WorldWideScience

Sample records for nouvelles methodes quantitatives

  1. New methods of thermodynamics; Nouvelles methodes en thermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This day, organized by the SFT French Society of Thermology, took stock on the new methods in the domain of the thermodynamics. Eight papers have been presented during this day: new developments of the thermodynamics in finite time; the optimal efficiency of energy converters; a version of non-equilibrium thermodynamics with entropy and information as positive and negative thermal change; the role of thermodynamics in process integration; application of the thermodynamics to critical nuclear accidents; the entropic analysis help in the case of charge and discharge state of an energy storage process; fluid flow threw a stable state in the urban hydraulic; a computer code for phase diagram prediction. (A.L.B.)

  2. A new method for studying iodine metabolism; the isotopic equilibrium method - kinetic and quantitative aspects of measurements made on rats; Une nouvelle methode d'etude du metabolisme de l'iode: la methode d'equilibre isotopique - aspects cinetiques et quantitatifs obtenus chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    The isotopic equilibrium method which has been developed in the case of the rat has made it possible to measure the absolute values of the principal parameters of iodine metabolism in this animal. The quantities and concentrations of iodine have been measured in the thyroid gland and in the plasma with a sensitivity of 0.001 {mu}g of {sup 127}I. This sensitivity has made it possible to measure pools as small as the iodide and the free iodotyrosines of the thyroid and to demonstrate the absence of free iodotyrosines in the plasma of the normal rat. In vivo, the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the iodine content of the thyroid gland and to calculate the intensity of this gland's secretion without removing it. By double labelling with {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the flux, intensity of the intrathyroidal recycling as well as the turnover rates of all the iodine containing compounds of the thyroid gland. For this gland no precursor-product relationship has been found between The iodotyrosines (MIT and DIT) and the iodothyronines (T{sub 4} and T{sub 3}). The absence of this relationship is due to the heterogeneity of the thyroglobulin turnover. It has been shown furthermore that there exists in the plasma an organic fraction of the iodine which is different to thyroglobulin and which is renewed more rapidly than the circulating hormones T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}. The isotopic equilibrium method is very useful for series measurements of iodine. It makes it possible furthermore to improve the biochemical fractionations by adding carriers without affecting the subsequent {sup 127}I measurements. (author) [French] La methode d'equilibre isotopique, mise au point chez le rat, a permis de mesurer en valeur absolue les principaux parametres du metabolisme de l'iode chez cet animal. Les quantites ou les concentrations d'iode ont ete mesurees pour la thyroide et pour le

  3. A new method for studying iodine metabolism; the isotopic equilibrium method - kinetic and quantitative aspects of measurements made on rats; Une nouvelle methode d'etude du metabolisme de l'iode: la methode d'equilibre isotopique - aspects cinetiques et quantitatifs obtenus chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    The isotopic equilibrium method which has been developed in the case of the rat has made it possible to measure the absolute values of the principal parameters of iodine metabolism in this animal. The quantities and concentrations of iodine have been measured in the thyroid gland and in the plasma with a sensitivity of 0.001 {mu}g of {sup 127}I. This sensitivity has made it possible to measure pools as small as the iodide and the free iodotyrosines of the thyroid and to demonstrate the absence of free iodotyrosines in the plasma of the normal rat. In vivo, the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the iodine content of the thyroid gland and to calculate the intensity of this gland's secretion without removing it. By double labelling with {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I the isotopic equilibrium method has made it possible to measure the flux, intensity of the intrathyroidal recycling as well as the turnover rates of all the iodine containing compounds of the thyroid gland. For this gland no precursor-product relationship has been found between The iodotyrosines (MIT and DIT) and the iodothyronines (T{sub 4} and T{sub 3}). The absence of this relationship is due to the heterogeneity of the thyroglobulin turnover. It has been shown furthermore that there exists in the plasma an organic fraction of the iodine which is different to thyroglobulin and which is renewed more rapidly than the circulating hormones T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}. The isotopic equilibrium method is very useful for series measurements of iodine. It makes it possible furthermore to improve the biochemical fractionations by adding carriers without affecting the subsequent {sup 127}I measurements. (author) [French] La methode d'equilibre isotopique, mise au point chez le rat, a permis de mesurer en valeur absolue les principaux parametres du metabolisme de l'iode chez cet animal. Les quantites ou les concentrations d'iode ont ete mesurees pour la thyroide et pour le plasma avec une

  4. [Methods of quantitative proteomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, A T; Zgoda, V G

    2007-01-01

    In modern science proteomic analysis is inseparable from other fields of systemic biology. Possessing huge resources quantitative proteomics operates colossal information on molecular mechanisms of life. Advances in proteomics help researchers to solve complex problems of cell signaling, posttranslational modification, structure and functional homology of proteins, molecular diagnostics etc. More than 40 various methods have been developed in proteomics for quantitative analysis of proteins. Although each method is unique and has certain advantages and disadvantages all these use various isotope labels (tags). In this review we will consider the most popular and effective methods employing both chemical modifications of proteins and also metabolic and enzymatic methods of isotope labeling.

  5. New methods and applications in emission spectroscopy (1960); Methodes et applications nouvelles en spectroscopie d'emission (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Emission spectroscopy, are already well-established instrumental analytical technique, has in recent years known important developments. Two mains factors are responsible; firstly the demands of metallurgy for purer and purer materials or alloys which are increasingly complex and difficult to analyse by chemical means; secondly, progress in optics, especially in the production of gratings, and in electronics in the field of photomultiplier tubes. We will not here catalogue all the new applications and methods, but we will consider a few amongst the most representative outside the conventional field. (author) [French] La spectroscopie d'emission, technique analytique instrumentale deja ancienne, a pris, depuis quelques annees, une extension notable. Deux facteurs principaux ont contribue a ce succes: d'une part, l'exigence de la metallurgie en materiaux de plus en plus pur ou en alliages de plus en plus complexes, difficiles a analyser chimiquement, d'autre part, les progres realises en optique, principalement dans la fabrication des reseaux, et en electronique dans le domaine des tubes photomultiplicateurs. Nous ne ferons pas ici le recensement de toutes les applications ou methodes nouvelles, mais nous en choisirons quelques unes des plus representatives hors du domaine classique. (auteur)

  6. New method of determining the thermal utilization factor of a cell; Nouvelle methode de determination du facteur d'utilisation thermique d'une cellule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouyal, A; Benoist, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    A new formula for the thermal utilization factor is derived, which, while comparable in simplicity to the formula given by elementary diffusion theory, furnishes much more precise results. This is clearly brought out by comparison with the results given by the S{sub n} and spherical harmonics methods. (author) [French] Une nouvelle expression du facteur d'utilisation thermique, d'une simplicite comparable a celle de Ia theorie elementaire, est etablie. La comparaison avec les resultats fournis par la methode S{sub n} et les methodes d'harmoniques spheriques montre que la precision obtenue par cette formule est tres superieure a celle que donne la theorie elementaire. (auteur)

  7. Mixing quantitative with qualitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Viller, Stephen; Heck, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    with or are considering, researching, or working with both quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods (in academia or industry), join us in this workshop. In particular, we look at adding quantitative to qualitative methods to build a whole picture of user experience. We see a need to discuss both quantitative...... and qualitative research because there is often a perceived lack of understanding of the rigor involved in each. The workshop will result in a White Paper on the latest developments in this field, within Australia and comparative with international work. We anticipate sharing submissions and workshop outcomes...

  8. Quantitative Methods for Teaching Review

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Milnikova; Tamara Shioshvili

    2011-01-01

    A new method of quantitative evaluation of teaching processes is elaborated. On the base of scores data, the method permits to evaluate efficiency of teaching within one group of students and comparative teaching efficiency in two or more groups. As basic characteristics of teaching efficiency heterogeneity, stability and total variability indices both for only one group and for comparing different groups are used. The method is easy to use and permits to rank results of teaching review which...

  9. Quantitative imaging methods in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Ling; Koromani, Fjorda; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; Oei, Edwin H G

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features. Further, novel quantitative techniques are being developed to appraise additional characteristics of osteoporosis including three-dimensional bone architecture with quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Dedicated high-resolution (HR) CT equipment is available to enhance image quality. At the other end of the spectrum, by utilizing post-processing techniques such as the trabecular bone score (TBS) information on three-dimensional architecture can be derived from DXA images. Further developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seem promising to not only capture bone micro-architecture but also characterize processes at the molecular level. This review provides an overview of various quantitative imaging techniques based on different radiological modalities utilized in clinical osteoporosis care and research.

  10. A new method for dosing uranium in biological media; Nouvelle methode de dosage de l'uranium dans les milieux biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Ph; Kobisch, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This report describes a new method for dosing uranium in biological media based on measurement of alpha activity. After treatment of the sample with a mineral acid, the uranium is reduced to the valency four by trivalent titanium and is precipitated as phosphate in acid solution. The uranium is then separated from the titanium by precipitation as UF{sub 4} with lanthanum as carrier. A slight modification, unnecessary in the case of routine analyses, makes it possible to eliminate other possible alpha emitters (thorium and transuranic elements). (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit une nouvelle methode de dosage de l'uranium dans les milieux biologiques par mesure de l'activite alpha. Apres mineralisation de l'echantillon, l'uranium est reduit a la valence IV par le titane trivalent et precipite en milieu acide sous forme de phosphate. L'uranium est ensuite separe du titane par precipitation a l'etat d'UF{sub 4} avec du lanthane entraineur. Une legere modification, inutile dans le cas d'analyses de routine, permet d'effectuer l'elimination d'autres emetteurs alpha eventuels (thorium et transuraniens). (auteurs)

  11. Methods for Quantitative Creatinine Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John F; Sharer, J Daniel

    2017-04-06

    Reliable measurement of creatinine is necessary to assess kidney function, and also to quantitate drug levels and diagnostic compounds in urine samples. The most commonly used methods are based on the Jaffe principal of alkaline creatinine-picric acid complex color formation. However, other compounds commonly found in serum and urine may interfere with Jaffe creatinine measurements. Therefore, many laboratories have made modifications to the basic method to remove or account for these interfering substances. This appendix will summarize the basic Jaffe method, as well as a modified, automated version. Also described is a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method that separates creatinine from contaminants prior to direct quantification by UV absorption. Lastly, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is described that uses stable isotope dilution to reliably quantify creatinine in any sample. This last approach has been recommended by experts in the field as a means to standardize all quantitative creatinine methods against an accepted reference. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. New modelling method for fast reactor neutronic behaviours analysis; Nouvelles methodes de modelisation neutronique des reacteurs rapides de quatrieme Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P.

    2011-05-23

    Due to safety rules running on fourth generation reactors' core development, neutronics simulation tools have to be as accurate as never before. First part of this report enumerates every step of fast reactor's neutronics simulation implemented in current reference code: ECCO. Considering the field of fast reactors that meet criteria of fourth generation, ability of models to describe self-shielding phenomenon, to simulate neutrons leakage in a lattice of fuel assemblies and to produce representative macroscopic sections is evaluated. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to the simulation of fast reactors' core with steel reflector. These require the development of advanced methods of condensation and homogenization. Several methods are proposed and compared on a typical case: the ZONA2B core of MASURCA reactor. (author) [French] Les criteres de surete qui regissent le developpement de coeurs de reacteurs de quatrieme generation implique l'usage d'outils de calcul neutronique performants. Une premiere partie de la these reprend toutes les etapes de modelisation neutronique des reacteurs rapides actuellement d'usage dans le code de reference ECCO. La capacite des modeles a decrire le phenomene d'autoprotection, a representer les fuites neutroniques au niveau d'un reseau d'assemblages combustibles et a generer des sections macroscopiques representatives est appreciee sur le domaine des reacteurs rapides innovants respectant les criteres de quatrieme generation. La deuxieme partie de ce memoire se consacre a la modelisation des coeurs rapides avec reflecteur acier. Ces derniers necessitent le developpement de methodes avancees de condensation et d'homogenisation. Plusieurs methodes sont proposees et confrontees sur un probleme de modelisation typique: le coeur ZONA2B du reacteur maquette MASURCA

  13. New recording methods and electromechanical analysis; Nouvelles methodes d'enregistrement et de depouillement electromecanique des numerations de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, R.; Bonpas, M.; Legrand, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-01

    The measurement that the most often occurs in nuclear physics are of the numerations of pulses representing the transit of a particle in a detector that can be a Geiger counter, a photomultiplier or a pulse chamber. We studied and constructed an electromagnetic recorder who permits to get automatically and without calculation: 1) the activity of a radioelement according to the time; 2) the curve of decrease of a radioelement and its period; 3) any curves of growth or decrease; 4) the activity, at any instant, of a neutron detector; 5) the neutron densities ratios in several points by the method of the detectors. (M.B.) [French] Les mesures qui se presentent le plus souvent en physique nucleaire sont des numerations d'impulsions representant le passage d'une particule dans un detecteur qui peut etre un compteur de Geiger, un photomultiplicateur ou une chambre a impulsions. Nous avons etudie et construit un enregistreur electromagnetique qui permet d'obtenir automatiquement et sans calcul: 1) l'activite d'un radioelement en fonction du temps; 2) la courbe de decroissance d'un radioelement et sa periode; 3) des courbes quelconques de croissance ou de decroissance; 4) l'activite, rapportee a un instant quelconque, d'un detecteur de neutrons; 5) les rapports des densites de neutrons en plusieurs points par la methode des detecteurs. (M.B.)

  14. New recording methods and electromechanical analysis; Nouvelles methodes d'enregistrement et de depouillement electromecanique des numerations de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, R; Bonpas, M; Legrand, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-01

    The measurement that the most often occurs in nuclear physics are of the numerations of pulses representing the transit of a particle in a detector that can be a Geiger counter, a photomultiplier or a pulse chamber. We studied and constructed an electromagnetic recorder who permits to get automatically and without calculation: 1) the activity of a radioelement according to the time; 2) the curve of decrease of a radioelement and its period; 3) any curves of growth or decrease; 4) the activity, at any instant, of a neutron detector; 5) the neutron densities ratios in several points by the method of the detectors. (M.B.) [French] Les mesures qui se presentent le plus souvent en physique nucleaire sont des numerations d'impulsions representant le passage d'une particule dans un detecteur qui peut etre un compteur de Geiger, un photomultiplicateur ou une chambre a impulsions. Nous avons etudie et construit un enregistreur electromagnetique qui permet d'obtenir automatiquement et sans calcul: 1) l'activite d'un radioelement en fonction du temps; 2) la courbe de decroissance d'un radioelement et sa periode; 3) des courbes quelconques de croissance ou de decroissance; 4) l'activite, rapportee a un instant quelconque, d'un detecteur de neutrons; 5) les rapports des densites de neutrons en plusieurs points par la methode des detecteurs. (M.B.)

  15. Qualitative and quantitative methods in health research

    OpenAIRE

    V?zquez Navarrete, M. Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Research in the area of health has been traditionally dominated by quantitative research. However, the complexity of ill-health, which is socially constructed by individuals, health personnel and health authorities have motivated the search for other forms to approach knowledge. Aim To discuss the complementarities of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the generation of knowledge. Contents The purpose of quantitative research is to measure the magnitude of an event,...

  16. Quantitative autoradiography - a method of radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutler, H.C.; Freyer, K.

    1988-01-01

    In the last years the autoradiography has been developed to a quantitative method of radioactivity measurement. Operating techniques of quantitative autoradiography are demonstrated using special standard objects. Influences of irradiation quality, of backscattering in sample and detector materials, and of sensitivity and fading of the detectors are considered. Furthermore, questions of quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms are dealt with, and measuring errors are discussed. Finally, some practical uses of quantitative autoradiography are demonstrated by means of the estimation of activity distribution in radioactive foil samples. (author)

  17. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  18. Nouvelle methode d'integration energetique pour la retro-installation des procedes industriels et la transformation des usines papetieres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhivers, Jean-Christophe

    The increase in production of goods over the last decades has led to the need for improving the management of natural resources management and the efficiency of processes. As a consequence, heat integration methods for industry have been developed. These have been successful for the design of new plants: the integration principles are largely employed, and energy intensity has dramatically decreased in many processes. Although progress has also been achieved in integration methods for retrofit, these methods still need further conceptual development. Furthermore, methodological difficulties increase when trying to retrofit heat exchange networks that are closely interrelated to water networks, such as the case of pulp and paper mills. The pulp and paper industry seeks to increase its profitability by reducing production costs and optimizing supply chains. Recent process developments in forestry biorefining give this industry the opportunity for diversification into bio-products, increasing potential profit margins, and at the same time modernizing its energy systems. Identification of energy strategies for a mill in a changing environment, including the possibility of adding a biorefinery process on the industrial site, requires better integration methods for retrofit situations. The objective of this thesis is to develop an energy integration method for the retrofit of industrial systems and the transformation of pulp and paper mills, ant to demonstrate the method in case studies. Energy is conserved and degraded in a process. Heat can be converted into electricity, stored as chemical energy, or rejected to the environment. A systematic analysis of successive degradations of energy between the hot utilities until the environment, through process operations and existing heat exchangers, is essential in order to reduce the heat consumption. In this thesis, the "Bridge Method" for energy integration by heat exchanger network retrofit has been developed. This method

  19. Methods in quantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, M; Ostreicher, M; Christen, H; Brühlmann, M

    1996-05-01

    histogram of an existing image (input image) into a new grey value histogram (output image) are most quickly handled by a look-up table (LUT). The histogram of an image can be influenced by gain, offset and gamma of the camera. Gain defines the voltage range, offset defines the reference voltage and gamma the slope of the regression line between the light intensity and the voltage of the camera. A very important descriptor of neighbourhood relations in an image is the co-occurrence matrix. The distance between the pixels (original pixel and its neighbouring pixel) can influence the various parameters calculated from the co-occurrence matrix. The main goals of image enhancement are elimination of surface roughness in an image (smoothing), correction of defects (e.g. noise), extraction of edges, identification of points, strengthening texture elements and improving contrast. In enhancement, two types of operations can be distinguished: pixel-based (point operations) and neighbourhood-based (matrix operations). The most important pixel-based operations are linear stretching of grey values, application of pre-stored LUTs and histogram equalisation. The neighbourhood-based operations work with so-called filters. These are organising elements with an original or initial point in their centre. Filters can be used to accentuate or to suppress specific structures within the image. Filters can work either in the spatial or in the frequency domain. The method used for analysing alterations of grey value intensities in the frequency domain is the Hartley transform. Filter operations in the spatial domain can be based on averaging or ranking the grey values occurring in the organising element. The most important filters, which are usually applied, are the Gaussian filter and the Laplace filter (both averaging filters), and the median filter, the top hat filter and the range operator (all ranking filters). Segmentation of objects is traditionally based on threshold grey values. (AB

  20. The photothermal camera - a new non destructive inspection tool; La camera photothermique - une nouvelle methode de controle non destructif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piriou, M. [AREVA NP Centre Technique SFE - Zone Industrielle et Portuaire Sud - BP13 - 71380 Saint Marcel (France)

    2007-07-01

    The Photothermal Camera, developed by the Non-Destructive Inspection Department at AREVA NP's Technical Center, is a device created to replace penetrant testing, a method whose drawbacks include environmental pollutants, industrial complexity and potential operator exposure. We have already seen how the Photothermal Camera can work alongside or instead of conventional surface inspection techniques such as penetrant, magnetic particle or eddy currents. With it, users can detect without any surface contact ligament defects or openings measuring just a few microns on rough oxidized, machined or welded metal parts. It also enables them to work on geometrically varied surfaces, hot parts or insulating (dielectric) materials without interference from the magnetic properties of the inspected part. The Photothermal Camera method has already been used for in situ inspections of tube/plate welds on an intermediate heat exchanger of the Phenix fast reactor. It also replaced the penetrant method for weld inspections on the ITER vacuum chamber, for weld crack detection on vessel head adapter J-welds, and for detecting cracks brought on by heat crazing. What sets this innovative method apart from others is its ability to operate at distances of up to two meters from the inspected part, as well as its remote control functionality at distances of up to 15 meters (or more via Ethernet), and its emissions-free environmental cleanliness. These make it a true alternative to penetrant testing, to the benefit of operator and environmental protection. (author) [French] La Camera Photothermique, developpee par le departement des Examens Non Destructifs du Centre Technique de AREVA NP, est un equipement destine a remplacer le ressuage, source de pollution pour l'environnement, de complexite pour l'industrialisation et eventuellement de dosimetrie pour les operateurs. Il a ete demontre que la Camera Photothermique peut etre utilisee en complement ou en remplacement des

  1. Quantitative methods in psychology: inevitable and useless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaro Toomela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian-Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause-effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments.

  2. The rise of quantitative methods in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cousineau

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative methods have a long history in some scientific fields. Indeed, no one today would consider a qualitative data set in physics or a qualitative theory in chemistry. Quantitative methods are so central in these fields that they are often labelled “hard sciences”. Here, we examine the question whether psychology is ready to enter the “hard science club” like biology did in the forties. The facts that a over half of the statistical techniques used in psychology are less than 40 years old and that b the number of simulations in empirical papers has followed an exponential growth since the eighties, both suggests that the answer is yes. The purpose of Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology is to provide a concise and easy access to the currents methods.

  3. Development of Three Methods for Simultaneous Quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Three Methods for Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Chlorpheniramine Maleate and Dexamethasone in the Presence of Parabens in ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Results: All the proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of raw materials and dosage form.

  4. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes goals and accomplishments of the research program entitled Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation, during the period January 15, 1989 through July 15, 1991. This program is very closely integrated with the radiopharmaceutical program entitled Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science. Together, they constitute the PROGRAM OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND QUANTITATIVE IMAGING RESEARCH within The Franklin McLean Memorial Research Institute (FMI). The program addresses problems involving the basic science and technology that underlie the physical and conceptual tools of radiotracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 234 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  6. Quantitative Method of Measuring Metastatic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated uroldnase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  7. Sample normalization methods in quantitative metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiman; Li, Liang

    2016-01-22

    To reveal metabolomic changes caused by a biological event in quantitative metabolomics, it is critical to use an analytical tool that can perform accurate and precise quantification to examine the true concentration differences of individual metabolites found in different samples. A number of steps are involved in metabolomic analysis including pre-analytical work (e.g., sample collection and storage), analytical work (e.g., sample analysis) and data analysis (e.g., feature extraction and quantification). Each one of them can influence the quantitative results significantly and thus should be performed with great care. Among them, the total sample amount or concentration of metabolites can be significantly different from one sample to another. Thus, it is critical to reduce or eliminate the effect of total sample amount variation on quantification of individual metabolites. In this review, we describe the importance of sample normalization in the analytical workflow with a focus on mass spectrometry (MS)-based platforms, discuss a number of methods recently reported in the literature and comment on their applicability in real world metabolomics applications. Sample normalization has been sometimes ignored in metabolomics, partially due to the lack of a convenient means of performing sample normalization. We show that several methods are now available and sample normalization should be performed in quantitative metabolomics where the analyzed samples have significant variations in total sample amounts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  9. Quantitative angiography methods for bifurcation lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Carlos; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cavalcante, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Bifurcation lesions represent one of the most challenging lesion subsets in interventional cardiology. The European Bifurcation Club (EBC) is an academic consortium whose goal has been to assess and recommend the appropriate strategies to manage bifurcation lesions. The quantitative coronary...... angiography (QCA) methods for the evaluation of bifurcation lesions have been subject to extensive research. Single-vessel QCA has been shown to be inaccurate for the assessment of bifurcation lesion dimensions. For this reason, dedicated bifurcation software has been developed and validated. These software...

  10. Quantitative methods for management and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarty, Pulak

    2009-01-01

    ""Quantitative Methods for Management and Economics"" is specially prepared for the MBA students in India and all over the world. It starts from the basics, such that even a beginner with out much mathematical sophistication can grasp the ideas and then comes forward to more complex and professional problems. Thus, both the ordinary students as well as ""above average: i.e., ""bright and sincere"" students would be benefited equally through this book.Since, most of the problems are solved or hints are given, students can do well within the short duration of the semesters of their busy course.

  11. Quantitative Efficiency Evaluation Method for Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An effective evaluation of transportation network efficiency/performance is essential to the establishment of sustainable development in any transportation system. Based on a redefinition of transportation network efficiency, a quantitative efficiency evaluation method for transportation network is proposed, which could reflect the effects of network structure, traffic demands, travel choice, and travel costs on network efficiency. Furthermore, the efficiency-oriented importance measure for network components is presented, which can be used to help engineers identify the critical nodes and links in the network. The numerical examples show that, compared with existing efficiency evaluation methods, the network efficiency value calculated by the method proposed in this paper can portray the real operation situation of the transportation network as well as the effects of main factors on network efficiency. We also find that the network efficiency and the importance values of the network components both are functions of demands and network structure in the transportation network.

  12. An unconventional method of quantitative microstructural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastani, M.

    1995-01-01

    The experiment described here introduces a simple methodology which could be used to replace the time-consuming and expensive conventional methods of metallographic and quantitative analysis of thermal treatment effect on microstructure. The method is ideal for the microstructural evaluation of tungsten filaments and other wire samples such as copper wire which can be conveniently coiled. Ten such samples were heat treated by ohmic resistance at temperatures which were expected to span the recrystallization range. After treatment, the samples were evaluated in the elastic recovery test. The normalized elastic recovery factor was defined in terms of these deflections. Experimentally it has shown that elastic recovery factor depends on the degree of recrystallization. In other words this factor is used to determine the fraction of unrecrystallized material. Because the elastic recovery method examines the whole filament rather than just one section through the filament as in metallographical method, it more accurately measures the degree of recrystallization. The method also takes a considerably shorter time and cost compared to the conventional method

  13. Nailfold capillaroscopic report: qualitative and quantitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nailfold capillaroscopy (NVC is a simple and non-invasive method used for the assessment of patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP and in the differential diagnosis of various connective tissue diseases. The scleroderma pattern abnormalities (giant capillaries, haemorrages and/or avascular areas have a positive predictive value for the development of scleroderma spectrum disorders. Thus, an analytical approach to nailfold capillaroscopy can be useful in quantitatively and reproducibly recording various parameters. We developed a new method to assess patients with RP that is capable of predicting the 5-year transition from isolated RP to RP secondary to scleroderma spectrum disorders. This model is a weighted combination of different capillaroscopic parameters (giant capillaries, microhaemorrages, number of capillaries that allows physicians to stratify RP patients easily using a relatively simple diagram to deduce prognosis.

  14. La nouvelle-tableau (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Jenvrin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La nouvelle « Frémissante, la feuille se flétrit » met en scène le trouble d'un détenu qui par les seuls objets dont il dispose, lutte pour s'échapper intérieurement. L'usage du regard cinématographique porté sur les détails infimes de la matérialité carcérale, leur exposition sous forme de tableaux se faisant échos, les techniques de l’anonymat et du brouillage des repères objectifs, portent à son comble les dimensions énigmatiques et l'esthétique de la  brièveté propre à la nouvelle tout en permettant de  représenter la résistance de l'homme à l'enfermement et à la persécution.

  15. High spin exotic states and new method for pairing energy; Etats exotiques a hauts spins et nouvelle methode pour l`energie d`appariement nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molique, H.

    1996-01-19

    We present a new method called `PSY-MB`, initially developed in the framework of abstract group theory for the solution of the problem of strongly interacting multi-fermionic systems with particular to systems in an external rotating field. The validity of the new method (PSY-MB) is tested on model Hamiltonians. A detailed comparison between the obtained solutions and the exact ones is performed. The new method is used in the study of realistic nuclear Hamiltonians based on the Woods-Saxon potential within the cranking approximation to study the influence of residual monopole pairing interactions in the rare-earth mass region. In parallel with this new technique we present original results obtained with the Woods-Saxon mean-field and the self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation in order to investigate such exotic effects as octupole deformations and hexadecapole C{sub 4}-polarizing deformations in the framework of high-spin physics. By developing these three approaches in one single work we prepare the ground for the nuclear structure calculations of the new generation - where the residual two-body interactions are taken into account also in the weak pairing limit. (author). 2370refs.

  16. New methods for leaks detection and localisation using acoustic emission; Nouvelles methodes de detection et de localisation de fuites par emission acoustique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, P

    1993-12-08

    Real time monitoring of Pressurized Water nuclear Reactor secondary coolant system tends to integrate digital processing machines. In this context, the method of acoustic emission seems to exhibit good performances. Its principle is based on passive listening of noises emitted by local micro-displacements inside a material under stress which propagate as elastic waves. The lack of a priori knowledge on leak signals leads us to go deeper into understanding flow induced noise generation. Our studies are conducted using a simple leak model depending on the geometry and the king of flow inside the slit. Detection and localization problems are formulated according to the maximum likelihood principle. For detection, the methods using a indicator of similarity (correlation, higher order correlation) seems to give better results than classical ones (rms value, envelope, filter banks). For leaks location, a large panel of classical (generalized inter-correlation) and innovative (convolution, adaptative, higher order statistics) methods of time delay estimation are presented. The last part deals with the applications of higher order statistics. The analysis of higher order estimators of a non linear non Gaussian stochastic process family, the improvement of non linear prediction performances and the optimal-order choice problem are addressed in simple analytic cases. At last, possible applications to leak signals analysis are pointed out. (authors).264 refs., 7 annexes.

  17. Quantitative rotating frame relaxometry methods in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Irtiza Ali; Sepponen, Raimo

    2016-06-01

    Macromolecular degeneration and biochemical changes in tissue can be quantified using rotating frame relaxometry in MRI. It has been shown in several studies that the rotating frame longitudinal relaxation rate constant (R1ρ ) and the rotating frame transverse relaxation rate constant (R2ρ ) are sensitive biomarkers of phenomena at the cellular level. In this comprehensive review, existing MRI methods for probing the biophysical mechanisms that affect the rotating frame relaxation rates of the tissue (i.e. R1ρ and R2ρ ) are presented. Long acquisition times and high radiofrequency (RF) energy deposition into tissue during the process of spin-locking in rotating frame relaxometry are the major barriers to the establishment of these relaxation contrasts at high magnetic fields. Therefore, clinical applications of R1ρ and R2ρ MRI using on- or off-resonance RF excitation methods remain challenging. Accordingly, this review describes the theoretical and experimental approaches to the design of hard RF pulse cluster- and adiabatic RF pulse-based excitation schemes for accurate and precise measurements of R1ρ and R2ρ . The merits and drawbacks of different MRI acquisition strategies for quantitative relaxation rate measurement in the rotating frame regime are reviewed. In addition, this review summarizes current clinical applications of rotating frame MRI sequences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Location of airports - selected quantitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Merkisz-Guranowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of air transport in  the economic development of a country and its regions cannot be overestimated. The decision concerning an airport's location must be in line with the expectations of all the stakeholders involved. This article deals with the issues related to the choice of  sites where airports should be located. Methods: Two main quantitative approaches related to the issue of airport location are presented in this article, i.e. the question of optimizing such a choice and the issue of selecting the location from a predefined set. The former involves mathematical programming and formulating the problem as an optimization task, the latter, however, involves ranking the possible variations. Due to various methodological backgrounds, the authors present the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and point to the one which currently has its own practical application. Results: Based on real-life examples, the authors present a multi-stage procedure, which renders it possible to solve the problem of airport location. Conclusions: Based on the overview of literature of the subject, the authors point to three types of approach to the issue of airport location which could enable further development of currently applied methods.

  19. New logarithmic technique of diffusivity identification using the flash method; Nouvelle technique logarithmique d`identification de la diffusivite par la methode flash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thermitus, M.A.; Laurent, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-12-31

    Using a logarithmic transformation, the thermogram of a flash experiment can be interpreted as the sum of the adiabatic model solution with a term representative of the losses. Two methods based on this transformation are proposed in this study. They are based on the identification of a parameter that depends on the thickness of the sample and on its diffusivity and not on the experimental conditions. They allow to identify the diffusivity with a high precision even for materials with a low conductivity at high temperatures. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  20. Development of new non destructive methods for bituminized radioactive waste drums characterization; Developpement de nouvelles methodes de caracterisation non destructive pour des dechets radioactifs enrobes dans du bitume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, P

    2004-10-15

    Radioactive waste constitute a major issue for the nuclear industry. One of the key points is their characterization to optimize their management: treatment and packaging, orientation towards the suited disposal. This thesis proposes an evaluation method of the low-energy photon attenuation, based on the gamma-ray spectra Compton continuum. Effectively, the {sup 241}Am measurement by gamma-ray spectrometry is difficult due to the low energy of its main gamma-ray (59.5 keV). The photon attenuation strongly depends on the bituminous mix composition, which includes very absorbing elements. As the Compton continuum also depends on this absorption, it is possible to link the 59.5 keV line attenuation to the Compton level. Another technique is proposed to characterize uranium thanks to its fluorescence X-rays induced by the gamma emitters already present in the waste. The uranium present in the drums disturbs the neutron measurements and its measurement by self-induced X-ray fluorescence allows to correct this interference. Due to various causes of error, the total uncertainty is around 50 % on the activity of the radioisotope {sup 241}Am, corrected by the peak to Compton technique. The same uncertainty is announced on the uranium mass measured by self induced X-ray fluorescence. As a consequence of these promising results, the two methods were included in the industrial project of the 'Marcoule Sorting Unit'. One major advantage is that they do not imply any additional material because they use information already present in the gamma-ray spectra. (author)

  1. [Progress in stable isotope labeled quantitative proteomics methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Shan, Yichu; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative proteomics is an important research field in post-genomics era. There are two strategies for proteome quantification: label-free methods and stable isotope labeling methods which have become the most important strategy for quantitative proteomics at present. In the past few years, a number of quantitative methods have been developed, which support the fast development in biology research. In this work, we discuss the progress in the stable isotope labeling methods for quantitative proteomics including relative and absolute quantitative proteomics, and then give our opinions on the outlook of proteome quantification methods.

  2. Quantitative Risk Analysis: Method And Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass BAYAGA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent and past studies (King III report, 2009: 73-75; Stoney 2007;Committee of Sponsoring Organisation-COSO, 2004, Bartell, 2003; Liebenberg and Hoyt, 2003; Reason, 2000; Markowitz 1957 lament that although, the introduction of quantifying risk to enhance degree of objectivity in finance for instance was quite parallel to its development in the manufacturing industry, it is not the same in Higher Education Institution (HEI. In this regard, the objective of the paper was to demonstrate the methods and process of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA through likelihood of occurrence of risk (phase I. This paper serves as first of a two-phased study, which sampled hundred (100 risk analysts in a University in the greater Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.The analysis of likelihood of occurrence of risk by logistic regression and percentages were conducted to investigate whether there were a significant difference or not between groups (analyst in respect of QRA.The Hosmer and Lemeshow test was non-significant with a chi-square(X2 =8.181; p = 0.300, which indicated that there was a good model fit, since the data did not significantly deviate from the model. The study concluded that to derive an overall likelihood rating that indicated the probability that a potential risk may be exercised within the construct of an associated threat environment, the following governing factors must be considered: (1 threat source motivation and capability (2 nature of the vulnerability (3 existence and effectiveness of current controls (methods and process.

  3. Quantitative Methods for Molecular Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    This theme issue provides an overview on the basic quantitative methods, an in-depth discussion on the cutting-edge quantitative analysis approaches as well as their applications for both static and dynamic molecular diagnostic and therapeutic imaging.

  4. Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Timetable Attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The article describes how the attractiveness of timetables can be evaluated quantitatively to ensure a consistent evaluation of timetables. Since the different key stakeholders (infrastructure manager, train operating company, customers, and society) have different opinions on what an attractive...

  5. EDF Energies Nouvelles - 2010 Registration Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles' registration document for the year 2010. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, employees, shareholders, etc. The document includes the half-year and full year financial reports

  6. Balance between qualitative and quantitative verification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidaira, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    The amount of inspection effort for verification of declared nuclear material needs to be optimized in the situation where qualitative and quantitative measures are applied. Game theory was referred to investigate the relation of detection probability and deterrence of diversion. Payoffs used in the theory were quantified for cases of conventional safeguards and integrated safeguards by using AHP, Analytical Hierarchy Process. Then, it became possible to estimate detection probability under integrated safeguards which had equivalent deterrence capability for detection probability under conventional safeguards. In addition the distribution of inspection effort for qualitative and quantitative measures was estimated. Although the AHP has some ambiguities in quantifying qualitative factors, its application to optimization in safeguards is useful to reconsider the detection probabilities under integrated safeguards. (author)

  7. Credit Institutions Management Evaluation using Quantitative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Credit institutions supervising mission by state authorities is mostly assimilated with systemic risk prevention. In present, the mission is orientated on analyzing the risk profile of the credit institutions, the mechanism and existing systems as management tools providing to bank rules the proper instruments to avoid and control specific bank risks. Rating systems are sophisticated measurement instruments which are capable to assure the above objectives, such as success in banking risk management. The management quality is one of the most important elements from the set of variables used in the quoting process in credit operations. Evaluation of this quality is – generally speaking – fundamented on quantitative appreciations which can induce subjectivism and heterogeneity in quotation. The problem can be solved by using, complementary, quantitative technics such us DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis.

  8. Unrecorded Alcohol Consumption: Quantitative Methods of Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    unrecorded alcohol; methods of estimation In this paper we focused on methods of estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Present methods of estimation of unrevorded alcohol consumption allow only approximate estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Tacking into consideration the extreme importance of such kind of data, further investigation is necessary to improve the reliability of methods estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption.

  9. Mapcurves: a quantitative method for comparing categorical maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Hargrove; M. Hoffman Forrest; Paul F. Hessburg

    2006-01-01

    We present Mapcurves, a quantitative goodness-of-fit (GOF) method that unambiguously shows the degree of spatial concordance between two or more categorical maps. Mapcurves graphically and quantitatively evaluate the degree of fit among any number of maps and quantify a GOF for each polygon, as well as the entire map. The Mapcurve method indicates a perfect fit even if...

  10. Optimization method for quantitative calculation of clay minerals in soil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, no reliable method for quantitative analysis of clay minerals has been established so far. In this study, an attempt was made to propose an optimization method for the quantitative ... 2. Basic principles. The mineralogical constitution of soil is rather complex. ... K2O, MgO, and TFe as variables for the calculation.

  11. From themes to hypotheses: following up with quantitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L

    2015-06-01

    One important category of mixed-methods research designs consists of quantitative studies that follow up on qualitative research. In this case, the themes that serve as the results from the qualitative methods generate hypotheses for testing through the quantitative methods. That process requires operationalization to translate the concepts from the qualitative themes into quantitative variables. This article illustrates these procedures with examples that range from simple operationalization to the evaluation of complex models. It concludes with an argument for not only following up qualitative work with quantitative studies but also the reverse, and doing so by going beyond integrating methods within single projects to include broader mutual attention from qualitative and quantitative researchers who work in the same field. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Quantitative methods for studying design protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Jeff WT

    2017-01-01

    This book is aimed at researchers and students who would like to engage in and deepen their understanding of design cognition research. The book presents new approaches for analyzing design thinking and proposes methods of measuring design processes. These methods seek to quantify design issues and design processes that are defined based on notions from the Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) design ontology and from linkography. A linkograph is a network of linked design moves or segments. FBS ontology concepts have been used in both design theory and design thinking research and have yielded numerous results. Linkography is one of the most influential and elegant design cognition research methods. In this book Kan and Gero provide novel and state-of-the-art methods of analyzing design protocols that offer insights into design cognition by integrating segmentation with linkography by assigning FBS-based codes to design moves or segments and treating links as FBS transformation processes. They propose and test ...

  13. Quantitative Methods for Software Selection and Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandor, Michael S

    2006-01-01

    ... (the ability of the product to meet the need) and the cost. The method used for the analysis and selection activities can range from the use of basic intuition to counting the number of requirements fulfilled, or something...

  14. General method of quantitative spectrographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1966-01-01

    A spectrographic method was developed to determine 23 elements in a wide range of concentrations; the method can be applied to metallic or refractory samples. Previous melting with lithium tetraborate and germanium oxide is done in order to avoid the influence of matrix composition and crystalline structure. Germanium oxide is also employed as internal standard. The resulting beads ar mixed with graphite powder (1:1) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc. (Author) 12 refs

  15. Analysis of methods for quantitative renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambaud, F.; Maksud, P.; Prigent, A.; Perrin-Fayolle, O.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the main methods using renography to estimate renal perfusion indices and to quantify differential and global renal function. The review addresses the pathophysiological significance of estimated parameters according to the underlying models and the choice of the radiopharmaceutical. The dependence of these parameters on the region of interest characteristics and on the methods of background and attenuation corrections are surveyed. Some current recommendations are proposed. (authors). 66 refs., 8 figs

  16. Quantitative method for determination of body inorganic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, A.A.; Tatsievskij, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    An original method of quantitation of body inorganic iodine, based upon a simultaneous administration of a known dose of stable and radioactive iodine with subsequent radiometry of the thyroid was proposed. The calculation is based upon the principle of the dilution of radiactive iodine in human inorganic iodine space. The method permits quantitation of the amount of inorganic iodine with regard to individual features of inorganic space. The method is characterized by simplicity and is not invasive for a patient

  17. Review of Quantitative Software Reliability Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Yue, M.; Martinez-Guridi, M.; Lehner, J.

    2010-09-17

    The current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for digital systems rests on deterministic engineering criteria. In its 1995 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) policy statement, the Commission encouraged the use of PRA technology in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. Although many activities have been completed in the area of risk-informed regulation, the risk-informed analysis process for digital systems has not yet been satisfactorily developed. Since digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety, the NRC established a digital system research plan that defines a coherent set of research programs to support its regulatory needs. One of the research programs included in the NRC's digital system research plan addresses risk assessment methods and data for digital systems. Digital I&C systems have some unique characteristics, such as using software, and may have different failure causes and/or modes than analog I&C systems; hence, their incorporation into NPP PRAs entails special challenges. The objective of the NRC's digital system risk research is to identify and develop methods, analytical tools, and regulatory guidance for (1) including models of digital systems into NPP PRAs, and (2) using information on the risks of digital systems to support the NRC's risk-informed licensing and oversight activities. For several years, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has worked on NRC projects to investigate methods and tools for the probabilistic modeling of digital systems, as documented mainly in NUREG/CR-6962 and NUREG/CR-6997. However, the scope of this research principally focused on hardware failures, with limited reviews of software failure experience and software reliability methods. NRC also sponsored research at the Ohio State University investigating the modeling of

  18. Fluorometric method of quantitative cell mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-12-12

    A method for assaying a cell culture for mutagenesis is described. A cell culture is stained first with a histochemical stain, and then a fluorescent stain. Normal cells in the culture are stained by both the histochemical and fluorescent stains, while abnormal cells are stained only by the fluorescent stain. The two stains are chosen so that the histochemical stain absorbs the wavelengths that the fluorescent stain emits. After the counterstained culture is subjected to exciting light, the fluorescence from the abnormal cells is detected.

  19. Change of time methods in quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Swishchuk, Anatoliy

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the history of Change of Time Methods (CTM), the connections of CTM to stochastic volatilities and finance, fundamental aspects of the theory of CTM, basic concepts, and its properties. An emphasis is given on many applications of CTM in financial and energy markets, and the presented numerical examples are based on real data. The change of time method is applied to derive the well-known Black-Scholes formula for European call options, and to derive an explicit option pricing formula for a European call option for a mean-reverting model for commodity prices. Explicit formulas are also derived for variance and volatility swaps for financial markets with a stochastic volatility following a classical and delayed Heston model. The CTM is applied to price financial and energy derivatives for one-factor and multi-factor alpha-stable Levy-based models. Readers should have a basic knowledge of probability and statistics, and some familiarity with stochastic processes, such as Brownian motion, ...

  20. Novel method for quantitative estimation of biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syal, Kirtimaan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm protects bacteria from stress and hostile environment. Crystal violet (CV) assay is the most popular method for biofilm determination adopted by different laboratories so far. However, biofilm layer formed at the liquid-air interphase known as pellicle is extremely sensitive to its washing...... and staining steps. Early phase biofilms are also prone to damage by the latter steps. In bacteria like mycobacteria, biofilm formation occurs largely at the liquid-air interphase which is susceptible to loss. In the proposed protocol, loss of such biofilm layer was prevented. In place of inverting...... and discarding the media which can lead to the loss of the aerobic biofilm layer in CV assay, media was removed from the formed biofilm with the help of a syringe and biofilm layer was allowed to dry. The staining and washing steps were avoided, and an organic solvent-tetrahydrofuran (THF) was deployed...

  1. Nouvelles méthodes d'identification des fractures par diagraphie acoustique en full wave form New Methods of Identifying Fractures by Full Wave Form Acoustic Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les outils acoustiques de dernière génération permettent maintenant d'enregistrer l'ensemble des ondes générées par une source acoustique à l'intérieur d'une géométrie cylindrique telle qu'un puits de sondage. Le train d'onde qu'il est alors possible d'analyser se compose successivement de trois composantes majeures (l'onde de compression, de cisaillement et de Stoneley dont nous avons une représentation pour chaque position de la sonde à l'intérieur du puits. Nous présentons, dans ce texte, trois méthodes originales et rapides (calculs possibles sur le site même pour identifier, à partir du traitement de l'onde de Stoneley, les fractures ouvertes recoupées par un forage. Nous donnons, dans un premier temps, nos motivations pour le choix unique du traitement de l'onde de Stoneley pour, dans un deuxième temps, exposer les trois méthodes développées et montrer pour chacune d'entre elles une application pratique. Interest in recognizing and identifying fractures in a coherent formation for the petroleum, geothermal and storage (oil and gas, wastes sectors has led to the development of indirect prospection methods inside boreholes such as acoustic logging. The latest acoustic tools are capable of recording all waves generated by an acoustic logging tool inside a cyclindrical geometry such as a borehole. The wavetrain that can then be analyzed is successively made up of three major components (the P compression wave, the S shear wave and the Stoneley wave for which we have a representation for each position of the logging tool in the borehole. An example of a recording is shown in Fig. 1. Because of its specific features (high amplitudes, low frequency, high signal-to-noise ratio, the Stoneley wave is recognized to be a good indicator of open fractures. Therefore, we use simple digital processing to quantify the influence of fracturing on the propagation of the Stoneley wave. Three methods stemming from the digital processing of

  2. [Reconstituting evaluation methods based on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Okubo, Suguru; Yoshie, Satoru; Kai, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confusing and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. In this study we conducted content analysis regarding evaluation methods of qualitative healthcare research. We extracted descriptions on four types of evaluation paradigm (validity/credibility, reliability/credibility, objectivity/confirmability, and generalizability/transferability), and classified them into subcategories. In quantitative research, there has been many evaluation methods based on qualitative paradigms, and vice versa. Thus, it might not be useful to consider evaluation methods of qualitative paradigm are isolated from those of quantitative methods. Choosing practical evaluation methods based on the situation and prior conditions of each study is an important approach for researchers.

  3. Uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods of pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunar, O V; Sakhno, N G

    2015-12-30

    The total uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods, used in pharmaceutical analysis, consists of several components. The analysis of the most important sources of the quantitative microbiological methods variability demonstrated no effect of culture media and plate-count techniques in the estimation of microbial count while the highly significant effect of other factors (type of microorganism, pharmaceutical product and individual reading and interpreting errors) was established. The most appropriate method of statistical analysis of such data was ANOVA which enabled not only the effect of individual factors to be estimated but also their interactions. Considering all the elements of uncertainty and combining them mathematically the combined relative uncertainty of the test results was estimated both for method of quantitative examination of non-sterile pharmaceuticals and microbial count technique without any product. These data did not exceed 35%, appropriated for a traditional plate count methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE METHODS OF SUICIDE RESEARCH IN OLD AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ojagbemi, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the merits of the qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in the elderly using two studies identified through a free search of the Pubmed database for articles that might have direct bearing on suicidality in the elderly. The studies have been purposively selected for critical appraisal because they meaningfully reflect the quantitative and qualitative divide as well as the social, economic, and cultural boundaries between the elderly living in sub-Saharan...

