Sample records for novaya zemlya 1964-1976

  1. Search for Barents: Evaluation of possible burial sites on north Novaya Zemlya, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeberg, J.J.; Floore, P.M.; Maat, G.J.R.; Gawronski, J.H.


    Three cairns on northernmost Novaya Zemlya identified as possible rock-pile graves by Russian investigators in 1977 and 1988 were located and inspected for human remains. These cairns are in the area visited by Dutch seafarers between 17 and 22 June 1597, after their wintering on Novaya Zemlya, and

  2. Novaya Zemlya bora and polar cyclones in spaceborne SAR and optical imagery (United States)

    Ivanov, A. Yu.


    Mesoscale meteorological phenomena, such as Novaya Zemlya bora and polar cyclones, have been studied based on the respective signatures in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the sea surface using remote sensing methods. The local bora covers both coastal and open-sea zones of the Barents Sea to the west of Novaya Zemlya and can lead to catastrophic consequences in coastal waters of the archipelago. Another interesting and hardly predictable phenomenon is polar cyclones. The development of especially intensive and catastrophic polar cyclones can be traced using multisensor and multispectral imagery. It has been shown that the application of spaceborne SARs and optical sensors enables real time detection, forecast, and monitoring of Novaya Zemlya bora and polar cyclones in the Barents Sea, giving ground for their detail research.

  3. New paleomagnetic data from late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago: tectonic implications (United States)

    Abashev, Victor V.; Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.


    New paleomagnetic data for Novaya Zemlya archipelago were obtained by processing the samples collection gathered during the 2014 field season. The paleomagnetic directions and paleomagnetic poles were determined from the Paleozoic sedimentary complexes located on the Southern Island (Upper Permian) and the Northern Island (Lower and Upper Devonian, Upper Carboniferous) of the archipelago. Positive fold and reversal tests indicate that the isolated paleomagnetic directions correspond to the primary magnetization components. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole are in good agreement with poles obtained earlier in the 1980s by E.L. Gurevich and I.A. Pogarskaya. Considering the confidence ovals, the paleomagnetic poles obtained for the sites of the Northern Island are located close to the corresponding path segment of the APWP of Europe. This means that at least since the early Devonian, the northern part of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago had a position that was close to its current position relatively to the Arctic margin of Europe and has not undergone significant shifts or rotations. However, the upper Permian paleomagnetic pole for the Southern Island is very different from the corresponding part of the European APWP. We are considering this pole position within a model, involving significant intraplate movement between the structures of the European and Siberian tectonic provinces until the Late Cretaceous. The sinistral strike-slips inferred by the model could have caused or were accompanying the opening of the Mesozoic rift system in Western Siberia. This event has reached its maximum within the South Kara basin and resulted in the north-westward (in geographic coordinates) displacement of the southern part of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in relation to the Arctic margin of Europe and in the deformation of the Pay-Khoy-Novaya Zemlya margin, which caused its modern curved form. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 14-37-00030 and the

  4. Paleomagnetism of the Upper Carboniferous and Upper Permian sedimentary rocks from Novaya Zemlya Archipelago (United States)

    Abashev, Victor V.; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.


    Here we present the first paleomagnetic directions and paleomagnetic poles for Upper Permian and Upper Carboniferous sedimentary rocks (sandstones and limestones) of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in the Russian High Arctic region. The paleomagnetic directions were obtained through detailed thermal and alternating field demagnetization experiments, using the principal component analysis of demagnetization data. A positive fold test and a positive reversal test indicate that the isolated paleomagnetic directions correspond to the primary magnetization components. Magnetic remanence carriers were characterized through rock-magnetic analyses, including measurements of temperature dependence of low-field magnetic susceptibility, magnetic hysteresis curves, and first-order reversal curves (FORC). We will describe the rock-magnetic properties of different lithological units and discuss their implications for the stability of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and the veracity of paleomagnetic record. The tectonics implications of the new paleomagnetic data for the evolution of the Barents-Kara continental margin and the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago will be also discussed. The paleomagnetic poles differ slightly from the corresponding section of the APWP for Baltica, which is probably due to inclination shallowing effect or the tectonic features of the region. The study was supported by Russian Science Foundation grant 14-37-00030, the SIU project HNPla-2013/10049 (HEAT) and by Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation grant 5.515.2014/K.

  5. Glacier extent in a Novaya Zemlya fjord during the Little Ice Age inferred from glaciomarine sediment records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeberg, J.J.; Forman, S.L.; Polyak, L.


    Glacier activity at Russkaya Gavan', north-west Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Russia), is reconstructed by particle size analysis of three fjord sediment cores in combination with 14C and 210Pb dating. Down-core logging of particle size variation reveals at least two intervals with sediment coarsening durin

  6. Gerrit de Veer's true and perfect description of the Novaya Zemlya effect, 24-27 January 1597

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, SY; Konnen, GP; Lehn, WH; Steenhuisen, F; Davidson, WPS


    The first recordings of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect were made during Willem Barents' third Arctic expedition. Ray-tracing analyses of the three key observations, on 24-27 January 1597, show that all the reported details can be explained by adopting one common and realistic type of temperature inve

  7. Gerrit de Veer's true and perfect description of the Novaya Zemlya effect, 24-27 January 1597

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, SY; Konnen, GP; Lehn, WH; Steenhuisen, F; Davidson, WPS


    The first recordings of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect were made during Willem Barents' third Arctic expedition. Ray-tracing analyses of the three key observations, on 24-27 January 1597, show that all the reported details can be explained by adopting one common and realistic type of temperature

  8. Step-change in retreat rates on Novaya Zemlya outlet glaciers (United States)

    Carr, Rachel; Bell, Heather; Killick, Rebecca; Holt, Tom


    Arctic ice masses have rapidly lost ice from the mid-1990s, through a combination of negative surface mass balance and accelerated ice discharge from marine-terminating outlet glaciers. In the past decade, substantial mass deficits have been identified on Novaya Zemlya (NVZ), Russian High Arctic, and its outlet glaciers began to retreat rapidly, from 2000 onwards. However, little is known about longer-term glacier behaviour on NVZ, meaning we have limited context for their recent acceleration in retreat. Here, we greatly extend the available record of glacier retreat, and assess multi-decadal glacier response to forcing between 1976 and 2015, using remotely sensed data. Using statistical changepoint analysis, we demonstrate a significant change in retreat rates for many glaciers, during the early 2000s. We also show that retreat slowed on numerous outlets from 2013 onwards, and that some glaciers even began to advance. NVZ glaciers have previously shown step-like changes in retreat rates, so we cannot determine whether this represents a longer-term trend or short-term slow-down, but it warrants future monitoring. We also assessed spatial patterns of retreat and found no significant differences in retreat rates according to coast or ice mass. Instead, the rate and temporal pattern of retreat were strongly dependant on terminus type: outlets terminating in lakes or the ocean retreated significantly faster than those ending on land. Interestingly, retreat rates on marine- and lake-terminating glaciers were not significantly different. However, the lake-terminating glaciers showed very little variation in retreat rates between glacier or over time, whereas the variability was very large on ocean-terminating glaciers. In terms of climatic controls, significant changes in Jul-Sep sea ice on both coasts of NVZ coincide with the onset of more rapid retreat, but there is large internnual variability in the data.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In August 1992, a Russian-Dutch expedition organized by the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia and the Arctic Centre of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands surveyed the site of the house on Novaya Zemlya in which the Dutch explorer Willem Barentsz and his crew

  10. Surface Elevation Changes and Velocities from Remote-Sensing Data at Vil'kitskogo, Inostranzeva and Bunge Glaciers on the Novaya Zemlya Icefield in the Russian High Arctic (United States)

    Melkonian, A. K.; Willis, M. J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Stewart, A.


    The Northern Ice Cap of Novaya Zemlya is the largest (22,000 km2) and most rapidly changing ice cap in the Russian High Arctic, accounting for 80% of the region's estimated 0.025 mm/yr contribution to sea level rise between 2003-2009 (Moholdt et al., 2012). We use several remote sensing instruments to extend this time series forward and instead of computing a regional average, we seek a detailed glacier-by-glacier inventory of elevation and velocity changes. Here, we focus on three glaciers along the Barents Sea coast of the ice cap: Vil'kitskogo, Inostranzeva and Bunge, all of which experienced area reduction at an average rate of roughly 1 sq. km/yr from 1990 to 2000 (Kouraev, Legrésy and Remy, 2006). Our estimates of the current surface elevation change rates (dh/dt) and velocities at these glaciers will allow us to determine the connections between thinning, dynamics and the documented climatic changes -- 2004-2009 mean summer temperatures in Novaya Zemlya were anomalously high, +0.50×0.28C greater than mean summer temperatures from 1980-2009 (Moholdt et al., 2012), while Meng (2013) found that melt duration increased by 1.3 days/yr from 1996 to 2011. Based on warming and increased melt in the region, we expect to find a seasonally-related increase in velocity. Comparing acceleration (or the lack thereof) with thinning rates and combining both with existing bathymetry to calculate flux will enable us to estimate the contribution of dynamics to mass change at these glaciers relative to melt. We estimate dh/dt by applying a weighted linear regression to time series of ASTER DEMs acquired between 2003/07/29 to 2013/07/27 and Russian cartographic DEMs issued in 1970/71. Glacier velocities are calculated using automated normalized cross correlation, or 'pixel-tracking', applied to ASTER image pairs from 2003 to 2013. We supplement our ASTER time series with velocities and DEMs from very high-resolution (0.5-2 m/pixel) imagery acquired by QuickBird, WorldView and

  11. Main results of the 2012 joint Norwegian-Russian expedition to the dumping sites of the nuclear submarine K-27 and solid radioactive waste in Stepovogo Fjord, Novaya Zemlya. (United States)

    Gwynn, Justin P; Nikitin, Aleksander; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Lind, Bjørn; Teien, Hans-Christian; Lind, Ole Christian; Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh; Bakke, Gunnar; Kazennov, Alexey; Grishin, Denis; Fedorova, Anastasia; Blinova, Oxana; Sværen, Ingrid; Lee Liebig, Penny; Salbu, Brit; Wendell, Cato Christian; Strålberg, Elisabeth; Valetova, Nailja; Petrenko, Galina; Katrich, Ivan; Logoyda, Igor; Osvath, Iolanda; Levy, Isabelle; Bartocci, Jean; Pham, Mai Khanh; Sam, Adam; Nies, Hartmut; Rudjord, Anne Liv


    This paper reports the main results of the 2012 joint Norwegian-Russian expedition to investigate the radioecological situation of the Stepovogo Fjord on the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, where the nuclear submarine K-27 and solid radioactive waste was dumped. Based on in situ gamma measurements and the analysis of seawater and sediment samples taken around the submarine, there was no indication of any leakage from the reactor units of K-27. With regard to the radioecological status of Stepovogo Fjord, activity concentrations of all radionuclides in seawater, sediment and biota in 2012 were in general lower than reported from the previous investigations in the 1990s. However in 2012, the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and, to a lesser extent, those of (90)Sr remained elevated in bottom water from the inner part of Stepovogo Fjord compared with surface water and the outer part of Stepovogo Fjord. Deviations from expected (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu activity ratios and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in some sediment samples from the inner part of Stepovogo Fjord observed in this study and earlier studies may indicate the possibility of leakages from dumped waste from different nuclear sources. Although the current environmental levels of radionuclides in Stepovogo Fjord are not of immediate cause for concern, further monitoring of the situation is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mineral composition of soils and bottom sediments in bays of Novaya Zemlya (United States)

    Krupskaya, V. V.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.; Dorzhieva, O. V.; Zakusin, S. V.; Semenkov, I. N.; Usacheva, A. A.


    We have analyzed the specific features of the mineralogical composition of bottom sediments of Blagopoluchiya, Tsivol'ki, and Abrosimov bays and soils on Cape Zhelaniya and the coasts of Abrosimov and Stepovoi bays. The data were obtained during two scientific expeditions of the R/V Professor Shtokman in 2014 (cruise 128) and R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 2015 (cruise 63). These investigations revealed patterns in the transportation of terrigenous material in the coastal zone of the bays: a decrease in the share of nonclay minerals and an increase in that of clay minerals with distance from shore. The increase in kaolinite and smectite content in soil horizons is related to biochemical weathering, while illite is mainly formed as a result of physical weathering.

  13. mpact of ice conditions to the navigation in the Novaya Zemlya and Spitsbergen region in XVI–XVII centuries

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    V. L. Derzhavin


    Full Text Available In the 16th–17th centuries, West European navigators made numerous but mostly unsuccessful efforts to open a new way, i.e. the North-East Passage, to China and India. Among three possible routes of that time the basic one ran through straits of the Vaigach Island but it was almost impassable due to heavy ice situation. At the same time Russian merchants regularly went on their ships from Pomorie to Siberian river mouths, and in the opposite direction, though they did also meet complicated ice situations. Russian navigator and geographer F.P. Litke (1797–1882 noticed that the ice situation in one or another region of the Barents Sea seriously changed from year to year. Russian navigation started in the Russian Pomorie (littoral region of the Russian Arctic not earlier than at end of June – beginning of July but Europeans knew nothing about this. Because of this, their ships came to the Vaigach region either earlier or later of the time when it was possible to go through the straits. Most often, they came here in the first half- and mid-August. Thus, western sailors could not get this quite narrow navigation «window» of pomors (Russian navigators. And if sometimes (rather rarely they could catch the right time and go through the strait Yugorski Shar they met extremely heavy ice situation in the Kara Sea. Perhaps for this reason, almost all European expeditions of that time failed.

  14. The Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, Arctic Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Per; Alexanderson, Helena; Funder, Svend Visby;


    We here suggest a glacial and climate history of the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in arctic Siberia for the last about 150 000 years (ka). Primarily it is based on results from seven field seasons between 1996 and 2012, to a large extent already published in papers referred...... to in the text e and on data presented by Russian workers from the 1930s to our days and by German colleagues working there since the 1990s. Although glaciations even up here often started in the local mountains, their culminations in this region invariably seems to have centred on the shallow Kara Sea...

  15. Quantifying the Mass Balance of Ice Caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian High Arctic. III: Sensitivity of Ice Caps in Severnaya Zemlya to Future Climate Change


    Bassford, R.P.; Siegert, M. J.; J. A. Dowdeswell


    A coupled surface mass balance and ice-flow model was used to predict the response of three ice caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic, to the present climate and to future climate changes as postulated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Ice cap boundary conditions are derived from recent airborne geophysical surveying (Dowdeswell et al., 2002), and model inputs are constructed from available climate data. Model results indicate that, currently, the state of balance of...

  16. Severnaya Zemlya, Arctic Russia: a nucleation area for Kara Sea ice sheets during the Middle to Late Quaternary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller, P.; Lubinski, D.J.; Ingolfsson, O.; Forman, S.L.; Seidenkrantz, M.S.; Bolshiyanov, D.Y.; Lokrantz, H.; Antonov, O.; Pavlov, M.; Ljung, K.; Zeeberg, J.J.; Andreev, A.


    Quaternary glacial stratigraphy and relative sea-level changes reveal at least four expansions of the Kara Sea ice sheet over the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago at 79°N in the Russian Arctic, as indicated from tills interbedded with marine sediments, exposed in stratigraphic superposition, and from

  17. Severnaya Zemlya, arctic Russia: a nucleation area for Kara Sea ice sheets during the Middle to Late Quaternary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Per; Lubinski, David J.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur


    Quaternary glacial stratigraphy and relative sea-level changes reveal at least four expansions of the Kara Sea ice sheet over the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago at 79°N in the Russian Arctic, as indicated from tills interbedded with marine sediments, exposed in stratigraphic superposition, and from...

  18. Severnaya Zemlya, Arctic Russia: a nucleation area for Kara Sea ice sheets during the Middle to Late Quaternary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller, P.; Lubinski, D.J.; Ingolfsson, O.; Forman, S.L.; Seidenkrantz, M.S.; Bolshiyanov, D.Y.; Lokrantz, H.; Antonov, O.; Pavlov, M.; Ljung, K.; Zeeberg, J.J.; Andreev, A.


    Quaternary glacial stratigraphy and relative sea-level changes reveal at least four expansions of the Kara Sea ice sheet over the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago at 79°N in the Russian Arctic, as indicated from tills interbedded with marine sediments, exposed in stratigraphic superposition, and from ra

  19. Severnaya Zemlya – geography with history at the turn of times

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    V. M. Kotlyakov


    Full Text Available 100 years ago, in 1913, there was committed last geographical discovery of world importance in the Russian Arctic. Icebreaking transports «Taimyr» and «Vaygach» discovered and photographed the eastern and southern shores of the unknown land separating the Kara and Laptev seas. Boris Vilkitski Strait was opened by the north of Taimyr Peninsula as well as two small islands. Coast of the newly discovered lands received a legal name «Emperor Nicholas II Land», one of the islands was named in honor of the heir of the monarch – Tsarevich Alexei. After 1924 there was introduced the common name for a geographic feature – «Severnaya Zemlya» (North Land. Since 1926, the name «Emperor Nicholas II Land» was removed for political reasons. North shore land remained anonymous until now. In world practice (on the map of Greenland, Antarctica the description of shores by the names of monarchs shores coexist with the common name of the main geographical object. In 1930–1932 a full examination of Severnaya Zemlya was carried out by Ushakov–Urvantsev expedition. There was found that an archipelago consists of several islands. «Not-simultaneous» shore opening and land surveying all over the archipelago led to divergent assessments of the events and facts.Preservation of historic names as a cultural and historical heritage, the inadmissibility of the historical names abolition are supported by the acting Russian Federation Law on the names of geographic features. The authors emphasize the need to return to the historical names with the application of national legislation and with justification of solutions Russian Arctic toponymy problems from international practices.

  20. Lithology and minerageny of black shale of the Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya region (United States)

    Mozoleva, Irina


    In the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, black shale deposits are widespread - subaqueous fine-grained, often thin-bedded, dark-coloured rocks of clayey, carbonate, silica or mixed composition, significantly enriched (1-18%) with organic matter (OM). Two large age intervals of accumulation are distinguished: Riphean and Early-Middle Paleozoic (with maxima in the Ordovician and Silurian). Black shale Riphean complexes are spread in the northern part of the Taimyr Peninsula, where they build up a strip 100-150 km wide along the coast from the Gulf of Minin to the Gulf of Thaddeus and on Bolshevik Isl. Two types of black shale deposits are distinguished (Zabiyaka, 1972; Kabankov, 1980). The first type - predominantly siliciclastic deposits. Represented by cyclical alternation of flyschoid and turbidite types of terrigenous deposits with carbonaceous shale members. Deposits are unevenly enriched in OM in the form of filamentous, lenticular, lumpy accumulations and are often accompanied by pyrite. OM content to 2.5%, rarely to 6%. The second type - carbonate-terrigenous-clayey deposits. Represented by intensely displaced metamorphosed sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone interbedded with marble and limestone. Carbonaceous deposits are intensively. OM content 0.66-2.3%. OM is distributed unevenly, often localized along fractures. Black shale complexes of Middle-Lower Paleozoic age include deposits from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Carboniferous (Sobolevskaya et al., 1979; Lazarenko, 1980). On October Revolution Isl., the Lower Cambrian-Lower Ordovician deposits are spread. In Taimyr, black shale complexes build up a relatively narrow, about 75-100 km, strip stretching in sublatitudinal direction, limited by regional faults (Main Taimyr in the north, Pyasina-Faddey in the south). Deposits are represented by a wide range of lithological genetic rock types. Carbonate-argillaceous rocks with terrigenous material admixture and siliceous-terrigenous with a small

  1. Quantifying the Mass Balance of Ice Caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian High Arctic. I: Climate and Mass Balance of the Vavilov Ice Cap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassford, R.P.; Siegert, M.J.; Dowdeswell, J.A.; Oerlemans, J.; Glazovsky, A.F.; Macheret, Y.Y.


