbial communities in fermentedfoods. We present a guideline for integrated molecular analysis offood microbial ecology and a starting point for implementingnext-generation analysis of food systems.

  9. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Laura M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Coughlan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalysing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Identification of radiation treatment of foods using novel technique of 'DNA comet assay'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Khan, H.M.; Wasim, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of food using ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests and to extend shelf life thereby contributing to safer and more plentiful food supply. Food control agencies throughout the world need some reliable, simple and rapid methods for the detection foods to ensure free choice of consumer and to enforce labeling. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to screen irradiated and unirradiated samples of several kinds of foods. In the present study samples of fresh and frozen beef has investigated for the detection of irradiation treatment. The samples were subjected to radiation doses of 0,4.5 and 7 KGy and were stored in freezer before analysis. The cells were extracted into cold PBS solutions, embedded into agarose gel on microscope slides, lysed and eletrophoressed at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2 minutes. The fragmented DNA as a irradiation treatment was stretched in the gel producing the dose dependent comets. These comets were visible using a simple transmission microscope after silver staining. The controlled and irradiation samples of meat were clearly distinguishable on the basis of the stained patterns of DNA in from of round or conical intact cells for unirradiated samples or in from of comets for irradiated samples. It is therefore concluded that DNA comet Assay offers a potential to screen unirradiated and irradiated meat samples. (author)

  12. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insha Kousar Kalem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%, T2 (0.50% and T3 (0.75% and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p < 0.05 effect on the lipid oxidative stability as the treated products exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 lower TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg values in comparison to control. A significant (p < 0.05 effect was also observed on the microbial stability as T. arjuna incorporated products showed significantly (p < 0.05 lower values for total plate count (log cfu/g, psychrophilic count (log cfu/g, yeast and mould count (log cfu/g and FFA (% oleic acid values. Significantly (p < 0.05 higher scores were observed for various sensory parameters of the products incorporated with T. arjuna during refrigerated storage. T. arjuna successfully improved the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of the model meat product and may be commercially exploited as a novel preservative in muscle foods. Keywords: Terminalia arjuna, Chevon sausages, Natural preservative, Lipid oxidation, Storage quality

  13. Food deserts in Winnipeg, Canada: a novel method for measuring a complex and contested construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Slater

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: "Food deserts" have emerged over the past 20 years as spaces of concern for communities, public health authorities and researchers because of their potential negative impact on dietary quality and subsequent health outcomes. Food deserts are residential geographic spaces, typically in urban settings, where low-income residents have limited or no access to retail food establishments with sufficient variety at affordable cost. Research on food deserts presents methodological challenges including retail food store identification and classification, identification of low-income populations, and transportation and proximity metrics. Furthermore, the complex methods often used in food desert research can be difficult to reproduce and communicate to key stakeholders. To address these challenges, this study sought to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a simple and reproducible method of identifying food deserts using data easily available in the Canadian context. Methods: This study was conducted in Winnipeg, Canada in 2014. Food retail establishments were identified from Yellow Pages and verified by public health dietitians. We calculated two scenarios of food deserts based on location of the lowest-income quintile population: (a living ≥ 500 m from a national chain grocery store, or (b living ≥ 500 m from a national chain grocery store or a full-service grocery store. Results: The number of low-income residents living in a food desert ranged from 64 574 to 104 335, depending on the scenario used. Conclusion: This study shows that food deserts affect a significant proportion of the Winnipeg population, and while concentrated in the urban core, exist in suburban neighbourhoods also. The methods utilized represent an accessible and transparent, reproducible process for identifying food deserts. These methods can be used for costeffective, periodic surveillance and meaningful engagement with communities, retailers and policy

  14. Novel brominated flame retardants in food composites and human milk from the Chinese Total Diet Study in 2011: Concentrations and a dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhixiong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xianqing; Wu, Yongning

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of the fifth Chinese total diet study (TDS) performed in 2011, the dietary exposure of the Chinese population to novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) was assessed. Six NBFRs were determined in 80 composite samples from four animal origin food groups and 29 pooled human milk samples. Based on gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) analysis, the levels of the total NBFRs ranged from human milk samples. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), with mean levels of 9.03ng/g lw in food composites and 8.06ng/g lw in human milk, was the most abundant compound in the total NBFRs. No obvious spatial distribution patterns in China were observed in food samples or human milk. The average estimated daily intake (EDI) of total NBFRs via food consumption for a "standard Chinese man" was 4.77ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day, with a range of 0.681 to 18.9ng/kgbw/day. Meat and meat products were the main dietary source of NBFRs, although levels of NBFRs in aquatic food were found to be the highest among the four food groups. The average EDI of total NBFRs for nursing infants was 38.4ng/kgbw/day, with a range of 17.4 to 113ng/kgbw/day, which was approximately eight-fold higher than the EDI for adults, suggesting the heavy body burden of NBFRs on nursing infants. The levels and EDI of DBDPE in the present study were similar to or higher than those of legacy BFRs (i.e., PBDEs and HBCD) in the TDS 2007, indicating that DBDPE, as a main alternative to PBDEs, might have become the primary BFR used in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Applications of Microbial Enzymes in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Parameswaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of enzymes or microorganisms in food preparations is an age-old process. With the advancement of technology, novel enzymes with wide range of applications and specificity have been developed and new application areas are still being explored. Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi and their enzymes are widely used in several food preparations for improving the taste and texture and they offer huge economic benefits to industries. Microbial enzymes are the preferred source to plants or animals due to several advantages such as easy, cost-effective and consistent production. The present review discusses the recent advancement in enzyme technology for food industries. A comprehensive list of enzymes used in food processing, the microbial source of these enzymes and the wide range of their application are discussed.

  16. Label it or ban it? Public perceptions of nano-food labels and propositions for banning nano-food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Agnes S. F.; Leong, Alisius D.; Cummings, Christopher L.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2018-02-01

    The future of nano-food largely hinges on public perceptions and willingness to accept this novel technology. The present study utilizes the scientific literacy model and psychometric paradigm as the key theoretical frameworks to examine the factors influencing public support for labeling and banning of nano-food in Singapore. Using data collected from a nationally representative survey of 1001 respondents, the findings demonstrated that attitudes toward technology, preference for natural product, science knowledge, and risk perception were found to substantially affect public support for both labeling and banning of nano-food. Conversely, attention to food safety news on traditional media and attention to nano-news on new media were only associated with public support for labeling of nano-food. Similarly, benefit perception was only significantly associated with public support for banning of nano-food. Theoretically, these findings support the growing body of literature that argues for the significant role played by predispositions, media use, science knowledge, and risk and benefit perceptions on attitude formation toward nano-food. It serves as the pioneering piece to address the aspect of banning in the field of nano-food. Practically, insights drawn from this study could aid relevant stakeholders in enlisting effecting strategies to convey the benefits of nano-food while mitigating the risk perceptions among the public.

  17. Traditional biotechnology for new foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are presented on how fermentation is used to replace, modify or improve current, artificially produced, foods and beverages and how also fermentation can be used for completely novel consumer products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; "as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided". We carried out a review of Avicenna's Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called 'Manafe al-Aghziyeh', in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of a novel food Cordyceps guangdongensis on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenjuan; Li, Taihui; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2014-10-01

    Cordyceps guangdongensis T. H. Li, Q. Y. Lin & B. Song (Cordycipitaceae) is a novel food approved by the Ministry of Public Health of China in 2013. Preliminary studies revealed that this novel food has multiple pharmacological activities such as anti-fatigue effect, antioxidant ability, prolonging life, anti-avian influenza virus activity, and therapeutic effect on chronic renal failure. However, the anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis and the effective constituent are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate both the anti-inflammatory effect of the edible fungus on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking, and the pilot effective constituent. Test rats were intragastrically administered with 3 doses of hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis (0.325, 0.65 and 1.30 g kg(-1) bw daily for low, middle and high dose, respectively) for 26 days. Biochemical indices and histological examinations in rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking were determined. The content and molecular weights of the polysaccharide from the hot-water extract were detected by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and gel permeation chromatography, respectively. Biochemical indices in the low, middle and high-dose groups with the hot-water extract of C. guangdongensis were only 53.4%, 46.0% and 40.4% of those in the model control group (total leukocytes), respectively; 70.7%, 60.3% and 58.1% (macrophages); 33.0%, 26.8% and 16.1% (neutrophils); and 22.2%, 23.5% and 13.6% (lymphocytes) of those in the model control group. The bronchial lesions and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly alleviated in all groups with hot-water extract of C. guangdongensis. This study indicates that the hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis. The content of the polysaccharide was 6.92%; the molecular weights of the 3 polysaccharide components were respectively 1.28 × 10

  20. Bioluminescence lights the way to food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovko, Lubov Y.; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2003-07-01

    The food industry is increasingly adopting food safety and quality management systems that are more proactive and preventive than those used in the past which have tended to rely on end product testing and visual inspection. The regulatory agencies in many countries are promoting one such management tool, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), as a way to achieve a safer food supply and as a basis for harmonization of trading standards. Verification that the process is safe must involve microbiological testing but the results need not be generated in real-time. Of all the rapid microbiological tests currently available, the only ones that come close to offering real-time results are bioluminescence-based methods. Recent developments in application of bioluminescence for food safety issues are presented in the paper. These include the use of genetically engineered microorganisms with bioluminescent and fluorescent phenotypes as a real time indicator of physiological state and survival of food-borne pathogens in food and food processing environments as well as novel bioluminescent-based methods for rapid detection of pathogens in food and environmental samples. Advantages and pitfalls of the methods are discussed.

  1. A novel ionic liquid-modified organic-polymer monolith as the sorbent for in-tube solid-phase microextraction of acidic food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi-Hui; Ma, Jun-Feng; Hu, Min-Jie; Li, Ying; Fang, Jiang-Hua; Gao, Hao-Qi

    2014-08-01

    A novel ionic liquid-modified organic-polymer monolithic capillary column was prepared and used for in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of acidic food additives. The primary amino group of 1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was reacted with the epoxide group of glycidyl methacrylate. The as-prepared new monomer was then copolymerized in situ with acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 and PEG-10,000 as porogens. The extraction performance of the developed monolithic sorbent was evaluated for benzoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-cinnamic acid. Such a sorbent, bearing hydrophobic and anion-exchange groups, had high extraction efficiency towards the test compounds. The adsorption capacities for the analytes dissolved in water ranged from 0.18 to 1.74 μg cm(-1). Good linear calibration curves (R(2) > 0.99) were obtained, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the analytes were found to be in the range 1.2-13.5 ng mL(-1). The recoveries of five acidic food additives spiked in Coca-Cola beverage samples ranged from 85.4 % to 98.3 %, with RSD less than 6.9 %. The excellent applicability of the ionic liquid (IL)-modified monolithic column was further tested by the determination of benzoic acid content in Sprite samples, further illustrating its good potential for analyzing food additives in complex samples.

  2. Challenges and prospects of food science and technology education: Nepal's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartaula, Ghanendra; Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani

    2014-01-01

    Food science and technology education has been running since four decades in Nepal. There is a very slow improvement in the profession. The job opportunities have always been threatened by insiders and outsiders. Academic institutions, government agencies, and food industries themselves are responsible for the quality of food science professionals. Novel and practical methods of teaching should be followed. The government and private organizations should facilitate the recruitment of food technologists. Constant prodding needs to be done for the establishment of a Council with more authority that could monitor all bodies associated with food science professionals. PMID:25493177

  3. Challenges and prospects of food science and technology education: Nepal's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartaula, Ghanendra; Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani

    2014-11-01

    Food science and technology education has been running since four decades in Nepal. There is a very slow improvement in the profession. The job opportunities have always been threatened by insiders and outsiders. Academic institutions, government agencies, and food industries themselves are responsible for the quality of food science professionals. Novel and practical methods of teaching should be followed. The government and private organizations should facilitate the recruitment of food technologists. Constant prodding needs to be done for the establishment of a Council with more authority that could monitor all bodies associated with food science professionals.

  4. [GMOs in food: risk assessment, scientific management and regulatory aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, F; Hervieu, F

    2003-03-01

    Genetic transformation constitutes a new tool for improvement of microorganisms, animals and plants used in food. We present foreseeable risks, as well as management measures to avoid unsuspected risks of GMOs. Few risks are specific to GMOs. Present elements of French and European regulations concerning placing on the market and follow up GMOs and other novel foods are described.

  5. Membranes for Food and Bioproduct Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Alexandru M.

    Modified membranes for process intensification in biomass hydrolysis: Production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is one of the leading candidates for replacement of petroleum based fuels and chemicals. However, conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals is not cost effective compared to the production of fuels and chemicals from crude oil reserves. Some novel and economically feasible approaches involve the use of ionic liquids as solvents or co-solvents, since these show improved solvation capability of cellulose over simple aqueous systems. Membranes offer unique opportunities for process intensification which involves fractionation of the resulting biomass hydrolysate leading to a more efficient and cheaper operation. This research attempts to develop membranes that would usher the economics of the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals by recycling the expensive ionic liquid. The overall aim of this work is the development of novel membranes with unique surface properties that enable the selective separation of non-reacted cellulose and hydrolysis sugars from ionic liquids. Nanofiltration separation for application in food product engineering: With the advent of the modern, well-informed consumer who has high expectations from the nutritional value of consumed food products, novel approaches are being developed to produce nutrient-enhanced foods and drinks. As a response to the consumer needs, different techniques to recover, concentrate and retain as much as possible of bioactive compounds are being investigated. Membrane technology has the advantage of selective fractionation of food products (e.g. salt removal, removal of bitter-tasting compounds or removal of sugar for sweet taste adjustment), volume reduction, and product recovery at mild conditions. In this work, we use nanofiltration in dead-end and crossflow mode to concentrate polyphenols from blueberry pomace. Blueberry

  6. FoodPro: A Web-Based Tool for Evaluating Covariance and Correlation NMR Spectra Associated with Food Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Chikayama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Foods from agriculture and fishery products are processed using various technologies. Molecular mixture analysis during food processing has the potential to help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved, thus enabling better cooking of the analyzed foods. To date, there has been no web-based tool focusing on accumulating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectra from various types of food processing. Therefore, we have developed a novel web-based tool, FoodPro, that includes a food NMR spectrum database and computes covariance and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. As a result, FoodPro has accumulated 236 aqueous (extracted in D2O and 131 hydrophobic (extracted in CDCl3 experimental bench-top 60-MHz NMR spectra, 1753 tastings scored by volunteers, and 139 hardness measurements recorded by a penetrometer, all placed into a core database. The database content was roughly classified into fish and vegetable groups from the viewpoint of different spectrum patterns. FoodPro can query a user food NMR spectrum, search similar NMR spectra with a specified similarity threshold, and then compute estimated tasting and hardness, covariance, and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. Querying fish spectra exemplified specific covariance spectra to tasting and hardness, giving positive covariance for tasting at 1.31 ppm for lactate and 3.47 ppm for glucose and a positive covariance for hardness at 3.26 ppm for trimethylamine N-oxide.

  7. FoodPro: A Web-Based Tool for Evaluating Covariance and Correlation NMR Spectra Associated with Food Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikayama, Eisuke; Yamashina, Ryo; Komatsu, Keiko; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Sakata, Kenji; Kikuchi, Jun; Sekiyama, Yasuyo

    2016-10-19

    Foods from agriculture and fishery products are processed using various technologies. Molecular mixture analysis during food processing has the potential to help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved, thus enabling better cooking of the analyzed foods. To date, there has been no web-based tool focusing on accumulating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra from various types of food processing. Therefore, we have developed a novel web-based tool, FoodPro, that includes a food NMR spectrum database and computes covariance and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. As a result, FoodPro has accumulated 236 aqueous (extracted in D₂O) and 131 hydrophobic (extracted in CDCl₃) experimental bench-top 60-MHz NMR spectra, 1753 tastings scored by volunteers, and 139 hardness measurements recorded by a penetrometer, all placed into a core database. The database content was roughly classified into fish and vegetable groups from the viewpoint of different spectrum patterns. FoodPro can query a user food NMR spectrum, search similar NMR spectra with a specified similarity threshold, and then compute estimated tasting and hardness, covariance, and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. Querying fish spectra exemplified specific covariance spectra to tasting and hardness, giving positive covariance for tasting at 1.31 ppm for lactate and 3.47 ppm for glucose and a positive covariance for hardness at 3.26 ppm for trimethylamine N -oxide.

  8. Novel fiber-rich lentil flours as snack-type functional foods: an extrusion cooking effect on bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, P; Berrios, J De J; Varela, A; Burbano, C; Cuadrado, C; Muzquiz, M; Pedrosa, M M

    2015-09-01

    Novel snack-type functional foods based on extruded lentil flours could convey the related health benefit of their bioactive compounds, provide a gluten-free alternative to consumers, and potentially increase the consumption of pulses. Extrusion treatment promoted an increase in galactopinitol, ciceritol, raffinose, stachyose and total α-galactoside content, in most lentil flours. As α-galactosides may act as prebiotics, they could convey beneficial effects to human and monogastric animals. Conversely, extrusion significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the inositol hexaphosphate content to less phosphorylated phytates (inositol pentaphosphate and inositol tetraphosphate), which provide health effects. The gluten-free formulation (control formulation #3) presented the highest significant (p < 0.05) drop in the inositol hexaphosphate of 14.7-fold decrease, but had a large increase in inositol pentaphosphate, due to extrusion processing. These two results are desirable in the finished product. Extrusion also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the trypsin content and completely inactivated lectin, in all processed samples.

  9. Evaluating use stage exposure to food contact materials in a LCA framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We present novel methods to incorporate exposure to chemicals within food contact materials (FCM) (e.g. packaging) into life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Chemical migration into food is modeled as a function of contact temperature, time, and various chemical, FCM, and food properties. In order...... in a way compatible with intake fraction, iF, a metric traditionally used in LCIA. The model predicts PiF increases with temperature and for compounds with lower octanol-water partition coefficients within more permeable materials which are in contact with foods with high ethanol equivalencies (fatty foods)....

  10. New advances in the integrated management of food processing by-products in Europe: sustainable exploitation of fruit and cereal processing by-products with the production of new food products (NAMASTE EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Fabio; Zanaroli, Giulio; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Bordoni, Alessandra; Viaggi, Davide; Robertson, Jim; Waldron, Keith; Bald, Carlos; Esturo, Aintzane; Talens, Clara; Tueros, Itziar; Cebrián, Marta; Sebők, András; Kuti, Tunde; Broeze, Jan; Macias, Marta; Brendle, Hans-Georg

    2013-09-25

    By-products generated every year by the European fruit and cereal processing industry currently exceed several million tons. They are disposed of mainly through landfills and thus are largely unexploited sources of several valuable biobased compounds potentially profitable in the formulation of novel food products. The opportunity to design novel strategies to turn them into added value products and food ingredients via novel and sustainable processes is the main target of recently EC-funded FP7 project NAMASTE-EU. NAMASTE-EU aims at developing new laboratory-scale protocols and processes for the exploitation of citrus processing by-products and wheat bran surpluses via the production of ingredients useful for the formulation of new beverage and food products. Among the main results achieved in the first two years of the project, there are the development and assessment of procedures for the selection, stabilization and the physical/biological treatment of citrus and wheat processing by-products, the obtainment and recovery of some bioactive molecules and ingredients and the development of procedures for assessing the quality of the obtained ingredients and for their exploitation in the preparation of new food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Leptin signaling in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius reduces food seeking and willingness to work for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoski, Scott E; Alhadeff, Amber L; Fortin, Samantha M; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Grill, Harvey J

    2014-02-01

    The adipose-derived hormone leptin signals in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) to suppress food intake, in part, by amplifying within-meal gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals. Here we show that mNTS leptin receptor (LepRb) signaling also reduces appetitive and motivational aspects of feeding, and that these effects can depend on energy status. Using the lowest dose that significantly suppressed 3-h cumulative food intake, unilateral leptin (0.3 μg) administration to the mNTS (3 h before testing) reduced operant lever pressing for sucrose under increasing work demands (progressive ratio reinforcement schedule) regardless of whether animals were energy deplete (food restricted) or replete (ad libitum fed). However, in a separate test of food-motivated responding in which there was no opportunity to consume food (conditioned place preference (CPP) for an environment previously associated with a palatable food reward), mNTS leptin administration suppressed food-seeking behavior only in chronically food-restricted rats. On the other hand, mNTS LepRb signaling did not reduce CPP expression for morphine reinforcement regardless of energy status, suggesting that mNTS leptin signaling differentially influences motivated responding for food vs opioid reward. Overall results show that mNTS LepRb signaling reduces food intake and appetitive food-motivated responding independent of energy status in situations involving orosensory and postingestive contact with food, whereas food-seeking behavior independent of food consumption is only reduced by mNTS LepRb activation in a state of energy deficit. These findings reveal a novel appetitive role for LepRb signaling in the mNTS, a brain region traditionally linked with processing of meal-related GI satiation signals.

  12. Recent experiences in the development of locally-produced ready to use foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Kelsey; Manary, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ready-to-use foods for treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are micronutrient-fortified, lipid pastes containing roasted peanuts, oil, micronutrients, sugar, soy and/or dairy ingredient powders. The benefits of pastes like ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and lipid nutrient supplements (LNS) for the treatment of nutritional maladies are that they are shelf-stable due to their low water activity, they are easily transportable, and they can be eaten as-is. Since the development of ready-to-use foods, cost reduction and local production experimentation have been ongoing. Attempts to replace ingredients like skim milk powder with alternate dairy protein ingredients or non-animal ingredients have been reported, but little food and process development information has been revealed. Linear programming or least-cost optimization mathematical models have been employed to help design low cost paste formulas from a selection of ingredients that also meet nutritional requirements. A new user-friendly tool can be used to develop new formulas that incorporate locally-sourced ingredients. New approaches to ingredient utilization are necessary for future ready-to-use food production and will require the development of novel processes for local ingredients compared to traditional pastes. The challenges of incorporating novel ingredients include processing changes, flavor and acceptability, and meeting nutrient requirements. Our research is designed to not only look at substitute ingredients, but also to optimize processing conditions in order to reduce cost by energy savings, extended shelf-life, and lower nutrient degradation. An RUSF using a novel dairy ingredient, whey permeate, was recently developed and is currently being tested in a prospective, double-blind randomized clinical trial for children with MAM in Malawi. Recent research in the development and testing of ready-to-use foods for MAM include a programmatic study

  13. cDNA microarray screening in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K.

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA microarray technology and related bioinformatics tools presents a wide range of novel application opportunities. The technology may be productively applied to address food safety. In this mini-review article, we present an update highlighting the late breaking discoveries that demonstrate the vitality of cDNA microarray technology as a tool to analyze food safety with reference to microbial pathogens and genetically modified foods. In order to bring the microarray technology to mainstream food safety, it is important to develop robust user-friendly tools that may be applied in a field setting. In addition, there needs to be a standardized process for regulatory agencies to interpret and act upon microarray-based data. The cDNA microarray approach is an emergent technology in diagnostics. Its values lie in being able to provide complimentary molecular insight when employed in addition to traditional tests for food safety, as part of a more comprehensive battery of tests

  14. A Review of Extraction and Analysis of Bioactives in Oat and Barley and Scope for Use of Novel Food Processing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Hossain, Mohammad B; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P

    2015-06-12

    Oat and barely are cereal crops mainly used as animal feed and for the purposes of malting and brewing, respectively. Some studies have indicated that consumption of oat and barley rich foods may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, type II diabetes and cancer. Whilst there is no absolute consensus, some of these benefits may be linked to presence of compounds such as phenolics, vitamin E and β-glucan in these cereals. A number of benefits have also been linked to the lipid component (sterols, fatty acids) and the proteins and bioactive peptides in oats and barley. Since the available evidence is pointing toward the possible health benefits of oat and barley components, a number of authors have examined techniques for recovering them from their native sources. In the present review, we summarise and examine the range of conventional techniques that have been used for the purpose of extraction and detection of these bioactives. In addition, the recent advances in use of novel food processing technologies as a substitute to conventional processes for extraction of bioactives from oats and barley, has been discussed.

  15. A Review of Extraction and Analysis of Bioactives in Oat and Barley and Scope for Use of Novel Food Processing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Gangopadhyay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oat and barely are cereal crops mainly used as animal feed and for the purposes of malting and brewing, respectively. Some studies have indicated that consumption of oat and barley rich foods may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, type II diabetes and cancer. Whilst there is no absolute consensus, some of these benefits may be linked to presence of compounds such as phenolics, vitamin E and β-glucan in these cereals. A number of benefits have also been linked to the lipid component (sterols, fatty acids and the proteins and bioactive peptides in oats and barley. Since the available evidence is pointing toward the possible health benefits of oat and barley components, a number of authors have examined techniques for recovering them from their native sources. In the present review, we summarise and examine the range of conventional techniques that have been used for the purpose of extraction and detection of these bioactives. In addition, the recent advances in use of novel food processing technologies as a substitute to conventional processes for extraction of bioactives from oats and barley, has been discussed.