  5. Quantitative EEG Applying the Statistical Recognition Pattern Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engedal, Knut; Snaedal, Jon; Hoegh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the discriminatory power of quantitative EEG (qEEG) applying the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) method to separate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from elderly individuals without dementia and from other dementia patients. METHODS...

  6. Quantitative Sociodynamics Stochastic Methods and Models of Social Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This new edition of Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioral changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics and mathematics, but they have very often proven their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences as well. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (e.g. synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches, a fundamental dynamic model is obtained, which opens new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models a...

  7. Introduction to quantitative research methods an investigative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balnaves, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods is a student-friendly introduction to quantitative research methods and basic statistics. It uses a detective theme throughout the text and in multimedia courseware to show how quantitative methods have been used to solve real-life problems. The book focuses on principles and techniques that are appropriate to introductory level courses in media, psychology and sociology. Examples and illustrations are drawn from historical and contemporary research in the social sciences. The multimedia courseware provides tutorial work on sampling, basic statistics, and techniques for seeking information from databases and other sources. The statistics modules can be used as either part of a detective games or directly in teaching and learning. Brief video lessons in SPSS, using real datasets, are also a feature of the CD-ROM.

  8. Quantitative sociodynamics stochastic methods and models of social interaction processes

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioural changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics but they have very often proved their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces the most important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches a very fundamental dynamic model is obtained which seems to open new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models as special cases, e.g. the log...

  9. [Teaching quantitative methods in public health: the EHESP experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Olivier; Astagneau, Pascal; Desvarieux, Moïse; Chambaud, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Many scientific disciplines, including epidemiology and biostatistics, are used in the field of public health. These quantitative sciences are fundamental tools necessary for the practice of future professionals. What then should be the minimum quantitative sciences training, common to all future public health professionals? By comparing the teaching models developed in Columbia University and those in the National School of Public Health in France, the authors recognize the need to adapt teaching to the specific competencies required for each profession. They insist that all public health professionals, whatever their future career, should be familiar with quantitative methods in order to ensure that decision-making is based on a reflective and critical use of quantitative analysis.

  10. A CT-based method for fully quantitative TI SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willowson, Kathy; Bailey, Dale; Baldock, Clive

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To develop and validate a method for quantitative 2 0 l TI SPECT data based on corrections derived from X-ray CT data, and to apply the method in the clinic for quantitative determination of recurrence of brain tumours. Method: A previously developed method for achieving quantitative SPECT with 9 9 m Tc based on corrections derived from xray CT data was extended to apply to 2 0 l Tl. Experimental validation was performed on a cylindrical phantom by comparing known injected activity and measured concentration to quantitative calculations. Further evaluation was performed on a RSI Striatal Brain Phantom containing three 'lesions' with activity to background ratios of 1: 1, 1.5: I and 2: I. The method was subsequently applied to a series of scans from patients with suspected recurrence of brain tumours (principally glioma) to determine an SUV-like measure (Standardised Uptake Value). Results: The total activity and concentration in the phantom were calculated to within 3% and I % of the true values, respectively. The calculated values for the concentration of activity in the background and corresponding lesions of the brain phantom (in increasing ratios) were found to be within 2%,10%,1% and 2%, respectively, of the true concentrations. Patient studies showed that an initial SUV greater than 1.5 corresponded to a 56% mortality rate in the first 12 months, as opposed to a 14% mortality rate for those with a SUV less than 1.5. Conclusion: The quantitative technique produces accurate results for the radionuclide 2 0 l Tl. Initial investigation in clinical brain SPECT suggests correlation between quantitative uptake and survival.

  11. Application of quantitative and qualitative methods for determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article covers the issues of integration of qualitative and quantitative methods applied when justifying management decision-making in companies implementing lean manufacturing. The authors defined goals and subgoals and justified the evaluation criteria which lead to the increased company value if achieved.

  12. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Brouwer, D.H.; Kromhout, H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others,

  13. Industrial ecology: Quantitative methods for exploring a lower carbon future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Valerie M.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative methods for environmental and cost analyses of energy, industrial, and infrastructure systems are briefly introduced and surveyed, with the aim of encouraging broader utilization and development of quantitative methods in sustainable energy research. Material and energy flow analyses can provide an overall system overview. The methods of engineering economics and cost benefit analysis, such as net present values, are the most straightforward approach for evaluating investment options, with the levelized cost of energy being a widely used metric in electricity analyses. Environmental lifecycle assessment has been extensively developed, with both detailed process-based and comprehensive input-output approaches available. Optimization methods provide an opportunity to go beyond engineering economics to develop detailed least-cost or least-impact combinations of many different choices.

  14. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  15. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø

    1996-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is an general introduction to quantitative methods for the analysis of digital microscope images. The images presented are primarily been acquired from Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) and interfermeter microscopes (IFM). The topic is approached though several examples...... foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the conditions...

  16. [A new method of processing quantitative PCR data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Bing-Shen; Li, Guang-Yun; Chen, Shi-Min; Huang, Xiang-Yan; Chen, Ying-Jian; Xu, Jun

    2003-05-01

    Today standard PCR can't satisfy the need of biotechnique development and clinical research any more. After numerous dynamic research, PE company found there is a linear relation between initial template number and cycling time when the accumulating fluorescent product is detectable.Therefore,they developed a quantitative PCR technique to be used in PE7700 and PE5700. But the error of this technique is too great to satisfy the need of biotechnique development and clinical research. A better quantitative PCR technique is needed. The mathematical model submitted here is combined with the achievement of relative science,and based on the PCR principle and careful analysis of molecular relationship of main members in PCR reaction system. This model describes the function relation between product quantity or fluorescence intensity and initial template number and other reaction conditions, and can reflect the accumulating rule of PCR product molecule accurately. Accurate quantitative PCR analysis can be made use this function relation. Accumulated PCR product quantity can be obtained from initial template number. Using this model to do quantitative PCR analysis,result error is only related to the accuracy of fluorescence intensity or the instrument used. For an example, when the fluorescence intensity is accurate to 6 digits and the template size is between 100 to 1,000,000, the quantitative result accuracy will be more than 99%. The difference of result error is distinct using same condition,same instrument but different analysis method. Moreover,if the PCR quantitative analysis system is used to process data, it will get result 80 times of accuracy than using CT method.

  17. Operating cost budgeting methods: quantitative methods to improve the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Olegário Rodrigues da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Operating cost forecasts are used in economic feasibility studies of projects and in budgeting process. Studies have pointed out that some companies are not satisfied with the budgeting process and chief executive officers want updates more frequently. In these cases, the main problem lies in the costs versus benefits. Companies seek simple and cheap forecasting methods without, at the same time, conceding in terms of quality of the resulting information. This study aims to compare operating cost forecasting models to identify the ones that are relatively easy to implement and turn out less deviation. For this purpose, we applied ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average and distributed dynamic lag models to data from a Brazilian petroleum company. The results suggest that the models have potential application, and that multivariate models fitted better and showed itself a better way to forecast costs than univariate models.

  18. Ratio of slopes method for quantitative analysis in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Arifin Ahmad; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor; Radzali Othman; Messer, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis technique developed at University of Sheffield was adopted, rather than the previously widely used internal standard method, to determine the amount of the phases present in a reformulated whiteware porcelain and a BaTiO sub 3 electrochemical material. This method, although still employs an internal standard, was found to be very easy and accurate. The required weight fraction of a phase in the mixture to be analysed is determined from the ratio of slopes of two linear plots, designated as the analysis and reference lines, passing through their origins using the least squares method

  19. Risk prediction, safety analysis and quantitative probability methods - a caveat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    Views are expressed on the use of quantitative techniques for the determination of value judgements in nuclear safety assessments, hazard evaluation, and risk prediction. Caution is urged when attempts are made to quantify value judgements in the field of nuclear safety. Criteria are given the meaningful application of reliability methods but doubts are expressed about their application to safety analysis, risk prediction and design guidances for experimental or prototype plant. Doubts are also expressed about some concomitant methods of population dose evaluation. The complexities of new designs of nuclear power plants make the problem of safety assessment more difficult but some possible approaches are suggested as alternatives to the quantitative techniques criticized. (U.K.)

  20. Quantitative numerical method for analysing slip traces observed by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselý, J; Cieslar, M; Coupeau, C; Bonneville, J

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used more and more routinely to study, at the nanometre scale, the slip traces produced on the surface of deformed crystalline materials. Taking full advantage of the quantitative height data of the slip traces, which can be extracted from these observations, requires however an adequate and robust processing of the images. In this paper an original method is presented, which allows the fitting of AFM scan-lines with a specific parameterized step function without any averaging treatment of the original data. This yields a quantitative and full description of the changes in step shape along the slip trace. The strength of the proposed method is established on several typical examples met in plasticity by analysing nano-scale structures formed on the sample surface by emerging dislocations. (paper)

  1. Quantitative method of measuring cancer cell urokinase and metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated urokinase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  2. Calibration of quantitative neutron radiography method for moisture measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Jeraj, R.

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of moisture and hydrogenous matter in building materials by neutron radiography (NR) are regularly performed at TRIGA Mark II research of 'Jozef Stefan' Institute in Ljubljana. Calibration of quantitative method is performed using standard brick samples with known moisture content and also with a secondary standard, plexiglas step wedge. In general, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the neutron image is not determined explicitly what introduces an error to the measured signal. Influence of scattered neutrons is significant in regions with high gradients of moisture concentrations, where the build up of scattered neutrons causes distortion of the moisture concentration profile. In this paper detailed analysis of validity of our calibration method for different geometrical parameters is presented. The error in the measured hydrogen concentration is evaluated by an experiment and compared with results obtained by Monte Carlo calculation with computer code MCNP 4B. Optimal conditions are determined for quantitative moisture measurements in order to minimize the error due to scattered neutrons. The method is tested on concrete samples with high moisture content.(author)

  3. A quantitative method for measuring the quality of history matches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, T.S. [Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Knapp, R.M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    History matching can be an efficient tool for reservoir characterization. A {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} history matching job can generate reliable reservoir parameters. However, reservoir engineers are often frustrated when they try to select a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} match from a series of history matching runs. Without a quantitative measurement, it is always difficult to tell the difference between a {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} matches. For this reason, we need a quantitative method for testing the quality of matches. This paper presents a method for such a purpose. The method uses three statistical indices to (1) test shape conformity, (2) examine bias errors, and (3) measure magnitude of deviation. The shape conformity test insures that the shape of a simulated curve matches that of a historical curve. Examining bias errors assures that model reservoir parameters have been calibrated to that of a real reservoir. Measuring the magnitude of deviation assures that the difference between the model and the real reservoir parameters is minimized. The method was first tested on a hypothetical model and then applied to published field studies. The results showed that the method can efficiently measure the quality of matches. It also showed that the method can serve as a diagnostic tool for calibrating reservoir parameters during history matching.

  4. Informatics methods to enable sharing of quantitative imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mia A; Freymann, John B; Kirby, Justin S; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M; Eschrich, Steven A; Berglund, Anders E; Fenstermacher, David A; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L; Brown, Bartley J; Braun, Terry A; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    The National Cancer Institute Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. There are a variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative Methods in Supply Chain Management Models and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, Ioannis T

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Methods in Supply Chain Management presents some of the most important methods and tools available for modeling and solving problems arising in the context of supply chain management. In the context of this book, “solving problems” usually means designing efficient algorithms for obtaining high-quality solutions. The first chapter is an extensive optimization review covering continuous unconstrained and constrained linear and nonlinear optimization algorithms, as well as dynamic programming and discrete optimization exact methods and heuristics. The second chapter presents time-series forecasting methods together with prediction market techniques for demand forecasting of new products and services. The third chapter details models and algorithms for planning and scheduling with an emphasis on production planning and personnel scheduling. The fourth chapter presents deterministic and stochastic models for inventory control with a detailed analysis on periodic review systems and algorithmic dev...

  6. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Conners

    Full Text Available Increasingly, 'place', including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC, whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1 Participatory mapping; 2 Quantitative interviews; 3 Sex work venue field observation; 4 Time-location-activity diaries; 5 In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions.

  7. Quantitative magnetic resonance micro-imaging methods for pharmaceutical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, M D

    2011-09-30

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in pharmaceutical research is now well established and the current literature covers a multitude of different pharmaceutically relevant research areas. This review focuses on the use of quantitative magnetic resonance micro-imaging techniques and how they have been exploited to extract information that is of direct relevance to the pharmaceutical industry. The article is divided into two main areas. The first half outlines the theoretical aspects of magnetic resonance and deals with basic magnetic resonance theory, the effects of nuclear spin-lattice (T(1)), spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation and molecular diffusion upon image quantitation, and discusses the applications of rapid magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In addition to the theory, the review aims to provide some practical guidelines for the pharmaceutical researcher with an interest in MRI as to which MRI pulse sequences/protocols should be used and when. The second half of the article reviews the recent advances and developments that have appeared in the literature concerning the use of quantitative micro-imaging methods to pharmaceutically relevant research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An improved fast neutron radiography quantitative measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Masahito; Hibiki, Takashi; Mishima, Kaichiro; Yoshii, Koji; Okamoto, Koji

    2004-01-01

    The validity of a fast neutron radiography quantification method, the Σ-scaling method, which was originally proposed for thermal neutron radiography was examined with Monte Carlo calculations and experiments conducted at the YAYOI fast neutron source reactor. Water and copper were selected as comparative samples for a thermal neutron radiography case and a dense object, respectively. Although different characteristics on effective macroscopic cross-sections were implied by the simulation, the Σ-scaled experimental results with the fission neutron spectrum cross-sections were well fitted to the measurements for both the water and copper samples. This indicates that the Σ-scaling method could be successfully adopted for quantitative measurements in fast neutron radiography

  9. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A quantitative method for assessing resilience of interdependent infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Cen; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The importance of understanding system resilience and identifying ways to enhance it, especially for interdependent infrastructures our daily life depends on, has been recognized not only by academics, but also by the corporate and public sectors. During recent years, several methods and frameworks have been proposed and developed to explore applicable techniques to assess and analyze system resilience in a comprehensive way. However, they are often tailored to specific disruptive hazards/events, or fail to properly include all the phases such as absorption, adaptation, and recovery. In this paper, a quantitative method for the assessment of the system resilience is proposed. The method consists of two components: an integrated metric for system resilience quantification and a hybrid modeling approach for representing the failure behavior of infrastructure systems. The feasibility and applicability of the proposed method are tested using an electric power supply system as the exemplary infrastructure. Simulation results highlight that the method proves effective in designing, engineering and improving the resilience of infrastructures. Finally, system resilience is proposed as a proxy to quantify the coupling strength between interdependent infrastructures. - Highlights: • A method for quantifying resilience of interdependent infrastructures is proposed. • It combines multi-layer hybrid modeling and a time-dependent resilience metric. • The feasibility of the proposed method is tested on the electric power supply system. • The method provides insights to decision-makers for strengthening system resilience. • Resilience capabilities can be used to engineer interdependencies between subsystems.

  11. A comparison of ancestral state reconstruction methods for quantitative characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer-Carenzi, Manuela; Didier, Gilles

    2016-09-07

    Choosing an ancestral state reconstruction method among the alternatives available for quantitative characters may be puzzling. We present here a comparison of seven of them, namely the maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, generalized least squares under Brownian, Brownian-with-trend and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models, phylogenetic independent contrasts and squared parsimony methods. A review of the relations between these methods shows that the maximum likelihood, the restricted maximum likelihood and the generalized least squares under Brownian model infer the same ancestral states and can only be distinguished by the distributions accounting for the reconstruction uncertainty which they provide. The respective accuracy of the methods is assessed over character evolution simulated under a Brownian motion with (and without) directional or stabilizing selection. We give the general form of ancestral state distributions conditioned on leaf states under the simulation models. Ancestral distributions are used first, to give a theoretical lower bound of the expected reconstruction error, and second, to develop an original evaluation scheme which is more efficient than comparing the reconstructed and the simulated states. Our simulations show that: (i) the distributions of the reconstruction uncertainty provided by the methods generally make sense (some more than others); (ii) it is essential to detect the presence of an evolutionary trend and to choose a reconstruction method accordingly; (iii) all the methods show good performances on characters under stabilizing selection; (iv) without trend or stabilizing selection, the maximum likelihood method is generally the most accurate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. VERIFICATION HPLC METHOD OF QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF AMLODIPINE IN TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanin V. A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amlodipine ((±-2-[(2-aminoetoksimethyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid 3-ethyl 5-methyl ester as besylate and small tally belongs to the group of selective long-acting calcium channel blockers, dihydropyridine derivatives. In clinical practice, as antianginal and antihypertensive agent for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It is produced in powder form, substance and finished dosage forms (tablets of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg. The scientific literature describes methods of quantitative determination of the drug by spectrophotometry – by his own light absorption and by reaction product with aloksan, chromatography techniques, kinetic-spectrophotometric method in substances and preparations and methods chromatomass spectrometry and stripping voltammetry. For the quantitative determination of amlodipine besylate British Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia recommend the use of liquid chromatography method. In connection with the establishment of the second edition of SPhU and when it is comprised of articles on the finished product, we set out to analyze the characteristics of the validation of chromatographic quantitative determination of amlodipine besylate tablets and to verify the analytical procedure. Material & methods. In conducting research using substance amlodipine besylate series number AB0401013. Analysis subject pill “Amlodipine” series number 20113 manufacturer of “Pharmaceutical company “Zdorovye”. Analytical equipment used is: 2695 chromatograph with diode array detector 2996 firms Waters Corp. USA using column Nova-Pak C18 300 x 3,9 mm with a particle size of 4 μm, weight ER-182 company AND Japan, measuring vessel class A. Preparation of the test solution. To accurately sample powder tablets equivalent to 50 mg amlodipine, add 30 ml of methanol, shake for 30 minutes, dilute the solution to 50.0 ml with methanol and filtered. 5 ml of methanol solution adjusted to

  13. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine Imaging: Concepts, Requirements and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    The absolute quantification of radionuclide distribution has been a goal since the early days of nuclear medicine. Nevertheless, the apparent complexity and sometimes limited accuracy of these methods have prevented them from being widely used in important applications such as targeted radionuclide therapy or kinetic analysis. The intricacy of the effects degrading nuclear medicine images and the lack of availability of adequate methods to compensate for these effects have frequently been seen as insurmountable obstacles in the use of quantitative nuclear medicine in clinical institutions. In the last few decades, several research groups have consistently devoted their efforts to the filling of these gaps. As a result, many efficient methods are now available that make quantification a clinical reality, provided appropriate compensation tools are used. Despite these efforts, many clinical institutions still lack the knowledge and tools to adequately measure and estimate the accumulated activities in the human body, thereby using potentially outdated protocols and procedures. The purpose of the present publication is to review the current state of the art of image quantification and to provide medical physicists and other related professionals facing quantification tasks with a solid background of tools and methods. It describes and analyses the physical effects that degrade image quality and affect the accuracy of quantification, and describes methods to compensate for them in planar, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. The fast paced development of the computational infrastructure, both hardware and software, has made drastic changes in the ways image quantification is now performed. The measuring equipment has evolved from the simple blind probes to planar and three dimensional imaging, supported by SPECT, PET and hybrid equipment. Methods of iterative reconstruction have been developed to allow for

  14. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mengqi

    2015-04-01

    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding

  15. Novel approach in quantitative analysis of shearography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    The application of laser interferometry in industrial non-destructive testing and material characterization is becoming more prevalent since this method provides non-contact full-field inspection of the test object. However their application only limited to the qualitative analysis, current trend has changed to the development of this method by the introduction of quantitative analysis, which attempts to detail the defect examined. This being the design feature for a ranges of object size to be examined. The growing commercial demand for quantitative analysis for NDT and material characterization is determining the quality of optical and analysis instrument. However very little attention is currently being paid to understanding, quantifying and compensating for the numerous error sources which are a function of interferometers. This paper presents a comparison of measurement analysis using the established theoretical approach and the new approach, taken into account the factor of divergence illumination and other geometrical factors. The difference in the measurement system could be associated in the error factor. (Author)

  16. Quantitative analysis method for niobium in lead zirconate titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Hideo; Hashimoto, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a strong dielectric ceramic having piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties, and is used most as a piezoelectric material. Also it is a main component of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT), which is a typical electrical-optical conversion element. Since these have been developed, the various electronic parts utilizing the piezoelectric characteristics have been put in practical use. The characteristics can be set up by changing the composition of PZT and the kinds and amount of additives. Among the additives, niobium has the action to make metallic ion vacancy in crystals, and by the formation of this vacancy, to ease the movement of domain walls in crystal grains, and to increase resistivity. Accordingly, it is necessary to accurately determine the niobium content for the research and development, quality control and process control. The quantitative analysis methods for niobium used so far have respective demerits, therefore, the authors examined the quantitative analysis of niobium in PZT by using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectro-analysis apparatus which has remarkably developed recently. As the result, the method of dissolving a specimen with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and masking unstable lead with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid 2 sodium and fluoride ions with boric acid was established. The apparatus, reagents, the experiment and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. A novel dual energy method for enhanced quantitative computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, A.; Ghadiri, H.; Rahmim, A.; Ay, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) is critically important in clinical practice, and conveniently enabled via quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Meanwhile, dual-energy QCT (DEQCT) enables enhanced detection of small changes in BMD relative to single-energy QCT (SEQCT). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the accuracy of QCT methods, with particular emphasis on a new dual-energy approach, in comparison to single-energy and conventional dual-energy techniques. We used a sinogram-based analytical CT simulator to model the complete chain of CT data acquisitions, and assessed performance of SEQCT and different DEQCT techniques in quantification of BMD. We demonstrate a 120% reduction in error when using a proposed dual-energy Simultaneous Equation by Constrained Least-squares method, enabling more accurate bone mineral measurements.

  18. Two quantitative forecasting methods for macroeconomic indicators in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela BRATU (SIMIONESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Econometric modelling and exponential smoothing techniques are two quantitative forecasting methods with good results in practice, but the objective of the research was to find out which of the two techniques are better for short run predictions. Therefore, for inflation, unemployment and interest rate in Czech Republic some accuracy indicators were calculated for the predictions based on these methods. Short run forecasts on a horizon of 3 months were made for December 2011-February 2012, the econometric models being updated. For Czech Republic, the exponential smoothing techniques provided more accurate forecasts than the econometric models (VAR(2 models, ARMA procedure and models with lagged variables. One explication for the better performance of smoothing techniques would be that in the chosen countries the short run predictions more influenced by the recent evolution of the indicators.

  19. EDF Energies Nouvelles. Financial report at June 30, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles's half-year financial report for 2011. It contains a half-year activity report, the consolidated financial statements at June 30, 2011 and the report drafted by the Statutory Auditors

  20. EDF Energies Nouvelles. Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles's registration document for the year 2009. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, employees, shareholders, etc. The document includes the group's consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2008

  1. A novel semi-quantitative method for measuring tissue bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcevic, G; Volarevic, V; Raicevic, S; Tanaskovic, I; Milicic, B; Vulovic, T; Arsenijevic, S

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we describe a new semi-quantitative method for measuring the extent of bleeding in pathohistological tissue samples. To test our novel method, we recruited 120 female patients in their first trimester of pregnancy and divided them into three groups of 40. Group I was the control group, in which no dilation was applied. Group II was an experimental group, in which dilation was performed using classical mechanical dilators. Group III was also an experimental group, in which dilation was performed using a hydraulic dilator. Tissue samples were taken from the patients' cervical canals using a Novak's probe via energetic single-step curettage prior to any dilation in Group I and after dilation in Groups II and III. After the tissue samples were prepared, light microscopy was used to obtain microphotographs at 100x magnification. The surfaces affected by bleeding were measured in the microphotographs using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2009 program and its "polylines" function. The lines were used to mark the area around the entire sample (marked A) and to create "polyline" areas around each bleeding area on the sample (marked B). The percentage of the total area affected by bleeding was calculated using the formula: N = Bt x 100 / At where N is the percentage (%) of the tissue sample surface affected by bleeding, At (A total) is the sum of the surfaces of all of the tissue samples and Bt (B total) is the sum of all the surfaces affected by bleeding in all of the tissue samples. This novel semi-quantitative method utilizes the Autodesk AutoCAD 2009 program, which is simple to use and widely available, thereby offering a new, objective and precise approach to estimate the extent of bleeding in tissue samples.

  2. New 'ex vivo' radioisotopic method of quantitation of platelet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badimon, L.; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Unit, Barcelona; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Fuster, V.; Chesebro, J.H.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive and quantitative method of 'ex vivo' evaluation of platelet deposition on collagen strips, from rabbit Achilles tendon, superfused by flowing blood and applied it to four animal species, cat, rabbit, dog and pig. Autologous platelets were labeled with indium-111-tropolone, injected to the animal 24 hr before the superfusion and the number of deposited platelets was quantitated from the tendon gamma-radiation and the blood platelet count. We detected some platelet consumption with superfusion time when blood was reinfused entering the contralateral jugular vein after collagen contact but not if blood was discarded after the contact. Therefore, in order to have a more physiological animal model we decided to discard blood after superfusion of the tendon. In all species except for the cat there was a linear relationship between increase of platelet on the tendon and time of exposure to blood superfusion. The highest number of platelets deposited on the collagen was found in cats, the lowest in dogs. Ultrastructural analysis showed the platelets were deposited as aggregates after only 5 min of superfusion. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins combined with enrichment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Method for the quantitation of steroids in umbilical cord plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, A.E.; Sparke, H.

    1975-01-01

    A method for simultaneous quantitation of nine steroids in cord plasma is described which consisted of Amberlite XAD-2 column chromatography at constant temperature of 45 degC, enzyme hydrolysis with β-glucoronidase/aryl sulfatase, addition of five radioactive internal standards, ethyl acetate extraction, thin-layer chromatography and quantitation by gas-liquid chromatography after trimethylsilyl ether derivative formation. Reliability criteria were established and the following steroid concentrations found: progesterone, 132.1+-102.5 μg/100 ml; pregnenolone, 57.3+-45.7 μg/100 ml; dehydroepiandrosterone, 46.5+-29.4 μg/100 ml; pregnanediol, 67.5+-46.6 μg/100 ml; 16-ketoandrostenediol, 19.8+-13.7 μg/100 ml; 16 α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone, 126.3+-86.9 μg/100 ml; 16 α-hydroxypregnenolone, 78.2+-56.5 μg/100 ml; androstenetriol, 22.2+-17.5 μg/100 ml and oestriol, 127.7+-116.9 μg/100 ml. (author)

  5. Quantitative methods in electroencephalography to access therapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Roseane Costa; Fontenele, Andrea Martins Melo; Carmo, Luiza Helena Araújo do; Ribeiro, Aurea Celeste da Costa; Sales, Fábio Henrique Silva; Monteiro, Sally Cristina Moutinho; Sousa, Ana Karoline Ferreira de Castro

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacometrics or Quantitative Pharmacology aims to quantitatively analyze the interaction between drugs and patients whose tripod: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and disease monitoring to identify variability in drug response. Being the subject of central interest in the training of pharmacists, this work was out with a view to promoting this idea on methods to access the therapeutic response of drugs with central action. This paper discusses quantitative methods (Fast Fourier Transform, Magnitude Square Coherence, Conditional Entropy, Generalised Linear semi-canonical Correlation Analysis, Statistical Parametric Network and Mutual Information Function) used to evaluate the EEG signals obtained after administration regimen of drugs, the main findings and their clinical relevance, pointing it as a contribution to construction of different pharmaceutical practice. Peter Anderer et. al in 2000 showed the effect of 20mg of buspirone in 20 healthy subjects after 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h after oral ingestion of the drug. The areas of increased power of the theta frequency occurred mainly in the temporo-occipital - parietal region. It has been shown by Sampaio et al., 2007 that the use of bromazepam, which allows the release of GABA (gamma amino butyric acid), an inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system could theoretically promote dissociation of cortical functional areas, a decrease of functional connectivity, a decrease of cognitive functions by means of smaller coherence (electrophysiological magnitude measured from the EEG by software) values. Ahmad Khodayari-Rostamabad et al. in 2015 talk that such a measure could be a useful clinical tool potentially to assess adverse effects of opioids and hence give rise to treatment guidelines. There was the relation between changes in pain intensity and brain sources (at maximum activity locations) during remifentanil infusion despite its potent analgesic effect. The statement of mathematical and computational

  6. Quantitative Methods in the Study of Local History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Pene

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests how the quantitative analysis of data from census records, assessment roles, and newspapers may be integrated into the classroom. Suggestions for obtaining quantitative data are provided. (DE)

  7. Quantitative assessment of breast density: comparison of different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Naishan; Guo Li; Dang Yi; Song Luxin; Wang Xiaoying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To Compare different methods of quantitative breast density measurement. Methods: The study included sixty patients who underwent both mammography and breast MRI. The breast density was computed automatically on digital mammograms with R2 workstation, Two experienced radiologists read the mammograms and assessed the breast density with Wolfe and ACR classification respectively. Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCM) was used to assess breast density on MRI. Each assessment method was repeated after 2 weeks. Spearman and Pearson correlations of inter- and intrareader and intermodality were computed for density estimates. Results: Inter- and intrareader correlation of Wolfe classification were 0.74 and 0.65, and they were 0.74 and 0.82 for ACR classification respectively. Correlation between Wolfe and ACR classification was 0.77. High interreader correlation of 0.98 and intrareader correlation of 0.96 was observed with MR FCM measurement. And the correlation between digital mammograms and MRI was high in the assessment of breast density (r=0.81, P<0.01). Conclusion: High correlation of breast density estimates on digital mammograms and MRI FCM suggested the former could be used as a simple and accurate method. (authors)

  8. Digital integrated protection system: Quantitative methods for dependability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotoff, H.; Benski, C.

    1986-01-01

    The inclusion of programmed digital techniques in the SPIN system provides the used with the capability of performing sophisticated processing operations. However, it causes the quantitative evaluation of the overall failure probabilities to become somewhat more intricate by reason that: A single component may be involved in several functions; Self-tests may readily be incorporated for the purpose of monitoring the dependable operation of the equipment at all times. This paper describes the methods as implemented by MERLIN GERIN for the purpose of evaluating: The probabilities for the protective actions not to be initiated (dangerous failures); The probabilities for such protective actions to be initiated accidentally. Although the communication is focused on the programmed portion of the SPIN (UAIP) it will also deal with the evaluation performed within the scope of study works that do not exclusively cover the UAIPs

  9. Comparison of different surface quantitative analysis methods. Application to corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilbaud, N.; Blin, D.; Perodeaud, Ph.; Dugne, O.; Gueneau, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    In case of a severe hypothetical accident in a pressurized water reactor, the reactor assembly melts partially or completely. The material formed, called corium, flows out and spreads at the bottom of the reactor. To limit and control the consequences of such an accident, the specifications of the O-U-Zr basic system must be known accurately. To achieve this goal, the corium mix was melted by electron bombardment at very high temperature (3000 K) followed by quenching of the ingot in the Isabel 1 evaporator. Metallographic analyses were then required to validate the thermodynamic databases set by the Thermo-Calc software. The study consists in defining an overall surface quantitative analysis method that is fast and reliable, in order to determine the overall corium composition. The analyzed ingot originated in a [U+Fe+Y+UO 2 +ZrO 2 ) mix, with a total mass of 2253.7 grams. Several successive heating with average power were performed before a very brief plateau at very high temperature, so that the ingot was formed progressively and without any evaporation liable to modify its initial composition. The central zone of the ingot was then analyzed by qualitative and quantitative global surface methods, to yield the volume composition of the analyzed zone. Corium sample analysis happens to be very complex because of the variety and number of elements present, and also because of the presence of oxygen in a heavy element like the uranium based matrix. Three different global quantitative surface analysis methods were used: global EDS analysis (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry), with SEM, global WDS analysis (Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry) with EPMA, and coupling of image analysis with EDS or WDS point spectroscopic analyses. The difficulties encountered during the study arose from sample preparation (corium is very sensitive to oxidation), and the choice of acquisition parameters of the images and analyses. The corium sample studied consisted of two zones displaying

  10. The discussion on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kefu

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental methods for safely culture evaluation are described. Combining with the practice of the quantitative evaluation of safety culture in Daya Bay NPP, the quantitative evaluation method for safety culture are discussed. (author)

  11. A Method for Quantitative Determination of Biofilm Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strømme

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce large errors due to significant differences in the metabolic and/or growth rates of biofilm bacteria in the assay media compared to their planktonic counterparts. In the presented method we derive the specific growth rate of Streptococcus mutans bacteria biofilm from a series of metabolic assays using the pH indicator phenol red, and show that this information could be used to more accurately quantify the relative number of viable bacteria in a biofilm. We found that the specific growth rate of S. mutans in biofilm mode of growth was 0.70 h−1, compared to 1.09 h−1 in planktonic growth. This method should be applicable to other bacteria types, as well as other metabolic assays, and, for example, to quantify the effect of antibacterial treatments or the performance of bactericidal implant surfaces.

  12. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ''Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.'' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging

  13. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation. Progress report, January 15-September 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.

    1986-09-01

    This document reports progress under grant entitled ''Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.'' Individual reports are presented on projects entitled the physical aspects of radionuclide imaging, image reconstruction and quantitative evaluation, PET-related instrumentation for improved quantitation, improvements in the FMI cyclotron for increased utilization, and methodology for quantitative evaluation of diagnostic performance

  14. La nouvelle vague in polarized neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1986-01-01

    Polarized neutron research, like many other subjects in neutron scattering developed in the footsteps of Cliff Shull. The classical polarized neutron technique he pioneered was generalized around 1970 to vectorial beam polarizations and this opened up the way to a ''nouvelle vague'' of neutron scattering experiments. In this paper I will first reexamine the old controversy on the question whether the nature of the neutron magnetic moment is that of a microscopic dipole or of an Amperian current loop. The problem is not only of historical interest, but also of relevance to modern applications. This will be followed by a review of the fundamentals on spin coherence effects in neutron beams and scattering, which are the basis of vectorial beam polarization work. As an example of practical importance, paramagnetic scattering will be discussed. The paper concludes with some examples of applications of the vector polarization techniques, such as study of ferromagnetic domains by neutron beam depolarization and Neutron Spin Echo high resolution inelastic spectroscopy. The sample results presented demonstrate the new opportunities this novel approach opened up in neutrons scattering research. (orig.)

  15. Development of method quantitative content of dihydroquercetin. Report 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Юрійович Владимиров

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today is markedly increasing scientific interest in the study of flavonoids in plant objects due to their high biological activity. In this regard, the urgent task of analytical chemistry is in developing available analytical techniques of determination for flavonoids in plant objects.Aim. The aim was to develop specific techniques of quantitative determination for dihydroquercetin and determination of its validation characteristics.Methods. The technique for photocolorimetric quantification of DQW, which was based on the specific reaction of cyanidine chloride formation when added zinc powder to dihydroquercetin solution in an acidic medium has been elaborated.Results. Photocolorimetric technique of determining flavonoids recalculating on DQW has been developed, its basic validation characteristics have been determined. The obtained metrological characteristics of photocolorimetric technique for determining DQW did not exceed admissibility criteria in accordance with the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine.Conclusions. By the results of statistical analysis of experimental data, it has been stated that the developed technique can be used for quantification of DQW. Metrological data obtained indicate that the method reproduced in conditions of two different laboratories with confidence probability 95 % unit value deviation was 101,85±2,54 %

  16. Quantitative methods for developing C2 system requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, K.K.

    1992-06-01

    The US Army established the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Experimentation Site (AES) to provide a place where material and combat developers could experiment with command and control systems. The AES conducts fundamental and applied research involving command and control issues using a number of research methods, ranging from large force-level experiments, to controlled laboratory experiments, to studies and analyses. The work summarized in this paper was done by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under task order from the Army Tactical Command and Control System Experimentation Site. The purpose of the task was to develop the functional requirements for army engineer automation and support software, including MCS-ENG. A client, such as an army engineer, has certain needs and requirements of his or her software; these needs must be presented in ways that are readily understandable to the software developer. A requirements analysis then, such as the one described in this paper, is simply the means of communication between those who would use a piece of software and those who would develop it. The analysis from which this paper was derived attempted to bridge the communications gap'' between army combat engineers and software engineers. It sought to derive and state the software needs of army engineers in ways that are meaningful to software engineers. In doing this, it followed a natural sequence of investigation: (1) what does an army engineer do, (2) with which tasks can software help, (3) how much will it cost, and (4) where is the highest payoff This paper demonstrates how each of these questions was addressed during an analysis of the functional requirements of engineer support software. Systems engineering methods are used in a task analysis and a quantitative scoring method was developed to score responses regarding the feasibility of task automation. The paper discusses the methods used to perform utility and cost-benefits estimates.

  17. Quantitative methods for developing C2 system requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, K.K.

    1992-06-01

    The US Army established the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Experimentation Site (AES) to provide a place where material and combat developers could experiment with command and control systems. The AES conducts fundamental and applied research involving command and control issues using a number of research methods, ranging from large force-level experiments, to controlled laboratory experiments, to studies and analyses. The work summarized in this paper was done by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under task order from the Army Tactical Command and Control System Experimentation Site. The purpose of the task was to develop the functional requirements for army engineer automation and support software, including MCS-ENG. A client, such as an army engineer, has certain needs and requirements of his or her software; these needs must be presented in ways that are readily understandable to the software developer. A requirements analysis then, such as the one described in this paper, is simply the means of communication between those who would use a piece of software and those who would develop it. The analysis from which this paper was derived attempted to bridge the ``communications gap`` between army combat engineers and software engineers. It sought to derive and state the software needs of army engineers in ways that are meaningful to software engineers. In doing this, it followed a natural sequence of investigation: (1) what does an army engineer do, (2) with which tasks can software help, (3) how much will it cost, and (4) where is the highest payoff? This paper demonstrates how each of these questions was addressed during an analysis of the functional requirements of engineer support software. Systems engineering methods are used in a task analysis and a quantitative scoring method was developed to score responses regarding the feasibility of task automation. The paper discusses the methods used to perform utility and cost-benefits estimates.

  18. A new method for characterizing super-insulators. Application to the identification of conduction modes; Nouvelle methode de caracterisation thermique des super-isolants. Application a l'identification des differents modes de conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D.; Bejet, M.; Laizet, J.C.

    2002-07-01

    In order to obtain thermal data necessary to the design of space systems, the ONERA developed a method to measure the thermal flux crossing an insulating structure under high thermal gradients. This method gives the thermal conductivity of material for an homogeneous composition of the structure. It allows the characterization of insulators under controlled atmosphere and at very high temperature, 2500 C. (A.L.B.)

  19. Quantitative Methods Intervention: What Do the Students Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankland, Lianne; Harrison, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The shortage of social science graduates with competent quantitative skills jeopardises the competitive UK economy, public policy making effectiveness and the status the UK has as a world leader in higher education and research (British Academy for Humanities and Social Sciences, 2012). There is a growing demand for quantitative skills across all…

  20. A New Method of Estimating Wind Tunnel Wall Interference in the Unsteady Two-Dimensional Flow (Nouvelle Methode D’Estimation de la Perturbation des Ecoulements Instationnaires par les Parois d’une Soufflerie).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    disturbance theory . The main feature of the method is the use of measured pressure along lines in the flow direction near the tunnel walls. This method...disturbance theory , then $can be written ( , = qo( , ) .@ (:. S-in(.t + 0.( or s CO (8) Defining cw as co S . ^(9) gives Sin= C, f(4,.) + OCr,z)co.s(0t...AUTHOR (S)/ AUTEUR (S) H. Sawada, visiting scientist 2nd Aerodynamics Division, National Aerospace Laboratory, Japan SERIES/SERIE Aeronautical Note 6

  1. A Quantitative Method for Localizing User Interface Problems: The D-TEO Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Lamminen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A large array of evaluation methods have been proposed to identify Website usability problems. In log-based evaluation, information about the performance of users is collected and stored into log files, and used to find problems and deficiencies in Web page designs. Most methods require the programming and modeling of large task models, which are cumbersome processes for evaluators. Also, because much statistical data is collected onto log files, recognizing which Web pages require deeper usability analysis is difficult. This paper suggests a novel quantitative method, called the D-TEO, for locating problematic Web pages. This semiautomated method explores the decomposition of interaction tasks of directed information search into elementary operations, deploying two quantitative usability criteria, search success and search time, to reveal how a user navigates within a web of hypertext.

  2. New method for studying the efficiency of chelating agents of the polyamine acid series for internal decontamination; Methode nouvelle d'etude de l'efficacite des chelateurs de la serie des acides polyamines pour la decontamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuma, J; Nenot, J C; Morin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    We followed the biological fate of a complex formed on one side with either a rare earth (cerium-144) or a transuranium element (plutonium-239), and on the other side with a chelating agent of the polyamino acid series (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). This method allowed to study: 1 - the in vivo stability of the various complexes and to compare them; 2 - the stability of the complexes as a function of the isotope - chelating agent weight relationships; 3 - the metabolism of the chelating agents resulting in stable complexes, i. e. DTPA and TTHA mainly. This simple method brought out the higher efficiency, of DTPA in chelating rare earths and plutonium and for therapeutic purposes. (authors) [French] La methode consiste a suivre le devenir biologique d'un complexe forme d'une part avec une terre rare (cerium 144) ou un transuranien (plutonium 239) et d'autre part avec un chelateur de la serie des acides polyamines (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). Elle permet d'etudier: 1 - la stabilite in vivo des differents complexes, de les comparer; 2 - la stabilite des complexes en fonction des rapports ponderaux isotope - chelateurs; 3 - le metabolisme des chelateurs formant des complexes stables, essentiellement DTPA et TTHA. Cette methode simple degage la suprematie du DTPA en ce qui concerne la chelation des terres rares et du plutonium, et son utilisation a des fins therapeutiques. (auteurs)

  3. New method for studying the efficiency of chelating agents of the polyamine acid series for internal decontamination; Methode nouvelle d'etude de l'efficacite des chelateurs de la serie des acides polyamines pour la decontamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuma, J.; Nenot, J.C.; Morin, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    We followed the biological fate of a complex formed on one side with either a rare earth (cerium-144) or a transuranium element (plutonium-239), and on the other side with a chelating agent of the polyamino acid series (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). This method allowed to study: 1 - the in vivo stability of the various complexes and to compare them; 2 - the stability of the complexes as a function of the isotope - chelating agent weight relationships; 3 - the metabolism of the chelating agents resulting in stable complexes, i. e. DTPA and TTHA mainly. This simple method brought out the higher efficiency, of DTPA in chelating rare earths and plutonium and for therapeutic purposes. (authors) [French] La methode consiste a suivre le devenir biologique d'un complexe forme d'une part avec une terre rare (cerium 144) ou un transuranien (plutonium 239) et d'autre part avec un chelateur de la serie des acides polyamines (EDTA, BAETA, DTPA, TTHA). Elle permet d'etudier: 1 - la stabilite in vivo des differents complexes, de les comparer; 2 - la stabilite des complexes en fonction des rapports ponderaux isotope - chelateurs; 3 - le metabolisme des chelateurs formant des complexes stables, essentiellement DTPA et TTHA. Cette methode simple degage la suprematie du DTPA en ce qui concerne la chelation des terres rares et du plutonium, et son utilisation a des fins therapeutiques. (auteurs)

  4. Quantitative and regional evaluation methods for lung scintigraphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichter, J.

    1982-01-01

    For the evaluation of perfusion lung scintigraphs with regard to the quantitative valuation and also with regard to the choice of the regions new criteria were presented. In addition to the usual methods of sectioning each lung lobe into upper, middle and lower level and the determination of the per cent activity share of the total activity the following values were established: the median of the activity distribution and the differences of the per cent counting rate as well as of the median of the corresponding regions of the right and left lung. The individual regions should describe the functional structures (lobe and segment structure). A corresponding computer program takes over the projection of lobe and segment regions in a simplified form onto the scintigraph with consideration of individual lung stretching. With the help of a clinical study on 60 patients and 18 control persons with 99mTc-MAA and 133 Xe-gas lung scintigraphs the following results could be determined: depending on the combination of the 32 parameters available for evaluation and the choice of regions between 4 and 20 of the 60 patients were falsely negatively classified and 1 to 2 of the 18 controls were falsely positive. The accuracy of the Tc-scintigraph proved to be better. All together using the best possible parameter combinations comparative results were attained. (TRV) [de

  5. Original methods of quantitative analysis developed for diverse samples in various research fields. Quantitative analysis at NMCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center (NMCC) has been opened for nationwide-common utilization of positron nuclear medicine (PET) and PIXE since April 1993. At the present time, nearly 40 subjects of PIXE in various research fields are pursued here, and more than 50,000 samples have been analyzed up to the present. In order to perform quantitative analyses of diverse samples, technical developments in sample preparation, measurement and data analysis have been continuously carried out. Especially, a standard-free method for quantitative analysis'' made it possible to perform analysis of infinitesimal samples, powdered samples and untreated bio samples, which could not be well analyzed quantitatively in the past. The standard-free method'' and a ''powdered internal standard method'' made the process for target preparation quite easier. It has been confirmed that results obtained by these methods show satisfactory accuracy and reproducibility preventing any ambiguity coming from complicated target preparation processes. (author)

  6. Methods and instrumentation for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revermann, T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of novel instrumentation and analytical methodology for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) is described in this thesis. Demanding only small quantities of reagents and samples, microfluidic instrumentation is highly advantageous. Fast separations at high voltages

  7. Nouvelles et activités | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Consultez les nouvelles et les activités. Utilisez cet outil de recherche pour trouver des nouvelles ou des activités précis dans le site Web du CRDI. Content type. Tout. Activités. Avis aux médias. Bulletins. Communiqués. Nouvelle ...

  8. Nouvelles et activités | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Consultez les nouvelles et les activités. Utilisez cet outil de recherche pour trouver des nouvelles ou des activités précis dans le site Web du CRDI. Content type. Tout. Activités. Avis aux médias. Bulletins. Communiqués. Nouvelle ...

  9. Nouvelles et activités | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Consultez les nouvelles et les activités. Utilisez cet outil de recherche pour trouver des nouvelles ou des activités précis dans le site Web du CRDI. Content type. Tout. Activités. Avis aux médias. Bulletins. Communiqués. Nouvelle ...

  10. Nouvelles et activités | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Consultez les nouvelles et les activités. Utilisez cet outil de recherche pour trouver des nouvelles ou des activités précis dans le site Web du CRDI. Content type. Tout. Activités. Avis aux médias. Bulletins. Communiqués. Nouvelle ...