    Due to their remote location within the Russian High Arctic, little is known about the mass balance of ice caps on Severnaya Zemlya now and in the past. Such information is critical, however, to building a global picture of the cryospheric response to climate change. This paper provides a numerical

  2. The Almaz Space Station Complex - A History, 1964-1992 Part 1 1964-1976 (United States)

    Siddiqi, A. A.

    During the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union explored the possibility of using humans in space for military purposes. The only such project that was brought to fruition was a Soviet military space station program known as “Almaz.” Between 1973 and 1976, the Soviets launched three Almaz stations, which were publicly known as Salyut-2, Salyut-3, and Salyut-5. Several crews visited the stations with varying degrees of success. A major element of the Almaz program was the large Transport-Supply Ship (TKS), a vehicle that was never used with Almaz, but eventually served as the basis for the core of the International Space Station. This article is an attempt to use recently published information from Russia to present a history of the Almaz program.

  3. Live birth sex ratios and father's geographic origins in Jerusalem, 1964-1976. (United States)

    Groeger, J; Opler, M; Kleinhaus, K; Perrin, M C; Calderon-Margalit, R; Manor, O; Paltiel, O; Conley, D; Harlap, S; Malaspina, D


    To examine whether ancestry influenced sex ratios of offspring in a birth cohort before parental antenatal sex selection influenced offspring sex. We measured the sex ratio as the percent of males according to countries of birth of paternal and maternal grandfathers in 91,459 live births from 1964 to 1976 in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Confidence limits (CI) were computed based on an expected sex ratio of 1.05, which is 51.4% male. Of all live births recorded, 51.4% were male. Relative to Jewish ancestry (51.4% males), significantly more males (1,761) were born to Muslim ancestry (54.5, 95% CI = 52.1-56.8, P = 0.01). Among the former, sex ratios were not significantly associated with paternal or maternal age, education, or offspring's birth order. Consistent with a preference for male offspring, the sex ratio decreased despite increasing numbers of births over the 13-year period. Sex ratios were not affected by maternal or paternal origins in North Africa or Europe. However, the offspring whose paternal grandfathers were born in Western Asia included fewer males than expected (50.7, 50.1-51.3, P = 0.02), whether the father was born abroad (50.7) or in Israel (50.8). This was observed for descendents of paternal grandfathers born in Lebanon (47.6), Turkey (49.9), Yemen & Aden (50.2), Iraq (50.5), Afghanistan (50.5), Syria (50.6), and Cyprus (50.7); but not for those from India (51.5) or Iran (51.9). The West Asian group showed the strongest decline in sex ratios with increasing paternal family size. A decreased sex ratio associated with ancestry in Western Asia is consistent with reduced ability to bear sons by a subset of Jewish men in the Jerusalem cohort. Lower sex ratios may be because of pregnancy stress, which may be higher in this subgroup. Alternatively, a degrading Y chromosome haplogroup or other genetic or epigenetic differences on male germ lines could affect birth ratios, such as differential exposure to an environmental agent, dietary differences, or stress. Differential stopping behaviors that favor additional pregnancies following the birth of a daughter might exacerbate these lower sex ratios. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Abstracts of Master of Military Art and Science (MMAS) Theses and Special Studies 1964-1976 (United States)


    regard- ing guard duty and camp sanitation, for example) because the young volunteer was not fully informed of their importance. He craved news of...competitive or compatible antiarmor weapon systems in a European mid-intensity conflict environment. Due to the fact that the genesis of the problem is

  5. New data on Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian deposits of Bol'shevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago

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    Victoria B. Ershova


    Full Text Available We present here a detailed study of the Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian stratigraphy of Bol'shevik Island in the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, consisting of the analysis of sedimentary structures and lithostratigraphy, U/Pb detrital zircon dating and structural studies. The preserved sedimentary structures suggest that the studied strata were deposited in a relatively small meandering fluvial system. U/Pb dating of detrital zircons reveals that the Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian sandstones contain a primary age population ranging from 450 to 570 millions of years, with a predominance of Early–Middle Ordovician zircons. This detrital zircon distribution indicates that the studied formations were derived locally from the erosion of Lower Ordovician deposits of Bol'shevik Island or elsewhere in the archipelago. Our structural studies suggest that Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian deposits are deformed into a series of west–north-west verging open asymmetric folds, suggesting a west–north-west direction of tectonic transport and that deformation across the island is post-Early Permian in age.

  6. Conditions of the alimentation and the variability of glaciers of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago from observations of 2014–2015

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    D. Yu. Bolshiyanov


    Full Text Available Glaciological investigations on the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago were resumed in 2013 when a new research station «Ice base Cape Baranova» had been organized by Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in the North-West of the Island Bolshevik. In 2014–2015, the glaciological polygon named after Leonid Govorukha was established on glaciers Mushketov and Semenov-Tyan-Shanskiy. Two years of observations on the glaciers allowed us to estimate the mass balance of the Mushketov Glacier, which was positive in the 2013–2015. By the end of the melting periods, a superimposed ice was formed on the glacier with thickness of 4 cm in 2014 and 17 cm in 2015, on the average. A snow-firn mass with its vertical thickness exceeding 3 m had been found on the upper part of the Semenov-Tyan-Shansky Glacier. Based on analyses of summer air temperatures and precipitation at the meteorological station «The Golomyanny Island», we assumed that in 2013–2015 the mass balance was also positive on the other glaciers of the archipelago, located to the North of the studied glaciers on the Island of Bolshevik. Data of remote sensing of the catastrophic advancing of the outlet glacier from the Vavilov Ice Cap, obtained in 2013–2016, testify that for much longer period, i.e. during 25 years, conditions for the ice mass accumulation were favorable on the southern and eastern slopes of the Vavilov Ice Cap.

  7. Main types of gold ore forming systems and their relationship with the paleogeodynamic settings on the Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago (United States)

    Proskurnin, Vasiliy; Anatoly, Gavrish; Aleksandra, Bagaeva; Petrushkov, Boris; Shneider, Alexey; Saltanov, Vasily; Stepunina, Maria; Proskurnina, Alina


    Within the Taimyr - Severnaya Zemlya mineragenic province, the Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic Kara rare-metal - gold and Byrrangsky coal-bearing - polymetallic mineragenic areas are distinguished. Main geological commercial types of the Kara mineragenic area include manifestations of gold-quartz, gold sulphide-quartz (proper gold ore), and gold-rare metal, gold-bearing copper-molybdenum-porphyry formations. The Riphean - Vendian subduction - collisional and Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic repeated collisional (deuterogenic) ore-forming systems play a leading role in their formation. Regardless of the age and formation features, manifestations of proper gold ore formations are controlled by a common factor, the degree of metamorphism of host rocks - not above the sericite-biotite subfacies of the greenschist facies, and belong to the group of hydrothermal-metasomatic ore forming systems conditioned by alkali-acid differentiation of matter in temperature gradient field with ore concentration in mesozone. Depending on the host Precambrian formations, Kara Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic mineragenic area is subdivided into Mininsky-Bolshevistsky flysch-terrigenous carbonaceous zone with manifestation of zonal regional metamorphism of the andalusite-sillimanite type (Arctida passive margin) and Shrenk-Faddey volcanogenic-carbonate-terrigenous carbonaceous zone with ophiolites (accretion prism of Siberia). For the Riphean - Early Vendian endogenous manifestations, the following main types of gold ore forming systems are distinguished: in the passive marginal Mininsky-Bolshevistsky zone - early collisional metamorphic-hydrothermal in terrigenous carbonaceous complexes (Valterovsky, Voskresensky, Litkensky ore zones) and late collisional plutonic-hydrothermal in allochthonous granitoids of S-type (Martovsky-Nikitinsky ore cluster); in the accretionary Shrenck-Faddey zone - subduction-collisional plutonic-metamorphic-hydrothermal (Zhilninsky, Leningradsky ore zones) in

  8. Ice core from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic), dated with a Nye model modified for a growing glacier (United States)

    Fritzsche, Diedrich; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno


    From 1999 to 2001 a 724 m deep ice core has been drilled from surface to bedrock close to summit of the Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic), within a joint German-Russian project. The analysis of stable water isotopes and major ion concentration in high resolution were used for reconstruction of past climate and environmental changes. The upper 304 m of the core were dated by counting annual stable isotope cycles considering radioactive (1986, 1963) and volcanic events (1956, 1912, 1783, 1259) as reference horizons. The resulting depth-age relationship and the corresponding annual-layer thickness imply that the ice cap was not in dynamic steady state but had been growing until recent times. That does not comply with requirements of a standard Nye or Dansgaard-Johnson flow model approach. To take into account the peculiarities of Akademii Nauk ice cap a Nye model was modified by adding a growing term according to the found relationship between annual layer thickness and depth. Using the volcanoes identified an average increase of altitude of about 0.08 m w.e. per year was calculated since AD 1259. The model enables us to reconstruct the altitude changes of the ice cap with time and to consider an altitude effect to correct the stable isotope values and to explain decreasing sea-salt ion data. Using the suggested model annual layer thickness can be decompressed to accumulation rates at the altitude where the precipitation was originally deposited. The model can also be used for dating deeper parts of ice core where volcanoes are not identified up to now. Applying this model, the ice core has an age of about 2 500 years, much less than claimed for an older core from Akademii Nauk ice cap. Consequently, the ice cap is much younger and only of Late Holocene age, as also assumed for most Arctic ice caps and glaciers outside Greenland. However, the lowest part of Akademii Nauk ice cap is probably a remnant of an older ice cap stage.

  9. Kara Sea radioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osvath, I.; Povinec, P.P.; Baxter, M.S. [Marine Environment Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, B.P. 800 MC (Monaco)


    Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya bays as well as soil from the shore of Abrosimov bay have shown that radionuclide contamination of the open Kara Sea is mainly due to global fallout, with smaller contributions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the Chernobyl accident run-off from the Ob and Yenisey rivers and local fallout. Computer modelling results have shown that maximum annual doses of approximately 1 mSv are expected for a hypothetical critical group subsisting on fish caught in the Novaya Zemlya bays whereas populations living on the mainland can be expected to receive doses at least three orders of magnitude lower.

  10. Twenty Lives: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of 5 Variables on the Lives of 20 Students Who Were Low Readiness in First Grade (1964-1976). (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.

    An analytical field study of 20 students whose first grade low readiness scores contrasted sharply with their ninth grade academic achievement sought to ascertain what variables were associated with such differences. Interview and standardized test data were used to determine the relationships between student development and five nonschool…

  11. The Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, Arctic Russia: a synthesis of glacial history and palaeo-environmental change during the Last Glacial cycle (MIS 5e-2) (United States)

    Möller, Per; Alexanderson, Helena; Funder, Svend; Hjort, Christian


    We here suggest a glacial and climate history of the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in arctic Siberia for the last about 150 000 years (ka). Primarily it is based on results from seven field seasons between 1996 and 2012, to a large extent already published in papers referred to in the text - and on data presented by Russian workers from the 1930s to our days and by German colleagues working there since the 1990s. Although glaciations even up here often started in the local mountains, their culminations in this region invariably seems to have centred on the shallow Kara Sea continental shelf - most likely due to expanding marine ice-shelves grounding there, as a combined effect of thickening ice and eustatically lowered sea-levels. The most extensive glaciation so far identified in this region (named the Taz glaciation) took place during Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6), i.e. being an equivalent to the late Saale/Illinoian glaciations. It reached c. 400 km southeast of the Kara Sea coast, across and well beyond the Byrranga Mountain range and ended c. 130 ka. It was followed by the MIS 5e (Karginsky/Eemian) interglacial, with an extensive marine transgression to 140 m above present sea level - facilitated by strong isostatic downloading during the preceding glaciation. During the latest (Zyryankan/Weichselian/Wisconsinan) glacial cycle followed a series of major glacial advances. The earliest and most extensive, culminating c. 110-100 ka (MIS 5d-5e), also reached south of the Byrranga mountains and its post-glacial marine limit there was c. 100 m a.s.l. The later glacial phases (around 70-60 ka and 20 ka) terminated at the North Taimyr Ice Marginal Zone (NTZ), along or some distance inland from the present northwest coast of Taimyr. They dammed glacial lakes, which caused the Taimyr River to flow southwards where to-day it flows northwards into the Kara Sea. The c. 20 ka glacial phase, contemporary with the maximum (LGM) glaciation in NW Europe

  12. Radioactive Nova Zembla; Nova Zembla radioactief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duursma, E.


    The former Soviet Union dumped radioactive wastes in the seas around the island Nova Zembla (Novaya Zemlya) for decades. Complete nuclear reactors were sunk down. In this non-specialist article the risks from this Cold War heritage are discussed. 4 figs., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  13. Digitization of Nuclear Explosion Seismograms from the Former Soviet Union (United States)


    17 4.2. Nuclear Explosions, Lop Nor Test Site, China ...................................................... 20 4.3 Earthquakes, Lop Nor...77 Appendix C. Digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions at the Lop Nor Test Site........87 Appendix D. Digitized...seismograms of earthquakes in the Lop Nor test site region....... 101 Appendix E. Digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site

  14. GRACE gravity observations constrain Weichselian ice thickness in the Barents Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, B.C.; Tarasov, L.; Van der Wal, W.


    The Barents Sea is subject to ongoing postglacial uplift since the melting of the Weichselian ice sheet that covered it. The regional ice sheet thickness history is not well known because there is only data at the periphery due to the locations of Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard, and Novaya Zemlya surro

  15. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY


    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  16. GRACE gravity observations constrain Weichselian ice thickness in the Barents Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, B.C.; Tarasov, L.; Van der Wal, W.


    The Barents Sea is subject to ongoing postglacial uplift since the melting of the Weichselian ice sheet that covered it. The regional ice sheet thickness history is not well known because there is only data at the periphery due to the locations of Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard, and Novaya Zemlya surro

  17. The Russian Navy: A Historic Transition (United States)


    to the Black Sea carried trade to Constantinople ( Istanbul ). From the 12th century on, coastal residents of the north voyaged to Novaya Zemlya and...voluntary basis. The majority of female uniformed personnel serve in the communications, finance service, medical corps, and as cultural directors

  18. Radiological impact assessment within the IAEA Arctic Assessment Project (IASAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harmes, I.;


    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of IAEA, a working group was created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea and bays of Novaya Zemlya and to assess the radiological impact. Existing models...

  19. Near Source Contributions to Teleseismic P Wave Coda and Regional Phases (United States)


    coda - 15. NUMBER OF-PAGES Underground explosions Teleseismic, waves -_140 P waves Splain16. -PRICE CODE pP parameters Salto 17. SECURITY CLSSIFICATION...short-period vertical component recordings for underground explosions at the Nevada (NTS) and Novaya Zemlya test sites. The waveforms were recorded at...receiver terms for the two CSN stations from Figure 2 for the 25 Pahute Mesa explosions. The P and P Co6da station’ spectra are showw withl- vertical

  20. Acoustic Transients of the Marginal Sea Ice Zone: A Provisional Catalog (United States)


    0.3 Hz 64 SUPPORTING DATA SORE IHUW Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae W and E boundaries of N Atlantic, N Pacific. Off Novaya Zemlya, Finmark...1981) Variations in Vocalizations of Fin Whales, Balaenoptera physalus, in the St. Lawrence River . M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, 126...pp. EDDS, P. L. (1982) Vocalizations of the Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus, in the St. Lawrence River . J. Mammalogy, 63, 345-347. ELLIS, R. (1980

  1. Report on the environmental and sanitary impacts of the nuclear tests performed by France between 1960 and 1996 and elements of comparison with the tests performed by the other nuclear Powers; Rapport sur les incidences environnementales et sanitaires des essais nucleaires effectues par la France entre 1960 et 1996 et elements de comparaison avec les essais des autres puissances nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Ch.; Revol, H


    This report makes a comprehensive presentation of the French atmospheric and underground nuclear tests performed in Sahara and Polynesia between 1960 and 1996 with their possible impact on the health of populations and personnel and on the environment. A comparison is made with similar tests performed by other nuclear Powers: US (Marshall islands, Nevada), former Soviet union (Semipalatinsk, Novaya Zemlya), UK (several atmospheric test-sites), China, India, Pakistan. (J.S.)

  2. Application of Acoustic Signal Processing Techniques to Seismic Data. (United States)


    alternativo to scal- ima throunh nmeit iv. Preenuencv sweep viith t0 t" N utomatic and simaIe sweep fmo(oc5, the Opierator cm inspect all fr~ouencies Of the...a response to differences in properties of the rocks in which the explosions were implaced or in rocks at very shallow depths. Events No. 27 can be...explosions of Tables 3 and 4 at sites other than near Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya may well be the result in part of explosions in softer rocks than those

  3. Decontamination of Water Containing Radiological Warfare Agents (United States)


    fission, Stagg Stadium, University of Chicago. 16 Jul 45 - Alamagordo, New Mexico TRINITY shot, 19 kt. 5 Aug 45 - "Little Boy" atom bomb, Hliroshima...of New Mexico nuclear age. Nevada Test Site Nuclear 100 ki 4,700 shot Sedan - largest continental shot. Novaya Zemlya (USSR) Nuclear 50 u10 39,000...muultipurpose uInit capalli’ of producilg potable drinking water tromin •%haltev er ra%% water source may lie available. The rev•,rse sismos (1Ito

  4. Atmospheric refraction: a history (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren


    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  5. Inventories and distributions of radionuclides in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinec, P.P.; Baxter, M.S.; Gayol, J.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.; Osvath, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). Marine Environment Lab.