  16. New approach for food allergy management using low-dose oral food challenges and low-dose oral immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Okada, Yu; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have suggested that a large subset of children (approximately 70%) who react to unheated milk or egg can tolerate extensively heated forms of these foods. A diet that includes baked milk or egg is well tolerated and appears to accelerate the development of regular milk or egg tolerance when compared with strict avoidance. However, the indications for an oral food challenge (OFC) using baked products are limited for patients with high specific IgE values or large skin prick test diameters. Oral immunotherapies (OITs) are becoming increasingly popular for the management of food allergies. However, the reported efficacy of OIT is not satisfactory, given the high frequency of symptoms and requirement for long-term therapy. With food allergies, removing the need to eliminate a food that could be consumed in low doses could significantly improve quality of life. This review discusses the importance of an OFC and OIT that use low doses of causative foods as the target volumes. Utilizing an OFC or OIT with a low dose as the target volume could be a novel approach for accelerating the tolerance to causative foods. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Novel Navigation Information Management System for Food Maritime Logistics Based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Wei He; Xiumin Chu

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the construction of a new navigation information management system for food maritime logistics. With the vigorous development of Internet technology, the Internet of things technology has been introduced into the food maritime logistics to enhance the efficiency of food production transportation. However, the navigation information management system for food maritime logistics is still a big challenge and very limited work has been done to address safe and effective navi...

  18. Distaste: Joyce Carol Oates and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rutledge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In many of her short stories and novels, Joyce Carol Oates depicts an unhealthy relationship with food. The range of these unhealthy relationships is wide, from overeating to the point of suicide, in Expensive People, to starving oneself in an attempt to deny one’s physical nature, in “Orange” and them. Overindulgence is a means for attempting to fill that space where the soul should be; undereating is often an attempt to deny one’s place in the social world. The eating disorders she portrays are rooted in both personal and social causes. While these depictions are unique to each character, over all Oates’s depictions of food develop a critique of American values. An understanding of Oates’s theme of food must include psychological, cultural and poetic approaches.

  19. MICRO- AND NANOENCAPSULATION VIA ELECTRO-HYDRODYNAMIC PROCESSING OF INTEREST IN FOOD APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    PÉREZ MASIÁ, ROCÍO

    2016-01-01

    Micro- and nanoencapsulation have generated great interest over the last years in multiple fields. Particularly in the food industry, this technology presents potential applications for the development of smart packaging structures, as well as for the protection of sensitive ingredients and the production of novel healthy foods. Therefore, in this thesis, the development of different encapsulation structures of interest in the food area was carried out. Specifically, c...

  20. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 20, No. 1, January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    As we end the year 2016 and reflect on the impact and results we have achieved and look forward to our upcoming activities, we have successfully completed the planning for the IAEA programme and budget 2018-2019 on Improvement of Food Safety and Food Control Systems. We will continue to support on-going projects that include: (1) food irradiation applications using novel radiation technologies, (2) traceability for food safety and to enhance international trade and (3) preparation and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies in food and agriculture. New tasks and resources are assigned to these projects with clear indicators and detailed output expectations.

  1. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; “as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided” Methods: We carried out a review of Avicenna’s Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. Results: The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called ‘Manafe al-Aghziyeh’, in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. Conclusion: There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies. PMID:27840499

  2. Progression of radical reactions on microscopic scale in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret

    Understanding the progression of lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions from the aspect of the food quality and safety, consumer satisfaction and cleaner food label is of importance, because most of the food emulsions are oil-in-water emulsions. There is an increasing tendency in the food...... industry to incorporate unsaturated oils into food products, but that results in shortened shelf-life. Therefore, studying the factors and consequences of the oxidative instability provides beneficial insight into prolonging the antioxidative stage and inhibiting undergoing oxidation processes to improve...... the food quality and increase the shelflife of the food products. In the present work, lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions was studied via conventional analytical and via novel state-of-the-art techniques. For the first time, the effect of mixing emulsions made of saturated medium-chain triglyceride...

  3. Numerical Simulation of Non-Thermal Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, C.; Krauss, J.; Ertunc, Ö.; Delgado, a.

    2010-09-01

    Food preservation is an important process step in food technology regarding product safety and product quality. Novel preservation techniques are currently developed, that aim at improved sensory and nutritional value but comparable safety than in conventional thermal preservation techniques. These novel non-thermal food preservation techniques are based for example on high pressures up to one GPa or pulsed electric fields. in literature studies the high potential of high pressures (HP) and of pulsed electric fields (PEF) is shown due to their high retention of valuable food components as vitamins and flavour and selective inactivation of spoiling enzymes and microorganisms. for the design of preservation processes based on the non-thermal techniques it is crucial to predict the effect of high pressure and pulsed electric fields on the food components and on the spoiling enzymes and microorganisms locally and time-dependent in the treated product. Homogenous process conditions (especially of temperature fields in HP and PEF processing and of electric fields in PEF) are aimed at to avoid the need of over-processing and the connected quality loss and to minimize safety risks due to under-processing. the present contribution presents numerical simulations of thermofluiddynamical phenomena inside of high pressure autoclaves and pulsed electric field treatment chambers. in PEF processing additionally the electric fields are considered. Implementing kinetics of occurring (bio-) chemical reactions in the numerical simulations of the temperature, flow and electric fields enables the evaluation of the process homogeneity and efficiency connected to different process parameters of the preservation techniques. Suggestions to achieve safe and high quality products are concluded out of the numerical results.

  4. Defining food literacy: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman, Emily; Lane, Daniel; Elliott, Charlene

    2017-09-01

    The term "food literacy" describes the idea of proficiency in food related skills and knowledge. This prevalent term is broadly applied, although its core elements vary from initiative to initiative. In light of its ubiquitous use-but varying definitions-this article establishes the scope of food literacy research by identifying all articles that define 'food literacy', analysing its key conceptualizations, and reporting outcomes/measures of this concept. A scoping review was conducted to identify all articles (academic and grey literature) using the term "food literacy". Databases included Medline, Pubmed, Embase, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Scopus, JSTOR, and Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Of 1049 abstracts, 67 studies were included. From these, data was extracted on country of origin, study type (methodological approach), primary target population, and the primary outcomes relating to food literacy. The majority of definitions of food literacy emphasize the acquisition of critical knowledge (information and understanding) (55%) over functional knowledge (skills, abilities and choices) (8%), although some incorporate both (37%). Thematic analysis of 38 novel definitions of food literacy reveals the prevalence of six themes: skills and behaviours, food/health choices, culture, knowledge, emotions, and food systems. Study outcomes largely focus on knowledge generating measures, with very few focusing on health related outcome measures. Current definitions of food literacy incorporate components of six key themes or domains and attributes of both critical and functional knowledge. Despite this broad definition of the term, most studies aiming to improve food literacy focus on knowledge related outcomes. Few articles address health outcomes, leaving an important gap (and opportunity) for future research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitising capacity of peptides from food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is for this reason a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. The association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has though been challenged in recent years...... and structures may contribute. In conclusion, the experimental data presented in this PhD thesis contribute to the understanding of induction of allergy by investigating the sensitising potential of peptides derived from a food allergen. It add knowledge to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying...

  6. 78 FR 54901 - Food and Drug Administration/American Academy of Ophthalmology Workshop on Developing Novel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    .... Food and beverages will be available for purchase by participants during the workshop breaks. If you....regulations.gov . It may be viewed at the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001...

  7. New methods for the safety testing of transgenic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten; Kledal, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    for guiding the precise design of the animal study. The genetically modified food plants to be used for this test development will be 3 transgenic rice varieties (2 types of lectins and the Bt toxin). Objectives The overall objective of this project is to develop and validate the scientific methodology which......Background This project proposal deals with the development of a sensitive and specific animal test which is necessary for safety analysis of genetically modified plants according to the Opinion of the Scientific Committee for Food on the assessment of novels foods. The test will be based...

  8. Novel method to achieve price-optimized, fully nutritious, health-promoting and acceptable national food baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Robertson, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    available foods. The study was designed to obtain healthy, affordable, and socially acceptable diets for three European countries (Denmark, Slovenia, and Romania) and in three regions within Canada, Argentina, and Switzerland. Moreover, the costs for the “limiting” micronutrients and relative price......Purpose: The purpose of this study was to generate a framework for the development of health-promoting, fully nutritious, socially acceptable, and affordable national food baskets to be used as an advocacy tool by governments. In addition to containing all (micro-)nutrient requirements, food...... baskets should also reflect dietary guidelines to prevent non-communicable diseases and be optimized to achieve the highest possible social acceptance. So far, integrative approaches that include all these aspects are lacking. Methods: Food composition, local availability, food prices, national...

  9. Developing a Molecular Roadmap of Drug-Food Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper; Ni, Yueqiong; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    therapeutic interventions, a systematic approach for identifying, predicting and preventing potential interactions between food and marketed or novel drugs is not yet available. The overall objective of this work was to sketch a comprehensive picture of the interference of ∼ 4,000 dietary components present...... view of the associations between diet and dietary molecules with drug targets, metabolic enzymes, drug transporters and carriers currently deposited in Drug-Bank. Moreover, we identified disease areas and drug targets that are most prone to the negative effects of drug-food interactions, showcasing......Recent research has demonstrated that consumption of food -especially fruits and vegetables-can alter the effects of drugs by interfering either with their pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic processes. Despite the recognition of such drug-food associations as an important element for successful...

  10. 78 FR 76842 - Food and Drug Administration/American Academy of Ophthalmology Workshop on Developing Novel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... 866-561-8558 (toll free). Food and beverages will be available for purchase by participants during the... accessible at http://www.regulations.gov . It may be viewed at the Division of Dockets Management, Food and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001...

  11. Medical foods for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Raj C

    2011-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with cognitive loss, behavioural changes, functional ability decline and caregiver burden. Given the worldwide public health impact of AD, novel interventions to reduce suffering experienced by AD patients need to be developed. Foods may offer a mechanism for intervention complementary to drugs, devices, biologicals and vaccines. Apart from foods with health claims (including dietary supplements), medical foods are also being explored as an intervention option. The purpose of this article is to describe how medical foods may complement other interventions for AD patients by: (i) defining what a medical food is; (ii) discussing whether AD is a condition amenable to medical food intervention; (iii) reviewing current clinical trial data on medical foods used in participants with AD; and (iv) highlighting steps needed to establish a more comprehensive framework for developing medical foods for AD. While medical foods may be defined differently in other countries, the US Orphan Drug Act of 1998 defined a medical food as a food formulated for enteral intake, taken under physician supervision, and intended to meet the distinctive nutritional requirements identified for a disease or condition. For AD to be amenable to medical food intervention, it must: (i) result in limited or impaired capacity to ingest, digest, absorb or metabolize ordinary foodstuff or certain nutrients; or (ii) have unique, medically determined nutrient requirements; and (iii) require dietary management that cannot be achieved by modification of the normal diet alone. While these criteria are most likely met in advanced AD, identifying unique nutritional requirements in early AD that cannot be met by normal diet modification requires a better understanding of AD pathophysiology. A PubMed search using the terms 'medical food' and 'Alzheimer', limited to clinical trials published in English with human participants with AD aged >65

  12. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  13. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  14. Microencapsulation of bioactives for food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Inês; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barreiro, Maria Filomena

    2015-04-01

    Health issues are an emerging concern to the world population, and therefore the food industry is searching for novel food products containing health-promoting bioactive compounds, with little or no synthetic ingredients. However, there are some challenges in the development of functional foods, particularly in which the direct use of some bioactives is involved. They can show problems of instability, react with other food matrix ingredients or present strong odour and/or flavours. In this context, microencapsulation emerges as a potential approach to overcome these problems and, additionally, to provide controlled or targeted delivery or release. This work intends to contribute to the field of functional food development by performing a comprehensive review on the microencapsulation methods and materials, the bioactives used (extracts and isolated compounds) and the final application development. Although several studies dealing with microencapsulation of bioactives exist, they are mainly focused on the process development and the majority lack proof of concept for final applications. These factors, together with the lack of regulation, in Europe and in the United States, delay the development of new functional foods and, consequently, their market entry. In conclusion, the potential of microencapsulation to protect bioactive compounds ensuring their bioavailability is shown, but further studies are required, considering both its applicability and incentives by regulatory agencies.

  15. Effect of Hurdle Technology in Food Preservation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv; Shalini, Rachana

    2016-01-01

    Hurdle technology is used in industrialized as well as in developing countries for the gentle but effective preservation of foods. Hurdle technology was developed several years ago as a new concept for the production of safe, stable, nutritious, tasty, and economical foods. Previously hurdle technology, i.e., a combination of preservation methods, was used empirically without much knowledge of the governing principles. The intelligent application of hurdle technology has become more prevalent now, because the principles of major preservative factors for foods (e.g., temperature, pH, aw, Eh, competitive flora), and their interactions, became better known. Recently, the influence of food preservation methods on the physiology and behavior of microorganisms in foods, i.e. their homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, stress reactions, are taken into account, and the novel concept of multi-target food preservation emerged. The present contribution reviews the concept of the potential hurdles for foods, the hurdle effect, and the hurdle technology for the prospects of the future goal of a multi-target preservation of foods.

  16. Unfamiliar food consumption among western tourists in Malaysia : development of the integrated model.

    OpenAIRE

    Shukri, Wan-Hafiz Zainal

    2017-01-01

    The common presumption in food tourism that tourists are neophilic (seek novel taste), due to being ‘attracted’ to new food at destination, or neophobic (fear of unknown food), based on food as an ‘impediment’ (Cohen and Aveili, 2004), has recently been challenged, and it is suggested that tourists eating behaviour in uncertainty can be flexible and adaptive (Falconer, 2013). In an attempt to capture tourists’ variety seeking behaviour (VSB) in uncertainty, this study aims to explore the role...

  17. Analysis of personal and cultural values as key determinants of novel food acceptance. Application to an ethnic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Ramo; García, Teresa; Sánchez, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    This paper sets out to analyse whether the complexity and the type of benefits and values pursued in the consumer choice process for a novel food product (couscous) varies with the consumer's ethnic origin (Spanish and Arab). A qualitative study was used to explore these issues in an application of the "means-end chain" theory. The hierarchical value maps obtained point to the presence of an important emotional dimension in the consumption of the selected product, particularly Arab consumers, suggesting that greater familiarity with the product results in a more complex choice process. Some cross-cultural variation can also be observed. Arab consumers attach more importance to issues such as the geographic origin of the product, cultural identification, and fulfilment of family duty. Spanish couscous consumers, meanwhile, claim that it is a way to follow the latest trends, and be more cosmopolitan and more successful within their environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing the Abbreviated Food Technology Neophobia Scale and its relation to satisfaction with food-related life in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Grunert, Klaus G; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Orellana, Ligia; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Hueche, Clementina; Höger, Yesli

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to test the relationships between food neophobia, satisfaction with food-related life and food technology neophobia, distinguishing consumer segments according to these variables and characterizing them according to willingness to purchase food produced with novel technologies. A survey was conducted with 372 university students (mean aged=20.4years, SD=2.4). The questionnaire included the Abbreviated version of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (AFTNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and a 6-item version of the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS). Using confirmatory factor analysis, it was confirmed that SWFL correlated inversely with FNS, whereas FNS correlated inversely with AFTNS. No relationship was found between SWFL and AFTNS. Two main segments were identified using cluster analysis; these segments differed according to gender and family size. Group 1 (57.8%) possessed higher AFTNS and FNS scores than Group 2 (28.5%). However, these groups did not differ in their SWFL scores. Group 1 was less willing to purchase foods produced with new technologies than Group 2. The AFTNS and the 6-item version of the FNS are suitable instruments to measure acceptance of foods produced using new technologies in South American developing countries. The AFTNS constitutes a parsimonious alternative for the international study of food technology neophobia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB): various structures and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Rodney H; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2014-08-29

    Bacteriocins are heat-stable ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by various bacteria, including food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These antimicrobial peptides have huge potential as both food preservatives, and as next-generation antibiotics targeting the multiple-drug resistant pathogens. The increasing number of reports of new bacteriocins with unique properties indicates that there is still a lot to learn about this family of peptide antibiotics. In this review, we highlight our system of fast tracking the discovery of novel bacteriocins, belonging to different classes, and isolated from various sources. This system employs molecular mass analysis of supernatant from the candidate strain, coupled with a statistical analysis of their antimicrobial spectra that can even discriminate novel variants of known bacteriocins. This review also discusses current updates regarding the structural characterization, mode of antimicrobial action, and biosynthetic mechanisms of various novel bacteriocins. Future perspectives and potential applications of these novel bacteriocins are also discussed.

  20. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... representation of this issue because a selection of food grade insect species may be available on the European market in the coming years. However, European legislation does not explicitly address edible insects. Consequently, this has left a grey area, allowing different interpretations of the legislation among....... Particular attention will be paid to the evolution of legislation and to the experiences of both EU and non-EU countries. In recent years, a number of different stakeholders have supported the legalization of edible insect consumption in Europe, but market permission is just the first step towards a new...

  1. A novel method for the determination of migration of contaminants from food contact materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.; Parry, S.J.; Benzing, R.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron activation method has been developed for the analysis of high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate and polystyrene food contact plastics. The method provides determination of over 50 elements at concentrations below 1 mg kg -1 . This technique has now been extended to study migration from food contact materials into standard food simulants (olive oil, acetic acid, ethanol and water). Samples of plastic are irradiated in a thermal neutron flux to procedure radionuclides of the elements present in the plastic. (author). 5 refs., 7 tabs

  2. Utilizing cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) for food and nutrition security: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boakye, Abena A.; Wireko-Manu, Faustina Dufie; Oduro, Ibok

    2018-01-01

    knowledge on food uses, nutritional value, and potential novel food applications of cocoyam. Adaptable technologies in conformity to new trends in food science that could be employed for in-depth molecular studies and further exploitation of the crop are also discussed. It is envisaged that the provided...... information would contribute to global efforts aimed at exploiting the full potential of indigenous crops for sustainable food and nutrition security.......The critical role of indigenous crops in the socioeconomic growth of developing nations has necessitated calls for accelerated exploitation of staples. Cocoyam, Xanthosoma sagittifolium, is food for over 400 million people worldwide and is the most consumed aroid in West Africa. However, it remains...

  3. The influence of digestibility on the allergenicity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  4. Evaluation of canine adverse food reactions by patch testing with single proteins, single carbohydrates and commercial foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Cornelia; Mariani, Claire; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-10-01

    Adverse food reaction (AFR) is an important differential diagnosis for the pruritic dog. It is usually diagnosed by feeding an elimination diet with a novel protein and carbohydrate source for eight weeks followed by subsequent food provocation. A previous study demonstrated that patch testing dogs with foods had a high sensitivity and negative predictability for selection of elimination diet ingredients. The aim of this study was to investigate patch testing with proteins, carbohydrates and dry commercial dog food in dogs to determine whether there was value in patch testing to aid the diagnosis of canine adverse food reaction. Twenty five privately owned dogs, with confirmed AFR, underwent provocation trials with selected food antigens and patch testing. For proteins, carbohydrates and dry dog food the sensitivity of patch testing was 100%, 70% and 22.2%, respectively; the negative predictive values of patch testing were 100%, 79% and 72%. The positive predictive values of patch testing for proteins and carbohydrates were 75% and 74%, respectively. This study confirmed that patch testing may be useful for the selection of a suitable protein source for an elimination diet in dogs with suspected AFR, but not as a diagnostic tool for canine AFR. Results for proteins are more reliable than for carbohydrates and the majority of positive patch test reactions were observed with raw protein. Patch testing with commercial dog food does not seem to be useful. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Food neophobia and its association with intake of fish and other selected foods in a Norwegian sample of toddlers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Sissel H; Bere, Elling; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Øverby, Nina Cecilie

    2017-07-01

    Reluctance to try novel foods (food neophobia) prevents toddlers from accepting healthy foods such as fish and vegetables, which are important for child development and health. Eating habits established between ages 2 and 3 years normally track into adulthood and are therefore highly influential; even so, there are few studies addressing food neophobia in this age group. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the level of food neophobia and the frequency of toddlers' intake of fish, meat, berries, fruit, vegetables, and sweet and salty snacks. Parents of 505 toddlers completed a questionnaire assessing the degree of food neophobia in their toddlers (mean age 28 months, SD ± 3.5), and frequency of intake of various foods. Food neophobia was rated by the Children's Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS, score range 6-42). Associations between CFNS score and food frequency were examined using hierarchical multiple regression models, adjusting for significant covariates. Toddlers with higher CFNS scores had less frequent intake of vegetables (β = -0.28, p food neophobia in toddlers is associated with lower diet quality, and indicate a need for intervention studies to address the food neophobia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  7. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Charbonnier

    Full Text Available We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low. Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (precuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  8. BENEFICIAL FACE OF BACTERIOPHAGES: APPLICATIONS IN FOOD PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Raghu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Foods are processed to make them available at all places; consequently, our awareness regarding hygiene measures in food production has also increased dramatically over the last decades. In many countries cases associated with foodborne infectious are increased. However, available techniques are unable to effectively control the problem. Further, exploring novel methods and technologies for ensuring the safety of food with effective quality control approaches are under research. Phages are the natural enemies of bacteria, and are more specific to host renders them ideal candidates for applications designed to increase food safety during the production process. Scientific findings are available showing the possibility to use as biocontrol agents against various pathogens with out interfering with the natural microflora or the cultures in fermented products. Furthermore, phages or phage derived proteins can also be used to detect the presence of unwanted pathogens in food or the production environments, which allows quick and sp ecific identification of viable cells. Bacteriophages are natural, found in various environments including water; foods etc. and are not found significantly influence the human cells.

  9. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each...... pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insect species for food and feed. Honeybee and silkworm are mostly produced for other reasons than as human food, yet we can still use them...... as examples to learn about emergence of new diseases in production insects. Results from a 2014 survey about insect diseases in current insect production systems are presented for the first time. Finally, we give some recommendations for the prevention and control of insect diseases. Key words: disease...

  10. Effects of novel processing techniques on glucosinolates and membrane associated myrosinases in broccoli

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup; Martín Belloso, Olga; Sánchez Vega, Rogelio; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Sørensen, Hilmer; Sørensen, Susanne; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    High pressure/high temperature (HP/HT) and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of food are among the novel processing techniques considered as alternatives to conventional thermal food processing. Introduction of new processing techniques with fast and gentle processing steps may reveal new possibilities for preservation of healthy bioactive compounds in processed food. However, effects on various food components due to autolysis and fast reactions prior to the applied HP/HT or PEF need to ...

  11. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2012-12-01

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region.

  12. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, Keizo

    2006-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to physiological functions of foods due to increasing concerns for health. Although there has been limited information of physiological functions of meat until recently, several attractive meat-based bioactive compounds, such as carnosine, anserine, l-carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid, have been studied. Emphasizing these activities is one possible approach for improving the health image of meat and developing functional meat products. This article provides potential benefits of representative meat-based bioactive compounds on human health and an overview of meat-based functional products. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products utilizing bioactive peptides and/or probiotic bacteria, is also discussed. This article focuses particularly on the possibility of meat protein-derived bioactive peptides, such as antihypertensive peptides. There are still some hurdles in developing and marketing novel functional meat products since such products are unconventional and consumers in many countries recognize meat and meat products to be bad for health. Along with accumulation of scientific data, there is an urgent need to inform consumers of the exact functional value of meat and meat products including novel functional foods.

  13. Quantitative sandwich ELISA for the determination of fish in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeste, Christiane K; Plassen, Christin

    2008-01-01

    Allergy to fish represents one of the most prevalent causes for severe food-allergic reactions. Therefore, food authorities in different countries have implemented mandatory labeling of fish in pre-packed foods. Detection of fish proteins in food has previously been based on the use of patient serum. In the present study, a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of fish in food matrixes has been developed and validated, using a polyclonal rabbit anti-cod parvalbumin antibody for capture and a biotinylated conjugate of the same antibody for detection. By employing the ubiquitous muscle protein parvalbumin as target the method succeeds to detect a variety of fish. However, the ELISA is specific for fish and does not cross-react with other species. Recoveries ranged from 68-138% in typical food matrixes, while the intra- and inter-assay precisions were parvalbumin ELISA with a limit of detection of 0.01 mg parvalbumin/kg food, about 5 mg fish/kg food, seems sufficient to detect fish protein traces in foods at levels low enough to minimize the risk for fish allergic consumers.

  14. Opportunities and Challenges in Application of Forward Osmosis in Food Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Navin K

    2016-01-01

    Food processing and preservation technologies must maintain the fresh-like characteristics of food while providing an acceptable and convenient shelf life as well as assuring safety and nutritional value. Besides, the consumers' demand for the highest quality convenience foods in terms of natural flavor and taste, free from additives and preservatives necessitated the development of a number of membrane-based non-thermal approaches to the concentration of liquid foods, of which forward osmosis has proven to be the most valuable one. A series of recent publications in scientific journals have demonstrated novel and diverse uses of this technology for food processing, desalination, pharmaceuticals as well as for power generation. Its novel features, which include the concentration of liquid foods at ambient temperature and pressure without significant fouling of membrane, made the technology commercially attractive. This review aims to identify the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. At the same time, it presents a comprehensive account of recent advances in forward osmosis technology as related to the major issues of concern in its rapidly growing applications in food processing such as concentration of fruit and vegetable juices (grape, pineapple, red raspberry, orange, and tomato juice and red radish juice) and natural food colorants (anthocyanin and betalains extracts). Several vibrant and vital issues such as recent developments in the forward osmosis membrane and concentration polarization aspects have been also addressed. The asymmetric membrane used for forward osmosis poses newer challenges to account both external and internal concentration polarization leading to significant reduction in flux. The recent advances and developments in forward osmosis membrane processes, mechanism of water transport, characteristics of draw solution and membranes as well as applications of forward osmosis in food processing have been discussed.