  11. Quantitative Preparation in Doctoral Education Programs: A Mixed-Methods Study of Doctoral Student Perspectives on their Quantitative Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Ferguson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore student perceptions of their own doctoral-level education and quantitative proficiency. Background: The challenges of preparing doctoral students in education have been discussed in the literature, but largely from the perspective of university faculty and program administrators. The current study directly explores the student voice on this issue. Methodology: Utilizing a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research design, the present study seeks to better understand doctoral-level education students’ perceptions of their quantitative methods training at a large public university in the southwestern United States. Findings: Results from both phases present the need for more application and consistency in doctoral-level quantitative courses. Additionally, there was a consistent theme of internal motivation in the responses, suggesting students perceive their quantitative training to be valuable beyond their personal interest in the topic. Recommendations for Practitioners: Quantitative methods instructors should emphasize practice in their quantitative courses and consider providing additional support for students through the inclusion of lab sections, tutoring, and/or differentiation. Pre-testing statistical ability at the start of a course is also suggested to better meet student needs. Impact on Society: The ultimate goal of quantitative methods in doctoral education is to produce high-quality educational researchers who are prepared to apply their knowledge to problems and research in education. Results of the present study can inform faculty and administrator decisions in doctoral education to best support this goal. Future Research: Using the student perspectives presented in the present study, future researchers should continue to explore effective instructional strategies and curriculum design within education doctoral programs. The inclusion of student voice can strengthen

  12. A new biological method for preparing certain sulphurated substances labelled with S{sup 35}; Methode nouvelle de preparation par voie biologique de quelques substances soufrees marquees au soufre-35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F.; Maier-Huser, H.; Fromageot, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Previous investigations have shown that the yolk-sac of embryonic bird's eggs can be used to produce the following reactions: (a) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; (b) fixation of the sulphite on the carbon chain produced by the desulf-hydration of l-cysteine, with formation of l-cysteic acid; (c) decarboxylation of the l-cysteine acid into taurine. The enzymatic system which causes reaction (b) has been purified. It also acts as a catalyst in the sulphur-exchange between the cysteine and the mineral sulphide. The authors have utilized these data in preparing sulphurated substances labelled with S{sup 35}: taurine S{sup 35}, l-cysteine S{sup 35} and l-cysteic acid S{sup 35}. For each of the three, they discuss the chemical reactions involved, the methods of preparation, the experimental conditions of extraction and purity-control, together with the yields and specific activities obtained. (authors) [French] Des travaux anterieurs ont montre l'aptitude du sac vitellin d'oeufs embryonn d'oiseaux a realiser les reactions suivantes: a) reduction du sulfate en sulfite, b) fixation du sulfite sur la chaine carbonee issue de la desulfhydration de la L-cysteine avec formation de l'acide L-cysteique. c) decarboxylation de l 'acide L-cysteique en taurine. Le systeme enzymatique responsable de la reaction b a ete purifie; il catalyse aussi l'echange du soufre de la cysteine avec celui du sulfure mineral. Les auteurs ont utilise ces donnees pour la preparation de substances soufrees marquees au {sup 35}S: taurine {sup 35}S, L-cysteine{sup 35} et acide L-cysteique {sup 35}S. Pour chacun de ces trois corps, ils decrivent les reactions chimiques mises en jeu, les modes operatoires de fabrication, les conditions experimentales d'extraction et de controle de la purete, ainsi que les resultats obtenus tant pour les rendements que pour les activites specifiques obtenues. (auteurs)

  13. A new biological method for preparing certain sulphurated substances labelled with S{sup 35}; Methode nouvelle de preparation par voie biologique de quelques substances soufrees marquees au soufre-35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F; Maier-Huser, H; Fromageot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Previous investigations have shown that the yolk-sac of embryonic bird's eggs can be used to produce the following reactions: (a) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; (b) fixation of the sulphite on the carbon chain produced by the desulf-hydration of l-cysteine, with formation of l-cysteic acid; (c) decarboxylation of the l-cysteine acid into taurine. The enzymatic system which causes reaction (b) has been purified. It also acts as a catalyst in the sulphur-exchange between the cysteine and the mineral sulphide. The authors have utilized these data in preparing sulphurated substances labelled with S{sup 35}: taurine S{sup 35}, l-cysteine S{sup 35} and l-cysteic acid S{sup 35}. For each of the three, they discuss the chemical reactions involved, the methods of preparation, the experimental conditions of extraction and purity-control, together with the yields and specific activities obtained. (authors) [French] Des travaux anterieurs ont montre l'aptitude du sac vitellin d'oeufs embryonn d'oiseaux a realiser les reactions suivantes: a) reduction du sulfate en sulfite, b) fixation du sulfite sur la chaine carbonee issue de la desulfhydration de la L-cysteine avec formation de l'acide L-cysteique. c) decarboxylation de l 'acide L-cysteique en taurine. Le systeme enzymatique responsable de la reaction b a ete purifie; il catalyse aussi l'echange du soufre de la cysteine avec celui du sulfure mineral. Les auteurs ont utilise ces donnees pour la preparation de substances soufrees marquees au {sup 35}S: taurine {sup 35}S, L-cysteine{sup 35} et acide L-cysteique {sup 35}S. Pour chacun de ces trois corps, ils decrivent les reactions chimiques mises en jeu, les modes operatoires de fabrication, les conditions experimentales d'extraction et de controle de la purete, ainsi que les resultats obtenus tant pour les rendements que pour les activites specifiques obtenues. (auteurs)

  14. A quantitative method for determining spatial discriminative capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Robert G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional two-point discrimination (TPD test, a widely used tactile spatial acuity measure, has been criticized as being imprecise because it is based on subjective criteria and involves a number of non-spatial cues. The results of a recent study showed that as two stimuli were delivered simultaneously, vibrotactile amplitude discrimination became worse when the two stimuli were positioned relatively close together and was significantly degraded when the probes were within a subject's two-point limen. The impairment of amplitude discrimination with decreasing inter-probe distance suggested that the metric of amplitude discrimination could possibly provide a means of objective and quantitative measurement of spatial discrimination capacity. Methods A two alternative forced-choice (2AFC tracking procedure was used to assess a subject's ability to discriminate the amplitude difference between two stimuli positioned at near-adjacent skin sites. Two 25 Hz flutter stimuli, identical except for a constant difference in amplitude, were delivered simultaneously to the hand dorsum. The stimuli were initially spaced 30 mm apart, and the inter-stimulus distance was modified on a trial-by-trial basis based on the subject's performance of discriminating the stimulus with higher intensity. The experiment was repeated via sequential, rather than simultaneous, delivery of the same vibrotactile stimuli. Results Results obtained from this study showed that the performance of the amplitude discrimination task was significantly degraded when the stimuli were delivered simultaneously and were near a subject's two-point limen. In contrast, subjects were able to correctly discriminate between the amplitudes of the two stimuli when they were sequentially delivered at all inter-probe distances (including those within the two-point limen, and improved when an adapting stimulus was delivered prior to simultaneously delivered stimuli. Conclusion

  15. New instruments and methods for measuring the concentration of radioactive products in the atmosphere; Appareils recents et methodes nouvelles pour la mesure de la concentration des produits radioactifs dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehanno, C; Blanc, A; Lallemant, C; Roux, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Different recorders for radioactive aerosols have been developed for measuring the pollution of the atmosphere in laboratories or the external atmosphere. EAR 600. - Allows continuous measurement, instantaneously and 3 to 10 hours after sampling, of concentrations of {alpha} or {beta} emitting aerosols varying between some 10{sup -11} and some 10{sup -8} curie per cubic metre of air. EAR 800. - Allows continuous measurement of concentration of {alpha} emitting aerosols varying between 10{sup -11} and 10{sup -5} curie per cubic metre of air and concentration of {beta} emitting aerosols from 10{sup -11} to 10{sup -1} curie per cubic metre of air. EAR Plutonium. - Allows detection after several minutes of 1000 MPD (2 x 10{sup -9} curie par cubic metre), and after 8 hours 1 MPD (2 x 10{sup -12} curie per cubic metre). Two methods are used to separate the activity due to plutonium from that due to the descendants of radon and thoron: a) by amplitude discrimination, b) by RaC-RaC' and ThC-ThC' ({alpha} {beta} ) coincidences. SP4. This system, mounted on a jeep, allows the measurement of irradiation produced on the ground by the smoke from the piles. The sensitivity is 5{mu}R/h. A.D.I.R. - This autonomous and portable instrument is designed for the instantaneous measurement of the radon content of the atmosphere in mines. It allows the measurement of contents in air varying between 0.4 and 400 x 10{sup -10} curie per litre of air (0.4 and 400 MPD). The measurement of radioactive fall-out is carried out after collection of this activity by a special rain gauge which comprises an adhesive surface and a tube containing ion exchange resins. The radioactivity of the fall-out varies between some 10{sup -9} and some 10{sup -7} curie per square metre per month. Concentrations in fission products of the atmosphere are measured after collecting on filter paper. Concentrations measured in air at ground level vary between 10{sup -13} and 10{sup -12} curie per cubic metre. (author

  16. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples' experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the field of medical education. Quantitative diary methods offer several methodological advantages, such as measuring aspects of learning with great detail, accuracy and authenticity. Moreover, they enable researchers to study how and under which conditions learning in the health care setting occurs and in which way learning can be promoted. Hence, quantitative diary methods may contribute to theory development and the optimization of teaching methods in medical education.

  17. Quantitative Clinical Imaging Methods for Monitoring Intratumoral Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Yeun; Gatenby, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    images in landscape ecology and, with appropriate application of Darwinian first principles and sophisticated image analytic methods, can be used to estimate regional variations in the molecular properties of cancer cells.We have initially examined this technique in glioblastoma, a malignant brain neoplasm which is morphologically complex and notorious for a fast progression from diagnosis to recurrence and death, making a suitable subject of noninvasive, rapidly repeated assessment of intratumoral evolution. Quantitative imaging analysis of routine clinical MRIs from glioblastoma has identified macroscopic morphologic characteristics which correlate with proteogenomics and prognosis. The key to the accurate detection and forecasting of intratumoral evolution using quantitative imaging analysis is likely to be in the understanding of the synergistic interactions between observable intratumoral subregions and the resulting tumor behavior.

  18. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  19. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  20. Guidelines for Reporting Quantitative Methods and Results in Primary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.; Plonsky, Luke; Ross, Steven J.; Schoonen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Adequate reporting of quantitative research about language learning involves careful consideration of the logic, rationale, and actions underlying both study designs and the ways in which data are analyzed. These guidelines, commissioned and vetted by the board of directors of "Language Learning," outline the basic expectations for…

  1. qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concludes that an integration of both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches may provide a better platform for unraveling the complex phenomenon of suicide in the elderly. Keywords: Psychological autopsy, Suicidal behaviours, Thematic analysis, Phenomenology the population, or a systematically generated ...

  2. Method for quantitative assessment of nuclear safety computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearien, J.A.; Davis, C.B.; Matthews, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the quantitative assessment of nuclear safety computer codes and tested by comparison of RELAP4/MOD6 predictions with results from two Semiscale tests. This paper describes the developed procedure, the application of the procedure to the Semiscale tests, and the results obtained from the comparison

  3. A potential quantitative method for assessing individual tree performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2014-01-01

    By what standard should a tree be judged? This question, perhaps unknowingly, is posed almost daily by practicing foresters. Unfortunately, there are few cases in which clearly defined quantitative (i.e., directly measurable) references have been established in forestry. A lack of common references may be an unnecessary source of error in silvicultural application and...

  4. Access. Challenge for Change/Societe Nouvelle Number Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Elizabeth, Ed.; Henaut, Dorothy Todd, Ed.

    This issue of Access, the journal issued periodically by Challenge for Change/Societe Nouvelle, contains two groups of articles. The first focuses upon the Skyriver Project, relating how a project was developed which used film and video tape as a means of helping Alaskan communities to assess their own needs and to advocate for themselves the…

  5. Access. Challenge for Change/Societe Nouvelle Number Eleven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Access is a journal published three or four times a year by Challenge for Change/Societe Nouvelle (CCSN). CCSN is an experimental program established by the Government of Canada as a cooperative effort between the National Film Board of Canada and certain of the Government's departments. Its purposes are to improve communications, create greater…

  6. Moessbauer methods and spectrometers specialized in qualitative and quantitative determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibicu, I.

    1981-01-01

    A portable, field analyser devoted to fast qualitative and quantitative determination of cassiterite, which is the only tin compound of economic use in industry was made. This analyser differs from other similar ones described in the literature through the fact that pulses are cumulated only as long as the vibrator speed ensures a complete cancelation of the resonance condition. A NIM analyser was also manufactured which allows a qualitative determination of 2-3 iron compounds in a given sample, as well as of the total iron content. Working in geometry transmission and constant velocity regime, this analyser joins the inconstancy of a laboratory Moessbauer spectrometer with the swiftness and simplity of a specialized Moessbauer spectrometer. Analysis of the main factor that affects the qualitative and quantitative cassiterite determinations: sample structural composition, spectrometer calibrating, a.s.o. Determination accuracy is similar to those reported in the literature. Sample structural composition must be smaller than 0.1 mm for the qualitative and quantitative determinations of iron or total iron compounds. Data accuracy is similar to those reported before, but obtained by means of area measurements. As a consequence of the previous results, we have looked for the existence of some new phases in industrial Fe-C and Fe-Si steels or some new compounds appearance in the samples subjected to coroding. (author)

  7. Study of the quantitative analysis approach of maintenance by the Monte Carlo simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    This study is examination of the quantitative valuation by Monte Carlo simulation method of maintenance activities of a nuclear power plant. Therefore, the concept of the quantitative valuation of maintenance that examination was advanced in the Japan Society of Maintenology and International Institute of Universality (IUU) was arranged. Basis examination for quantitative valuation of maintenance was carried out at simple feed water system, by Monte Carlo simulation method. (author)

  8. The method of quantitative X-ray microanalysis of fine inclusions in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawiec, H.; Kubica, L.; Piszczek, J.

    1978-01-01

    The method of correction for the matrix effect in quantitative x-ray microanalysis was presented. The application of the method was discussed on the example of quantitative analysis of fine inclusions of Cu 2 S and Cu 2 O in copper. (author)

  9. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples’ experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the

  10. Embedding Quantitative Methods by Stealth in Political Science: Developing a Pedagogy for Psephology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Student evaluations of quantitative methods courses in political science often reveal they are characterised by aversion, alienation and anxiety. As a solution to this problem, this paper describes a pedagogic research project with the aim of embedding quantitative methods by stealth into the first-year undergraduate curriculum. This paper…

  11. Modeling conflict : research methods, quantitative modeling, and lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Hendrickson, Gerald A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; McNamara, Laura A.

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the factors that lead countries into conflict. Specifically, political, social and economic factors may offer insight as to how prone a country (or set of countries) may be for inter-country or intra-country conflict. Largely methodological in scope, this study examines the literature for quantitative models that address or attempt to model conflict both in the past, and for future insight. The analysis concentrates specifically on the system dynamics paradigm, not the political science mainstream approaches of econometrics and game theory. The application of this paradigm builds upon the most sophisticated attempt at modeling conflict as a result of system level interactions. This study presents the modeling efforts built on limited data and working literature paradigms, and recommendations for future attempts at modeling conflict.

  12. Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches Creswell John W Sage 320 £29 0761924426 0761924426 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The second edition of Creswell's book has been significantly revised and updated. The author clearly sets out three approaches to research: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. As someone who has used mixed methods in my research, it is refreshing to read a textbook that addresses this. The differences between the approaches are clearly identified and a rationale for using each methodological stance provided.

  13. Validated method for the detection and quantitation of synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These methods were applied to postmortem cases from the Johannesburg Forensic Pathology Services Medicolegal Laboratory (FPS-MLL) to assess the prevalence of these synthetic cannabinoids amongst the local postmortem population. Urine samples were extracted utilizing a solid phase extraction (SPE) method, ...

  14. Increasing Literacy in Quantitative Methods: The Key to the Future of Canadian Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Alyssa; Cribbie, Robert A.; Harlow, Lisa. L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative methods (QM) dominate empirical research in psychology. Unfortunately most researchers in psychology receive inadequate training in QM. This creates a challenge for researchers who require advanced statistical methods to appropriately analyze their data. Many of the recent concerns about research quality, replicability, and reporting practices are directly tied to the problematic use of QM. As such, improving quantitative literacy in psychology is an important step towards eliminating these concerns. The current paper will include two main sections that discuss quantitative challenges and opportunities. The first section discusses training and resources for students and presents descriptive results on the number of quantitative courses required and available to graduate students in Canadian psychology departments. In the second section, we discuss ways of improving quantitative literacy for faculty, researchers, and clinicians. This includes a strong focus on the importance of collaboration. The paper concludes with practical recommendations for improving quantitative skills and literacy for students and researchers in Canada. PMID:28042199

  15. Increasing Literacy in Quantitative Methods: The Key to the Future of Canadian Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Alyssa; Cribbie, Robert A; Harlow, Lisa L

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative methods (QM) dominate empirical research in psychology. Unfortunately most researchers in psychology receive inadequate training in QM. This creates a challenge for researchers who require advanced statistical methods to appropriately analyze their data. Many of the recent concerns about research quality, replicability, and reporting practices are directly tied to the problematic use of QM. As such, improving quantitative literacy in psychology is an important step towards eliminating these concerns. The current paper will include two main sections that discuss quantitative challenges and opportunities. The first section discusses training and resources for students and presents descriptive results on the number of quantitative courses required and available to graduate students in Canadian psychology departments. In the second section, we discuss ways of improving quantitative literacy for faculty, researchers, and clinicians. This includes a strong focus on the importance of collaboration. The paper concludes with practical recommendations for improving quantitative skills and literacy for students and researchers in Canada.

  16. Can qualitative and quantitative methods serve complementary purposes for policy research?

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Daniel G.

    1998-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative methods in social science research have long been separate spheres with little overlap. However, recent innovations have highlighted the complementarity of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The Accra Food and Nutrition Security Study was designed to incorporate the participation of a variety of constituencies in the research, and to rely on a variety of approaches — both qualitative and quantitative — to data collection and analysis. This paper reviews the ...

  17. Jean Gadrey, Nouvelle économie, nouveau mythe ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available La « nouvelle économie » est partout dans les médias nord-américains, comme européens. L’ouvrage de Jean Gadrey est rafraîchissant, car il présente une critique et une analyse minutieuse du concept, de son apparition, des développements qui y sont associés, des thèses et idées défendues au nom de la « nouvelle économie ».Comme il le note bien « les mythes mobilisateurs fleurissent, mais la réflexion sur les contours de cet âge et sur les risques sociaux à prévenir est inexistante : les formul...

  18. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method...... to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four...... different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique...

  19. A Validated Method for the Detection and Quantitation of Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    A LC-HRMS (liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry) method for the ... its ease of availability, from head shops (shops selling predomi- ..... cannabinoids in whole blood in plastic containers with several common ...

  20. Potentiometric Titration Method for Quantitative Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bessette, Russell R

    2005-01-01

    An electrochemical potentiometric titration method that entails titration of a known volume of a catholyte containing an unknown amount of hydrogen peroxide in a titration cell having two electrodes...

  1. La hernie ombilicale africaine : nouvelle classification et revue de 30 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de ce travail était de proposer une nouvelle classification de la hernie ombilicale de l'enfant africain et d'évaluer les résultats du traitement chirurgical.Il s'agit d'une étude prospective portant sur 30 patients porteurs de hernie ombilicale, qui s'est déroulée sur une période de un an et demi dans les services de ...

  2. Nouvelle espèce des Syntomides (Lepidoptera Heterocera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, P.C.T.

    1886-01-01

    Quatre mâles frais et bien conservés de 58—64 millim. d’envergure. Cette nouvelle espèce, gigantesque pour une Syntomide, appartient au genre Automolis, tel qu’il a été défini par Herrich-Schäffer, dans son ouvrage »Sammlung aussereuropäischer Schmetterlinge” (p. 21); le nom est emprunté au bien

  3. Analytical methods for quantitative evaluation of the radiocardiagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolberg, J R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa; Freedman, G S [Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn. (USA). School of Medicine; Dwyer, A [St. Raphael Hospital, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Radiocardiagrams are obtained by monitoring a radioisotope after injection as it passes through the heart and lungs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss several methods used to evaluate cardiac performance from radiocardiagram data. Mathematical models are developed for extracting two parameters of interest to cardiologists: cardiac chamber flow to volume ratio (F/V) and left ventricle ejection fraction (E.F.). The model used to characterize F/V is continuous and provides good agreement with data obtained by other physiological methods for the right heart. A discrete model is used to characterize the left heart and obtain E.F. Comparison has been made with other methods for obtaining E.F. for twelve patients with various types of cardiac disease. An important aspect of the E.F. model is that background interference is taken into consideration. The analyses include calculations of the statistical uncertainties associated with the computed values of both parameters.

  4. Advanced quantitative magnetic nondestructive evaluation methods - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. R.; Kusenberger, F. N.; Beissner, R. E.; Matzkanin, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the scale of fatigue crack phenomena in relation to the size detection capabilities of nondestructive evaluation methods. An assessment of several features of fatigue in relation to the inspection of ball and roller bearings suggested the use of magnetic methods; magnetic domain phenomena including the interaction of domains and inclusions, and the influence of stress and magnetic field on domains are discussed. Experimental results indicate that simplified calculations can be used to predict many features of these results; the data predicted by analytic models which use finite element computer analysis predictions do not agree with respect to certain features. Experimental analyses obtained on rod-type fatigue specimens which show experimental magnetic measurements in relation to the crack opening displacement and volume and crack depth should provide methods for improved crack characterization in relation to fracture mechanics and life prediction.

  5. Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Building and Interpreting Clusters from Grounded Theory and Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Merlino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods present a wide spectrum of application possibilities as well as opportunities for combining qualitative and quantitative methods. In the social sciences fruitful theoretical discussions and a great deal of empirical research have taken place. This article introduces an empirical investigation which demonstrates the logic of combining methodologies as well as the collection and interpretation, both sequential as simultaneous, of qualitative and quantitative data. Specifically, the investigation process will be described, beginning with a grounded theory methodology and its combination with the techniques of structural semiotics discourse analysis to generate—in a first phase—an instrument for quantitative measuring and to understand—in a second phase—clusters obtained by quantitative analysis. This work illustrates how qualitative methods allow for the comprehension of the discursive and behavioral elements under study, and how they function as support making sense of and giving meaning to quantitative data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701219

  6. A method of quantitative prediction for sandstone type uranium deposit in Russia and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Shushuai; Jiang Minzhong; Li Xiaolu

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the foundational principle of quantitative predication for sandstone type uranium deposits in Russia. Some key methods such as physical-mathematical model construction and deposits prediction are described. The method has been applied to deposits prediction in Dahongshan region of Chaoshui basin. It is concluded that the technique can fortify the method of quantitative predication for sandstone type uranium deposits, and it could be used as a new technique in China. (authors)

  7. A method for quantitative measurement of lumbar intervertebral disc structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunset, Andreas; Kjær, Per; Samir Chreiteh, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of agreement studies relevant for measuring changes over time in lumbar intervertebral disc structures. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a method for measurement of intervertebral disc height, anterior and posterior disc material and dural sac diameter using MR...

  8. Restriction Inhibition Assay: A Qualitative and Quantitative Method to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rich fractions (PRFs) with high affinity for EcoRI and HindIII restriction sequences and correlate their interaction to an anticancer activity. Methods: pBR322 linear plasmid DNA was used as a template to screen the sequence-selective inhibition of ...

  9. Critical temperature: A quantitative method of assessing cold tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. DeHayes; M.W., Jr. Williams

    1989-01-01

    Critical temperature (Tc), defined as the highest temperature at which freezing injury to plant tissues can be detected, provides a biologically meaningful and statistically defined assessment of the relative cold tolerance of plant tissues. A method is described for calculating critical temperatures in laboratory freezing studies that use...

  10. A REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR STUDIES OF MINERAL-CONTENT OF INTRAORAL INCIPIENT CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBOSCH, JJ; ANGMARMANSSON, B

    Modern prospective caries studies require the measurement of small changes in tooth mineral content. Quantitative measurements of changes in mineral content in a single caries lesion is desirable. Quantitative methods can be either destructive or non-destructive. The latter type permits longitudinal

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Range Image Patches by NEB Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze sampled high dimensional data with the NEB method from a range image database. Select a large random sample of log-valued, high contrast, normalized, 8×8 range image patches from the Brown database. We make a density estimator and we establish 1-dimensional cell complexes from the range image patch data. We find topological properties of 8×8 range image patches, prove that there exist two types of subsets of 8×8 range image patches modelled as a circle.

  12. The method of quantitative determination of iodine in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, A.B.; Kalinchenko, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Method for separate determination of J 2 and J - concentrations in acetic acid is suggested. Iodine concentration in acetic acid is determined by measuring potential of iodine-selective electrode first in the initial solution of acetic acid, where molecular iodine dissociation equals 0.5, and then in acetic acid, with alkali (NaOH) addition up to pH > 3, where molecular iodine dissociation equals 1. Determination is conducted in 5x10 -7 -5x10 -6 mol/l concentration range with relative standard deviation not more than 0.1. 1 fig

  13. Methods, qualitative and quantitative evaluations of 201Tl myocardial scintiscans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buell, U.; Kleinhans, E.; Klepzig, M.; Seiderer, M.; Strauer, B.E.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise 201 Tl myocardial scintiscanning is a technique used to supplement exercise electrocardiography. The procedure employed should be identical to the standard procedure of electrocardiography. If the coronary disease has already been established by coronary angiography and kineventriculography, 201 Tl examinations should be carried out before surgery in order to determine the ''regional functional reserve''. Visual evaluations of the 201 Tl scintiscans should be supplemented by quantification methods. Quantification is also required between 201 Tl examination and surgery and to assure constant diagnostic accuracy in case of examination by different examiners. (orig./MG) [de

  14. The transformation of urban industrial land use: A quantitative method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxu Qiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of cities around the world today owe their land use growth to the rapid development of industrial areas. The spatial structure of industrial distribution in cities shape urban spatial morphology linking with land use, transportation, economic activities, and housing. Meanwhile, growth and expansion of city population and land use reconfigure the spatial structure of industrial distribution. Research into urban industrial spatial distribution and its transformation process may help urban planners and decision makers understand the land use and population dynamics of a city. Genetic algorithms are believed to be one kind of the promising methods to simulate this dynamic process. In this paper, we propose a novel method to simulate urban industrial spatial distribution and its transformation process in Shanghai, China. The results show that along with increasing urban land price over time, industries are going to move outward from the city center. However, the maximum profit of a firm tends to decrease, which could lead industrial factories to move beyond city boundary. The analysis of the current industrial spatial distribution in Shanghai indicates that, when land price in a city rises above a specific threshold, new government policies and other competitive advantages need to be enacted if the city wants to retain industrial firms within the city boundary.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones by the method of high-efficiency liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanotovskii, M.T.; Mogilevskaya, M.P.; Obol'nikova, E.A.; Kogan, L.M.; Samokhvalov, G.I.

    1986-01-01

    A method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones CoQ 6 -CoQ 10 , using high-efficiency reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Tocopherol acetate was used as the internal standard

  16. Reliability of a semi-quantitative method for dermal exposure assessment (DREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Hemmen, J.J. van; Meijster, T.; Major, V.; London, L.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Valid and reliable semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice, applicable for different chemical agents, are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a recently developed

  17. Quantitative method of X-ray diffraction phase analysis of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czuba, J.; Dziedzic, A.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative method of X-ray diffraction phase analysis of building materials, with use of internal standard, has been presented. The errors committed by determining the content of particular phases have been also given. (author)

  18. A quantitative method to analyse an open answer questionnaire: A case study about the Boltzmann Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario; Di Paola, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative method to analyse an openended questionnaire. Student responses to a specially designed written questionnaire are quantitatively analysed by not hierarchical clustering called k-means method. Through this we can characterise behaviour students with respect their expertise to formulate explanations for phenomena or processes and/or use a given model in the different context. The physics topic is about the Boltzmann Factor, which allows the students to have a unifying view of different phenomena in different contexts.

  19. Design and implementation of new design of numerical experiments for non linear models; Conception et mise en oeuvre de nouvelles methodes d'elaboration de plans d'experiences pour l'apprentissage de modeles non lineaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazut, St

    2007-03-15

    This thesis addresses the problem of the construction of surrogate models in numerical simulation. Whenever numerical experiments are costly, the simulation model is complex and difficult to use. It is important then to select the numerical experiments as efficiently as possible in order to minimize their number. In statistics, the selection of experiments is known as optimal experimental design. In the context of numerical simulation where no measurement uncertainty is present, we describe an alternative approach based on statistical learning theory and re-sampling techniques. The surrogate models are constructed using neural networks and the generalization error is estimated by leave-one-out, cross-validation and bootstrap. It is shown that the bootstrap can control the over-fitting and extend the concept of leverage for non linear in their parameters surrogate models. The thesis describes an iterative method called LDR for Learner Disagreement from experiment Re-sampling, based on active learning using several surrogate models constructed on bootstrap samples. The method consists in adding new experiments where the predictors constructed from bootstrap samples disagree most. We compare the LDR method with other methods of experimental design such as D-optimal selection. (author)

  20. Optimization of Quantitative PCR Methods for Enteropathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Amour, Caroline; Nshama, Rosemary; Walongo, Thomas; Maro, Athanasia; Mduma, Esto; Platts-Mills, James; Boisen, Nadia; Nataro, James; Haverstick, Doris M.; Kabir, Furqan; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Silapong, Sasikorn; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl; Begum, Sharmin; Haque, Rashidul; Praharaj, Ira; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. Here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. First, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized with diarrhea in Tanzania. Swabs generally yielded a higher quantification cycle (Cq) (average 29.7, standard deviation 3.5 vs. 25.3 ± 2.9 from stool, P<0.001) but were still able to detect 80% of pathogens with a Cq < 30 in stool. Second, a simplified total nucleic acid (TNA) extraction procedure was compared to separate DNA and RNA extractions and showed 92% (318/344) sensitivity and 98% (951/968) specificity, with no difference in Cq value for the positive results (ΔCq(DNA+RNA-TNA) = -0.01 ± 1.17, P = 0.972, N = 318). Third, we devised a quantification scheme that adjusts pathogen quantity to the specimen’s extraction and amplification efficiency, and show that this better estimates the quantity of spiked specimens than the raw target Cq. In sum, these methods for enteropathogen quantification, stool sample collection, and nucleic acid extraction will be useful for laboratories studying enteric disease. PMID:27336160

  1. Methods of quantitative analysis of nuclear energy hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.; Caldarola, L.; Helm, F.; Jansen, P.; McGrath, P.; Weber, G.

    1975-03-01

    Risk can be defined as the sum of all possible damage types weighted with their associated cumulative probability distributions of occurrence. Risk defined in this manner is not very suitable for comparison purposes. In order to be able to synthetically express the risk by means of a single parameter, two problems must be solved: 1) For each damage type an average value must be calculated which accounts not only for the occurence probability distribution but also for the degree and importance of the damage to human society. 2) The total average value (the risk) must be calculated by weighting each average damage type with a corresponding second importance function which represents the importance and acceptability of the particular damage type to human society. Here it must be pointed out that the above mentioned problems are directly connected to the problem of 'risk acceptance', which will be as well discussed as the risk associated with the entire nuclear fuel cycle. Finally, recommendations for further research work are given in section V which are thought to be needed in order to render these methods in the near future more generally applicable and accepted than they are today. (orig./RW) [de

  2. Quantitative bioanalytical and analytical method development of dibenzazepine derivative, carbamazepine: A review ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Datar, Prasanna A.

    2015-01-01

    Bioanalytical methods are widely used for quantitative estimation of drugs and their metabolites in physiological matrices. These methods could be applied to studies in areas of human clinical pharmacology and toxicology. The major bioanalytical services are method development, method validation and sample analysis (method application). Various methods such as GC, LC–MS/MS, HPLC, HPTLC, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and UFLC have been used in laboratories for the qualitative and qua...

  3. Phase analysis in duplex stainless steel: comparison of EBSD and quantitative metallography methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalska, J; Chmiela, B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to work out the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phases in DSS in as-received state and after thermal aging. For quantitative purposes, SEM observations, EDS analyses and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) methods were employed. Qualitative analysis of phases was performed by two methods: EBSD and classical quantitative metallography. A juxtaposition of different etchants for the revealing of microstructure and brief review of sample preparation methods for EBSD studies were presented. Different ways of sample preparation were tested and based on these results a detailed methodology of DSS phase analysis was developed including: surface finishing, selective etching methods and image acquisition. The advantages and disadvantages of applied methods were pointed out and compared the accuracy of the analysis phase performed by both methods

  4. A Quantitative Analytical Method to Test for Salt Effects on Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadorn, Maik; Bönzli, Eva; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    preparation method with automatic haemocytometry. We found that this new quantitative screening method is highly reliable and consistent with previously reported results. Thus, this method may provide a significant methodological advance in analysis of effects on free-standing model membranes....

  5. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the

  6. Quantitative analysis of iodine in thyroidin. I. Methods of ''dry'' and ''wet'' mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listov, S.A.; Arzamastsev, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    The relative investigations on the quantitative determination of iodine in thyroidin using different modifications of the ''dry'' and ''wet'' mineralization show that in using these methods the difficulties due to the characteristic features of the object of investigation itself and the mineralization method as a whole must be taken into account. The studies show that the most applicable method for the analysis of thyroidin is the method of ''dry'' mineralization with potassium carbonate. A procedure is proposed for a quantitative determination of iodine in thyroidin

  7. The quantitative methods boot camp: teaching quantitative thinking and computing skills to graduate students in the life sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie I Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a "boot camp" in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students' engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014 show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others.

  8. The quantitative methods boot camp: teaching quantitative thinking and computing skills to graduate students in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Melanie I; Gutlerner, Johanna L; Born, Richard T; Springer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a "boot camp" in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students' engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014) show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others.

  9. Comparison study on qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network are proposed. The qualitative method is comprised of an index system, which includes a causation index, an inherent risk index, a consequence index and their corresponding weights. The quantitative method consists of a probability assessment, a consequences analysis and a risk evaluation. The outcome of the qualitative method is a qualitative risk value, and for quantitative method the outcomes are individual risk and social risk. In comparison with previous research, the qualitative method proposed in this paper is particularly suitable for urban natural gas pipeline network, and the quantitative method takes different consequences of accidents into consideration, such as toxic gas diffusion, jet flame, fire ball combustion and UVCE. Two sample urban natural gas pipeline networks are used to demonstrate these two methods. It is indicated that both of the two methods can be applied to practical application, and the choice of the methods depends on the actual basic data of the gas pipelines and the precision requirements of risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. La viticulture bio, une nouvelle modernité

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël Schirmer

    2004-01-01

    Les difficultés d'expansion de la viticulture biologique en France proviennent avant tout de la rupture conséquente qu'elle introduit en ce qui concerne notre rapport à l'espace. La place de l'agriculteur dans la société est refondée, les paysages tels que nous les entendions sont bouleversés. Il semble bien qu'une nouvelle modernité soit en train de se développer, à côté de tant d'autres il est vrai.

  11. [A new method of calibration and positioning in quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Yang, Shi-Yan; Zhang, Yan

    2012-12-01

    This paper aims to establish a new method of calibration and positioning in quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS), using Shuanghuanglian oral liquid as the research object. Establishing relative correction factors with reference chlorogenic acid to other 11 active components (neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, cafferic acid, forsythoside A, scutellarin, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, baicalin and phillyrin wogonoside) in Shuanghuanglian oral liquid by 3 correction methods (multipoint correction, slope correction and quantitative factor correction). At the same time chromatographic peak was positioned by linear regression method. Only one standard uas used to determine the content of 12 components in Shuanghuanglian oral liquid, in stead of needing too many reference substance in quality control. The results showed that within the linear ranges, no significant differences were found in the quantitative results of 12 active constituents in 3 batches of Shuanghuanglian oral liquid determined by 3 correction methods and external standard method (ESM) or standard curve method (SCM). And this method is simpler and quicker than literature methods. The results were accurate and reliable, and had good reproducibility. While the positioning chromatographic peaks by linear regression method was more accurate than relative retention time in literature. The slope and the quantitative factor correction controlling the quality of Chinese traditional medicine is feasible and accurate.

  12. Project-Based Learning in Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory: Using EPA Methods to Guide Student Method Development for Pesticide Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric J.; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Presented is a project-based learning (PBL) laboratory approach for an upper-division environmental chemistry or quantitative analysis course. In this work, a combined laboratory class of 11 environmental chemistry students developed a method based on published EPA methods for the extraction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its…

  13. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for technical performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunig, David L; McShane, Lisa M; Pennello, Gene; Gatsonis, Constantine; Carson, Paul L; Voyvodic, James T; Wahl, Richard L; Kurland, Brenda F; Schwarz, Adam J; Gönen, Mithat; Zahlmann, Gudrun; Kondratovich, Marina V; O'Donnell, Kevin; Petrick, Nicholas; Cole, Patricia E; Garra, Brian; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    Technological developments and greater rigor in the quantitative measurement of biological features in medical images have given rise to an increased interest in using quantitative imaging biomarkers to measure changes in these features. Critical to the performance of a quantitative imaging biomarker in preclinical or clinical settings are three primary metrology areas of interest: measurement linearity and bias, repeatability, and the ability to consistently reproduce equivalent results when conditions change, as would be expected in any clinical trial. Unfortunately, performance studies to date differ greatly in designs, analysis method, and metrics used to assess a quantitative imaging biomarker for clinical use. It is therefore difficult or not possible to integrate results from different studies or to use reported results to design studies. The Radiological Society of North America and the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance with technical, radiological, and statistical experts developed a set of technical performance analysis methods, metrics, and study designs that provide terminology, metrics, and methods consistent with widely accepted metrological standards. This document provides a consistent framework for the conduct and evaluation of quantitative imaging biomarker performance studies so that results from multiple studies can be compared, contrasted, or combined. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION METHOD OF ELEMENTS PRIORITY OF CARTOGRAPHIC GENERALIZATION BASED ON TAXI TRAJECTORY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Long

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the lack of quantitative criteria for the selection of elements in cartographic generalization, this study divided the hotspot areas of passengers into parts at three levels, gave them different weights, and then classified the elements from the different hotspots. On this basis, a method was proposed to quantify the priority of elements selection. Subsequently, the quantitative priority of different cartographic elements was summarized based on this method. In cartographic generalization, the method can be preferred to select the significant elements and discard those that are relatively non-significant.

  15. An improved transmutation method for quantitative determination of the components in multicomponent overlapping chromatograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xueguang; Yu, Zhengliang; Ma, Chaoxiong

    2004-06-01

    An improved method is proposed for the quantitative determination of multicomponent overlapping chromatograms based on a known transmutation method. To overcome the main limitation of the transmutation method caused by the oscillation generated in the transmutation process, two techniques--wavelet transform smoothing and the cubic spline interpolation for reducing data points--were adopted, and a new criterion was also developed. By using the proposed algorithm, the oscillation can be suppressed effectively, and quantitative determination of the components in both the simulated and experimental overlapping chromatograms is successfully obtained.

  16. Simple PVT quantitative method of Kr under high pure N2 condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuesong; Zhang Zibin; Wei Guanyi; Chen Liyun; Zhai Lihua

    2005-01-01

    A simple PVT quantitative method of Kr in the high pure N 2 was studied. Pressure, volume and temperature of the sample gas were measured by three individual methods to obtain the sum sample with food uncertainty. The ratio of Kr/N 2 could measured by GAM 400 quadrupole mass spectrometer. So the quantity of Kr could be calculated with the two measured data above. This method can be suited for quantitative analysis of other simple composed noble gas sample with high pure carrying gas. (authors)

  17. Quantitative bioanalytical and analytical method development of dibenzazepine derivative, carbamazepine: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna A. Datar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioanalytical methods are widely used for quantitative estimation of drugs and their metabolites in physiological matrices. These methods could be applied to studies in areas of human clinical pharmacology and toxicology. The major bioanalytical services are method development, method validation and sample analysis (method application. Various methods such as GC, LC–MS/MS, HPLC, HPTLC, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and UFLC have been used in laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbamazepine in biological samples throughout all phases of clinical research and quality control. The article incorporates various reported methods developed to help analysts in choosing crucial parameters for new method development of carbamazepine and its derivatives and also enumerates metabolites, and impurities reported so far. Keywords: Carbamazepine, HPLC, LC–MS/MS, HPTLC, RP-UFLC, Micellar electrokinetic chromatography

  18. A General Method for Targeted Quantitative Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Chavez

    Full Text Available Chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS provides protein structural information by identifying covalently linked proximal amino acid residues on protein surfaces. The information gained by this technique is complementary to other structural biology methods such as x-ray crystallography, NMR and cryo-electron microscopy[1]. The extension of traditional quantitative proteomics methods with chemical cross-linking can provide information on the structural dynamics of protein structures and protein complexes. The identification and quantitation of cross-linked peptides remains challenging for the general community, requiring specialized expertise ultimately limiting more widespread adoption of the technique. We describe a general method for targeted quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked peptide pairs. We report the adaptation of the widely used, open source software package Skyline, for the analysis of quantitative XL-MS data as a means for data analysis and sharing of methods. We demonstrate the utility and robustness of the method with a cross-laboratory study and present data that is supported by and validates previously published data on quantified cross-linked peptide pairs. This advance provides an easy to use resource so that any lab with access to a LC-MS system capable of performing targeted quantitative analysis can quickly and accurately measure dynamic changes in protein structure and protein interactions.

  19. A quantitative method to determine the orientation of collagen fibers in the dermis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlander, Maril L.; Melis, Paris; Jonker, Ard; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a quantitative microscopic method to determine changes in the orientation of collagen fibers in the dermis resulting from mechanical stress. The method is based on the use of picrosirius red-stained cryostat sections of piglet skin in which collagen fibers reflect light strongly

  20. Quantitative phase analysis of uranium carbide from x-ray diffraction data using the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Mudher, K.D.; Krishnan, K.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative phase analysis of a uranium carbide sample was carried out from the x-ray diffraction data by Rietveld profile fitting method. The method does not require the addition of any reference material. The percentage of UC, UC 2 and UO 2 phases in the sample were determined. (author)

  1. Quantitative Research Methods in Chaos and Complexity: From Probability to Post Hoc Regression Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to qualitative methods presented in chaos and complexity theories in educational research, this article addresses quantitative methods that may show potential for future research studies. Although much in the social and behavioral sciences literature has focused on computer simulations, this article explores current chaos and…

  2. Can You Repeat That Please?: Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Graduate Quantitative Research Methods Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, Thomas M.; Harden, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Graduate students in political science come to the discipline interested in exploring important political questions, such as "What causes war?" or "What policies promote economic growth?" However, they typically do not arrive prepared to address those questions using quantitative methods. Graduate methods instructors must…

  3. A method for the quantitative determination of crystalline phases by X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzenhauser, I.; Jaeger, P.

    1988-01-01

    A mineral analysis method is described for rapid quantitative determination of crystalline substances in those cases in which the sample is present in pure form or in a mixture of known composition. With this method there is no need for prior chemical analysis.

  4. Quantitative Methods in Public Administration: their use and development through time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, S.M.; Tummers, L.G.; Bronkhorst, B.A.C.; Ashikali, T.S.; van Thiel, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to recent debates on research methods in public administration by examining the use of quantitative methods in public administration research. We analyzed 1,605 articles published between 2001-2010 in four leading journals: JPART, PAR, Governance and PA. Results show

  5. Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a…

  6. A general method for bead-enhanced quantitation by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Martin; Jaensson, Elin A.; Orozco, Aaron F.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Corry, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry provides accurate relative cellular quantitation (percent abundance) of cells from diverse samples, but technical limitations of most flow cytometers preclude accurate absolute quantitation. Several quantitation standards are now commercially available which, when added to samples, permit absolute quantitation of CD4+ T cells. However, these reagents are limited by their cost, technical complexity, requirement for additional software and/or limited applicability. Moreover, few studies have validated the use of such reagents in complex biological samples, especially for quantitation of non-T cells. Here we show that addition to samples of known quantities of polystyrene fluorescence standardization beads permits accurate quantitation of CD4+ T cells from complex cell samples. This procedure, here termed single bead-enhanced cytofluorimetry (SBEC), was equally capable of enumerating eosinophils as well as subcellular fragments of apoptotic cells, moieties with very different optical and fluorescent characteristics. Relative to other proprietary products, SBEC is simple, inexpensive and requires no special software, suggesting that the method is suitable for the routine quantitation of most cells and other particles by flow cytometry. PMID:17067632

  7. Reproducibility of CSF quantitative culture methods for estimating rate of clearance in cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, Jonathan; Akampurira, Andrew; Rhein, Joshua; Morawski, Bozena M; Kiggundu, Reuben; Nabeta, Henry W; Musubire, Abdu K; Bahr, Nathan C; Williams, Darlisha A; Bicanic, Tihana; Larsen, Robert A; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures provide a measure of disease severity in cryptococcal meningitis. The fungal clearance rate by quantitative cultures has become a primary endpoint for phase II clinical trials. This study determined the inter-assay accuracy of three different quantitative culture methodologies. Among 91 participants with meningitis symptoms in Kampala, Uganda, during August-November 2013, 305 CSF samples were prospectively collected from patients at multiple time points during treatment. Samples were simultaneously cultured by three methods: (1) St. George's 100 mcl input volume of CSF with five 1:10 serial dilutions, (2) AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) method using 1000, 100, 10 mcl input volumes, and two 1:100 dilutions with 100 and 10 mcl input volume per dilution on seven agar plates; and (3) 10 mcl calibrated loop of undiluted and 1:100 diluted CSF (loop). Quantitative culture values did not statistically differ between St. George-ACTG methods (P= .09) but did for St. George-10 mcl loop (Pmethods was high (r≥0.88). For detecting sterility, the ACTG-method had the highest negative predictive value of 97% (91% St. George, 60% loop), but the ACTG-method had occasional (∼10%) difficulties in quantification due to colony clumping. For CSF clearance rate, St. George-ACTG methods did not differ overall (mean -0.05 ± 0.07 log10CFU/ml/day;P= .14) on a group level; however, individual-level clearance varied. The St. George and ACTG quantitative CSF culture methods produced comparable but not identical results. Quantitative cultures can inform treatment management strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A quantitative method to measure and evaluate the peelability of shrimps (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Dang, Tem Thi; Orlien, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    A novel, standardized method has been developed in order to provide a quantitative description of shrimp peelability. The peeling process was based on the measure of the strength of the shell-muscle attachment of the shrimp using a texture analyzer, and calculated into the peeling work. The self......-consistent method, insensitive of the shrimp size, was proven valid for assessment of ice maturation of shrimps. The quantitative peeling efficiency (peeling work) and performance (degree of shell removal) showed that the decrease in peeling work correlated with the amount of satisfactory peeled shrimps, indicating...... an effective weakening of the shell-muscle attachment. The developed method provides the industry with a quantitative analysis for measurement of peeling efficiency and peeling performance of shrimps. It may be used for comparing different maturation conditions in relation to optimization of shrimps peeling....

  9. Microchromatography of hemoglobins. VIII. A general qualitative and quantitative method in plastic drinking straws and the quantitative analysis of Hb-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, W A; Pace, L A

    1978-03-01

    The microchromatographic procedure for the quantitative analysis of the hemoglobin components in a hemolysate uses columns of DEAE-cellulose in a plastic drinking straw with a glycine-KCN-NaCl developer. Not only may the method be used for the quantitative analysis of Hb-F but also for the analysis of the varied components in mixtures of hemoglobins.