    Temporal and spatial trends in the distribution of radionuclides in the Kara Sea have been studied. The radionuclides, bathymetry, salinity and temperature data for the open Kara Sea, as well as for the Novaya Zemlya Bays, have been input to the Global Marine Radioactivity Database and evaluated. The radionuclide data show that concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in surface waters of the Kara Sea decreased from about 40 and 20 Bq m{sup -3} respectively (as measured in 1963) to the present values of about 5 and 6 Bq m{sup -3}. The spatial distributions of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu in surface and bottom waters and in surface sediments of the open Kara Sea, the Ob and Yenisey estuaries and the Novaya Zemlya Bays have been investigated. The data show an almost homogeneous distribution of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the open Kara Sea, Large {sup 137}Cs sediment inventories in the Ob and Yenisey estuaries, and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 60}Co, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am contamination of sediment in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays. However, the contamination has a very localised character. (author) 16 refs.

  6. Glacier surface melt characterization and trend analysis (1992-2011) in the Russian High Arctic from combined resolution-enhanced scatterometer and passive microwave data (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Ramage, J. M.; Semmens, K. A.


    Global warming has been pronounced in the remote glacierized archipelagoes (Severnaya Zemlya, Novaya Zemlya and Franz Josef Land) of the Russian High Arctic (RHA) and its effect on the low altitude, high latitude small ice caps needs examination. The timing and spatial variability of snow melt onset, duration and intensity are key factors influencing mass balance and the ice marginal hydrological system as well as important indicators of glacial response to anthropogenic and natural forcings. Characterization and trend analysis of RHA glacier melt behaviors provide insight about assessing the mass loss rate under recent Arctic climate change. However, due to the harsh environment, long term records of glaciological data for RHA are limited, necessitating the application of remotely sensed data to accomplish the research. The high sensitivity to liquid water and the ability to penetrate non-precipitating clouds enables microwave remote sensing to detect glacier surface melt. The appearance of melt water in snow dramatically decreases the returned scatterometer radar signal from active microwave sensors and sharply augments passive microwave emission. Based on this feature, we combined resolution-enhanced ERS-1/2 C-band (1992-2000), QuickSCAT Ku-band (2000-2009), ASCAT C-band (2009-2011) scatterometer data and SSMI 37 GHz (1995-2007) vertically polarized passive microwave products from Brigham Young University and analyzed glacier surface melt trends from 1992 to 2011 with a spatial resolution downscaled to 4.45km. We concatenated scatterometer derived melt behaviors by overlapping years and refined the results based on passive microwave data. Cross-validation shows that melt timing to be consistent between the active and passive sensors. Trend analysis (α < 0.005) reveals that the average glacier surface melt onset date occurs earlier by approximately 0.85 days/year in Severnaya Zemlya which outpaced the mean advancing rate in the pan-Arctic. Surrounded by ocean

  7. Birds as objects in bioindication of radioactive pollution. (United States)

    Krivolutski, D A; Lebedeva, N V; Shuktomova, I I


    This article is a review the recent results of research in the accumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in birds from Russia (Adigea, Krasnodar, Rostov, Astrahan and Moscow regions, Novaya Zemlya isles), Ukraine, Vietnam, Poland, Ethiophia and Mongolia after global precipitation and local pollution, such as in the East-Urals radioactive region and radioactive zones after the Chernobyl accident. Resident birds reflect local level of radionuclide contamination. The 90Sr concentration in the food of the Pied Flycatcher had a tendency to increase in dependent of age. The Common Jay and the Mallard were the most contaminated with 137Cs in the Bryansk region. The total content of various radio-isotopes of plutonium in bird bones from Southwest Russia were hundred and thousand times more, than in Mongolia. Activity levels in specimens from Ethiopia bear record to Ethiopia can notbe a "pure" control site in radioecological research and radioactive background since it does not significantly differ from Turkmenia and Mongolia.

  8. Application of two-barrier model of radioactive agent transport in sea water for analyzing artificial radionuclide release from containers with radioactive waste dumped in Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, Denis S.; Laykin, Andrey I.; Kuchin, Nickolay L.; Platovskikh, Yuri A. [Krylov State Research Center, Saint Petersburg, 44 Moskovskoe shosse, 196158 (Russian Federation)


    Modeling of artificial radionuclide transport in sea water is crucial for prognosis of radioecological situation in regions where dumping of radioactive waste had been made and/or accidents with nuclear submarines had taken place. Distribution of artificial radionuclides in bottom sediments can be a detector of radionuclide release from dumped or sunk objects to marine environment. Proper model can determine the dependence between radionuclide distribution in sediments and radionuclide release. Following report describes two-barrier model of radioactive agent transport in sea water. It was tested on data from 1994 - 2013 expeditions to Novaya Zemlya bays, where regular dumping of solid radioactive waste was practiced by the former USSR from the early 1960's until 1990. Two-barrier model agrees with experimental data and allows more accurate determination of time and intensity of artificial radionuclide release from dumped containers. (authors)

  9. Some features of the technogenic pollution of the Kara Sea, with the example of the sunken nuclear submarine K-27 (United States)

    Dmitrievskiy, N. N.; Nikiforov, S. L.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Ananiev, R. A.


    This article discusses the results of offshore operations undertaken during a cruise of the R/V Professor Shtokman (2013) during an expedition in the fjord Stepovoi of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago k]where the nuclear submarine (NPS) K-27 was scuttled in 1981 k]An echo sounding of her hull showed signs of water destratification k]which may be caused by turbulence from gas or heat flows outgoing from the hull k]According to the hypothesis of the author k]the presence of the reactors and radioactive nuclear fuel remnants may lead to the continued heating of the inner cavities of the submarine and k]as a consequence k]to constant heat flow from its surface k]which is an obvious danger k]including risks associated with plans to refloat and transport the submarine for the further dismantlement.

  10. Chronology of Pu isotopes and 236U in an Arctic ice core. (United States)

    Wendel, C C; Oughton, D H; Lind, O C; Skipperud, L; Fifield, L K; Isaksson, E; Tims, S G; Salbu, B


    In the present work, state of the art isotopic fingerprinting techniques are applied to an Arctic ice core in order to quantify deposition of U and Pu, and to identify possible tropospheric transport of debris from former Soviet Union test sites Semipalatinsk (Central Asia) and Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Ocean). An ice core chronology of (236)U, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu concentrations, and atom ratios, measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in a 28.6m deep ice core from the Austfonna glacier at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard is presented. The ice core chronology corresponds to the period 1949 to 1999. The main sources of Pu and (236)U contamination in the Arctic were the atmospheric nuclear detonations in the period 1945 to 1980, as global fallout, and tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test sites Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk. Activity concentrations of (239+240)Pu ranged from 0.008 to 0.254 mBq cm(-2) and (236)U from 0.0039 to 0.053 μBq cm(-2). Concentrations varied in concordance with (137)Cs concentrations in the same ice core. In contrast to previous published results, the concentrations of Pu and (236)U were found to be higher at depths corresponding to the pre-moratorium period (1949 to 1959) than to the post-moratorium period (1961 and 1962). The (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio ranged from 0.15 to 0.19, and (236)U/(239)Pu ranged from 0.18 to 1.4. The Pu atom ratios ranged within the limits of global fallout in the most intensive period of nuclear atmospheric testing (1952 to 1962). To the best knowledge of the authors the present work is the first publication on biogeochemical cycles with respect to (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu atom ratios in the Arctic and in ice cores. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Slow Differential Inner-core Rotation Inferred From Changes In Scattering Over Time (United States)

    Xu, F.; Vidale, J.; Dodge, D.; Earle, P.


    Due to its important implications for our understanding of the core processes, including the generation and reversal of the Earth's magnetic field, the possibility that the inner core may be rotating faster than the mantle has been of wide interest. Attempts to constrain the speed of this differential rotation with differential times of core phases and spatial migration of inner core heterogeneity have yielded various discordant results. The detection of scattering in the inner core has enabled us to conduct a simple test for inner core motion. We compared scattered waves recorded at LASA in Montana from two nuclear tests at Novaya Zemlya in 1971 and 1974. This nearly co-located pair of events offered a rare opportunity of interpreting the variation in the inner core scattered waves in terms of relative inner-core rotation. The coda indeed shows small but coherent changes. The observation of earlier scattered arrivals from the west in 1974 compared to 1971, and later scattered arrivals from the east indicated an inner-core rotation rate of 0.15o per year (Vidale et al, Nature, 2000). This rate falls within the bounds set by other measurements, some of which find an upper limit of 0.1 to 0.2 per year for inner-core differential rotation. This year, we present further details of the comparison of 1971 and 1974 Novaya Zemlya explosions, and compare 1971 and 1973 Aleutian explosions. The latter pair is more difficult to use to constrain inner core rotation because the blasts were 10 km apart, rather than less than 1 km in the former case.

  12. Some reproductive parameters of populations of Macoma calcarea (Bivalvia, Tellinidae in the Barents and Pechora Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noskovich A. E.


    Full Text Available Macoma calcarea is a boreal-arctic species widespread in all the northern seas of Russia. Like all bivalve molluscs M. calcarea plays an important role in marine ecosystems. Despite the widespread use many aspects of the biology of this species have not been adequately studied. The aim of the work is to establish a number of reproductive parameters (the sexual composition, the size of sexual maturity, breeding time, the size of the embryonic shell, the size of oocytes and spermatozoa in the Barents Sea bivalve Macoma calcarea in areas with different hydrological regimes. Molluscs of the populations localized in the area of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, in the Varandey, Ivanovskaya, Drozdovka and Ura Bays have been investigated. The material for the study has been samples of molluscs harvested in the mouths of the Barents and Pechora Seas in the period from 2006 to 2011 by the researchers of the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute. 680 samples have been studied all in all. As a result it has been found that makoms from the Novaya Zemlya population significantly differ from molluscs of other populations in the size structure, the ratio of mature and immature individuals. Also, apparently, spawning takes place in other periods than in the southern part of the Barents Sea. The abundance of young molluscs in the Ivanovskaya, Drozdovka, Ura and Varandey Bays indicates the more successful breeding in these areas, however there is also an increased elimination of large individuals. In all areas of the study among the sexually mature molluscs the dominance of males is widespread.

  13. The first aeromagnetic survey in the Arctic: results of the Graf Zeppelin airship flight of 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Raspopov


    Full Text Available In July of 1931, on the eve of International Polar Year II, an Arctic flight of the Graf Zeppelin rigid airship was organized. This flight was a realization of the idea of F. Nansen, who advocated the use of airships for the scientific exploration of the Arctic territories, which were poorly studied and hardly accessible at that time. The route of the airship flight was Berlin – Leningrad – Arkhangelsk – Franz Josef Land – Severnaya Zemlya – the Taimyr Peninsula – Novaya Zemlya – Arkhangelsk – Berlin. One of scientific goals of the expedition was to measure the H and D geomagnetic field components. Actually, the first aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Arctic during the flight. After the expedition, only preliminary results of the geomagnetic measurements, in which an anomalous behavior of magnetic declination in the high-latitude part of the route was noted, were published. Our paper is concerned with the first aeromagnetic measurements in the Arctic and their analysis based on archival and modern data on the magnetic field in the Barents and Kara sea regions. It is shown that the magnetic field along the flight route had a complicated structure, which was not reflected in the magnetic charts of those times. The flight was very important for future development of aero- and ground-based magnetic surveys in the Arctic, showing new methods in such surveys.

  14. The first aeromagnetic survey in the Arctic: results of the Graf Zeppelin airship flight of 1931 (United States)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Sokolov, S. N.; Demina, I. M.; Pellinen, R.; Petrova, A. A.


    In July of 1931, on the eve of International Polar Year II, an Arctic flight of the Graf Zeppelin rigid airship was organized. This flight was a realization of the idea of F. Nansen, who advocated the use of airships for the scientific exploration of the Arctic territories, which were poorly studied and hardly accessible at that time. The route of the airship flight was Berlin - Leningrad - Arkhangelsk - Franz Josef Land - Severnaya Zemlya - the Taimyr Peninsula - Novaya Zemlya - Arkhangelsk - Berlin. One of scientific goals of the expedition was to measure the H and D geomagnetic field components. Actually, the first aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Arctic during the flight. After the expedition, only preliminary results of the geomagnetic measurements, in which an anomalous behavior of magnetic declination in the high-latitude part of the route was noted, were published. Our paper is concerned with the first aeromagnetic measurements in the Arctic and their analysis based on archival and modern data on the magnetic field in the Barents and Kara sea regions. It is shown that the magnetic field along the flight route had a complicated structure, which was not reflected in the magnetic charts of those times. The flight was very important for future development of aero- and ground-based magnetic surveys in the Arctic, showing new methods in such surveys.

  15. Ice Mass Changes in the Russian High Arctic from Repeat High Resolution Topography. (United States)

    Willis, Michael; Zheng, Whyjay; Pritchard, Matthew; Melkonian, Andrew; Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Jeong, Seongsu


    We use a combination of ASTER and cartographically derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) supplemented with WorldView DEMs, the ArcticDEM and ICESat lidar returns to produce a time-series of ice changes occurring in the Russian High Arctic between the mid-20th century and the present. Glaciers on the western, Barents Sea coast of Novaya Zemlya are in a state of general retreat and thinning, while those on the eastern, Kara Sea coast are retreating at a slower rate. Franz Josef Land has a complicated pattern of thinning and thickening, although almost all the thinning is associated with rapid outlet glaciers feeding ice shelves. Severnaya Zemlya is also thinning in a complicated manner. A very rapid surging glacier is transferring mass into the ocean from the western periphery of the Vavilov Ice Cap on October Revolution Island, while glaciers feeding the former Matusevich Ice Shelf continue to thin at rates that are faster than those observed during the operational period of ICESat, between 2003 and 2009. Passive microwave studies indicate the total number of melt days is increasing in the Russian Arctic, although much of the melt may refreeze within the firn. It is likely that ice dynamic changes will drive mass loss for the immediate future. The sub-marine basins beneath several of the ice caps in the region suggest the possibility that mass loss rates may accelerate in the future.

  16. Chronology of Pu isotopes and {sup 236}U in an Arctic ice core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, C.C., E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Oughton, D.H., E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Lind, O.C., E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Skipperud, L., E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fifield, L.K., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Isaksson, E., E-mail: [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Hjalmar Johansens Gate 14, N9296 Tromsø (Norway); Tims, S.G., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Salbu, B., E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway)


    In the present work, state of the art isotopic fingerprinting techniques are applied to an Arctic ice core in order to quantify deposition of U and Pu, and to identify possible tropospheric transport of debris from former Soviet Union test sites Semipalatinsk (Central Asia) and Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Ocean). An ice core chronology of {sup 236}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu concentrations, and atom ratios, measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in a 28.6 m deep ice core from the Austfonna glacier at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard is presented. The ice core chronology corresponds to the period 1949 to 1999. The main sources of Pu and {sup 236}U contamination in the Arctic were the atmospheric nuclear detonations in the period 1945 to 1980, as global fallout, and tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test sites Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk. Activity concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu ranged from 0.008 to 0.254 mBq cm{sup −2} and {sup 236}U from 0.0039 to 0.053 μBq cm{sup −2}. Concentrations varied in concordance with {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the same ice core. In contrast to previous published results, the concentrations of Pu and {sup 236}U were found to be higher at depths corresponding to the pre-moratorium period (1949 to 1959) than to the post-moratorium period (1961 and 1962). The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio ranged from 0.15 to 0.19, and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu ranged from 0.18 to 1.4. The Pu atom ratios ranged within the limits of global fallout in the most intensive period of nuclear atmospheric testing (1952 to 1962). To the best knowledge of the authors the present work is the first publication on biogeochemical cycles with respect to {sup 236}U concentrations and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the Arctic and in ice cores. - Highlights: • Concentrations and atom ratios of Pu and {sup 236}U determined in an Arctic ice core. • Concentrations of U and Pu found to be higher pre- than post-moratorium. • U and Pu concentrations

  17. Sinistral strike-slip dominated inclined transpression along the Pai-Khoi fold-and-thrust belt, Russian Arctic (United States)

    Curtis, Michael


    The Arctic Uralides comprise Pai-Khoi, Novaya Zemlya and the Taimyr Peninsula. Together they form a margin controlled salient in the former Baltica margin of Laurussia. This arcuate orogen forms a fundamental tectonic boundary between major hydrocarbon provinces; Timan-Pechora and Barents Sea to the southwest and west, respectively, and the South Kara Sea to the east. To understand the complex regional tectonic relationship between the Arctic Uralides and the South Kara Sea, it is essential to establish the structural and kinematic style of the various sectors of this remote orogen. This contribution focuses on the southern limb of the salient, the NW-SE trending, Pai-Khoi fold-and-thrust belt (PKFB), which links the Polar Urals with Novaya Zemlya approximately 600 km to the northwest. The PKFB comprises a highly deformed, Late Cambrian to Mississippian age, passive margin succession, with allochthonous deep-water and continental slope facies rocks thrust over a shallow-water carbonate platform succession along the Main Pai-Khoi Thrust. Deformation is interpreted to have occurred between the Late Palaeozoic and end Triassic resulting in the formation of an apparent southwesterly verging fold-and-thrust belt with an associated foreland basin. Analysis of regional scale geological maps reveals the presence of large scale en-echelon folds, together with late stage, orogen-parallel faults, indicating that the evolution of PKFB has been influenced by a component of sinistral strike-slip. Detailed field data from a transect across the largest structure in the orogen, the Main Pai-Khoi Thrust, confirms the obliquity of both planar structures and finite stretching lineations to this major allochthon bounding thrust. Subtle but consistent variations in the orientation of finite stretching directions within zones of qualitatively differing finite strain were identified. Comparison of these variations with theoretical models of inclined transpression suggests that deformation

  18. Worst case meteorological scenario for Norway in case of hypothetical accident related to recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnicki, J.; Klein, H. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Aas (Norway); Amundsen, I.; Hosseini, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Aas (Norway); Haakenstad, H. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Aas (Norway)


    This study is a part of a comprehensive Norwegian project led by Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority assessing risks related to a potential salvaging and decommissioning of the Russian nuclear submarine, K-27. In September 1981, the K-27 submarine was scuttled at shallow waters in the outer part of Stepovogo Bay, situated at the north-eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya. One of the scenarios that are included in the assessment is the lifting of the submarine to the surface and the subsequent transport to the Murmansk area for decommissioning. Thus, the risk of a criticality accident as a consequence of lifting and transport event cannot be ignored. A hypothetical accident might pose a serious threat to Norwegian territories and has to be considered from different perspectives. Here, we focus on the worst case meteorological scenario for Norway, but the same approach can be applied for other Scandinavian countries and Russia. As a first step, a large database with meteorological data has been prepared for the period of thirty years (1980-2010). These meteorological data are available in the 1000 km x 1000 km domain which includes both the entire Norwegian territory and the region of Novaya Zemlya. The spatial resolution of the meteorological data is 11 km and temporal 3 hours. The vertical structure includes 40 layers. The most important meteorological elements are the 3-D velocity field, the surface precipitation field and the 3-D temperature field. The second step is the development of the source terms for potential accidents which can be used by the dispersion model SNAP (Severe Nuclear Accident Program). Three locations for potential accidents with subsequent releases of radioactivity to the environment are assumed: 1) at the present location of K-27, 2) transport on the route to Murmansk and 3) in the Murmansk region. In the third step, the SNAP model will be run with meteorological data starting every 6. hour of each day during the 30 years period. As a result