  15. Experimental studies of food choices and palatability responses in European subjects exposed to the Umami taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; France, Bellisle

    2008-01-01

    In the Western world, consumers have only recently learned to discriminate the Umami taste, although they have enjoyed its contribution to the palatability of traditional dishes for centuries. The flavor enhancing properties of MSG have been scientifically investigated in European subjects. By adding MSG to such foods as soups, their content in sodium can be decreased without altering palatability, thus favoring a net decrease in sodium intake. Consumers presented with a novel food often have to get accustomed to the new taste before they acquire a preference for the food. A study showed that when such novel foods are added with some appropriate amount of MSG, consumers acquire a preference for them more rapidly. In elderly persons, the addition of MSG to nutritionally valuable foods (soups, vegetables, starches) did induce an increase of intake of MSG-added foods. Total meal size, however, was not affected, since the increased intake of MSG-containing foods was followed by a decreased consumption of foods served later in the meal, such as desserts. The same observations were repeated in hospitalized diabetic patients. Again, the patients ingested more healthy MSG-containing foods and less of other foods, with the same total meal energy intake. These two studies suggested that MSG could be used to stimulate appropriate food choices in certain populations.

  16. Nanotechnology: current uses and future applications in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Chung, Ill-Min

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology intend new and innovative applications in the food industry. Nanotechnology exposed to be an efficient method in many fields, particularly the food industry and the area of functional foods. Though as is the circumstance with the growth of any novel food processing technology, food packaging material, or food ingredient, additional studies are needed to demonstrate the potential benefits of nanotechnologies and engineered nanomaterials designed for use in foods without adverse health effects. Nanoemulsions display numerous advantages over conventional emulsions due to the small droplets size they contain: high optical clarity, excellent physical constancy against gravitational partition and droplet accumulation, and improved bioavailability of encapsulated materials, which make them suitable for food applications. Nano-encapsulation is the most significant favorable technologies having the possibility to ensnare bioactive chemicals. This review highlights the applications of current nanotechnology research in food technology and agriculture, including nanoemulsion, nanocomposites, nanosensors, nano-encapsulation, food packaging, and propose future developments in the developing field of agrifood nanotechnology. Also, an overview of nanostructured materials, and their current applications and future perspectives in food science are also presented.

  17. Dehydrated Basella alba Fruit Juice as a Novel Natural Colorant: Pigment Stability, In Vivo Food Safety Evaluation and Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Long; Chiou, Robin Y-Y; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Ko, Huey-Jiun; Lai, Li-Jung; Lin, Shu-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Flesh of Basella alba L. mature fruits bearing deep-violet juice provides a novel and potential source of natural colorant. To minimize the pigment purification process and warrant safety acceptability, B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was prepared using mature fruits through a practical batch preparation and subjected to fundamental pigment characterization, food safety assessment and bio-function evaluation. Yield of the dehydrated B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was 37 g/kg fresh fruits. Reconstituted aqueous solution of the BACP exhibited an identical visible spectrum (400-700 nm) as that of fresh juice. Color of the solution (absorbance at 540 nm) was stable in a broad pH ranged from 3 to 8 and enhanced by co-presence of calcium and magnesium ions, while was rapidly bleached by ferrous and ferric ions. For in vivo food safety evaluation, ICR mice were daily gavage administered with BACP up to 1000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Organ weight determination, serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examination of hearts, livers, lungs and kidneys revealed no obvious health hazard. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of BACP was characterized in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. BACP exerted potent anti-inflammatory activity by down-regulation of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 and the blockage of IκB kinase (IKK)/IκB/nuclear factor-κ B (NFκB) activation cascade. These results supported that BACP may serve as a beneficial alternative of natural food colorant.

  18. Food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  19. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  20. Prolongation of the shelf life of perishable food products using biodegradable films and coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guilbert, S.; Gontard, N.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The improvement of the safety and quality of minimally processed foods is of major interest to both the consumer and the food industry and is the topic of an EU-sponsored research project with nine international partners. The project optimizes existing techniques and in addition develops novel

  1. Food Aversions and Cravings during Pregnancy on Yasawa Island, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerracher, Luseadra; Collard, Mark; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Women often experience novel food aversions and cravings during pregnancy. These appetite changes have been hypothesized to work alongside cultural strategies as adaptive responses to the challenges posed by pregnancy (e.g., maternal immune suppression). Here, we report a study that assessed whether data from an indigenous population in Fiji are consistent with the predictions of this hypothesis. We found that aversions focus predominantly on foods expected to exacerbate the challenges of pregnancy. Cravings focus on foods that provide calories and micronutrients while posing few threats to mothers and fetuses. We also found that women who experience aversions to specific foods are more likely to crave foods that meet nutritional needs similar to those provided by the aversive foods. These findings are in line with the predictions of the hypothesis. This adds further weight to the argument that appetite changes may function in parallel with cultural mechanisms to solve pregnancy challenges.

  2. Food Irradiation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-11-15

    of perishable food products. Different radiation sources, particularly {sup 60}Co and electron accelerators, can be used. Different types of foodstuffs react differently: ripening is delayed in some fruit, the cooking time of dehydrated vegetables can be shortened, and the shelf life of fish and some varieties of fruit and vegetables can be more than doubled. The applicability of irradiation depends on economic factors, as well as on climatic, technological, transport and food-growing conditions in given areas. The main subjects covered at the Symposium were: radiation sources and dosimetry, the wholesomeness of irradiated food, the chemical and physical effects of ionizing radiation, microbiology, virology and quarantine problems, the status of various irradiated commodities, including meat and meat products, poultry and eggs, grain and stored food products, fish and sea foods, and fruit and vegetables. In the broader application of radiation to food preservation, the participants discussed present programmes in operation, facilities used, and economics, together with national legislation and clearances for irradiated items. Some countries are already using radiation for the prevention of sprouting in potatoes and onions and for the sterilization of bacon. In the near future its use for the disinfestation of grain will be implemented. The irradiation of food - described as the first truly novel food preservation method since Nicolas Appert well over one hundred years ago invented food preservation by bottling - will doubtless play a very important role in the life of mankind, in many instances in conjunction with conventional food treatment methods, such as heat and refrigeration.

  3. Food Irradiation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    of perishable food products. Different radiation sources, particularly 60 Co and electron accelerators, can be used. Different types of foodstuffs react differently: ripening is delayed in some fruit, the cooking time of dehydrated vegetables can be shortened, and the shelf life of fish and some varieties of fruit and vegetables can be more than doubled. The applicability of irradiation depends on economic factors, as well as on climatic, technological, transport and food-growing conditions in given areas. The main subjects covered at the Symposium were: radiation sources and dosimetry, the wholesomeness of irradiated food, the chemical and physical effects of ionizing radiation, microbiology, virology and quarantine problems, the status of various irradiated commodities, including meat and meat products, poultry and eggs, grain and stored food products, fish and sea foods, and fruit and vegetables. In the broader application of radiation to food preservation, the participants discussed present programmes in operation, facilities used, and economics, together with national legislation and clearances for irradiated items. Some countries are already using radiation for the prevention of sprouting in potatoes and onions and for the sterilization of bacon. In the near future its use for the disinfestation of grain will be implemented. The irradiation of food - described as the first truly novel food preservation method since Nicolas Appert well over one hundred years ago invented food preservation by bottling - will doubtless play a very important role in the life of mankind, in many instances in conjunction with conventional food treatment methods, such as heat and refrigeration.

  4. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0517 TITLE: IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Simon P. Hogan PhD...IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yui Hsi Wang, Sunil...threatening anaphylaxis. We have identified a novel multi-functional IL-9-producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) that produce large amounts of IL-9, IL

  5. Aquaponics in Urban Agriculture: Social Acceptance and Urban Food Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Pollard; James D. Ward; Barbara Koth

    2017-01-01

    Aquaponics is emerging as a novel technology with particular potential for urban agriculture (UA). The social acceptance of aquaponics and its place in urban food planning has not previously been studied. This study used focus groups, key informant interviews, and scenario analyses to investigate the reactions of Adelaide’s urban food opinion leaders and local government area (LGA) officials to aquaponics. Most of the focus group participants were unfamiliar with aquaponics. The perceived neg...

  6. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  7. Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques: present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Brennan, Lorraine; Drevon, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    food metabolomics techniques that allow the quantification of up to thousands of metabolites simultaneously, which may be applied in intervention and observational studies. As biomarkers are often influenced by various other factors than the food under investigation, FoodBAll developed a food intake...... in these metabolomics studies, knowledge about available electronic metabolomics resources is necessary and further developments of these resources are essential. Ultimately, present efforts in this research area aim to advance quality control of traditional dietary assessment methods, advance compliance evaluation...

  8. Eating One’s Way Through History: Food and Politics in Manuka Wijesinghe’s Monsoons and Potholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alonso Breto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of an analysis of Monsoons and Potholes (2006, the first novel by Sri Lankan playwright Manuka Wijesinghe. Attention is paid to the ways in which the text articulates relations between personal stories, food, history and politics. Food plays a central role in some novels published in the last years by Sri Lankan authors, as is the case, for instance, with Yasmine Gooneratne’s A Change of Skies (1984 and Mary Ann Mohanraj’s Bodies in Motion (2005. Both these works elaborate metaphors of identity through the dominant trope of food-encompassing cooking and the rituals of consumption. In Monsoons and Potholes, food accompanies and illustrates the autobiographical account of a Sri Lankan youngster born in the early 1960s, and revisits the first twenty years in her life together with the socio-political up and downs in her country. While it is a novel which to a great extent draws on metaphors of myth and history, scenes of food and eating appear consistently throughout the narration, which contribute in providing a down-to-earth (and highly satirical version of the life of the Sinhala upper-middle classes during the period. These images of food (and the sets of rituals, beliefs and constrictions around it are exploited by the author with the aim to explore, understand and denounce the historical process which precipitated Sri Lanka, at the beginning of the 1980s, “on the road to nowhere”.

  9. Global Analysis of Food and Nutrition: What the Human Body Wants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Foo, Mathias; Sung, Jaeyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2014-03-01

    There is currently an abundance of quantitative information regarding foods we consume, such as their total nutrient composition and daily nutritional requirements. In this study, we systematically analyzed such large-scale data of foods to better understand how the composition of foods affects their overall nutritional value. Herein, we constructed two types of networks that reflect nutritional data from about 700 food products: 1) The Food-food Network, in which each edge connects a pair of foods having similar nutritional contents; and 2) the Nutrient-nutrient Network, which is based on co-occurrence patterns of different nutrients across foods. By adopting the insight we obtained from the topological properties of these networks, we present a novel measure to quantify the overall nutritional value of a food, which we call the Nutritional Fitness (NF). Some nutrients can hinder foods from having high NF, acting as ``nutritional bottlenecks.'' Interestingly, a food's NF is not only affected by individual nutrients, but also pairs of nutrients. To this effect, foods with very high NFs tend to have unique nutrient pairs not observed from the majority of foods. To summarize, our study provides insight into how NF and nutrients are intricately related.

  10. Novel bio-active lipid nanocarriers for the stabilization and sustained release of sitosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacatusu, I; Badea, N; Stan, R; Meghea, A

    2012-01-01

    In this work, new stable and efficiently bio-active lipid nanocarriers (NLCs) with antioxidant properties have been developed for the transport of active ingredients in food. The novel NLCs loaded with β-sitosterol/β-sitosterol and green tea extract (GTE) and prepared by a combination of natural oils (grape seed oil, fish oil and squalene) and biological lipids with food grade surfactants, were physico-chemically examined by DLS, TEM, electrokinetic potential, DSC and HPLC and found to have main diameters less than 200 nm, a spherical morphology, excellent physical stability, an imperfect crystalline lattice and high entrapment efficiency. The novel loaded-NLCs have demonstrated the potential to develop a high blocking action of chain reactions, trapping up to 92% of the free-oxygen radicals, as compared to the native β-sitosterol (AA%=36.5). Another advantage of this study is associated with the quality of bio-active NLCs based on grape seed oil and squalene to manifest a better sitosterol—sustained release behaviour as compared to their related nanoemulsions. By coupling both in vitro results, i.e. the enhanced antioxidant activity and superior release properties, this study emphasizes the sustainability of novel bio-active nanocarriers to gain specific bio-food features for development of functional foods with a high applicability spectrum. (paper)

  11. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-independent expression of hypothalamic NOR1, a novel modulator of food intake and energy balance, in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao; Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko; Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    NOR1, Nur77 and Nurr1 are orphan nuclear receptors and members of the NR4A subfamily. Here, we report that the expression of hypothalamic NOR1 was remarkably decreased in mildly obese β-endorphin-deficient mice and obese db/db mice with the leptin receptor mutation, compared with age-matched wild-type mice, whereas there were no genotypic differences in the expression of hypothalamic Nur77 or Nurr1 in these animals. The injection of NOR1 siRNA oligonucleotide into the third cerebral ventricle significantly suppressed food intake and body weight in mice. On the other hand, the decreases in hypothalamic NOR1 expression were not found in non-obese 5-HT2C receptor-deficient mice. Moreover, systemic administration of m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2C/1B receptor agonist, had no effect on hypothalamic NOR1 expression, while suppressing food intake in β-endorphin-deficient mice. These findings suggest that 5-HT2C receptor-independent proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides regulate the expression of hypothalamic NOR1, which is a novel modulator of feeding behavior and energy balance.

  12. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-independent expression of hypothalamic NOR1, a novel modulator of food intake and energy balance, in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori, E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp [Center of Excellence, Division of Molecular Metabolism and Diabetes, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Department of Lifestyle Medicine, Biomedical Engineering Center, Tohoku University (Japan); Kaji, Takao [Department of Lifestyle Medicine, Biomedical Engineering Center, Tohoku University (Japan); Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko [Center of Excellence, Division of Molecular Metabolism and Diabetes, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro [Charles River Laboratories Japan, Inc. (Japan)

    2009-08-21

    NOR1, Nur77 and Nurr1 are orphan nuclear receptors and members of the NR4A subfamily. Here, we report that the expression of hypothalamic NOR1 was remarkably decreased in mildly obese {beta}-endorphin-deficient mice and obese db/db mice with the leptin receptor mutation, compared with age-matched wild-type mice, whereas there were no genotypic differences in the expression of hypothalamic Nur77 or Nurr1 in these animals. The injection of NOR1 siRNA oligonucleotide into the third cerebral ventricle significantly suppressed food intake and body weight in mice. On the other hand, the decreases in hypothalamic NOR1 expression were not found in non-obese 5-HT2C receptor-deficient mice. Moreover, systemic administration of m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2C/1B receptor agonist, had no effect on hypothalamic NOR1 expression, while suppressing food intake in {beta}-endorphin-deficient mice. These findings suggest that 5-HT2C receptor-independent proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides regulate the expression of hypothalamic NOR1, which is a novel modulator of feeding behavior and energy balance.

  13. Potential food applications of biobased materials. An EU- concerted action project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, V.K.; Udsen, A.M.; Mortensen, G.

    2001-01-01

    and coatings to food but novel commercial applications of these are scarce. Based on information currently available on the properties of biobased packaging materials the study identified products in the fresh meat, dairy, ready meal, beverage, fruit and vegetable, snack, frozen food and dry food categories......The objective of the study was to ascertain the state of the art with regard to the applicability of biobased packaging materials to foods and to identify potential food applications for biobased materials. The study revealed relatively few examples of biobased materials used as primary, secondary...... or tertiary packaging materials for foods. This is due to the fact that published investigations on the use of biobased materials are still scarce, and results obtained remain unpublished because of commercial pressures. The scientific literature contains numerous reports on applications of edible films...

  14. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  15. A novel method to remotely measure food intake of free-living individuals in real time: the remote food photography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra M; Allen, H Raymond; Champagne, Catherine M; Anton, Stephen D

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the first reliability and validity tests of the remote food photography method (RFPM), which consists of camera-enabled cell phones with data transfer capability. Participants take and transmit photographs of food selection and plate waste to researchers/clinicians for analysis. Following two pilot studies, adult participants (n 52; BMI 20-35 kg/m2 inclusive) were randomly assigned to the dine-in or take-out group. Energy intake (EI) was measured for 3 d. The dine-in group ate lunch and dinner in the laboratory. The take-out group ate lunch in the laboratory and dinner in free-living conditions (participants received a cooler with pre-weighed food that they returned the following morning). EI was measured with the RFPM and by directly weighing foods. The RFPM was tested in laboratory and free-living conditions. Reliability was tested over 3 d and validity was tested by comparing directly weighed EI to EI estimated with the RFPM using Bland-Altman analysis. The RFPM produced reliable EI estimates over 3 d in laboratory (r 0.62; P 0.93; P < 0.0001). In two laboratory-based validity tests, the RFPM underestimated EI by - 4.7 % (P = 0.046) and - 5.5 % (P = 0.076). In free-living conditions, the RFPM underestimated EI by - 6.6 % (P = 0.017). Bias did not differ by body weight or age. The RFPM is a promising new method for accurately measuring the EI of free-living individuals. Error associated with the method is small compared with self-report methods.

  16. Size-based predictions of food web patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Hartvig, Martin; Knudsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    We employ size-based theoretical arguments to derive simple analytic predictions of ecological patterns and properties of natural communities: size-spectrum exponent, maximum trophic level, and susceptibility to invasive species. The predictions are brought about by assuming that an infinite number...... of species are continuously distributed on a size-trait axis. It is, however, an open question whether such predictions are valid for a food web with a finite number of species embedded in a network structure. We address this question by comparing the size-based predictions to results from dynamic food web...... simulations with varying species richness. To this end, we develop a new size- and trait-based food web model that can be simplified into an analytically solvable size-based model. We confirm existing solutions for the size distribution and derive novel predictions for maximum trophic level and invasion...

  17. The rise of food allergy: Environmental factors and emerging treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Benedé

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy has rapidly increased in prevalence, suggesting an important role for environmental factors in disease susceptibility. The immune response of food allergy is characterized by IgE production, and new findings from mouse and human studies indicate an important role of the cytokine IL-9, which is derived from both T cells and mast cells, in disease manifestations. Emerging evidence suggests that route of exposure to food, particularly peanut, is important. Exposure through the skin promotes sensitization while early exposure through the gastrointestinal tract promotes tolerance. Evidence from mouse studies indicate a role of the microbiome in development of food allergy, which is supported by correlative human studies showing a dysbiosis in food allergy. There is no approved treatment for food allergy, but emerging therapies are focused on allergen immunotherapy to provide desensitization, while pre-clinical studies are focused on using adjuvants or novel delivery approaches to improve efficacy and safety of immunotherapy.

  18. Food Allergy - Basic Mechanisms and Applications to Identifying Risks Associated with Plant Incorporated Pesticides and Other Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is a relatively new concern for toxicologists as a result of the incorporation of novel proteins into food crops in order to promote resistance to pests and other stresses, improve nutrition, or otherwise modify the phenotype. Food allergy can manifest as inflammatio...

  19. Immunogenicity of novel sulfadimethoxide conjugates | Chen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunogenicity of novel sulfadimethoxide conjugates. L Chen, J Su, X Zhang, L Li, X He. Abstract. Sulfadimethoxine (SDM) is an antibiotic commonly added to animal feeds. Anti-SDM antibodies are useful for the detection of residual SDM in foods, feeds and biological fluids by ELISA. In this study, we show that SDM is ...

  20. Episodic memory for natural and transformed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Marilena; Vignando, Miriam; Foroni, Francesco; Pergola, Giulio; Rossi, Paola; Silveri, Maria Caterina; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2018-05-10

    It has been proposed that the conceptual knowledge of food and its putative subdivision into natural (i.e., fruit/vegetables) and transformed (i.e., food that underwent thermic or non-thermic processing) may follow the living/non-living distinction. In the present study, we investigated whether the advantage for living things compared to non-living things observed in episodic memory (the so-called animacy effect) extends to natural foods and transformed foods respectively. We pursued this issue in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we measured episodic memory for natural and transformed foods in young participants. In Experiment 2, we enrolled dementia-free centenarians, patients with Alzheimer's disease (DAT), Progressive primary aphasia (PPA), and healthy controls whose episodic memory was also tested for living/non-living things. Results showed that young participants had better recognition memory for transformed foods compared to natural foods. This difference disappeared in centenarians and patients. However, centenarians and PPA exhibited enhanced levels of false alarms (FA) with natural food, and DAT patients with both natural and transformed food. As far as the living/non-living distinction is concerned, the episodic memory for the living category appears more resilient to the decline compared to the non-living category in patients, particularly those with PPA. In conclusion, our study shows that transformed food is better remembered than natural food, suggesting that it is more salient and possibly relevant from an evolutionary perspective. The natural/transformed distinction appears susceptible to erosion only in the presence of a high degree of episodic memory impairment. These results offer novel insight on episodic memory of food, and also extend the current knowledge on the animacy effect in episodic memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MAFF sponsored research: detection tests for irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.M.; Holley, P.A.; Pryke, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    In their 1986 report on the safety and wholesomeness of irradiated food the UK Advisory Committee on Irradiated and Novel Foods (ACINF) recognised that a generally applicable test to determine if a food had been irradiated was not available. The committee considered that, although not a pre-requisite, the existence of a detection test would be a useful supplement to a control system and do much to reassure consumers; with this in mind ACINF recommended that detection methods should be kept under review. As a consequence, in 1987 the Ministry initiated a comprehensive R and D detection test programme. Over fifty papers have been published to date as a result of this programme. MAFF (Ministry Of Agriculture Fisheries and Food) has also been involved in other research associated with irradiation and food safety, some of which is described in this paper. This paper aims to give an overview of recent work funded under the food irradiation programme. Twelve projects have been supported over the last two years, ten of which involved the development of detection tests for irradiated food. A summary of these projects is presented: - Thermoluminescence; - Electron Spin Resonance; - 2-alkylcyclobutanones; -Determination Of Hydrogen; - Differential Scanning Calorimetry; - Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate; - DNA; - Pesticide Breakdown; - Neutron Irradiation; -Future Plans. (orig./vhe)

  2. Drivers and barriers to the development of local food networks in rural Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann; Sundbo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the growing interest in local food by focusing on local food networks. The objective is to explore what factors drive or hinder the development of local food networks in rural Denmark. For this purpose, we have combined three bodies of theory: local food networks; entrepreneur...... networks; and the experience economy. This provides a valuable contribution to the current discourse on local food networks, as it introduces a novel framework to investigate the localisation of food dynamics. The article presents an explorative, case-based investigation of three Danish local food networks....... The findings demonstrate that the main drivers of the development of local food networks are the pursuance of transparency and knowledge of origin, the existence of entrepreneurship potential, the coordination of networks by means of joint strategies, and the overcoming of conflict patterns. However...

  3. Effect of food to microorganism ratio on biohydrogen production from food waste via anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jinming [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang, Ruihong; Sun, Huawei [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); El-Mashad, Hamed M. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Agricultural Engineering, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura (Egypt); Ying, Yibin [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The effect of different food to microorganism ratios (F/M) (1-10) on the hydrogen production from the anaerobic batch fermentation of mixed food waste was studied at two temperatures, 35 {+-} 2 C and 50 {+-} 2 C. Anaerobic sludge taken from anaerobic reactors was used as inoculum. It was found that hydrogen was produced mainly during the first 44 h of fermentation. The F/M between 7 and 10 was found to be appropriate for hydrogen production via thermophilic fermentation with the highest yield of 57 ml-H{sub 2}/g VS at an F/M of 7. Under mesophilic conditions, hydrogen was produced at a lower level and in a narrower range of F/Ms, with the highest yield of 39 ml-H{sub 2}/g VS at the F/M of 6. A modified Gompertz equation adequately (R{sup 2} > 0.946) described the cumulative hydrogen production yields. This study provides a novel strategy for controlling the conditions for production of hydrogen from food waste via anaerobic fermentation. (author)

  4. Evaluation of biotechnology-derived novel proteins for the risk of food-allergic potential: advances in the development of animal models and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Varun; Quatchadze, Maria; Ahuja, Vaishali; Stelter, Daniela; Albrecht, Achim; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2010-12-01

    Increasing concern from the public about the safety of genetically modified food has made critical to have suitable methods for recognizing associated potential hazards. Hierarchical approaches to allergenicity determination were proposed, and these include evaluation of the structural and sequence homology and serological identity of novel proteins with existing allergens, measuring the resistance to proteolytic digestion and assessment of sensitizing potential using animal models. Allergic individuals have a predisposed (i.e. atopic) genetic background, and a close resemblance to this setup is therefore desirable in animal models, which is possible by using a strain of an animal species that is prone for allergic disorders. So far, none of the animal model has been validated for the purpose of hazard identification in the context of safety assessment. However, the available knowledge suggests that the judicious use of an appropriate animal model could provide important information about the allergic potential of novel proteins. This paper provides an up-to-date review of the progress made in the field of development of in vivo models in this direction and the further goals that have to be achieved.

  5. Novel nanoliposomal encapsulated omega-3 fatty acids and their applications in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Babak; Erfanian, Arezoo; Selamat, Jinap

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the application, stability and suitability of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) incorporated nanoliposomes in food enrichment. Nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs was prepared by Mozafari method, and their application in bread and milk was compared with unencapsulated (fish oil) and microencapsulated ω3 PUFAs. Sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the perceptible sensory difference/similarity between control, unencapsulated, microencapsulated, and nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched foods. Results showed no significant (p=0.11) detectable difference between control and nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched samples while, samples enriched with unencapsulated or microencapsulated ω3 PUFAs showed significant (p=0.02) fishy flavor. Moreover, significantly (pfood system was developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Automatic ingestion monitor: a novel wearable device for monitoring of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-06-01

    Objective monitoring of food intake and ingestive behavior in a free-living environment remains an open problem that has significant implications in study and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. In this paper, a novel wearable sensor system (automatic ingestion monitor, AIM) is presented for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living. The proposed device integrates three sensor modalities that wirelessly interface to a smartphone: a jaw motion sensor, a hand gesture sensor, and an accelerometer. A novel sensor fusion and pattern recognition method was developed for subject-independent food intake recognition. The device and the methodology were validated with data collected from 12 subjects wearing AIM during the course of 24 h in which both the daily activities and the food intake of the subjects were not restricted in any way. Results showed that the system was able to detect food intake with an average accuracy of 89.8%, which suggests that AIM can potentially be used as an instrument to monitor ingestive behavior in free-living individuals.