  10. Rapid method for protein quantitation by Bradford assay after elimination of the interference of polysorbate 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongfeng; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Bradford assay is one of the most common methods for measuring protein concentrations. However, some pharmaceutical excipients, such as detergents, interfere with Bradford assay even at low concentrations. Protein precipitation can be used to overcome sample incompatibility with protein quantitation. But the rate of protein recovery caused by acetone precipitation is only about 70%. In this study, we found that sucrose not only could increase the rate of protein recovery after 1 h acetone precipitation, but also did not interfere with Bradford assay. So we developed a method for rapid protein quantitation in protein drugs even if they contained interfering substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative methods for evaluating the efficacy of thalamic deep brain stimulation in patients with essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastensson, Gunilla; Holmberg, Björn; Johnels, Bo; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a safe and efficient method for treatment of disabling tremor in patient with essential tremor (ET). However, successful tremor suppression after surgery requires careful selection of stimulus parameters. Our aim was to examine the possible use of certain quantitative methods for evaluating the efficacy of thalamic DBS in ET patients in clinical practice, and to compare these methods with traditional clinical tests. We examined 22 patients using the Essential Tremor Rating Scale (ETRS) and quantitative assessment of tremor with the stimulator both activated and deactivated. We used an accelerometer (CATSYS tremor Pen) for quantitative measurement of postural tremor, and a eurythmokinesimeter (EKM) to evaluate kinetic tremor in a rapid pointing task. The efficacy of DBS on tremor suppression was prominent irrespective of the method used. The agreement between clinical rating of postural tremor and tremor intensity as measured by the CATSYS tremor pen was relatively high (rs = 0.74). The agreement between kinetic tremor as assessed by the ETRS and the main outcome variable from the EKM test was low (rs = 0.34). The lack of agreement indicates that the EKM test is not comparable with the clinical test. Quantitative methods, such as the CATSYS tremor pen, could be a useful complement to clinical tremor assessment in evaluating the efficacy of DBS in clinical practice. Future studies should evaluate the precision of these methods and long-term impact on tremor suppression, activities of daily living (ADL) function and quality of life.

  12. A direct method for estimating the alpha/beta ratio from quantitative dose-response data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuschke, M.

    1989-01-01

    A one-step optimization method based on a least squares fit of the linear quadratic model to quantitative tissue response data after fractionated irradiation is proposed. Suitable end-points that can be analysed by this method are growth delay, host survival and quantitative biochemical or clinical laboratory data. The functional dependence between the transformed dose and the measured response is approximated by a polynomial. The method allows for the estimation of the alpha/beta ratio and its confidence limits from all observed responses of the different fractionation schedules. Censored data can be included in the analysis. A method to test the appropriateness of the fit is presented. A computer simulation illustrates the method and its accuracy as examplified by the growth delay end point. A comparison with a fit of the linear quadratic model to interpolated isoeffect doses shows the advantages of the direct method. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Mixed methods in gerontological research: Do the qualitative and quantitative data “touch”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between parallel and integrated mixed methods research approaches. Barriers to integrated mixed methods approaches in gerontological research are discussed and critiqued. The author presents examples of mixed methods gerontological research to illustrate approaches to data integration at the levels of data analysis, interpretation, and research reporting. As a summary of the methodological literature, four basic levels of mixed methods data combination are proposed. Opportunities for mixing qualitative and quantitative data are explored using contemporary examples from published studies. Data transformation and visual display, judiciously applied, are proposed as pathways to fuller mixed methods data integration and analysis. Finally, practical strategies for mixing qualitative and quantitative data types are explicated as gerontological research moves beyond parallel mixed methods approaches to achieve data integration. PMID:20077973

  14. The value of quantitative methods for assessment of renal transplant and comparison with physician expertness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firouzi, F.; Fazeli, M.

    2002-01-01

    Radionuclide renal diagnostic studies play an important role in assessing renal allograft. Various quantitative parameters have been derived from the Radionuclide renogram to facilitate and confirm the changes in perfusion and/or function of kidney allograft. These quantitative methods were divided into parameters used for assessing renal graft perfusion and parameters used for evaluating parenchymal function. The blood flow in renal transplants can be quantified by measuring the rate of activity appearance in the kidney graft and the ratio of the integral activity under the transplanted kidney and arterial curves e.g. Hilton's perfusion index and Karachi's kidney/aortic ratio. Quantitative evaluation of graft extraction and excretion was assessed by parameters derived from 123 I/ 131 I-OH, 99 mTc-DTPA or 99 mTc-Mag renogram. In this study we review retrospectively renal transplanted patients scintigraphies that all of them under gone to renal allograft needle biopsy nearly to date of allograft scan. We performed quantitative methods for all patients. We observed perfusion parameters affected by quality of bolus injection and numerical aviations related to changes in the site and size of region of interest. Quantitative methods for renal parenchymal functions were nonspecific and far from defining a specific cause of graft dysfunction. In conclusion, neither perfusion nor parenchymal parameters have not enough diagnostic power for specific diagnosis of graft dysfunction. Physician expertness by using scintigraphic images and renogram curves is more sensitive and specific for diagnosis of renal allograft dysfunction

  15. A comparison of visual and quantitative methods to identify interstitial lung abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kliment, Corrine R.; Araki, Tetsuro; Doyle, Tracy J.; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Jos?e; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Ross, James C.; Est?par, Ra?l San Jos?; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Lederer, David J.; Schwartz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that individuals with interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) on a chest computed tomogram (CT) may have an increased risk to develop a clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). Although methods used to identify individuals with ILA on chest CT have included both automated quantitative and qualitative visual inspection methods, there has been not direct comparison between these two methods. To investigate this relationship, we created lung density met...

  16. Distance-based microfluidic quantitative detection methods for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Li, Jiuxing; Song, Yanling; Zhou, Leiji; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2016-04-07

    Equipment-free devices with quantitative readout are of great significance to point-of-care testing (POCT), which provides real-time readout to users and is especially important in low-resource settings. Among various equipment-free approaches, distance-based visual quantitative detection methods rely on reading the visual signal length for corresponding target concentrations, thus eliminating the need for sophisticated instruments. The distance-based methods are low-cost, user-friendly and can be integrated into portable analytical devices. Moreover, such methods enable quantitative detection of various targets by the naked eye. In this review, we first introduce the concept and history of distance-based visual quantitative detection methods. Then, we summarize the main methods for translation of molecular signals to distance-based readout and discuss different microfluidic platforms (glass, PDMS, paper and thread) in terms of applications in biomedical diagnostics, food safety monitoring, and environmental analysis. Finally, the potential and future perspectives are discussed.

  17. Method of quantitative x-ray diffractometric analysis of Ta-Ta2C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, A.A.; Glazunov, M.P.; Korolev, Yu.M.; Spitsyn, V.I.; Fedoseev, G.K.

    1976-01-01

    The syste86 Ta-Ta 2 C has beemonsidered because of specific features of diffraction patterns of the components, namely, overlapping of the most intensive reflexes of both phases. The method of standard binary system has been used for quantitative analysis. Because of overlapping of the intensive reflexes dsub(1/01)=2.36(Ta 2 C) and dsub(110)=2.33(Ta), the other, most intensive, reflexes have been used for quantitative determination of Ta 2 C and Ta: dsub(103)=1.404 A for tantalum subcarbide and dsub(211)=1.35A for tantalum. Besides, the TaTa 2 C phases have been determined quantitatively with the use of another pair of reflexes: dsub(102)=1.82 A for Ta 2 C and dsub(200)=1.65 A for tantalum. The agreement between the results obtained while performing the quantitative phase analysis is good. To increase reliability and accuracy of the quantitative determination of Ta and Ta 2 C, it is expedient to carry out the analysis with the use of two above-mentioned pairs of reflexes located in different regions of the diffraction spectrum. Thus, the procedure of quantitative analysis of Ta and Ta 2 C in different ratios has been developed taking into account the specific features of the diffraction patterns of these components as well as the ability of Ta 2 C to texture in the process of preparation

  18. Methodological reporting in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods health services research articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-04-01

    Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the transparency of mixed methods studies and

  19. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun, E-mail: khchung@ulsan.ac.kr

    2016-02-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8–29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3–19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. - Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of three lateral force calibration methods for AFM. • Advantages and disadvantages of three different lateral force calibration method. • Implementation of Multi-Load Pivot method as non-contact calibration technique. • The torsional mode correction for Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  20. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8–29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3–19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. - Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of three lateral force calibration methods for AFM. • Advantages and disadvantages of three different lateral force calibration method. • Implementation of Multi-Load Pivot method as non-contact calibration technique. • The torsional mode correction for Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  1. Visual and Quantitative Analysis Methods of Respiratory Patterns for Respiratory Gated PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hye Joo; Jeong, Young Jin; Yoon, Hyun Jin; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kang, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    We integrated visual and quantitative methods for analyzing the stability of respiration using four methods: phase space diagrams, Fourier spectra, Poincaré maps, and Lyapunov exponents. Respiratory patterns of 139 patients were grouped based on the combination of the regularity of amplitude, period, and baseline positions. Visual grading was done by inspecting the shape of diagram and classified into two states: regular and irregular. Quantitation was done by measuring standard deviation of x and v coordinates of Poincaré map (SD x , SD v ) or the height of the fundamental peak ( A 1 ) in Fourier spectrum or calculating the difference between maximal upward and downward drift. Each group showed characteristic pattern on visual analysis. There was difference of quantitative parameters (SD x , SD v , A 1 , and MUD-MDD) among four groups (one way ANOVA, p = 0.0001 for MUD-MDD, SD x , and SD v , p = 0.0002 for A 1 ). In ROC analysis, the cutoff values were 0.11 for SD x (AUC: 0.982, p quantitative indices of respiratory stability and determining quantitative cutoff value for differentiating regular and irregular respiration.

  2. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  3. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Frey, Eric C; Caffo, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  4. Implementation of a quantitative Foucault knife-edge method by means of isophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevlakov, A. P.; Zatsepina, M. E.; Kirillovskii, V. K.

    2014-06-01

    Detailed description of stages of computer processing of the shadowgrams during implementation of a modern quantitative Foucault knife-edge method is presented. The map of wave-front aberrations introduced by errors of an optical surface or a system, along with the results of calculation of the set of required characteristics of image quality, are shown.

  5. Virtualising the Quantitative Research Methods Course: An Island-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglin, James; Reece, John; Baker, Jenalle

    2015-01-01

    Many recent improvements in pedagogical practice have been enabled by the rapid development of innovative technologies, particularly for teaching quantitative research methods and statistics. This study describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a series of specialised computer laboratory sessions. The sessions combined the use of an…

  6. Domestication of smartphones and mobile applications: A quantitative mixed-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reuver, G.A.; Nikou, S; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are finding their way into our daily lives. This paper examines the domestication of smartphones by looking at how the way we use mobile applications affects our everyday routines. Data is collected through an innovative quantitative mixed-method approach, combining log data from

  7. Conductance method for quantitative determination of Photobacterium phosphoreum in fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Mejlholm, Ole; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a sensitive and selective conductance method for quantitative determination of Photobacterium phosphoreum in fresh fish. A calibration curve with a correlation coefficient of -0.981 was established from conductance detection times (DT) for estimation of cell...

  8. Are Teacher Course Evaluations Biased against Faculty That Teach Quantitative Methods Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Stockdale, Myrah R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated graduate students' responses to teacher/course evaluations (TCE) to determine if students' responses were inherently biased against faculty who teach quantitative methods courses. Item response theory (IRT) and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) techniques were utilized for data analysis. Results indicate students…

  9. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  10. Counting Better? An Examination of the Impact of Quantitative Method Teaching on Statistical Anxiety and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John Martyn; Hillier, John; Signoretta, Paola

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of research concerned with students' statistical anxiety and confidence to both complete and learn to complete statistical tasks. Data were collected at the beginning and end of a quantitative method statistics module. Students recognised the value of numeracy skills but felt they were not necessarily relevant for…

  11. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: reply to comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton; Aalders, Maurice C.G.; Faber, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We reply to the comment by Kraszewski et al on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.” We present additional simulations evaluating the proposed window function. We conclude that our simulations show good qualitative agreement with the results of

  12. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2015-04-13

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method provided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  13. Unbiased stereological methods used for the quantitative evaluation of guided bone regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Else Merete; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of unbiased stereological methods for the quantitative evaluation of the amount of regenerated bone. Using the principle of guided bone regeneration the amount of regenerated bone after placement of degradable or non-degradable membranes covering defects...

  14. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research--Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Sami

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with investigating the integration of quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research and whether, in spite of its challenges, it can be of positive benefit to many investigative studies. The paper introduces the topic, defines the terms with which this subject deals and undertakes a literature review to outline…

  15. Quantitative methods for analysing cumulative effects on fish migration success: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J E; Patterson, D A; Martins, E G; Cooke, S J; Hinch, S G

    2012-07-01

    It is often recognized, but seldom addressed, that a quantitative assessment of the cumulative effects, both additive and non-additive, of multiple stressors on fish survival would provide a more realistic representation of the factors that influence fish migration. This review presents a compilation of analytical methods applied to a well-studied fish migration, a more general review of quantitative multivariable methods, and a synthesis on how to apply new analytical techniques in fish migration studies. A compilation of adult migration papers from Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka revealed a limited number of multivariable methods being applied and the sub-optimal reliance on univariable methods for multivariable problems. The literature review of fisheries science, general biology and medicine identified a large number of alternative methods for dealing with cumulative effects, with a limited number of techniques being used in fish migration studies. An evaluation of the different methods revealed that certain classes of multivariable analyses will probably prove useful in future assessments of cumulative effects on fish migration. This overview and evaluation of quantitative methods gathered from the disparate fields should serve as a primer for anyone seeking to quantify cumulative effects on fish migration survival. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Comparison of two methods of quantitation in human studies of biodistribution and radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    1992-01-01

    A simple method of quantitating organ radioactivity content for dosimetry purposes based on relationships between organ count rate and the initial whole body count rate, has been compared with a more rigorous method of absolute quantitation using a transmission scanning technique. Comparisons were on the basis of organ uptake (% administered activity) and resultant organ radiation doses (mGy MBq -1 ) in 6 normal male volunteers given a 99 Tc m -labelled myocardial perfusion imaging agent intravenously at rest and following exercise. In these studies, estimates of individual organ uptakes by the simple method were in error by between +24 and -16% compared with the more accurate method. However, errors on organ dose values were somewhat less and the effective dose was correct to within 3%. (Author)

  17. On the use of quantitative methods in the Danish food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Østergaard, Peder; Kristensen, Kai

    1997-01-01

    Executive summary 1. The paper examines the use of quantitative methods in the Danish food industry and a comparison is made between the food industry and other manufacturing industries. Data was collected in 1991 and 107 manufacturing companies filled in the questionnaire. 20 of the companies were...... orientation is expected to lead to a more intensive use of proactive methods. It will be obvious to compare results from the new investigation with the results presented in this report in order to identify any trends in the use of quantitative methods....... in this paper does not lead to any striking differences between food companies and other manufacturing companies. In both cases there is a heavy concentration on methods used to analyze internal processes. 4. The increasing focus on food products ready for consumption and the general increase in focus on market...

  18. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Duty Machine Tools Remanufacturing Based on Modified Catastrophe Progression Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    shunhe, Li; jianhua, Rao; lin, Gui; weimin, Zhang; degang, Liu

    2017-11-01

    The result of remanufacturing evaluation is the basis for judging whether the heavy duty machine tool can remanufacture in the EOL stage of the machine tool lifecycle management.The objectivity and accuracy of evaluation is the key to the evaluation method.In this paper, the catastrophe progression method is introduced into the quantitative evaluation of heavy duty machine tools’ remanufacturing,and the results are modified by the comprehensive adjustment method,which makes the evaluation results accord with the standard of human conventional thinking.Using the catastrophe progression method to establish the heavy duty machine tools’ quantitative evaluation model,to evaluate the retired TK6916 type CNC floor milling-boring machine’s remanufacturing.The evaluation process is simple,high quantification,the result is objective.

  19. Quantitative evaluation methods of skin condition based on texture feature parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantitatively evaluate the improvement of the skin condition after using skin care products and beauty, a quantitative evaluation method for skin surface state and texture is presented, which is convenient, fast and non-destructive. Human skin images were collected by image sensors. Firstly, the median filter of the 3 × 3 window is used and then the location of the hairy pixels on the skin is accurately detected according to the gray mean value and color information. The bilinear interpolation is used to modify the gray value of the hairy pixels in order to eliminate the negative effect of noise and tiny hairs on the texture. After the above pretreatment, the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM is calculated. On the basis of this, the four characteristic parameters, including the second moment, contrast, entropy and correlation, and their mean value are calculated at 45 ° intervals. The quantitative evaluation model of skin texture based on GLCM is established, which can calculate the comprehensive parameters of skin condition. Experiments show that using this method evaluates the skin condition, both based on biochemical indicators of skin evaluation methods in line, but also fully consistent with the human visual experience. This method overcomes the shortcomings of the biochemical evaluation method of skin damage and long waiting time, also the subjectivity and fuzziness of the visual evaluation, which achieves the non-destructive, rapid and quantitative evaluation of skin condition. It can be used for health assessment or classification of the skin condition, also can quantitatively evaluate the subtle improvement of skin condition after using skin care products or stage beauty.

  20. Quantitative evaluation methods of skin condition based on texture feature parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Chen, Tianhua; Wang, Xiaoyi; Chang, Zhineng; Shao, Siqi; Zhao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    In order to quantitatively evaluate the improvement of the skin condition after using skin care products and beauty, a quantitative evaluation method for skin surface state and texture is presented, which is convenient, fast and non-destructive. Human skin images were collected by image sensors. Firstly, the median filter of the 3 × 3 window is used and then the location of the hairy pixels on the skin is accurately detected according to the gray mean value and color information. The bilinear interpolation is used to modify the gray value of the hairy pixels in order to eliminate the negative effect of noise and tiny hairs on the texture. After the above pretreatment, the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated. On the basis of this, the four characteristic parameters, including the second moment, contrast, entropy and correlation, and their mean value are calculated at 45 ° intervals. The quantitative evaluation model of skin texture based on GLCM is established, which can calculate the comprehensive parameters of skin condition. Experiments show that using this method evaluates the skin condition, both based on biochemical indicators of skin evaluation methods in line, but also fully consistent with the human visual experience. This method overcomes the shortcomings of the biochemical evaluation method of skin damage and long waiting time, also the subjectivity and fuzziness of the visual evaluation, which achieves the non-destructive, rapid and quantitative evaluation of skin condition. It can be used for health assessment or classification of the skin condition, also can quantitatively evaluate the subtle improvement of skin condition after using skin care products or stage beauty.

  1. Validation of quantitative 1H NMR method for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maiara da S.

    2013-01-01

    The need for effective and reliable quality control in products from pharmaceutical industries renders the analyses of their active ingredients and constituents of great importance. This study presents the theoretical basis of ¹H NMR for quantitative analyses and an example of the method validation according to Resolution RE N. 899 by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), in which the compound paracetamol was the active ingredient. All evaluated parameters (selectivity, linearity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness) showed satisfactory results. It was concluded that a single NMR measurement provides structural and quantitative information of active components and excipients in the sample. (author)

  2. A Simple Linear Regression Method for Quantitative Trait Loci Linkage Analysis With Censored Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Carl A.; McRae, Allan F.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    Standard quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping techniques commonly assume that the trait is both fully observed and normally distributed. When considering survival or age-at-onset traits these assumptions are often incorrect. Methods have been developed to map QTL for survival traits; however, they are both computationally intensive and not available in standard genome analysis software packages. We propose a grouped linear regression method for the analysis of continuous survival data. Using...

  3. A collimator optimization method for quantitative imaging: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xing; Frey, Eric C

    2013-08-01

    Post-therapy quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has shown great potential to provide reliable activity estimates, which are essential for dose verification. Typically 90Y imaging is performed with high- or medium-energy collimators. However, the energy spectrum of 90Y bremsstrahlung photons is substantially different than typical for these collimators. In addition, dosimetry requires quantitative images, and collimators are not typically optimized for such tasks. Optimizing a collimator for 90Y imaging is both novel and potentially important. Conventional optimization methods are not appropriate for 90Y bremsstrahlung photons, which have a continuous and broad energy distribution. In this work, the authors developed a parallel-hole collimator optimization method for quantitative tasks that is particularly applicable to radionuclides with complex emission energy spectra. The authors applied the proposed method to develop an optimal collimator for quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT in the context of microsphere radioembolization. To account for the effects of the collimator on both the bias and the variance of the activity estimates, the authors used the root mean squared error (RMSE) of the volume of interest activity estimates as the figure of merit (FOM). In the FOM, the bias due to the null space of the image formation process was taken in account. The RMSE was weighted by the inverse mass to reflect the application to dosimetry; for a different application, more relevant weighting could easily be adopted. The authors proposed a parameterization for the collimator that facilitates the incorporation of the important factors (geometric sensitivity, geometric resolution, and septal penetration fraction) determining collimator performance, while keeping the number of free parameters describing the collimator small (i.e., two parameters). To make the optimization results for quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT more

  4. Assessment of acute myocarditis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: Comparison of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriaco, Massimo; Nappi, Carmela; Puglia, Marta; De Giorgi, Marco; Dell'Aversana, Serena; Cuocolo, Renato; Ponsiglione, Andrea; De Giorgi, Igino; Polito, Maria Vincenza; Klain, Michele; Piscione, Federico; Pace, Leonardo; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2017-10-26

    To compare cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) qualitative and quantitative analysis methods for the noninvasive assessment of myocardial inflammation in patients with suspected acute myocarditis (AM). A total of 61 patients with suspected AM underwent coronary angiography and CMR. Qualitative analysis was performed applying Lake-Louise Criteria (LLC), followed by quantitative analysis based on the evaluation of edema ratio (ER) and global relative enhancement (RE). Diagnostic performance was assessed for each method by measuring the area under the curves (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic analyses. The final diagnosis of AM was based on symptoms and signs suggestive of cardiac disease, evidence of myocardial injury as defined by electrocardiogram changes, elevated troponin I, exclusion of coronary artery disease by coronary angiography, and clinical and echocardiographic follow-up at 3 months after admission to the chest pain unit. In all patients, coronary angiography did not show significant coronary artery stenosis. Troponin I levels and creatine kinase were higher in patients with AM compared to those without (both P quantitative (ER 0.89 and global RE 0.80) analyses were also similar. Qualitative and quantitative CMR analysis methods show similar diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of AM. These findings suggest that a simplified approach using a shortened CMR protocol including only T2-weighted STIR sequences might be useful to rule out AM in patients with acute coronary syndrome and normal coronary angiography.

  5. LHC 2008 lectures "Une nouvelle vision du monde"

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The history of the science of the Universe and the science of matter have been marked by a small number of "revolutions" that have turned our understanding of the infinitesimally large and the infinitesimally small on its head. New ways of looking at the world have come about sometimes through conceptual advances and sometimes through innovations in scientific instrumentation. How do things stand at the beginning of the 21st century? Will today’s large-scale machine projects like the LHC and gravitational wave detectors pave the way for a new scientific revolution? Thursday, 15 May 2008 at 8.00 p.m. Une nouvelle vision du monde Jean-Pierre Luminet, Research Director at the CNRS The Globe, first floor No specialist knowledge required. Entrance free. To reserve call + 41 (0) 22 767 76 76 http://www.cern.ch/globe

  6. Examining Elementary Preservice Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs: Combination of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem ŞAHİN-TAŞKIN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines elementary preservice teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. In the quantitative part, data were collected from 122 final year preservice teachers. The instrument developed by Tschannen–Moran and Woolfolk–Hoy (2001 was administered to preservice teachers. Findings of the quantitative part revealed that preservice teachers’ self-efficacy towards teaching profession was not fully adequate. There were no differences amongst preservice teachers’ self-efficacy towards teaching regarding gender and achievement. In the qualitative part of the study, preservice teachers responded to factors involving Student Engagement and Classroom Management based on experiences that they gained in teaching practice. However, their explanation relied on their theoretical knowledge regarding the Instructional Strategies factor. This could be explained as they have lack of experiences regarding this factor

  7. NOUVELLES PERSPECTIVES EN ONCOLOGIE MEDICALE MEDECINE MOLECULAIRE ET SES PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves BLAY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available La médecine  moléculaire du cancer  s’appuie sur l’identification d’anomalies génomique de  l’ADN des cellules tumorales, permettant de guider le traitement des patients, en choisissant des inhibiteurs agissant sur les protéines mutées codées par les gènes mutés. Cependant, on assiste depuis 10 ans à l’émergence très rapide d’un nouveau corpus de connaissance décrivant les anomalies génomiques des cellules cancéreuses au sein des programmes internationaux  comme ICGC ou TCGA, permettant de déboucher sur de nouvelles classifications nosologiques mais démontrant aussi l’extrème  complexité et variabilité clonale des cellules cancéreuses  chez le patient humain. Il s’agit désormais d’utiliser ces données  nouvelles de manière  efficace. Ceci requiert la constitution de plateformes de diagnostic  explorant progressivement avec  une plus grande profondeur  les anomalies moléculaire de chaque patient individuel, et l’organisation de réunions de concertation pluridisciplinaires moléculaire permettant d’intégrer ces données au contexte  clinique et global du patient, et requérant la  contribution  croissante des bio-informaticiens. Ce  court article  fait le point  sur l’évolution de cette médecine moléculaire.

  8. Quantitative analysis of multiple high-resolution mass spectrometry images using chemometric methods: quantitation of chlordecone in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Saeedeh; Parastar, Hadi

    2018-05-15

    In this work, a chemometrics-based strategy is developed for quantitative mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). In this regard, quantification of chlordecone as a carcinogenic organochlorinated pesticide (C10Cll0O) in mouse liver using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MSI (MALDI-MSI) method is used as a case study. The MSI datasets corresponded to 1, 5 and 10 days of mouse exposure to the standard chlordecone in the quantity range of 0 to 450 μg g-1. The binning approach in the m/z direction is used to group high resolution m/z values and to reduce the big data size. To consider the effect of bin size on the quality of results, three different bin sizes of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 were chosen. Afterwards, three-way MSI data arrays (two spatial and one m/z dimensions) for seven standards and four unknown samples were column-wise augmented with m/z values as the common mode. Then, these datasets were analyzed using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) using proper constraints. The resolved mass spectra were used for identification of chlordecone in the presence of a complex background and interference. Additionally, the augmented spatial profiles were post-processed and 2D images for each component were obtained in calibration and unknown samples. The sum of these profiles was utilized to set the calibration curve and to obtain the analytical figures of merit (AFOMs). Inspection of the results showed that the lower bin size (i.e., 0.25) provides more accurate results. Finally, the obtained results by MCR for three datasets were compared with those of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and MALDI-MSI. The results showed that the MCR-assisted method gives a higher amount of chlordecone than MALDI-MSI and a lower amount than GC-MS. It is concluded that a combination of chemometric methods with MSI can be considered as an alternative way for MSI quantification.

  9. The laboratory of quantitative methods in historic monument research at the CTU Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Cechak, T.; Kubelik, M.; Pavelka, K.; Pavlik, M.

    2001-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Historic Monument Research' has been established at the Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation of the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be, investigated. In the first phase, one investigative method was established for each of the above groups: X-ray fluorescence as the analytic method, thermoluminescence for dating and photogrammetry for surveying. The first results demonstrate the need and usefulness of these methods for investigations in the rich architectural heritage of the Czech Republic.

  10. Advantages of a Dynamic RGGG Method in Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Ki; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Various researches have been conducted in order to analyze dynamic interactions among components and process variables in nuclear power plants which cannot be handled by static reliability analysis methods such as conventional fault tree and event tree techniques. A dynamic reliability graph with general gates (RGGG) method was proposed for an intuitive modeling of dynamic systems and it enables one to easily analyze huge and complex systems. In this paper, advantages of the dynamic RGGG method are assessed through two stages: system modeling and quantitative analysis. And then a software tool for dynamic RGGG method is introduced and an application to a real dynamic system is accompanied

  11. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of clobenzorex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, J T; Valtier, S

    1999-01-01

    Drugs metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine are potentially significant concerns in the interpretation of amphetamine-positive urine drug-testing results. One of these compounds, clobenzorex, is an anorectic drug that is available in many countries. Clobenzorex (2-chlorobenzylamphetamine) is metabolized to amphetamine by the body and excreted in the urine. Following administration, the parent compound was detectable for a shorter time than the metabolite amphetamine, which could be detected for days. Because of the potential complication posed to the interpretation of amphetamin-positive drug tests following administration of this drug, the viability of a current amphetamine procedure using liquid-liquid extraction and conversion to the heptafluorobutyryl derivative followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was evaluated for identification and quantitation of clobenzorex. Qualitative identification of the drug was relatively straightforward. Quantitative analysis proved to be a far more challenging process. Several compounds were evaluated for use as the internal standard in this method, including methamphetamine-d11, fenfluramine, benzphetamine, and diphenylamine. Results using these compounds proved to be less than satisfactory because of poor reproducibility of the quantitative values. Because of its similar chromatographic properties to the parent drug, the compound 3-chlorobenzylamphetamine (3-Cl-clobenzorex) was evaluated in this study as the internal standard for the quantitation of clobenzorex. Precision studies showed 3-Cl-clobenzorex to produce accurate and reliable quantitative results (within-run relative standard deviations [RSDs] clobenzorex.

  12. The use of digital PCR to improve the application of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonshire, Alison S; O'Sullivan, Denise M; Honeyborne, Isobella; Jones, Gerwyn; Karczmarczyk, Maria; Pavšič, Jernej; Gutteridge, Alice; Milavec, Mojca; Mendoza, Pablo; Schimmel, Heinz; Van Heuverswyn, Fran; Gorton, Rebecca; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Borroni, Emanuele; Harris, Kathryn; Barnard, Marinus; Heydenrych, Anthenette; Ndusilo, Norah; Wallis, Carole L; Pillay, Keshree; Barry, Thomas; Reddington, Kate; Richter, Elvira; Mozioğlu, Erkan; Akyürek, Sema; Yalçınkaya, Burhanettin; Akgoz, Muslum; Žel, Jana; Foy, Carole A; McHugh, Timothy D; Huggett, Jim F

    2016-08-03

    Real-time PCR (qPCR) based methods, such as the Xpert MTB/RIF, are increasingly being used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). While qualitative methods are adequate for diagnosis, the therapeutic monitoring of TB patients requires quantitative methods currently performed using smear microscopy. The potential use of quantitative molecular measurements for therapeutic monitoring has been investigated but findings have been variable and inconclusive. The lack of an adequate reference method and reference materials is a barrier to understanding the source of such disagreement. Digital PCR (dPCR) offers the potential for an accurate method for quantification of specific DNA sequences in reference materials which can be used to evaluate quantitative molecular methods for TB treatment monitoring. To assess a novel approach for the development of quality assurance materials we used dPCR to quantify specific DNA sequences in a range of prototype reference materials and evaluated accuracy between different laboratories and instruments. The materials were then also used to evaluate the quantitative performance of qPCR and Xpert MTB/RIF in eight clinical testing laboratories. dPCR was found to provide results in good agreement with the other methods tested and to be highly reproducible between laboratories without calibration even when using different instruments. When the reference materials were analysed with qPCR and Xpert MTB/RIF by clinical laboratories, all laboratories were able to correctly rank the reference materials according to concentration, however there was a marked difference in the measured magnitude. TB is a disease where the quantification of the pathogen could lead to better patient management and qPCR methods offer the potential to rapidly perform such analysis. However, our findings suggest that when precisely characterised materials are used to evaluate qPCR methods, the measurement result variation is too high to determine whether molecular quantification

  13. Quantitative data analysis methods for 3D microstructure characterization of Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    through percolating networks and reaction rates at the triple phase boundaries. Quantitative analysis of microstructure is thus important both in research and development of optimal microstructure design and fabrication. Three dimensional microstructure characterization in particular holds great promise...... for gaining further fundamental understanding of how microstructure affects performance. In this work, methods for automatic 3D characterization of microstructure are studied: from the acquisition of 3D image data by focused ion beam tomography to the extraction of quantitative measures that characterize...... the microstructure. The methods are exemplied by the analysis of Ni-YSZ and LSC-CGO electrode samples. Automatic methods for preprocessing the raw 3D image data are developed. The preprocessing steps correct for errors introduced by the image acquisition by the focused ion beam serial sectioning. Alignment...

  14. A quantitative assessment method for the NPP operators' diagnosis of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. C.; Seong, P. H.

    2003-01-01

    In this research, we developed a quantitative model for the operators' diagnosis of the accident situation when an accident occurs in a nuclear power plant. After identifying the occurrence probabilities of accidents, the unavailabilities of various information sources, and the causal relationship between accidents and information sources, Bayesian network is used for the analysis of the change in the occurrence probabilities of accidents as the operators receive the information related to the status of the plant. The developed method is applied to a simple example case and it turned out that the developed method is a systematic quantitative analysis method which can cope with complex relationship between the accidents and information sources and various variables such accident occurrence probabilities and unavailabilities of various information sources

  15. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefel, Denis, E-mail: Denis.Kiefel@airbus.com, E-mail: Rainer.Stoessel@airbus.com; Stoessel, Rainer, E-mail: Denis.Kiefel@airbus.com, E-mail: Rainer.Stoessel@airbus.com [Airbus Group Innovations, Munich (Germany); Grosse, Christian, E-mail: Grosse@tum.de [Technical University Munich (Germany)

    2015-03-31

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented.

  16. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefel, Denis; Stoessel, Rainer; Grosse, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented

  17. [Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize.

  18. SOCIOLOGICAL MEDIA: MAXIMIZING STUDENT INTEREST IN QUANTITATIVE METHODS VIA COLLABORATIVE USE OF DIGITAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick T. Tucker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available College sociology lecturers are tasked with inspiring student interest in quantitative methods despite widespread student anxiety about the subject, and a tendency for students to relieve classroom anxiety through habitual web browsing. In this paper, the author details the results of a pedagogical program whereby students at a New York City community college used industry-standard software to design, conduct, and analyze sociological surveys of one another, with the aim of inspiring student interest in quantitative methods and enhancing technical literacy. A chi-square test of independence was performed to determine the effect of the pedagogical process on the students’ ability to discuss sociological methods unrelated to their surveys in their final papers, compared with the author’s students from the previous semester who did not undergo the pedagogical program. The relation between these variables was significant, χ 2(3, N=36 = 9.8, p = .02. Findings suggest that community college students, under lecturer supervision, with minimal prior statistical knowledge, and access to digital media can collaborate in small groups to create and conduct sociological surveys, and discuss methods and results in limited classroom time. College sociology lecturers, instead of combatting student desire to use digital media, should harness this desire to advance student mastery of quantitative methods.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Ductile Iron Microstructure – A Comparison of Selected Methods for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrzygłód B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stereological description of dispersed microstructure is not an easy task and remains the subject of continuous research. In its practical aspect, a correct stereological description of this type of structure is essential for the analysis of processes of coagulation and spheroidisation, or for studies of relationships between structure and properties. One of the most frequently used methods for an estimation of the density Nv and size distribution of particles is the Scheil - Schwartz - Saltykov method. In this article, the authors present selected methods for quantitative assessment of ductile iron microstructure, i.e. the Scheil - Schwartz - Saltykov method, which allows a quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids using measurements and counts performed on two-dimensional cross-sections of these sets (microsections and quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids by X-ray computed microtomography, which is an interesting alternative for structural studies compared to traditional methods of microstructure imaging since, as a result, the analysis provides a three-dimensional imaging of microstructures examined.

  20. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  1. Preliminary research on quantitative methods of water resources carrying capacity based on water resources balance sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqiu; Huang, Xiaorong; Gao, Linyun; Guo, Biying; Ma, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Water resources are not only basic natural resources, but also strategic economic resources and ecological control factors. Water resources carrying capacity constrains the sustainable development of regional economy and society. Studies of water resources carrying capacity can provide helpful information about how the socioeconomic system is both supported and restrained by the water resources system. Based on the research of different scholars, major problems in the study of water resources carrying capacity were summarized as follows: the definition of water resources carrying capacity is not yet unified; the methods of carrying capacity quantification based on the definition of inconsistency are poor in operability; the current quantitative research methods of water resources carrying capacity did not fully reflect the principles of sustainable development; it is difficult to quantify the relationship among the water resources, economic society and ecological environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a better quantitative evaluation method to determine the regional water resources carrying capacity. This paper proposes a new approach to quantifying water resources carrying capacity (that is, through the compilation of the water resources balance sheet) to get a grasp of the regional water resources depletion and water environmental degradation (as well as regional water resources stock assets and liabilities), figure out the squeeze of socioeconomic activities on the environment, and discuss the quantitative calculation methods and technical route of water resources carrying capacity which are able to embody the substance of sustainable development.

  2. Quantitative EDXS analysis of organic materials using the ζ-factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladischer, Stefanie; Grogger, Werner

    2014-01-01

    In this study we successfully applied the ζ-factor method to perform quantitative X-ray analysis of organic thin films consisting of light elements. With its ability to intrinsically correct for X-ray absorption, this method significantly improved the quality of the quantification as well as the accuracy of the results compared to conventional techniques in particular regarding the quantification of light elements. We describe in detail the process of determining sensitivity factors (ζ-factors) using a single standard specimen and the involved parameter optimization for the estimation of ζ-factors for elements not contained in the standard. The ζ-factor method was then applied to perform quantitative analysis of organic semiconducting materials frequently used in organic electronics. Finally, the results were verified and discussed concerning validity and accuracy. - Highlights: • The ζ-factor method is used for quantitative EDXS analysis of light elements. • We describe the process of determining ζ-factors from a single standard in detail. • Organic semiconducting materials are successfully quantified

  3. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  4. Quantitative electromechanical impedance method for nondestructive testing based on a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Ji; Tan, Chi; Li, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    The electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, which holds great promise in structural health monitoring (SHM), is usually treated as a qualitative method. In this work, we proposed a quantitative EMI method based on a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever using the sample’s local contact stiffness (LCS) as the identification parameter for nondestructive testing (NDT). Firstly, the equivalent circuit of the contact vibration system was established and the analytical relationship between the cantilever’s contact resonance frequency and the LCS was obtained. As the LCS is sensitive to typical defects such as voids and delamination, the proposed EMI method can then be used for NDT. To verify the equivalent circuit model, two piezoelectric bimorph cantilevers were fabricated and their free resonance frequencies were measured and compared with theoretical predictions. It was found that the stiff cantilever’s EMI can be well predicted by the equivalent circuit model while the soft cantilever’s cannot. Then, both cantilevers were assembled into a homemade NDT system using a three-axis motorized stage for LCS scanning. Testing results on a specimen with a prefabricated defect showed that the defect could be clearly reproduced in the LCS image, indicating the validity of the quantitative EMI method for NDT. It was found that the single-frequency mode of the EMI method can also be used for NDT, which is faster but not quantitative. Finally, several issues relating to the practical application of the NDT method were discussed. The proposed EMI-based NDT method offers a simple and rapid solution for damage evaluation in engineering structures and may also shed some light on EMI-based SHM. (paper)

  5. EDF Energies Nouvelles. Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2008 Prepared in accordance with IFRSs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles's registration document for the year 2008. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, employees, shareholders, etc. The document includes the group's consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2008

  6. EDF Energies Nouvelles. Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2007 Prepared in accordance with IFRSs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles's registration document for the year 2007. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, employees, shareholders, etc. The document includes the group's consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2007

  7. EDF Energies Nouvelles. Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2006 Prepared in accordance with IFRSs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles's registration document for the year 2006. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, employees, shareholders, etc. The document includes the group's Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2006

  8. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  9. Dual respiratory and cardiac motion estimation in PET imaging: Methods design and quantitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Wang, Jizhe; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate four post-reconstruction respiratory and cardiac (R&C) motion vector field (MVF) estimation methods for cardiac 4D PET data. In Method 1, the dual R&C motions were estimated directly from the dual R&C gated images. In Method 2, respiratory motion (RM) and cardiac motion (CM) were separately estimated from the respiratory gated only and cardiac gated only images. The effects of RM on CM estimation were modeled in Method 3 by applying an image-based RM correction on the cardiac gated images before CM estimation, the effects of CM on RM estimation were neglected. Method 4 iteratively models the mutual effects of RM and CM during dual R&C motion estimations. Realistic simulation data were generated for quantitative evaluation of four methods. Almost noise-free PET projection data were generated from the 4D XCAT phantom with realistic R&C MVF using Monte Carlo simulation. Poisson noise was added to the scaled projection data to generate additional datasets of two more different noise levels. All the projection data were reconstructed using a 4D image reconstruction method to obtain dual R&C gated images. The four dual R&C MVF estimation methods were applied to the dual R&C gated images and the accuracy of motion estimation was quantitatively evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimated MVFs. Results show that among the four estimation methods, Methods 2 performed the worst for noise-free case while Method 1 performed the worst for noisy cases in terms of quantitative accuracy of the estimated MVF. Methods 4 and 3 showed comparable results and achieved RMSE lower by up to 35% than that in Method 1 for noisy cases. In conclusion, we have developed and evaluated 4 different post-reconstruction R&C MVF estimation methods for use in 4D PET imaging. Comparison of the performance of four methods on simulated data indicates separate R&C estimation with modeling of RM before CM estimation (Method 3) to be

  10. Domestication of smartphones and mobile applications: A quantitative mixed-method study

    OpenAIRE

    de Reuver, G.A.; Nikou, S; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are finding their way into our daily lives. This paper examines the domestication of smartphones by looking at how the way we use mobile applications affects our everyday routines. Data is collected through an innovative quantitative mixed-method approach, combining log data from smartphones and survey (perception) data. We find that there are dimensions of domestication that explain how the use of smartphones affects our daily routines. Contributions are stronger for downloaded a...

  11. Forecasting with quantitative methods the impact of special events in time series

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Quantitative methods are very successful for producing baseline forecasts of time series; however these models fail to forecast neither the timing nor the impact of special events such as promotions or strikes. In most of the cases the timing of such events is not known so they are usually referred as shocks (economics) or special events (forecasting). Sometimes the timing of such events is known a priori (i.e. a future promotion); but even then the impact of the forthcom...

  12. Method of quantitative analysis of superconducting metal-conducting composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, V.N.; Zhuravlev, V.V.; Petranovskij, V.P.; Pimenov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Technique for quantitative analysis of superconducting metal-containing composite materials, SnO 2 -InSn, WO 3 -InW, Zn)-InZn in particular, has been developed. The method of determining metal content in a composite is based on the dependence of superconducting transition temperature on alloy composition. Sensitivity of temperature determination - 0.02K, error of analysis for InSn system - 0.5%

  13. A New Green Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Enrofloxacin by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Camila Tavares; Kogawa, Ana Carolina; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2018-05-18

    Background: A green analytical chemistry method was developed for quantification of enrofloxacin in tablets. The drug, a second-generation fluoroquinolone, was first introduced in veterinary medicine for the treatment of various bacterial species. Objective: This study proposed to develop, validate, and apply a reliable, low-cost, fast, and simple IR spectroscopy method for quantitative routine determination of enrofloxacin in tablets. Methods: The method was completely validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines, showing accuracy, precision, selectivity, robustness, and linearity. Results: It was linear over the concentration range of 1.0-3.0 mg with correlation coefficients >0.9999 and LOD and LOQ of 0.12 and 0.36 mg, respectively. Conclusions: Now that this IR method has met performance qualifications, it can be adopted and applied for the analysis of enrofloxacin tablets for production process control. The validated method can also be utilized to quantify enrofloxacin in tablets and thus is an environmentally friendly alternative for the routine analysis of enrofloxacin in quality control. Highlights: A new green method for the quantitative analysis of enrofloxacin by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy was validated. It is a fast, clean and low-cost alternative for the evaluation of enrofloxacin tablets.

  14. A scanning electron microscope method for automated, quantitative analysis of mineral matter in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Ward, C.R. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, NSW (Australia)

    1996-07-01

    Quantitative mineralogical analysis has been carried out in a series of nine coal samples from Australia, South Africa and China using a newly-developed automated image analysis system coupled to a scanning electron microscopy. The image analysis system (QEM{asterisk}SEM) gathers X-ray spectra and backscattered electron data from a number of points on a conventional grain-mount polished section under the SEM, and interprets the data from each point in mineralogical terms. The cumulative data in each case was integrated to provide a volumetric modal analysis of the species present in the coal samples, expressed as percentages of the respective coals` mineral matter. Comparison was made of the QEM{asterisk}SEM results to data obtained from the same samples using other methods of quantitative mineralogical analysis, namely X-ray diffraction of the low-temperature oxygen-plasma ash and normative calculation from the (high-temperature) ash analysis and carbonate CO{sub 2} data. Good agreement was obtained from all three methods for quartz in the coals, and also for most of the iron-bearing minerals. The correlation between results from the different methods was less strong, however, for individual clay minerals, or for minerals such as calcite, dolomite and phosphate species that made up only relatively small proportions of the mineral matter. The image analysis approach, using the electron microscope for mineralogical studies, has significant potential as a supplement to optical microscopy in quantitative coal characterisation. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. A quantitative analysis of Tl-201 myocardial perfusion image with special reference to circumferential profile method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Hajime

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) was attempted by using circumferential profile method (CPM) and the first purpose of this study is to assess the clinical utility of this method for the detection of myocardial ischemia. In patients with coronary artery disease, CPM analysis to exercise T1-MPI showed high sensitivity (9/12, 75%) and specificity (9/9, 100%), whereas exercise ECG showed high sensitivity (9/12, 75%), but relatively low specificity (7/9, 78%). In patients with myocardial infarction, CPM also showed high sensitivity (34/38, 89%) for the detection of myocardial necrosis, compared with visual interpretation (31/38, 81%) and with ECG (31/38, 81%). Defect score was correlated well with the number of abnormal Q waves. In exercise study, CPM was also sensitive to the change of perfusion defect in T1-MPI produced by exercise. So the results indicate that CPM is a good method not only quantitatively but also objectively to analyze T1-MPI. Although ECG is the most commonly used diagnostic tool for ischemic heart disease, several exercise induced ischemic changes in ECG have been still on discussion as criteria. So the second purpose of this study is to evaluate these ischemic ECG changes by exercise T1-MPI analized quantitatively. ST depression (ischemic 1 mm and junctional 2 mm or more), ST elevation (1 mm or more), and coronary T wave reversion in exercise ECG were though to be ischemic changes. (J.P.N.)

  16. Sustainability appraisal. Quantitative methods and mathematical techniques for environmental performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erechtchoukova, Marina G.; Khaiter, Peter A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). School of Information Technology; Golinska, Paulina (eds.) [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2013-06-01

    The book will present original research papers on the quantitative methods and techniques for the evaluation of the sustainability of business operations and organizations' overall environmental performance. The book contributions will describe modern methods and approaches applicable to the multi-faceted problem of sustainability appraisal and will help to fulfil generic frameworks presented in the literature with the specific quantitative techniques so needed in practice. The scope of the book is interdisciplinary in nature, making it of interest to environmental researchers, business managers and process analysts, information management professionals and environmental decision makers, who will find valuable sources of information for their work-related activities. Each chapter will provide sufficient background information, a description of problems, and results, making the book useful for a wider audience. Additional software support is not required. One of the most important issues in developing sustainable management strategies and incorporating ecodesigns in production, manufacturing and operations management is the assessment of the sustainability of business operations and organizations' overall environmental performance. The book presents the results of recent studies on sustainability assessment. It provides a solid reference for researchers in academia and industrial practitioners on the state-of-the-art in sustainability appraisal including the development and application of sustainability indices, quantitative methods, models and frameworks for the evaluation of current and future welfare outcomes, recommendations on data collection and processing for the evaluation of organizations' environmental performance, and eco-efficiency approaches leading to business process re-engineering.