  19. Dispersion of Rayleigh waves produced by nuclear explosions. Crustal structure of western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PAYO


    Full Text Available Most of the nuclear explosion fired near Novaya-Zemlya
    island from September 1961 to J a n u a r y 1963 (21 in total have been recorded
    on the seismographs of Toledo Observatory. The study of these records,
    mainly concerning the dispersion of Rayleigh waves, has been the purpose
    of this paper.
    A crust-mantle s t r u c t u r e for t h e Zemlya-Toledo p a t h has been determined
    by means of group velocity curves and especially by the phase velocity
    ones obtained from Rayleigh waves of explosions. This structure supposes
    a crust of about 40 kms thick with an upper sedimentary layer with a
    thickness of about 5,5 kms and a shear velocity of 2,3 km/sec.
    The average shear velocity in the granitic and basaltic layers jointly,
    is about 3,65 km/sec, permitting a small ambiguity at the position of the
    Conrad discontinuity between them.
    A velocity of 4,5 km/sec has been assigned for the underlying crust
    material, but a better agreement with the data recorded is obtained by
    taking 0.28 for the Poisson ratio value.
    Dispersion of Rayleigh waves of these explosions has been compared
    to the Rayleigh dispersion of some earthquakes of Eurasia, three of them
    with epicentral distances similar to those of the explosions and other four
    with the same azimuth in respect to that of Toledo-Zemlya, but more
    The results do not show any notable difference either in dispersion
    between explosion and earthquakes or in structure of the path considered.
    The phase velocity between Toledo and Malaga Observatories supports
    t h e same above structure for this short path.
    The velocity of Lg waves, which clearly appears on the record of the
    explosions, confirms this admitted structure, which serves to deduce t h e more
    probable transmission mechanism for these channel waves.
    Also atmospheric pressure waves have been recorded on the three

  20. Plutonium in the Arctic Marine Environment — A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindis Skipperud


    Full Text Available Anthropogenic plutonium has been introduced into the environment over the past 50 years as the result of the detonation of nuclear weapons and operational releases from the nuclear industry. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from atmospheric weapons testing, which has resulted in a relatively uniform, underlying global distribution of plutonium. Previous studies of plutonium in the Kara Sea have shown that, at certain sites, other releases have given rise to enhanced local concentrations. Since different plutonium sources are characterised by distinctive plutonium-isotope ratios, evidence of a localised influence can be supported by clear perturbations in the plutonium-isotope ratio fingerprints as compared to the known ratio in global fallout. In Kara Sea sites, such perturbations have been observed as a result of underwater weapons tests at Chernaya Bay, dumped radioactive waste in Novaya Zemlya, and terrestrial runoff from the Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Measurement of the plutonium-isotope ratios offers both a means of identifying the origin of radionuclide contamination and the influence of the various nuclear installations on inputs to the Arctic, as well as a potential method for following the movement of water and sediment loads in the rivers.

  1. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B.F. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.P. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  2. Geological and geodynamic reconstruction of the East Barents megabasin from analysis of the 4-AR regional seismic profile (United States)

    Startseva, K. F.; Nikishin, A. M.; Malyshev, N. A.; Nikishin, V. A.; Valyushcheva, A. A.


    The article considers problems related to the geological structure and geodynamic history of sedimentary basins of the Barents Sea. We analyze new seismic survey data obtained in 2005-2016 to refine the geological structure model for the study area and to render it in more detail. Based on the data of geological surveys in adjacent land (Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, and Kolguev Island), drilling, and seismic survey, we identified the following geodynamic stages of formation of the East Barents megabasin: Late Devonian rifting, the onset of postrift sinking and formation of the deep basin in Carboniferous-Permian, unique (in terms of extent) and very rapid sedimentation in the Early Triassic, continued thermal sinking with episodes of inversion vertical movements in the Middle Triassic-Early Cretaceous, folded pressure deformations that formed gently sloping anticlines in the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic, and glacial erosion in the Quaternary. We performed paleoreconstructions for key episodes in evolution of the East Barents megabasin based on the 4-AR regional profile. From the geometric modeling results, we estimated the value of total crustal extension caused by Late Devonian rifting for the existing crustal model.

  3. Radiological Impact Assessment within the IAEA Arctic Assessment Project (IASAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harms, I.; Heling, R.; Kinehara, Y.; Nielsen, S.P.; Osvath, I.; Preller, R.; Sazykina, T.; Wada, A.; Sjoeblom, L


    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of IAEA, a working group was created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea and bays of Novaya Zemlya and to assess the radiological impact. Existing models were extended, and new models developed to incorporate several features of the area (including ice formation and transport) which present modelling challenges. An extensive inter-model comparison involving both compartmental and 3-D hydrodynamic models was then carried out. Finally, the radiological impact was assessed based on several release scenarios prepared by the IASAP Sources working group. These included 'best estimate' release, 'plausible worst case' and 'worst case' scenarios. Collective dose as well as individual dose to identified populations were calculated. This paper reviews the models developed, highlights the general features of the inter-comparison and discusses the radiological impact assessment and conclusions based on it. (author)

  4. Extreme warming in the NE Atlantic in the winter period 2002-2012 - an analysis with the regional atmospheric model COSMO-CLM and the Arctic System Reanalysis. (United States)

    Kohnemann, Svenja; Heinemann, Guenther; Gutjahr, Oliver; Bromwich, David H.


    The high-resolution atmospheric model COSMO-CLM (CCLM, German Meteorological Service) is used to simulate the 2m-temperature and the boundary layer structures in the Arctic with focus on the NE Atlantic section the winter periods (Nov-Apr) between 2002 and 2015. The CCLM simulations have a horizontal resolution of 15 km for the whole Arctic. The comparable Arctic System Reanalysis data (ASR, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center), which has been optimized for the Arctic, are available for the same time period with a horizontal resolution of 30 km. In addition, climatological data from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) stations are used as verification. The comparison between the CCLM simulations and the ASR data shows a high agreement. Also the verification of both data sets with AWS and Era-Interim data shows a very high correlation for the air temperature. Slight differences between CCLM and ASR are recognizable in the extreme values as CCLM has the better ice information assimilated and the higher resolution during simulations. Time series of monthly mean based 2m-temperature indicate an enormous increase for the single months for the NE Atlantic and especially the region around the Siberian Island Novaya Zemlya. For example the CCLM March increase amounts up to 16 °C for the regional maximum for the period 2002-2012. The strong increase is mainly reducible to the decreasing sea ice situation in that region during the same time.

  5. The Atlantic Inflow through the Barents Sea from the high-resolution simulations (United States)

    Aksenov, Y.; Bacon, S.; Coward, A. C.; Nurser, A. J. G.


    Atlantic Water is an important component of the Arctic Ocean circulation. To study Atlantic Water pathways we used the results of a high-resolution global sea ice-ocean simulations for the period 1985 - 2006. The simulations also included passive tracers and ventilation tracer analysis which demonstrated high ventilation of the Barents Sea at few localized sites. Mode waters of Barents Sea Water were identified: the first mode is formed at the shallow convective sites in the northern Barents Sea and contributes in the formation of the Arctic cold halocline water; the second mode is the source of the Arctic low halocline water and is formed in the southeastern Barents Sea; the third dense mode is formed west of Novaya Zemlya. The mode waters continue into the Eurasian Arctic through the northwestern Barents Sea and along the northern Barents Sea shelf, and, via the other route, through the southeastern Barents Sea and the St.Anna Trough. The formation rates of the mode waters along with the heat ans salt transports through the Barents Sea have been estimated and compared to observations. Keywords Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Atlantic Water, mode waters, ocean modelling

  6. Telecommunications equipment power supply in the Arctic by means of solar panels (United States)

    Terekhin, Vladimir; Lagunov, Alexey


    Development of the Arctic region is one of the priorities in the Russian Federation. Amongst other things, a reliable telecommunications infrastructure in the Arctic is required. Petrol and diesel generators are traditionally employed but their use has considerable environmental impact. Solar panels can be used as an alternative power source. The electricity generated will be sufficient to supply small-sized telecommunications equipment with total the power of over 80 watts. An installation consisting of the solar modules, a charge controller, batteries, an inverter and load was designed. Tests were conducted at Cape Desire of the Novaya Zemlya (island). The solar panels provided in excess of 80 W from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. The batteries charge during this time was sufficient to provide the power supply for the communication equipment during the night, from 11 p.m. to 7 a.m. The maximum value of 638 W of the power generation was observed at 3 p.m. The minimum value of 46 W was at 4 a.m. The solar modules thus can be used during the polar day to power the telecommunications equipment.

  7. Glacial isostatic adjustment associated with the Barents Sea ice sheet: A modelling inter-comparison (United States)

    Auriac, A.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Bentley, M. J.; Patton, H.; Lloyd, J. M.; Hubbard, A.


    The 3D geometrical evolution of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet (BSIS), particularly during its late-glacial retreat phase, remains largely ambiguous due to the paucity of direct marine- and terrestrial-based evidence constraining its horizontal and vertical extent and chronology. One way of validating the numerous BSIS reconstructions previously proposed is to collate and apply them under a wide range of Earth models and to compare prognostic (isostatic) output through time with known relative sea-level (RSL) data. Here we compare six contrasting BSIS load scenarios via a spherical Earth system model and derive a best-fit, χ2 parameter using RSL data from the four main terrestrial regions within the domain: Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya and northern Norway. Poor χ2 values allow two load scenarios to be dismissed, leaving four that agree well with RSL observations. The remaining four scenarios optimally fit the RSL data when combined with Earth models that have an upper mantle viscosity of 0.2-2 × 1021 Pa s, while there is less sensitivity to the lithosphere thickness (ranging from 71 to 120 km) and lower mantle viscosity (spanning 1-50 × 1021 Pa s). GPS observations are also compared with predictions of present-day uplift across the Barents Sea. Key locations where relative sea-level and GPS data would prove critical in constraining future ice-sheet modelling efforts are also identified.

  8. Slow differential rotation of the Earth's inner core indicated by temporal changes in scattering (United States)

    Vidale; Dodge; Earle


    The finding that the Earth's inner core might be rotating faster than the mantle has important implications for our understanding of core processes, including the generation of the Earth's magnetic field. But the reported signal is subtle--a change of about 0.01 s per year in the separation of two seismic waves with differing paths through the core. Subsequent studies of such data have generally supported the conclusion that differential rotation exists, but the difficulty of accurately locating historic earthquakes and possible biases induced by strong lateral variations in structure near the core-mantle boundary have raised doubt regarding the proposed inner-core motion. Also, a study of free oscillations constrained the motion to be relatively small compared to previous estimates and it has been proposed that the interaction of inner-core boundary topography and mantle heterogeneity might lock the inner core to the mantle. The recent detection of seismic waves scattered in the inner core suggests a simple test of inner-core motion. Here we compare scattered waves recorded in Montana, USA, from two closely located nuclear tests at Novaya Zemlya, USSR, in 1971 and 1974. The data show small but coherent changes in scattering which point toward an inner-core differential rotation rate of 0.15 degrees per year--consistent with constraints imposed by the free-oscillation data.

  9. Radioactive contamination at dumping sites for nuclear waste in the Kara Sea. Results from the Russian-Norwegian 1993 expedition to the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P.; Rudjord, A.L. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, B. [Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Vollebekk (Norway)] [and others


    During the 1993 Joint Russian-Norwegian Expedition to the Kara Sea, three dumping sites for nuclear waste were investigated: The Tsivolky Bay, the Stepovogo bay and an area in the open Kara Sea (The Novaya Zemlya Trough). Dumped waste was localized and inspected in the Tsivolky Bay and in the Stepovogo Bay using side scanning sonar and underwater camera. In the Stepovogo Bay, the dumped nuclear submarine no. 601, containing spent nuclear fuel was localized. Samples of waters, sediments and biota were collected at nine stations and later analyzed for several radionuclides (gammaemitters, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am). The analyses of the samples al the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) Elevated levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and presence of {sup 60}Co were observed in the inner part of the Stepovogo Bay, and in one sample collected close to the hull of the dumped nuclear submarine in the Stepovogo Bay. {sup 60}Co was also observed in the Tsivolky Bay. This radioactive contamination most likely originates from the dumped radioactive material. It may be due to leaching from the waste. (2) The enhanced levels of contamination caused by dumped nuclear waste are still low and restricted to small areas. Thus, radiation doses from the existing contamination would be negligible. Radioactive contamination outside these areas is similar to the activity levels in the open Kara Sea. 46 refs.

  10. Redescription of Bradya typica Boeck, 1873 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Ectinosomatidae) with the first description of the male (United States)

    Seifried, Sybille; Veit-Köhler, Gritta


    Bradya typica Boeck, 1873 is described from samples collected in the course of a colonisation experiment in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen (2003-2005). The male of B. typica, the type-species of the genus is described for the first time. B. typica can be distinguished from its congeners by its caudal rami (1.4 times longer than wide) and by its P5 (exopod longer than wide, inner terminal seta of exopod longest, inner seta of baseoendopod longer than outer one and surface seta rigid and curved). Variability within the species is rather small as only the length of some setae is slightly different. B. cladiofera Lang, 1965, B. congenera Sars, 1920, B. minutiseta Soyer, 1973 and B. pugiochaeta Arlt, 1983 are closely related to B. typica. Some details of the morphology, such as the body ornamentation and the longer hair-like pinnules on the spines of the swimming legs, are very difficult to observe even with maximum magnification. With certainty, B. typica is distributed near the Norwegian coast (Oslo Fjord to Trondheim Fjord), the Swedish coast (Skagerak to Öresund), around Spitsbergen and around the polar islands north of Grinnelland (Canadian Arctic Archipelago near Baffin Bay). Records of B. typica from the Kara Sea (near Novaya Zemlya), near Franz Joseph Land, Iceland, Greenland, the British Isles and from deep waters of the North Sea have to be confirmed.

  11. A history of atmospheric tritium gas (HT) 1950 2002 (United States)

    Happell, James D.; Östlund, Göte; Mason, Allen S.


    Data collected as a part of this study from 1968 2002 and data from other studies from 1950 1967 show that the maximum atmospheric concentration of tritium gas (HT) occurred in the early to mid 1970s, which corresponds to the era of frequent, large underground nuclear tests. These data clearly show that the major source of HT to the atmosphere between 1962 and the early 1990s was the underground testing of nuclear weapons. Samples collected at both our Alaska and Miami stations clearly show marked increases in the autumn of each year between 1970 and 1975 that were associated with large underground explosions conducted by the former Soviet Union at the Novaya Zemlya test site. Other significant sources of HT include accidental releases of HT used in the manufacture and maintenance of nuclear weapons stockpiles, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel rods and emissions from nuclear power plants. Since the early 1990s, when underground testing largely ceased, emission estimates from our data agree very well with United Nations estimates of worldwide releases from fuel reprocessing and nuclear power plants, suggesting that the nuclear power industry is now the major source of HT to the atmosphere.

  12. Plutonium isotopes and 241Am in the atmosphere of Lithuania: A comparison of different source terms (United States)

    Lujanienė, G.; Valiulis, D.; Byčenkienė, S.; Šakalys, J.; Povinec, P. P.


    137Cs, 241Am and Pu isotopes collected in aerosol samples during 1994-2011 were analyzed with special emphasis on better understanding of Pu and Am behavior in the atmosphere. The results from long-term measurements of 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios showed a bimodal frequency distribution with median values of 0.195 and 0.253, indicating two main sources contributing to the Pu activities at the Vilnius sampling station. The low Pu atom ratio of 0.141 could be attributed to the weapon-grade plutonium derived from the nuclear weapon test sites. The frequency of air masses arriving from the North-West and North-East correlated with the Pu atom ratio indicating the input from the sources located in these regions (the Novaya Zemlya test site, Siberian nuclear plants), while no correlation with the Chernobyl region was observed. Measurements carried out during the Fukushima accident showed a negligible impact of this source with Pu activities by four orders of magnitude lower as compared to the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentration of actinides measured in the integrated sample collected in March-April, 2011 showed a small contribution of Pu with unusual activity and atom ratios indicating the presence of the spent fuel of different origin than that of the Chernobyl accident.

  13. Warming in the Nordic Seas, North Atlantic storms and thinning Arctic sea ice (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Walsh, John E.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Smirnov, Alexander V.


    Arctic sea ice over the last few decades has experienced a significant decline in coverage both in summer and winter. The currently warming Atlantic Water layer has a pronounced impact on sea ice in the Nordic Seas (including the Barents Sea). More open water combined with the prevailing atmospheric pattern of airflow from the southeast, and persistent North Atlantic storms such as the recent extremely strong Storm Frank in December 2015, lead to increased energy transport to the high Arctic. Each of these storms brings sizeable anomalies of heat to the high Arctic, resulting in significant warming and slowing down of sea ice growth or even melting. Our analysis indicates that the recently observed sea ice decline in the Nordic Seas during the cold season around Svalbard, Franz Joseph Land and Novaya Zemlya, and the associated heat release from open water into the atmosphere, contributed significantly to the increase in the downward longwave radiation throughout the entire Arctic. Added to other changes in the surface energy budget, this increase since the 1960s to the present is estimated to be at least 10 W m-2, which can result in thinner (up to at least 15-20 cm) Arctic ice at the end of the winter. This change in the surface budget is an important contributing factor accelerating the thinning of Arctic sea ice.

  14. Isotope parameters (δD, δ18O) and sources of freshwater input to Kara Sea (United States)

    Dubinina, E. O.; Kossova, S. A.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.; Fyaizullina, R. V.


    The isotope characteristics (δD, δ18O) of Kara Sea water were studied for quantitative estimation of freshwater runoff at stations located along transect from Yamal Peninsula to Blagopoluchiya Bay (Novaya Zemlya). Freshwater samples were studied for glaciers (Rose, Serp i Molot) and for Yenisei and Ob estuaries. As a whole, δD and δ18O are higher in glaciers than in river waters. isotope composition of estuarial water from Ob River is δD =-131.4 and δ18O =-17.6‰. Estuarial waters of Yenisei River are characterized by compositions close to those of Ob River (-134.4 and-17.7‰), as well as by isotopically "heavier" compositions (-120.7 and-15.8‰). Waters from studied section of Kara Sea can be product of mixing of freshwater (δD =-119.4, δ18O =-15.5) and seawater (S = 34.9, δD = +1.56, δ18O = +0.25) with a composition close to that of Barents Sea water. isotope parameters of water vary significantly with salinity in surface layer, and Kara Sea waters are desalinated along entire studied transect due to river runoff. concentration of freshwater is 5-10% in main part of water column, and 100 m. maximum contribution of freshwater (>65%) was recorded in surface layer of central part of sea.