  7. Animating Domain-Specific Complex Knowledge : An Analysis of Organic Food Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal point of this paper is an analysis and a discussion of the animated film “MultiTrust”. The film is a result a research project dealing with the “Multicriteria assessment and communication of effects of organic food systems”. A primary intention of this project was to help consumers make...... informed choices when it comes to purchasing organic foods. The animation presents a novel way of communicating domain-specific knowledge of organic food products to consumers. In order to analyze “MultiTrust”, a model of analysis is presented, which is framed by the research field communication...

  8. CRISPR-Cas Technologies and Applications in Food Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Emily; Klaenhammer, Todd; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2017-02-28

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins form adaptive immune systems that occur in many bacteria and most archaea. In addition to protecting bacteria from phages and other invasive mobile genetic elements, CRISPR-Cas molecular machines can be repurposed as tool kits for applications relevant to the food industry. A primary concern of the food industry has long been the proper management of food-related bacteria, with a focus on both enhancing the outcomes of beneficial microorganisms such as starter cultures and probiotics and limiting the presence of detrimental organisms such as pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. This review introduces CRISPR-Cas as a novel set of technologies to manage food bacteria and offers insights into CRISPR-Cas biology. It primarily focuses on the applications of CRISPR-Cas systems and tools in starter cultures and probiotics, encompassing strain-typing, phage resistance, plasmid vaccination, genome editing, and antimicrobial activity.

  9. NEW METHODOLOGIES FOR BIOFILMS CONTROL IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Bajzík

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The complete removal of biofilms on food  equipment surfaces  is essential to ensure food safety and quality. However, cells in biofilms exhibit greater resistance against the action of sanitizers and other antimicrobial agents compared to their free living counterparts, making them much more difficult to remove. They can be a significant source of post - processing contamination and could potentially harbor pathogens in food processing platns. The biotechnology sector is just beginning to tackle the problem of biofilms by developing antimicrobial agents with novel mechanisms of action. Some studies seek to prevent biofilm formation, others aim to develop antimicrobial agents to treat existing biofilms, and still others are trying to disrupt the polymeric ties that bind the biofilms together. doi:10.5219/17

  10. Reduced membrane fouling in a novel bio-entrapped membrane reactor for treatment of food and beverage processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Kwang; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Andy Hong, Pui-Kwan; Yang, Ping-Yi

    2011-08-01

    A novel Bio-Entrapped Membrane Reactor (BEMR) packed with bio-ball carriers was constructed and investigated for organics removal and membrane fouling by soluble microbial products (SMP). An objective was to evaluate the stability of the filtration process in membrane bioreactors through backwashing and chemical cleaning. The novel BEMR was compared to a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) on performance, with both treating identical wastewater from a food and beverage processing plant. The new reactor has a longer sludge retention time (SRT) and lower mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) content than does the conventional. Three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6, 9, and 12 h were studied. The results show faster rise of the transmembrane pressure (TMP) with decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) in both reactors, where most significant membrane fouling was associated with high SMP (consisting of carbohydrate and protein) contents that were prevalent at the shortest HRT of 6 h. Membrane fouling was improved in the new reactor, which led to a longer membrane service period with the new reactor. Rapid membrane fouling was attributed to increased production of biomass and SMP, as in the conventional reactor. SMP of 10-100 kDa from both MBRs were predominant with more than 70% of the SMP <100 kDa. Protein was the major component of SMP rather than carbohydrate in both reactors. The new reactor sustained operation at constant permeate flux that required seven times less frequent chemical cleaning than did the conventional reactor. The new BEMR offers effective organics removal while reducing membrane fouling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspects of food processing and its effect on allergen structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Angelika

    2009-08-01

    The article summarizes current physical and chemical methods in food processing as storage, preparation, separation, isolation or purification and thermal application on the one hand as well as enzymatic treatment on the other and their impact on the properties of food proteins. Novel methods of food processing like high pressure, electric field application or irradiation and their impact on food allergens are presented. The EU project REDALL (Reduced Allergenicity of Processed Foods, Containing Animal Allergens: QLK1-CT-2002-02687) showed that by a combination of enzyme and heat treatment the allergic potential of hen's egg decreased about 100 fold. Clinical reactions do not appear anymore. An AiF-FV 12024 N project worked with fruits like mango, lychee and apple. Processed mango and lychee had no change in allergenic potential during heating while e. g. canning. Apple almost lost its allergenic potential after pasteurization in juice production.

  12. Development of a novel scoring system for identifying emerging chemical risks in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, J; Licht, O; Bitsch, A; Bohlen, M-L; Escher, S E; Silano, V; MacLeod, M; Serafimova, R; Kass, G E N; Merten, C

    2018-02-21

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for risk assessment of all aspects of food safety, including the establishment of procedures aimed at the identification of emerging risks to food safety. Here, a scoring system was developed for identifying chemicals registered under the European REACH Regulation that could be of potential concern in the food chain using the following parameters: (i) environmental release based on maximum aggregated tonnages and environmental release categories; (ii) biodegradation in the environment; (iii) bioaccumulation and in vivo and in vitro toxicity. The screening approach was tested on 100 data-rich chemicals registered under the REACH Regulation at aggregated volumes of at least 1000 tonnes per annum. The results show that substance-specific data generated under the REACH Regulation can be used to identify potential emerging risks in the food chain. After application of the screening procedure, priority chemicals can be identified as potentially emerging risk chemicals through the integration of exposure, environmental fate and toxicity. The default approach is to generate a single total score for each substance using a predefined weighting scenario. However, it is also possible to use a pivot table approach to combine the individual scores in different ways that reflect user-defined priorities, which enables a very flexible, iterative definition of screening criteria. Possible applications of the approaches are discussed using illustrative examples. Either approach can then be followed by in-depth evaluation of priority substances to ensure the identification of substances that present a real emerging chemical risk in the food chain.

  13. Formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cindy J; Schieber, Andreas; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-11-01

    Fermented foods are valued for their rich and complex odour and taste. The metabolic activity of food-fermenting microorganisms determines food quality and generates odour and taste compounds. This communication reviews the formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations. Pathways of the generation of taste compounds are presented for soy sauce, cheese, fermented meats, and bread. Proteolysis or autolysis during food fermentations generates taste-active amino acids and peptides; peptides derived from proteolysis particularly impart umami taste (e.g. α-glutamyl peptides) or bitter taste (e.g. hydrophobic peptides containing proline). Taste active peptide derivatives include pyroglutamyl peptides, γ-glutamyl peptides, and succinyl- or lactoyl amino acids. The influence of fermentation microbiota on proteolysis, and peptide hydrolysis, and the metabolism of glutamate and arginine is well understood, however, the understanding of microbial metabolic activities related to the formation of taste-active peptide derivatives is incomplete. Improved knowledge of the interactions between taste-active compounds will enable the development of novel fermentation strategies to develop tastier, less bitter, and low-salt food products, and may provide novel and "clean label" ingredients to improve the taste of other food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitigation of Patulin in Fresh and Processed Foods and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioi, J David; Zhou, Ting; Tsao, Rong; F Marcone, Massimo

    2017-05-11

    Patulin is a mycotoxin of food safety concern. It is produced by numerous species of fungi growing on fruits and vegetables. Exposure to the toxin is connected to issues neurological, immunological, and gastrointestinal in nature. Regulatory agencies worldwide have established maximum allowable levels of 50 µg/kg in foods. Despite regulations, surveys continue to find patulin in commercial food and beverage products, in some cases, to exceed the maximum limits. Patulin content in food can be mitigated throughout the food processing chain. Proper handling, storage, and transportation of food can limit fungal growth and patulin production. Common processing techniques including pasteurisation, filtration, and fermentation all have an effect on patulin content in food but individually are not sufficient safety measures. Novel methods to remove or detoxify patulin have been reviewed. Non-thermal processing techniques such as high hydrostatic pressure, UV radiation, enzymatic degradation, binding to microorganisms, and chemical degradation all have potential but have not been optimised. Until further refinement of these methods, the hurdle approach to processing should be used where food safety is concerned. Future development should focus on determining the nature and safety of chemicals produced from the breakdown of patulin in treatment techniques.

  15. Innovative antimicrobial interventions for perishable and semiperishable food items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tom C.; Powers, Edmund M.; Sikes, Anthony; Dunne, C. P.

    1999-01-01

    Recent foodborne outbreaks have emphasized that microbes are evolving strategies that overcome our traditional processing and preservation techniques. Conventional treatments to decontaminate products containing human pathogens are largely ineffective, and new interventions are needed. Such innovative technologies are needed to assure the production and processing of high quality, fresh food items that are less likely to support pathogen growth. Novel chemical and physical treatments are needed that will reduce the risk of microbial contamination while not adversely affecting the quality of the products. This paper presents Natick Lab's efforts in exploring non-traditional methods such as electrolyzed oxidizing water, high intensity light, modified atmospheres and microwave and irradiation technologies, non-traditional chemical treatments including novel sanitizing solutions and natural antimicrobial agents, and non-traditional biological treatments such as the use of bacteriocins. Microbial tests showed significant antifungal, antibacterial effects of these methods, individually and synergistically, with minimum deterioration of food quality as measured by the sensory evaluations. The methods are useful for both military and civilian applications.

  16. Gelatin-Based Films and Coatings for Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ramos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the latest advances in the composition of gelatin-based edible films and coatings, including nanoparticle addition, and their properties are reviewed along their potential for application in the food packaging industry. Gelatin is an important biopolymer derived from collagen and is extensively used by various industries because of its technological and functional properties. Nowadays, a very wide range of components are available to be included as additives to improve its properties, as well as its applications and future potential. Antimicrobials, antioxidants and other agents are detailed due to the fact that an increasing awareness among consumers regarding healthy lifestyle has promoted research into novel techniques and additives to prolong the shelf life of food products. Thanks to its ability to improve global food quality, gelatin has been particularly considered in food preservation of meat and fish products, among others.

  17. Improving internal communication between marketing and technology functions for successful new food product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Grunert, Klaus G; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market......, and knowledge management, food companies can enhance internal communication between market and technology functions during the NPD process....

  18. Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aptamer-Based Analysis: A Promising Alternative for Food Safety Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Amaya-González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future.

  20. Nanotechnology: the word is new but the concept is old. An overview of the science and technology in food and food products at the nanoscale level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Bryksa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food scientists and technologists are actively engaged in examining and developing nanotechnologies for applications such as novel functional ingredients and nutrient delivery systems, safety testing, packaging, and authenticity/authentication at an ever-increasing pace. However, before these new products/technologies are commercialised, rigorous safety testing and risk/benefit analysis are required to ensure that public and environmental concerns are addressed. This review provides an overview of food nanoscience and technology including a brief history, education, definitions pertaining to policy and regulation, and applications. The most recent findings and advances are emphasised, focussing on bioactives' delivery. In addition, proposed directions in the area of nano-based targeting of pathogens for food safety as well as medical foods are discussed. As food nanoscience and technology has been extensively reviewed in recent years, specific case examples will be limited to those reported within the past year.

  1. A trained demonstrator has a calming effect on naïve horses when crossing a novel surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    horse being led five times across a novel surface. Immediately afterwards the observer horses were given the opportunity to cross the novel surface themselves to obtain food on the other side. Controls (n = 11) were allowed to observe the demonstrator eating on the opposite side of the novel surface...

  2. Constraints on food chain length arising from regional metacommunity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Vincent; Massol, François; Mouquet, Nicolas; Jarne, Philippe; David, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Classical ecological theory has proposed several determinants of food chain length, but the role of metacommunity dynamics has not yet been fully considered. By modelling patchy predator–prey metacommunities with extinction–colonization dynamics, we identify two distinct constraints on food chain length. First, finite colonization rates limit predator occupancy to a subset of prey-occupied sites. Second, intrinsic extinction rates accumulate along trophic chains. We show how both processes concur to decrease maximal and average food chain length in metacommunities. This decrease is mitigated if predators track their prey during colonization (habitat selection) and can be reinforced by top-down control of prey vital rates (especially extinction). Moreover, top-down control of colonization and habitat selection can interact to produce a counterintuitive positive relationship between perturbation rate and food chain length. Our results show how novel limits to food chain length emerge in spatially structured communities. We discuss the connections between these constraints and the ones commonly discussed, and suggest ways to test for metacommunity effects in food webs. PMID:21367786

  3. The application of computer color matching techniques to the matching of target colors in a food substrate: a first step in the development of foods with customized appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sandra; Golding, Matt; Archer, Richard H

    2012-06-01

    A predictive color matching model based on the colorimetric technique was developed and used to calculate the concentrations of primary food dyes needed in a model food substrate to match a set of standard tile colors. This research is the first stage in the development of novel three-dimensional (3D) foods in which color images or designs can be rapidly reproduced in 3D form. Absorption coefficients were derived for each dye, from a concentration series in the model substrate, a microwave-baked cake. When used in a linear, additive blending model these coefficients were able to predict cake color from selected dye blends to within 3 ΔE*(ab,10) color difference units, or within the limit of a visually acceptable match. Absorption coefficients were converted to pseudo X₁₀, Y₁₀, and Z₁₀ tri-stimulus values (X₁₀(P), Y₁₀(P), Z₁₀(P)) for colorimetric matching. The Allen algorithm was used to calculate dye concentrations to match the X₁₀(P), Y₁₀(P), and Z₁₀(P) values of each tile color. Several recipes for each color were computed with the tile specular component included or excluded, and tested in the cake. Some tile colors proved out-of-gamut, limited by legal dye concentrations; these were scaled to within legal range. Actual differences suggest reasonable visual matches could be achieved for within-gamut tile colors. The Allen algorithm, with appropriate adjustments of concentration outputs, could provide a sufficiently rapid and accurate calculation tool for 3D color food printing. The predictive color matching approach shows potential for use in a novel embodiment of 3D food printing in which a color image or design could be rendered within a food matrix through the selective blending of primary dyes to reproduce each color element. The on-demand nature of this food application requires rapid color outputs which could be provided by the color matching technique, currently used in nonfood industries, rather than by empirical food

  4. Unraveling microbial biofilms of importance for food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelströter, Lizziane Kretli; Teixeira, Fernanda Barbosa dos Reis; Silva, Eliane Pereira; Alves, Virgínia Farias; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The presence of biofilms is a relevant risk factors in the food industry due to the potential contamination of food products with pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. The majority of bacteria are able to adhere and to form biofilms, where they can persist and survive for days to weeks or even longer, depending on the microorganism and the environmental conditions. The biological cycle of biofilms includes several developmental phases such as: initial attachment, maturation, maintenance, and dispersal. Bacteria in biofilms are generally well protected against environmental stress, consequently, extremely difficult to eradicate and detect in food industry. In the present manuscript, some techniques and compounds used to control and to prevent the biofilm formation are presented and discussed. Moreover, a number of novel techniques have been recently employed to detect and evaluate bacteria attached to surfaces, including real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA microarray and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Better knowledge on the architecture, physiology and molecular signaling in biofilms can contribute for preventing and controlling food-related spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The present study highlights basic and applied concepts important for understanding the role of biofilms in bacterial survival, persistence and dissemination in food processing environments.

  5. The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Mackie, A.R.; Burney, P.

    2007-01-01

    . The cohorts will also facilitate validation of novel in vitro diagnostics through the development of the EuroPrevall Serum Bank. Complementary studies in Ghana, western Siberia, India and China will allow LIS to gain insights into how different dietary patterns and exposure to microorganisms affect food......The development of effective management strategies to optimize the quality of life for allergic patients is currently hampered by a lack of good quality information. Estimates of how many individuals suffer from food allergy and the major foods involved vary widely and inadequacies of in vitro...... diagnostics make food challenges the only reliable means of diagnosis in many instances. The EuroPrevall project brings together a multidisciplinary partnership to address these issues. Cohorts spanning the main climatic regions of Europe are being developed in infants through a birth cohort, community...

  6. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussion

    Modern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial

  7. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE with a fermentation productivity and a yield of 0.22 g/L/h and 0.35 g/g, respectively. In a similar fermentation 81 g/L of food waste (containing equivalent glucose of 60.1 g/L) was used as substrate, and the culture produced 18.9 g/L ABE with a high ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and a yield of 0.38 g/g. Fermentation of food waste at higher concentrations (129, 181 and 228 g/L) did not remarkably increase ABE production but resulted in high residual glucose due to the culture butanol inhibition. An integrated vacuum stripping system was designed and applied to recover butanol from the fermentation broth simultaneously to relieve the culture butanol inhibition, thereby allowing the fermentation of food waste at high concentrations. ABE fermentation integrated with vacuum stripping successfully recovered the ABE from the fermentation broth and controlled the ABE concentrations below 10 g/L during fermentation when 129 g/L food waste was used. The ABE productivity with vacuum fermentation was 0.49 g/L/h, which was 109 % higher than the control fermentation (glucose based). More importantly, ABE vacuum recovery and fermentation allowed near-complete utilization of the sugars (~98 %) in the broth. In these studies it was demonstrated that food waste is a superior feedstock for producing butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii. Compared to costly glucose, ABE fermentation of food waste has several advantages including lower feedstock cost, higher productivity, and less residual sugars.

  8. Motivation for Palatable Food Despite Consequences in an Animal Model of Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. PMID:20186718

  9. Motivation for palatable food despite consequences in an animal model of binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Kimberly D; Murdaugh, Donna L; King, Vinetra L; Boggiano, Mary M

    2011-04-01

    Binge eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. UK consumer perceptions of a novel till-receipt 'traffic-light' nutrition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Peek, Hayden; Cowen, Daniel

    2018-03-26

    Front-of-pack (FoP) traffic light nutrition labelling has been widely proposed as a tool to improve public health nutrition. Current evidence suggests that whilst consumers generally find them to be useful and an important source of information about a particular food or ingredient, this may have limited value in isolation when considering a person's overall nutritional intake. This study sought to examine UK consumers' use of existing FoP traffic light food labelling and ascertain public perception of a novel 'till-receipt' summary providing nutritional information about consumers entire shopping purchases. In total, 237 respondents completed an online questionnaire between May and June 2016. Almost two-thirds were female (n = 152, 64.1%) and the largest proportion of responses were received from those aged 25-32 years (n = 53, 22.4%) and 41-50 years (n = 53, 22.4%). About 83.5% of respondents suggested that they currently use traffic light information to inform their food purchases and 'health' was reported as the most important factor influencing food choice (42.2%; n = 100). Notably, 54.4% of respondents indicated that the novel till-receipt system could provide a solution to the potential limitations of existing FoP labelling and could help inform healthier food purchases. Our findings strengthen the existing evidence base to suggest that traffic light information is a useful tool to aid consumer food purchases. Moreover, our outcomes propose that consumers may benefit from a new receipt-based traffic light system which provides a more holistic summary of their entire food purchases.

  11. Desire-state attribution: Benefits of a novel paradigm using the food-sharing behavior of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Cheke, Lucy G; Shaw, Rachael C; Legg, Edward W; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have investigated the possibility that Eurasian jay food sharing might rely on desire-state attribution. The female's desire for a particular type of food can be decreased by sating her on it (specific satiety) and the food sharing paradigm can be used to test whether the male's sharing pattern reflects the female's current desire. Our previous findings show that the male shares the food that the female currently wants. Here, we consider 3 simpler mechanisms that might explain the male's behavior: behavior reading, lack of self-other differentiation and behavioral rules. We illustrate how we have already addressed these issues and how our food sharing paradigm can be further adapted to answer outstanding questions. The flexibility with which the food sharing paradigm can be applied to rule out alternative mechanisms makes it a useful tool to study desire-state attribution in jays and other species that share food.

  12. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum.

  13. Can overeating induce conditioned taste avoidance in previously food restricted rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Amanda; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2010-03-30

    While feeding is rewarding, the feeling of satiation has been theorized to have a mixed affect. Using a food restriction model of overeating we examined whether bingeing was capable of supporting conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on either an ad lib (n=8) or restricted (50% of regular consumption; n=24) food access for 20 days. On Days 9, 14, and 19 all rats were given access to a novel saccharin solution in place of water, and two groups of food restricted rats were given access to either 100% of regular food consumption or ad lib food. Ad lib access in the restricted rats induced significant overeating on all three exposures. After all rats were returned to ad lib feeding, a 24h two-bottle saccharin/water choice test displayed significantly reduced saccharin consumption in the overeating rats, compared to those in the other 3 groups. To determine whether this avoidance was due to a learned association, a second experiment used a latent inhibition paradigm, familiarizing half the rats with the saccharin for 8 days prior to pairing it with overeating. Using the design of Experiment 1, with only the continuously ad lib and the restricted to ad lib feeding groups, it was found that the overeating-induced saccharin avoidance was attenuated by the pre-exposure. These results suggest that self-induced overeating is capable of supporting a learned avoidance of a novel solution suggestive of a conditioned satiety or taste avoidance. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterizing Blood Metabolomics Profiles Associated with Self-Reported Food Intakes in Female Twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Pallister

    Full Text Available Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 adult female twins from the TwinsUK cohort. For each metabolite, linear regression analysis was undertaken in the discovery group (excluding MZ twin pairs discordant [≥1 SD apart] for food group intake with each food group as a predictor adjusting for age, batch effects, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (1.17x10-6 = 0.05/[71 food groups x 601 detected metabolites]. Significant results were then replicated (non-targeted: P<0.05; targeted: same direction in the MZ discordant twin group and results from both analyses meta-analyzed. We identified and replicated 180 significant associations with 39 food groups (P<1.17x10-6, overall consisting of 106 different metabolites (74 known and 32 unknown, including 73 novel associations. In particular we identified trans-4-hydroxyproline as a potential marker of red meat intake (0.075[0.009]; P = 1.08x10-17, ergothioneine as a marker of mushroom consumption (0.181[0.019]; P = 5.93x10-22, and three potential markers of fruit consumption (top association: apple and pears: including metabolites derived from gut bacterial transformation of phenolic compounds, 3-phenylpropionate (0.024[0.004]; P = 1.24x10-8 and indolepropionate (0.026[0.004]; P = 2.39x10-9, and threitol (0.033[0.003]; P = 1.69x10-21. With the largest nutritional metabolomics dataset to date, we have identified 73 novel candidate biomarkers of food intake for potential use in nutritional epidemiological studies. We compiled our findings into the

  15. Biosensing Based on Nanoparticles for Food Allergens Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Nazaret Gómez-Arribas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is one of the major health threats for sensitized individuals all over the world and, over the years, the food industry has made significant efforts and investments to offer safe foods for allergic consumers. The analysis of the concentration of food allergen residues in processing equipment, in raw materials or in the final product, provides analytical information that can be used for risk assessment as well as to ensure that food-allergic consumers get accurate and useful information to make their food choices and purchasing decisions. The development of biosensors based on nanomaterials for applications in food analysis is a challenging area of growing interest in the last years. Research in this field requires the combined efforts of experts in very different areas including food chemistry, biotechnology or materials science. However, the outcome of such collaboration can be of significant impact on the food industry as well as for consumer’s safety. These nanobiosensing devices allow the rapid, selective, sensitive, cost-effective and, in some cases, in-field, online and real-time detection of a wide range of compounds, even in complex matrices. Moreover, they can also enable the design of novel allergen detection strategies. Herein we review the main advances in the use of nanoparticles for the development of biosensors and bioassays for allergen detection, in food samples, over the past few years. Research in this area is still in its infancy in comparison, for instance, to the application of nanobiosensors for clinical analysis. However, it will be of interest for the development of new technologies that reduce the gap between laboratory research and industrial applications.

  16. Distribution system of prepared foods; Chorizumi shokuhin no ryutsu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, J.

    1999-09-05

    Chains such as supermarket, convenience store, and delicatessen store are rapidly expanding business. Only of thing and value thing which is only novel enjoyably also consumer needs these cooked family restaurant food service industry menu be. The following would be expected: Goods and menu of surely coming to the hand in result of being safer and result of dealing with the diversification of the flavor, the case in which it is necessary. Recently, it came to the distribution reform of the cooked food remarkably and drastically reducing the distribution cost as the result. (NEDO)

  17. The fear of food measure: a novel measure for use in exposure therapy for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Byrne, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    Exposure therapy for mealtime anxiety has preliminarily been effective at increasing food intake and decreasing anxiety in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). To enhance our knowledge of exposure therapy for AN researchers and clinicians need a comprehensive measure that assesses outcomes relevant to exposure therapy for AN. In the current four studies we developed Fear of Food Measure (FOFM) that assesses three cognitive and behavioral outcomes: trait anxiety about eating, food avoidance behaviors, and feared concerns related to eating. In a community (N = 399) and undergraduate female sample (N = 203) the FOFM exhibited a good three-factor structure and convergent and divergent validity. In a sample of women (N = 72) we showed that the anxiety about eating subscale significantly predicted in vivo food intake over and above other established predictors of eating (e.g., restraint). In a clinical sample diagnosed with an eating disorder (N = 41) we showed that anxiety about eating was associated with food intake and anxiety during an exposure meal and that all subscales of the FOFM significantly decreased over the course of a four-session exposure intervention. Finally, we found that participants diagnosed with an eating disorder had higher levels of fear of food than did matched controls (N = 23). The FOFM is a psychometrically valid measure that can assess if patients are improving while undergoing exposure therapy and could be used to pinpoint problematic behaviors that can be addressed in exposure therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Thermally Induced Encapsulation of Food Nutrients into Phytoferritin through the Flexible Channels without Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Tian, Jing; Liu, Yuqian; Yang, Zhiying; Wu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2017-11-22

    The cavity of phytoferritin provides a nanospace to encapsulate and deliver food nutrient molecules. However, tranditional methods to prepare the ferritin-nutrient complexes must undergo acid/alkaline conditions or apply additives. In this work, we provide a novel guideline that thermal treatment at 60 °C can expand ferritin channels by uncoiling the surrounding α-helix. Upon reduction of the temperature to 20 °C, food nutrient rutin can be encapsulated in apo-soybean seed ferritin (apoSSF) at pH 7.0 through channels without disassembly of the protein cage and with no addition of additives. Results indicated that one apoSSF could encapsulate about 10.5 molecules of rutin, with an encapsulation ratio of 8.08% (w/w). In addition, the resulting rutin-loaded SSF complexes were monodispersed in a size of 12 nm in aqueous solution. This work provides a novel pathway for the encapsulation of food nutrient molecules into the nanocavity of ferritin under a neutral pH condition induced by thermal treatment.