  17. A method of quantitative risk assessment for transmission pipeline carrying natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Young-Do; Ahn, Bum Jong

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory authorities in many countries are moving away from prescriptive approaches for keeping natural gas pipelines safe. As an alternative, risk management based on a quantitative assessment is being considered to improve the level of safety. This paper focuses on the development of a simplified method for the quantitative risk assessment for natural gas pipelines and introduces parameters of fatal length and cumulative fatal length. The fatal length is defined as the integrated fatality along the pipeline associated with hypothetical accidents. The cumulative fatal length is defined as the section of pipeline in which an accident leads to N or more fatalities. These parameters can be estimated easily by using the information of pipeline geometry and population density of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS). To demonstrate the proposed method, individual and societal risks for a sample pipeline have been estimated from the historical data of European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group and BG Transco. With currently acceptable criteria taken into account for individual risk, the minimum proximity of the pipeline to occupied buildings is approximately proportional to the square root of the operating pressure of the pipeline. The proposed method of quantitative risk assessment may be useful for risk management during the planning and building stages of a new pipeline, and modification of a buried pipeline

  18. Quantitative analysis of Tl-201 myocardial perfusion image with special reference to circumferential profile method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyanaga, Hajime [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1982-08-01

    A quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) was attempted by using circumferential profile method (CPM) and the first purpose of this study is to assess the clinical utility of this method for the detection of myocardial ischemia. In patients with coronary artery disease, CPM analysis to exercise T1-MPI showed high sensitivity (9/12, 75%) and specificity (9/9, 100%), whereas exercise ECG showed high sensitivity (9/12, 75%), but relatively low specificity (7/9, 78%). In patients with myocardial infarction, CPM also showed high sensitivity (34/38, 89%) for the detection of myocardial necrosis, compared with visual interpretation (31/38, 81%) and with ECG (31/38, 81%). Defect score was correlated well with the number of abnormal Q waves. In exercise study, CPM was also sensitive to the change of perfusion defect in T1-MPI produced by exercise. So the results indicate that CPM is a good method not only quantitatively but also objectively to analyze T1-MPI. Although ECG is the most commonly used diagnostic tool for ischemic heart disease, several exercise induced ischemic changes in ECG have been still on discussion as criteria. So the second purpose of this study is to evaluate these ischemic ECG changes by exercise T1-MPI analized quantitatively. ST depression (ischemic 1 mm and junctional 2 mm or more), ST elevation (1 mm or more), and coronary T wave reversion in exercise ECG were though to be ischemic changes.

  19. Comparison of conventional, model-based quantitative planar, and quantitative SPECT image processing methods for organ activity estimation using In-111 agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C

    2006-01-01

    Accurate quantification of organ radionuclide uptake is important for patient-specific dosimetry. The quantitative accuracy from conventional conjugate view methods is limited by overlap of projections from different organs and background activity, and attenuation and scatter. In this work, we propose and validate a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of organ activities using 3D organ VOIs and a projector that models the image degrading effects. Both a physical phantom experiment and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) studies were used to evaluate the new method. In these studies, the accuracies and precisions of organ activity estimates for the QPlanar method were compared with those from conventional planar (CPlanar) processing methods with various corrections for scatter, attenuation and organ overlap, and a quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) processing method. Experimental planar and SPECT projections and registered CT data from an RSD Torso phantom were obtained using a GE Millenium VH/Hawkeye system. The MCS data were obtained from the 3D NCAT phantom with organ activity distributions that modelled the uptake of 111 In ibritumomab tiuxetan. The simulations were performed using parameters appropriate for the same system used in the RSD torso phantom experiment. The organ activity estimates obtained from the CPlanar, QPlanar and QSPECT methods from both experiments were compared. From the results of the MCS experiment, even with ideal organ overlap correction and background subtraction, CPlanar methods provided limited quantitative accuracy. The QPlanar method with accurate modelling of the physical factors increased the quantitative accuracy at the cost of requiring estimates of the organ VOIs in 3D. The accuracy of QPlanar approached that of QSPECT, but required much less acquisition and computation time. Similar results were obtained from the physical phantom experiment. We conclude that the QPlanar method, based

  20. Quantitation of valve regurgitation severity by three-dimensional vena contracta area is superior to flow convergence method of quantitation on transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudiab, Muaz M; Chao, Chieh-Ju; Liu, Shuang; Naqvi, Tasneem Z

    2017-07-01

    Quantitation of regurgitation severity using the proximal isovelocity acceleration (PISA) method to calculate effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) area has limitations. Measurement of three-dimensional (3D) vena contracta area (VCA) accurately grades mitral regurgitation (MR) severity on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We evaluated 3D VCA quantitation of regurgitant jet severity using 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in 110 native mitral, aortic, and tricuspid valves and six prosthetic valves in patients with at least mild valvular regurgitation. The ASE-recommended integrative method comprising semiquantitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation was used as a reference method, including ERO area by 2D PISA for assigning severity of regurgitation grade. Mean age was 62.2±14.4 years; 3D VCA quantitation was feasible in 91% regurgitant valves compared to 78% by the PISA method. When both methods were feasible and in the presence of a single regurgitant jet, 3D VCA and 2D PISA were similar in differentiating assigned severity (ANOVAP<.001). In valves with multiple jets, however, 3D VCA had a better correlation to assigned severity (ANOVAP<.0001). The agreement of 2D PISA and 3D VCA with the integrative method was 47% and 58% for moderate and 65% and 88% for severe regurgitation, respectively. Measurement of 3D VCA by TEE is superior to the 2D PISA method in determination of regurgitation severity in multiple native and prosthetic valves. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A method to quantitate regional wall motion in left ventriculography using Hildreth algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terashima, Mikio [Hyogo Red Cross Blood Center (Japan); Naito, Hiroaki; Sato, Yoshinobu; Tamura, Shinichi; Kurosawa, Tsutomu

    1998-06-01

    Quantitative measurement of ventricular wall motion is indispensable for objective evaluation of cardiac function associated with coronary artery disease. We have modified the Hildreth`s algorithm to estimate excursions of the ventricular wall on left ventricular images yielded by various imaging techniques. Tagging cine-MRI was carried out on 7 healthy volunteers. The original Hildreth method, the modified Hildreth method and the centerline method were applied to the outlines of the images obtained, to estimate excursion of the left ventricular wall and regional shortening and to evaluate the accuracy of these methods when measuring these parameters, compared to the values of these parameters measured actually using the attached tags. The accuracy of the original Hildreth method was comparable to that of the centerline method, while the modified Hildreth method was significantly more accurate than the centerline method (P<0.05). Regional shortening as estimated using the modified Hildreth method differed less from the actually measured regional shortening than did the shortening estimated using the centerline method (P<0.05). The modified Hildreth method allowed reasonable estimation of left ventricular wall excursion in all cases where it was applied. These results indicate that when applied to left ventriculograms for ventricular wall motion analysis, the modified Hildreth method is more useful than the original Hildreth method. (author)

  2. A method for normalizing pathology images to improve feature extraction for quantitative pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Allison; Barker, Jocelyn; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: With the advent of digital slide scanning technologies and the potential proliferation of large repositories of digital pathology images, many research studies can leverage these data for biomedical discovery and to develop clinical applications. However, quantitative analysis of digital pathology images is impeded by batch effects generated by varied staining protocols and staining conditions of pathological slides. Methods: To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, fully automated stain normalization method to reduce batch effects and thus aid research in digital pathology applications. Their method, intensity centering and histogram equalization (ICHE), normalizes a diverse set of pathology images by first scaling the centroids of the intensity histograms to a common point and then applying a modified version of contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization. Normalization was performed on two datasets of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of different tissue slices from the same lung tumor, and one immunohistochemistry dataset of digitized slides created by restaining one of the H&E datasets. Results: The ICHE method was evaluated based on image intensity values, quantitative features, and the effect on downstream applications, such as a computer aided diagnosis. For comparison, three methods from the literature were reimplemented and evaluated using the same criteria. The authors found that ICHE not only improved performance compared with un-normalized images, but in most cases showed improvement compared with previous methods for correcting batch effects in the literature. Conclusions: ICHE may be a useful preprocessing step a digital pathology image processing pipeline

  3. A method for normalizing pathology images to improve feature extraction for quantitative pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Allison [Stanford Institutes of Medical Research Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Barker, Jocelyn [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Rubin, Daniel [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics Research), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: With the advent of digital slide scanning technologies and the potential proliferation of large repositories of digital pathology images, many research studies can leverage these data for biomedical discovery and to develop clinical applications. However, quantitative analysis of digital pathology images is impeded by batch effects generated by varied staining protocols and staining conditions of pathological slides. Methods: To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, fully automated stain normalization method to reduce batch effects and thus aid research in digital pathology applications. Their method, intensity centering and histogram equalization (ICHE), normalizes a diverse set of pathology images by first scaling the centroids of the intensity histograms to a common point and then applying a modified version of contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization. Normalization was performed on two datasets of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of different tissue slices from the same lung tumor, and one immunohistochemistry dataset of digitized slides created by restaining one of the H&E datasets. Results: The ICHE method was evaluated based on image intensity values, quantitative features, and the effect on downstream applications, such as a computer aided diagnosis. For comparison, three methods from the literature were reimplemented and evaluated using the same criteria. The authors found that ICHE not only improved performance compared with un-normalized images, but in most cases showed improvement compared with previous methods for correcting batch effects in the literature. Conclusions: ICHE may be a useful preprocessing step a digital pathology image processing pipeline.

  4. Quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy. The effect of method of selection of region of interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.C.; Turner, D.A.; Charters, J.R.; Golden, H.E.; Ali, A.; Fordham, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    Various authors have advocated quantitative methods of evaluating bone scintigrams to detect sacroiliitis, while others have not found them useful. Many explanations for this disagreement have been offered, including differences in the method of case selection, ethnicity, gender, and previous drug therapy. It would appear that one of the most important impediments to consistent results is the variability of selecting sacroiliac joint and reference regions of interest (ROIs). The effect of ROI selection would seem particularly important because of the normal variability of radioactivity within the reference regions that have been used (sacrum, spine, iliac wing) and the inhomogeneity of activity in the SI joints. We have investigated the effect of ROI selection, using five different methods representative of, though not necessarily identical to, those found in the literature. Each method produced unique mean indices that were different for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and controls. The method of Ayres (19) proved superior (largest mean difference, smallest variance), but none worked well as a diagnostic tool because of substantial overlap of the distributions of indices of patient and control groups. We conclude that ROI selection is important in determining results, and quantitative scintigraphic methods in general are not effective tools for diagnosing AS. Among the possible factors limiting success, difficulty in selecting a stable reference area seems of particular importance

  5. Criteria for quantitative and qualitative data integration: mixed-methods research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonah; Smith, Carrol A M

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need and importance of a mixed-methods approach for evaluation of clinical information systems. However, those studies had no criteria to guide integration of multiple data sets. Integrating different data sets serves to actualize the paradigm that a mixed-methods approach argues; thus, we require criteria that provide the right direction to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. The first author used a set of criteria organized from a literature search for integration of multiple data sets from mixed-methods research. The purpose of this article was to reorganize the identified criteria. Through critical appraisal of the reasons for designing mixed-methods research, three criteria resulted: validation, complementarity, and discrepancy. In applying the criteria to empirical data of a previous mixed methods study, integration of quantitative and qualitative data was achieved in a systematic manner. It helped us obtain a better organized understanding of the results. The criteria of this article offer the potential to produce insightful analyses of mixed-methods evaluations of health information systems.

  6. Quantitative functional scintigraphy of the salivary glands: A new method of interpreting and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Trauring, G.; Haas, J.P.; Noodt, A.; Draf, W.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m pertechnetate is injected i.v. and the kinetics of the tracer in the salivary glands is analyzed using a gamma camera and a computer system. To visualize regional gland function, phase images as well as socalled gradient images are generated, which reflect the rate of tracer inflow and outflow. The time activity curves for the individual glands which are obtained with the ROI technique show an initial rise which reflects the pertechnetate uptake potential of the gland and is superimposed by background activity. After a standardized lemon juice dose the curve drops steeply, with the slope depending on the outflow potential of the gland and the background activity. In the past, attempts at quantifying the uptake and elimination functions have failed because of problems in allowing for the variable background component of the time activity curves, which normally amounts of about 60%. In 25 patients in whom one gland had been removed surgically the background activity was examined in terms of the time course and the regional pattern and a patient and gland-specific subtraction method was developed for visualizing the time activity curves of isolated glands devoid of any background activity and describing the uptake and elimination potentials in quantitative terms. Using this new method we evaluated 305 salivary gland scans. Normal ranges for the quantitative parameters were established and their reproducibility was examined. Unlike qualitative functional images of the salivary glands the new quantitative method offers accurate evidence of the extent of gland function and thus helps to decide wether a gland should be salvaged or not (conservative versus surgical treatment). However, quantitation does not furnish any clues on the benign or malignant nature of a tumor. (Author)

  7. Development of a rapid method for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol using Quenchbody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ryoji; Kaigome, Rena [Biomedical Division, Ushio Inc., 1-12 Minamiwatarida-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0855 (Japan); Ohkawa, Hideo [Research Center for Environmental Genomics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko, E-mail: y-konishi@azabu-u.ac.jp [Department of Food and Life Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan)

    2015-08-12

    Quenchbody (Q-body) is a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the antigen-dependent removal of a quenching effect on a fluorophore attached to antibody domains. In order to develop a method using Q-body for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, anti-DON Q-body was synthesized from the sequence information of a monoclonal antibody specific to DON. When the purified anti-DON Q-body was mixed with DON, a dose-dependent increase in the fluorescence intensity was observed and the detection range was between 0.0003 and 3 mg L{sup −1}. The coefficients of variation were 7.9% at 0.003 mg L{sup −1}, 5.0% at 0.03 mg L{sup −1} and 13.7% at 0.3 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.006 mg L{sup −1} for DON in wheat. The Q-body showed an antigen-dependent fluorescence enhancement even in the presence of wheat extracts. To validate the analytical method using Q-body, a spike-and-recovery experiment was performed using four spiked wheat samples. The recoveries were in the range of 94.9–100.2%. The concentrations of DON in twenty-one naturally contaminated wheat samples were quantitated by the Q-body method, LC-MS/MS and an immunochromatographic assay kit. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the levels of DON contamination in the samples were between 0.001 and 2.68 mg kg{sup −1}. The concentrations of DON quantitated by LC-MS/MS were more strongly correlated with those using the Q-body method (R{sup 2} = 0.9760) than the immunochromatographic assay kit (R{sup 2} = 0.8824). These data indicate that the Q-body system for the determination of DON in wheat samples was successfully developed and Q-body is expected to have a range of applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • A rapid method for quantitation of DON using Q-body has been developed. • A recovery test using the anti-DON Q-body was performed. • The concentrations of DON in wheat

  8. A novel method for quantitative geosteering using azimuthal gamma-ray logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Zhou, Cancan; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Song; Li, Chaoliu

    2015-02-01

    A novel method for quantitative geosteering by using azimuthal gamma-ray logging is proposed. Real-time up and bottom gamma-ray logs when a logging tool travels through a boundary surface with different relative dip angles are simulated with the Monte Carlo method. Study results show that response points of up and bottom gamma-ray logs when the logging tool moves towards a highly radioactive formation can be used to predict the relative dip angle, and then the distance from the drilling bit to the boundary surface is calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Verification of practicability of quantitative reliability evaluation method (De-BDA) in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kinshiro; Yukimachi, Takeo.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of methods have been applied to study of reliability analysis in which human factors are included in order to enhance the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. De-BDA (Detailed Block Diagram Analysis) is one of such mehtods developed with the objective of creating a more comprehensive and understandable tool for quantitative analysis of reliability associated with plant operations. The practicability of this method has been verified by applying it to reliability analysis of various phases of plant operation as well as evaluation of enhanced man-machine interface in the central control room. (author)

  10. MR Imaging-based Semi-quantitative Methods for Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    JARRAYA, Mohamed; HAYASHI, Daichi; ROEMER, Frank Wolfgang; GUERMAZI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based semi-quantitative (SQ) methods applied to knee osteoarthritis (OA) have been introduced during the last decade and have fundamentally changed our understanding of knee OA pathology since then. Several epidemiological studies and clinical trials have used MRI-based SQ methods to evaluate different outcome measures. Interest in MRI-based SQ scoring system has led to continuous update and refinement. This article reviews the different SQ approaches for MRI-based whole organ assessment of knee OA and also discuss practical aspects of whole joint assessment. PMID:26632537

  11. Quantitative methods of data analysis for the physical sciences and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Martinson, Douglas G

    2018-01-01

    This book provides thorough and comprehensive coverage of most of the new and important quantitative methods of data analysis for graduate students and practitioners. In recent years, data analysis methods have exploded alongside advanced computing power, and it is critical to understand such methods to get the most out of data, and to extract signal from noise. The book excels in explaining difficult concepts through simple explanations and detailed explanatory illustrations. Most unique is the focus on confidence limits for power spectra and their proper interpretation, something rare or completely missing in other books. Likewise, there is a thorough discussion of how to assess uncertainty via use of Expectancy, and the easy to apply and understand Bootstrap method. The book is written so that descriptions of each method are as self-contained as possible. Many examples are presented to clarify interpretations, as are user tips in highlighted boxes.

  12. Investigation of a dual modal method for bone pathologies using quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disease that has a catastrophic impact on patient's lives and overwhelming related healthcare costs. In recent works, we have developed a multi-spectral, frequency domain photoacoustic method for the evaluation of bone pathologies. This method has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it provides both molecular information from the bone absorption spectrum and bone mechanical status from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. These characteristics include both the Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband Ultrasonic Attenuation (BUA). To test the method's quantitative predictions, we have constructed a combined ultrasound and photoacoustic setup. Here, we experimentally present a dual modality system, and compares between the methods on bone samples in-vitro. The differences between the two modalities are shown to provide valuable insight into the bone structure and functional status.

  13. Quantitative Evaluation of the Total Magnetic Moments of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Kinetics-based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyi; Sun, Jianfei; Wang, Haoyao; Wang, Peng; Song, Lina; Li, Yang; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2015-06-08

    A kinetics-based method is proposed to quantitatively characterize the collective magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles. The method is based on the relationship between the magnetic force on a colloidal droplet and the movement of the droplet under a gradient magnetic field. Through computational analysis of the kinetic parameters, such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration, the magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles can be calculated. In our experiments, the values measured by using our method exhibited a better linear correlation with magnetothermal heating, than those obtained by using a vibrating sample magnetometer and magnetic balance. This finding indicates that this method may be more suitable to evaluate the collective magnetism of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles under low magnetic fields than the commonly used methods. Accurate evaluation of the magnetic properties of colloidal nanoparticles is of great importance for the standardization of magnetic nanomaterials and for their practical application in biomedicine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Quantitative firing transformations of a triaxial ceramic by X-ray diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conconi, M.S.; Gauna, M.R.; Serra, M.F.; Suarez, G.; Aglietti, E.F.; Rendtorff, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The firing transformations of traditional (clay based) ceramics are of technological and archaeological interest, and are usually reported qualitatively or semi quantitatively. These kinds of systems present an important complexity, especially for X-ray diffraction techniques, due to the presence of fully crystalline, low crystalline and amorphous phases. In this article we present the results of a qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis of the fully crystalline (kaolinite, quartz, cristobalite, feldspars and/or mullite), the low crystalline (metakaolinite and/or spinel type pre-mullite) and glassy phases evolution of a triaxial (clay-quartz-feldspar) ceramic fired in a wide temperature range between 900 and 1300 deg C. The employed methodology to determine low crystalline and glassy phase abundances is based in a combination of the internal standard method and the use of a nanocrystalline model where the long-range order is lost, respectively. A preliminary sintering characterization was carried out by contraction, density and porosity evolution with the firing temperature. Simultaneous thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis was carried out to elucidate the actual temperature at which the chemical changes occur. Finally, the quantitative analysis based on the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns was performed. The kaolinite decomposition into metakaolinite was determined quantitatively; the intermediate (980 deg C) spinel type alumino-silicate formation was also quantified; the incongruent fusion of the potash feldspar was observed and quantified together with the final mullitization and the amorphous (glassy) phase formation.The methodology used to analyze the X-ray diffraction patterns proved to be suitable to evaluate quantitatively the thermal transformations that occur in a complex system like the triaxial ceramics. The evaluated phases can be easily correlated with the processing variables and materials

  15. Quantitative firing transformations of a triaxial ceramic by X-ray diffraction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conconi, M.S.; Gauna, M.R.; Serra, M.F. [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Suarez, G.; Aglietti, E.F.; Rendtorff, N.M., E-mail: rendtorff@cetmic.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Fac. de Ciencias Exactas. Dept. de Quimica

    2014-10-15

    The firing transformations of traditional (clay based) ceramics are of technological and archaeological interest, and are usually reported qualitatively or semi quantitatively. These kinds of systems present an important complexity, especially for X-ray diffraction techniques, due to the presence of fully crystalline, low crystalline and amorphous phases. In this article we present the results of a qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis of the fully crystalline (kaolinite, quartz, cristobalite, feldspars and/or mullite), the low crystalline (metakaolinite and/or spinel type pre-mullite) and glassy phases evolution of a triaxial (clay-quartz-feldspar) ceramic fired in a wide temperature range between 900 and 1300 deg C. The employed methodology to determine low crystalline and glassy phase abundances is based in a combination of the internal standard method and the use of a nanocrystalline model where the long-range order is lost, respectively. A preliminary sintering characterization was carried out by contraction, density and porosity evolution with the firing temperature. Simultaneous thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis was carried out to elucidate the actual temperature at which the chemical changes occur. Finally, the quantitative analysis based on the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns was performed. The kaolinite decomposition into metakaolinite was determined quantitatively; the intermediate (980 deg C) spinel type alumino-silicate formation was also quantified; the incongruent fusion of the potash feldspar was observed and quantified together with the final mullitization and the amorphous (glassy) phase formation.The methodology used to analyze the X-ray diffraction patterns proved to be suitable to evaluate quantitatively the thermal transformations that occur in a complex system like the triaxial ceramics. The evaluated phases can be easily correlated with the processing variables and materials

  16. The Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in the Analysis of Academic Achievement among Undergraduates in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Ingrid Ann Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study which uses quantitative and qualitative methods in determining the relationship between academic, institutional and psychological variables and degree performance for a sample of Jamaican undergraduate students. Quantitative methods, traditionally associated with the positivist paradigm, and involving the counting and…

  17. New chromatographic method for separating Omeprazole from its degradation components and the quantitatively determining it in its pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touma, M.; Rajab, A.; Seuleiman, M.

    2007-01-01

    New chromatographic method for Quantitative Determination of Omeprazole in its Pharmaceutical Products was produced. Omeprazole and its degradation components were well separated in same chromatogram by using high perfume liquid chromatography (HPLC). The new analytical method has been validated by these characteristic tests (accuracy, precision, range, linearity, specificity/selectivity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitative (LOQ) ).(author)

  18. New chromatographic Methods for Separation of Lansoprazole from its Degradation Components and The Quantitative Determination in its Pharmaceutical Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touma, M.; Rajab, A.

    2009-01-01

    New chromatographic method was found for Quantitative Determination of Lansoprazole in its pharmaceutical products. Lansoprazole and its degradation components were well separated in same chromatogram by using high perfume liquid chromatography (HPLC). The new analytical method has been validated by these characteristic tests (accuracy, precision, range, linearity, specificity/selectivity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitative (LOQ)). (author)

  19. A method for three-dimensional quantitative observation of the microstructure of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Chen, Dieyan; Ma, Wanyun; Wu, Hongxin; Ji, Liang; Sun, Jialin; Lv, Danyu; Zhang, Lu; Li, Ying; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Jinggao; Zhao, Fengying

    2009-07-01

    Contemporary biology has developed into the era of cell biology and molecular biology, and people try to study the mechanism of all kinds of biological phenomena at the microcosmic level now. Accurate description of the microstructure of biological samples is exigent need from many biomedical experiments. This paper introduces a method for 3-dimensional quantitative observation on the microstructure of vital biological samples based on two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). TPLSM is a novel kind of fluorescence microscopy, which has excellence in its low optical damage, high resolution, deep penetration depth and suitability for 3-dimensional (3D) imaging. Fluorescent stained samples were observed by TPLSM, and afterward the original shapes of them were obtained through 3D image reconstruction. The spatial distribution of all objects in samples as well as their volumes could be derived by image segmentation and mathematic calculation. Thus the 3-dimensionally and quantitatively depicted microstructure of the samples was finally derived. We applied this method to quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of chromosomes in meiotic mouse oocytes at metaphase, and wonderful results came out last.

  20. A method for improved clustering and classification of microscopy images using quantitative co-localization coefficients

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Singan, Vasanth R

    2012-06-08

    AbstractBackgroundThe localization of proteins to specific subcellular structures in eukaryotic cells provides important information with respect to their function. Fluorescence microscopy approaches to determine localization distribution have proved to be an essential tool in the characterization of unknown proteins, and are now particularly pertinent as a result of the wide availability of fluorescently-tagged constructs and antibodies. However, there are currently very few image analysis options able to effectively discriminate proteins with apparently similar distributions in cells, despite this information being important for protein characterization.FindingsWe have developed a novel method for combining two existing image analysis approaches, which results in highly efficient and accurate discrimination of proteins with seemingly similar distributions. We have combined image texture-based analysis with quantitative co-localization coefficients, a method that has traditionally only been used to study the spatial overlap between two populations of molecules. Here we describe and present a novel application for quantitative co-localization, as applied to the study of Rab family small GTP binding proteins localizing to the endomembrane system of cultured cells.ConclusionsWe show how quantitative co-localization can be used alongside texture feature analysis, resulting in improved clustering of microscopy images. The use of co-localization as an additional clustering parameter is non-biased and highly applicable to high-throughput image data sets.

  1. Comparison of salivary collection and processing methods for quantitative HHV-8 detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, D J; Johnson, N W

    2014-10-01

    Saliva is a proved diagnostic fluid for the qualitative detection of infectious agents, but the accuracy of viral load determinations is unknown. Stabilising fluids impede nucleic acid degradation, compared with collection onto ice and then freezing, and we have shown that the DNA Genotek P-021 prototype kit (P-021) can produce high-quality DNA after 14 months of storage at room temperature. Here we evaluate the quantitative capability of 10 collection/processing methods. Unstimulated whole mouth fluid was spiked with a mixture of HHV-8 cloned constructs, 10-fold serial dilutions were produced, and samples were extracted and then examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Calibration curves were compared by linear regression and qPCR dynamics. All methods extracted with commercial spin columns produced linear calibration curves with large dynamic range and gave accurate viral loads. Ethanol precipitation of the P-021 does not produce a linear standard curve, and virus is lost in the cell pellet. DNA extractions from the P-021 using commercial spin columns produced linear standard curves with wide dynamic range and excellent limit of detection. When extracted with spin columns, the P-021 enables accurate viral loads down to 23 copies μl(-1) DNA. The quantitative and long-term storage capability of this system makes it ideal for study of salivary DNA viruses in resource-poor settings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Quantitative SPECT reconstruction for brain distribution with a non-uniform attenuation using a regularizing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; Bidaut, L.; Raynaud, C.; Le Coq, G.

    1983-06-01

    An analytical solution to the SPECT reconstruction problem, where the actual attenuation effect can be included, was developped using a regularizing iterative method (RIM). The potential of this approach in quantitative brain studies when using a tracer for cerebrovascular disorders is now under evaluation. Mathematical simulations for a distributed activity in the brain surrounded by the skull and physical phantom studies were performed, using a rotating camera based SPECT system, allowing the calibration of the system and the evaluation of the adapted method to be used. On the simulation studies, the contrast obtained along a profile, was less than 5%, the standard deviation 8% and the quantitative accuracy 13%, for a uniform emission distribution of mean = 100 per pixel and a double attenuation coefficient of μ = 0.115 cm -1 and 0.5 cm -1 . Clinical data obtained after injection of 123 I (AMPI) were reconstructed using the RIM without and with cerebrovascular diseases or lesion defects. Contour finding techniques were used for the delineation of the brain and the skull, and measured attenuation coefficients were assumed within these two regions. Using volumes of interest, selected on homogeneous regions on an hemisphere and reported symetrically, the statistical uncertainty for 300 K events in the tomogram was found to be 12%, the index of symetry was of 4% for normal distribution. These results suggest that quantitative SPECT reconstruction for brain distribution is feasible, and that combined with an adapted tracer and an adequate model physiopathological parameters could be extracted

  3. Link-based quantitative methods to identify differentially coexpressed genes and gene Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhi-Qiang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential coexpression analysis (DCEA is increasingly used for investigating the global transcriptional mechanisms underlying phenotypic changes. Current DCEA methods mostly adopt a gene connectivity-based strategy to estimate differential coexpression, which is characterized by comparing the numbers of gene neighbors in different coexpression networks. Although it simplifies the calculation, this strategy mixes up the identities of different coexpression neighbors of a gene, and fails to differentiate significant differential coexpression changes from those trivial ones. Especially, the correlation-reversal is easily missed although it probably indicates remarkable biological significance. Results We developed two link-based quantitative methods, DCp and DCe, to identify differentially coexpressed genes and gene pairs (links. Bearing the uniqueness of exploiting the quantitative coexpression change of each gene pair in the coexpression networks, both methods proved to be superior to currently popular methods in simulation studies. Re-mining of a publicly available type 2 diabetes (T2D expression dataset from the perspective of differential coexpression analysis led to additional discoveries than those from differential expression analysis. Conclusions This work pointed out the critical weakness of current popular DCEA methods, and proposed two link-based DCEA algorithms that will make contribution to the development of DCEA and help extend it to a broader spectrum.

  4. Sample preparation methods for quantitative detection of DNA by molecular assays and marine biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Annie M.; Goodwin, Kelly D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • DNA extraction methods affected measured qPCR target recovery. • Recovery and variability differed, sometimes by more than an order of magnitude. • SCODA did not offer significant improvement with PCR-inhibited seawater. • Aggressive lysis did appear to improve target recovery. • Reliable and affordable correction methods are needed for quantitative PCR. -- Abstract: The need for quantitative molecular methods is growing in environmental, food, and medical fields but is hindered by low and variable DNA extraction and by co-extraction of PCR inhibitors. DNA extracts from Enterococcus faecium, seawater, and seawater spiked with E. faecium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were tested by qPCR for target recovery and inhibition. Conventional and novel methods were tested, including Synchronous Coefficient of Drag Alteration (SCODA) and lysis and purification systems used on an automated genetic sensor (the Environmental Sample Processor, ESP). Variable qPCR target recovery and inhibition were measured, significantly affecting target quantification. An aggressive lysis method that utilized chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical disruption enhanced target recovery compared to commercial kit protocols. SCODA purification did not show marked improvement over commercial spin columns. Overall, data suggested a general need to improve sample preparation and to accurately assess and account for DNA recovery and inhibition in qPCR applications

  5. Are three generations of quantitative molecular methods sufficient in medical virology? Brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Massimo; Bagnarelli, Patrizia

    2015-10-01

    In the last two decades, development of quantitative molecular methods has characterized the evolution of clinical virology more than any other methodological advancement. Using these methods, a great deal of studies has addressed efficiently in vivo the role of viral load, viral replication activity, and viral transcriptional profiles as correlates of disease outcome and progression, and has highlighted the physio-pathology of important virus diseases of humans. Furthermore, these studies have contributed to a better understanding of virus-host interactions and have sharply revolutionized the research strategies in basic and medical virology. In addition and importantly from a medical point of view, quantitative methods have provided a rationale for the therapeutic intervention and therapy monitoring in medically important viral diseases. Despite the advances in technology and the development of three generations of molecular methods within the last two decades (competitive PCR, real-time PCR, and digital PCR), great challenges still remain for viral testing related not only to standardization, accuracy, and precision, but also to selection of the best molecular targets for clinical use and to the identification of thresholds for risk stratification and therapeutic decisions. Future research directions, novel methods and technical improvements could be important to address these challenges.

  6. A novel method for quantitative geosteering using azimuthal gamma-ray logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chao; Zhou, Cancan; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Song; Li, Chaoliu

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for quantitative geosteering by using azimuthal gamma-ray logging is proposed. Real-time up and bottom gamma-ray logs when a logging tool travels through a boundary surface with different relative dip angles are simulated with the Monte Carlo method. Study results show that response points of up and bottom gamma-ray logs when the logging tool moves towards a highly radioactive formation can be used to predict the relative dip angle, and then the distance from the drilling bit to the boundary surface is calculated. - Highlights: • A new method is proposed for geosteering by using azimuthal gamma-ray logging. • The new method can quantitatively determine the distance from the drilling bit to the boundary surface while the traditional geosteering method can only qualitatively guide the drilling bit in reservoirs. • The response points of real-time upper and lower gamma line when the logging tool meets high radioactive formation are used to predict the relative dip angles, and then the distance from the drilling bit to the boundary surface is calculated

  7. The development of quantitative determination method of organic acids in complex poly herbal extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Dyachok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The development of sensible, economical and expressive method of quantitative determination of organic acids in complex poly herbal extraction counted on izovaleric acid with the use of digital technologies. Materials and methods. Model complex poly herbal extraction of sedative action was chosen as a research object. Extraction is composed of these medical plants: Valeriana officinalis L., Crataégus, Melissa officinalis L., Hypericum, Mentha piperita L., Húmulus lúpulus, Viburnum. Based on chemical composition of plant components, we consider that main pharmacologically active compounds, which can be found in complex poly herbal extraction are: polyphenolic substances (flavonoids, which are contained in Crataégus, Viburnum, Hypericum, Mentha piperita L., Húmulus lúpulus; also organic acids, including izovaleric acid, which are contained in Valeriana officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Melissa officinalis L., Viburnum; the aminoacid are contained in Valeriana officinalis L. For the determination of organic acids content in low concentration we applied instrumental method of analysis, namely conductometry titration which consisted in the dependences of water solution conductivity of complex poly herbal extraction on composition of organic acids. Result. The got analytical dependences, which describes tangent lines to the conductometry curve before and after the point of equivalence, allow to determine the volume of solution expended on titration and carry out procedure of quantitative determination of organic acids in the digital mode. Conclusion. The proposed method enables to determine the point of equivalence and carry out quantitative determination of organic acids counted on izovaleric acid with the use of digital technologies, that allows to computerize the method on the whole.

  8. Report of the methods for quantitative organ evaluation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Shigeru; Akagi, Naoki; Mimura, Hiroaki; Nagaki, Akio; Takahashi, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    The group for the methods in the title herein reported the summary of their investigations on literatures concerning the brain, heart, liver and kidney evaluation. The report consisted of the history, kinetics of the agents, methods for quantitative evaluation and summary for each organ. As for the brain, the quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow scintigraphy with 123 I-IMP and 99m Tc-HMPAO or -ECD were reviewed to conclude that the present convenient methods are of problems in precision, for which a novel method and/or tracer should be developed. For cardiac functions, there is a method based either on the behavior of tracer in the blood which is excellent in reproducibility, or on the morphology of cardiac wall of which images can be analyzed alternatively by CT and MRI. For these, 131 I-albumin, 99m Tc-albumin, -red blood cells, -MIBI and -tetrofosmin have been used. For myocardium, 201 Tl has been used to evaluate the ischemic region and, with simultaneous use of 99m Tc-MIBI or -tetrofosmin, the viability. 123 I-BMIPP and -MIBG have been developed for myocardial fatty acid metabolism and for cardiac sympathetic nerve functions. Liver functions have been evaluated by the blood elimination rate, hepatic uptake, hepatic elimination and hepatic blood flow with use of 99m Tc-labeled colloids, -PMT and -GSA. Quantitative evaluation of renal functions is now well established with high precision since the kinetic behavior of the tracers, like 99m Tc-DTPA, -MAG3, -DMSA and 131 I-OIH, is simple. (K.H.)

  9. The use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research : Can qualitative and quantitative methods be combined?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashatu Hussein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to a study in Tanzania on fringe benefits or welfare via the work contract1 where we will work both quantitatively and qualitatively. My focus is on the vital issue of combining methods or methodologies. There has been mixed views on the uses of triangulation in researches. Some authors argue that triangulation is just for increasing the wider and deep understanding of the study phenomenon, while others have argued that triangulation is actually used to increase the study accuracy, in this case triangulation is one of the validity measures. Triangulation is defined as the use of multiple methods mainly qualitative and quantitative methods in studying the same phenomenon for the purpose of increasing study credibility. This implies that triangulation is the combination of two or more methodological approaches, theoretical perspectives, data sources, investigators and analysis methods to study the same phenomenon.However, using both qualitative and quantitative paradigms in the same study has resulted into debate from some researchers arguing that the two paradigms differ epistemologically and ontologically. Nevertheless, both paradigms are designed towards understanding about a particular subject area of interest and both of them have strengths and weaknesses. Thus, when combined there is a great possibility of neutralizing the flaws of one method and strengthening the benefits of the other for the better research results. Thus, to reap the benefits of two paradigms and minimizing the drawbacks of each, the combination of the two approaches have been advocated in this article. The quality of our studies on welfare to combat poverty is crucial, and especially when we want our conclusions to matter in practice.

  10. Nuclear medicine and imaging research. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation. Progress report, January 15, 1984-January 14, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.

    1984-09-01

    This program addresses problems involving the basic science and technology of radioactive tracer methods as they relate to nuclear medicine and imaging. The broad goal is to develop new instruments and methods for image formation, processing, quantitation and display, so as to maximize the diagnostic information per unit of absorbed radiation dose to the patient. Project I addresses problems associated with the quantitative imaging of single-photon emitters; Project II addresses similar problems associated with the quantitative imaging of positron emitters; Project III addresses methodological problems associated with the quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of diagnostic imaging procedures

  11. A Proposal on the Quantitative Homogeneity Analysis Method of SEM Images for Material Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan Seo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a method to inspect the surface microstructure of materials. The SEM uses electron beams for imaging high magnifications of material surfaces; therefore, various chemical analyses can be performed from the SEM images. Therefore, it is widely used for the material inspection, chemical characteristic analysis, and biological analysis. For the nuclear criticality analysis field, it is an important parameter to check the homogeneity of the compound material for using it in the nuclear system. In our previous study, the SEM was tried to use for the homogeneity analysis of the materials. In this study, a quantitative homogeneity analysis method of SEM images is proposed for the material inspections. The method is based on the stochastic analysis method with the information of the grayscales of the SEM images.

  12. Full quantitative phase analysis of hydrated lime using the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena; Romagnoli, Marcello; Miselli, Paola; Cannio, Maria; Gualtieri, Alessandro F.

    2012-01-01

    Full quantitative phase analysis (FQPA) using X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinements is a well-established method for the characterization of various hydraulic binders such as Portland cement and hydraulic limes. In this paper, the Rietveld method is applied to hydrated lime, a non-hydraulic traditional binder. The potential presence of an amorphous phase in this material is generally ignored. Both synchrotron radiation and a conventional X-ray source were used for data collection. The applicability of the developed control file for the Rietveld refinements was investigated using samples spiked with glass. The results were cross-checked by other independent methods such as thermal and chemical analyses. The sample microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the consistency between the different methods was satisfactory, supporting the validity of FQPA for this material. For the samples studied in this work, the amount of amorphous material was in the range 2–15 wt.%.

  13. Full quantitative phase analysis of hydrated lime using the Rietveld method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello; Miselli, Paola; Cannio, Maria [Dipartimento Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, Alessandro F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Full quantitative phase analysis (FQPA) using X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinements is a well-established method for the characterization of various hydraulic binders such as Portland cement and hydraulic limes. In this paper, the Rietveld method is applied to hydrated lime, a non-hydraulic traditional binder. The potential presence of an amorphous phase in this material is generally ignored. Both synchrotron radiation and a conventional X-ray source were used for data collection. The applicability of the developed control file for the Rietveld refinements was investigated using samples spiked with glass. The results were cross-checked by other independent methods such as thermal and chemical analyses. The sample microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the consistency between the different methods was satisfactory, supporting the validity of FQPA for this material. For the samples studied in this work, the amount of amorphous material was in the range 2-15 wt.%.

  14. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Development and Evaluation of Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for Genetically Modified Soybean MON87701.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Keita; Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event, MON87701. First, a standard plasmid for MON87701 quantification was constructed. The conversion factor (C f ) required to calculate the amount of genetically modified organism (GMO) was experimentally determined for a real-time PCR instrument. The determined C f for the real-time PCR instrument was 1.24. For the evaluation of the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an inter-laboratory trial. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr), respectively. The determined biases and the RSDr values were less than 30 and 13%, respectively, at all evaluated concentrations. The limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and the developed method would thus be applicable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MON87701.

  16. Determination of γ-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water: application of a quantitative biosensing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterbeek, H. Th.; Van der Meer, A. J. G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative biosensing method has been developed for the determination of γ-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the related stable isotope (element) in the biosensor and the determination of the element in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters on accumulation levels: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Using water plants, the method is shown to be three to five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the direct analysis of water. (author)

  17. Determination of {gamma}-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water: application of a quantitative biosensing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolterbeek, H Th; Van der Meer, A. J. G. M. [Delft University of Technology, Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    A quantitative biosensing method has been developed for the determination of {gamma}-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the related stable isotope (element) in the biosensor and the determination of the element in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters on accumulation levels: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Using water plants, the method is shown to be three to five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the direct analysis of water. (author)

  18. A Proposal on the Quantitative Homogeneity Analysis Method of SEM Images for Material Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Chang Ho; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan Seo

    2015-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a method to inspect the surface microstructure of materials. The SEM uses electron beams for imaging high magnifications of material surfaces; therefore, various chemical analyses can be performed from the SEM images. Therefore, it is widely used for the material inspection, chemical characteristic analysis, and biological analysis. For the nuclear criticality analysis field, it is an important parameter to check the homogeneity of the compound material for using it in the nuclear system. In our previous study, the SEM was tried to use for the homogeneity analysis of the materials. In this study, a quantitative homogeneity analysis method of SEM images is proposed for the material inspections. The method is based on the stochastic analysis method with the information of the grayscales of the SEM images

  19. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. Methods: TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Results: Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for dete...

  20. Solution identification and quantitative analysis of fiber-capacitive drop analyzer based on multivariate statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Qiu, Zurong; Huo, Xinming; Fan, Yuming; Li, Xinghua

    2017-03-01

    A fiber-capacitive drop analyzer is an instrument which monitors a growing droplet to produce a capacitive opto-tensiotrace (COT). Each COT is an integration of fiber light intensity signals and capacitance signals and can reflect the unique physicochemical property of a liquid. In this study, we propose a solution analytical and concentration quantitative method based on multivariate statistical methods. Eight characteristic values are extracted from each COT. A series of COT characteristic values of training solutions at different concentrations compose a data library of this kind of solution. A two-stage linear discriminant analysis is applied to analyze different solution libraries and establish discriminant functions. Test solutions can be discriminated by these functions. After determining the variety of test solutions, Spearman correlation test and principal components analysis are used to filter and reduce dimensions of eight characteristic values, producing a new representative parameter. A cubic spline interpolation function is built between the parameters and concentrations, based on which we can calculate the concentration of the test solution. Methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and saline solutions are taken as experimental subjects in this paper. For each solution, nine or ten different concentrations are chosen to be the standard library, and the other two concentrations compose the test group. By using the methods mentioned above, all eight test solutions are correctly identified and the average relative error of quantitative analysis is 1.11%. The method proposed is feasible which enlarges the applicable scope of recognizing liquids based on the COT and improves the concentration quantitative precision, as well.

  1. General Methods for Evolutionary Quantitative Genetic Inference from Generalized Mixed Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villemereuil, Pierre; Schielzeth, Holger; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Morrissey, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Methods for inference and interpretation of evolutionary quantitative genetic parameters, and for prediction of the response to selection, are best developed for traits with normal distributions. Many traits of evolutionary interest, including many life history and behavioral traits, have inherently nonnormal distributions. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) framework has become a widely used tool for estimating quantitative genetic parameters for nonnormal traits. However, whereas GLMMs provide inference on a statistically convenient latent scale, it is often desirable to express quantitative genetic parameters on the scale upon which traits are measured. The parameters of fitted GLMMs, despite being on a latent scale, fully determine all quantities of potential interest on the scale on which traits are expressed. We provide expressions for deriving each of such quantities, including population means, phenotypic (co)variances, variance components including additive genetic (co)variances, and parameters such as heritability. We demonstrate that fixed effects have a strong impact on those parameters and show how to deal with this by averaging or integrating over fixed effects. The expressions require integration of quantities determined by the link function, over distributions of latent values. In general cases, the required integrals must be solved numerically, but efficient methods are available and we provide an implementation in an R package, QGglmm. We show that known formulas for quantities such as heritability of traits with binomial and Poisson distributions are special cases of our expressions. Additionally, we show how fitted GLMM can be incorporated into existing methods for predicting evolutionary trajectories. We demonstrate the accuracy of the resulting method for evolutionary prediction by simulation and apply our approach to data from a wild pedigreed vertebrate population. Copyright © 2016 de Villemereuil et al.

  2. A probabilistic method for computing quantitative risk indexes from medical injuries compensation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Carbonare, S; Folli, F; Patrini, E; Giudici, P; Bellazzi, R

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand of health care services and the complexity of health care delivery require Health Care Organizations (HCOs) to approach clinical risk management through proper methods and tools. An important aspect of risk management is to exploit the analysis of medical injuries compensation claims in order to reduce adverse events and, at the same time, to optimize the costs of health insurance policies. This work provides a probabilistic method to estimate the risk level of a HCO by computing quantitative risk indexes from medical injury compensation claims. Our method is based on the estimate of a loss probability distribution from compensation claims data through parametric and non-parametric modeling and Monte Carlo simulations. The loss distribution can be estimated both on the whole dataset and, thanks to the application of a Bayesian hierarchical model, on stratified data. The approach allows to quantitatively assessing the risk structure of the HCO by analyzing the loss distribution and deriving its expected value and percentiles. We applied the proposed method to 206 cases of injuries with compensation requests collected from 1999 to the first semester of 2007 by the HCO of Lodi, in the Northern part of Italy. We computed the risk indexes taking into account the different clinical departments and the different hospitals involved. The approach proved to be useful to understand the HCO risk structure in terms of frequency, severity, expected and unexpected loss related to adverse events.

  3. Application of new least-squares methods for the quantitative infrared analysis of multicomponent samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.; Easterling, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Improvements have been made in previous least-squares regression analyses of infrared spectra for the quantitative estimation of concentrations of multicomponent mixtures. Spectral baselines are fitted by least-squares methods, and overlapping spectral features are accounted for in the fitting procedure. Selection of peaks above a threshold value reduces computation time and data storage requirements. Four weighted least-squares methods incorporating different baseline assumptions were investigated using FT-IR spectra of the three pure xylene isomers and their mixtures. By fitting only regions of the spectra that follow Beer's Law, accurate results can be obtained using three of the fitting methods even when baselines are not corrected to zero. Accurate results can also be obtained using one of the fits even in the presence of Beer's Law deviations. This is a consequence of pooling the weighted results for each spectral peak such that the greatest weighting is automatically given to those peaks that adhere to Beer's Law. It has been shown with the xylene spectra that semiquantitative results can be obtained even when all the major components are not known or when expected components are not present. This improvement over previous methods greatly expands the utility of quantitative least-squares analyses

  4. [Adequate application of quantitative and qualitative statistic analytic methods in acupuncture clinical trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming T; Liu, Jian-ping; Lao, Lixing

    2012-08-01

    Recently, proper use of the statistical methods in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has received increased attention. Statistical inference based on hypothesis testing is the foundation of clinical trials and evidence-based medicine. In this article, the authors described the methodological differences between literature published in Chinese and Western journals in the design and analysis of acupuncture RCTs and the application of basic statistical principles. In China, qualitative analysis method has been widely used in acupuncture and TCM clinical trials, while the between-group quantitative analysis methods on clinical symptom scores are commonly used in the West. The evidence for and against these analytical differences were discussed based on the data of RCTs assessing acupuncture for pain relief. The authors concluded that although both methods have their unique advantages, quantitative analysis should be used as the primary analysis while qualitative analysis can be a secondary criterion for analysis. The purpose of this paper is to inspire further discussion of such special issues in clinical research design and thus contribute to the increased scientific rigor of TCM research.