  15. Recent mass balance of Arctic glaciers derived from repeat-track ICESat altimetry (Invited) (United States)

    Moholdt, G.; Nuth, C.; Hagen, J. M.; Wolken, G. J.; Gardner, A.


    The Arctic region is more affected by climate change than the lower latitudes. Glaciers and ice caps are sensitive indicators of climate change, and there is a high demand for more accurate quantifications of glacier changes in the Arctic. ICESat laser altimetry has been a popular tool for assessing recent elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet. Other high Arctic glaciers have an equally dense coverage of ICESat tracks, but the quantity and quality of elevation comparisons are degraded due to smaller glacier sizes and steeper slopes. A methodological study at the Svalbard archipelago in the Norwegian Arctic has shown that it is feasible to obtain reasonable elevation change estimates from repeat-track ICESat altimetry (Moholdt et al., 2010). The best results were achieved using all available ICESat data in a joint analysis where surface slope and elevation change were estimated for homogeneous planes that were fitted to the data along each track. The good performance of the plane method implies that it can also be used in other Arctic regions of similar characteristics where accurate DEMs are typically not available. We present 2003-2009 elevation change rates for the Norwegian Arctic (Svalbard), the Russian Arctic (Novaya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya and Franz Josefs Land) and the Canadian Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands and Baffin Island). The glaciers and ice caps of these regions cover a total area of ~230 000 km2 which is about 30% of the world-wide glacier cover outside of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Most regions experience strong thinning at low elevations, while the pattern at higher elevations varies from slight thinning to slight thickening. There are also examples of local anomalous elevation changes due to unstable glacier dynamics, e.g. glacier surging. Hypsometric calculations are performed to calculate regional volume changes on a bi-annual time scale and over the entire ICESat period (2003-2009). Short-term variations in firn layer

  16. On the issue of the Precambrian basement of the Arctic shelf (United States)

    Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Korago, Evgeny A.; Proskurnin, Vasily F.; Sobolev, Nikolay N.


    Many researchers of the geological structures of the Russian Arctic concluded that the basements of the terranes composing the Arctic shelf and continental slopes have a Precambrian age. It is assumed that these terranes are actually fragments of the ancient Arctida paleocontinent [Zonenshain, Natapov, 1987] that broke up as a result of rifting and its separate plates and terranes either were overlain by continental margins sediments or included in the fold belts in the periphery of the ocean. In the western part of the Russian Arctic, a Grenvillian and Mesoproterozoic basement was demonstrated for Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Taimyr Peninsula, and at least a Neoproterozoic basement was established for structures in the basement of Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. In the eastern part of the Russian Arctic, such proofs were almost nonexistent. In recent years, new information was obtained concerning the continental nature and Precambrian age of the basement crust of the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos as well as probably the Mendeleev Ridge. For the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos, a whole series of geochronological evidence was obtained in addition to geological data (horizontally bedding Early Paleozoic passive continental margin sediments (Cambrian, Ordovician) at Bennett Island). In magmatic and tuffaceous-sedimentary rocks of Henrietta and Zhokhov islands we discovered zircons that had formed from magmatic crystallization in the Late Neoproterozoic. New U-Pb data for zircons from rocks of these islands do not contradict isotopic dating obtained earlier by other methods - Ar/Ar and Sm/Nd in different laboratories. Considering different closure temperatures for isotopic systems, these new results complement each other. On the islands of the eastern sector of the Russian Arctic, a Neoproterozoic complex of rocks is most certainly established in the basement of the mesozoides of Vrangel Island. Here were discovered metamorphosed volcanics

  17. Modern processes controlling the sea bed sediment formation in Barents Sea (United States)

    Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.; Shapovalov, S.; Chaikina, O.; Akivis, T.


    The Barents Sea is one of the key regions for understanding of the postglacial history of the climate and circulation of the World Ocean. There are the limits of warm North Atlantic waters penetration to the Arctic and a zone of interaction between Atlantic and Arctic waters. The Barents Se's limits are the deep Norwegian Sea in the West, the Spitsbergen Island and the Franz Josef Land and the deep Nansen trough in the North, the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the East and the North shore of Europe in the South. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed in the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. Two transverse trenches cross both shelf and continental slope, namely the Medvezhinsky trench between Norway and Spitsbergen in the West and the Franz Victoria trench between Spitsbergen and the Franz Josef Land in the North. The Barents and the Kara Seas are connected by the Kara Gate Strait and wide transverse trough of Saint Anna in the North-West. The recent assessment of the eolian solid sediment supply to the Barents Sea is about 0.904 tons. The Barents Sea as a whole should be considered as "starving" in terms of its feeding with solid sediment matter. Observations show the considerable part of the sea bottom to be free of Holocene sediment cover. The more ancient Quaternary units or bedrock can be seen at the bottom surface. This phenomenon is the most typical for arches of relatively shallow elevations. Thick accumulations of new sediments are connected with fjords. The amount of sea ice delivered from the Barents Sea to the Arctic Ocean is 35 km3 a year. This value should be added by iceberg delivery from the North island of Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Spitsbergen Island and North Norway but most of

  18. Radioactive waste disposal in seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation. (United States)

    Yablokov, A V


    The former USSR illegally dumped into the ocean liquid and solid radioactive wastes (RW) originating from nuclear-powered vessels and ships. The Russian President created a special Commission to analyse both the scale and consequences of this activity. According to documentary data and expert estimates at the Commission's disposal, the maximum activity of RW that entered the seas adjacent to Russian territory could have been as much as 2,500 kCi at the time of disposal. The greatest radio-ecological hazard comes from reactors from nuclear submarines and core plates of the nuclear icebreaker 'Lenin', which had spent nuclear fuel in place and which were dumped in shallow water in the Kara Sea near Novaya Zemlya. Editor's note: This article extracts material from a Commission which published a report produced in Russia in 1993. Numerous sources in many Ministries and other government agencies, noted in the text, formed the basis for the final draft. The authors of the draft report were A. Yablokov, V. Karasev, V. Rumyantsev, M. Kokeev, O. Petrov, V. Lystsov, A. Yemelyanenkov and P. Rubtsov. After approving the draft report, the Commission submitted the report to the President of the Russian Federation in February 1993. By Presidential decision, this report (after several technical corrections) was open to the public: it is known variously as 'the Yablokov Commission report, or more simply the 'Yablokov Report', the 'White Book' or 'Yablokov White Paper'. During April-May 1993, 500 copies were distributed among governmental agencies inside Russia, and abroad through a net of Russian Embassies. This article was later sent to Dr Mike Champ as part of the ongoing collections of papers on the Arctic published in this journal (edited by Champ et al.: 1997 'Contaminants in the Arctic', Marine Pollution Bulletin 35, pp. 203-385 and in Marine Pollution Bulletin 2000, vol. 40, pp. 801-868, and continued with the present collection).

  19. Joint Russian-Norwegian expedition to the dumping sites for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in the Stepovogo fjord of the Kara sea, August - September 2012: investigations performed and main results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Valetova, Nailja; Petrenko, Galina; Katrich, Ivan; Fedorova, Anastasia [Research and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 249038, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Kazennov, Alexey [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Lind, Bjorn; Gwynn, Justin; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Heldal, Hilde Elise [Institute of Marine Research, Bergen (Norway); Blinova, Oxana; Osvath, Iolanda; Levy, Isabelle; Bartocci, Jean; Khanh Pham, Mai; Sam, Adam; Nies, Hartmut [IAEA-MEL (Monaco); Grishin, Denis [Krylov State Research Centre, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Salbu, Brit; Ole- Christian, Lind; Teien, Hans-Cristian [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway); Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh; Straalberg, Elisabeth [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Logoyda, Igor [State Scientific Centre ' Yuzhmorgeologiya' , Gelendzhik (Russian Federation)


    Stepovogo fjord, located on the Eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, is one of the most important former Soviet Union dumping sites for radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. In addition to some 2000 dumped containers with conventional radioactive wastes, the nuclear submarine K-27 was dumped in Stepovogo fjord with two reactors loaded with spent nuclear fuel (SNF).Joint Russian and Norwegian surveys of the marine environment in Stepovogo fjord were first conducted in 1993 and 1994. In accordance with the working plan of the Joint Russian-Norwegian Expert Group on the Investigation of Radioactive Contamination in the Northern Areas, a follow up expedition into the radioecological status of Stepovogo fjord was carried out in August and September of 2012 onboard the R.V. 'Ivan Petrov' of the Roshydromet Northern Department. Investigations carried out in Stepovogo fjord during the expedition included: Sonar surveys, ROV inspections and in situ gamma measurements of the dumped nuclear submarine K-27 and dumped containers with radioactive waste Sampling of seawater, bottom sediments and marine biota. Results of the analysis of marine environmental samples performed by Russia, Norway and the IAEA, are presented and discussed in the paper. Preliminary measurements on surface sediments and water samples showed that the level of {sup 137}Cs contamination was generally low. However, slightly enhanced levels of {sup 137}Cs were detected in bottom seawater and sediment collected in the area with dumped containers. Measurements taken around the dumped nuclear submarine K-27 did not indicate any leakage of radioactive substances from the submarine. A similar picture for the level of radioactive contamination in Stepovogo fjord was observed in the first joint Russian-Norwegian expedition in 1993-94. (authors)

  20. [Advantages and limitations of interspecies associations in northern migratory sandpipers (Charadrii, Aves)]. (United States)

    Gavrilov, V V


    Investigations were carried out at two stations of Ornithological Unit, IBPN FEB RAS, located in Nizhnekolymsk District, Yakutia, starting from May 15-20 in 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, and 1990; at the northern coast of Pukhovoy Bay, Southern Island of Novaya Zemlya starting from June 1 in 1994; at Cape Beliy Nos, the Yugorsky Peninsula, starting from June 1 in 1995-1997. Classic associations are detected in interspecies flocks of sandpipers between the following species: the Pacific golden plover and the curlew sandpiper, the pectoral sandpiper and the long-billed dowitcher, the pectoral sandpiper and the dunlin, the grey plover and the dunlin. However, total amount of birds that form associations is not large. In species of group "A" (the grey plover, the Pacific golden plover, the pectoral sandpiper), no difference has been observed in migratory birds behavior within inter- or conspecific flocks. Species of group "B" (the dunlin, the curlew sandpiper, the long-billed dowitcher), on the contrary, change their behavior sharply depending on whether they belong to an association or not. Species of group "A" do not get any advantages when forming an association. Unlike them, species of group "B" profit from associating: a part of time spent in foraging substantially increases; more time is spent on rest and less time is spent on reconnaissance and vigilance (readiness for actions); safety of birds is enhanced. On the other hand, in species of group "B" there are also disadvantages related with associating: i.e., interspecies competition for food; foraging in suboptimal habitats which, in turn, may lead to notable increase of time spent by birds in foraging. An assumption is put forward that in species of group "B" advantages and limitations of associating cancel each other to a certain extent, and this explains rather small number of birds forming associations.

  1. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David


    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  2. Collective doses to man from dumping of radioactive waste in the Arctic Seas. (United States)

    Nielsen, S P; Iosjpe, M; Strand, P


    A box model for the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment covering the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean has been constructed. Collective doses from ingestion pathways have been calculated from unit releases of the radionuclides 3H, 60Co, 63Ni, 90Sr, 129I, 137Cs, 239Pu and 241Am into a fjord on the east coast of NovayaZemlya. The results show that doses for the shorter-lived radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs) are derived mainly from seafood production in the Barents Sea. Doses from the longer-lived radionuclides (e.g. 239Pu) are delivered through marine produce further away from the Arctic Ocean. Collective doses were calculated for two release scenarios, both of which are based on information of the dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas by the former Soviet Union and on preliminary information from the International Arctic Sea Assessment Programme. A worst-case scenario was assumed according to which all radionuclides in liquid and solid radioactive waste were available for dispersion in the marine environment at the time of dumping. Release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel was assumed to take place by direct corrosion of the fuel ignoring the barriers that prevent direct contact between the fuel and the seawater. The second scenario selected assumed that releases of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel do not occur until after failure of the protective barriers. All other liquid and solid radioactive waste was assumed to be available for dispersion at the time of discharge in both scenarios. The estimated collective dose for the worst-case scenario was about 9 manSv and that for the second scenario was about 3 manSv. In both cases, 137Cs is the radionuclide predicted to dominate the collective doses as well as the peak collective dose rates.

  3. Climatic Controls on the Distribution of Surging Glaciers (United States)

    Sevestre, H.; Benn, D.


    Surge-type glaciers are scattered in a non-random fashion, gathered in clusters in some glaciated regions. One group of clusters forms an Arctic and Sub-Arctic 'crescent', spanning from Alaska-Yukon, through Arctic Canada, West and East Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya. Another cluster occurs in western High Asia, including the Karakoram Mountains. Although several studies have assessed the influence of environmental controls on surging, so far none has provided a satisfactory explanation for the geographical location of these clusters. The distribution of such glaciers undoubtedly holds the keys of a better understanding on the controls on surging behaviour. For this study, two glacier populations are considered. First, a global inventory of glacier surges has been compiled, based on published observations, field reports and remote sensing studies. This digital database is structured in three tables, respectively providing information on the location and geometry of each surge-type glacier, surge dates and magnitude, and methodology employed at the time of observation. This global dataset is compared to the population of "non-surge-type glaciers" based on the Randolph Glacier Inventory version 2.0 excluding the inventoried surging glaciers. In both populations, glaciers are classified depending on their geometry and thermal regime. Downscaled climatic datasets are used to identify climatic envelopes associated with clusters of surging glaciers. We identified which environments are most prone to be associated to glacier surging, and examined the influence of these parameters on the surge cycle duration and character. These results emphasize the importance of external controls on surging (as against individual surges), and promote the need to study this behaviour in the frame of an energy-balance budget.

  4. Rugose corals across the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Denayer


    Full Text Available An uppermost Famennian (Strunian coral assemblage has been recovered in the middle part of the Yılanlı Formation of the Istanbul Zone (Zonguldak and Bartın areas, NW Turkey. In the Bartın area, the studied fossiliferous interval corresponds to a c. 30 m-thick unit of bioclastic to peloidal wackestone to packstone grading to grainstone and including two stromatoporoid biostromes. In the Zonguldak area, 60 km westward, the bioclastic facies is dominant. The rugose corals are mainly solitary taxa belonging to the genera Campophyllum, Bounophyllum, Amplexocarinia, and ?Metriophyllum, and only one colonial genus occurs: Pseudoendophyllum. This fauna is similar to that documented in Europe. The campophyllids and dibunophyllids are the main component of the uppermost Famennian assemblages in S Belgium, N France, W Germany, NW and S Poland. The endophyllids occur in S Poland, Novaya Zemlya, and in the Ural Mountains. The Istanbul Zone is supposed to be situated in the central part of the Palaeotethys Ocean, along the southern margin of Laurussia during the uppermost Devonian and Carboniferous. The rugose corals indicate some relationship with the eastern part of Laurussia, or that both areas were under a common marine influence at this time. The global Hangenberg event was not recognized in the Turkish localities, except for the disappearance of the corals, occurring less than 19 m below the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary based on the foraminifers. There is no major facies change through the boundary and the first Carboniferous corals (small Uralinia and Caninophyllum appear 6 m above the D–C boundary. The new species Caninophyllum charli sp. nov. is described from the upper part of the lower Tournaisian.

  5. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  6. Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns during polar low events over the Nordic seas (United States)

    Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Bakan, S.; GraßL, H.


    The large-scale atmospheric circulation during polar low events over the Nordic seas (the North Atlantic between Greenland and Novaya Zemlya) is investigated on the basis of a recently compiled data set that was derived purely from satellite observations. A classification system is applied that divides the polar lows into four types (western polar lows, eastern polar lows, Greenland lee polar lows, and storm track polar lows). Type-specific large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns are identified from National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis data. These are distinct in sea level pressure, upper level geopotential height, and the difference between the skin temperature of the ocean and upper level temperature. Eastern polar lows are found to be associated with a strong blocking situation caused by anomalously high pressure over Iceland and a synoptic-scale low-pressure anomaly over the Barents Sea. A weaker blocking situation with an anomalous ridge over Greenland reaching into the Irminger Sea and a low-pressure anomaly over the Norwegian Sea favors the development of western polar lows. Typical values for polar low genesis are a geopotential height of 5030 geopotential meters at 500 hPa and a difference of 48 K between the skin temperature of the ocean and the temperature at 500 hPa. The locations of upper level low-pressure anomalies relative to the locations of the related anomalies at the sea level show that western and eastern polar lows form, on average, in a much less baroclinic large-scale environment than Greenland lee and storm track polar lows.