  19. Chemical composition, true nutrient digestibility, and true metabolizable energy of novel pet food protein sources using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Hancock, L; Swanson, K S

    2016-08-01

    A wide variety of animal protein-based ingredients is commonly used in the pet food products. The raw ingredients and processing procedures used may greatly affect protein quality. Testing the quality of alternative protein sources is necessary and contributes to the sustainability of pet foods. The objective of this study was to test the chemical composition of 8 protein sources intended for use in dog and cat foods (calamari meal, pork peptone, alligator meal, lamb meal, venison meal, chicken meal, and 2 duck meals), and evaluate their true nutrient digestibility and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Calamari meal and pork peptone had lower ash (4.4 and 3.6% of DM, respectively) but greater CP (88.1 and 80.5% of DM, respectively) and either greater or similar GE (5.6 and 5.3 kcal/g of DM, respectively) compared with alligator, lamb, venison, chicken, and duck meals (11.8 to 24.5% ash, 58.7 to 65.9% CP, and 4.6 to 5.3 kcal GE/g). Acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) was lower in calamari meal (8.7% of DM) compared with the other proteins tested (15.5-22.1% of DM). True nutrient digestibility was variable among the protein sources (52 to 79% of DM, 60 to 83% of OM, 78 to 92% of AHF, and 70 to 89% of GE) with pork peptone having the highest DM, AHF, and GE digestibility and calamari meal having the highest OM digestibility. True indispensable AA digestibility was highest for calamari meal, with all AA having a digestibility greater than 90%. Except for histidine, all indispensable AA had a digestibility over 85% for pork peptone. In contrast, true indispensable AA digestibility was lowest for lamb meal, with histidine having digestibility less than 70% and the other entire indispensable AA having digestibility between 72 and 88%. The TMEn of calamari meal (4.82 kcal/g DM and 86.9% of GE) was greater ( digestibility among protein sources intended for use in dog and cat foods and justifies further in vivo testing of novel

  20. Sleep deprivation impairs recall of social transmission of food preference in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooden JI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jessica I Wooden,1,2 Jennifer Pido,1 Hunter Mathews,1 Ryan Kieltyka,1 Bertha Montemayor,1 Christopher P Ward1,3 1Department of Psychology, University of Houston-Clear Lake, 2Department of Psychology, University of Houston, 3Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Evidence indicates that sleep plays an important role in learning and memory, and disruption of sleep especially seems to interfere with hippocampal memory processes. Social transmission of food preference (STFP, a natural test of paired associative learning, has been shown to be dependent on the hippocampus. While social transmission of food preference is not a novel task, it has not been used to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: cage control; sleep-deprived; and device control. Demonstrator rats were given powdered food mixed with a target spice. Test rats then interacted with demonstrator rats before being given a two choice test of powered food with the target spice or a novel spice. Sleep-deprived rats were then placed in an automated device that prevented sleep for 24 hours. After sleep deprivation, animals were given a preference test again to determine memory for the target spice at both 24 hours and 72 hours. Polysomnography was used to validate the method of sleep deprivation. During immediate preference testing, rats demonstrated a clear preference for the food containing the target spice. Rats that experienced 24 hours of sleep deprivation following the initial testing indicated a significant reduction in the recall of the target spice at 24 and 72 hours. The cage control and device animals maintained their preference for food containing the target spice. Therefore, the loss of sleep interfered with memory consolidation for food preference learned via social transmission.Keywords: hippocampus, learning, consolidation

  1. Constraint-based modeling in microbial food biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martin H.

    2018-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction offers a means to leverage the value of the exponentially growing genomics data and integrate it with other biological knowledge in a structured format. Constraint-based modeling (CBM) enables both the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the reconstructed networks. The rapid advancements in these areas can benefit both the industrial production of microbial food cultures and their application in food processing. CBM provides several avenues for improving our mechanistic understanding of physiology and genotype–phenotype relationships. This is essential for the rational improvement of industrial strains, which can further be facilitated through various model-guided strain design approaches. CBM of microbial communities offers a valuable tool for the rational design of defined food cultures, where it can catalyze hypothesis generation and provide unintuitive rationales for the development of enhanced community phenotypes and, consequently, novel or improved food products. In the industrial-scale production of microorganisms for food cultures, CBM may enable a knowledge-driven bioprocess optimization by rationally identifying strategies for growth and stability improvement. Through these applications, we believe that CBM can become a powerful tool for guiding the areas of strain development, culture development and process optimization in the production of food cultures. Nevertheless, in order to make the correct choice of the modeling framework for a particular application and to interpret model predictions in a biologically meaningful manner, one should be aware of the current limitations of CBM. PMID:29588387

  2. Combining Ground-Truthing and Technology to Improve Accuracy in Establishing Children's Food Purchasing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Hannah Lee; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Hopkins, Laura; Braunstein, Nadine; Mui, Yeeli; Gittelsohn, Joel

    Developing nutrition-focused environmental interventions for youth requires accurate assessment of where they purchase food. We have developed an innovative, technology-based method to improve the accuracy of food source recall among children using a tablet PC and ground-truthing methodologies. As part of the B'more Healthy Communties for Kids study, we mapped and digitally photographed every food source within a half-mile radius of 14 Baltimore City recreation centers. This food source database was then used with children from the surrounding neighborhoods to search for and identify the food sources they frequent. This novel integration of traditional data collection and technology enables researchers to gather highly accurate information on food source usage among children in Baltimore City. Funding is provided by the NICHD U-54 Grant #1U54HD070725-02.

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the safety of astaxanthin-rich ingredients (AstaREAL A1010 and AstaREAL L10) as novel food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    /day. Mean and high-level (95th percentile) daily intakes of 0.106 mg/kg bw and 0.256 mg/kg bw astaxanthin from the NFIs were estimated, based on European consumption data of the proposed food categories. The consumption of the NFIs is not considered to be nutritionally disadvantageous. There are no safety....... The Panel notes that the maximum recommended intake of 4 mg astaxanthin per day (0.06 mg/kg bw) and the estimated mean intake based on the use levels in the proposed food categories (0.106 mg/kg bw per day) exceed the ADI by approximately two- and three-fold, respectively. The Panel therefore concludes......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of astaxanthin-rich ingredients AstaREAL A1010 and AstaREAL L10 as novel food ingredients (NFIs) in the context of Regulation...

  4. Case studies on selected natural food antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Mendiola, J. A.; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, a broad description of several case studies related to common antioxidants found in food-related products is presented. In this regard, special attention is put on the novel advanced environmentally-friendly extraction methods nowadays employed to extract and purify those potent antioxidants from natural matrices. A brief description of these extraction processes is provided together with some of the instrumentation needed. Besides, the studies carried out so f...

  5. Recovery of biomolecules from food wastes--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Antonietta

    2014-09-17

    Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial), the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas.

  6. Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Holly; Davey, Adam; Fisher, Jennifer O; Polonsky, Heather; Sherman, Sandra; Abel, Michelle L; Dale, Lauren C; Foster, Gary D; Bauer, Katherine W

    2016-03-01

    Universal access to the School Breakfast Program (SBP) is intended to help low-income and food-insecure students overcome barriers to eating breakfast. However, SBP participation is often still low despite universal access. Further information is needed with regard to these children's breakfast behaviors, and in particular breakfast behaviors among youth from food-insecure families, to inform effective breakfast interventions. The objective of this study was to examine breakfast behaviors among a large sample of urban students with universal access to the SBP and to identify differences in breakfast behaviors among children from food-secure compared with food-insecure households. A cross-sectional study of 821 fourth- through sixth-grade students and their parents from 16 schools was conducted. Students reported the foods/drinks selected and location of obtaining food/drink on the morning of data collection, parents reported household food security status using the 6-item Food Security Survey Module, and the school district provided SBP participation data during the fall semester of 2013. Multivariable linear regression models accounting for school-level clustering were used to examine differences in breakfast behaviors across 3 levels of household food security: food secure, low food secure, and very low food secure. Students participated in the SBP 31.2% of possible days, with 13% never participating in the SBP. One-fifth (19.4%) of students purchased something from a corner store for breakfast, and 16.9% skipped breakfast. Forty-six percent of students were food insecure; few differences in breakfast behaviors were observed across levels of food security. Despite universal access to the SBP, participation in the SBP is low. Breakfast skipping and selection of foods of low nutritional quality in the morning are common, regardless of household food security status. Additional novel implementation of the SBP and addressing students' breakfast preferences may be

  7. The motivational and informational basis of attitudes toward foods with health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žeželj, Iris; Milošević, Jasna; Stojanović, Žaklina; Ognjanov, Galjina

    2012-12-01

    This research explored the effects of food choice motives, nutritional knowledge, and the use of food labels, on attitude toward food with health claims. Food with health claims was chosen as a relatively novel category of products designed to be beneficial for health. We identified eight motives served by food in general, and tested if they serve as motivations to positively evaluate functional food. Questionnaire was administered on nationally representative samples of 3085 respondents from six Western Balkan countries. We proposed two structural models relating an extensive list of eight and, alternatively, restricted list of three food-choice motives (health, mood and sensory appeal) to attitude toward functional food. We also expected the indirect association between the health motive and attitude, through nutritional knowledge and use of food labels. The results revealed highly positive, although undifferentiated attitude toward functional food, with no significant differences between the countries. The restricted model provided a better fit then the exhaustive model; the health motive was proven to have indirect influence on attitude through knowledge and label use. The implications of these findings for functional approach to attitudes, understanding the demand for functional food and overcoming barriers to dietary change are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques : present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Brennan, Lorraine; Drevon, Christian A.; van Kranen, Henk; Manach, Claudine; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Roche, Helen M.; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bouwman, Jildau; Capozzi, Francesco; De Saeger, Sarah; Gundersen, Thomas E.; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Kulling, Sabine E.; Landberg, Rikard; Linseisen, Jakob; Mattivi, Fulvio; Mensink, Ronald P.; Scaccini, Cristina; Skurk, Thomas; Tetens, Inge; Vergeres, Guy; Wishart, David S.; Scalbert, Augustin; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently

  9. Flavor Dependent Retention of Remote Food Preference Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Vikram Pal; Das, Asish; Balaji, J

    2017-01-01

    Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors. However, in mice, only a small (~1 g) amount of food is consumed making the weight estimates error prone and thereby limiting the sensitivity of the paradigm. Using multiplexed video tracking, we show that the pattern of consumption can be used as a reliable reporter of memory retention in this task. In our current study, we use this as a measure and show that the preference for the demonstrated flavor significantly increases following demonstration and the retention of this change in preference during remote testing is flavor specific. Further, we report a modified experimental design for performing STFP that allows testing of change in preference among two flavors simultaneously. Using this paradigm, we show that during remote testing for thyme and basil demonstrated flavors, only basil demonstrated mice retain the change in preference while thyme demonstrated mice do not.

  10. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C; Stephan, Oliver; Hefle, Susan L; Aalberse, Rob C; van Ree, Ronald

    2004-12-15

    Contamination of food products with pepsin resistant allergens is generally believed to be a serious threat to patients with severe food allergy. A sandwich type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure pepsin resistant hazelnut protein in food products. Capturing and detecting rabbit antibodies were raised against pepsin-digested hazelnut and untreated hazelnut protein, respectively. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.7 ng/mL hazelnut protein or food matrix and a maximum of 0.034% cross-reactivity (peanut). Chocolate samples spiked with 0.5-100 microg hazelnut/g chocolate showed a mean recovery of 97.3%. In 9/12 food products labeled "may contain nuts", hazelnut was detected between 1.2 and 417 microg hazelnut/g food. It can be concluded that the application of antibodies directed to pepsin-digested food extracts in ELISA can facilitate specific detection of stable proteins that have the highest potential of inducing severe food anaphylaxis.

  11. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  12. Measuring Food Intake and Nutrient Absorption in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Valentine, Elizabeth R; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D; Solis, Gregory M; Williamson, James R; Petrascheck, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Design of a supply chain network for pea-based novel protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an operations research technique that can be used for supply chain design and applies it to create a supply network with a goal to manufacture a pea-based NPF as cheaply as possible. The current food production and consumption pattern has a strong impact on the environment and

  14. BioPepDB: an integrated data platform for food-derived bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilin; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Hongjun; Xue, Jitong; Guo, Xiaolei; Liang, Ming; Chen, Ming

    2018-03-12

    Food-derived bioactive peptides play critical roles in regulating most biological processes and have considerable biological, medical and industrial importance. However, a large number of active peptides data, including sequence, function, source, commercial product information, references and other information are poorly integrated. BioPepDB is a searchable database of food-derived bioactive peptides and their related articles, including more than four thousand bioactive peptide entries. Moreover, BioPepDB provides modules of prediction and hydrolysis-simulation for discovering novel peptides. It can serve as a reference database to investigate the function of different bioactive peptides. BioPepDB is available at http://bis.zju.edu.cn/biopepdbr/ . The web page utilises Apache, PHP5 and MySQL to provide the user interface for accessing the database and predict novel peptides. The database itself is operated on a specialised server.

  15. Food innovation and entrepreneurship in higher education: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana C. Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food innovation and entrepreneurship are important topics in graduate food studies. Students should be challenged to promote an innovative attitude towards their future career in the food industry sector, as professionals working in a small and medium-sized enterprise, or in a large multinational company, or even as entrepreneurs with their own working projects. The present case study shows a curricular unit of a master course that intends to integrate the knowledge on new and sustainable technologies and products, based on seminars of experts on hot topics, on visits to food industry enterprises and market expositions and on the development of a state-of-the-art report about an emergent or novel food technology or product with oral presentation. Hot topic seminars included edible coatings, bioprocessing, allying tradition and innovation in food products, new convenience foods, challenging tests, and new clean and sustainable processes. Entrepreneur alumni lectures were also promoted allowing exchange of experiences. Visits included a high pressure technology unit of a food industry, an innovation and development department of a food industry, an entrepreneurship centre and a food exhibition. A satisfaction survey was made, through the response of a questionnaire by the students, proving the effectiveness and success of this unit course framework. A SWOT analysis was carried out to gain a better understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats involved in the curricular unit objectives.

  16. Nutrition by design: a review of biotechnology in functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reynolds

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical institutions in industrial and developing countries are increasingly turning to functional foods as intervention in chronic disease. Advances in genetic engineering have provided methods of purposefully designing functional foods and bioactive compound-producing organisms. This literature review examines the recent history of biotechnological applications in functional food, the state of bioagricultural engineering for high-value compound production, and the challenges that developers face in promulgatingfunctional foods from biotechnological sources. Based on the literature reviewed, it is predicted that adding biotechnologically-produced compounds will be more successful in producing novel functional foods. Conclusion: Current functional food application is frequently hampered by a dearth of foods suitable to the purpose. The concurrent advent of biotechnology means that producers and clinicians are not constrained by limited and precarious natural development. Biotechnology has already produced altered dietary staples that can safely induce real health benefits, but the social approval of genetically modified foodstuffs is inconsistent at best. Modifying microalgae to produce micro and macronutrients, for harvest and incorporation into functional food products, provides the ideal specificity and reliability for bioactive compound use. However, its application in biomedical science is impeded by technical difficulty. It remains to be seen if microorganism engineering willbe able to meet the needs of its many stakeholders, including the functional food community. Nonetheless,the prospect of a flourishing functional food market, and the healthier population it will bring about, certainly makes it worth a try.

  17. Monitoring the levels of important nutrients in the food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, B; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Dunford, E; Snowdon, W; Webster, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    A food supply that delivers energy-dense products with high levels of salt, saturated fats and trans fats, in large portion sizes, is a major cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The highly processed foods produced by large food corporations are primary drivers of increases in consumption of these adverse nutrients. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to monitoring food composition that can both document the extent of the problem and underpin novel actions to address it. The monitoring approach seeks to systematically collect information on high-level contextual factors influencing food composition and assess the energy density, salt, saturated fat, trans fats and portion sizes of highly processed foods for sale in retail outlets (with a focus on supermarkets and quick-service restaurants). Regular surveys of food composition are proposed across geographies and over time using a pragmatic, standardized methodology. Surveys have already been undertaken in several high- and middle-income countries, and the trends have been valuable in informing policy approaches. The purpose of collecting data is not to exhaustively document the composition of all foods in the food supply in each country, but rather to provide information to support governments, industry and communities to develop and enact strategies to curb food-related NCDs. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  19. A novel marketing mix and choice architecture framework to nudge restaurant customers toward healthy food environments to reduce obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, V I; Englund, T; Misyak, S; Serrano, E L

    2017-08-01

    This review identified and adapted choice architecture frameworks to develop a novel framework that restaurant owners could use to promote healthy food environments for customers who currently overconsume products high in fat, sugar and sodium that increase their risk of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. This review was conducted in three steps and presented as a narrative summary to demonstrate a proof of concept. Step 1 was a systematic review of nudge or choice architecture frameworks used to categorize strategies that cue healthy behaviours in microenvironments. We searched nine electronic databases between January 2000 and December 2016 and identified 1,244 records. Inclusion criteria led to the selection of five choice architecture frameworks, of which three were adapted and combined with marketing mix principles to highlight eight strategies (i.e. place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, prompting or priming and proximity). Step 2 involved conducting a comprehensive evidence review between January 2006 and December 2016 to identify U.S. recommendations for the restaurant sector organized by strategy. Step 3 entailed developing 12 performance metrics for the eight strategies. This framework should be tested to determine its value to assist restaurant owners to promote and socially normalize healthy food environments to reduce obesity and non-communicable diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  20. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  1. Characterizing Blood Metabolomics Profiles Associated with Self-Reported Food Intakes in Female Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Pallister, Tess; Jennings, Amy; Mohney, Robert P.; Yarand, Darioush; Mangino, Massimo; Cassidy, Aedin; MacGregor, Alexander; Spector, Tim D.; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 ad...

  2. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New evidence indicates that increased dietary protein ingestion promotes health and recovery from illness, and also maintains functionality in older adults. The present study aimed to investigate whether a novel food service concept with protein-supplementation would increase protein...... and energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. METHODS: A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty-four participants at nutritional risk, recruited from the departments of Oncology, Orthopaedics and Urology, were included. The intervention group (IG) received...... of hospital stay did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk....

  3. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  4. Do television food advertisements portray advertised foods in a 'healthy' food context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; White, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to food promotion influences food preferences and diet. As food advertisements tend to promote 'less healthy' products, food advertising probably plays some role in the 'obesity epidemic'. Amid calls for increased regulation, food manufacturers are beginning to engage in a variety of health-promoting marketing initiatives. Positioning products in the context of a 'healthy', balanced diet in television advertisements is one such initiative. We explored whether the wider food context in which foods are advertised on television are 'healthier' than the advertised foods themselves. All foods shown in food advertisements broadcast during 1 week on one commercial UK channel were identified and classified as 'primary' (i.e. the focus of advertisements) or 'incidental'. The nutritional content of all foods was determined and that of primary and incidental foods were compared. Almost two-thirds of food advertisements did not include any incidental foods. When a wider food context was present, this tended to be 'healthier' than the primary foods that were the focus of food advertisements - particularly in terms of the food groups represented. It is not yet clear what effect this may have on consumers' perceptions and behaviour, and whether or not this practice should be encouraged or discouraged from a public health perspective.

  5. Sensory and chemical interactions of food pairings (basmati rice, bacon and extra virgin olive oil) with banana

    OpenAIRE

    Traynor, Mark; Burke, Roisin; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hannon, John; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study aimed to investigate food pairings as an important sensory phenomenon in order to determine how different components in the selected food pairings affect and interact with other components. Three novel food pairings (banana and bacon, banana and olive oil, and banana and rice) were selected. A conjoint approach utilising qualitative (organic volatile analysis and descriptive sensory analysis) and quantitative (comparable semi quantitative organic volatile analysis and af...

  6. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  7. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food. PMID:26430895

  8. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anupam; N K, Rakhi; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food.

  9. Bacteriocin-based strategies for food biopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Ben Omar, Nabil

    2007-11-30

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced by different groups of bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce bacteriocins with rather broad spectra of inhibition. Several LAB bacteriocins offer potential applications in food preservation, and the use of bacteriocins in the food industry can help to reduce the addition of chemical preservatives as well as the intensity of heat treatments, resulting in foods which are more naturally preserved and richer in organoleptic and nutritional properties. This can be an alternative to satisfy the increasing consumers demands for safe, fresh-tasting, ready-to-eat, minimally-processed foods and also to develop "novel" food products (e.g. less acidic, or with a lower salt content). In addition to the available commercial preparations of nisin and pediocin PA-1/AcH, other bacteriocins (like for example lacticin 3147, enterocin AS-48 or variacin) also offer promising perspectives. Broad-spectrum bacteriocins present potential wider uses, while narrow-spectrum bacteriocins can be used more specifically to selectively inhibit certain high-risk bacteria in foods like Listeria monocytogenes without affecting harmless microbiota. Bacteriocins can be added to foods in the form of concentrated preparations as food preservatives, shelf-life extenders, additives or ingredients, or they can be produced in situ by bacteriocinogenic starters, adjunct or protective cultures. Immobilized bacteriocins can also find application for development of bioactive food packaging. In recent years, application of bacteriocins as part of hurdle technology has gained great attention. Several bacteriocins show additive or synergistic effects when used in combination with other antimicrobial agents, including chemical preservatives, natural phenolic compounds, as well as other antimicrobial proteins. This, as well as the combined use of different bacteriocins may also be an attractive approach to

  10. RELATIVE POTENCY OF ORAL ANTIGENS IN PROVOKING FOOD ALLERGY IN THE MOUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. While the oral route is the most relevant method of exposure, oral tolerance is an impediment. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish...

  11. Training motor responses to food: A novel treatment for obesity targeting implicit processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stice, E.; Lawrence, N.S.; Kemps, E.; Veling, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    The present review first summarizes results from prospective brain imaging studies focused on identifying neural vulnerability factors that predict excessive weight gain. Next, findings from cognitive psychology experiments evaluating various interventions involving food response inhibition training

  12. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Li, Yuecheng; Sun, Mingui; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Fernstrom, John D; Burke, Lora E; Baranowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods. (paper)

  13. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Li, Yuecheng; Fernstrom, John D.; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Sun, Mingui

    2015-02-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods.

  14. The value of producing food, energy, and ecosystem services within an agro-ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John Roy; Constanza, Robert; Sandhu, Harpinder

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem Services within an Agro- Ecosystem Agricultural ecosystems produce food, fiber, and nonmarketed ecosystem services (ES). Agriculture also typically involves high negative external costs associated with, for example, fossil fuel use. We estimated, via fieldscale ecological monitoring...... and economic value-transfer methods, the market and nonmarket ES value of a combined food and energy (CFE) agro-ecosystem that simultaneously produces food, fodder, and bioenergy. Such novel CFE agro-ecosystems can provide a significantly increased net crop, energy, and nonmarketed ES compared...... with conventional agriculture, and require markedly less fossil-based inputs. Extrapolated to the European scale, the value of nonmarket ES from the CFE system exceeds current European farm subsidy payments. Such integrated food and bioenergy systems can thus provide environmental value for money for European Union...

  15. Flavours of Thought: Towards A Phenomenology of Food-Related Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransisca Hok-Eng Tan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenology, as the study of structures of subjective experiences and consciousness, finds itself in the persistent struggle to claim its rightful place in contemporary research. Accordingly, this article will point out the relevance of first person reports for interdisciplinary investigations of the brain and mind. This is done by exploring the multidisciplinary field of food studies as a novel platform for discussion. The phenomenological inquiry is thus proposed as the vehicle and method to access food-related experience. By highlighting the important surplus, essential to grasping the process of pristine inner experience we adjoin a new perspective to the common focus on the content of experience. Consequently, this will extend the current insights pertinent to food-related research and moreover, give vital implications to our overall construction of concepts in science.

  16. Activation of pyramidal neurons in mouse medial prefrontal cortex enhances food seeking behavior while reducing impulsivity in the absence of an effect on food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel McAllister Warthen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons, which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting pyramidal neurons in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects in affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC pyramidal neurons enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC pyramidal neurons had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control.