  5. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  6. Inverse methods for 3D quantitative optical coherence elasticity imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Wijesinghe, Philip; Hugenberg, Nicholas; Sampson, David D.; Munro, Peter R. T.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Oberai, Assad A.

    2017-02-01

    In elastography, quantitative elastograms are desirable as they are system and operator independent. Such quantification also facilitates more accurate diagnosis, longitudinal studies and studies performed across multiple sites. In optical elastography (compression, surface-wave or shear-wave), quantitative elastograms are typically obtained by assuming some form of homogeneity. This simplifies data processing at the expense of smearing sharp transitions in elastic properties, and/or introducing artifacts in these regions. Recently, we proposed an inverse problem-based approach to compression OCE that does not assume homogeneity, and overcomes the drawbacks described above. In this approach, the difference between the measured and predicted displacement field is minimized by seeking the optimal distribution of elastic parameters. The predicted displacements and recovered elastic parameters together satisfy the constraint of the equations of equilibrium. This approach, which has been applied in two spatial dimensions assuming plane strain, has yielded accurate material property distributions. Here, we describe the extension of the inverse problem approach to three dimensions. In addition to the advantage of visualizing elastic properties in three dimensions, this extension eliminates the plane strain assumption and is therefore closer to the true physical state. It does, however, incur greater computational costs. We address this challenge through a modified adjoint problem, spatially adaptive grid resolution, and three-dimensional decomposition techniques. Through these techniques the inverse problem is solved on a typical desktop machine within a wall clock time of 20 hours. We present the details of the method and quantitative elasticity images of phantoms and tissue samples.

  7. A method to forecast quantitative variables relating to nuclear public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, T.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for forecasting the future trend of quantitative variables profoundly related to the public acceptance (PA) of nuclear energy. The social environment influencing PA is first modeled by breaking it down into a finite number of fundamental elements and then the interactive formulae between the quantitative variables, which are attributed to and characterize each element, are determined by using the actual values of the variables in the past. Inputting the estimated values of exogenous variables into these formulae, the forecast values of endogenous variables can finally be obtained. Using this method, the problem of nuclear PA in Japan is treated as, for example, where the context is considered to comprise a public sector and the general social environment and socio-psychology. The public sector is broken down into three elements of the general public, the inhabitants living around nuclear facilities and the activists of anti-nuclear movements, whereas the social environment and socio-psychological factors are broken down into several elements, such as news media and psychological factors. Twenty-seven endogenous and seven exogenous variables are introduced to quantify these elements. After quantitatively formulating the interactive features between them and extrapolating the exogenous variables into the future estimates are made of the growth or attenuation of the endogenous variables, such as the pro- and anti-nuclear fractions in public opinion polls and the frequency of occurrence of anti-nuclear movements. (author)

  8. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  9. A comparison of quantitative methods for clinical imaging with hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Charlie J; McLean, Mary A; Schulte, Rolf F; Robb, Fraser J; Gill, Andrew B; McGlashan, Nicholas; Graves, Martin J; Schwaiger, Markus; Lomas, David J; Brindle, Kevin M; Gallagher, Ferdia A

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enables the metabolism of hyperpolarized (13)C-labelled molecules, such as the conversion of [1-(13)C]pyruvate to [1-(13)C]lactate, to be dynamically and non-invasively imaged in tissue. Imaging of this exchange reaction in animal models has been shown to detect early treatment response and correlate with tumour grade. The first human DNP study has recently been completed, and, for widespread clinical translation, simple and reliable methods are necessary to accurately probe the reaction in patients. However, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate method to quantify this exchange reaction. In this study, an in vitro system was used to compare several kinetic models, as well as simple model-free methods. Experiments were performed using a clinical hyperpolarizer, a human 3 T MR system, and spectroscopic imaging sequences. The quantitative methods were compared in vivo by using subcutaneous breast tumours in rats to examine the effect of pyruvate inflow. The two-way kinetic model was the most accurate method for characterizing the exchange reaction in vitro, and the incorporation of a Heaviside step inflow profile was best able to describe the in vivo data. The lactate time-to-peak and the lactate-to-pyruvate area under the curve ratio were simple model-free approaches that accurately represented the full reaction, with the time-to-peak method performing indistinguishably from the best kinetic model. Finally, extracting data from a single pixel was a robust and reliable surrogate of the whole region of interest. This work has identified appropriate quantitative methods for future work in the analysis of human hyperpolarized (13)C data. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Clustering and training set selection methods for improving the accuracy of quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Ryan B.; Bell, James F.; Wiens, Roger C.; Morris, Richard V.; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated five clustering and training set selection methods to improve the accuracy of quantitative chemical analysis of geologic samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The LIBS spectra were previously acquired for 195 rock slabs and 31 pressed powder geostandards under 7 Torr CO 2 at a stand-off distance of 7 m at 17 mJ per pulse to simulate the operational conditions of the ChemCam LIBS instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. The clustering and training set selection methods, which do not require prior knowledge of the chemical composition of the test-set samples, are based on grouping similar spectra and selecting appropriate training spectra for the partial least squares (PLS2) model. These methods were: (1) hierarchical clustering of the full set of training spectra and selection of a subset for use in training; (2) k-means clustering of all spectra and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each cluster; (3) iterative use of PLS2 to predict sample composition and k-means clustering of the predicted compositions to subdivide the groups of spectra; (4) soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification of spectra, and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each class; (5) use of Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to determine an optimal number of clusters and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each cluster. The iterative method and the k-means method using 5 clusters showed the best performance, improving the absolute quadrature root mean squared error (RMSE) by ∼ 3 wt.%. The statistical significance of these improvements was ∼ 85%. Our results show that although clustering methods can modestly improve results, a large and diverse training set is the most reliable way to improve the accuracy of quantitative LIBS. In particular, additional sulfate standards and specifically

  11. Method and platform standardization in MRM-based quantitative plasma proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew J; Chambers, Andrew G; Yang, Juncong; Jackson, Angela M; Domanski, Dominik; Burkhart, Julia; Sickmann, Albert; Borchers, Christoph H

    2013-12-16

    There exists a growing demand in the proteomics community to standardize experimental methods and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) platforms in order to enable the acquisition of more precise and accurate quantitative data. This necessity is heightened by the evolving trend of verifying and validating candidate disease biomarkers in complex biofluids, such as blood plasma, through targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approaches with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS). Considering the lack of performance standards for quantitative plasma proteomics, we previously developed two reference kits to evaluate the MRM with SIS peptide approach using undepleted and non-enriched human plasma. The first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). Here, these kits have been refined for practical use and then evaluated through intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. For an identical panel of 22 plasma proteins, similar concentrations were determined, regardless of the kit, instrument platform, and laboratory of analysis. These results demonstrate the value of the kit and reinforce the utility of standardized methods and protocols. The proteomics community needs standardized experimental protocols and quality control methods in order to improve the reproducibility of MS-based quantitative data. This need is heightened by the evolving trend for MRM-based validation of proposed disease biomarkers in complex biofluids such as blood plasma. We have developed two kits to assist in the inter- and intra-laboratory quality control of MRM experiments: the first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). In this paper, we report the use of these kits in intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. This

  12. Quantitative firing transformations of a triaxial ceramic by X-ray diffraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Conconi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The firing transformations of traditional (clay based ceramics are of technological and archeological interest, and are usually reported qualitatively or semiquantitatively. These kinds of systems present an important complexity, especially for X-ray diffraction techniques, due to the presence of fully crystalline, low crystalline and amorphous phases. In this article we present the results of a qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis of the fully crystalline (kaolinite, quartz, cristobalite, feldspars and/or mullite, the low crystalline (metakaolinite and/or spinel type pre-mullite and glassy phases evolution of a triaxial (clay-quartz-feldspar ceramic fired in a wide temperature range between 900 and 1300 ºC. The employed methodology to determine low crystalline and glassy phase abundances is based in a combination of the internal standard method and the use of a nanocrystalline model where the long-range order is lost, respectively. A preliminary sintering characterization was carried out by contraction, density and porosity evolution with the firing temperature. Simultaneous thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis was carried out to elucidate the actual temperature at which the chemical changes occur. Finally, the quantitative analysis based on the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns was performed. The kaolinite decomposition into metakaolinite was determined quantitatively; the intermediate (980 ºC spinel type alumino-silicate formation was also quantified; the incongruent fusion of the potash feldspar was observed and quantified together with the final mullitization and the amorphous (glassy phase formation.The methodology used to analyze the X-ray diffraction patterns proved to be suitable to evaluate quantitatively the thermal transformations that occur in a complex system like the triaxial ceramics. The evaluated phases can be easily correlated with the processing variables and

  13. Exploring the use of storytelling in quantitative research fields using a multiple case study method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lori N. Hamlet

    The purpose of this study was to explore the emerging use of storytelling in quantitative research fields. The focus was not on examining storytelling in research, but rather how stories are used in various ways within the social context of quantitative research environments. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven professionals who had experience using storytelling in their work and my personal experience with the subject matter was also used as a source of data according to the notion of researcher-as-instrument. This study is qualitative in nature and is guided by two supporting theoretical frameworks, the sociological perspective and narrative inquiry. A multiple case study methodology was used to gain insight about why participants decided to use stories or storytelling in a quantitative research environment that may not be traditionally open to such methods. This study also attempted to identify how storytelling can strengthen or supplement existing research, as well as what value stories can provide to the practice of research in general. Five thematic findings emerged from the data and were grouped under two headings, "Experiencing Research" and "Story Work." The themes were found to be consistent with four main theoretical functions of storytelling identified in existing scholarly literature: (a) sense-making; (b) meaning-making; (c) culture; and (d) communal function. The five thematic themes that emerged from this study and were consistent with the existing literature include: (a) social context; (b) quantitative versus qualitative; (c) we think and learn in terms of stories; (d) stories tie experiences together; and (e) making sense and meaning. Recommendations are offered in the form of implications for various social contexts and topics for further research are presented as well.

  14. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-09-01

    Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  15. Composition and Quantitation of Microalgal Lipids by ERETIC 1H NMR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fontana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids in microalgae under investigation for the development of functional health products (probiotics, food ingredients, drugs, etc. or third generation biofuels. The procedure consists of extraction of the biological matrix by modified Folch method and direct analysis of the resulting material by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The protocol uses a reference electronic signal as external standard (ERETIC method and allows assessment of total lipid content, saturation degree and class distribution in both high throughput screening of algal collection and metabolic analysis during genetic or culturing studies. As proof of concept, the methodology was applied to the analysis of three microalgal species (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Cyclotella cryptica and Nannochloropsis salina which drastically differ for the qualitative and quantitative composition of their fatty acid-based lipids.

  16. Quantitative method for measurement of the Goos-Hanchen effect based on source divergence considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Jeffrey F.; Puri, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report on a method for quantitative measurement and characterization of the Goos-Hanchen effect based upon the real world performance of optical sources. A numerical model of a nonideal plane wave is developed in terms of uniform divergence properties. This model is applied to the Goos-Hanchen shift equations to determine beam shift displacement characteristics, which provides quantitative estimates of finite shifts near critical angle. As a potential technique for carrying out a meaningful comparison with experiments, a classical method of edge detection is discussed. To this end a line spread Green's function is defined which can be used to determine the effective transfer function of the near critical angle behavior of divergent plane waves. The process yields a distributed (blurred) output with a line spread function characteristic of the inverse square root nature of the Goos-Hanchen shift equation. A parameter of interest for measurement is given by the edge shift function. Modern imaging and image processing methods provide suitable techniques for exploiting the edge shift phenomena to attain refractive index sensitivities of the order of 10 -6 , comparable with the recent results reported in the literature

  17. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q G; Xu, Y; Zhu, H H; Chen, H; Lin, B

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565–750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565–750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as <0.66, 0.66–1.06, 1.06–1.62, and >1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems. (paper)

  18. Quantitative method to assess caries via fluorescence imaging from the perspective of autofluorescence spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. G.; Zhu, H. H.; Xu, Y.; Lin, B.; Chen, H.

    2015-08-01

    A quantitative method to discriminate caries lesions for a fluorescence imaging system is proposed in this paper. The autofluorescence spectral investigation of 39 teeth samples classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System levels was performed at 405 nm excitation. The major differences in the different caries lesions focused on the relative spectral intensity range of 565-750 nm. The spectral parameter, defined as the ratio of wavebands at 565-750 nm to the whole spectral range, was calculated. The image component ratio R/(G + B) of color components was statistically computed by considering the spectral parameters (e.g. autofluorescence, optical filter, and spectral sensitivity) in our fluorescence color imaging system. Results showed that the spectral parameter and image component ratio presented a linear relation. Therefore, the image component ratio was graded as 1.62 to quantitatively classify sound, early decay, established decay, and severe decay tissues, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence images of caries were experimentally obtained, and the corresponding image component ratio distribution was compared with the classification result. A method to determine the numerical grades of caries using a fluorescence imaging system was proposed. This method can be applied to similar imaging systems.

  19. A method to prioritize quantitative traits and individuals for sequencing in family-based studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaanan P Shah

    Full Text Available Owing to recent advances in DNA sequencing, it is now technically feasible to evaluate the contribution of rare variation to complex traits and diseases. However, it is still cost prohibitive to sequence the whole genome (or exome of all individuals in each study. For quantitative traits, one strategy to reduce cost is to sequence individuals in the tails of the trait distribution. However, the next challenge becomes how to prioritize traits and individuals for sequencing since individuals are often characterized for dozens of medically relevant traits. In this article, we describe a new method, the Rare Variant Kinship Test (RVKT, which leverages relationship information in family-based studies to identify quantitative traits that are likely influenced by rare variants. Conditional on nuclear families and extended pedigrees, we evaluate the power of the RVKT via simulation. Not unexpectedly, the power of our method depends strongly on effect size, and to a lesser extent, on the frequency of the rare variant and the number and type of relationships in the sample. As an illustration, we also apply our method to data from two genetic studies in the Old Order Amish, a founder population with extensive genealogical records. Remarkably, we implicate the presence of a rare variant that lowers fasting triglyceride levels in the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI Heart study (p = 0.044, consistent with the presence of a previously identified null mutation in the APOC3 gene that lowers fasting triglyceride levels in HAPI Heart study participants.

  20. Sample preparation methods for quantitative detection of DNA by molecular assays and marine biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Annie M; Goodwin, Kelly D

    2013-08-15

    The need for quantitative molecular methods is growing in environmental, food, and medical fields but is hindered by low and variable DNA extraction and by co-extraction of PCR inhibitors. DNA extracts from Enterococcus faecium, seawater, and seawater spiked with E. faecium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were tested by qPCR for target recovery and inhibition. Conventional and novel methods were tested, including Synchronous Coefficient of Drag Alteration (SCODA) and lysis and purification systems used on an automated genetic sensor (the Environmental Sample Processor, ESP). Variable qPCR target recovery and inhibition were measured, significantly affecting target quantification. An aggressive lysis method that utilized chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical disruption enhanced target recovery compared to commercial kit protocols. SCODA purification did not show marked improvement over commercial spin columns. Overall, data suggested a general need to improve sample preparation and to accurately assess and account for DNA recovery and inhibition in qPCR applications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Web Applications Vulnerability Management using a Quantitative Stochastic Risk Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu SECHEL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to propose a quantitative risk modeling method that reduces the guess work and uncertainty from the vulnerability and risk assessment activities of web based applications while providing users the flexibility to assess risk according to their risk appetite and tolerance with a high degree of assurance. The research method is based on the research done by the OWASP Foundation on this subject but their risk rating methodology needed de-bugging and updates in different in key areas that are presented in this paper. The modified risk modeling method uses Monte Carlo simulations to model risk characteristics that can’t be determined without guess work and it was tested in vulnerability assessment activities on real production systems and in theory by assigning discrete uniform assumptions to all risk charac-teristics (risk attributes and evaluate the results after 1.5 million rounds of Monte Carlo simu-lations.

  2. A simple linear regression method for quantitative trait loci linkage analysis with censored observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl A; McRae, Allan F; Visscher, Peter M

    2006-07-01

    Standard quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping techniques commonly assume that the trait is both fully observed and normally distributed. When considering survival or age-at-onset traits these assumptions are often incorrect. Methods have been developed to map QTL for survival traits; however, they are both computationally intensive and not available in standard genome analysis software packages. We propose a grouped linear regression method for the analysis of continuous survival data. Using simulation we compare this method to both the Cox and Weibull proportional hazards models and a standard linear regression method that ignores censoring. The grouped linear regression method is of equivalent power to both the Cox and Weibull proportional hazards methods and is significantly better than the standard linear regression method when censored observations are present. The method is also robust to the proportion of censored individuals and the underlying distribution of the trait. On the basis of linear regression methodology, the grouped linear regression model is computationally simple and fast and can be implemented readily in freely available statistical software.

  3. Facilitating arrhythmia simulation: the method of quantitative cellular automata modeling and parallel running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondry Adrian

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many arrhythmias are triggered by abnormal electrical activity at the ionic channel and cell level, and then evolve spatio-temporally within the heart. To understand arrhythmias better and to diagnose them more precisely by their ECG waveforms, a whole-heart model is required to explore the association between the massively parallel activities at the channel/cell level and the integrative electrophysiological phenomena at organ level. Methods We have developed a method to build large-scale electrophysiological models by using extended cellular automata, and to run such models on a cluster of shared memory machines. We describe here the method, including the extension of a language-based cellular automaton to implement quantitative computing, the building of a whole-heart model with Visible Human Project data, the parallelization of the model on a cluster of shared memory computers with OpenMP and MPI hybrid programming, and a simulation algorithm that links cellular activity with the ECG. Results We demonstrate that electrical activities at channel, cell, and organ levels can be traced and captured conveniently in our extended cellular automaton system. Examples of some ECG waveforms simulated with a 2-D slice are given to support the ECG simulation algorithm. A performance evaluation of the 3-D model on a four-node cluster is also given. Conclusions Quantitative multicellular modeling with extended cellular automata is a highly efficient and widely applicable method to weave experimental data at different levels into computational models. This process can be used to investigate complex and collective biological activities that can be described neither by their governing differentiation equations nor by discrete parallel computation. Transparent cluster computing is a convenient and effective method to make time-consuming simulation feasible. Arrhythmias, as a typical case, can be effectively simulated with the methods

  4. Intra-laboratory validation of chronic bee paralysis virus quantitation using an accredited standardised real-time quantitative RT-PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Philippe; Regnault, Julie; Schurr, Frank; Dubois, Eric; Ribière, Magali

    2012-03-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is responsible for chronic bee paralysis, an infectious and contagious disease in adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). A real-time RT-PCR assay to quantitate the CBPV load is now available. To propose this assay as a reference method, it was characterised further in an intra-laboratory study during which the reliability and the repeatability of results and the performance of the assay were confirmed. The qPCR assay alone and the whole quantitation method (from sample RNA extraction to analysis) were both assessed following the ISO/IEC 17025 standard and the recent XP U47-600 standard issued by the French Standards Institute. The performance of the qPCR assay and of the overall CBPV quantitation method were validated over a 6 log range from 10(2) to 10(8) with a detection limit of 50 and 100 CBPV RNA copies, respectively, and the protocol of the real-time RT-qPCR assay for CBPV quantitation was approved by the French Accreditation Committee. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on methods of quantitative analysis of the biological thin samples in EM X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Detian; Zhang Xuemin; He Kun; Yang Yi; Zhang Sa; Wang Baozhen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the methods of quantitative analysis of the biological thin samples. Methods: Hall theory was used to study the qualitative analysis, background subtraction, peel off overlap peaks; external radiation and aberrance of spectra. Results: The results of reliable qualitative analysis and precise quantitative analysis were achieved. Conclusion: The methods for analysis of the biological thin samples in EM X-ray microanalysis can be used in biomedical research

  6. Characterization of working iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts using quantitative diffraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansker, Linda Denise

    This study presents the results of the ex-situ characterization of working iron Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (F-TS) catalysts, reacted hundreds of hours at elevated pressures, using a new quantitative x-ray diffraction analytical methodology. Compositions, iron phase structures, and phase particle morphologies were determined and correlated with the observed reaction kinetics. Conclusions were drawn about the character of each catalyst in its most and least active state. The identity of the active phase(s) in the Fe F-TS catalyst has been vigorously debated for more than 45 years. The highly-reduced catalyst, used to convert coal-derived syngas to hydrocarbon products, is thought to form a mixture of oxides, metal, and carbides upon pretreatment and reaction. Commonly, Soxhlet extraction is used to effect catalyst-product slurry separation; however, the extraction process could be producing irreversible changes in the catalyst, contributing to the conflicting results in the literature. X-ray diffraction doesn't require analyte-matrix separation before analysis, and can detect trace phases down to 300 ppm/2 nm; thus, working catalyst slurries could be characterized as-sampled. Data were quantitatively interpreted employing first principles methods, including the Rietveld polycrystalline structure method. Pretreated catalysts and pure phases were examined experimentally and modeled to explore specific behavior under x-rays. Then, the working catalyst slurries were quantitatively characterized. Empirical quantitation factors were calculated from experimental data or single crystal parameters, then validated using the Rietveld method results. In the most active form, after pretreatment in H 2 or in CO at Pambient, well-preserved working catalysts contained significant amounts of Fe7C3 with trace alpha-Fe, once reaction had commenced at elevated pressure. Amounts of Fe3O 4 were constant and small, with carbide dpavg 65 wt%, regardless of pretreatment gas and pressure, with

  7. Evaluating resective surgery targets in epilepsy patients: A comparison of quantitative EEG methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael; Schindler, Kaspar; Goodfellow, Marc; Pollo, Claudio; Rummel, Christian; Steimer, Andreas

    2018-05-18

    Quantitative analysis of intracranial EEG is a promising tool to assist clinicians in the planning of resective brain surgery in patients suffering from pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Quantifying the accuracy of such tools, however, is nontrivial as a ground truth to verify predictions about hypothetical resections is missing. As one possibility to address this, we use customized hypotheses tests to examine the agreement of the methods on a common set of patients. One method uses machine learning techniques to enable the predictive modeling of EEG time series. The other estimates nonlinear interrelation between EEG channels. Both methods were independently shown to distinguish patients with excellent post-surgical outcome (Engel class I) from those without improvement (Engel class IV) when assessing the electrodes associated with the tissue that was actually resected during brain surgery. Using the AND and OR conjunction of both methods we evaluate the performance gain that can be expected when combining them. Both methods' assessments correlate strongly positively with the similarity between a hypothetical resection and the corresponding actual resection in class I patients. Moreover, the Spearman rank correlation between the methods' patient rankings is significantly positive. To our best knowledge, this is the first study comparing surgery target assessments from fundamentally differing techniques. Although conceptually completely independent, there is a relation between the predictions obtained from both methods. Their broad consensus supports their application in clinical practice to provide physicians additional information in the process of presurgical evaluation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative analysis of patients with celiac disease by video capsule endoscopy: A deep learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Teng; Han, Guoqiang; Li, Bing Nan; Lin, Zhizhe; Ciaccio, Edward J; Green, Peter H; Qin, Jing

    2017-06-01

    Celiac disease is one of the most common diseases in the world. Capsule endoscopy is an alternative way to visualize the entire small intestine without invasiveness to the patient. It is useful to characterize celiac disease, but hours are need to manually analyze the retrospective data of a single patient. Computer-aided quantitative analysis by a deep learning method helps in alleviating the workload during analysis of the retrospective videos. Capsule endoscopy clips from 6 celiac disease patients and 5 controls were preprocessed for training. The frames with a large field of opaque extraluminal fluid or air bubbles were removed automatically by using a pre-selection algorithm. Then the frames were cropped and the intensity was corrected prior to frame rotation in the proposed new method. The GoogLeNet is trained with these frames. Then, the clips of capsule endoscopy from 5 additional celiac disease patients and 5 additional control patients are used for testing. The trained GoogLeNet was able to distinguish the frames from capsule endoscopy clips of celiac disease patients vs controls. Quantitative measurement with evaluation of the confidence was developed to assess the severity level of pathology in the subjects. Relying on the evaluation confidence, the GoogLeNet achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity for the testing set. The t-test confirmed the evaluation confidence is significant to distinguish celiac disease patients from controls. Furthermore, it is found that the evaluation confidence may also relate to the severity level of small bowel mucosal lesions. A deep convolutional neural network was established for quantitative measurement of the existence and degree of pathology throughout the small intestine, which may improve computer-aided clinical techniques to assess mucosal atrophy and other etiologies in real-time with videocapsule endoscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. QACD: A method for the quantitative assessment of compositional distribution in geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loocke, M. P.; Lissenberg, J. C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    In order to fully understand the petrogenetic history of a rock, it is critical to obtain a thorough characterization of the chemical and textural relationships of its mineral constituents. Element mapping combines the microanalytical techniques that allow for the analysis of major- and minor elements at high spatial resolutions (e.g., electron microbeam analysis) with 2D mapping of samples in order to provide unprecedented detail regarding the growth histories and compositional distributions of minerals within a sample. We present a method for the acquisition and processing of large area X-ray element maps obtained by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to produce a quantitative assessment of compositional distribution (QACD) of mineral populations within geologic materials. By optimizing the conditions at which the EDS X-ray element maps are acquired, we are able to obtain full thin section quantitative element maps for most major elements in relatively short amounts of time. Such maps can be used to not only accurately identify all phases and calculate mineral modes for a sample (e.g., a petrographic thin section), but, critically, enable a complete quantitative assessment of their compositions. The QACD method has been incorporated into a python-based, easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) called Quack. The Quack software facilitates the generation of mineral modes, element and molar ratio maps and the quantification of full-sample compositional distributions. The open-source nature of the Quack software provides a versatile platform which can be easily adapted and modified to suit the needs of the user.

  10. Spatial access priority mapping (SAPM) with fishers: a quantitative GIS method for participatory planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S

    2013-01-01

    Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers' spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers' willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision-making process

  11. Quantitative 4D Transcatheter Intraarterial Perfusion MR Imaging as a Method to Standardize Angiographic Chemoembolization Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Brian; Wang, Dingxin; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Larson, Andrew C.; Salem, Riad; Omary, Reed A.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to test the hypothesis that subjective angiographic endpoints during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit consistency and correlate with objective intraprocedural reductions in tumor perfusion as determined by quantitative four dimensional (4D) transcatheter intraarterial perfusion (TRIP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Eighteen consecutive patients underwent TACE in a combined MR/interventional radiology (MR-IR) suite. Three board-certified interventional radiologists independently graded the angiographic endpoint of each procedure based on a previously described subjective angiographic chemoembolization endpoint (SACE) scale. A consensus SACE rating was established for each patient. Patients underwent quantitative 4D TRIP-MR imaging immediately before and after TACE, from which mean whole tumor perfusion (Fρ) was calculated. Consistency of SACE ratings between observers was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The relationship between SACE ratings and intraprocedural TRIP-MR imaging perfusion changes was evaluated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS The SACE rating scale demonstrated very good consistency among all observers (ICC = 0.80). The consensus SACE rating was significantly correlated with both absolute (r = 0.54, P = 0.022) and percent (r = 0.85, P SACE rating scale demonstrates very good consistency between raters, and significantly correlates with objectively measured intraprocedural perfusion reductions during TACE. These results support the use of the SACE scale as a standardized alternative method to quantitative 4D TRIP-MR imaging to classify patients based on embolic endpoints of TACE. PMID:22021520

  12. A Stereological Method for the Quantitative Evaluation of Cartilage Repair Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Lind, Martin; Spector, Myron

    2015-01-01

    Objective To implement stereological principles to develop an easy applicable algorithm for unbiased and quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair. Design Design-unbiased sampling was performed by systematically sectioning the defect perpendicular to the joint surface in parallel planes providing 7 to 10 hematoxylin–eosin stained histological sections. Counting windows were systematically selected and converted into image files (40-50 per defect). The quantification was performed by two-step point counting: (1) calculation of defect volume and (2) quantitative analysis of tissue composition. Step 2 was performed by assigning each point to one of the following categories based on validated and easy distinguishable morphological characteristics: (1) hyaline cartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in hyaline matrix), (2) fibrocartilage (rounded cells in lacunae in fibrous matrix), (3) fibrous tissue (elongated cells in fibrous tissue), (4) bone, (5) scaffold material, and (6) others. The ability to discriminate between the tissue types was determined using conventional or polarized light microscopy, and the interobserver variability was evaluated. Results We describe the application of the stereological method. In the example, we assessed the defect repair tissue volume to be 4.4 mm3 (CE = 0.01). The tissue fractions were subsequently evaluated. Polarized light illumination of the slides improved discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage and increased the interobserver agreement compared with conventional transmitted light. Conclusion We have applied a design-unbiased method for quantitative evaluation of cartilage repair, and we propose this algorithm as a natural supplement to existing descriptive semiquantitative scoring systems. We also propose that polarized light is effective for discrimination between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. PMID:26069715

  13. A quantitative method to evaluate mesenchymal stem cell lipofection using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S C; Mendes, R; Madeira, C; Monteiro, G A; da Silva, C L; Cabral, J M S

    2010-01-01

    Genetic modification of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is a powerful tool to improve the therapeutic utility of these cells and to increase the knowledge on their regulation mechanisms. In this context, strong efforts have been made recently to develop efficient nonviral gene delivery systems. Although several studies addressed this question most of them use the end product of a reporter gene instead of the DNA uptake quantification to test the transfection efficiency. In this study, we established a method based on quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to determine the intracellular plasmid DNA copy number in human MSC after lipofection. The procedure requires neither specific cell lysis nor DNA purification. The influence of cell number on the RT-PCR sensitivity was evaluated. The method showed good reproducibility, high sensitivity, and a wide linear range of 75-2.5 x 10⁶ plasmid DNA copies per cell. RT-PCR results were then compared with the percentage of transfected cells assessed by flow cytometry analysis, which showed that flow cytometry-based results are not always proportional to plasmid cellular uptake determined by RT-PCR. This work contributed for the establishment of a rapid quantitative assay to determine intracellular plasmid DNA in stem cells, which will be extremely beneficial for the optimization of gene delivery strategies. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  14. Evaluation of the remineralization capacity of CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish by different quantitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk SAVAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish for remineralizing white spot lesions (WSLs with four different quantitative methods. Material and Methods Four windows (3x3 mm were created on the enamel surfaces of bovine incisor teeth. A control window was covered with nail varnish, and WSLs were created on the other windows (after demineralization, first week and fourth week in acidified gel system. The test material (MI Varnish was applied on the demineralized areas, and the treated enamel samples were stored in artificial saliva. At the fourth week, the enamel surfaces were tested by surface microhardness (SMH, quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and laser fluorescence (LF pen. The data were statistically analyzed (α=0.05. Results While the LF pen measurements showed significant differences at baseline, after demineralization, and after the one-week remineralization period (p0.05. With regards to the SMH and QLF-D analyses, statistically significant differences were found among all the phases (p<0.05. After the 1- and 4-week treatment periods, the calcium (Ca and phosphate (P concentrations and Ca/P ratio were higher compared to those of the demineralization surfaces (p<0.05. Conclusion CPP-ACP containing fluoride varnish provides remineralization of WSLs after a single application and seems suitable for clinical use.

  15. Radioisotopic neutron transmission spectrometry: Quantitative analysis by using partial least-squares method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Yun; Choi, Yong Suk; Park, Yong Joon; Jung, Sung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Neutron spectrometry, based on the scattering of high energy fast neutrons from a radioisotope and slowing-down by the light hydrogen atoms, is a useful technique for non-destructive, quantitative measurement of hydrogen content because it has a large measuring volume, and is not affected by temperature, pressure, pH value and color. The most common choice for radioisotope neutron source is 252 Cf or 241 Am-Be. In this study, 252 Cf with a neutron flux of 6.3x10 6 n/s has been used as an attractive neutron source because of its high flux neutron and weak radioactivity. Pulse-height neutron spectra have been obtained by using in-house built radioisotopic neutron spectrometric system equipped with 3 He detector and multi-channel analyzer, including a neutron shield. As a preliminary study, polyethylene block (density of ∼0.947 g/cc and area of 40 cmx25 cm) was used for the determination of hydrogen content by using multivariate calibration models, depending on the thickness of the block. Compared with the results obtained from a simple linear calibration model, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) method offered a better performance in a quantitative data analysis. It also revealed that the PLSR method in a neutron spectrometric system can be promising in the real-time, online monitoring of the powder process to determine the content of any type of molecules containing hydrogen nuclei.

  16. Dynamic and quantitative method of analyzing service consistency evolution based on extended hierarchical finite state automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Linjun; Tang, Jun; Ling, Yunxiang; Li, Benxian

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA). Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service's evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA) is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA), which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs) based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average) is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12%) is the second biggest one, and the service version's confusion (1.2%) is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA.

  17. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant.

  18. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - Qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kwiecinska-Piróg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride and CV (crystal violet application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters. The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant.

  19. Dynamic and Quantitative Method of Analyzing Service Consistency Evolution Based on Extended Hierarchical Finite State Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA. Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service’s evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA, which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12% is the second biggest one, and the service version’s confusion (1.2% is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA.

  20. Méthode analytique généralisée pour le calcul du coning. Nouvelle solution pour calculer le coning de gaz, d'eau et double coning dans les puits verticaux et horizontaux Generalized Analytical Method for Coning Calculation. New Solution to Calculation Both the Gas Coning, Water Coning and Dual Coning for Vertical and Horizontal Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietraru V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une nouvelle méthode analytique d'évaluation du coning d'eau par bottom water drive et/ou de gaz par gas-cap drive dans les puits horizontaux et verticaux a été développée pour les réservoirs infinis [1]. Dans cet article, une généralisation de cette méthode est présentée pour les réservoirs confinés d'extension limitée dont le toit est horizontal. La généralisation proposée est basée sur la résolution des équations différentielles de la diffusivité avec prise en compte des effets de drainage par gravité et des conditions aux limites pour un réservoir confiné. La méthode est applicable aux réservoirs isotropes ou anisotropes. L'hypothèse de pression constante à la limite de l'aire de drainage dans l'eau et/ou dans le gaz a été adoptée. Les pertes de charge dans l'aquifère et dans le gas-cap sont donc négligées. Les principales contributions de cet article sont : - L'introduction de la notion de rayon de cône, différent du rayon de puits. La hauteur du cône et le débit critique dépendent du rayon de cône alors qu'ils sont indépendants du rayon du puits. - Une nouvelle corrélation pour le calcul du débit critique sous forme adimensionnelle en fonction de trois paramètres : le temps, la longueur du drain horizontal (nulle pour un puits vertical et le rayon de drainage. - Des corrélations pour le calcul du rapport des débits gaz/huile (GOR ou de la fraction en eau (fw, pendant les périodes critique et postcritique, qui tiennent compte de la pression capillaire et des perméabilités relatives. - Des corrélations pour le calcul des rapports de débits gaz/huile et eau/huile pendant les périodes pré, post et supercritique en double coning. - Des critères pour le calcul du temps de percée au puits en simple coning de gaz ou d'eau, ou en double coning de gaz et d'eau. A new analytical method for assessing water and/or gas coning in horizontal and vertical wells has been developed for infinite

  1. Comparation of fundamental analytical methods for quantitative determination of copper(IIion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a ductile metal with excellent electrical conductivity, and finds extensive use as an electrical conductor, heat conductor, as a building material, and as a component of various alloys. In this work accuracy of methods for quantitative determination (gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis of copper(II ion was studied. Gravimetric methods do not require a calibration or standardization step (as all other analytical procedures except coulometry do because the results are calculated directly from the experimental data and molar masses. Thus, when only one or two samples are to be analyzed, a gravimetric procedure may be the method of choice because it involves less time and effort than a procedure that requires preparation of standards and calibration. In this work in gravimetric analysis the concentration of copper(II ion is established through the measurement of a mass of CuSCN and CuO. Titrimetric methods is a process in which a standard reagent is added to a solution of an analyze until the reaction between the analyze and reagent is judged to be complete. In this work in titrimetric analysis the concentration of copper(II ion is established through the measurement of a volume of different standard reagents: Km, Na2S2O3 and AgNO3. Results were discussed individually and mutually with the aspect of exactility, reproductivity and rapidity. Relative error was calculated for all methods.

  2. An Improved DNA Extraction Method for Efficient and Quantitative Recovery of Phytoplankton Diversity in Natural Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yuan

    Full Text Available Marine phytoplankton are highly diverse with different species possessing different cell coverings, posing challenges for thoroughly breaking the cells in DNA extraction yet preserving DNA integrity. While quantitative molecular techniques have been increasingly used in phytoplankton research, an effective and simple method broadly applicable to different lineages and natural assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we developed a bead-beating protocol based on our previous experience and tested it against 9 species of phytoplankton representing different lineages and different cell covering rigidities. We found the bead-beating method enhanced the final yield of DNA (highest as 2 folds in comparison with the non-bead-beating method, while also preserving the DNA integrity. When our method was applied to a field sample collected at a subtropical bay located in Xiamen, China, the resultant ITS clone library revealed a highly diverse assemblage of phytoplankton and other micro-eukaryotes, including Archaea, Amoebozoa, Chlorophyta, Ciliphora, Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, Fungi, Metazoa, etc. The appearance of thecate dinoflagellates, thin-walled phytoplankton and "naked" unicellular organisms indicates that our method could obtain the intact DNA of organisms with different cell coverings. All the results demonstrate that our method is useful for DNA extraction of phytoplankton and environmental surveys of their diversity and abundance.

  3. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. An Image Analysis Method for the Precise Selection and Quantitation of Fluorescently Labeled Cellular Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agley, Chibeza C.; Velloso, Cristiana P.; Lazarus, Norman R.

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the morphological characteristics of cells with nonuniform conformations presents difficulties. We report here a straightforward method using immunofluorescent staining and the commercially available imaging program Adobe Photoshop, which allows objective and precise information to be gathered on irregularly shaped cells. We have applied this measurement technique to the analysis of human muscle cells and their immunologically marked intracellular constituents, as these cells are prone to adopting a highly branched phenotype in culture. Use of this method can be used to overcome many of the long-standing limitations of conventional approaches for quantifying muscle cell size in vitro. In addition, wider applications of Photoshop as a quantitative and semiquantitative tool in immunocytochemistry are explored. PMID:22511600

  5. Simple saponification method for the quantitative determination of carotenoids in green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Erik; Christensen, Lars P

    2005-08-24

    A simple, reliable, and gentle saponification method for the quantitative determination of carotenoids in green vegetables was developed. The method involves an extraction procedure with acetone and the selective removal of the chlorophylls and esterified fatty acids from the organic phase using a strongly basic resin (Ambersep 900 OH). Extracts from common green vegetables (beans, broccoli, green bell pepper, chive, lettuce, parsley, peas, and spinach) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their content of major carotenoids before and after action of Ambersep 900 OH. The mean recovery percentages for most carotenoids [(all-E)-violaxanthin, (all-E)-lutein epoxide, (all-E)-lutein, neolutein A, and (all-E)-beta-carotene] after saponification of the vegetable extracts with Ambersep 900 OH were close to 100% (99-104%), while the mean recovery percentages of (9'Z)-neoxanthin increased to 119% and that of (all-E)-neoxanthin and neolutein B decreased to 90% and 72%, respectively.

  6. A gamma camera method for quantitation of split renal function in children followed for vesicoureteric reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminen, T.E.; Riihimaeki, E.J.; Taehti, E.E.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1978-01-01

    A method for quantitative estimation of split renal function using a computerized gamma camera system is described. 42 children and adolescents with existing or preexisting vesicouretric reflux and recurrent urinary tract infection were investigated. Total renal clearance of DTPA was calculated with a disapperarance curve derived from the largest extrarenal area in the field of view of a gamma camera with diverging collimator. Split renal function was estimated with the slopes of second phase renograms. The plasma disaapearance clearance of DTPA, calculated using one compartement model with two late blood samples, gave similar resusults with the clearance estimated from the body disappearance curves. The proportional planimetric renal parenchymal areas had good correlation with the split clearance estimated from renogram slopes. The method offers data on renal function and urinary tract dynamics which is very valuable in the follow-up of children with recurrent urinary tract infection and vesicoureteric reflux. (orig.) [de

  7. Quantitative determination of the crystalline phases of the ceramic materials utilizing the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniess, C.T.; Prates, P.B.; Lima, J.C. de; Kuhnen, N.C.; Riella, H.G.; Maliska, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic materials have properties defined by their chemical and micro-structural composition. The quantification of the crystalline phases is a fundamental stage in the determination of the structure, properties and applications of a ceramic material. Within this context, this study aims is the quantitative determination of the crystalline phases of the ceramic materials developed with addition of mineral coal bottom ash, utilizing the X ray diffraction technique, through the method proposed by Rietveld. For the formulation of the ceramic mixtures a {3,3} simplex-lattice design was used, giving ten formulations of three components (two different types of clays and coal bottom ash). The crystalline phases identified in the ceramic materials after sintering at 1150 deg C during two hours are: quartz, tridimite, mullite and hematite. The proposed methodology utilizing the Rietveld method for the quantification relating to crystalline phases of the materials was shown to be adequate and efficient. (author)

  8. Establishment of a new method to quantitatively evaluate hyphal fusion ability in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Wakako; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Hyphal fusion is involved in the formation of an interconnected colony in filamentous fungi, and it is the first process in sexual/parasexual reproduction. However, it was difficult to evaluate hyphal fusion efficiency due to the low frequency in Aspergillus oryzae in spite of its industrial significance. Here, we established a method to quantitatively evaluate the hyphal fusion ability of A. oryzae with mixed culture of two different auxotrophic strains, where the ratio of heterokaryotic conidia growing without the auxotrophic requirements reflects the hyphal fusion efficiency. By employing this method, it was demonstrated that AoSO and AoFus3 are required for hyphal fusion, and that hyphal fusion efficiency of A. oryzae was increased by depleting nitrogen source, including large amounts of carbon source, and adjusting pH to 7.0.

  9. THE STUDY OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS BY THE VIGNETTE METHOD: A QUANTITATIVE INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж В Пузанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the prospects of creating vignettes as a new method in empirical sociology. It is a good alternative to the conventional mass survey methods. The article consists of a few sections differing by the focus. The vignette method is not popular among Russian scientists, but has a big history abroad. A wide range of problems can be solved by this method (e.g. the prospects for guardianship and its evaluation, international students’ adaptation to the educational system, social justice studies, market-ing and business research, etc.. The vignette method can be used for studying different problems including sensitive questions (e.g. HIV, drugs, psychological trauma, etc., because it is one of the projective techniques. Projective techniques allow to obtain more reliable information, because the respondent projects one situation on the another, but at the same time responds to his own stimulus. The article considers advantages and disadvantages of the method. The authors provide information about the limitations of the method. The article presents the key principles for designing and developing the vignettes method depending on the research type. The authors provide examples of their own vignettes tested in the course of their own empirical research. The authors highlight the advantages of the logical-combinatorial approaches (especially the JSM method with its dichotomy for the analysis of data in quantitative research. Also they consider another method of the analysis of the data that implies the technique of “steeping”, i.e. when the respondent gets new information step by step, which extends his previous knowledge.

  10. Malignant gliomas: current perspectives in diagnosis, treatment, and early response assessment using advanced quantitative imaging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rafay Ahmed,1 Matthew J Oborski,2 Misun Hwang,1 Frank S Lieberman,3 James M Mountz11Department of Radiology, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Department of Neurology and Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas consist of glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and some less common tumors such as anaplastic ependymomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas. Malignant gliomas have high morbidity and mortality. Even with optimal treatment, median survival is only 12–15 months for glioblastomas and 2–5 years for anaplastic gliomas. However, recent advances in imaging and quantitative analysis of image data have led to earlier diagnosis of tumors and tumor response to therapy, providing oncologists with a greater time window for therapy management. In addition, improved understanding of tumor biology, genetics, and resistance mechanisms has enhanced surgical techniques, chemotherapy methods, and radiotherapy administration. After proper diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy, there is now a vital need for quantitative methods that can sensitively detect malignant glioma response to therapy at early follow-up times, when changes in management of nonresponders can have its greatest effect. Currently, response is largely evaluated by measuring magnetic resonance contrast and size change, but this approach does not take into account the key biologic steps that precede tumor size reduction. Molecular imaging is ideally suited to measuring early response by quantifying cellular metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, activities altered early in treatment. We expect that successful integration of quantitative imaging biomarker assessment into the early phase of clinical trials could provide a novel approach for testing new therapies

  11. Applying quantitative benefit-risk analysis to aid regulatory decision making in diagnostic imaging: methods, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapova, Maria; Devine, Emily Beth; Bresnahan, Brian W; Higashi, Mitchell K; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-09-01

    Health agencies making regulatory marketing-authorization decisions use qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess expected benefits and expected risks associated with medical interventions. There is, however, no universal standard approach that regulatory agencies consistently use to conduct benefit-risk assessment (BRA) for pharmaceuticals or medical devices, including for imaging technologies. Economics, health services research, and health outcomes research use quantitative approaches to elicit preferences of stakeholders, identify priorities, and model health conditions and health intervention effects. Challenges to BRA in medical devices are outlined, highlighting additional barriers in radiology. Three quantitative methods--multi-criteria decision analysis, health outcomes modeling and stated-choice survey--are assessed using criteria that are important in balancing benefits and risks of medical devices and imaging technologies. To be useful in regulatory BRA, quantitative methods need to: aggregate multiple benefits and risks, incorporate qualitative considerations, account for uncertainty, and make clear whose preferences/priorities are being used. Each quantitative method performs differently across these criteria and little is known about how BRA estimates and conclusions vary by approach. While no specific quantitative method is likely to be the strongest in all of the important areas, quantitative methods may have a place in BRA of medical devices and radiology. Quantitative BRA approaches have been more widely applied in medicines, with fewer BRAs in devices. Despite substantial differences in characteristics of pharmaceuticals and devices, BRA methods may be as applicable to medical devices and imaging technologies as they are to pharmaceuticals. Further research to guide the development and selection of quantitative BRA methods for medical devices and imaging technologies is needed. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Wavelength Selection Method Based on Differential Evolution for Precise Quantitative Analysis Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Chen, Weidong; Lian, Feiyu; Ge, Hongyi; Guan, Aihong

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of component mixtures is an important application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and has attracted broad interest in recent research. Although the accuracy of quantitative analysis using THz-TDS is affected by a host of factors, wavelength selection from the sample's THz absorption spectrum is the most crucial component. The raw spectrum consists of signals from the sample and scattering and other random disturbances that can critically influence the quantitative accuracy. For precise quantitative analysis using THz-TDS, the signal from the sample needs to be retained while the scattering and other noise sources are eliminated. In this paper, a novel wavelength selection method based on differential evolution (DE) is investigated. By performing quantitative experiments on a series of binary amino acid mixtures using THz-TDS, we demonstrate the efficacy of the DE-based wavelength selection method, which yields an error rate below 5%.