  7. Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in the twentieth and twenty-first century in EC-Earth (United States)

    Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent


    The ocean heat transport into the Arctic and the heat budget of the Barents Sea are analyzed in an ensemble of historical and future climate simulations performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. The zonally integrated northward heat flux in the ocean at 70°N is strongly enhanced and compensates for a reduction of its atmospheric counterpart in the twenty first century. Although an increase in the northward heat transport occurs through all of Fram Strait, Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait and Barents Sea Opening, it is the latter which dominates the increase in ocean heat transport into the Arctic. Increased temperature of the northward transported Atlantic water masses are the main reason for the enhancement of the ocean heat transport. The natural variability in the heat transport into the Barents Sea is caused to the same extent by variations in temperature and volume transport. Large ocean heat transports lead to reduced ice and higher atmospheric temperature in the Barents Sea area and are related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The net ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea grows until about year 2050. Thereafter, both heat and volume fluxes out of the Barents Sea through the section between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are strongly enhanced and compensate for all further increase in the inflow through the Barents Sea Opening. Most of the heat transported by the ocean into the Barents Sea is passed to the atmosphere and contributes to warming of the atmosphere and Arctic temperature amplification. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced. Net surface long-wave and solar radiation are enhanced upward and downward, respectively and are almost compensating each other. We find that the changes in the surface heat fluxes are mainly caused by the vanishing sea ice in the twenty first century. The increasing ocean heat transport leads to enhanced bottom ice melt and to an extension of the area with bottom ice

  8. Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas of the Barents, Kara and Laptev seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei N Boltunov


    Full Text Available This paper reviews published information on the white whale or beluga (Delphinapterus leucas inhabiting the Barents, Kara and Laptev seas. Some data obtained during multi-year aerial reconnaissance of sea ice in the Russian Arctic are also included. Ice conditions, considered one of the major factors affecting distribution of belugas, are described. The number of belugas inhabiting the Russian Arctic is unknown. Based on analysis of published and unpublished information we believe that the primary summer habitats of belugas in the Western Russian Arctic lie in the area of Frants-Josef Land, in the Kara Sea and in the western Laptev Sea. Apparently most belugas winter in the Barents Sea. Although it has been suggested that a considerable number of animals winter in the Kara Sea, there is no direct evidence for this. Apparent migrations of animals are regularly observed at several sites: the straits of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, the waters north of the archipelago, and Vilkitskiy Strait between the Kara and Laptev seas. Calving and mating take place in summer, and the beluga mother feeds a calf for at least a year. Females mature earlier than males, and about 30% of mature females in a population are barren. Sex ratio is apparently close to 1:1. The diet of the beluga in the region includes fish and crustaceans and shows considerable spatial and temporal variations. However, polar cod (Boreogadus saida is the main prey most of the year, and whitefish (Coregonidae contribute in coastal waters in summer. Usually belugas form groups of up to 10 related individuals of different ages, while large aggregations are common during seasonal migrations or in areas with abundant and easily available food. Beluga whaling in Russia has a history of several centuries. The highest catches were taken in the 1950s and 1960s, when about 1,500 animals were caught annually in the Western Russian Arctic. In the 1990s, few belugas were

  9. Radionuclides in the Arctic seas from the former Soviet Union: Potential health and ecological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D W; Edson, R; Varela, M; Napier, B


    The primary goal of the assessment reported here is to evaluate the health and environmental threat to coastal Alaska posed by radioactive-waste dumping in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans by the FSU. In particular, the FSU discarded 16 nuclear reactors from submarines and an icebreaker in the Kara Sea near the island of Novaya Zemlya, of which 6 contained spent nuclear fuel (SNF); disposed of liquid and solid wastes in the Sea of Japan; lost a {sup 90}Sr-powered radioisotope thermoelectric generator at sea in the Sea of Okhotsk; and disposed of liquid wastes at several sites in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In addition to these known sources in the oceans, the RAIG evaluated FSU waste-disposal practices at inland weapons-development sites that have contaminated major rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean. The RAIG evaluated these sources for the potential for release to the environment, transport, and impact to Alaskan ecosystems and peoples through a variety of scenarios, including a worst-case total instantaneous and simultaneous release of the sources under investigation. The risk-assessment process described in this report is applicable to and can be used by other circumpolar countries, with the addition of information about specific ecosystems and human life-styles. They can use the ANWAP risk-assessment framework and approach used by ONR to establish potential doses for Alaska, but add their own specific data sets about human and ecological factors. The ANWAP risk assessment addresses the following Russian wastes, media, and receptors: dumped nuclear submarines and icebreaker in Kara Sea--marine pathways; solid reactor parts in Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean--marine pathways; thermoelectric generator in Sea of Okhotsk--marine pathways; current known aqueous wastes in Mayak reservoirs and Asanov Marshes--riverine to marine pathways; and Alaska as receptor. For these waste and source terms addressed, other pathways, such as

  10. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B


    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the

  11. Wild and semi-domesticated reindeer in Russia: status, population dynamics and trends under the present social and economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene E. Syroechkovski


    herding culture following the gradual restoration of private ownership of reindeer. In the 20 regions where only a few wild reindeer remain hunting should be prohibited and measures should be taken for protecting and restoring the populations. There are approximately 6000 reindeer on Novaya Zemlya; a further 6000 animals live on the Novosibirsk islands. The Red Data Book of Russia should include rare and disappearing populations both on the periphery of the species' distribution and inside it to preserve and restore the species and to conserve its genetic diversity.

  12. {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents Sea Regions. Sources and radioecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)


    The radioecological assessment for {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents sea regions was made using the compartment modelling approach. The following sources of radioactive contamination were under consideration: global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, transport of {sup 239+240}Pu from the Sellafield and La Hauge nuclear plants and underwater testing of nuclear weapons in Chernaya Bay, Novaya Zemlya. The box model developed at NRPA uses a modified approach for compartmental modeling, which takes into account the dispersion of radionuclides over time. The box structures for surface, mid-depth and deep water layers have been developed based on the description of polar, Atlantic and deep waters in the Arctic Ocean and the Northern Seas, as well as site-specific information for the boxes. The volume of the three water layers in each box has been calculated using detailed bathymetry together with Geographical Information Systems. The box model includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing and a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers. Radioactive decay is calculated for all compartments. The contamination of biota is further calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumptions, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota are determined on the basis of calculated radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. Results of the calculations show that atmospheric deposition is the dominant source for the Barents Sea, except for the Chernaya Bay region. It is also demonstrated that the impact of the Sellafield nuclear facilities has

  13. Circumpolar polynya regions and ice production in the Arctic: results from MODIS thermal infrared imagery from 2002/2003 to 2014/2015 with a regional focus on the Laptev Sea (United States)

    Preußer, Andreas; Heinemann, Günther; Willmes, Sascha; Paul, Stephan


    High-resolution MODIS thermal infrared satellite data are used to infer spatial and temporal characteristics of 17 prominent coastal polynya regions over the entire Arctic basin. Thin-ice thickness (TIT) distributions (≤ 20 cm) are calculated from MODIS ice-surface temperatures, combined with ECMWF ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data in an energy balance model for 13 winter seasons (2002/2003 to 2014/2015; November to March). From all available MODIS swath data, daily thin-ice thickness composites are computed in order to derive quantities such as polynya area and total thermodynamic (i.e., potential) ice production. A gap-filling approach is applied to account for cloud and data gaps in the MODIS composites. All polynya regions combined cover an average thin-ice area of 226.6 ± 36.1 × 103 km2 in winter. This allows for an average total winter-accumulated ice production of about 1811 ± 293 km3, whereby the Kara Sea region, the North Water polynya (both 15 %), polynyas on the western side of Novaya Zemlya (20 %), as well as scattered smaller polynyas in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (all combined 12 %) are the main contributors. Other well-known sites of polynya formation (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea) show smaller contributions and range between 2 and 5 %. We notice distinct differences to earlier studies on pan-Arctic polynya characteristics, originating in some part from the use of high-resolution MODIS data, as the capability to resolve small-scale (> 2 km) polynyas and also large leads are increased. Despite the short record of 13 winter seasons, positive trends in ice production are detected for several regions of the eastern Arctic (most significantly in the Laptev Sea region with an increase of 6.8 km3 yr-1) and the North Water polynya, while other polynyas in the western Arctic show a more pronounced variability with varying trends. We emphasize the role of the Laptev Sea polynyas as being a major influence on Transpolar Drift characteristics through

  14. A modelling study of the influence of anomalous wind forcing over the Barents Sea on the Atlantic water flow to the Arctic Ocean in the period 1979-2004 (United States)

    Marciniak, Jakub; Schlichtholz, Pawel; Maslowski, Wieslaw


    anomalies in the Murman/West Novaya Zemlya current system on the eastern side of the Barents Sea. These anomalies affect sea ice in the eastern Barents Sea 1-3 months later, but are not completely lost on the interactions with the sea ice and local atmosphere. Statistically significant subsurface temperature anomalies driven by anomalous winds over the Barents Sea join, on their exit to the Arctic Ocean through St. Anna Trough, the Arctic Slope Current, in which they persist for several years.

  15. Fifty years of geophysical researches of glaciers in Institute of Geography, the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1966–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kotlyakov


    Full Text Available In 1967‑2015, Institute of Geography of the USSR/Russian Academy of Sciences together with other organizations carried out field expeditions in different areas of mountain and polar glaciations in many regions: the Polar Urals, Caucasus, Pamir, Zailiysky and Jungar Alatau, Tien‑Shan, Pamir‑Alai, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Pyrenees, the Arctic – Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef and Severnaya Zemlya, and Antarctica – on the ice flow B, and in the sub‑Antarctic – Islands King George, Galindez, and Livingston. The gravimetric and ground and aerial radar observations were made in these expeditions. About 300 glaciers of different morphological types and sizes with cold, subpolar and temperate thermal regime were studied. Basic results of these studies are the following: (1 the new data on the ice thicknesses, ice volumes, subglacial relief, internal structure, and thermal state of the glaciers were obtained; (2 the two‑layered (polythermal glaciers consisting of the upper layer of cold ice and the lower layer of temperate water‑filled ice had been revealed in Svalbard for the first time; spatial distribution of cold, polythermal and temperate glaciers had been determined; (3 the evidences were obtained that measured changes in thickness of the upper cold ice layer in polythermal glaciers can be used to estimate the long‑period variations of regional climates and serve as regional paleothermometers; (4 methods for estimating the water content in temperate and polythermal glaciers from the RES data were developed; and its space‑time variations in temperate ices of the Svaldbald glaciers were estimated since even small water content inside of them can noticeably change their dynamic behavior; (5 methods for estimating the ice volume within glaciers in large regions of mountain and polar glaciations had been created; the ice storages were estimated in Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Dzhungrsky Alatau, the

  16. Microphysical and chemical characteristics of near-water aerosol over White and Kara Seas (United States)

    Terpugova, S. A.; Polkin, V. V.; Panchenko, M. V.; Golobokova, L. P.; Kozlov, V. S.; Shmargunov, V. P.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Lisitzin, A. P.


    The results are presented of five-year-long (2003-2007) study of the spatial - temporal variability of the near-water aerosol in the water area of White and Kara Seas (55, 64, 71 and 80-th cruises of RV "Professor Shtockman"; 53 and 54-th cruises of RV "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh"). Measurements of aerosol microphysical characteristics were carried out by means of the automated mobile aerosol complex consisting of nephelometer, photoelectric counter and aethalometer. The aerosol disperse composition was studied with photoelectric counter in 256 size intervals from 0.4 to 10 m. About 1500 series of measurements were carried out in White Sea, and about 1400 series in Kara Sea. Chemical characteristics of aerosol were determined from samples collected on aerosol filters (92 samples were collected in White Sea and 48 in Kara Sea). The ion composition was determined under laboratory conditions. The H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42- ions were under examination. Comparing aerosol characteristics of two seas, one can note that the mean values of the aerosol content parameters in Kara Sea are less than in White Sea. The ratio of the aerosol mass concentration are from 2 (Yamal Peninsula, northern part of Novaya Zemlya) to 9 times (Blagopoluchia Bay, Ob' Gulf). The differences in the concentration of black carbon vary from 3 (Yamal Peninsula) to 17 times (Blagopoluchia Bay). The differences in the aerosol number concentration NA are not so big. The values NA near Kara Gate, Yamal Peninsula and northern part of Novaya Zemlya are practically the same as in White Sea. The concentration NA at Ob' gulf is one order of magnitude less than in White sea. The obtained aerosol volume size distributions were approximated by the sums of two fractions, submicron and coarse, with lognormal size distributions. The mean volume size distribution of submicron fraction in White Sea is approximated by the distribution with the variance of the radius logarithm s=0.6 and modal

  17. Жаркое и десерт на фестивале Birgitta / Айвар Лоог

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Лоог, Айвар


    Richard Wagneri "Lohengrin", lavastaja Kasper Holten ja Gioachino Rossini "Sevilla habemeajaja", lavastaja Elijah Moshinsky. Mõlemad Moskva "Новая Опера" lavastused (The Kolobov Novaya Opera Theatre)

  18. Deglaciation of the Eurasian ice sheet complex (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Auriac, Amandine; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Shackleton, Calvin; Winsborrow, Monica; Heyman, Jakob; Hall, Adrian M.


    2.5 × 106 km2 and drained the present day Vistula, Elbe, Rhine and Thames rivers through the Seine Estuary. During the Bølling/Allerød oscillation after c. 14.6 ka BP, two major proglacial lakes formed in the Baltic and White seas, buffering meltwater pulses from eastern Fennoscandia through to the Younger Dryas when these massive proglacial freshwater lakes flooded into the North Atlantic Ocean. Deglaciation temporarily abated during the Younger Dryas stadial at 12.9 ka BP, when remnant ice across Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Fennoscandia and Scotland experienced a short-lived but dynamic re-advance. The final stage of deglaciation converged on present day ice cover around the Scandes mountains and the Barents Sea by 8.7 ka BP, although the phase-lagged isostatic recovery still continues today.

  19. Recognition of Intermediate Crust (IC), its construction and its distinctive epeirogenic behaviour: an exciting new tool for plate kinematic analysis (PKA) of the Arctic margins and western Siberia (United States)

    Osmaston, M. F.


    blocking the hydrothermal cooling, this must inhibit magnetic anomaly formation and prolong magmagenesis to give a thicker-than-oceanic mafic crust, which I have called Intermediate Crust (IC) [8, 9], to distinguish it from Mature Continental Crust (MCC). Seismologically, IC basement must look deceptively like that assigned to stretched MCC. For thermodynamic reasons [8, 9] the hydrous content of deep MCC and of deeply subducted UHP crustal slices gives them a big thermal epeirogenic sensitivity which IC lacks. The NE Atlantic offers an example of this distinction. Structurally, the MCC of Greenland and Norway must have been intimately juxtaposed by the Scandian collision, so it was concluded [9] that the crust of the Greenland-Norway continental shelves must mostly be IC of post-Scandian (early Devonian?) age, a character confirmed by their lack of epeirogenic response to laterally conducted heat from the opening N Atlantic, although drainage systems in Norway proper clearly show it. Geometrically, this separation appears to have changed direction sharply, the second and bigger stage also involving separation of Svalbard from near Tromsø, where it had provided northward continuation of a complete Caledonian transect, so it has an IC implication for much of the Barents Sea area (bar the Bjørnøya block). Moving quickly round to the NE side of Baltica, we can begin to trace the separative motions of the Novaya Zemlya - Pay Khoy (NZPK) strip of less-mature MCC, transverse to the Timanian belt, and the associated evolution of the Pechora basin system. In places, faulted IC/MCC epeirogenic contrasts seem to define the size and direction of the IC-generating separation with remarkable precision. A crucial opening-up of this analysis is provided by realizing that the Polar Ural stretch is not MCC, but is merely the huge 585 Ma Voykar-Synya ophiolite, with its metamorphics, resting on a now-crumpled boundary between IC of very different ages. For further understanding we need


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀琴; 廖卓庭; 许汉奎


    is often lower than the beds involved Nayunnella. Nayunnella is much more than Yunnanella in beds and thickness, quantity and diversity. In the prerecent study, very abundant specimens of the genus Nayunnella were found from the Shashishan section in South Tianshan. It is proved again that South China and South Tianshan had a close relationship during Late Devonian depending on the existence of abundant Nayunnella in the two regions.   The specimens of the genus Yunnanella were first found from northern Xinjiang in 1973 and the exact location of the section yieding Yunnanella hanburii (Davidson) and Yunnanella sp. was confirmed at Tenglingsaka, about 5 km northwest of Yangzhuan, in Emin, northern Xinjiang in 2000. In North Xinjiang, only Yunnanella was found, but not any Nayunnella has been found until now. It is an opposite condition compared with South Xinjiang. It needs more evidences to prove what factors to cause these differences between South Xinjiang and North Xinjiang.   According to the data availabe, the Yunnanella-Nayunnella fauna has been known from such provinces in China as northern Guangdong, Guangxi, eastern Yunnan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Longmenshan of Sichuan, southwest Shaanxi, Gansu, southern Tianshan and western Junggar Basin of Xinjiang besides Kazakhstan and Novaya Zemlya, commonly occurring in the early and middle Famennian strata.

  1. [Russian physicians during first months of the Great War (to 100th anniversary of the beginning of the First World War)]. (United States)

    Gribovskaia, G A


    At the beginning of the First World War professor and surgeon S.R. Mitotvortsev was appointed as a Chief Expert - Surgeon of the Western Front, there in Lyublyana he faced with difficulties such as organization of health care delivery and treatment of wounded soldiers. In the following, organized by Mirotvortsev team served in Novaya Aleksandriya, Ivan-Gorod, Radom and other towns of the Western Front. This team was named as "Collecting dressing station of professor S.R.Mirotvortsev".

  2. Birgitta festivali elav tuli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Birgitta festivalil Pirita kloostri müüride vahel 10.-19. aug. mängukavas: Moskva ooperiteatri Novaya Opera trupp esitamas ooperit, Maria Callase gala, klassikalist ja dzhässballetti, Vene Keiserlik Ballett kava "Tshaikovski in Swing", Anton Rubinshteini ooper "Deemon" (lavastaja Mihhail Jefremov), Arthur Honeggeri oratoorium "Jeanne d'Arc tuleriidal" (lavastaja Üllar Saaremäe, peaosas Mirtel Pohla)

  3. Long-term Trends in Interplanetary Magnetic Field Strength and Solar Wind Structure during the 20th Century (United States)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)


    Lockwood et al have recently reported an approximately 40% increase in the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Earth between 1964 and 1996. We argue that this increase does not constitute a secular trend but is largely the consequence of lower than average fields during solar cycle 20 (1964-1976) in comparison with surrounding cycles. For times after 1976 the average IMF strength has actually decreased slightly. Examination of the cosmic ray intensity, an indirect measure of the IMF strength, over the last five solar cycles (19-23) also indicates that cycle averages of the IMF strength have been relatively constant since approximately 1954. We also consider the origin of the well-documented increase in the geomagnetic alphaalpha index that occurred primarily during the first half of the twentieth century. We surmise that the coronal mass ejection (CME) rate for recent solar cycles was approximately twice as high as that for solar cycles 100 years ago. However, this change in the CME rate and the accompanying increase in 27-day recurrent storm activity reported by others are unable to account completely for the increase in alphaalpha. Rather, the CMEs and recurrent high-speed streams at the beginning of the twentieth century must have been embedded in a background of slow solar wind that was less geoeffective (having, for example, lower IMF strength and/or flow speed) than its modern counterpart.

  4. Paternal age and twinning in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (United States)

    Kleinhaus, Karine; Perrin, Mary C.; Manor, O; Friedlander, Yehiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Harlap, Susan; Malaspina, Dolores


    Objective To investigate whether incidence of twin deliveries is related to father's age, independently of mother's age, and whether it differs for same-sex or opposite-sex twin sets. Study Design In a program of research on effects of paternal age, this study used data from a prospective cohort of 92,408 offspring born in Jerusalem from 1964-1976. Of the 91,253 deliveries in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study, 1,115 were twin deliveries. The data were analyzed with General Estimate Equations to inform unconditional logistic regression. Results After controlling for maternal age, Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) associated with father's ages 25-34 and 35+ were 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) and 1.5 (1.2, 2.1) respectively, compared with fathers <25 years old. The effect of maternal age was partly explained by paternal age. The ORs for opposite-sex twin sets and male-male twin sets increased slightly with paternal age, while the OR for same-sex and female-female twin decreased. Conclusion Studies of twins are used to estimate effects of genes and environment in a variety of diseases. Our findings highlight the need to consider paternal as well as maternal age when analyzing data on twins to explore etiology of diseases. PMID:18771839

  5. Coastal Erosion Feature and Mechanism at Feiyantan in the Yellow River Delta%黄河三角洲飞雁滩海岸的侵蚀与机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沈良; 张国安; 陈小英


    飞雁滩海域是1964-1976年黄河刁口河流路入海区域.根据地形和断面水深监测资料,阐述了该岸段流路废弃后的岸滩侵蚀特征和地貌变化.研究结果表明,刁口河流路废弃后飞雁滩海岸向海凸出的地形特征,是造成该岸段强烈侵蚀的重要原因.进一步结合波、流动力的对应分析认为,波浪以掀沙为主,潮流以输沙为主,波浪和潮流的联合作用是飞雁滩海岸侵蚀的主要动力机制,其中潮流主要通过余流携沙外输,造成近岸泥沙亏损.%Feiyantan was the discharge area of Diaokou River distributary of the Yellow River during the period of 1964 to 1976. The coastal erosion feature and morphological evolution at the Feiyantan coast are studied in the light of the topography and section depth, and the corresponding dynamics of wave and current. Results indicate that the protruding topography left after the Diaokou River distributary was abandoned is the main cause of strong coastal erosion. Further research suggests that waves start up the sediment and the tidal current transports it, and the waves and tidal current are combined to be the dominant dynamic mechanism of coastal erosion, in which the tidal residual current takes and transports the sediment outward, thus causing the sediment to wane in the coast.