  17. Safer food means food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  18. Grasshoppers as a food source? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Current trends suggest an increasing future demand for conventional meats, which indicates a strong need to shift this dependency to other alternative protein sources such as insects. Literature. From a nutritional point of view, of all the insects consumed globally, grasshoppers are particularly important as a human food. Data from the literature regarding the nutrient composition, amino acid profile, fatty acid profile, mineral composition and vitamin content of grasshoppers as reviewed in this paper, suggest that a number of grasshopper species are a good source of nutrients. It also highlights some of the health related aspects that might arise from the consumption of grasshoppers, mostly linked to agricultural practices and the allergic response of sensitive individuals. The paper also summarizes some religious, social and economic factors that are associated with grasshopper consumption. Conclusions. The success of introducing grasshoppers as a novel food in western countries depends on changes in consumer attitudes. It would be interesting to develop food products derived from grasshoppers in a form acceptable to consumers. Furthermore, it is important to explore the food potential of some grasshopper species native to western countries and to develop their rearing methodologies to enhance availability.

  19. The role of food irradiation in food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeferstein, F.K.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the enormous health and economic consequences of foodborne diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce foodborne pathogens in food an improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. With the wholesomeness of irradiated food clearly established by extensive scientific studies, food irradiation has important roles to play in both ensuring food safety and reducing food losses. Food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (J.P.N.)

  20. Cloning and characterization of novel fast ω-gliadin genes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... In this study, the novel fast u-gliadin genes were cloned from genome A of ... Wheat is one of the most important sources of food in the human diet. In the ..... This work was financially supported by the National Natural Sci-.

  1. Interactive effects of body-size structure and adaptive foraging on food-web stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Lotta; Drossel, Barbara; Brose, Ulrich; Guill, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Body-size structure of food webs and adaptive foraging of consumers are two of the dominant concepts of our understanding how natural ecosystems maintain their stability and diversity. The interplay of these two processes, however, is a critically important yet unresolved issue. To fill this gap in our knowledge of ecosystem stability, we investigate dynamic random and niche model food webs to evaluate the proportion of persistent species. We show that stronger body-size structures and faster adaptation stabilise these food webs. Body-size structures yield stabilising configurations of interaction strength distributions across food webs, and adaptive foraging emphasises links to resources closer to the base. Moreover, both mechanisms combined have a cumulative effect. Most importantly, unstructured random webs evolve via adaptive foraging into stable size-structured food webs. This offers a mechanistic explanation of how size structure adaptively emerges in complex food webs, thus building a novel bridge between these two important stabilising mechanisms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of “ coriander seed oil ” as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    were observed when feeding other vegetable oils, although not as severe as that seen for CSO. The dose level of CSO was more than a thousand fold higher than the proposed use level. In a subchronic study using 150, 450 or 1 000 mg/kg bw per day of CSO, a treatment-related effect was observed on blood......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on “coriander seed oil (CSO)” as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Petroselinic acid (PA......) is the major fatty acid in CSO. Conventional edible oil technologies are used to manufacture the NFI. The NFI is intended to be marketed as a food supplement for healthy adults, at a maximum level of 600 mg per day (i.e. 8.6 mg/kg bw per day for a 70 kg person), which would lead to significantly higher intakes...

  3. Use of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in food preservation: Recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest E

    2017-08-13

    The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of the use of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

  4. Arctic Small Rodents Have Diverse Diets and Flexible Food Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva M Soininen

    Full Text Available The ecology of small rodent food selection is poorly understood, as mammalian herbivore food selection theory has mainly been developed by studying ungulates. Especially, the effect of food availability on food selection in natural habitats where a range of food items are available is unknown. We studied diets and selectivity of grey-sided voles (Myodes rufocanus and tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus, key herbivores in European tundra ecosystems, using DNA metabarcoding, a novel method enabling taxonomically detailed diet studies. In order to cover the range of food availabilities present in the wild, we employed a large-scale study design for sampling data on food availability and vole diets. Both vole species had ingested a range of plant species and selected particularly forbs and grasses. Grey-sided voles also selected ericoid shrubs and tundra voles willows. Availability of a food item rarely affected its utilization directly, although seasonal changes of diets and selection suggest that these are positively correlated with availability. Moreover, diets and selectivity were affected by availability of alternative food items. These results show that the focal sub-arctic voles have diverse diets and flexible food preferences and rarely compensate low availability of a food item with increased searching effort. Diet diversity itself is likely to be an important trait and has previously been underrated owing to methodological constraints. We suggest that the roles of alternative food item availability and search time limitations for small rodent feeding ecology should be investigated.Annotated Checklist of the Panarctic Flora (PAF, Vascular plants. Available at: http://nhm2.uio.no/paf/, accessed 15.6.2012.

  5. vProtein: identifying optimal amino acid complements from plant-based foods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Woolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indispensible amino acids (IAAs are used by the body in different proportions. Most animal-based foods provide these IAAs in roughly the needed proportions, but many plant-based foods provide different proportions of IAAs. To explore how these plant-based foods can be better used in human nutrition, we have created the computational tool vProtein to identify optimal food complements to satisfy human protein needs. METHODS: vProtein uses 1251 plant-based foods listed in the United States Department of Agriculture standard release 22 database to determine the quantity of each food or pair of foods required to satisfy human IAA needs as determined by the 2005 daily recommended intake. The quantity of food in a pair is found using a linear programming approach that minimizes total calories, total excess IAAs, or the total weight of the combination. RESULTS: For single foods, vProtein identifies foods with particularly balanced IAA patterns such as wheat germ, quinoa, and cauliflower. vProtein also identifies foods with particularly unbalanced IAA patterns such as macadamia nuts, degermed corn products, and wakame seaweed. Although less useful alone, some unbalanced foods provide unusually good complements, such as Brazil nuts to legumes. Interestingly, vProtein finds no statistically significant bias toward grain/legume pairings for protein complementation. These analyses suggest that pairings of plant-based foods should be based on the individual foods themselves instead of based on broader food group-food group pairings. Overall, the most efficient pairings include sweet corn/tomatoes, apple/coconut, and sweet corn/cherry. The top pairings also highlight the utility of less common protein sources such as the seaweeds laver and spirulina, pumpkin leaves, and lambsquarters. From a public health perspective, many of the food pairings represent novel, low cost food sources to combat malnutrition. Full analysis results are available online

  6. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...... validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...

  7. Consumer Exposure to Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria From Food at Swiss Retail Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design.Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food.Results: Data from 313 out of 9,473 collected studies were extracted yielding 122,438 food samples and 38,362 bacteria isolates of which 30,092 samples and 8,799 isolates were AMR positive. A median AMRB prevalence of >50% was observed for meat and seafood harboring Campylobacter, Enterococcus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Vibrio spp. and to a lesser prevalence for milk products harboring starter culture bacteria. Gram-negative AMRB featured predominantly AMR against aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines observed at AMR exposures scores of levels 1 (medium and 2 (high for Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli in meat as well as Vibrio and E. coli in seafood. Gram-positive AMRB featured AMR against glycoproteins, lincosamides, macrolides and nitrofurans for Staphylococcus and Enterococcus in meat sources, Staphylococcus in seafood as well as Enterococcus and technologically important bacteria (incl. starters in fermented or processed dairy products. Knowledge gaps were identified for AMR prevalence in dairy, plant, fermented meat and novel food products and for the role of specific indicator bacteria (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, starter culture bacteria and their mobile genetic elements in AMR gene transfer.Conclusion: Raw meat, milk, seafood, and certain fermented dairy

  8. Consumer Exposure to Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria From Food at Swiss Retail Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Sarno, Eleonora; Collineau, Lucie; Meile, Leo; Stärk, Katharina D. C.; Stephan, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB) between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design. Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food. Results: Data from 313 out of 9,473 collected studies were extracted yielding 122,438 food samples and 38,362 bacteria isolates of which 30,092 samples and 8,799 isolates were AMR positive. A median AMRB prevalence of >50% was observed for meat and seafood harboring Campylobacter, Enterococcus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Vibrio spp. and to a lesser prevalence for milk products harboring starter culture bacteria. Gram-negative AMRB featured predominantly AMR against aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines observed at AMR exposures scores of levels 1 (medium) and 2 (high) for Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli in meat as well as Vibrio and E. coli in seafood. Gram-positive AMRB featured AMR against glycoproteins, lincosamides, macrolides and nitrofurans for Staphylococcus and Enterococcus in meat sources, Staphylococcus in seafood as well as Enterococcus and technologically important bacteria (incl. starters) in fermented or processed dairy products. Knowledge gaps were identified for AMR prevalence in dairy, plant, fermented meat and novel food products and for the role of specific indicator bacteria (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus), starter culture bacteria and their mobile genetic elements in AMR gene transfer. Conclusion: Raw meat, milk, seafood, and certain fermented dairy products

  9. Allergy to jackfruit: a novel example of Bet v 1-related food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhaar, S. T. H. P.; Ree, R.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A. F. M.; Knulst, A. C.; Zuidmeer, L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Jackfruit allergy has been reported just once. It is unknown whether this food allergy is caused by direct sensitization or cross-sensitization to pollen allergens. OBJECTIVE: Establish whether jackfruit allergy is linked to birchpollen allergy. METHODS: Two jackfruit allergic patients

  10. Stable-isotope analysis: a neglected tool for placing parasites in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadel, A J M; Stumbo, A D; MacLeod, C D

    2018-02-28

    Parasites are often overlooked in the construction of food webs, despite their ubiquitous presence in almost every type of ecosystem. Researchers who do recognize their importance often struggle to include parasites using classical food-web theory, mainly due to the parasites' multiple hosts and life stages. A novel approach using compound-specific stable-isotope analysis promises to provide considerable insight into the energetic exchanges of parasite and host, which may solve some of the issues inherent in incorporating parasites using a classical approach. Understanding the role of parasites within food webs, and tracing the associated biomass transfers, are crucial to constructing new models that will expand our knowledge of food webs. This mini-review focuses on stable-isotope studies published in the past decade, and introduces compound-specific stable-isotope analysis as a powerful, but underutilized, newly developed tool that may answer many unresolved questions regarding the role of parasites in food webs.

  11. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Manipulation of Proteins in Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolouie, Haniye; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    Plasma processing has been getting a lot of attention in recent applications as a novel, eco-friendly, and highly efficient approach. Cold plasma has mostly been used to reduce microbial counts in foodstuff and biological materials, as well as in different levels of packaging, particularly in cases...... of plasma on the conformation and function of proteins with food origin, especially enzymes and allergens, as well as protein-made packaging films. In enzyme manipulation with plasma, deactivation has been reported to be either partial or complete. In addition, an activity increase has been observed in some...... where there is thermal sensitivity. As it is a very recent application, the impact of cold plasma treatment has been studied on the protein structures of food and pharmaceutical systems, as well as in the packaging industry. Proteins, as a food constituent, play a remarkable role in the techno...

  12. Recovery of Biomolecules from Food Wastes — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Baiano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial, the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas.

  13. Bacterial food-borne pathogens in Indian food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Food technology and food processing techniques have made tremendous advances in preservation of food and ensuring safety of food by killing food-borne pathogens. In addition to old techniques such as pasteurization, canning, dehydration, fermentation and salting, a number of new techniques such as radiation processing, high pressure technology and pulsed electric field technology are being applied for preservation of food and to ensure food safety. Total Quality Management (TQM) concepts have been developed to take care of food safety from farm to table. Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP) is being applied for mass scale production of food to make food free from pathogens. Despite these advances, food-borne diseases have become one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. About two thirds of all the outbreaks are traced to microbial contaminated food. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, food-borne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated 2 million people annually, including many children. Food safety is a major concern not only for developing countries but also for the developed countries. A number of factors such as emergence of new food-borne pathogens, development of drug resistance in pathogens, changing life style, globalization of the food supply etc. are responsible for the continuous persistence of food-borne diseases. The food-borne disease outbreaks due to E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter, are responsible for recall of many foods resulting in heavy losses to food industry. Due to consumer demand, a number of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) minimally processed foods are increasingly marketed; however, there is increased risk of foodborne diseases with these products. Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, has been working on food-borne bacterial pathogens particularly Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio and Aeromonasf

  14. Allergenic components of a novel food, Micronesian nut Nangai (Canarium indicum), shows IgE cross-reactivity in pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sten, Eva; Stahl Skov, P; Andersen, S B

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New foods may present a risk for food hypersensitive patients. Several examples exist of allergic reactions caused by cross-reactive plant-derived foods, and new foods should be scrutinised before introducing them to the market. We have evaluated the clinical and serological relevance...

  15. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  16. Personality predicts spatial responses to food manipulations in free-ranging great tits (Parus major)

    OpenAIRE

    van Overveld, Thijs; Matthysen, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Personality differences measured under standardized lab-conditions are assumed to reflect differences in the way individuals cope with spatio-temporal changes in their natural environment, but few studies have examined how these are expressed in the field. We tested whether exploratory behaviour in a novel environment predicts how free-living individual great tits (Parus major) react to a change in food supply. We temporarily removed food at feeding stations during two summers and recorded th...

  17. Neuromarketing empirical approaches and food choice: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, A; Songa, G; Mauri, M; Ciceri, A; Diotallevi, F; Nardone, G; Russo, V

    2018-06-01

    Consumers' food choices are often driven by reasons of which consumers are not fully aware. Decision-making about food is influenced by a complex set of emotions, feelings, attitudes, and values that are impossible to assess simply by asking consumers their opinions. Indeed, traditional techniques, such as self-reports or interviews, mainly allow the measurement of conscious and rational reactions to a product or advertising. Recently, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the multidisciplinary field of "neuromarketing," which takes advantage of neuroscientific techniques to study consumer behavior. This discipline applies neuroscientific methods and tools that allow the measurement of consumers' emotional and spontaneous reactions in a more objective and observable way. The aim of this paper is (a) to describe neuromarketing's underlying assumptions, techniques, and the advantages of this perspective, examining the scientific literature on the use of neuromarketing in food studies; and (b) to suggest best practices to apply this novel approach in the food marketing domain, with a specific focus on non-invasive methods. Finally, although the perception of nutritional elements has already been explored, the health content of labels, the presence of additives, and the evaluation of the information conveyed by food packaging remain other possible elements of interest in future food neuromarketing research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Zaprinast and Rolipram on Olfactory and Visual Memory in the Social Transmission of Food Preference and Novel Object Recognition Tests in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuzan Akar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors in central nervous system has been investigated and shown to stimulate neuronal functions and increase neurogenesis in Alzheimer patients. The aim of this study is to investigate effect of PDE5 inhibitor zaprinast and PDE4 inhibitor rolipram on visual memory in novel object recognition (NOR test, on olfactory memory in social transmission of food preference (STFP test, and also on locomotion and anxiety in open field test in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg, rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, or physiological saline. Zaprinast (10 mg/kg significantly increased cued/non-cued food eaten compared to control group, while rolipram had a partial effect on retention trial of STFP test. Zaprinast (10 mg/kg and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg significantly increased ratio index (RI compared to control group in retention trial of NOR test. There was no significant effect of zaprinast and rolipram on total distance moved, speed, and center zone duration in open field test. Results of this study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced visual memory in NOR test, however zaprinast exerted a significant memory-enhancing effect compared to rolipram in STFP test in mice.

  19. Developing novel one-step processes for obtaining food-grade O/W emulsions from pressurized fluid extracts: processes description, state of the art and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tresinari SANTOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this work, a novel on-line process for production of food-grade emulsions containing oily extracts, i.e. oil-in-water (O/W emulsions, in only one step is presented. This process has been called ESFE, Emulsions from Supercritical Fluid Extraction. With this process, emulsions containing supercritical fluid extracts can be obtained directly from plant materials. The aim in the conception of this process is to propose a new rapid way to obtain emulsions from supercritical fluid extracts. Nowadays the conventional emulsion formulation method is a two-step procedure, i.e. first supercritical fluid extraction for obtaining an extract; secondly emulsion formulation using another device. Other variation of the process was tested and successfully validated originating a new acronymed process: EPFE (Emulsions from Pressurized Fluid Extractions. Both processes exploit the supercritical CO2-essential oils miscibility, in addition, EPFE process exploits the emulsification properties of saponin-rich pressurized aqueous plant extracts. The feasibility of this latter process was demonstrated using Pfaffia glomerata roots as source of saponin-rich extract, water as extracting solvent and clove essential oil, directly extracted using supercritical CO2, as a model dispersed phase. In addition, examples of pressurized fluid-based coupled processes applied for adding value to food bioactive compounds developed in the past five years are reviewed.

  20. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Jain

    Full Text Available Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food.

  1. Family food talk, child eating behavior, and maternal feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Elizabeth; Viechnicki, Gail B; Retzloff, Lauren B; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison L

    2017-10-01

    Families discuss food and eating in many ways that may shape child eating habits. Researchers studying how families talk about food have examined this process during meals. Little work has examined parent-child food-related interactions outside of mealtime. We assessed family food talk at home outside of mealtime and tested whether food talk was associated with obesogenic child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, or child weight. Preschool and school-aged mother-child dyads (n = 61) participated in naturalistic voice recording using a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) recorder. A coding scheme was developed to reliably characterize different types of food talk from LENA transcripts. Mothers completed the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess child eating behaviors and maternal feeding practices. Child weight and height were measured and body mass index z-score (BMIz) calculated. Bivariate associations among food talk types, as a proportion of total speech, were examined and multivariate regression models used to test associations between food talk and child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, and child BMIz. Proportion of child Overall Food Talk and Food Explanations were positively associated with CEBQ Food Responsiveness and Enjoyment of Food (p's < 0.05). Child food Desire/Need and child Prep/Planning talk were positively associated with CEBQ Enjoyment of Food (p < 0.05). Child Food Enjoyment talk and mother Overt Restriction talk were positively associated with CEBQ Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.05). Mother Monitoring talk was positively associated with CFQ Restriction (p < 0.05). Mother Prep/Planning talk was negatively associated with child BMIz. Food talk outside of mealtimes related to child obesogenic eating behaviors and feeding practices in expected ways; examining food talk outside of meals is a novel way to consider feeding practices and child eating behavior

  2. The Effect of Industrial Food Processing on Potentially Health-beneficial Tomato Antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing desires from both consumers and producers to understand better which nutritive components are present in our food and how these are influenced by industrial processing strategies is resulting in extra research involving the use of state-of-the-art technologies to generate novel

  3. In the interest of food safety: a qualitative study investigating communication and trust between food regulators and food industry in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Wilson, Annabelle M; Calnan, Michael; Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; McCullum, Dean; Pearce, Alex R; Ward, Paul; Webb, Trevor

    2017-02-13

    Food regulatory bodies play an important role in public health, and in reducing the costs of food borne illness that are absorbed by both industry and government. Regulation in the food industry involves a relationship between regulators and members of the industry, and it is imperative that these relationships are built on trust. Research has shown in a variety of contexts that businesses find the most success when there are high levels of trust between them and their key stakeholders. An evidence-based understanding of the barriers to communication and trust is imperative if we are to put forward recommendations for facilitating the (re)building of trusting and communicative relationships. We present data from 72 interviews with regulators and industry representatives regarding their trust in and communication with one another. Interviews were conducted in the UK, New Zealand, and Australia in 2013. Data identify a variety of factors that shape the dynamic and complex relationships between regulators and industry, as well as barriers to communication and trust between the two parties. Novel in our approach is our emphasis on identifying solutions to these barriers from the voices of industry and regulators. We provide recommendations (e.g., development of industry advisory boards) to facilitate the (re)building of trusting and communicative relationships between the two parties.

  4. Suggested improvements for the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants used in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O

    2011-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding, random mutagenesis, increased pesticide and fertilizer use, and improved farming techniques, all without a formal safety evaluation. However, the direct introduction of novel genes raised questions regarding safety that are being addressed by an evaluation process that considers potential increases in the allergenicity, toxicity, and nutrient availability of foods derived from the GM plants. Opinions vary regarding the adequacy of the assessment, but there is no documented proof of an adverse effect resulting from foods produced from GM plants. This review and opinion discusses current practices and new regulatory demands related to food safety.

  5. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  6. Materiality matters: Blurred boundaries and the domestication of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kate; Will, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Previous scholarship on novel foods, including functional foods, has suggested that they are difficult to categorise for both regulators and users. It is argued that they blur the boundary between 'food' and 'drug' and that uncertainties about the products create 'experimental' or 'restless' approaches to consumption. We investigate these uncertainties drawing on data about the use of functional foods containing phytosterols, which are licensed for sale in the EU for people wishing to reduce their cholesterol. We start from an interest in the products as material objects and their incorporation into everyday practices. We consider the scripts encoded in the physical form of the products through their regulation, production and packaging and find that these scripts shape but do not determine their use. The domestication of phytosterols involves bundling the products together with other objects (pills, supplements, foodstuffs). Considering their incorporation into different systems of objects offers new understandings of the products as foods or drugs. In their accounts of their practices, consumers appear to be relatively untroubled by uncertainties about the character of the products. We conclude that attending to materials and practices offers a productive way to open up and interrogate the idea of categorical uncertainties surrounding new food products.

  7. AllergenOnline: A peer-reviewed, curated allergen database to assess novel food proteins for potential cross-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodman, Richard E.; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ferreira, Fatima; Sampson, Hugh A.; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Baumert, Joseph L.; Bohle, Barbara; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Wise, John; Taylor, Steve L.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly regulators are demanding evaluation of potential allergenicity of foods prior to marketing. Primary risks are the transfer of allergens or potentially cross-reactive proteins into new foods. AllergenOnline was developed in 2005 as a peer-reviewed bioinformatics platform to evaluate

  8. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C.; Stephan, Oliver; Hefle, Susan L.; Aalberse, Rob C.; van Ree, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Contamination of food products with pepsin resistant allergens is generally believed to be a serious threat to patients with severe food allergy. A sandwich type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure pepsin resistant hazelnut protein in food products. Capturing and

  9. Evaluation of the economic feasibility of radiation preservation of selected food commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs-Sprincz, V.

    1977-01-01

    Food preservation methods have increased in importance with the rapid increase in world population. A novel preservation method, ionizing radiation, shows promising applications. Its economic feasibility has been carefully studied for the last two decades. The article reviews the literature on the economics of food irradiation. Cost-benefit analyses on irradiation of grain for disinfestation, on potatoes and onions for sprout inhibition and on mushrooms for retarding growth are surveyed in the first part. Calculations based on data of a few food-irradiation pilot plants and non-food irradiation plants indicate the cost range of the radiation treatment of these food items. The unit cost of irradiation would be only a few per cent of the value of produce treated and would not exceed the order of cost of other conventional preservation methods. The second part surveys the economic aspects of the application of ionizing radiation to food items including strawberries, certain tropical fruits, meat and marine products. The cost levels would seem to be acceptable to food processors. A food-irradiation plant would cost US$ 10 5 -10 6 and the annual operating cost would be from US$ 20000 to US$ 2 million. The prospective benefit of food irradiation would far outweigh the cost of treatment. Improved product quality, decreased spoilage losses and extension of shelf-life are considered to constitute the main benefits of food irradiation. (author)

  10. New weapons to fight old enemies: novel strategies for the (biocontrol of bacterial biofilms in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Coughlan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are microbial communities characterized by their adhesion to solid surfaces and the production of a matrix of exopolymeric substances (EPS, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA and lipids, which surround the microorganisms lending structural integrity and a unique biochemical profile to the biofilm. Biofilm formation enhances the ability of the producer/s to persist in a given environment. Pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species capable of forming biofilms are a significant problem for the healthcare and food industries, as their biofilm-forming ability protects them from common cleaning processes and allows them to remain in the environment post-sanitation. In the food industry, persistent bacteria colonize the inside of mixing tanks, vats and tubing, compromising food safety and quality. Strategies to overcome bacterial persistence through inhibition of biofilm formation or removal of mature biofilms are therefore necessary. Current biofilm control strategies employed in the food industry (cleaning and disinfection, material selection and surface preconditioning, plasma treatment, ultrasonication, etc., although effective to a certain point, fall short of biofilm control. Efforts have been explored, mainly with a view to their application in pharmaceutical and healthcare settings, which focus on targeting molecular determinants regulating biofilm formation. Their application to the food industry would greatly aid efforts to eradicate undesirable bacteria from food processing environments and, ultimately, from food products. These approaches, in contrast to bactericidal approaches, exert less selective pressure which in turn would reduce the likelihood of resistance development. A particularly interesting strategy targets quorum sensing systems, which regulate gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density governing essential cellular processes including biofilm formation. This review article discusses

  11. Sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition--a patent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, Kohila P; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    The paper discusses the patents that have been filed in the areas of sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition and use of natural resources in achieving this goal. A large number of patents deal with the production of fertilizers from animal manure, plant sources and other organic wastes, which are more sustainable that the chemical fertilizers that are being currently used. Sustainability in agriculture is achieved in developing processes for the manufacture of biopesticides/insecticides and bioactive agricultural products. Development of novel sustainable agricultural processes has also been the focus of researchers and technologists. Plant derived nutritious food products are sustainable and can cater for the growing population burden. This has been the focus of several patents. Processes for enhancing the nutrition in food also serve the purpose of catering for the under nourished population.