  13. A validated method for the quantitation of 1,1-difluoroethane using a gas in equilibrium method of calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Joseph; Lehrer, Michael; Zito, S William

    2008-10-01

    1,1-Difluoroethane (DFE), also known as Freon 152A, is a member of a class of compounds known as halogenated hydrocarbons. A number of these compounds have gained notoriety because of their ability to induce rapid onset of intoxication after inhalation exposure. Abuse of DFE has necessitated development of methods for its detection and quantitation in postmortem and human performance specimens. Furthermore, methodologies applicable to research studies are required as there have been limited toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic reports published on DFE. This paper describes a method for the quantitation of DFE using a gas chromatography-flame-ionization headspace technique that employs solventless standards for calibration. Two calibration curves using 0.5 mL whole blood calibrators which ranged from A: 0.225-1.350 to B: 9.0-180.0 mg/L were developed. These were evaluated for linearity (0.9992 and 0.9995), limit of detection of 0.018 mg/L, limit of quantitation of 0.099 mg/L (recovery 111.9%, CV 9.92%), and upper limit of linearity of 27,000.0 mg/L. Combined curve recovery results of a 98.0 mg/L DFE control that was prepared using an alternate technique was 102.2% with CV of 3.09%. No matrix interference was observed in DFE enriched blood, urine or brain specimens nor did analysis of variance detect any significant differences (alpha = 0.01) in the area under the curve of blood, urine or brain specimens at three identical DFE concentrations. The method is suitable for use in forensic laboratories because validation was performed on instrumentation routinely used in forensic labs and due to the ease with which the calibration range can be adjusted. Perhaps more importantly it is also useful for research oriented studies because the removal of solvent from standard preparation eliminates the possibility for solvent induced changes to the gas/liquid partitioning of DFE or chromatographic interference due to the presence of solvent in specimens.

  14. Method of quantitative analysis of fluorine in environmental samples using a pure-Ge detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Terasaki, K.; Saitoh, Y.; Itoh, J.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.; Sakurai, S.

    2004-01-01

    We recently developed and reported a three-detector measuring system making use of a pure-Ge detector combined with two Si(Li) detectors. The efficiency curve of the pure-Ge detector was determined as relative efficiencies to those of the existing Si(Li) detectors and accuracy of it was confirmed by analyzing a few samples whose elemental concentrations were known. It was found that detection of fluorine becomes possible by analyzing prompt γ-rays and the detection limit was found to be less than 0.1 ppm for water samples. In this work, a method of quantitative analysis of fluorine has been established in order to investigate environmental contamination by fluorine. This method is based on the fact that both characteristic x-rays from many elements and 110 keV prompt γ-rays from fluorine can be detected in the same spectrum. The present method is applied to analyses of a few environmental samples such as tealeaves, feed for domestic animals and human bone. The results are consistent with those obtained by other methods and it is found that the present method is quite useful and convenient for investigation studies on regional pollution by fluorine. (author)

  15. Simultaneous quantitative determination of paracetamol and tramadol in tablet formulation using UV spectrophotometry and chemometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavanović, Siniša; Glavanović, Marija; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2016-03-01

    The UV spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous quantitative determination of paracetamol and tramadol in paracetamol-tramadol tablets were developed. The spectrophotometric data obtained were processed by means of partial least squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm coupled with PLS (GA-PLS) methods in order to determine the content of active substances in the tablets. The results gained by chemometric processing of the spectroscopic data were statistically compared with those obtained by means of validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method. The accuracy and precision of data obtained by the developed chemometric models were verified by analysing the synthetic mixture of drugs, and by calculating recovery as well as relative standard error (RSE). A statistically good agreement was found between the amounts of paracetamol determined using PLS and GA-PLS algorithms, and that obtained by UHPLC analysis, whereas for tramadol GA-PLS results were proven to be more reliable compared to those of PLS. The simplest and the most accurate and precise models were constructed by using the PLS method for paracetamol (mean recovery 99.5%, RSE 0.89%) and the GA-PLS method for tramadol (mean recovery 99.4%, RSE 1.69%).

  16. Development of a new quantitative gas permeability method for dental implant-abutment connection tightness assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Most dental implant systems are presently made of two pieces: the implant itself and the abutment. The connection tightness between those two pieces is a key point to prevent bacterial proliferation, tissue inflammation and bone loss. The leak has been previously estimated by microbial, color tracer and endotoxin percolation. Methods A new nitrogen flow technique was developed for implant-abutment connection leakage measurement, adapted from a recent, sensitive, reproducible and quantitative method used to assess endodontic sealing. Results The results show very significant differences between various sealing and screwing conditions. The remaining flow was lower after key screwing compared to hand screwing (p = 0.03) and remained different from the negative test (p = 0.0004). The method reproducibility was very good, with a coefficient of variation of 1.29%. Conclusions Therefore, the presented new gas flow method appears to be a simple and robust method to compare different implant systems. It allows successive measures without disconnecting the abutment from the implant and should in particular be used to assess the behavior of the connection before and after mechanical stress. PMID:21492459

  17. Automatic variable selection method and a comparison for quantitative analysis in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fajie; Fu, Xiao; Jiang, Jiajia; Huang, Tingting; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Cong

    2018-05-01

    In this work, an automatic variable selection method for quantitative analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed, which is based on full spectrum correction (FSC) and modified iterative predictor weighting-partial least squares (mIPW-PLS). The method features automatic selection without artificial processes. To illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method, a comparison with genetic algorithm (GA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) for different elements (copper, barium and chromium) detection in soil was implemented. The experimental results showed that all the three methods could accomplish variable selection effectively, among which FSC-mIPW-PLS required significantly shorter computation time (12 s approximately for 40,000 initial variables) than the others. Moreover, improved quantification models were got with variable selection approaches. The root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of models utilizing the new method were 27.47 (copper), 37.15 (barium) and 39.70 (chromium) mg/kg, which showed comparable prediction effect with GA and SPA.

  18. Development and validation of HPLC analytical method for quantitative determination of metronidazole in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, K.A.; Shyum, S.B.; Usman, S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a simple, rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) analytical method with UV detection system for the quantitative determination of metronidazole in human plasma. The chromatographic separation was performed by using C18 RP column (250mm X 4.6mm, 5 meu m) as stationary phase and 0.01M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffered at pH 3.0 and acetonitrile (83:17, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The UV detection was carried out at 320nm. The method was validated as per the US FDA guideline for bioanalytical method validation and was found to be selective without interferences from mobile phase components, impurities and biological matrix. The method found to be linear over the concentration range of 0.2812 meu g/ml to 18.0 meu g/ml (r2 = 0.9987) with adequate level of accuracy and precision. The samples were found to be stable under various recommended laboratory and storage conditions. Therefore, the method can be used with adequate level of confidence and assurance for bioavailability, bioequivalence and other pharmacokinetic studies of metronidazole in human. (author)

  19. A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Sabatini, María; Verdiell, Adriana; Rodríguez Iglesias, Ricardo M; Vidal, Marta

    2007-04-01

    Zoning is a key prescriptive tool for administration and management of protected areas. However, the lack of zoning is common for most protected areas in developing countries and, as a consequence, many protected areas are not effective in achieving the goals for which they were created. In this work, we introduce a quantitative method to expeditiously zone protected areas and we evaluate its ecological implications on hypothetical zoning cases. A real-world application is reported for the Talampaya National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Argentina. Our method is a modification of the zoning forest model developed by Bos [Bos, J., 1993. Zoning in forest management: a quadratic assignment problem solved by simulated annealing. Journal of Environmental Management 37, 127-145.]. Main innovations involve a quadratic function of distance between land units, non-reciprocal weights for adjacent land uses (mathematically represented by a non-symmetric matrix), and the possibility of imposing a connectivity constraint. Due to its intrinsic spatial dimension, the zoning problem belongs to the NP-hard class, i.e. a solution can only be obtained in non-polynomial time [Nemhausser, G., Wolsey, L., 1988. Integer and Combinatorial Optimization. John Wiley, New York.]. For that purpose, we applied a simulated annealing heuristic implemented as a FORTRAN language routine. Our innovations were effective in achieving zoning designs more compatible with biological diversity protection. The quadratic distance term facilitated the delineation of core zones for elements of significance; the connectivity constraint minimized fragmentation; non-reciprocal land use weightings contributed to better representing management decisions, and influenced mainly the edge and shape of zones. This quantitative method can assist the zoning process within protected areas by offering many zonation scheme alternatives with minimum cost, time and effort. This ability provides a new tool to

  20. A quantitative method for risk assessment of agriculture due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiqiang; Pan, Zhihua; An, Pingli; Zhang, Jingting; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Yuying; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Hui; Han, Guolin; Wu, Dong; Wang, Jialin; Fan, Dongliang; Gao, Lin; Pan, Xuebiao

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has greatly affected agriculture. Agriculture is facing increasing risks as its sensitivity and vulnerability to climate change. Scientific assessment of climate change-induced agricultural risks could help to actively deal with climate change and ensure food security. However, quantitative assessment of risk is a difficult issue. Here, based on the IPCC assessment reports, a quantitative method for risk assessment of agriculture due to climate change is proposed. Risk is described as the product of the degree of loss and its probability of occurrence. The degree of loss can be expressed by the yield change amplitude. The probability of occurrence can be calculated by the new concept of climate change effect-accumulated frequency (CCEAF). Specific steps of this assessment method are suggested. This method is determined feasible and practical by using the spring wheat in Wuchuan County of Inner Mongolia as a test example. The results show that the fluctuation of spring wheat yield increased with the warming and drying climatic trend in Wuchuan County. The maximum yield decrease and its probability were 3.5 and 64.6%, respectively, for the temperature maximum increase 88.3%, and its risk was 2.2%. The maximum yield decrease and its probability were 14.1 and 56.1%, respectively, for the precipitation maximum decrease 35.2%, and its risk was 7.9%. For the comprehensive impacts of temperature and precipitation, the maximum yield decrease and its probability were 17.6 and 53.4%, respectively, and its risk increased to 9.4%. If we do not adopt appropriate adaptation strategies, the degree of loss from the negative impacts of multiclimatic factors and its probability of occurrence will both increase accordingly, and the risk will also grow obviously.

  1. Practicable methods for histological section thickness measurement in quantitative stereological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenaers, Cyrill; Popper, Bastian; Rieger, Alexandra; Wanke, Rüdiger; Blutke, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The accuracy of quantitative stereological analysis tools such as the (physical) disector method substantially depends on the precise determination of the thickness of the analyzed histological sections. One conventional method for measurement of histological section thickness is to re-embed the section of interest vertically to its original section plane. The section thickness is then measured in a subsequently prepared histological section of this orthogonally re-embedded sample. However, the orthogonal re-embedding (ORE) technique is quite work- and time-intensive and may produce inaccurate section thickness measurement values due to unintentional slightly oblique (non-orthogonal) positioning of the re-embedded sample-section. Here, an improved ORE method is presented, allowing for determination of the factual section plane angle of the re-embedded section, and correction of measured section thickness values for oblique (non-orthogonal) sectioning. For this, the analyzed section is mounted flat on a foil of known thickness (calibration foil) and both the section and the calibration foil are then vertically (re-)embedded. The section angle of the re-embedded section is then calculated from the deviation of the measured section thickness of the calibration foil and its factual thickness, using basic geometry. To find a practicable, fast, and accurate alternative to ORE, the suitability of spectral reflectance (SR) measurement for determination of plastic section thicknesses was evaluated. Using a commercially available optical reflectometer (F20, Filmetrics®, USA), the thicknesses of 0.5 μm thick semi-thin Epon (glycid ether)-sections and of 1-3 μm thick plastic sections (glycolmethacrylate/ methylmethacrylate, GMA/MMA), as regularly used in physical disector analyses, could precisely be measured within few seconds. Compared to the measured section thicknesses determined by ORE, SR measures displayed less than 1% deviation. Our results prove the applicability

  2. Characterization of a method for quantitating food consumption for mutation assays in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, E.D.; Reeder, B.A.; Bruce, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitation of food consumption is necessary when determining mutation responses to multiple chemical exposures in the sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila. One method proposed for quantitating food consumption by Drosophila is to measure the incorporation of 14C-leucine into the flies during the feeding period. Three sources of variation in the technique of Thompson and Reeder have been identified and characterized. First, the amount of food consumed by individual flies differed by almost 30% in a 24 hr feeding period. Second, the variability from vial to vial (each containing multiple flies) was around 15%. Finally, the amount of food consumed in identical feeding experiments performed over the course of 1 year varied nearly 2-fold. The use of chemical consumption values in place of exposure levels provided a better means of expressing the combined mutagenic response. In addition, the kinetics of food consumption over a 3 day feeding period for exposures to cyclophosphamide which produce lethality were compared to non-lethal exposures. Extensive characterization of lethality induced by exposures to cyclophosphamide demonstrate that the lethality is most likely due to starvation, not chemical toxicity

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganglong Yang

    Full Text Available The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia, KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC, and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer.

  4. New 'ex vivo' radioisotopic method of quantitation of platelet deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badimon, L.; Fuster, V.; Chesebro, J.H.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive and quantitative method of 'ex vivo' evaluation of platelet deposition on collagen strips, from rabbit Achilles tendon, superfused by flowing blood and applied it to four animal species, cat, rabbit, dog and pig. Autologous platelets were labeled with indium-111-tropolone, injected to the animal 24 hr before the superfusion and the number of deposited platelets was quantitated from the tendon gamma-radiation and the blood platelet count. We detected some platelet consumption with superfusion time when blood was reinfused entering the contralateral jugular vein after collagen contact but not if blood was discarded after the contact. Therefore, in order to have a more physiological animal model we decided to discard blood after superfusion of the tendon. In all species except for the cat there was a linear relationship between increase of platelet on the tendon and time of exposure to blood superfusion. The highest number of platelets deposited on the collagen was found in cats, the lowest in dogs. Ultrastructural analysis showed the platelets were deposited as aggregates after only 5 min of superfusion.

  5. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers: A Review of Statistical Methods for Computer Algorithm Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative biomarkers from medical images are becoming important tools for clinical diagnosis, staging, monitoring, treatment planning, and development of new therapies. While there is a rich history of the development of quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) techniques, little attention has been paid to the validation and comparison of the computer algorithms that implement the QIB measurements. In this paper we provide a framework for QIB algorithm comparisons. We first review and compare various study designs, including designs with the true value (e.g. phantoms, digital reference images, and zero-change studies), designs with a reference standard (e.g. studies testing equivalence with a reference standard), and designs without a reference standard (e.g. agreement studies and studies of algorithm precision). The statistical methods for comparing QIB algorithms are then presented for various study types using both aggregate and disaggregate approaches. We propose a series of steps for establishing the performance of a QIB algorithm, identify limitations in the current statistical literature, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:24919829

  6. Assessment of a synchrotron X-ray method for quantitative analysis of calcium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P. Jason; Biernacki, Joseph J.; Bai Jianming; Rawn, Claudia J.

    2003-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) are widely used to determine the calcium hydroxide (CH) content in cementitious systems containing blends of Portland cement, fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume and other pozzolanic and hydraulic materials. These techniques, however, are destructive to cement samples and subject to various forms of error. While precise weight losses can be measured by TGA, extracting information from samples with multiple overlapping thermal events is difficult. And, however, while QXRD can offer easier deconvolution, the accuracy for components below about 5 wt.% is typically poor when a laboratory X-ray source is used. Furthermore, the destructive nature of both techniques prevents using them to study the in situ hydration of a single contiguous sample for kinetic analysis. In an attempt to overcome these problems, the present research evaluated the use of synchrotron X-rays for quantitative analysis of CH. A synchrotron X-ray source was used to develop calibration data for quantification of the amount of CH in mixtures with fly ash. These data were compared to conventional laboratory XRD data for like samples. While both methods were found to offer good quantification, synchrotron XRD (SXRD) provided a broader range of detectability and higher accuracy than laboratory diffraction and removed the subjectivity as compared to TGA analysis. Further, the sealed glass capillaries used with the synchrotron source provided a nondestructive closed, in situ environment for tracking hydrating specimens from zero to any desired age

  7. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for computer algorithm comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowski, Nancy A; Reeves, Anthony P; Huang, Erich P; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Buckler, Andrew J; Kim, Hyun J Grace; Barnhart, Huiman X; Jackson, Edward F; Giger, Maryellen L; Pennello, Gene; Toledano, Alicia Y; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V; Kinahan, Paul E; Myers, Kyle J; Goldgof, Dmitry B; Barboriak, Daniel P; Gillies, Robert J; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative biomarkers from medical images are becoming important tools for clinical diagnosis, staging, monitoring, treatment planning, and development of new therapies. While there is a rich history of the development of quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) techniques, little attention has been paid to the validation and comparison of the computer algorithms that implement the QIB measurements. In this paper we provide a framework for QIB algorithm comparisons. We first review and compare various study designs, including designs with the true value (e.g. phantoms, digital reference images, and zero-change studies), designs with a reference standard (e.g. studies testing equivalence with a reference standard), and designs without a reference standard (e.g. agreement studies and studies of algorithm precision). The statistical methods for comparing QIB algorithms are then presented for various study types using both aggregate and disaggregate approaches. We propose a series of steps for establishing the performance of a QIB algorithm, identify limitations in the current statistical literature, and suggest future directions for research. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Development of quantitative analytical methods for the control of actinides in a pyrochemical partitioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abousahl, S.; Belle, P. van; Eberle, H.; Ottmar, H.; Lynch, B.; Vallet, P.; Mayer, K.; Ougier, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles are being developed in order to reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of highly radioactive waste. Pyrochemical partitioning techniques appear particularly attractive for advanced fuel cycles in which the minor actinides are recycled. The electrochemical processes of practical importance are the electrorefining process and the liquid-liquid extraction of transuranic (TRU) elements from fission products using either non-miscible molten metal or molten salt-metal phases. Analytical methods for the accurate assay of actinide elements in these matrices needed to be developed. A quantitative assay is required in order to establish a material balance for process development and - at a later stage - for accountancy and control purposes. To this end radiometric techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), neutron coincidence counting (NCC) and high-resolution gamma spectrometry (HRGS) were extensively employed for the quantitative determination of actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm) in process samples. Comparative analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The respective samples were available in small quantities (≅ 100 mg) either in the form of eutectic salt or in metallic form with Cd, Zr or Bi as major metallic matrix constituents. (orig.)

  9. Real time quantitative phase microscopy based on single-shot transport of intensity equation (ssTIE) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Tian, Xiaolin; He, Xiaoliang; Song, Xiaojun; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2016-08-01

    Microscopy based on transport of intensity equation provides quantitative phase distributions which opens another perspective for cellular observations. However, it requires multi-focal image capturing while mechanical and electrical scanning limits its real time capacity in sample detections. Here, in order to break through this restriction, real time quantitative phase microscopy based on single-shot transport of the intensity equation method is proposed. A programmed phase mask is designed to realize simultaneous multi-focal image recording without any scanning; thus, phase distributions can be quantitatively retrieved in real time. It is believed the proposed method can be potentially applied in various biological and medical applications, especially for live cell imaging.

  10. A relative quantitative Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) method for the analysis of abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Piotr T; Orłowska, Renata; Niedziela, Agnieszka

    2017-04-21

    We present a new methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) approach for the evaluation of relative quantitative characteristics such as demethylation, de novo methylation, and preservation of methylation status of CCGG sequences, which are recognized by the isoschizomers HpaII and MspI. We applied the technique to analyze aluminum (Al)-tolerant and non-tolerant control and Al-stressed inbred triticale lines. The approach is based on detailed analysis of events affecting HpaII and MspI restriction sites in control and stressed samples, and takes advantage of molecular marker profiles generated by EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI MSAP platforms. Five Al-tolerant and five non-tolerant triticale lines were exposed to aluminum stress using the physiologicaltest. Total genomic DNA was isolated from root tips of all tolerant and non-tolerant lines before and after Al stress following metAFLP and MSAP approaches. Based on codes reflecting events affecting cytosines within a given restriction site recognized by HpaII and MspI in control and stressed samples demethylation (DM), de novo methylation (DNM), preservation of methylated sites (MSP), and preservation of nonmethylatedsites (NMSP) were evaluated. MSAP profiles were used for Agglomerative hierarchicalclustering (AHC) based on Squared Euclidean distance and Ward's Agglomeration method whereas MSAP characteristics for ANOVA. Relative quantitative MSAP analysis revealed that both Al-tolerant and non-tolerant triticale lines subjected to Al stress underwent demethylation, with demethylation of CG predominating over CHG. The rate of de novo methylation in the CG context was ~3-fold lower than demethylation, whereas de novo methylation of CHG was observed only in Al-tolerant lines. Our relative quantitative MSAP approach, based on methylation events affecting cytosines within HpaII-MspI recognition sequences, was capable of quantifying de novo methylation, demethylation, methylation, and non-methylated status in control

  11. Evaluation of methods for oligonucleotide array data via quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li-Xuan; Beyer, Richard P; Hudson, Francesca N; Linford, Nancy J; Morris, Daryl E; Kerr, Kathleen F

    2006-01-17

    There are currently many different methods for processing and summarizing probe-level data from Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays. It is of great interest to validate these methods and identify those that are most effective. There is no single best way to do this validation, and a variety of approaches is needed. Moreover, gene expression data are collected to answer a variety of scientific questions, and the same method may not be best for all questions. Only a handful of validation studies have been done so far, most of which rely on spike-in datasets and focus on the question of detecting differential expression. Here we seek methods that excel at estimating relative expression. We evaluate methods by identifying those that give the strongest linear association between expression measurements by array and the "gold-standard" assay. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is generally considered the "gold-standard" assay for measuring gene expression by biologists and is often used to confirm findings from microarray data. Here we use qRT-PCR measurements to validate methods for the components of processing oligo array data: background adjustment, normalization, mismatch adjustment, and probeset summary. An advantage of our approach over spike-in studies is that methods are validated on a real dataset that was collected to address a scientific question. We initially identify three of six popular methods that consistently produced the best agreement between oligo array and RT-PCR data for medium- and high-intensity genes. The three methods are generally known as MAS5, gcRMA, and the dChip mismatch mode. For medium- and high-intensity genes, we identified use of data from mismatch probes (as in MAS5 and dChip mismatch) and a sequence-based method of background adjustment (as in gcRMA) as the most important factors in methods' performances. However, we found poor reliability for methods using mismatch probes for low-intensity genes

  12. Evaluation of methods for oligonucleotide array data via quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Daryl E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently many different methods for processing and summarizing probe-level data from Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays. It is of great interest to validate these methods and identify those that are most effective. There is no single best way to do this validation, and a variety of approaches is needed. Moreover, gene expression data are collected to answer a variety of scientific questions, and the same method may not be best for all questions. Only a handful of validation studies have been done so far, most of which rely on spike-in datasets and focus on the question of detecting differential expression. Here we seek methods that excel at estimating relative expression. We evaluate methods by identifying those that give the strongest linear association between expression measurements by array and the "gold-standard" assay. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is generally considered the "gold-standard" assay for measuring gene expression by biologists and is often used to confirm findings from microarray data. Here we use qRT-PCR measurements to validate methods for the components of processing oligo array data: background adjustment, normalization, mismatch adjustment, and probeset summary. An advantage of our approach over spike-in studies is that methods are validated on a real dataset that was collected to address a scientific question. Results We initially identify three of six popular methods that consistently produced the best agreement between oligo array and RT-PCR data for medium- and high-intensity genes. The three methods are generally known as MAS5, gcRMA, and the dChip mismatch mode. For medium- and high-intensity genes, we identified use of data from mismatch probes (as in MAS5 and dChip mismatch and a sequence-based method of background adjustment (as in gcRMA as the most important factors in methods' performances. However, we found poor reliability for methods

  13. Quantitative methods for reconstructing tissue biomechanical properties in optical coherence elastography: a comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Sudheendran, Narendran; Larin, Kirill V; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Twa, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the accuracy of five different methods for extracting the biomechanical properties of soft samples using optical coherence elastography (OCE). OCE is an emerging noninvasive technique, which allows assessment of biomechanical properties of tissues with micrometer spatial resolution. However, in order to accurately extract biomechanical properties from OCE measurements, application of a proper mechanical model is required. In this study, we utilize tissue-mimicking phantoms with controlled elastic properties and investigate the feasibilities of four available methods for reconstructing elasticity (Young’s modulus) based on OCE measurements of an air-pulse induced elastic wave. The approaches are based on the shear wave equation (SWE), the surface wave equation (SuWE), Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation (RLFE), and finite element method (FEM), Elasticity values were compared with uniaxial mechanical testing. The results show that the RLFE and the FEM are more robust in quantitatively assessing elasticity than the other simplified models. This study provides a foundation and reference for reconstructing the biomechanical properties of tissues from OCE data, which is important for the further development of noninvasive elastography methods. (paper)

  14. A new method of quantitative cavitation assessment in the field of a lithotripter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöchle, K; Debus, J; Lorenz, W J; Huber, P

    1996-01-01

    Transient cavitation seems to be a very important effect regarding the interaction of pulsed high-energy ultrasound with biologic tissues. Using a newly developed laser optical system we are able to determine the life-span of transient cavities (relative error less than +/- 5%) in the focal region of a lithotripter (Lithostar, Siemens). The laser scattering method is based on the detection of scattered laser light reflected during a bubble's life. This method requires no sort of sensor material in the pathway of the sound field. Thus, the method avoids any interference with bubble dynamics during the measurement. The knowledge of the time of bubble decay allows conclusions to be reached on the destructive power of the cavities. By combining the results of life-span measurements with the maximum bubble radius using stroboscopic photographs we found that the measured time of bubble decay and the predicted time using Rayleigh's law only differs by about 13% even in the case of complex bubble fields. It can be shown that the laser scattering method is feasible to assess cavitation events quantitatively. Moreover, it will enable us to compare different medical ultrasound sources that have the capability to generate cavitation.

  15. A simple, quantitative method using alginate gel to determine rat colonic tumor volume in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-04-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the Apc(Pirc/+) rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm³. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained.

  16. Improved Dynamic Analysis method for quantitative PIXE and SXRF element imaging of complex materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.; Laird, J.S.; Fisher, L.A.; Kirkham, R.; Moorhead, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Analysis (DA) method in the GeoPIXE software provides a rapid tool to project quantitative element images from PIXE and SXRF imaging event data both for off-line analysis and in real-time embedded in a data acquisition system. Initially, it assumes uniform sample composition, background shape and constant model X-ray relative intensities. A number of image correction methods can be applied in GeoPIXE to correct images to account for chemical concentration gradients, differential absorption effects, and to correct images for pileup effects. A new method, applied in a second pass, uses an end-member phase decomposition obtained from the first pass, and DA matrices determined for each end-member, to re-process the event data with each pixel treated as an admixture of end-member terms. This paper describes the new method and demonstrates through examples and Monte-Carlo simulations how it better tracks spatially complex composition and background shape while still benefitting from the speed of DA.

  17. Improved Dynamic Analysis method for quantitative PIXE and SXRF element imaging of complex materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G., E-mail: chris.ryan@csiro.au; Laird, J.S.; Fisher, L.A.; Kirkham, R.; Moorhead, G.F.

    2015-11-15

    The Dynamic Analysis (DA) method in the GeoPIXE software provides a rapid tool to project quantitative element images from PIXE and SXRF imaging event data both for off-line analysis and in real-time embedded in a data acquisition system. Initially, it assumes uniform sample composition, background shape and constant model X-ray relative intensities. A number of image correction methods can be applied in GeoPIXE to correct images to account for chemical concentration gradients, differential absorption effects, and to correct images for pileup effects. A new method, applied in a second pass, uses an end-member phase decomposition obtained from the first pass, and DA matrices determined for each end-member, to re-process the event data with each pixel treated as an admixture of end-member terms. This paper describes the new method and demonstrates through examples and Monte-Carlo simulations how it better tracks spatially complex composition and background shape while still benefitting from the speed of DA.

  18. Clustering and training set selection methods for improving the accuracy of quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ryan B., E-mail: randerson@astro.cornell.edu [Cornell University Department of Astronomy, 406 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bell, James F., E-mail: Jim.Bell@asu.edu [Arizona State University School of Earth and Space Exploration, Bldg.: INTDS-A, Room: 115B, Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Wiens, Roger C., E-mail: rwiens@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663 MS J565, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morris, Richard V., E-mail: richard.v.morris@nasa.gov [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M., E-mail: sclegg@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663 MS J565, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    We investigated five clustering and training set selection methods to improve the accuracy of quantitative chemical analysis of geologic samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The LIBS spectra were previously acquired for 195 rock slabs and 31 pressed powder geostandards under 7 Torr CO{sub 2} at a stand-off distance of 7 m at 17 mJ per pulse to simulate the operational conditions of the ChemCam LIBS instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. The clustering and training set selection methods, which do not require prior knowledge of the chemical composition of the test-set samples, are based on grouping similar spectra and selecting appropriate training spectra for the partial least squares (PLS2) model. These methods were: (1) hierarchical clustering of the full set of training spectra and selection of a subset for use in training; (2) k-means clustering of all spectra and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each cluster; (3) iterative use of PLS2 to predict sample composition and k-means clustering of the predicted compositions to subdivide the groups of spectra; (4) soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification of spectra, and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each class; (5) use of Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to determine an optimal number of clusters and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each cluster. The iterative method and the k-means method using 5 clusters showed the best performance, improving the absolute quadrature root mean squared error (RMSE) by {approx} 3 wt.%. The statistical significance of these improvements was {approx} 85%. Our results show that although clustering methods can modestly improve results, a large and diverse training set is the most reliable way to improve the accuracy of quantitative LIBS. In particular, additional sulfate standards and

  19. A SVM-based quantitative fMRI method for resting-state functional network detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaomu; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2014-09-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) aims to measure baseline neuronal connectivity independent of specific functional tasks and to capture changes in the connectivity due to neurological diseases. Most existing network detection methods rely on a fixed threshold to identify functionally connected voxels under the resting state. Due to fMRI non-stationarity, the threshold cannot adapt to variation of data characteristics across sessions and subjects, and generates unreliable mapping results. In this study, a new method is presented for resting-state fMRI data analysis. Specifically, the resting-state network mapping is formulated as an outlier detection process that is implemented using one-class support vector machine (SVM). The results are refined by using a spatial-feature domain prototype selection method and two-class SVM reclassification. The final decision on each voxel is made by comparing its probabilities of functionally connected and unconnected instead of a threshold. Multiple features for resting-state analysis were extracted and examined using an SVM-based feature selection method, and the most representative features were identified. The proposed method was evaluated using synthetic and experimental fMRI data. A comparison study was also performed with independent component analysis (ICA) and correlation analysis. The experimental results show that the proposed method can provide comparable or better network detection performance than ICA and correlation analysis. The method is potentially applicable to various resting-state quantitative fMRI studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A method for the quantitative metallographic analysis of nuclear fuels (Programme QMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.; Sari, C.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for the quantitative analysis of features such as voids, cracks, phases, inclusions and grains distributed on random plane sections of fuel materials. An electronic image analyzer, Quantimet, attached to a MM6 Leitz microscope was used to measure size, area, perimeter and shape of features dispersed in a matrix. The apparatus is driven by a computer which calculates the size, area and perimeter distribution, form factors and orientation of the features as well as the inclusion content of the matrix expressed in weight per cent. A computer programme, QMA, executes the spatial correction of the measured two-dimensional sections and delivers the true distribution of feature sizes in a three-dimensional system

  1. An effective method for the quantitative detection of porcine endogenous retrovirus in pig tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Yu, Ping; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Shengfu; Bu, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Xenotransplantation shows great promise for providing a virtually limitless supply of cells, tissues, and organs for a variety of therapeutical procedures. However, the potential of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) as a human-tropic pathogen, particularly as a public health risk, is a major concern for xenotransplantation. This study focus on the detection of copy number in various tissues and organs in Banna Minipig Inbreed (BMI) from 2006 to 2007 in West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SYBR Green I) was performed in this study. The results showed that the pol gene had the most copy number in tissues compared with gag, envA, and envB. Our experiment will offer a rapid and accurate method for the detection of the copy number in various tissues and was especially suitable for the selection of tissues or organs in future clinical xenotransplantation.

  2. Methods for quantitative evaluation of dynamics of repair proteins within irradiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hable, V. [Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, UniBw-Muenchen, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: volker.hable@unibw.de; Dollinger, G. [Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, UniBw-Muenchen, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Physik Department E12, TU-Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hauptner, A. [Physik Department E12, TU-Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kruecken, R. [Physik Department E12, TU-Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Dietzel, S. [Department Biologie II, LMU-Muenchen, 82152 Martinsried (Germany); Cremer, T. [Department Biologie II, LMU-Muenchen, 82152 Martinsried (Germany); Drexler, G.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU-Muenchen, 80336 Munich (Germany); Friedl, A.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU-Muenchen, 80336 Munich (Germany); Loewe, R. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU-Muenchen, 80336 Munich (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Living HeLa cells are irradiated well directed with single 100 MeV oxygen ions by the superconducting ion microprobe SNAKE, the Superconducting Nanoscope for Applied Nuclear (=Kern-) Physics Experiments, at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator. Various proteins, which are involved directly or indirectly in repair processes, accumulate as clusters (so called foci) at DNA-double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by the ions. The spatiotemporal dynamics of these foci built by the phosphorylated histone {gamma}-H2AX are studied. For this purpose cells are irradiated in line patterns. The {gamma}-H2AX is made visible under the fluorescence microscope using immunofluorescence techniques. Quantitative analysis methods are developed to evaluate the data of the microscopic images in order to analyze movement of the foci and their changing size.

  3. A high-sensitive and quantitative in-line monitoring method for transplutonium elements separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Wang Shiju; Xu Yingpu; Zhang Zengrui

    1986-04-01

    A high-sensitive monitoring device and a quantitative analys technigue for transplutonium elements separation processes are described. X-ray and low energy γ-ray are measured by means of a scintillation monitor with two NaI(Tl) thin crystals. The α spectra of the fluents of ion-exchange column is measured by means of Si(Au) surface barrier in-line monitor. The construction of the monitors, auxiliary electronics, investigation result for the α spectra character of thick source and the calibration method were described. The determination results for extracting process of 243 Am and 244 Cm by ion-exchange chromatography were given. The sensitivity of total adding amount for 243 Am using the 4π scintillation monitor is better than 0.1 μCi. The precision of 243 Am and 244 Cm concentration determination using Si(Au) monitor is +- 5%. The precision of the two metals contents in containers is about +- 10%

  4. A method for the quantitative analysis of heavy elements by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Caillaux, Z. de

    1981-01-01

    A study of quantitative analysis methodology by X-ray fluorescence analysis is presented. With no damage to precision it makes possible an analysis of heavy elements in samples with the form and texture as they present themselves. Some binary alloys were examined such as: FeCo; CuNi; CuZn; AgCd; AgPd; AuPt e PtIr. The possibility of application of this method is based on the compromise solutIon of wave lengths and the intensity of the homologous emission and absorption edges of constituents with the quantic efficiency of the detector, the dispersion and the wave lenght resolution of crystal analyser, and the uniformity of the excitation intensity. (Author) [pt

  5. A Sensitive Gold Nanoplasmonic SERS Quantitative Analysis Method for Sulfate in Serum Using Fullerene as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongning Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene exhibited strong catalysis of the redox reaction between HAuCl4 and trisodium citrate to form gold nanoplasmon with a strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS effect at 1615 cm−1 in the presence of Vitoria blue B molecule probes. When fullerene increased, the SERS peak enhanced linearly due to formation of more AuNPs as substrate. Upon addition of Ba2+, Ba2+ ions adsorb on the fullerene surface to inhibit the catalysis of fullerene that caused the SERS peak decreasing. Analyte SO42− combined with Ba2+ to form stable BaSO4 precipitate to release free fullerene that the catalysis recovered, and the SERS intensity increased linearly. Thus, a new SERS quantitative analysis method was established for the detection of sulfate in serum samples, with a linear range of 0.03–3.4 μM.

  6. Quantitative measurement of blood circulation in tests of rats using nuclear medical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripke, R.

    1980-01-01

    The experiments show that is it is possible to quantitatively assess the blood circulation and, within limits, the germinative function of tests by measuring the impulses of an incorporated radionuclide (99-Tc-pertechnetate) using an uptake measuring instrument. This is a rapid and unbloody method to be adopted in human medicine. 'Acute tests' or pre-damaged tests can thus be exactly diagnosed. In the former case the circulation modification and in the latter the evaluation of the germinative function ability is of main interest. The most important measuring criterion is the 15-minute-uptake U; it represents the blood circulation in the tests measured. The germinative function ability is evaluated on the basis of the accumulation activity Nsub(max). (orig./MG) [de

  7. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  8. A Novel Method of Quantitative Anterior Chamber Depth Estimation Using Temporal Perpendicular Digital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Ehud; Kong, George Y X; Kowalski, Tanya; Coote, Michael; Ang, Ghee Soon

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesize that: (1) Anterior chamber depth (ACD) is correlated with the relative anteroposterior position of the pupillary image, as viewed from the temporal side. (2) Such a correlation may be used as a simple quantitative tool for estimation of ACD. Two hundred sixty-six phakic eyes had lateral digital photographs taken from the temporal side, perpendicular to the visual axis, and underwent optical biometry (Nidek AL scanner). The relative anteroposterior position of the pupillary image was expressed using the ratio between: (1) lateral photographic temporal limbus to pupil distance ("E") and (2) lateral photographic temporal limbus to cornea distance ("Z"). In the first chronological half of patients (Correlation Series), E:Z ratio (EZR) was correlated with optical biometric ACD. The correlation equation was then used to predict ACD in the second half of patients (Prediction Series) and compared to their biometric ACD for agreement analysis. A strong linear correlation was found between EZR and ACD, R = -0.91, R 2 = 0.81. Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between predicted ACD using this method and the optical biometric ACD. The mean error was -0.013 mm (range -0.377 to 0.336 mm), standard deviation 0.166 mm. The 95% limits of agreement were ±0.33 mm. Lateral digital photography and EZR calculation is a novel method to quantitatively estimate ACD, requiring minimal equipment and training. EZ ratio may be employed in screening for angle closure glaucoma. It may also be helpful in outpatient medical clinic settings, where doctors need to judge the safety of topical or systemic pupil-dilating medications versus their risk of triggering acute angle closure glaucoma. Similarly, non ophthalmologists may use it to estimate the likelihood of acute angle closure glaucoma in emergency presentations.

  9. Cerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jennifer S; Taschereau, Richard; Olma, Sebastian; Liu Kan; Chen Yichun; Shen, Clifton K-F; Van Dam, R Michael; Chatziioannou, Arion F

    2009-01-01

    It has been observed that microfluidic chips used for synthesizing 18 F-labeled compounds demonstrate visible light emission without nearby scintillators or fluorescent materials. The origin of the light was investigated and found to be consistent with the emission characteristics from Cerenkov radiation. Since 18 F decays through the emission of high-energy positrons, the energy threshold for beta particles, i.e. electrons or positrons, to generate Cerenkov radiation was calculated for water and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the most commonly used polymer-based material for microfluidic chips. Beta particles emitted from 18 F have a continuous energy spectrum, with a maximum energy that exceeds this energy threshold for both water and PDMS. In addition, the spectral characteristics of the emitted light from 18 F in distilled water were also measured, yielding a broad distribution from 300 nm to 700 nm, with higher intensity at shorter wavelengths. A photograph of the 18 F solution showed a bluish-white light emitted from the solution, further suggesting Cerenkov radiation. In this study, the feasibility of using this Cerenkov light emission as a method for quantitative measurements of the radioactivity within the microfluidic chip in situ was evaluated. A detector previously developed for imaging microfluidic platforms was used. The detector consisted of a charge-coupled device (CCD) optically coupled to a lens. The system spatial resolution, minimum detectable activity and dynamic range were evaluated. In addition, the calibration of a Cerenkov signal versus activity concentration in the microfluidic chip was determined. This novel method of Cerenkov radiation measurements will provide researchers with a simple yet robust quantitative imaging tool for microfluidic applications utilizing beta particles.

  10. Behavioral and physiological methods for early quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury and prognosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Giglio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for reliable evaluation of spinal cord (SC injury in rats at short periods (2 and 24 h after lesion were tested to characterize the mechanisms implicated in primary SC damage. We measured the physiological changes occurring after several procedures for producing SC injury, with particular emphasis on sensorimotor functions. Segmental and suprasegmental reflexes were tested in 39 male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g divided into three control groups that were subjected to a anesthesia, b dissection of soft prevertebral tissue, and c laminectomy of the vertebral segments between T10 and L1. In the lesion group the SC was completely transected, hemisected or subjected to vertebral compression. All animals were evaluated 2 and 24 h after the experimental procedure by the hind limb motility index, Bohlman motor score, open-field, hot-plate, tail flick, and paw compression tests. The locomotion scale proved to be less sensitive than the sensorimotor tests. A reduction in exploratory movements was detected in the animals 24 h after the procedures. The hot-plate was the most sensitive test for detecting sensorimotor deficiencies following light, moderate or severe SC injury. The most sensitive and simplest test of reflex function was the hot-plate. The hemisection model promoted reproducible moderate SC injury which allowed us to quantify the resulting behavior and analyze the evolution of the lesion and its consequences during the first 24 h after injury. We conclude that hemisection permitted the quantitation of behavioral responses for evaluation of the development of deficits after lesions. Hind limb evaluation scores and spontaneous exploration events provided a sensitive index of immediate injury effects after SC lesion at 2 and 24 h. Taken together, locomotion scales, open-field, and hot-plate tests represent reproducible, quantitatively sensitive methods for detecting functional deficiencies within short periods of time, indicating their

  11. The quantitative evaluation of 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy using reinjection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Hitoshi; Itano, Midoriko; Yamamoto, Juro; Morita, Masato; Fukutake, Naoshige; Kawamoto, Hideo; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy using reinjection method would improve the rate of redistribution (RD) and, if improved, which would contribute to RD improvement, extent or severity of ischemia shown by the bolls-eye view method. In 17 patients with ischemic heart disease, exercise Tl-201 myocardial images were acquired at 10 min (early images) and 180 min (delayed images) after intravenous injection of 74 MBq of TlCl. In addition, 37 MBq of TlCl was injected again after delayed imaging and then images were acquired (RI images). Among the 17 patients, 7 were judged as RD(+), 8 as RD(-), and 2 as undefined. In 8 RD(-) patients and 2 undefined patients, RD became (+) on RI images. Visual changes in extent and severity of ischemia from early to delayed images were 68±42 for RD(+) cases vs. 3±20 for RD(-) cases and 0.4±0.8 for RD(+) cases vs. 0.1±0.3 for RD(-) cases, respectively. The corresponding figures from delayed to RI images for extent and score of ischemia were 50±46 for RD(+) cases vs. 13±22 for RD(-) cases and 0.4±30.3 for RD(+) cases vs. 0.1±0.5 for RD(-) cases, respectively. For 5 patients undergoing coronary revascularization, extent was improved in all cases, but severity was improved in only some cases. In conclusion, when RD became (+) on RI images, myocardial viability seemed to have been underestimated. Quantitative evaluation revealed that RD improved from early to delayed images depended on extent and that RD improved from delayed to RI images depended on both extent and severity. In postoperative improvement of RD, extent of ischemia was mainly involved. RI imaging was found to compensate for the underestimation of RD. Quantitative evaluation was also useful in the observation of subtle changes of ischemia. (N.K.)

  12. Generating quantitative models describing the sequence specificity of biological processes with the stabilized matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Alessandro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many processes in molecular biology involve the recognition of short sequences of nucleic-or amino acids, such as the binding of immunogenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. From experimental data, a model of the sequence specificity of these processes can be constructed, such as a sequence motif, a scoring matrix or an artificial neural network. The purpose of these models is two-fold. First, they can provide a summary of experimental results, allowing for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in sequence recognition. Second, such models can be used to predict the experimental outcome for yet untested sequences. In the past we reported the development of a method to generate such models called the Stabilized Matrix Method (SMM. This method has been successfully applied to predicting peptide binding to MHC molecules, peptide transport by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP and proteasomal cleavage of protein sequences. Results Herein we report the implementation of the SMM algorithm as a publicly available software package. Specific features determining the type of problems the method is most appropriate for are discussed. Advantageous features of the package are: (1 the output generated is easy to interpret, (2 input and output are both quantitative, (3 specific computational strategies to handle experimental noise are built in, (4 the algorithm is designed to effectively handle bounded experimental data, (5 experimental data from randomized peptide libraries and conventional peptides can easily be combined, and (6 it is possible to incorporate pair interactions between positions of a sequence. Conclusion Making the SMM method publicly available enables bioinformaticians and experimental biologists to easily access it, to compare its performance to other prediction methods, and to extend it to other applications.

  13. Validation of quantitative method for azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelraheem, Ehab M H; Hassan, Sayed M; Arief, Mohamed M H; Mohammad, Somaia G

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a method validation for extraction and quantitative analysis of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas using HPLC-UV and the results confirmed by GC-MS. The employed method involved initial extraction with acetonitrile after the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride), followed by a cleanup step by activated neutral carbon. Validation parameters; linearity, matrix effect, LOQ, specificity, trueness and repeatability precision were attained. The spiking levels for the trueness and the precision experiments were (0.1, 0.5, 3 mg/kg). For HPLC-UV analysis, mean recoveries ranged between 83.69% to 91.58% and 81.99% to 107.85% for green beans and peas, respectively. For GC-MS analysis, mean recoveries ranged from 76.29% to 94.56% and 80.77% to 100.91% for green beans and peas, respectively. According to these results, the method has been proven to be efficient for extraction and determination of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of Biological Samples Containing Metoprolol and Bisoprolol for Applying Methods for Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Mahu Ştefania

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a complex disease with many serious complications, representing a leading cause of mortality. Selective beta-blockers such as metoprolol and bisoprolol are frequently used in the management of hypertension. Numerous analytical methods have been developed for the determination of these substances in biological fluids, such as liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography. Due to the complex composition of biological fluids a biological sample pre-treatment before the use of the method for quantitative determination is required in order to remove proteins and potential interferences. The most commonly used methods for processing biological samples containing metoprolol and bisoprolol were identified through a thorough literature search using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Willey Journals databases. Articles published between years 2005-2015 were reviewed. Protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction are the main techniques for the extraction of these drugs from plasma, serum, whole blood and urine samples. In addition, numerous other techniques have been developed for the preparation of biological samples, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction, hollow fiber-protected liquid phase microextraction, on-line molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The analysis of metoprolol and bisoprolol in human plasma, urine and other biological fluids provides important information in clinical and toxicological trials, thus requiring the application of appropriate extraction techniques for the detection of these antihypertensive substances at nanogram and picogram levels.