  6. Interdecadal Variability of the East Asian Summer Monsoon and Associated Atmospheric Circulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Gang; SUN Zhaobo; Wei-Chyung WANG; MIN Jinzhong


    Based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data from 1950-1999, interdecadal variability of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) and its associated atmospheric circulations are investigated. The EASM exhibits a distinct interdecadal variation, with stronger (weaker) summer monsoon maintained from 1950-1964 (1976-1997).In the former case, there is an enhanced Walker cell in the eastern Pacific and an anti-Walker cell in the western Pacific. The associated ascending motion resides in the central Pacific, which flows eastward and westward in the upper troposphere, descending in the eastern and western ends of the Pacific basin. At the same time, an anomalous East Asian Hadley Cell (EAHC) is found to connect the low-latitude and mid-latitude systems in East Asia, which strengthens the EASM. The descending branch of the EAHC lies in the west part of the anti-Walker cell, flowing northward in the lower troposphere and then ascending at the south of Lake Baikal (40°-50°N, 95°-115°E) before returning to low latitudes in the upper troposphere,thus strengthening the EASM.The relationship between the EASM and SST in the eastern tropical Pacific is also discussed. A possible mechanism is proposed to link interdecadal variation of the EASM with the eastern tropical Pacific SST. A warmer sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) therein induces anomalous ascending motion in the eastern Pacific, resulting in a weaker Walker cell, and at the same time inducing an anomalous Walker cell in the western Pacific and an enhanced EAHC, leading to a weaker EASM. Furthermore, the interdecadal variation of summer precipitation over North China is found to be strongly regulated by the velocity potential over the south of Lake Baikal through enhancing and reducing the regional vertical motions.

  7. Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, August 3-8, 2000: data processing, geodetic coordinates and comparison with prior geodetic surveys (United States)

    Pauk, Benjamin A.; Power, John A.; Lisowski, Mike; Dzurisin, Daniel; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Melbourne, Tim


    Between August 3 and 8,2000,the Alaska Volcano Observatory completed a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine is a frequently active calcalkaline volcano located in the lower portion of Cook Inlet (fig. 1), with reported eruptions in 1812, 1882, 1909?, 1935, 1964, 1976, and 1986 (Miller et al., 1998). Geodetic measurements using electronic and optical surveying techniques (EDM and theodolite) were begun at Augustine Volcano in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, an island-wide trilateration network comprising 19 benchmarks was completed and measured in its entirety (Power and Iwatsubo, 1998). Partial GPS surveys of the Augustine Island geodetic network were completed in 1992 and 1995; however, neither of these surveys included all marks on the island.Additional GPS measurements of benchmarks A5 and A15 (fig. 2) were made during the summers of 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. The goals of the 2000 GPS survey were to:1) re-measure all existing benchmarks on Augustine Island using a homogeneous set of GPS equipment operated in a consistent manner, 2) add measurements at benchmarks on the western shore of Cook Inlet at distances of 15 to 25 km, 3) add measurements at an existing benchmark (BURR) on Augustine Island that was not previously surveyed, and 4) add additional marks in areas of the island thought to be actively deforming. The entire survey resulted in collection of GPS data at a total of 24 sites (fig. 1 and 2). In this report we describe the methods of GPS data collection and processing used at Augustine during the 2000 survey. We use this data to calculate coordinates and elevations for all 24 sites surveyed. Data from the 2000 survey is then compared toelectronic and optical measurements made in 1988 and 1989. This report also contains a general description of all marks surveyed in 2000 and photographs of all new marks established during the 2000 survey (Appendix A).

  8. Grand multiparity and reproductive cancer in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort. (United States)

    Paltiel, Ora; Tajuddin, Salman M; Polanker, Yelena; Yazdgerdi, Shoshanah; Manor, Orly; Friedlander, Yechiel; Harlap, Susan; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit


    Grand multiparity is associated with reduced mortality from reproductive cancers. We aimed to separate the components of mortality, by measuring incidence of and survival after reproductive cancer onset in grand multiparous compared to other parous women. We linked data from the population-based Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort, which included women aged 13-55 who delivered 1964-1976, with Israel's National Cancer Registry. We compared breast and gynecologic cancer risk and all-cause survival following a cancer diagnosis, among grand multiparae (GMPs = parity 5+, n = 8,246) versus women with parity 1-4 (n = 19,703), adjusting for reproductive and demographic variables. Grand multiparae were at significantly lower risk of breast cancer than others (adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) = 0.62, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.71), after controlling for age at first birth, education, and other covariates. This reduction was greater among GMPs whose first birth occurred after age 30 (p-interaction = 0.0001) and for cancer occurring before age 50 years (p = 0.002). In contrast, GMPs were at greater risk of death than women with parity <5, following a breast cancer diagnosis (HRadj = 1.69, CI 1.39-2.1). Ovarian, uterine, and cervical cancer incidence did not differ between the groups, but survival was reduced for GMPs with uterine cancer (HRadj = 2.48, CI 1.22-5.03). Reduced reproductive cancer mortality reported among GMPs masks two opposing phenomena: decreased breast cancer risk and poorer survival after breast and uterine cancers. The latter unfavorable outcome suggests that tumors in GMPs may be particularly aggressive, having perhaps escaped protective mechanisms conferred by parity. This finding calls for heightened clinical attention in this group.

  9. Time-scale of minor HIV-1 complex circulating recombinant forms from Central and West Africa. (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo


    Several HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms with a complex mosaic structure (CRFs_cpx) circulate in central and western African regions. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of some of these complex CRFs (09_cpx, 11_cpx, 13_cpx and 45_cpx) and further investigate the dissemination dynamic of the CRF11_cpx clade by using a Bayesian coalescent-based method. The analysis of two HIV-1 datasets comprising 181 pol (36 CRF09_cpx, 116 CRF11_cpx, 20 CRF13_cpx and 9 CRF45_cpx) and 125 env (12 CRF09_cpx, 67 CRF11_cpx, 17 CRF13_cpx and 29 CRF45_cpx) sequences pointed to quite consistent onset dates for CRF09_cpx (~1966: 1958-1979), CRF11_cpx (~1957: 1950-1966) and CRF13_cpx (~1965: 1958-1973) clades; while some divergence was found for the estimated date of origin of CRF45_cpx clade [pol = 1970 (1964-1976); env = 1960 (1952-1969)]. Phylogeographic reconstructions indicate that the HIV-1 CRF11_cpx clade most probably emerged in Cameroon and from there it was first disseminated to the Central Africa Republic and Chad in the early 1970s and to other central and western African countries from the early 1980s onwards. Demographic reconstructions suggest that the CRF11_cpx epidemic grew between 1960 and 1990 with a median exponential growth rate of 0.27 year(-1), and stabilized after. These results reveal that HIV-1 CRFs_cpx clades have been circulating in Central Africa for a period comparable to other much more prevalent HIV-1 group M lineages. Cameroon was probably the epicenter of dissemination of the CRF11_cpx clade that seems to have experienced a long epidemic growth phase before stabilization. The epidemic growth of the CRF11_cpx clade was roughly comparable to other HIV-1 group M lineages circulating in Central Africa.

  10. AAA—01北极地区显生宙古地理演化(二):北格陵兰、斯瓦尔巴特群岛和加拿大北极区晚白垩世沉积的碎屑锆石研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Torkil S. Rφhr; Tom Andersen; Henning Dypvik; 孙桂华(译); 邱燕(校对)


    晚侏罗世-早白垩世期间,北极盆地(包括巴伦支海、北格陵兰Wandel海盆地和加拿大北极区)是一个宽广的陆缘海,从东部Novaya Zemlya一直延伸到西部Sverdmp盆地。斯瓦尔巴特群岛晚白垩世Helvetiafjellet组、加拿大北极区Isachsen组、北格陵兰LichenRyg和Ladegrdsell组均沿该陆缘海西侧沉积。

  11. Heavy metals in aerosols over the seas of the Russian Arctic


    Shevchenko, Vladimir; Lisitzin, Alexander; Vinogradova, A.; Stein, Rüdiger


    A review of the data on heavy metals in aerosols over the seas of the Russian Arctic is presented. Results of heavy metal studies in aerosols obtained during 11 research expeditions in summer/autumn period from 1991 to 2000, and at Severnaya Zemlya and Wrangel Island in spring, in 1985–1989 are discussed. Concentrations of most heavy metals in the atmosphere in the marine boundary layer in the Russian Arctic are nearly of the same order as literature data from other Arctic areas. The content ...

  12. On the growth and regeneration of the exoskeleton in early jawless vertebrates (Osteostraci, Agnatha). (United States)

    Afanassieva, O B


    Based on the study of sculpture of the cephalic shield and histological structure of the exoskeleton in Reticulaspis menneri Afanassieva et Karatajute -Talimaa (Osteostraci, Agnatha) from the Lower Devonian of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, it has been established that, in the ontogeny of the form under study, dentin generation of the exoskeleton may have developed repeatedly, depending on the requirements of the organism. It is established for the first time that, on the shield surface of osteostracans, dentin structures of various types (tubercles, ridges, networks) could be formed both primarily and in subsequent generations with the growth of the exoskeleton. Injury of the integument and, hence, changes in mechanical tension in covering tissues caused activation of the formation of subsequent generations (of dentin) in the areas involved in reparative regeneration of the shield.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Nikolaeva


    Full Text Available The author analyzes a Russian word MGLA, which in her opinion is very strange and does not coincide with its quasi-synonyms metel’, tucha, oblako and so on. All examples were extracted from the Russian National Corpus (RNC. Some special subtypes of the RNC were analyzed separately. The peak of this word use was at the end of the XIX century. MGLA may have different colour. It can approach to a human being very nearly, but never touch him. It is impossible to go behind MGLA, to see what is there behind it. In the Old Russian texts the expression zemlya mglyana signified the hell. The author supposes that MGLA in Russian means also the curtain into another world. 

  14. Mesoscale eddies over the Laptev Sea continental slope in the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Pnyushkov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Nguyen, A. T.


    Mesoscale eddies are an important component in Arctic Ocean dynamics and can play a role in vertical redistribution of ocean heat from the intermediate layer of warm Atlantic Water (AW). We analyze mooring data collected along the continental slope of the Laptev Sea in 2007-11 to improve the characterization of Arctic mesoscale eddies in this region of the Eurasian Basin (EB).Wavelet analyses suggest that ~20% of the mooring record is occupied by mesoscale eddies, whose vertical scales can be large, often >600 m. Based on similarity between temperature/salinity profiles measured inside eddies and modern climatology for the 2000s, we found two distinct sources of eddy formation in the EB; one in the vicinity of Fram Strait and the other at the continental slope of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago. Both sources of eddies are on the route of AW propagation along the EB margins, so that the Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) can carry these eddies along the continental slope.The lateral advection of waters isolated inside the eddy cores by ACBC affect the heat and salt balance of the eastern EB. The average temperature anomaly inside Fram Strait eddies in the layer above the AW temperature core (i.e., above 350 m depth level) was ~0.1º C with the strongest temperature anomaly in this layer exceeding 0.5ºC. In contrast to Fram Strait eddies, Severnaya Zemlya eddies carry anomalously cold and fresh water, and likely contribute to ventilation of the AW core. In addition, we found increased vertical shears of the horizontal velocities inside eddies that result in enhanced mixing. Our estimates made using the Pacanowski and Philander (1981) relationship suggest that, on average, vertical diffusivity coefficients inside eddies are four times larger than those in the surrounding waters. We will use the high resolution ECCO model to investigate the relative contributions of along and across slope transports induced by eddies along the ACBC path.

  15. [The effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment with the application of Essentuki-type drinking mineral waters for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the patients presenting with type 2 diabetes mellitus]. (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Kaisinova, A S; Fedorova, T E; Botvineva, L A


    The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the spa and health resort-based treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in 40 patients at the mean age of 48,8 ± 5.7 years suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. All of them received combined therapy including the application of potable Essentuki-Novaya mineral water (20 patients) or Essentuki No 4 water (20 patients). This therapeutic modality resulted in positive dynamics of clinical symptoms of the disease, the functional liver tests, and parameters of intra-hepatic hemodynamics, lipid peroxidation homeostasis, and the hormonal status. It is concluded that the spa and health resort-based treatment with the application of local drinking Essentuki-type mineral waters for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the patients presenting with type 2 diabetes mellitus leads to the improvement of the main functions of the liver, stabilizes carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and prevents progression of the pathological process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Musaev


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to select the crops to reclaim the highly saline soils of the plains of Dagestan.Materials and Methods. We made an analysis of the literature sources; applied the field experiment methods using standard techniques, instruments and equipment along with processing of experimental data and mathematical statistics methods.Results. According to the results of the research held in agricultural production cooperative "Novaya Zhizn" of Kazbekski district, wheatgrass (Elytrigia elongata formed higher rates of leaf area, photosynthetic potential of crops and net photosynthetic productivity. In the year of planting alfalfa, the yield amounted to 11.8; 14.0 and 11.7 t / ha which is less than the Elytrigia elongata for 22.8; 7.8 and 15.4%. A similar situation occurred in the second and third years of growth of perennial grasses. On average, during the years of research, productivity of Elytrigia elongate was higher compared with alfalfa respectively by 36.8; 20.1 and 40.7%.Conclusion. These studies indicate the effectiveness of growing Elytrigia elongata as a phytomeliorant on saline soils, as compared with alfalfa. Growing Elytrigia elongata on highly saline meadow soils is an effective technique to improve its structure.

  17. The mystery of Bunge Land (New Siberian Archipelago): implications for its formation based on palaeoenvironmental records, geomorphology, and remote sensing (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Grosse, Guido; Kunitsky, Viktor V.; Fuchs, Margret C.; Krbetschek, Matthias; Andreev, Andrei A.; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Babyi, Olga; Siegert, Christine; Meyer, Hanno; Derevyagin, Alexander Y.; Wetterich, Sebastian


    Multiproxy datasets (geocryology, geochronology, sedimentology, palaeo-ecology) from permafrost exposures were used together with land surface information based on satellite imagery and thematic maps in order to reconstruct the Lateglacial to Holocene landscape and environmental dynamics of Bunge Land (Zemlya Bunge). This area of little relief, situated in the New Siberian Archipelago, connects the geomorphologically well-structured islands of Kotel'ny and Fadeevsky. A buried thermokarst landscape was found in the northwest region of the Bunge Land low terrace sand plain, whereas the Bunge Land high terrace seems to be an exposed residue of a similar late Quaternary thermokarst landscape. That is confirmed especially by radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry and optically stimulated luminescence age determinations, and by pollen analyses. Palaeogeographically, the late Pleistocene periglacial landscape and sedimentation of Bunge Land was closely connected to Kotel'ny and Fadeevsky; only later on seismotectonical block movements resulted in reshaping parts of Bunge Land. The Bunge Land low terrace area first subsided and the original landscape there was destroyed by marine inundation, followed by marine sedimentation. Subsequent block heave of the low terrace region exposed a vast sheet of marine sands which is continuously surficially reworked by aeolian processes, while the original alluvial plain landscape in the high terrace area was preserved and started degrading only by early Holocene thermokarst development. The studied exposures contain one of the northernmost (74.88°N) environmental records for the late Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the Eurasian Arctic.

  18. Open-source feature-tracking algorithm for sea ice drift retrieval from Sentinel-1 SAR imagery (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Stefan; Andreevich Korosov, Anton; Sandven, Stein


    A computationally efficient, open-source feature-tracking algorithm, called ORB, is adopted and tuned for sea ice drift retrieval from Sentinel-1 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. The most suitable setting and parameter values have been found using four Sentinel-1 image pairs representative of sea ice conditions between Greenland and Severnaya Zemlya during winter and spring. The performance of the algorithm is compared to two other feature-tracking algorithms, namely SIFT (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform) and SURF (Speeded-Up Robust Features). Having been applied to 43 test image pairs acquired over Fram Strait and the north-east of Greenland, the tuned ORB (Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF) algorithm produces the highest number of vectors (177 513, SIFT: 43 260 and SURF: 25 113), while being computationally most efficient (66 s, SIFT: 182 s and SURF: 99 s per image pair using a 2.7 GHz processor with 8 GB memory). For validation purposes, 314 manually drawn vectors have been compared with the closest calculated vectors, and the resulting root mean square error of ice drift is 563 m. All test image pairs show a significantly better performance of the HV (horizontal transmit, vertical receive) channel due to higher informativeness. On average, around four times as many vectors have been found using HV polarization. All software requirements necessary for applying the presented feature-tracking algorithm are open source to ensure a free and easy implementation.

  19. Analysis of vanillic acid in polar ice cores as a biomass burning proxy - preliminary results from the Akademii Nauk Ice Cap in Siberia (United States)

    Grieman, M. M.; Jimenez, R.; McConnell, J. R.; Fritzsche, D.; Saltzman, E. S.


    Biomass burning influences global climate change and the composition of the atmosphere. The drivers, effects, and climate feedbacks related to fire are poorly understood. Many different proxies have been used to reconstruct past fire frequency from lake sediments and polar ice cores. Reconstruction of historical trends in biomass burning is challenging because of regional variability and the qualitative nature of various proxies. Vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid) is a product of the combustion of conifer lignin that is known to occur in biomass burning aerosols. Biomass burning is likely the only significant source of vanillic acid in polar ice. In this study we describe an analytical method for quantifying vanillic acid in polar ice using HPLC with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometric detection. The method has a detection limit of 100 pM and a precision of × 10% at the 100 pM level for analysis of 100 μl of ice melt water. The method was used to analyze more than 1000 discrete samples from the Akademii Nauk ice cap on Severnaya Zemlya in the high Russia Arctic (79°30'N, 97°45'E) (Fritzsche et al., 2002; Fritzsche et al., 2005; Weiler et al., 2005). The samples range in age over the past 2,000 years. The results show a mean vanillic acid concentration of 440 × 710 pM (1σ), with elevated levels during the periods from 300-600 and 1450-1550 C.E.