  12. Characterization of a Value-Added Salmon Product: Infant/Toddler Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santos, Felicia Ann

    2009-01-01

    Salmon are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids. These are important in the human diet and especially for young children in the first two years of life. Wild Alaskan salmon was utilized in a novel way by development and investigation of basic baby food product formulations from sockeye and pink salmon. Thus, physical and sensory properties of baby…

  13. Investigating the importance of the local food environment for fruit and vegetable intake in older men and women in 20 UK towns: a cross-sectional analysis of two national cohorts using novel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkesworth, S; Silverwood, R J; Armstrong, B; Pliakas, T; Nanchahal, K; Sartini, C; Amuzu, A; Wannamethee, G; Atkins, J; Ramsay, S E; Casas, J P; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Lock, Karen

    2017-09-18

    Local neighbourhood environments can influence dietary behavior. There is limited evidence focused on older people who are likely to have greater dependence on local areas and may suffer functional limitations that amplify any neighbourhood impact. Using multi-level ordinal regression analysis we investigated the association between multiple dimensions of neighbourhood food environments (captured by fine-detail, foot-based environmental audits and secondary data) and self-reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake. The study was a cross-sectional analysis nested within two nationally representative cohorts in the UK: the British Regional Heart Study and the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Main exposures of interest were density of food retail outlets selling fruits and vegetables, the density of fast food outlets and a novel measure of diversity of the food retail environment. A total of 1124 men and 883 women, aged 69 - 92 years, living in 20 British towns were included in the analysis. There was strong evidence of an association between area income deprivation and fruit and vegetable consumption, with study members in the most deprived areas estimated to have 27% (95% CI: 7, 42) lower odds of being in a higher fruit and vegetable consumption category relative to those in the least deprived areas. We found no consistent evidence for an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and a range of other food environment domains, including density of shops selling fruits and vegetables, density of premises selling fast food, the area food retail diversity, area walkability, transport accessibility, or the local food marketing environment. For example, individuals living in areas with greatest fruit and vegetable outlet density had 2% (95% CI: -22, 21) lower odds of being in a higher fruit and vegetable consumption category relative to those in areas with no shops. Although small effect sizes in environment-diet relationships cannot be discounted

  14. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define...... influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food...

  15. A novel derivation of a within-batch sampling plan based on a Poisson-gamma model characterising low microbial counts in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Zwietering, Marcel H; Butler, Francis

    2013-02-01

    This study proposes a novel step-wise methodology for the derivation of a sampling plan by variables for food production systems characterised by relatively low concentrations of the inspected microorganism. After representing the universe of contaminated batches by modelling the between-batch and within-batch variability in microbial counts, a tolerance criterion defining batch acceptability (i.e., up to a tolerance percentage of the food units having microbial concentrations lower or equal to a critical concentration) is established to delineate a limiting quality contour that separates satisfactory from unsatisfactory batches. The problem consists then of finding the optimum decision criterion - arithmetic mean of the analytical results (microbiological limit, m(L)) and the sample size (n) - that satisfies a pre-defined level of confidence measured on the samples' mean distributions from all possible true within-batch distributions. This is approached by obtaining decision landscape curves representing collectively the conditional and joint producer's and consumer's risks at different microbiological limits along with confidence intervals representing uncertainty due to the propagated between-batch variability. Whilst the method requires a number of risk management decisions to be made such as the objective of the sampling plan (GMP-based or risk-based), the modality of derivation, the tolerance criterion or level of safety, and the statistical level of confidence, the proposed method can be used when past monitoring data are available so as to produce statistically-sound dynamic sampling plans with optimised efficiency and discriminatory power. For the illustration of Enterobacteriaceae concentrations on Irish sheep carcasses, a sampling regime of n=10 and m(L)=17.5CFU/cm(2) is recommended to ensure that the producer has at least a 90% confidence of accepting a satisfactory batch whilst the consumer at least a 97.5% confidence that a batch will not be

  16. UnAdulterated - children and adults' visual attention to healthy and unhealthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Astrid F; Hooge, Ignace T C; Maas, Josje; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-04-01

    Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting adults' superior self-regulation skills compared to children. This study employed a novel method to investigate self-regulatory skills. Children and adults' initial (bottom-up) and maintained (top-down) visual attention to simultaneously presented healthy and unhealthy food were examined in an eye-tracking paradigm. Results showed that both children and adults initially attended most to the unhealthy food. Subsequently, adults self-regulated their visual attention away from the unhealthy food. Despite the children's high self-reported attempts to eat healthily and importance of eating healthily, children did not self-regulate visual attention away from unhealthy food. Children remained influenced by the attention-driven desire to consume the unhealthy food whereas adults visually attended more strongly to the healthy food thereby avoiding the desire to consume the unhealthy option. The findings emphasize the necessity of improving children's self-regulatory skills to support their desire to remain healthy and to protect children from the influences of the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Hefferon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  18. Food taxation and pricing strategies to "thin out" the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-05-01

    This article highlights characteristics of two related yet distinct economic approaches to addressing the current obesity epidemic in the United States: the general taxation of soft drinks, snack foods, and/or fast foods, and the application of pricing incentives/disincentives on foods sold in schools and worksites. The article specifically focuses on the: (1) rationale for, (2) potential barriers and limitations to, and (3) possible unintended consequences of implementing these policy interventions at the state level. Novel empirical evidence showing strong positive associations between the presence of state-level taxation on soft drinks or snack foods between 1991 and 1998 and relative changes in obesity prevalence over the same time period is further presented. The article concludes by summarizing the similarities and dissimilarities of the two approaches, and by emphasizing some of the gaps and priorities regarding these strategies that should be addressed in future research and policies to best effect obesity prevention.

  19. Obsesi Tokoh Utama terhadap Makanan dalam Novel Aruna dan Lidahnya Karya Laksmi Pamuntjak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noviana Nitami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study is motivated by the human changes in treating food which is caused by the displacement of society, technology, culture and time change. The aims of this study is to find the obsession on the food in the novel Aruna dan Lidahnya. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative, in which data is collected by library research. The research result in the leading factor of the main character’s obsession to the food, single status, source of happiness, a mean of self-liberation, occupational factors, lifestyle, and educational background. Aruna’s obsession is categorized as compulsive obsession. Compulsive obsession is a repetitive behaviour that performed by someone because she thinks it ia a must. Keywords: Aruna dan Lidahnya; Laksmi Pamuntjak; Food; Obsession; Literature learning Abstrak: Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh perubahan manusia dalam memperlakukan makanan yang disebabkan oleh adanya perpindahan masyarakat, budaya teknologi, dan perkembangan zaman. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui obsesi terhadap makanan yang terdapat dalam novel Aruna dan Lidahnya. Metode yang digunakan ialah deskriptif kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan teknik kajian pustaka. Teknik analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis struktural yakni membaca dan memahami kembali data yang sudah diperoleh. Berdasarkan penelitian, diperoleh hasil bahwa obsesi terhadap makanan yang terdapat dalam novel  Aruna dan Lidahnya karya Laksmi Pamuntjak disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, di antaranya faktor status yang masih sendiri, sumber kebahagiaan, sarana pembebasan diri, faktor pekerjaan, gaya hidup, dan latar belakang pendidikan. Obsesi yang dialami oleh Aruna tergolong ke dalam obsesi kompulsif yaitu perilaku yang dilakukan berulang-ulang oleh seseorang karena merasa harus melakukannya. Kata Kunci: Aruna dan Lidahnya, Laksmi Pamuntjak, Makanan, Obsesi,  Pembelajaran Sastra 

  20. Yeasts in foods and beverages: impact on product quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Graham H

    2007-04-01

    The role of yeasts in food and beverage production extends beyond the well-known bread, beer and wine fermentations. Molecular analytical technologies have led to a major revision of yeast taxonomy, and have facilitated the ecological study of yeasts in many other products. The mechanisms by which yeasts grow in these ecosystems and impact on product quality can now be studied at the level of gene expression. Their growth and metabolic activities are moderated by a network of strain and species interactions, including interactions with bacteria and other fungi. Some yeasts have been developed as agents for the biocontrol of food spoilage fungi, and others are being considered as novel probiotic organisms. The association of yeasts with opportunistic infections and other adverse responses in humans raises new issues in the field of food safety.

  1. The effects of specified chemical meals on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, H S; Maggio, C A

    1978-10-01

    Rats received intragastric infusions of various specified chemical meals and were subsequently tested for a reduction in food intake. A second experiment, using a novel technique, tested for conditioned aversion to the meal infusions. The nonnutritive substances, kaolin clay and emulsified fluorocarbon, had no significant effect on food intake. Infusions of 1 M glucose and 1 M sorbitol reduced feeding behavior, but the 1 M sorbitol infusion also produced a conditioned aversion to flavored pellets paired with the sorbitol infusion, showing that the reduced feeding could have been caused by discomfort. Infusion of a high-fat meal consisting of emulsified triolein mixed with small amounts of sugar and protein or the rat's normal liquid diet, Nutrament, also reduced food intake, and both infusions failed to produce a conditioned aversion. The use of specified meals to understand the chemical basis of satiety requires a sensitive behavioral test to establish that the meal does not cause discomfort or other nonspecific effects.

  2. A comprehensive review on food waste anaerobic digestion: Research updates and tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Yu, Miao; Wu, Chuanfu; Wang, Qunhui; Gao, Ming; Huang, Qiqi; Liu, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been practically applied in agricultural and industrial waste treatment and recognized as an economical-effective way for food waste disposal. This paper presented an overview on the researches about anaerobic digestion of food waste. Technologies (e.g., pretreatment, co-digestion, inhibition and mitigation, anaerobic digestion systems, etc.) were introduced and evaluated on the basis of bibliometric analysis. Results indicated that ethanol and aerobic prefermentation were novel approaches to enhance substrates hydrolysis and methane yield. With the promotion of resource recovery, more attention should be paid to biorefinery technologies which can produce more useful products toward zero emissions. Furthermore, a technological route for food waste conversion based on anaerobic digestion was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paying to see a bug on my food: how regulations and information can hamper radical innovations in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magistris, de T.; Pascucci, S.; Mitsopoulos, D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of the European Novel Food Regulation (ENFR) on consumers’ acceptance of and willingness to pay (WTP) for radical food innovations. The research question is focussed on determining whether the ENFR is hampering the market potential of

  4. Food addiction spectrum: a theoretical model from normality to eating and overeating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Armando; Marazziti, Donatella; Vanelli, Federica; Franceschini, Caterina; Baroni, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Cremone, Ivan Mirko; Veltri, Antonello; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    The authors comment on the recently proposed food addiction spectrum that represents a theoretical model to understand the continuum between several conditions ranging from normality to pathological states, including eating disorders and obesity, as well as why some individuals show a peculiar attachment to food that can become an addiction. Further, they review the possible neurobiological underpinnings of these conditions that include dopaminergic neurotransmission and circuits that have long been implicated in drug addiction. The aim of this article is also that at stimulating a debate regarding the possible model of a food (or eating) addiction spectrum that may be helpful towards the search of novel therapeutic approaches to different pathological states related to disturbed feeding or overeating.

  5. Bio-degradation of oily food waste employing thermophilic bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Chan, Man Ting; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to isolate a novel thermophilic bacterial strain and develop a bacterial consortium (BC) for efficient degradation oily food waste. Four treatments were designed: 1:1 mixture of pre-consumption food wastes (PrCFWs) and post-consumption food wastes (PCFWs) (T-1), 1:2 mixture of PrCFWs and PCFWs mixture (T-2), PrCFWs (T-3) and PCFWs (T-4). Equal quantity of BC was inoculated into each treatment to compare the oil degradation efficiency. Results showed that after 15days of incubation, a maximum oil reduction of 65.12±0.08% was observed in treatment T-4, followed by T-2 (55.44±0.12%), T-3 (54.79±0.04%) and T-1 (52.52±0.02%), while oil reduction was negligible in control. Results indicate that the development of oil utilizing thermophilic BC was more cost-effective in solving the degradation of oily food wastes and conversion into a stable end product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Masking foods for food challenge: practical aspects of masking foods for a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, G. B.; Colen, A. A.; Jansen, J. J.; Kardinaal, A. F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Martens, B. P.

    1994-01-01

    In diagnosing a food allergy or food intolerance, a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with the suspected food or food substance is the only method available for objective confirmation of an assumed relationship between a suspected agent and a complaint. When the use of

  7. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    As part of ProSafeBeef, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission, the present qualitative study was carried out with European consumers to obtain insights into their acceptance or rejection of eight selected novel beef production and processing technologies, identified here...... capital cities: Madrid, Paris, Berlin and London. A common and translated topic guide was developed prior to the field work. A ranking exercise was applied, where the participants classified the technologies into accepted, neutral or rejected concepts, after discussing the perceived benefits and risks...... in society, global warming crisis, disease outbreaks and degradation of the environment are shaping consumers' opinion in regard to food production. There was a severe criticism about too much intervention in food and a strong desire to keep food and beef processing as simple and natural as possible....

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food-borne pathogens, health and role of dietary phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, K; Labbe, R G

    1998-12-01

    Infectious diseases transmitted by food have become a major public health concern in recent years. In the USA alone, there are an estimated 6-33 million cases each year. The list of responsible agents continues to grow. In the past 20 years some dozen new pathogens that are primarily food-borne have been identified. Fruits and vegetables, often from the global food market, have been added to the traditional vehicles of food-borne illness; that is, undercooked meat, poultry, seafood, or unpasteurized milk. Such products are minimally processed and have fewer barriers to microbial growth such as salt, sugar or preservatives. The evolution of the epidemiology of food-borne illness requires a rethinking of traditional, though still valid, solutions for their prevention. Among various strategies to prevent food-borne pathogens, use of dietary phytochemicals is promising. The major obstacle in the use of dietary phytochemical is the consistency of phytochemicals in different foods due to their natural genetic variation. We have developed a novel tissue-culture-based selection strategy to isolate elite phenolic phytochemical-producing clonal lines of species belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Among several species we have targeted elite clonal lines of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) against Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfrigens in fresh and processed meats. We are also evaluating high phenolic profile-containing clonal lines of basil (Ocimum basilicum) to inhibit gastric ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori. Other elite lines of the members of the family Lamiaceae, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and salvia (Salvia officinalis) also hold promise against a wide range of food pathogens such as Salmonella species in poultry products and Vibrio species in seafood.

  10. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  11. Post Launch Monitoring of food products : what can be learned from pharmacovigilance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Puijenbroek, E P; Hepburn, P A; Herd, T M; van Grootheest, A C

    Post Launch Monitoring (PLM) is one of the new approaches that are used in assessing the safety of novel foods or ingredients. It shares a close resemblance with procedures applied in the field of medicines, where Post Marketing Surveillance (PMS) has been carried out since the beginning of the

  12. Modelling PCB bioaccumulation in a Baltic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T.

    2007-01-01

    A steady state model is developed to describe the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants by 14 species in a Baltic food web including pelagic and benthic aquatic organisms. The model is used to study the bioaccumulation of five PCB congeners of different chlorination levels. The model predictions are evaluated against monitoring data for five of the species in the food web. Predicted concentrations are on average within a factor of two of measured concentrations. The model shows that all PCB congeners were biomagnified in the food web, which is consistent with observations. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the single most sensitive parameter is log K OW . The most sensitive environmental parameter is the annual average temperature. Although not identified amongst the most sensitive input parameters, the dissolved concentration in water is believed to be important because of the uncertainty in its determination. The most sensitive organism-specific input parameters are the fractional respiration of species from the water column and sediment pore water, which are also difficult to determine. Parameters such as feeding rate, growth rate and lipid content of organism are only important at higher trophic levels. - The bioaccumulation behaviour of PCB congeners in a Baltic food web is studied using a novel mechanistic model

  13. DOES FOOD SAFETY CONFLICT WITH FOOD SECURITY? THE SAFE CONSUMPTION OF FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Jean D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper concludes by saying no, food safety and security reinforce each other. It combines food safety and food security into the concept of "safe food consumption." Unsafe food consumption occurs when food contains known substances that lead to short or long term illness or death (botulism) and suspect substances that are believed to lead to delayed diseases (pesticides). It also occurs when hunger or over eating contribute to long-term illness and shorter life expectancy. The costs of il...

  14. Australian Consumers' Awareness and Acceptance of Insects as Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Kerry; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Motley, Crystal; Crump, Anna; Bray, Heather; Ankeny, Rachel

    2018-04-19

    Insects have long been consumed as part of the diets of many Asian, African, and South American cultures. However, despite international agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations advocating the nutritional, environmental, and economic benefits of entomophagy, attitudinal barriers persist in Western societies. In Australia, the indigenous ‘bush tucker’ diet comprising witchetty grubs, honey ants, and Bogong moths is quite well known; however, in most Australian locales, the consumption of insects tends to occur only as a novelty. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the awareness and acceptance of insects as food. An online survey of 820 consumers found that 68% of participants had heard of entomophagy, but only 21% had previously eaten insects; witchetty grubs, ants, grasshoppers, and crickets were the most commonly tasted insects. Taste, appearance, safety, and quality were identified as the factors that were most likely to influence consumer willingness to try eating insects, but consumer attitudes towards entomophagy were underpinned by both food neophobia (i.e., reluctance to eat new or novel foods) and prior consumption of insects. Neophobic consumers were far less accepting of entomophagy than neophilic consumers, while consumers who had previously eaten insects were most accepting of insects as food. Incorporating insects into familiar products (e.g., biscuits) or cooked meals also improved their appeal. Collectively, these findings can be used by the food industry to devise production and/or marketing strategies that overcome barriers to insect consumption in Australia.

  15. Australian Consumers’ Awareness and Acceptance of Insects as Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Wilkinson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects have long been consumed as part of the diets of many Asian, African, and South American cultures. However, despite international agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations advocating the nutritional, environmental, and economic benefits of entomophagy, attitudinal barriers persist in Western societies. In Australia, the indigenous ‘bush tucker’ diet comprising witchetty grubs, honey ants, and Bogong moths is quite well known; however, in most Australian locales, the consumption of insects tends to occur only as a novelty. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the awareness and acceptance of insects as food. An online survey of 820 consumers found that 68% of participants had heard of entomophagy, but only 21% had previously eaten insects; witchetty grubs, ants, grasshoppers, and crickets were the most commonly tasted insects. Taste, appearance, safety, and quality were identified as the factors that were most likely to influence consumer willingness to try eating insects, but consumer attitudes towards entomophagy were underpinned by both food neophobia (i.e., reluctance to eat new or novel foods and prior consumption of insects. Neophobic consumers were far less accepting of entomophagy than neophilic consumers, while consumers who had previously eaten insects were most accepting of insects as food. Incorporating insects into familiar products (e.g., biscuits or cooked meals also improved their appeal. Collectively, these findings can be used by the food industry to devise production and/or marketing strategies that overcome barriers to insect consumption in Australia.

  16. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products...... such as meat and seafood is not industrially utilized yet. Therefore, the aim of the current work is to model and develop the ohmic heating technology for heating of solid meat and seafood. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during ohmic heating of meat products has been...

  17. Food Pedagogy, Food Symposium - What is food about? A new approach for promoting changes in food related behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Thuv, Sølvi

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Guidelines suggest food related competency as a measure to develop better and more sustainable eating habits. Norwegian schools have got a new subject, Food and Health. Our purpose is to exemplify coherence in our teaching program and introduce the concept of Food Pedagogy. METHODS Literature research was used to discuss concepts of nutrition, food and "food culture". We arranged a pilot study and wrote a final teaching program for study Food and Health (60ECTS). We are work...

  18. Bacteriophage cocktail for biocontrol of Salmonella in dried pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Serena; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Charbonneau, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Human salmonellosis has been associated with contaminated pet foods and treats. Therefore, there is interest in identifying novel approaches for reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination within pet food manufacturing environments. The use of lytic bacteriophages shows promise as a safe and effective way to mitigate Salmonella contamination in various food products. Bacteriophages are safe, natural, highly targeted antibacterial agents that specifically kill bacteria and can be targeted to kill food pathogens without affecting other microbiota. In this study, we show that a cocktail containing six bacteriophages had a broadspectrum activity in vitro against a library of 930 Salmonella enterica strains representing 44 known serovars. The cocktail was effective against 95% of the strains in this tested library. In liquid culture dose-ranging experiments, bacteriophage cocktail concentrations of ≥10(8) PFU/ml inactivated more than 90% of the Salmonella population (10(1) to 10(3) CFU/ml). Dried pet food inoculated with a mixture containing equal proportions of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), Montevideo (ATCC 8387), Senftenberg (ATCC 8400), and Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and then surface treated with the six-bacteriophage cocktail (≥2.5 ± 1.5 × 10(6) PFU/g) achieved a greater than 1-log (P contamination in samples taken from an undistributed lot of commercial dried dog food that tested positive for Salmonella. Our results indicate that bacteriophage biocontrol of S. enterica in dried pet food is technically feasible.

  19. Consumer acceptance of insect-based foods in the Netherlands: Academic and commercial implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    Despite growing interest in the use of insects as food, uptake of insect-based foods in Europe is low. Existing research into Western consumer acceptance of insects as food tends to emphasise the role of individual cognition in food choice at the expense of social or contextual factors, and typically frames consumer acceptance as a general issue, rather than relevant only for relatively few early adopters. This paper outlines empirical work, theoretically and methodologically informed by a critical appraisal of previous research, with consumers of insect-based convenience foods in the Netherlands. Reported initial motivations for trying insect foods are shown to be substantially different from factors - such as price, taste, availability, and 'fit' with established eating practices - which affect repeat consumption. Such factors are congruent with those affecting routine consumption of more conventional foods, indicating that insect foods should be analysed according to similar criteria and should be designed with more practical considerations in mind. Further, a reorientation of consumer acceptance research is proposed. Research should shift from attempts to forecast acceptance and engage with 'actual' examples of insect consumption; social, practical and contextual factors affecting food consumption should be emphasised; and - following work on the establishment of other novel foods - early adopters, rather than general populations, should receive greater analytic attention. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A Novel Integrated Approach for Green Supplier Selection with Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Uncertain Linguistic Information: A Case Study in the Agri-Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Shi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With strengthening global consciousness of environmental protection, green supply chain management plays an increasingly important role in modern enterprise production operation management. A critical means to implement green supply chain management is incorporating environmental requirements into the supplier selection practices. In this paper, we put forward a novel integrated approach by using interval-valued intuitionistic uncertain linguistic sets (IVIULSs and grey relational analysis (GRA-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS method for the evaluation and selection of green suppliers. First, various qualitative assessments of alternatives provided by decision makers are described by the IVIULSs. Then, the GRA-TOPSIS method is extended and employed to prioritize the alternative suppliers. The proposed model can handle the uncertainty and fuzziness of decision makers’ subjective evaluations more easily and get a more realistic and accurate ranking of green suppliers. Finally, an illustrative example in the agri-food industry is presented to verify the proposed green supplier selection model and demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  1. The Food Crisis and Food Security: Towards a New World Food Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Golay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The worst food crisis since 1974 broke out in 2007-08. Higher world market prices of food commodities (especially wheat, rice, soya and maize sparked an unprecedented increase in the number of hungry people. Despite moderately lower prices since the summer of 2008, the number of the hungry continued to rise in 2009. This food crisis has placed the fight against hunger on the international agenda. Since March 2008 governments UN agencies and many social movements have adopted positions on the causes of the crisis and the means to address it. Unfortunately, while these parties are trying to coordinate their activities and suggest new approaches, the old recipes for producing more food are often brought up. Contradictory proposals are made and the thought given to the causes underlying hunger and the food crisis (social, economic and political discrimination and exclusion has gone largely unheeded. The first Millennium Development Goal, which calls for cutting the percentage of hungry people by half by 2015, is clearly out of reach. But the food crisis might lead to a new world food order based on the three pillars of food assistance, food security and the right to food.

  2. Information on plant foods in eBASIS: what is in a correct botanical scientific name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Sørensen, Marten

    2010-01-01

    Information Resource (EuroFIR)-NETTOX Plant List (2007) presents scientific and vernacular names in 15 European languages for around 325 major European plant/mushroom foods and also for different parts of these foods. This list and its predecessor, the NETTOX List of Food Plants, have been used by national...... food authorities and within the European Union for consideration of plants and mushrooms that have been used to a significant degree up to 1997 and are therefore not covered by the novel food regulation (European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 1997). The species and the plant part...... studied are insufficiently characterised in many scientific papers. This paper informs about the naming of plants and mushrooms as an aid for scientists who are not botanists or mycologists themselves. Knowledge on scientific names used, including synonyms, may also be important for finding all relevant...

  3. Allergenic components of a novel food, Micronesian nut Nangai (Canarium indicum), shows IgE cross-reactivity in pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sten, E.; Skov, P. S.; Bode Andersen, S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New foods may present a risk for food hypersensitive patients. Several examples exist of allergic reactions caused by cross-reactive plant-derived foods, and new foods should be scrutinised before introducing them to the market. We have evaluated the clinical and serological relevance...... previously. To determine the biological and clinical relevance of the cross-reactivity, histamine release (HR) test, skin prick test (SPT) and food challenge were used. RESULTS: There was prevalence for reactivity against Nangai in the group of pollen allergic patients. This cross-reactivity seems...... to be related--at least in part--to carbohydrate epitopes. Three out of 12 patients tested with Nangai were positive upon open challenge, but using double blind placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) this could not be confirmed in two patients. The biological effects of Nangai on allergic patients were...

  4. Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Pala, Valeria; Reisch, Lucia A; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating'). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children's fast-food consumption frequency, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'food responsiveness'), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home availability of unhealthy foods, (a) a higher fast-food consumption frequency was found in children high in reward sensitivity and (b) the relation between reward sensitivity and the fast-food consumption frequency was mediated by external eating. The findings point at the importance of the home food environment in children high in reward sensitivity. They suggest to limit the home availability of unhealthy foods. What is Known: • Reward sensitivity (RS) is positively associated with children's palatable food consumption • In adolescents, this effect is mediated by food cue responsiveness, which determines the strength of an individual's motivation to obtain food when perceiving food cues What is New: • Children high in RS may be more vulnerable to palatable food cues in their everyday food environment because of a higher food cue responsiveness • The home food environment may be an important determining factor of the palatable food consumption of these children.

  5. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.

  6. Piloting an online grocery store simulation to assess children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Amy M; Harris, Jennifer L; Liu, Sai; Schwartz, Marlene B; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Public health interventions must address poor diet among U.S. children, but research is needed to better understand factors influencing children's food choices. Using an online grocery store simulation, this research piloted a novel method to assess children's snack selection in a controlled but naturalistic laboratory setting, evaluate predictors of choice, and experimentally test whether promotions on food packages altered choices. Children (7-12 years, N = 61) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: promotions on healthy products; promotions on unhealthy products; and no promotions (control). They selected from a variety of healthy and unhealthy foods and beverages and rated all products on healthfulness and taste. Promotions on food packaging did not affect snack selection in this study, but findings supported our other hypothesis that perceived taste would be the strongest predictor of food choice. Children accurately rated product healthfulness, but these ratings did not predict healthy snack choices or taste ratings for healthy or unhealthy snacks. These results suggest that interventions to improve children's food choices should focus on increasing availability of healthy options and identifying opportunities to enhance children's liking of healthy options. However, nutrition education alone is unlikely to improve children's diets. Further testing is required, but the simulated online grocery store method shows potential for measuring children's food choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  8. Food crises, food regimes and food movements: rumblings of reform or tides of transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt Giménez, Eric; Shattuck, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the potential for food movements to bring about substantive changes to the current global food system. After describing the current corporate food regime, we apply Karl Polanyi's 'double-movement' thesis on capitalism to explain the regime's trends of neoliberalism and reform. Using the global food crisis as a point of departure, we introduce a comparative analytical framework for different political and social trends within the corporate food regime and global food movements, characterizing them as 'Neoliberal', 'Reformist', 'Progressive', and 'Radical', respectively, and describe each trend based on its discourse, model, and key actors, approach to the food crisis, and key documents. After a discussion of class, political permeability, and tensions within the food movements, we suggest that the current food crisis offers opportunities for strategic alliances between Progressive and Radical trends within the food movement. We conclude that while the food crisis has brought a retrenchment of neoliberalization and weak calls for reform, the worldwide growth of food movements directly and indirectly challenge the legitimacy and hegemony of the corporate food regime. Regime change will require sustained pressure from a strong global food movement, built on durable alliances between Progressive and Radical trends.

  9. Consumer and food industries education on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Z.

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted on Malaysian food industries to determine the interest and potential applications of food irradiation as an alternative or to complement existing food preservation treatments. A total of 37 food processors representing 5 subsectors of the food industry participated in the survey. Information collected showed that majority of respondents were aware of food irradiation but the level of knowledge was low. Half of respondents perceived food irradiation as safe and 23% will consider using it for commercial purposes. Main concerns of the food processors were safety of the process, safety of irradiated food, efficacy of the process and consumer acceptance. Food irradiation applications considered to have the most potential for use by the food industry, were those which would improve the hygienic quality of food products. Despite the limited knowledge, respondents strongly supported the need to promote food irradiation technology in Malaysia. In view of this finding. various promotional activities have been continuously carried out to increase public awareness and understanding of the technology so as to facilitate acceptance of food irradiation in Malaysia. (author)

  10. Developing Food Science Core Competencies in Vietnam: The Role of Experience and Problem Solving in an Industry-Based Undergraduate Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrand, Karen; Yamashita, Lina; Trexler, Cary J.; Vu, Thi Lam An; Young, Glenn M.

    2017-01-01

    Although many educators now recognize the value of problem-based learning and experiential learning, undergraduate-level food science courses that reflect these pedagogical approaches are still relatively novel, especially in East and Southeast Asia. Leveraging existing partnerships with farmers in Vietnam, a food science course for students at…

  11. On modeling the large strain fracture behaviour of soft viscous foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamniotis, C. G.; Elliott, M.; Charalambides, M. N.

    2017-12-01

    Mastication is responsible for food breakdown with the aid of saliva in order to form a cohesive viscous mass, known as the bolus. This influences the rate at which the ingested food nutrients are later absorbed into the body, which needs to be controlled to aid in epidemic health problems such as obesity, diabetes, and dyspepsia. The aim of our work is to understand and improve food oral breakdown efficiency in both human and pet foods through developing multi-scale models of oral and gastric processing. The latter has been a challenging task and the available technology may be still immature, as foods usually exhibit a complex viscous, compliant, and tough mechanical behaviour. These are all addressed here through establishing a novel material model calibrated through experiments on starch-based food. It includes a new criterion for the onset of material stiffness degradation, a law for the evolution of degradation governed by the true material's fracture toughness, and a constitutive stress-strain response, all three being a function of the stress state, i.e., compression, shear, and tension. The material model is used in a finite element analysis which reproduces accurately the food separation patterns under a large strain indentation test, which resembles the boundary conditions applied in chewing. The results lend weight to the new methodology as a powerful tool in understanding how different food structures breakdown and in optimising these structures via parametric analyses to satisfy specific chewing and digestion attributes.

  12. A novel approach to enhance food safety: industry-academia-government partnership for applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholm, Michael T; Ostrowsky, Julie; Farrar, Jeff A; Gravani, Robert B; Tauxe, Robert V; Buchanan, Robert L; Hedberg, Craig W

    2009-07-01

    An independent collaborative approach was developed for stimulating research on high-priority food safety issues. The Fresh Express Produce Safety Research Initiative was launched in 2007 with $2 million in unrestricted funds from industry and independent direction and oversight from a scientific advisory panel consisting of nationally recognized food safety experts from academia and government agencies. The program had two main objectives: (i) to fund rigorous, innovative, and multidisciplinary research addressing the safety of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens and (ii) to share research findings as widely and quickly as possible to support the development of advanced safeguards within the fresh-cut produce industry. Sixty-five proposals were submitted in response to a publicly announced request for proposals and were competitively evaluated. Nine research projects were funded to examine underlying factors involved in Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens and potential strategies for preventing the spread of foodborne pathogens. Results of the studies, published in the Journal of Food Protection, help to identify promising directions for future research into potential sources and entry points of contamination and specific factors associated with harvesting, processing, transporting, and storing produce that allow contaminants to persist and proliferate. The program provides a model for leveraging the strengths of industry, academia, and government to address high-priority issues quickly and directly through applied research. This model can be productively extended to other pathogens and other leafy and nonleafy produce.

  13. In the interest of food safety: a qualitative study investigating communication and trust between food regulators and food industry in the UK, Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha B Meyer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food regulatory bodies play an important role in public health, and in reducing the costs of food borne illness that are absorbed by both industry and government. Regulation in the food industry involves a relationship between regulators and members of the industry, and it is imperative that these relationships are built on trust. Research has shown in a variety of contexts that businesses find the most success when there are high levels of trust between them and their key stakeholders. An evidence-based understanding of the barriers to communication and trust is imperative if we are to put forward recommendations for facilitating the (rebuilding of trusting and communicative relationships. Methods We present data from 72 interviews with regulators and industry representatives regarding their trust in and communication with one another. Interviews were conducted in the UK, New Zealand, and Australia in 2013. Results Data identify a variety of factors that shape the dynamic and complex relationships between regulators and industry, as well as barriers to communication and trust between the two parties. Novel in our approach is our emphasis on identifying solutions to these barriers from the voices of industry and regulators. Conclusions We provide recommendations (e.g., development of industry advisory boards to facilitate the (rebuilding of trusting and communicative relationships between the two parties.

  14. Comparing immediate-type food allergy in humans and companion animals-revealing unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pali-Schöll, I; De Lucia, M; Jackson, H; Janda, J; Mueller, R S; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2017-11-01

    Adverse food reactions occur in human as well as veterinary patients. Systematic comparison may lead to improved recommendations for prevention and treatment in both. In this position paper, we summarize the current knowledge on immediate-type food allergy vs other food adverse reactions in companion animals, and compare this to the human situation. While the prevalence of food allergy in humans has been well studied for some allergens, this remains to be investigated for animal patients, where owner-reported as well as veterinarian-diagnosed food adverse reactions are on the increase. The characteristics of the disease in humans vs dogs, cats, and horses are most often caused by similar, but sometimes species-dependent different pathophysiological mechanisms, prompting the specific clinical symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments. Furthermore, little is known about the allergen molecules causative for type I food allergy in animals, which, like in human patients, could represent predictive biomarkers for risk evaluation. The definite diagnosis of food allergy relies-as in humans-on elimination diet and provocation tests. Besides allergen avoidance in daily practice, novel treatment options and tolerization strategies are underway. Taken together, numerous knowledge gaps were identified in veterinary food allergy, which need to be filled by systematic comparative studies. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Application of agricultural biotechnology to improve food nutrition and healthcare products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Samuel S M

    2008-01-01

    Crop plants provide essential food nutrients to humans and livestock, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals and vitamins, directly or indirectly. The level and composition of food nutrients vary significantly in different food crops. As a result, plant foods are often deficient in certain nutrient components. Relying on a single food crop as source of nutrients thus will not achieve a balanced diet and results in malnutrition and deficiency diseases, especially in the developing countries, due mainly to poverty. The development and application of biotechnology offers opportunities and novel possibilities to enhance the nutritional quality of crops, particularly when the necessary genetic variability is not available. While initial emphasis of agricultural biotechnology has been placed on input traits of crops such as herbicide tolerance, insect resistance and virus resistance, increasing effort and promising proof-of-concept products have been made in output traits including enhancing the nutritional quality of crops since 1990s. Advancements in plant transformation and transgene expression also allow the use of plants as bioreactors to produce a variety of bio-products at large scale and low cost. Many proof-of-concept plant-derived healthcare products have been generated and several commercialized.

  16. The Rise of the Food Risk Society and the Changing Nature of the Technological Treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioudmila Chatalova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of transition and developed countries is associated with increasingly unhealthy dietary habits among low-income population segments. Drawing on Ulrich Beck’s sociological theory of risk society, the present research note calls attention to the positive relation between national economic development and food risks that result in the rise of food-related diseases and healthcare costs. On this basis, we argue that the knowledge-intensive agribusiness may translate Cochrane’s technological treadmill into Beck’s risk treadmill that shifts a growing share of food-related healthcare costs from producers toward consumers, state, and the healthcare system. This argument motivates a novel research program dealing with the “food risk treadmill” that emerges in response to modern farming and agribusiness practices. Awareness of the food risk treadmill may help to streamline the development of agricultural science and to prevent it from being excessively dominated by the agricultural and food industry.

  17. Visualizing alternative phosphorus scenarios for future food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina-Simone Neset

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialogue on the technical, behavioral and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real-time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialogue to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1 the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2 the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3 the potential of a decreased animal product consumption, and (4 the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency

  18. Visualizing Alternative Phosphorus Scenarios for Future Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neset, Tina-Simone; Cordell, Dana; Mohr, Steve; VanRiper, Froggi; White, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure, and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialog on the technical, behavioral, and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialog to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1) the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2) the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3) the potential of decreased animal product consumption, and (4) the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency and yield gains in

  19. Donkey Milk for Manufacture of Novel Functional Fermented Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate on the functional features of a donkey milk probiotic berevage as a novel food. Particularly, it was to study the decrease of lactose content and the antioxidant activity of standard yogurt (YC) and probiotic yogurt (YP; Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei) from donkey milk during the storage up to 30 d at 4 ºC. The evolution of lactose content using enzymatic-spectrophotometric kits was analyzed. Antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Parallel consumer sensory studies were carried out as consumer test in order to gain information about the impact of these novel fermented beverages on sensory perceptions. The statistical analysis has shown significant effect of studied factors. The results showed that the lactose content gradually decreased during storage in both yogurts, reaching values of 2.36% and 2.10% in YC and YP, respectively, at 30 d (P yogurt types, the antioxidant activity increased, but YP showed a higher antioxidant activity than YC. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of yogurt samples was affected by cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). We conclude that the fermented donkey milk could be configured as health and nutraceutical food, which aims to meet nutritional requirements of certain consumers groups with lactose or cow milk protein intolerance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective

  1. Food-grade Micro-encapsulation Systems that May Induce Satiety via Delayed Lipolysis: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstens, M.N.; Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Vries, de R.J.; Troost, F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.; Schroen, C.G.P.H.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity requires new, effective prevention and treatment strategies. One approach to reduce energy intake is by developing novel foods with increased satiating properties, which may be accomplished by slowing down lipolysis to deliver substrates to the

  2. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals as Dietary Intervention in Chronic Diseases; Novel Perspectives for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi

    2017-12-27

    Functional foods describe the importance of foods in promoting health and preventing diseases aside their primary role of providing the body with the required amount of essential nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats, and oils needed for its healthy survival. This review explains the interaction of functional food bioactive compounds including polyphenols (phenolic acids [hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids], flavonoids [flavonols, flavones, flavanols, flavanones, isoflavones, proanthocyanidins], stilbenes, and lignans), terpenoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids, among others with critical enzymes (α- amylase, α- glucosidase, angiotensin-I converting enzyme [ACE], acetylcholinesterase [AChE], and arginase) linked to some degenerative diseases (type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases [hypertension], neurodegenerative diseases [Alzheimer's disease] and erectile dysfunction). Different functional food bioactive compounds may synergistically/additively confer an overwhelming protection against these degenerative diseases by modulating/altering the activities of these critical enzymes of physiological importance.

  3. A Novel Reference Plasmid for the Qualitative Detection of Genetically Modified Rice in Food and Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liang; Dong, Mei; An, Na; Liang, Lixia; Wan, Yusong; Jin, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Genetically modified (GM) technology has been used in rice to confer herbicide tolerance and pathogen or insect resistance. China invests heavily in research on GM rice. By the end of 2014, at least 250 transgenic rice lines had been developed in China. To monitor the presence of GM rice in food and feed, we collected information on foreign elements from 250 transgenic rice lines and found 5 elements, including the Agrobacterium tumef...

  4. Boulder Food Rescue: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Food Waste and Increasing Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewald, Craig A; Kuo, Elena S; Dansky, Hana

    2018-05-01

    Food waste and food insecurity are both significant issues in communities throughout the U.S., including Boulder, Colorado. As much as 40% of the food produced in the U.S. goes uneaten and ends up in landfills. Nearly 13% of people in the Boulder region experience some level of food insecurity. Founded in 2011, Boulder Food Rescue supports community members to create their own food security through a participatory approach to an emergency food system. The organization uses a web-application "robot" to manage a schedule of volunteers. They coordinate with individuals at low-income senior housing sites, individual housing sites, family housing sites, after-school programs, and pre-schools to set up no-cost grocery programs stocked with food from local markets and grocers that would otherwise go to waste. Each site coordinator makes decisions about how, when, and where food delivery and distribution will occur. The program also conducts robust, real-time data collection and analysis. Boulder Food Rescue is a member and manager of the Food Rescue Alliance, and its model has been replicated and adapted by other cities, including Denver, Colorado Springs, Seattle, Jackson Hole, Minneapolis, Binghamton, and in the Philippines. Information for this special article was collected through key informant interviews with current and former Boulder Food Rescue staff and document review of Boulder Food Rescue materials. Boulder Food Rescue's open source software is available to other communities; to date, 40 cities have used the tool to start their own food rescue organizations. Boulder Food Rescue hopes to continue spreading this model to other cities that are considering ways to reduce food waste and increase food security. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  5. New Weapons to Fight Old Enemies: Novel Strategies for the (Bio)control of Bacterial Biofilms in the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Laura M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities characterized by their adhesion to solid surfaces and the production of a matrix of exopolymeric substances, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA and lipids, which surround the microorganisms lending structural integrity and a unique biochemical profile to the biofilm. Biofilm formation enhances the ability of the producer/s to persist in a given environment. Pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species capable of forming biofilms are a significant problem for the healthcare and food industries, as their biofilm-forming ability protects them from common cleaning processes and allows them to remain in the environment post-sanitation. In the food industry, persistent bacteria colonize the inside of mixing tanks, vats and tubing, compromising food safety and quality. Strategies to overcome bacterial persistence through inhibition of biofilm formation or removal of mature biofilms are therefore necessary. Current biofilm control strategies employed in the food industry (cleaning and disinfection, material selection and surface preconditioning, plasma treatment, ultrasonication, etc.), although effective to a certain point, fall short of biofilm control. Efforts have been explored, mainly with a view to their application in pharmaceutical and healthcare settings, which focus on targeting molecular determinants regulating biofilm formation. Their application to the food industry would greatly aid efforts to eradicate undesirable bacteria from food processing environments and, ultimately, from food products. These approaches, in contrast to bactericidal approaches, exert less selective pressure which in turn would reduce the likelihood of resistance development. A particularly interesting strategy targets quorum sensing systems, which regulate gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density governing essential cellular processes including biofilm formation. This review article discusses the problems associated

  6. The contribution of food irradiation to food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeferstein, F.K.

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to assist efforts throughout the world to provide safe and nutritious food supplies. However, the safety and nutritional quality, as well as the mere availability of our food, is constantly threatened by contamination, infestation and deterioration. The most recent addition to the list of food preserving methods is irradiation, i.e., processing of food to carefully measured amounts of ionizing radiation. The paper will highlight the contribution this technology is expected to make with regard to the prevention of foodborne diseases and food losses. (orig.) [de

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    that the additional information provided does not contain evidence thath would modify its previous conclusions regarding the effects of CLA on insulin sensitivity/glucose metabolism, blood lipids, lipid peroxidation, or subclinical inflammation. The Panel also considers that the new studies provided do not address......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...... uses and daily doses for up to six months. The safety of CLA consumption for periods longer than six months has not been established under the proposed conditions of use. The safety of CLA consumption by type-2 diabetic subjects has not been established. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  8. [Food neophobia: impact on food habits and acceptance of healthy foods in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tadeo, Alejandra; Patiño Villena, Begoña; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Vidaña-Gaytán, María Elena; Periago Caston, María Jesús; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; González Martinez-Lacuesta, Eduardo

    2014-09-21

    In children, food neophobia may affect food choices and limit the variety of the diet as well as affect the sensory acceptance of new foods. To identify the impact of food neophobia in food habits and preferences of healthy food in school canteens users in the city of Murcia. A total of 242 children in the second and third cycle of primary education (8-12 years), were included, stratified by sex and school year. A survey of habits and food preferences, food neophobia and acceptance of foods commonly consumed in the dining room was applied. In addition, a sensory test was conducted and the consumption of salads and fruits in the room was measured by the weighing method. The prevalence of neophobia was 16%, without difference by sex, academic year, time to use service, parental origin and being overweight or underweight. Food neophobia was associated with a detrimental effect on the consumption of vegetables and fruit, the taste for vegetables and lower consumption of cereals and cereal at breakfast and preferably less fruit and vegetables (pfoods like chicken and lentils (pFood neophobia did not affect the hedonic acceptance of fruit and salads consumed in the cafeteria. It is necessary to integrate this information to stakeholders to ensure an improvement in the consumption of healthy foods. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of a food-specific inhibition training in individuals with binge eating disorder-findings from a randomized controlled proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Speer, Eva; Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth Johanna; Zipfel, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Impulsivity might contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity and eating disorders. Patients suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) show an impulsive eating pattern characterized by regular binge eating episodes. Novel behavioral interventions increasing inhibitory control could improve eating behavior in BED. We piloted a novel food-specific inhibition training in individuals with BED. N = 22 BED patients according to SCID-I were randomly assigned to three sessions of a training or control condition. In both conditions, pictures of high-caloric food items were presented in peripheral vision on a computer screen while assessing gaze behavior. The training group had to suppress the urge to turn their gaze towards these pictures (i.e., to perform antisaccades). The control group was allowed to freely explore the pictures. We assessed self-reported food craving, food addiction, and wanting/liking of food pictures pre- and post-intervention. Twenty participants completed the study. The training proved to be feasible and acceptable. Patients of the training group significantly improved inhibitory control towards high-caloric food stimuli. Both groups reported a significantly lower number of binge eating episodes in the last four weeks after termination of the study. No changes were found in food craving, food addiction, liking, and wanting ratings. A food-specific inhibition training could be a useful element in the treatment of BED and other eating disorders; however, larger efficacy studies in patient samples are needed to investigate the efficacy of this and similar training approaches.

  10. THE REFLECTION OF RUSSIAN EATING TRADITION IN NOVELS “V LESAKH” AND “NA GORAKH” BY MEL’NIKOVPECHERSKIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushkina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cultural analysis of the fiction text (novels by Mel’nikov- Pecherskiy “V Lesakh” and “Na Gorakh” aiming to reveal the conceptual point of the basic cultural concept “Food” in Russian culture. The process of cooking and eating is a part of people’s everyday life and beyond no doubt it has the reflection in literature. Fiction text as well as language means (idioms, sayings can represent basic cultural concepts including concept “Food”. The choice of the novel for the analyses is caused by the fact, that Mel’nikov-Pecherskiy gives a detailed description of Russian traditional life and culture and also mentions food. The cultural analyses of the text stated the main items, which refers to the conceptual point of the concept “Food” in Russian culture. They are traditional Russian food products, eating customs. The main Russian food products are: shchi, pancakes, kisel', porridge, honey, kvas, fish, mushrooms, cakes. Food also has a symbolic meaning.

  11. The impact of food branding on children's eating behavior and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kathleen L; Kuilema, Laura G; Lee, Norman; Yoon, Joyce; Mascaro, Brittany; Combes, Anne-Laure; Deutsch, Bryan; Sorte, Kathryn; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-06-06

    Branding is a technique used by the food industry to create a recognizable image to attract consumers and hopefully boost sales of the product. Children recognize food brands from a young age, but their impact on the development of eating behaviors and obesity is unclear. In addition, the notion that some branding techniques may be used to increase intake of healthful foods, like fruits and vegetables, has not been rigorously investigated. Three laboratory-based intake studies designed to test the impact of common food brands on children's eating habits are presented. In the first study, four to six year-old children (n=43) were exposed to ad libitum test-meals where foods were presented either with or without their associated branding. In the second study, a novel food brand based Stroop task was developed and tested to assess children's cognitive response to food brands, and following this procedure, seven to nine year-old children (n=41) ate ad libitum test-meals consisting of foods packaged with or without a logo from a popular fast food restaurant. Finally, a pilot intervention was conducted with four to five year-old children (n=16) to demonstrate the efficacy of using licensed (spokes) characters to package and promote intake of fruits and vegetables. These studies demonstrate that branding is an important influence on what and how much children eat, but some children may be more susceptible to these influences than others. Future studies are needed to better understand the influence that child age, sex, and obesity has on response to food branding and marketing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of medical foods and nutritional approaches in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipisuttikul, Papan; Galvin, James E

    2012-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia, has a high global economic impact. To date, there is no curative treatment; therefore, many efforts are directed not only at novel potential disease-modifying treatments and interventions, but also to develop alternative symptomatic and supportive treatments. Examples of these efforts include the medical foods. There are three medical foods that claim to offer symptomatic benefits: Axona(®), Souvenaid(®) and CerefolinNAC(®). Axona supplies ketone bodies as alternative energy source to neurons. Souvenaid provides precursors thought to enhance synaptic function. CerefolinNAC addresses the role of oxidative stress related to memory loss. The current scientific evidence on these medical foods is reviewed in this article. Furthermore, we also review the concept and evidence supporting use of the Mediterranean diet, a possible alternative to medical foods that, if implemented correctly, may have lower costs, fewer side effects and stronger epidemiological health outcomes.

  13. Pilot test of a novel food response and attention training treatment for obesity: Brain imaging data suggest actions shape valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Veling, Harm; Kemps, Eva; Lawrence, Natalia S

    2017-07-01

    Elevated brain reward and attention region response, and weaker inhibitory region response to high-calorie food images have been found to predict future weight gain. These findings suggest that an intervention that reduces reward and attention region response and increases inhibitory control region response to such foods might reduce overeating. We conducted a randomized pilot experiment that tested the hypothesis that a multi-faceted food response and attention training with personalized high- and low-calorie food images would produce changes in behavioral and neural responses to food images and body fat compared to a control training with non-food images among community-recruited overweight/obese adults. Compared to changes observed in controls, completing the intervention was associated with significant reductions in reward and attention region response to high-calorie food images (Mean Cohen's d = 1.54), behavioral evidence of learning, reductions in palatability ratings and monetary valuation of high-calorie foods (p = 0.009, d's = 0.92), and greater body fat loss over a 4-week period (p = 0.009, d = 0.90), though body fat effects were not significant by 6-month follow-up. Results suggest that this multifaceted response and attention training intervention was associated with reduced reward and attention region responsivity to food cues, and a reduction in body fat. Because this implicit training treatment is both easy and inexpensive to deliver, and does not require top-down executive control that is necessary for negative energy balance obesity treatment, it may prove useful in treating obesity if future studies can determine how to create more enduring effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel PCR Assays Complement Laser Biosensor-Based Method and Facilitate Listeria Species Detection from Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Pyo Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop the Listeria species-specific PCR assays based on a house-keeping gene (lmo1634 encoding alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aad, previously designated as Listeria adhesion protein (LAP, and compare results with a label-free light scattering sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology. PCR primer sets targeting the lap genes from the species of Listeria sensu stricto were designed and tested with 47 Listeria and 8 non-Listeria strains. The resulting PCR primer sets detected either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or individual L. innocua, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. marthii without producing any amplified products from other bacteria tested. The PCR assays with Listeria sensu stricto-specific primers also successfully detected all species of Listeria sensu stricto and/or Listeria innocua from mixed culture-inoculated food samples, and each bacterium in food was verified by using the light scattering sensor that generated unique scatter signature for each species of Listeria tested. The PCR assays based on the house-keeping gene aad (lap can be used for detection of either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or certain individual Listeria species in a mixture from food with a detection limit of about 104 CFU/mL.

  15. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Neuromedin U inhibits food intake partly by inhibiting gastric emptying