  20. Heavy metals in aerosols over the seas of the Russian Arctic. (United States)

    Shevchenko, V; Lisitzin, A; Vinogradova, A; Stein, R


    A review of the data on heavy metals in aerosols over the seas of the Russian Arctic is presented. Results of heavy metal studies in aerosols obtained during 11 research expeditions in summer/autumn period from 1991 to 2000, and at Severnaya Zemlya and Wrangel Island in spring, in 1985-1989 are discussed. Concentrations of most heavy metals in the atmosphere in the marine boundary layer in the Russian Arctic are nearly of the same order as literature data from other Arctic areas. The content of heavy metals in the aerosols over the seas of the Russian Arctic shows an annual variation with maximal concentrations during the winter/spring season. In the summer/autumn period increased concentrations of heavy metals could be explained, in most cases, by natural processes (generation of sea salt aerosols, etc.). In some cases, aerosols from Norilsk and Kola Peninsula were detected. Particular attention was paid to estimation of horizontal and vertical fluxes of atmospheric heavy metals. We estimated annual variations in long-range transport of heavy metals into the Russian Arctic in 1986-1995. In winter and spring, up to 50% of the average air pollutant concentrations in the Russian Arctic are due to the Arctic atmospheric pollution itself. Moreover, the monthly and annual averaged fluxes of six anthropogenic chemical elements (arsenic, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc and cadmium) onto the surface in the Arctic were estimated, and the values obtained were in reasonable agreement with the literature data available.

  1. Studies on the radiation effect on mammals from six nuclear tests in China%中国六次核试验辐射对哺乳动物的损伤效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党连凯; 李玉安; 王清芝; 郭绳武; 单祥年; 张志义; 宋兰芳; 陈采琴


    Objective To study the short-and long-term effects of radiation on mammals from China's earlier nuclear tests in order to explore the mechanism of radiation injury.Methods Mammals, such as dogs, rhesus monkeys, and rats among other species, were distributed over the areas downwind of a nuclear test site during 1964-1976.They were exposed externally to γ, neutron and β radiation, and internally to 131I, 133I radiation(ingestion and inhalation).Observations of exposed animals and their offspings continued for 22 years and different aspects of clinical medicine, pathology, hematology, biochemistry, cytochemity, reprogenetics, cytogenetics and radiodosimetry were measured.Results At 3, 7 and 9 months after nuclear explosion, frequency of chromosomal aberration in peripheral blood cell of dogs exposed to dose of 0.39 Gy was 8.63%, 7.25% and 7.63%, respectively, having a statistically significant difference compared to controls (P < 0.01).The frequency in rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.74 Gy was 21.00% at 6 months since exposure and 5.52% after 8.5 years, higher than controls (P < 0.01);52 days after explosion, the fertility of rats exposed to dose of 0.65-4.40 Gy declined to 30.8%-69.4%, and average number of newborns per birth tended to decrease, showing a statistically significant difference (P<0.01) compared to controls.Both sperm counts and survival rate of dogs exposed to 0.75 and 1.73 Gy decreased to 0 at 3-7 months after exposure, with a mutation frequency of up to 46.79% which was higher than controls (P <0.01).The study showed that destroyed ultrastructure of sperm and testes, damaged haemopoietic function in bone marrow, continually decreasing peripheral white blood cells and lymphocytes, as well as increased fluorescence intensity to 18.9% of red phenanhridine bromide complexes (P < 0.01).Five years after exposure, dogs exposed to 2.00 Gy or more had 53.3% benign tumors and 33.3% maglignant tumors, higher than unexposed controls

  2. [The spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation]. (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Kaĭsinova, A S


    To develop a new medical technology for the spa-and-health resort-based treatment of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation. A total of 100 patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation were available for the examination that included detailed investigations of the clinical picture, characteristics of the immune status, and psychological testing before and after a course of the spa-and-health resort-based treatment. The effectiveness of two therapeutic modalities was evaluated. One of them (control) prescribed to 50 patients consisted of standard antiulcer pharmacotherapy in combination with Essentuki Novaya drinking mineral water and carbon dioxide mineral baths, the other given to 50 patients included radon baths instead of carbon dioxide mineral baths. The combined application of drinking mineral waters, radon baths, and standard antiulcer pharmacotherapy produced the most conspicuous clinical effect in the framework of spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation as confirmed by positive dynamics of their psychoemotional status in 97.7% of the cases, regression of pain syndrome (91.5%), and improvement of humoral and cellular immunity (94%). An important result of the spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation is the intensification of the reparative processes in gastroduodenal mucosa responsible for the healing of ulcers and erosions in 94.7% of the patients. The spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation is a pathogenetically sound and efficacious approach to the management of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the

  3. Circum-Arctic Changes in the Flow of Glaciers and Ice Caps from Satellite SAR Data between the 1990s and 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazio Strozzi


    Full Text Available We computed circum-Arctic surface velocity maps of glaciers and ice caps over the Canadian Arctic, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic for at least two times between the 1990s and 2017 using satellite SAR data. Our analyses are mainly performed with offset-tracking of ALOS-1 PALSAR-1 (2007–2011 and Sentinel-1 (2015–2017 data. In certain cases JERS-1 SAR (1994–1998, TerraSAR-X (2008–2012, Radarsat-2 (2009–2016 and ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 (2015–2016 data were used to fill-in spatial or temporal gaps. Validation of the latest Sentinel-1 results was accomplished by means of SAR data at higher spatial resolution (Radarsat-2 Wide Ultra Fine and ground-based measurements. In general, we observe a deceleration of flow velocities for the major tidewater glaciers in the Canadian Arctic and an increase in frontal velocity along with a retreat of frontal positions over Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. However, all regions have strong accelerations for selected glaciers. The latter developments can be well traced based on the very high temporal sampling of Sentinel-1 acquisitions since 2015, revealing new insights in glacier dynamics. For example, surges on Spitsbergen (e.g., Negribreen, Nathorsbreen, Penckbreen and Strongbreen have a different characteristic and timing than those over Eastern Austfonna and Edgeoya (e.g., Basin 3, Basin 2 and Stonebreen. Events similar to those ongoing on Eastern Austofonna were also observed over the Vavilov Ice Cap on Severnaya Zemlya and possibly Simony Glacier on Franz-Josef Land. Collectively, there seems to be a recently increasing number of glaciers with frontal destabilization over Eastern Svalbard and the Russian Arctic compared to the 1990s.

  4. Two-dimensional prognostic experiments for fast-flowing ice streams from the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap: future modeled histories obtained for the reference surface mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Konovalov


    Full Text Available The prognostic experiments for fast-flowing ice streams on the southern side of the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap in the Komsomolets Island, Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, are implemented in this study. These experiments are based on inversions of basal friction coefficients using a two-dimensional flow-line thermo-coupled model and the Tikhonov's regularization method. The modeled ice temperature distributions in the cross-sections were obtained using the ice surface temperature histories that were inverted previously from the borehole temperature profiles derived at the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap. Input data included InSAR ice surface velocities, ice surface elevations, and ice thicknesses obtained from airborne measurements and the surface mass balance, were adopted from the prior investigations for the implementation of both the forward and inverse problems. The prognostic experiments reveal that both ice mass and ice stream extents decline for the reference time-independent surface mass balance. Specifically, the grounding line retreats (a along the B–B' flow line from ~ 40 to ~ 30 km (the distance from the summit, (b along the C–C' flow line from ~ 43 to ~ 37 km, and (c along the D–D' flow line from ~ 41 to ~ 32 km considering a time period of 500 years and assuming time-independent surface mass balance. Ice flow velocities in the ice streams decrease with time and this trend results in the overall decline of the outgoing ice flux. Generally, the modeled histories are in agreement with observations of sea ice extent and thickness indicating a continual ice decline in the Arctic.

  5. Inversion for basal friction coefficients with a two-dimensional flow line model using Tikhonov regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Konovalov


    Full Text Available We present results of basal friction coefficient inversion. The inversion was performed by a 2D flow line model for one of the four fast flowing ice streams on the southern side of the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap in the Komsomolets Island, Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. The input data for the performance of both the forward and the inverse problems included synthetic aperture radar interferometry ice surface velocities, ice surface elevations and ice thicknesses obtained by airborne measurements (all were taken from Dowdeswell et al., 2002. Numerical experiments with: i different sea level shifts; and ii randomly perturbed friction coefficient have been carried out in the forward problem. The impact of sea level changes on vertical distribution of horizontal velocity and on shear stress distribution near the ice front has been investigated in experiments with different sea level shifts. The experiments with randomly perturbed friction coefficient have revealed that the modeled surface velocity is weakly sensitive to the perturbations and, therefore, the inverse problem should be considered ill posed. To mitigate ill posedness of the inverse problem, Tikhonov’s regularization was applied. The regularization parameter was determined from the relation of the discrepancy between observed and modeled velocities to the regularization parameter. The inversion was performed for both linear and non-linear sliding laws. The inverted spatial distributions of the basal friction coefficient are similar for both sliding laws. The similarity between these inverted distributions suggests that the changes in the friction coefficient are accompanied by appropriate water content variations at the glacier base.

  6. Post-collisional high-Mg granitoids from the Paleoproterozoic East Sarmatian Orogen (East European Craton): Evidence for crust-mantle interaction (United States)

    Terentiev, R. A.; Santosh, M.


    The East Sarmatian Orogen (ESO) is located along the southwestern domain of the East European Craton and occupies a key tectonic link between the Sarmatian and Volgo-Uralian domains. Here we investigate the Paleoproterozoic Novaya Melovatka pluton and its mafic-ultramafic xenoliths to gain insights into the role of interaction between intermediate-felsic crustal melt with mantle rocks as a mechanism for the generation of high-Mg granitoids at crustal pressures. The pluton is composed of biotite-orthopyroxene quartz dioritic and monzodioritic porphyrites (Phase 1) and medium-grained biotite-amphibole quartz diorite, tonalite and granodiorite and commingled Phase 1 mafic magmatic enclaves (MME) (Phase 2). The general geochemical characteristics of these rocks are similar to those of Late-Archean high-Mg sanukitoids. The TDM (model) ages for intermediate Phase 1 and granitoid Phase 2 are similar and show a range of 2324-2439 and 2284-2519 M, respectively. The εNd(t) values are grouped around subchondritic values (=+1.4-+1.9 and + 1.1-+2.2) and the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios are in the range of 0.70202-0.70390. The complex compositional zoning of minerals suggests that the rocks crystallized as synchronous but discrete magma pulses, with limited to significant mixing. Based on the geochemical features we infer that the Phase 1 rocks formed from partial melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized to different degrees by fluids/melts. The presence of MMEs, compositional zoning of minerals including reversely zoned amphiboles, plagioclases with thin calcic overgrowths, and acicular apatite, as well as the whole-rock geochemical features are consistent with a hybrid origin of the high-Mg granitoids belonging to Phase 2. Geobarometry indicates crystallization at upper-crustal depths (i.e. 1.7-2.4 kbar). The igneous suite evolved by fractional crystallization of orthopyroxene, hornblende, plagioclase and biotite. Here we propose a tectonic model involving partial melting of the

  7. Rapid Collapse of the Vavilov Ice Cap, Russian High Arctic. (United States)

    Willis, M. J.; Zheng, W.; Durkin, W. J., IV; Pritchard, M. E.; Ramage, J. M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Benham, T. J.; Glazovsky, A.; Macheret, Y.; Porter, C. C.


    Cold based ice caps and glaciers are thought to respond slowly to environmental changes. As sea ice cover evolves in the Arctic, a feedback process alters air-temperatures and precipitation patterns across the region. During the last decades of the 20th century the land-terminating western margin of the Vavilov Ice Cap, on October Revolution Island of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, advanced slowly westwards. The advance was driven by precipitation changes that occurred about half a millennia ago. InSAR shows that in 1996 the margin sustained ice speeds of around 20 m/yr. By 2000 the ice front had moved a short distance into the Kara Sea and had transitioned to a marine-terminating front, although an ice apron around the ice margin indicates the ice there was still frozen to the bed and there is no evidence of calving in satellite imagery. In 2013 ice motions near the terminus had accelerated to around 1 m/day. By late 2015 the main trunk of the newly activated outlet glacier attained speeds of 25 m/day and the inland portion of the ice cap thinned at rates of more than 0.3 m/day. The acceleration of the outlet glacier occurred due to its advance over weak, water-saturated marine sediments that provide little resistance to ice flow, and to the removal of lateral resistive stresses as the glacier advanced out into an open embayment. Longitudinal stretching at the front forces an increase in the surface slope upstream. Rapid rates of motion inland generate frictional melt at the bed, possibly aided by cryohydrological warming. Large areas of the interior of the Vavilov ice cap are now below the equilibrium line and the grounded portion of the ice cap is losing mass at a rate of 4.5 km3 w.e./year. The changes at the Vavilov are likely irrecoverable in a warming climate due to a reduction in the accumulation area of the ice cap. Increased precipitation drove the advance, which accelerated due to the presence of soft sediments. The acceleration lowered the elevation


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新情; 程晓; 惠凤鸣; 翟梦茜; 张媛媛


    ice ex-tent in the northern Barents Sea was greater than the median extent , and the sea ice boundary expanded during summer 2014.The air pressure field in summer 2014 caused southerly winds over the Laptev Sea and northerly winds over the Barents Sea .The southerly winds brought warmer air , which promoted sea ice melting and forced the sea ice boundary to retreat northward .The northerly winds brought colder air , which reduced sea ice melting and forced the sea ice to drift southward .This resulted in a greater amount of sea ice in the northern Barents Sea .The Northeast Passage is generally navigable from early August to early October in Severnaya Zemlya .The time of open-ing of the Northeast Passage in the New Siberian Islands and adjacent sea regions is earlier than in Severnaya Zem -lya and it closes later .Therefore , the navigability of the entire Northeast Passage depends on sea ice conditions a-round Severnaya Zemlya .

  9. Modern Internet platforms in the field of logistic services in the Republic of Poland and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Prokopenko


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the new tendencies in logistics, to analyze the working activity of modern logistic companies, and to determine the role of Internet platforms in the conditions of new logistic system. The results of the analysis. Due to widening e-commerce the modern logistics is undergoing serious changes. Both from the side of state and entrepreneurs the interest to the logistics has rapidly increased. The amount of courier companies, special logistics departments, and organizations with serious transportation base is growing. Besides, demand growth for specially trained staff including not only warehouse workers or expeditors but also qualified managers and organizers is being observed. Such a fast modernization process in the transportation service branch obliges to implement new technological and information base. Thus, almost all transportation services are renewing their internal recourses: warehouse equipment, computer software, and the technical equipment for the vehicles. To such modernized logistic companies the worldwide known DHL can be included. Today it is one of the leading enterprises in the logistics sphere. The most popular Ukrainian logistic company is Novaya Pochta. Its working standards absolutely comply with the modern logistic working standards. Logistics is an integral part of working activity of Internet platforms. Undoubtedly, the internet trade, which has put roots in the commercial market, is considered to be the base for e-commerce. The prosperity of online trade is explained by many factors, first of all, by convenience of acquiring the goods online along with saving of money and time, very often by a wider choice of products than in usual shops, and by transportation indirectly to home, which is often not paid by a consumer at all. Every online seller strives to provide not only free but also quick delivery, that’s why, as a rule, cooperates with the best logistic services. The results of

  10. Biostratigraphic and Geochronological Evidences of Floods in the Holocene: the South-East of the Taimyr Peninsula, Russia (United States)

    Ukraintseva, V.; Pospelov, I.


    observe snow melt floods at the Khatanga River every year, when the level water at it rises by more than 5 meters. In 1968 the water rise in the Novaya River was 9.4 meters. The data, obtained for the first time, for the manifestation of palaeofloods in the basins of the Kotuy-Medvezhiya rivers, and the information on the contemporary climatic situation in the studied district allows making a conclusion that high waters and floods of similar level will also be occurring here in the coming 10 to 50 years within the framework of climatic fluctuations in this region. It would be advisable for municipal and regional authorities to take these data into account during the planning of territorial economic complexes located in the areas exposed to high waters and floods.

  11. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi


    countries were conducted and mooring buoy observations were also carried out. The data retrieved during these observations was accumulated in the "Arctic Data archive System (ADS)" ( and served with interfaces for analysis. In addition, modeling studies have been promoted from fundamental process model to general circulation model. The successor of the project, ArCS (Arctic Challenge for Sustainability), which lays delivering emphasis 
on robust scientific information to stakeholders for decision making and solving problems, was started in FY2015. Within this project, a cooperative observation of black carbon are planned to be started at Cape Baranova Station (AARI, Rusia), Severnaya Zemlya, and new activities including emphasizing aerological observations are also planned to be started for contributing to "Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP)" of Polar Prediction Project (PPP/ WMO). It will be desirable to have a future collaboration with IASOA.

  12. 近年北极东北和西北航道开通状况分析%Navigable status analysis of Arctic Northeast and Northwest Passage in recent years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春花; 李明; 赵杰臣; 张林; 田忠翔


    Using microwave satellite remote sensing data,the sea ice conditions in key regions of Arctic Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage in recent summers were analyzed and the navigable status from 2002 to 2013 were summarized.The navigable period of Northeast Passage was mainly in late August to early October,and navigable windows was 40 to 50 days;South line of Northwest Passage was free to navigate mainly in early-middle August to early October,and about 50 to 60 days;North line of Northwest Passage was navigable mainly in September.For the Northeast Passage,the ice condition in Severnaya Zemlya,which connecting the Kara Sea and Laptev Sea,was the most complex,which was the key region determining North Passage navigable or not.The key regions affecting South line of Northwest Passage navigation were King William Island near Victoria Strait,North Peel Channel and Barrow Strait;and the key regions affecting North line of Northwest Passage were Northwest Banks Island,Mc-Clure Strait and Melville Sound.Arctic Northeast Passage is easier for navigation compared with the Northwest Passage.Sea ice extent in Arctic was reducing but the ice kinetic ability was enhanced due to sea ice thickness thin-ner and friable,which induced the sea ice complexity in local area.The capacity of sea ice monitoring and forecas-ting should be strengthened for the safety of Arctic navigation.%利用微波卫星遥感数据对北极东北航道和西北航道近年来的冰情变化,以及影响航道开通的关键区域和每年的开通状况进行了分析和总结,并对航道未来的可能冰情状况进行了展望,期望对航道利用者有所帮助。东北航道全线开通期主要集中在8月下旬至10月上旬,开通总天数多在40~50 d;西北航道南线开通期主要集中在8月上中旬至10月上旬,开通总天数多在50~60 d;西北航道北线开通时间主要集中在9月。东北航道冰情最为复杂的是连接拉普捷夫海和喀拉海