  15. Quantitative methods for structural characterization of proteins based on deep UV resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashilov, Victor A; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Popova, Ludmila A; Lednev, Igor K

    2010-09-01

    Here we report on novel quantitative approaches for protein structural characterization using deep UV resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectroscopy. Specifically, we propose a new method combining hydrogen-deuterium (HD) exchange and Bayesian source separation for extracting the DUVRR signatures of various structural elements of aggregated proteins including the cross-beta core and unordered parts of amyloid fibrils. The proposed method is demonstrated using the set of DUVRR spectra of hen egg white lysozyme acquired at various stages of HD exchange. Prior information about the concentration matrix and the spectral features of the individual components was incorporated into the Bayesian equation to eliminate the ill-conditioning of the problem caused by 100% correlation of the concentration profiles of protonated and deuterated species. Secondary structure fractions obtained by partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs) were used as the initial guess for the Bayessian source separation. Advantages of the PLS and LS-SVMs methods over the classical least squares calibration (CLSC) are discussed and illustrated using the DUVRR data of the prion protein in its native and aggregated forms. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical note: development of a quantitative PCR method for monitoring strain dynamics during yogurt manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D M; Dudley, E G; Roberts, R F

    2012-09-01

    Yogurt starter cultures may consist of multiple strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (LB) and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST). Conventional plating methods for monitoring LB and ST levels during yogurt manufacture do not allow for quantification of individual strains. The objective of the present work was to develop a quantitative PCR method for quantification of individual strains in a commercial yogurt starter culture. Strain-specific primers were designed for 2 ST strains (ST DGCC7796 and ST DGCC7710), 1 LB strain (DGCC4078), and 1 Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis strain (LL; DGCC4550). Primers for the individual ST and LB strains were designed to target unique DNA sequences in clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats. Primers for LL were designed to target a putative mannitol-specific IIbC component of the phosphotransferase system. Following evaluation of primer specificity, standard curves relating cell number to cycle threshold were prepared for each strain individually and in combination in yogurt mix, and no significant differences in the slopes were observed. Strain balance data was collected for yogurt prepared at 41 and 43°C to demonstrate the potential application of this method. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunochemical method for quantitative evaluation of vasogenic brain edema following cold injury of rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodsch, W; Huerter, T; Hossmann, K A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Forschungsstelle fuer Hirnkreislauf-Forschung

    1982-10-07

    An immunochemical method is described for quantitative assessment of serum proteins and hemoglobin content in brain tissue homogenates. Using a combination of affinity chromatography and radioimmunoassay, the sensitivity of the method is 50 ng hemoglobin and 100 ng serum protein per assay, respectively. The method was used to measure cerebral hematocrit, blood volume and serum protein extravasation in rat brain at various times following cold injury. In control rats cerebral blood volume was 6.88 +- 0.15 ml/100 g and cerebral hematocrit 26.4 +- 0.86% (means +- S.E.). Following cold injury blood volume did not significantly change, but there was a gradual increase of extravasated serum proteins, reaching a maximum of 21.54 +- 2.76 mg/g d.w. after 8 hours. Thereafter protein content gradually declined, but even after 64 h it was distinctly increased. Protein extravasation was partly dissociated from the increase of brain water and sodium which reached a maximum already after 2 h and which normalized within 32 and 64 h, respectively. It is concluded that edema fluid associated with cold injury is not simply an ultrafiltrate of blood serum but consists of cytotoxic and vasogenic components which follow a different time course both during formation and resolution of edema.

  18. Immunochemical method for quantitative evaluation of vasogenic brain edema following cold injury of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodsch, W.; Huerter, T.; Hossmann, K.-A.

    1982-01-01

    An immunochemical method is described for quantitative assessment of serum proteins and hemoglobin content in brain tissue homogenates. Using a combination of affinity chromatography and radioimmunoassay, the sensitivity of the method is 50 ng hemoglobin and 100 ng serum protein per assay, respectively. The method was used to measure cerebral hematocrit, blood volume and serum protein extravasation in rat brain at various times following cold injury. In control rats cerebral blood volume was 6.88 +- 0.15 ml/100 g and cerebral hematocrit 26.4 +- 0.86% (means +- S.E.). Following cold injury blood volume did not significantly change, but there was a gradual increase of extravasated serum proteins, reaching a maximum of 21.54 +- 2.76 mg/g d.w. after 8 hours. Thereafter protein content gradually declined, but even after 64 h it was distinctly increased. Protein extravasation was partly dissociated from the increase of brain water and sodium which reached a maximum already after 2 h and which normalized within 32 and 64 h, respectively. It is concluded that edema fluid associated with cold injury is not simply an ultrafiltrate of blood serum but consists of cytotoxic and vasogenic components which follow a different time course both during formation and resolution of edema. (Auth.)

  19. A simplified method for quantitative assessment of the relative health and safety risk of environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Smith, T.H.; Peatross, R.G.; Stepan, I.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents a simplified method to assess the health and safety risk of Environmental Management activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The method applies to all types of Environmental Management activities including waste management, environmental restoration, and decontamination and decommissioning. The method is particularly useful for planning or tradeoff studies involving multiple conceptual options because it combines rapid evaluation with a quantitative approach. The method is also potentially applicable to risk assessments of activities other than DOE Environmental Management activities if rapid quantitative results are desired

  20. [Research on rapid and quantitative detection method for organophosphorus pesticide residue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan-Xin; Chen, Bing-Tai; Yi, Sen; Sun, Ming

    2014-05-01

    The methods of physical-chemical inspection is adopted in the traditional pesticide residue detection, which require a lot of pretreatment processes, are time-consuming and complicated. In the present study, the authors take chlorpyrifos applied widely in the present agricultural field as the research object and propose a rapid and quantitative detection method for organophosphorus pesticide residues. At first, according to the chemical characteristics of chlorpyrifos and comprehensive chromogenic effect of several colorimetric reagents and secondary pollution, the pretreatment of the scheme of chromogenic reaction of chlorpyrifos with resorcin in a weak alkaline environment was determined. Secondly, by analyzing Uv-Vis spectrum data of chlorpyrifos samples whose content were between 0. 5 and 400 mg kg-1, it was confirmed that the characteristic information after the color reaction mainly was concentrated among 360 approximately 400 nm. Thirdly, the full spectrum forecasting model was established based on the partial least squares, whose correlation coefficient of calibration was 0. 999 6, correlation coefficient of prediction reached 0. 995 6, standard deviation of calibration (RMSEC) was 2. 814 7 mg kg-1, and standard deviation of verification (RMSEP) was 8. 012 4 mg kg-1. Fourthly, the wavelengths whose center wavelength is 400 nm was extracted as characteristic region to build a forecasting model, whose correlation coefficient of calibration was 0. 999 6, correlation coefficient of prediction reached 0. 999 3, standard deviation of calibration (RMSEC) was 2. 566 7 mg kg-1 , standard deviation of verification (RMSEP) was 4. 886 6 mg kg-1, respectively. At last, by analyzing the near infrared spectrum data of chlorpyrifos samples with contents between 0. 5 and 16 mg kg-1, the authors found that although the characteristics of the chromogenic functional group are not obvious, the change of absorption peaks of resorcin itself in the neighborhood of 5 200 cm

  1. Quantifying social norms: by coupling the ecosystem management concept and semi-quantitative sociological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Xu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over recent decades, human-induced environmental changes have steadily and rapidly grown in intensity and impact to where they now often exceed natural impacts. As one of important components of human activities, social norms play key roles in environmental and natural resources management. But the lack of relevant quantitative data about social norms greatly limits our scientific understanding of the complex linkages between humans and nature, and hampers our solving of pressing environmental and social problems. In this study, we built a quantified method by coupling the ecosystem management concept, semi-quantitative sociological methods and mathematical statistics. We got the quantified value of social norms from two parts, whether the content of social norms coincide with the concept of ecosystem management (content value) and how about the performance after social norms were put into implementation (implementation value) . First, we separately identified 12 core elements of ecosystem management and 16 indexes of social norms, and then matched them one by one. According to their matched degree, we got the content value of social norms. Second, we selected 8 key factors that can represent the performance of social norms after they were put into implementation, and then we got the implementation value by Delph method. Adding these two parts values, we got the final value of each social norms. Third, we conducted a case study in Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river in China, by selecting 12 official edicts related to the river basin ecosystem management of Heihe River Basin. By doing so, we first got the qualified data of social norms which can be directly applied to the research that involved observational or experimental data collection of natural processes. Second, each value was supported by specific contents, so it can assist creating a clear road map for building or revising management and policy guidelines. For example, in this case study

  2. Development of a quantitative assessment method of pigmentary skin disease using ultraviolet optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Onseok; Park, Sunup; Kim, Jaeyoung; Oh, Chilhwan

    2017-11-01

    The visual scoring method has been used as a subjective evaluation of pigmentary skin disorders. Severity of pigmentary skin disease, especially melasma, is evaluated using a visual scoring method, the MASI (melasma area severity index). This study differentiates between epidermal and dermal pigmented disease. The study was undertaken to determine methods to quantitatively measure the severity of pigmentary skin disorders under ultraviolet illumination. The optical imaging system consists of illumination (white LED, UV-A lamp) and image acquisition (DSLR camera, air cooling CMOS CCD camera). Each camera is equipped with a polarizing filter to remove glare. To analyze images of visible and UV light, images are divided into frontal, cheek, and chin regions of melasma patients. Each image must undergo image processing. To reduce the curvature error in facial contours, a gradient mask is used. The new method of segmentation of front and lateral facial images is more objective for face-area-measurement than the MASI score. Image analysis of darkness and homogeneity is adequate to quantify the conventional MASI score. Under visible light, active lesion margins appear in both epidermal and dermal melanin, whereas melanin is found in the epidermis under UV light. This study objectively analyzes severity of melasma and attempts to develop new methods of image analysis with ultraviolet optical imaging equipment. Based on the results of this study, our optical imaging system could be used as a valuable tool to assess the severity of pigmentary skin disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Myocardial blood flow estimates from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: three quantitative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrazzo, Cristian; Galea, Nicola; Pacilio, Massimiliano; Altabella, Luisa; Preziosi, Enrico; Carnì, Marco; Ciolina, Federica; Vullo, Francesco; Francone, Marco; Catalano, Carlo; Carbone, Iacopo

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging can be used to quantitatively assess the myocardial blood flow (MBF), recovering the tissue impulse response function for the transit of a gadolinium bolus through the myocardium. Several deconvolution techniques are available, using various models for the impulse response. The method of choice may influence the results, producing differences that have not been deeply investigated yet. Three methods for quantifying myocardial perfusion have been compared: Fermi function modelling (FFM), the Tofts model (TM) and the gamma function model (GF), with the latter traditionally used in brain perfusion MRI. Thirty human subjects were studied at rest as well as under cold pressor test stress (submerging hands in ice-cold water), and a single bolus of gadolinium weighing 0.1  ±  0.05 mmol kg-1 was injected. Perfusion estimate differences between the methods were analysed by paired comparisons with Student’s t-test, linear regression analysis, and Bland-Altman plots, as well as also using the two-way ANOVA, considering the MBF values of all patients grouped according to two categories: calculation method and rest/stress conditions. Perfusion estimates obtained by various methods in both rest and stress conditions were not significantly different, and were in good agreement with the literature. The results obtained during the first-pass transit time (20 s) yielded p-values in the range 0.20-0.28 for Student’s t-test, linear regression analysis slopes between 0.98-1.03, and R values between 0.92-1.01. From the Bland-Altman plots, the paired comparisons yielded a bias (and a 95% CI)—expressed as ml/min/g—for FFM versus TM, -0.01 (-0.20, 0.17) or 0.02 (-0.49, 0.52) at rest or under stress respectively, for FFM versus GF, -0.05 (-0.29, 0.20) or  -0.07 (-0.55, 0.41) at rest or under stress, and for TM versus GF, -0.03 (-0.30, 0.24) or  -0.09 (-0.43, 0.26) at rest or under stress. With the

  4. Network 'small-world-ness': a quantitative method for determining canonical network equivalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Humphries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many technological, biological, social, and information networks fall into the broad class of 'small-world' networks: they have tightly interconnected clusters of nodes, and a shortest mean path length that is similar to a matched random graph (same number of nodes and edges. This semi-quantitative definition leads to a categorical distinction ('small/not-small' rather than a quantitative, continuous grading of networks, and can lead to uncertainty about a network's small-world status. Moreover, systems described by small-world networks are often studied using an equivalent canonical network model--the Watts-Strogatz (WS model. However, the process of establishing an equivalent WS model is imprecise and there is a pressing need to discover ways in which this equivalence may be quantified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We defined a precise measure of 'small-world-ness' S based on the trade off between high local clustering and short path length. A network is now deemed a 'small-world' if S>1--an assertion which may be tested statistically. We then examined the behavior of S on a large data-set of real-world systems. We found that all these systems were linked by a linear relationship between their S values and the network size n. Moreover, we show a method for assigning a unique Watts-Strogatz (WS model to any real-world network, and show analytically that the WS models associated with our sample of networks also show linearity between S and n. Linearity between S and n is not, however, inevitable, and neither is S maximal for an arbitrary network of given size. Linearity may, however, be explained by a common limiting growth process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown how the notion of a small-world network may be quantified. Several key properties of the metric are described and the use of WS canonical models is placed on a more secure footing.

  5. Rapid and simple method for quantitative evaluation of neurocytotoxic effects of radiation on developing medaka brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takako; Maeda, Keiko; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Maruyama, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Yuji; Yoshimoto, Masami

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel method for rapid and quantitative evaluation of the degree of radiation-induced apoptosis in the developing brain of medaka (Oryzias latipes). Embryos at stage 28 were irradiated with 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 Gy x-ray. Living embryos were stained with a vital dye, acridine orange (AO), for 1-2 h, and whole-mount brains were examined under an epifluorescence microscope. From 7 to 10 h after irradiation with 5 Gy x-ray, we found two morphologically different types of AO-stained structures, namely, small single nuclei and rosette-shaped nuclear clusters. Electron microscopy revealed that these two distinct types of structures were single apoptotic cells with condensed nuclei and aggregates of apoptotic cells, respectively. From 10 to 30 h after irradiation, a similar AO-staining pattern was observed. The numbers of AO-stained rosette-shaped nuclear clusters and AO-stained single nuclei increased in a dose-dependent manner in the optic tectum. We used the number of AO-stained rosette-shaped nuclear clusters/optic tectum as an index of the degree of radiation-induced brain cell death at 20-24 h after irradiation. The results showed that the number of rosette-shaped nuclear clusters/optic tectum in irradiated embryos exposed to 2 Gy or higher doses was highly significant compared to the number in nonirradiated control embryos, whereas no difference was detected at 1 Gy. Thus, the threshold dose for brain cell death in medaka embryos was taken as being between 1-2 Gy, which may not be so extraordinarily large compared to those for rodents and humans. The results show that medaka embryos are useful for quantitative evaluation of developmental neurocytotoxic effects of radiation. (author)

  6. Quantitative prediction process and evaluation method for seafloor polymetallic sulfide resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyi Ren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seafloor polymetallic sulfide resources exhibit significant development potential. In 2011, China received the exploration rights for 10,000 km2 of a polymetallic sulfides area in the Southwest Indian Ocean; China will be permitted to retain only 25% of the area in 2021. However, an exploration of seafloor hydrothermal sulfide deposits in China remains in the initial stage. According to the quantitative prediction theory and the exploration status of seafloor sulfides, this paper systematically proposes a quantitative prediction evaluation process of oceanic polymetallic sulfide resources and divides it into three stages: prediction in a large area, prediction in the prospecting region, and the verification and evaluation of targets. The first two stages of the prediction process have been employed in seafloor sulfides prospecting of the Chinese contract area. The results of stage one suggest that the Chinese contract area is located in the high posterior probability area, which indicates good prospecting potential area in the Indian Ocean. In stage two, the Chinese contract area of 48°–52°E has the highest posterior probability value, which can be selected as the reserved region for additional exploration. In stage three, the method of numerical simulation is employed to reproduce the ore-forming process of sulfides to verify the accuracy of the reserved targets obtained from the three-stage prediction. By narrowing the exploration area and gradually improving the exploration accuracy, the prediction will provide a basis for the exploration and exploitation of seafloor polymetallic sulfide resources.

  7. Spiked proteomic standard dataset for testing label-free quantitative software and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Ramus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes a controlled, spiked proteomic dataset for which the “ground truth” of variant proteins is known. It is based on the LC-MS analysis of samples composed of a fixed background of yeast lysate and different spiked amounts of the UPS1 mixture of 48 recombinant proteins. It can be used to objectively evaluate bioinformatic pipelines for label-free quantitative analysis, and their ability to detect variant proteins with good sensitivity and low false discovery rate in large-scale proteomic studies. More specifically, it can be useful for tuning software tools parameters, but also testing new algorithms for label-free quantitative analysis, or for evaluation of downstream statistical methods. The raw MS files can be downloaded from ProteomeXchange with identifier http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD001819. Starting from some raw files of this dataset, we also provide here some processed data obtained through various bioinformatics tools (including MaxQuant, Skyline, MFPaQ, IRMa-hEIDI and Scaffold in different workflows, to exemplify the use of such data in the context of software benchmarking, as discussed in details in the accompanying manuscript [1]. The experimental design used here for data processing takes advantage of the different spike levels introduced in the samples composing the dataset, and processed data are merged in a single file to facilitate the evaluation and illustration of software tools results for the detection of variant proteins with different absolute expression levels and fold change values.

  8. Methods for quantitative measurement of tooth wear using the area and volume of virtual model cusps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Park, Young-Seok; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Sulhee; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2018-04-01

    Clinicians must examine tooth wear to make a proper diagnosis. However, qualitative methods of measuring tooth wear have many disadvantages. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and evaluate quantitative parameters using the cusp area and volume of virtual dental models. The subjects of this study were the same virtual models that were used in our former study. The same age group classification and new tooth wear index (NTWI) scoring system were also reused. A virtual occlusal plane was generated with the highest cusp points and lowered vertically from 0.2 to 0.8 mm to create offset planes. The area and volume of each cusp was then measured and added together. In addition to the former analysis, the differential features of each cusp were analyzed. The scores of the new parameters differentiated the age and NTWI groups better than those analyzed in the former study. The Spearman ρ coefficients between the total area and the area of each cusp also showed higher scores at the levels of 0.6 mm (0.6A) and 0.8A. The mesiolingual cusp (MLC) showed a statistically significant difference ( P <0.01) from the other cusps in the paired t -test. Additionally, the MLC exhibited the highest percentage of change at 0.6A in some age and NTWI groups. Regarding the age groups, the MLC showed the highest score in groups 1 and 2. For the NTWI groups, the MLC was not significantly different in groups 3 and 4. These results support the proposal that the lingual cusp exhibits rapid wear because it serves as a functional cusp. Although this study has limitations due to its cross-sectional nature, it suggests better quantitative parameters and analytical tools for the characteristics of cusp wear.

  9. Methods for the field evaluation of quantitative G6PD diagnostics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Benedikt; Bancone, Germana; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Thriemer, Kamala; Richards, Jack S; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Price, Ric N

    2017-09-11

    Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk of severe haemolysis following the administration of 8-aminoquinoline compounds. Primaquine is the only widely available 8-aminoquinoline for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. Tafenoquine is under development with the potential to simplify treatment regimens, but point-of-care (PoC) tests will be needed to provide quantitative measurement of G6PD activity prior to its administration. There is currently a lack of appropriate G6PD PoC tests, but a number of new tests are in development and are likely to enter the market in the coming years. As these are implemented, they will need to be validated in field studies. This article outlines the technical details for the field evaluation of novel quantitative G6PD diagnostics such as sample handling, reference testing and statistical analysis. Field evaluation is based on the comparison of paired samples, including one sample tested by the new assay at point of care and one sample tested by the gold-standard reference method, UV spectrophotometry in an established laboratory. Samples can be collected as capillary or venous blood; the existing literature suggests that potential differences in capillary or venous blood are unlikely to affect results substantially. The collection and storage of samples is critical to ensure preservation of enzyme activity, it is recommended that samples are stored at 4 °C and testing occurs within 4 days of collection. Test results can be visually presented as scatter plot, Bland-Altman plot, and a histogram of the G6PD activity distribution of the study population. Calculating the adjusted male median allows categorizing results according to G6PD activity to calculate standard performance indicators and to perform receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

  10. Cross-method validation as a solution to the problem of excessive simplification of measurement in quantitative IR research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to make IR scholars more aware of the costs of choosing quantitative methods. The article first shows that quantification can have analytical ‘costs’ when the measures created are too simple to capture the essence of the systematized concept that was supposed...... detail based upon a review of the democratic peace literature. I then offer two positive suggestions for a way forward. First, I argue that quantitative scholars should spend more time validating their measures, and in particular should engage in multi-method partnerships with qualitative scholars...... that have a deep understanding of particular cases in order to exploit the comparative advantages of qualitative methodology, using the more accurate qualitative measures to validate their own quantitative measures. Secondly, quantitative scholars should lower their level of ambition given the often poor...

  11. New quantitative and multi-modal approach for in-vivo studies of small animals: coupling of the {beta}-microprobe with magnetic techniques and development of voxelized rat and mouse phantoms; Nouvelle approche multimodale et quantitative pour les etudes in vivo chez le petit animal: couplage de la {beta}-MicroProbe aux techniques magnetiques et developpement de fantomes de rat et de souris voxelises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbree, A

    2005-09-15

    For the last 15 years, animal models that mimic human disorders have become ubiquitous participants to understand biological mechanisms and human disorders and to evaluate new therapeutic approaches. The necessity to study these models in the course of time has stimulated the development of instruments dedicated to in vivo small animal studies. To further understand physiopathological processes, the current challenge is to couple simultaneously several of these methods. Given this context, the combination of the magnetic and radioactive techniques remains an exciting challenge since it is still limited by strict technical constraints. Therefore we propose to couple the magnetic techniques with the radiosensitive Beta-Microprobe, developed in the IPB group and which shown to be an elegant alternative to PET measurements. In this context, the thesis was dedicated to the study of the coupling feasibility from a physical point of view, by simulation and experimental characterizations. Then, the determination of a biological protocol was carried out on the basis of pharmacokinetic studies. The experiments have shown the possibility to use the probe for radioactive measurements under intense magnetic field simultaneously to anatomical images acquisitions. Simultaneously, we have sought to improve the quantification of the radioactive signal using a voxelized phantom of a rat brain. Finally, the emergence of transgenic models led us to reproduce pharmacokinetic studies for the mouse and to develop voxelized mouse phantoms. (author)

  12. Antiadenoviral effects of N-chlorotaurine in vitro confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Uchio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Eiichi Uchio1, Hirotoshi Inoue1, Kazuaki Kadonosono21Department of Ophthalmology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, JapanPurpose: Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis is recognized as one of the major pathogens of ophthalmological nosocomial infection worldwide. N-Chlorotaurine (Cl–HN–CH2–CH2–SO3H, NCT is the N-chloro derivative of the amino acid taurine, which is an oxidant produced by human granulocytes and monocytes during inflammatory reactions. Using conventional viral plaque assay, it was previously shown that NCT causes inactivation of several human adenovirus (HAdV serotypes. In this study, we evaluated the antiadenoviral effect of NCT by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods.Methods: A549 cells were used for viral cell culture, and HAdV serotypes 3, 4, 8, 19, and 37 were used. After calculating 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 of NCT by MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium method, HAdV was cultured with NCT for 7 days, and extracted adenoviral DNA was quantitatively measured by real-time PCR.Results: A statistically significant (P < 0.05 dose-dependent inhibition was indicated for all serotypes except HAdV type 4 (HAdV4, which was maximally inhibited by only ~50%. Among the serotypes, NCT was particularly effective against HAdV8, HAdV19a, and HAdV37. The 50% effective concentration (EC50 obtained by real-time PCR of NCT ranged between 49 and 256 µM. EC50 of NCT against HAdV3 was slightly higher than that against serotypes of species D. The selective index (CC50/EC50 ranged between 41 and 60 except for HAdV4 (11.5.Conclusions: These results show that NCT has an antiviral effect against most serotypes of human HAdV inducing keratoconjunctivitis, indicating its possible therapeutic use.Keywords: adenovirus, N-chlorotaurine, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, antiviral

  13. Nouvelles et activités | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean Lebel, président du CRDI, et Andrew Campbell, premier dirigeant de l'. CRDI. NOUVELLES ACTIVITÉS. Le CDRI renouvelle son partenariat avec ACIAR en matière de sécurité alimentaire. Le CRDI et le Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, ont conclu un accord en... Vous voulez en savoir plus Le ...

  14. Synthèse, étude toxicologique et activité psychotrope de nouvelles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilaire

    Pharmacology. Synthèse, étude toxicologique et activité psychotrope de nouvelles arylidènpyridazin-. 3-ones N-substituées. Adnane BENMOUSSA1*, Pascal Manuele KANYONGA2,3, M'Hammed ANSAR1, Amina ZELLOU2, J EL. HARTI1, Jamal LAMSAOURI1, My Abbes FAOUZI2 , Ahmed ZAHIDI1, Hamid BENZIANE1, ...

  15. Une nouvelle vision pour AfricaAdapt – Entrevue avec Moussa Na ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 févr. 2011 ... Réseau panafricain lancé en mai 2009, AfricaAdapt vient de recevoir le feu vert pour l'exécution d'une nouvelle phase d'activités de deux ans, qu'appuie le programme Adaptation aux changements climatiques en Afrique.

  16. Performances d'une nouvelle approche dans l'estimation au champ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Elle possède cependant des limitations, dues à l'organisation temporaire d'une .... Performances d'une nouvelle approche dans l'estimation au champ utilisant le principe de la ... différents types de résidus (soja, luzerne, haricot et maïs) et ...

  17. Régler les conflits locaux en Amérique latine : de nouvelles ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au cours de la dernière décennie, les conflits locaux se sont répandus dans toute ... conjuguées à de nouvelles façons de concevoir la nature des conflits locaux. ... En partenariat avec l'Organization for Women in Science for the Developing ...

  18. Multivariat least-squares methods applied to the quantitative spectral analysis of multicomponent samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.; Easterling, R.G.; Vopicka, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In an extension of earlier work, weighted multivariate least-squares methods of quantitative FT-IR analysis have been developed. A linear least-squares approximation to nonlinearities in the Beer-Lambert law is made by allowing the reference spectra to be a set of known mixtures, The incorporation of nonzero intercepts in the relation between absorbance and concentration further improves the approximation of nonlinearities while simultaneously accounting for nonzero spectra baselines. Pathlength variations are also accommodated in the analysis, and under certain conditions, unknown sample pathlengths can be determined. All spectral data are used to improve the precision and accuracy of the estimated concentrations. During the calibration phase of the analysis, pure component spectra are estimated from the standard mixture spectra. These can be compared with the measured pure component spectra to determine which vibrations experience nonlinear behavior. In the predictive phase of the analysis, the calculated spectra are used in our previous least-squares analysis to estimate sample component concentrations. These methods were applied to the analysis of the IR spectra of binary mixtures of esters. Even with severely overlapping spectral bands and nonlinearities in the Beer-Lambert law, the average relative error in the estimated concentration was <1%

  19. A novel method for rapid comparative quantitative analysis of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, Sebastian D.; Coates, David J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metric framework determined to compare nuclear fuel cycles. ► Fast and thermal reactors simulated using MATLAB models, including thorium. ► Modelling uses deterministic methods instead of Monte–Carlo for speed. ► Method rapidly identifies relative cycle strengths and weaknesses. ► Significant scope for use in project planning and cycle optimisation. - Abstract: One of the greatest obstacles facing the nuclear industry is that of sustainability, both in terms of the finite reserves of uranium ore and the production of highly radiotoxic spent fuel which presents proliferation and environmental hazards. Alternative nuclear technologies have been suggested as a means of delivering enhanced sustainability with proposals including fast reactors, the use of thorium fuel and tiered fuel cycles. The debate as to which is the most appropriate technology continues, with each fuel system and reactor type delivering specific advantages and disadvantages which can be difficult to compare fairly. This paper demonstrates a framework of performance metrics which, coupled with a first-order lumped reactor model to determine nuclide population balances, can be used to quantify the aforementioned pros and cons for a range of different fuel and reactor combinations. The framework includes metrics such as fuel efficiency, spent fuel toxicity and proliferation resistance, and relative cycle performance is analysed through parallel coordinate plots, yielding a quantitative comparison of disparate cycles.

  20. A rapid and quantitative method to determine the tritium content in DNA from small tissue sampes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasche, V.; Zoellner, R.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative two-step procedure to isolate double-strand DNA from small (10-100 mg) animal tissue samples is presented. The method is developed for investigations to evaluate the relative importance of organically bound tritium for the dose factors used to calculate dose commitments due to this nuclide. In the first step the proteins in the homogenized sample are hydrolysed, at a high pH (9.0) and ionic strength (1.5) to dissociate protein from DNA, using immobilized Proteinase K as a proteolytic enzyme. The DNA is then absorbed to hydroxylapatite and separated from impurities by step-wise elution with buffers of increasing ionic strength. More than 90% of the DNA in the samples could be isolated in double-strand form by this procedure. The method has been applied to determine pool-sizes and biological half-life times of tritium in DNA from various animal (mouse) tissues. It has also been shown to be suitable in other radiobiological studies where effects on DNA are investigated. (author)

  1. A Quantitative Comparison of Calibration Methods for RGB-D Sensors Using Different Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Villena-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RGB-D (Red Green Blue and Depth sensors are devices that can provide color and depth information from a scene at the same time. Recently, they have been widely used in many solutions due to their commercial growth from the entertainment market to many diverse areas (e.g., robotics, CAD, etc.. In the research community, these devices have had good uptake due to their acceptable levelofaccuracyformanyapplicationsandtheirlowcost,butinsomecases,theyworkatthelimitof their sensitivity, near to the minimum feature size that can be perceived. For this reason, calibration processes are critical in order to increase their accuracy and enable them to meet the requirements of such kinds of applications. To the best of our knowledge, there is not a comparative study of calibration algorithms evaluating its results in multiple RGB-D sensors. Specifically, in this paper, a comparison of the three most used calibration methods have been applied to three different RGB-D sensors based on structured light and time-of-flight. The comparison of methods has been carried out by a set of experiments to evaluate the accuracy of depth measurements. Additionally, an object reconstruction application has been used as example of an application for which the sensor works at the limit of its sensitivity. The obtained results of reconstruction have been evaluated through visual inspection and quantitative measurements.

  2. A standardless method of quantitative ceramic analysis using X-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, S.

    1999-01-01

    A new procedure using X-ray powder diffraction data for quantitative estimation of the crystalline as well as the amorphous phase in ceramics is described. Classification of the crystalline and amorphous X-ray scattering was achieved by comparison of the slopes at two successive points of the powder pattern at scattering angles at which the crystalline and amorphous phases superimpose. If the second slope exceeds the first by a stipulated value, the intensity is taken as crystalline; otherwise the scattering is considered as amorphous. Crystalline phase analysis is obtained by linear programming techniques using the concept that each observed X-ray diffraction peak has contributions from n component phases, the proportionate analysis of which is required. The method does not require the measurement of calibration data for use as an internal standard, but knowledge of the approximate crystal structure of each phase of interest in the mixture is necessary. The technique is also helpful in qualitative analysis because each suspected phase is characterized by the probability that it will be present when a reflection zone is considered in which the suspected crystalline phase could contribute. The amorphous phases are determined prior to the crystalline ones. The method is applied to ceramic materials and some results are presented. (orig.)

  3. [The strategic research areas of a University Hospital: proposal of a quali-quantitative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzi, Elisa; Ardissino, Diego; Ferrari, Carlo; Vitale, Marco; Caminiti, Caterina

    2018-02-01

    This work aimed to objectively identify the main research areas at the University Hospital of Parma. To this end, a multidisciplinary working group, comprising clinicians, researchers, and hospital management, was formed to develop a shared quali-quantitative method. Easily retrievable performance indicators were selected from the literature (concerning bibliometric data and grant acquisition), and a scoring system developed to assign weights to each indicator. Subsequently, Research Team Leaders were identified from the hospital's "Research Plan", a document produced every three years which contains information on the main research themes carried out at each Department, involved staff and available resources, provided by health care professionals themselves. The selected performance indicators were measured for each Team Leader, and scores assigned, thus creating a ranking list. Through the analyses of the research themes of top Team Leaders, the Working Group identified the following five strategic research areas: (a) personalized treatment in oncology and hematology; (b) chronicization mechanisms in immunomediate diseases; (c) old and new risk factors for cardiovascular diseases; (d) nutritional disorders, metabolic and chronic-degenerative diseases; (e) molecular diagnostic and predictive markers. We have developed an objective method to identify a hospital's main research areas. Its application can guide resource allocation and can offer ways to value the work of professionals involved in research.

  4. An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, J. W.; Lofgren, G. E.; Carlson, W. D.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Many workers have considered the degree to which partial melting occurred in chondrules they have studied, and this has led to attempts to find reliable methods of determining the degree of melting. At least two quantitative methods have been used in the literature: a convolution index (CVI), which is a ratio of the perimeter of the chondrule as seen in thin section divided by the perimeter of a circle with the same area as the chondrule, and nominal grain size (NGS), which is the inverse square root of the number density of olivines and pyroxenes in a chondrule (again, as seen in thin section). We have evaluated both nominal grain size and convolution index as melting indicators. Nominal grain size was measured on the results of a set of dynamic crystallization experiments previously described, where aliquots of LEW97008(L3.4) were heated to peak temperatures of 1250, 1350, 1370, and 1450 C, representing varying degrees of partial melting of the starting material. Nominal grain size numbers should correlate with peak temperature (and therefore degree of partial melting) if it is a good melting indicator. The convolution index is not directly testable with these experiments because the experiments do not actually create chondrules (and therefore they have no outline on which to measure a CVI). Thus we had no means to directly test how well the CVI predicted different degrees of melting. Therefore, we discuss the use of the CVI measurement and support the discussion with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) data.

  5. An improved method for quantitative magneto-optical analysis of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laviano, F; Botta, D; Chiodoni, A; Gerbaldo, R; Ghigo, G; Gozzelino, L; Zannella, S; Mezzetti, E

    2003-01-01

    We report on the analysis method to extract quantitative local electrodynamics in superconductors by means of the magneto-optical technique. First of all, we discuss the calibration procedure to convert the local light intensity values into magnetic induction field distribution and start focusing on the role played by the generally disregarded magnetic induction components parallel to the indicator film plane (in-plane field effect). To account for the reliability of the whole technique, the method used to reconstruct the electrical current density distribution is reported, together with a numerical test example. The methodology is applied to measure local magnetic field and current distributions on a typical YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x good quality film. We show how the in-plane field influences the MO measurements, after which we present an algorithm to account for the in-plane field components. The meaningful impact of the correction on the experimental results is shown. Afterwards, we discuss some aspects about the electrodynamics of the superconducting sample

  6. Validated HPTLC Method for Dihydrokaempferol-4'-O-glucopyranoside Quantitative Determination in Alcea Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Salam, Nabil A; Ghazy, Nabila M; Shawky, Eman; Sallam, Shimaa M; Shenouda, Mary L

    2018-07-01

    Dihydrokaempferol-4'-O-glucopyranoside, a flavanonol glucoside, is the major compound in the flower of Alcea rosea L. which possesses significant antioxidant and anticancer activity against HepG-2 cell line and thus can be considered a marker compound for A. rosea L. We attempted to establish a new simple, validated high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the quantitation of dihydrokaempferol-4'-O-glucopyranoside to help in the standardization of the hydroalcoholic extracts of A. rosea L. flowers and to evaluate the best method for its extraction from the plant material. The separation was carried out on an HPTLC aluminum plate pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254, eluted with ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (30:5:4:0.15 v/v). Densitometric scanning was performed using a Camag TLC scanner III, at 295 nm. A linear relationship was obtained between the concentrations (0.9-3.6 mg) and peak areas with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9971 ± 0.0002. The percentage relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day precisions were 0.22-1.45 and 0.49-1.66, respectively. The percentage w/w of dihydrokaempferol-4'-O-glucopyranoside in the flowers of A. rosea L. after maceration and sonication for 15 min was found to be 0.733 g/100 g and 0.928 g/100 g, respectively.

  7. Validation of a microfluorimetric method for quantitation of L-Histidine in peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Roura, Jiovanna; Hernandez Cuervo, Orietta; Alonso Jimenez, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    Histidinemia is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by deficient histidase enzyme, which results in elevated histidine levels in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid and, sometimes, hyperalaninemia. Histidinemia clinical picture varies from mental retardation and speech disorders to absence of any symptoms. This disease can be diagnosed by histidine-level-in-blood-quantitating tests using different analytical methods such as spectrofluorimetry and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. An analytical method using SUMA Technology was developed and validated at our laboratory to determine L-Histidine in blood: serum and dried blood spot (adult and neonatal) so as to use it in Histidinemia screening in children with speech disorders. This paper presents selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision data. The calibration curve showed linearity ranging 1-12 mg/dL or 64.5-774 μM, and correlation coefficient (r) and determination coefficient (r2) higher than 0.99 for each biological matrix studied were obtained. Accuracy (repeatability and intermediate accuracy assays) was demonstrated, variation coefficients lower than 20 % being obtained. Accuracy was assessed by determining absolute recovery percentage. Assay recoveries were 97.83 -105.50 % (serum), 93-121.50 % (adult spot dried blood) and 86.50-104.50 % (neonatal spot dried blood)

  8. Deep neural nets as a method for quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junshui; Sheridan, Robert P; Liaw, Andy; Dahl, George E; Svetnik, Vladimir

    2015-02-23

    Neural networks were widely used for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) in the 1990s. Because of various practical issues (e.g., slow on large problems, difficult to train, prone to overfitting, etc.), they were superseded by more robust methods like support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), which arose in the early 2000s. The last 10 years has witnessed a revival of neural networks in the machine learning community thanks to new methods for preventing overfitting, more efficient training algorithms, and advancements in computer hardware. In particular, deep neural nets (DNNs), i.e. neural nets with more than one hidden layer, have found great successes in many applications, such as computer vision and natural language processing. Here we show that DNNs can routinely make better prospective predictions than RF on a set of large diverse QSAR data sets that are taken from Merck's drug discovery effort. The number of adjustable parameters needed for DNNs is fairly large, but our results show that it is not necessary to optimize them for individual data sets, and a single set of recommended parameters can achieve better performance than RF for most of the data sets we studied. The usefulness of the parameters is demonstrated on additional data sets not used in the calibration. Although training DNNs is still computationally intensive, using graphical processing units (GPUs) can make this issue manageable.

  9. Validation of a simple and inexpensive method for the quantitation of infarct in the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L.R. Schilichting

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric method was evaluated as a simple, sensitive, reproducible, low-cost alternative to quantify the extent of brain infarct after occlusion of the medial cerebral artery in rats. In ether-anesthetized rats, the left medial cerebral artery was occluded for 1, 1.5 or 2 h by inserting a 4-0 nylon monofilament suture into the internal carotid artery. Twenty-four hours later, the brains were processed for histochemical triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining and quantitation of the schemic infarct. In each TTC-stained brain section, the ischemic tissue was dissected with a scalpel and fixed in 10% formalin at 0ºC until its total mass could be estimated. The mass (mg of the ischemic tissue was weighed on an analytical balance and compared to its volume (mm³, estimated either by plethysmometry using platinum electrodes or by computer-assisted image analysis. Infarct size as measured by the weighing method (mg, and reported as a percent (% of the affected (left hemisphere, correlated closely with volume (mm³, also reported as % estimated by computerized image analysis (r = 0.88; P < 0.001; N = 10 or by plethysmography (r = 0.97-0.98; P < 0.0001; N = 41. This degree of correlation was maintained between different experimenters. The method was also sensitive for detecting the effect of different ischemia durations on infarct size (P < 0.005; N = 23, and the effect of drug treatments in reducing the extent of brain damage (P < 0.005; N = 24. The data suggest that, in addition to being simple and low cost, the weighing method is a reliable alternative for quantifying brain infarct in animal models of stroke.

  10. Quantitative determination and validation of octreotide acetate using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Peng-Yao; Bai, Yin; Shen, Wen-Bin; Di, Bin; Su, Meng-Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a well-established technique in quantitative analysis. We presented a validated 1 H-qNMR method for assay of octreotide acetate, a kind of cyclic octopeptide. Deuterium oxide was used to remove the undesired exchangeable peaks, which was referred to as proton exchange, in order to make the quantitative signals isolated in the crowded spectrum of the peptide and ensure precise quantitative analysis. Gemcitabine hydrochloride was chosen as the suitable internal standard. Experimental conditions, including relaxation delay time, the numbers of scans, and pulse angle, were optimized first. Then method validation was carried out in terms of selectivity, stability, linearity, precision, and robustness. The assay result was compared with that by means of high performance liquid chromatography, which is provided by Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The statistical F test, Student's t test, and nonparametric test at 95% confidence level indicate that there was no significant difference between these two methods. qNMR is a simple and accurate quantitative tool with no need for specific corresponding reference standards. It has the potential of the quantitative analysis of other peptide drugs and standardization of the corresponding reference standards. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Quantitative analysis of γ–oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC–image analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apirak Sakunpak

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  12. Understanding Variation in Treatment Effects in Education Impact Evaluations: An Overview of Quantitative Methods. NCEE 2014-4017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Puma, Mike; Deke, John

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the complex research literature on quantitative methods for assessing how impacts of educational interventions on instructional practices and student learning differ across students, educators, and schools. It also provides technical guidance about the use and interpretation of these methods. The research topics addressed…

  13. Proceedings First Workshop on Quantitative Formal Methods : theory and applications (QFM'09, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, November 3, 2009)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andova, S.; McIver, A.; D'Argenio, P.R.; Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Markovski, J.; Morgan, C.; Núñez, M.

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 1st workshop on Quantitative Formal Methods: Theory and Applications, which was held in Eindhoven on 3 November 2009 as part of the International Symposium on Formal Methods 2009. This volume contains the final versions of all contributions accepted

  14. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  15. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fitterer

    Full Text Available Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78 though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media, increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point. Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks.

  16. A method for quantitative analysis of clump thickness in cervical cytology slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yilun; Bradley, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and thickness of cytology specimens is critical to the development of digital slide acquisition techniques that minimise both scan times and image file size. In this paper, we evaluate a novel method to achieve this goal utilising an exhaustive high-resolution scan, an over-complete wavelet transform across multi-focal planes and a clump segmentation of all cellular materials on the slide. The method is demonstrated with a quantitative analysis of ten normal, but difficult to scan Pap stained, Thin-prep, cervical cytology slides. We show that with this method the top and bottom of the specimen can be estimated to an accuracy of 1 μm in 88% and 97% of the fields of view respectively. Overall, cellular material can be over 30 μm thick and the distribution of cells is skewed towards the cover-slip (top of the slide). However, the median clump thickness is 10 μm and only 31% of clumps contain more than three nuclei. Therefore, by finding a focal map of the specimen the number of 1 μm spaced focal planes that are required to be scanned to acquire 95% of the in-focus material can be reduced from 25.4 to 21.4 on average. In addition, we show that by considering the thickness of the specimen, an improved focal map can be produced which further reduces the required number of 1 μm spaced focal planes to 18.6. This has the potential to reduce scan times and raw image data by over 25%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM, a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT, yearling weight (YWT, carcass weight (CWT, backfat thickness (BFT, longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb. Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX] may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  18. NIST-Traceable NMR Method to Determine Quantitative Weight Percentage Purity of Mustard (HD) Feedstock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    from Fluka (Sigma Aldrich), Part Number 74658-5G, CAS No. 95-93-2, as a TraceCERT® certified reference material ( CRM ) standard for quantitative NMR...Sigma Aldrich), Part Number 74658-5G, CAS No. 95-93-2, as a TraceCERT® certified reference material ( CRM ) standard for quantitative NMR. The lot number

  19. IFP Energies Nouvelles. 2014 Activity report - Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the emergence of a sustainable energy mix, - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. Despite the current economic environment, 2014 was a good year for IFPEN. In the field of renewable energies, major milestones were reached in two significant projects dedicated to the production of second generation biofuels in which IFPEN is very actively involved: processes developed in Futurol TM are already in the pre-marketing phase, while the construction of the two pilot units for the BioTfueL project has just been launched. In the field of ocean energies, IFPEN research has led to the first partnership agreements relating to floating wind turbines anchor technologies and command control systems for wind energy and wave energy conversion. In the transport sector, game-changing concepts are beginning to emerge, such as smart battery charging and a Rankine cycle system for an internal combustion engine transforming combustion heat into energy. In addition, IFPEN have joined forces with innovative SMEs to boost their research in the fields of electric power-trains and power electronics. Finally, IFPEN launched an eco-driving application that has proved extremely popular with the public. Turning now to oil and gas, IFPEN continued to expand its range of basin and reservoir simulation, modeling and characterization software, and it signed several contracts in the field of chemical enhanced recovery solutions with its EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) Alliance TM partners. IFPEN also developed new generations of high-performance catalysts and improved the conversion rate of its processes to enable refiners to convert increasingly heavy crudes and

  20. IFP Energies nouvelles. 2016 Activity Report - Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    IFP Energies Nouvelles is a major research and training player in the fields of energy, transport and the environment. From research to industry, technological innovation is central to all its activities, structured around three strategic priorities: sustainable mobility, new energies and responsible oil and gas. As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFPEN focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the transition towards sustainable mobility and the emergence of a more diversified energy mix; - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. An integral part of IFPEN, its graduate engineering school - IFP School - prepares future generations to take up these challenges. IFPEN has proven expertise across the entire value chain, from fundamental research to innovation. It is funded both by a state budget and by its own resources provided by industrial partners. The latter account for over 50% of IFPEN's total budget, a configuration that is quasi unique in France. The aim of IFPEN's R and I programs is to overcome existing scientific and technological challenges in order to develop innovations that can be used by industry. IFPEN's fundamental research program aims to create a bedrock of knowledge essential for the development of innovations. The scientific expertise of IFPEN's researchers is internationally recognized and they are regularly consulted by the public authorities to provide their insight in their specific fields to inform the decision-making process. IFPEN's economic model is based on the transfer to industry of the technologies developed by its researchers. This technology transfer to industry generates jobs and business, fostering the economic development of fields and approaches related to the mobility, energy and eco-industry sectors

  1. Study of resolution enhancement methods for impurities quantitative analysis in uranium compounds by XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Clayton P.; Salvador, Vera L.R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F.; Scapin, Marcos A., E-mail: clayton.pereira.silva@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CQMA/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2011-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis is a technique widely used for the determination of both major and trace elements related to interaction between the sample and radiation, allowing direct and nondestructive analysis. However, in uranium matrices these devices are inefficient because the characteristic emission lines of elements like S, Cl, Zn, Zr, Mo and other overlap characteristic emission lines of uranium. Thus, chemical procedures to separation of uranium are needed to perform this sort of analysis. In this paper the deconvolution method was used to increase spectra resolution and correct the overlaps. The methodology was tested according to NBR ISO 17025 using a set of seven certified reference materials for impurities present in U3O8 (New Brunswick Laboratory - NBL). The results showed that this methodology allows quantitative determination of impurities such as Zn, Zr, Mo and others, in uranium compounds. The detection limits were shorter than 50{mu}g. g{sup -1} and uncertainty was shorter than 10% for the determined elements. (author)

  2. Analytical methods in sphingolipidomics: Quantitative and profiling approaches in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Núria; Herrero, Pol; Mariné, Sílvia; Nadal, Pedro; Ras, Maria Rosa; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Arola, Lluís

    2016-01-08

    In recent years, sphingolipidomics has emerged as an interesting omic science that encompasses the study of the full sphingolipidome characterization, content, structure and activity in cells, tissues or organisms. Like other omics, it has the potential to impact biomarker discovery, drug development and systems biology knowledge. Concretely, dietary food sphingolipids have gained considerable importance due to their extensively reported bioactivity. Because of the complexity of this lipid family and their diversity among foods, powerful analytical methodologies are needed for their study. The analytical tools developed in the past have been improved with the enormous advances made in recent years in mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography, which allow the convenient and sensitive identification and quantitation of sphingolipid classes and form the basis of current sphingolipidomics methodologies. In addition, novel hyphenated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategies, new ionization strategies, and MS imaging are outlined as promising technologies to shape the future of sphingolipid analyses. This review traces the analytical methods of sphingolipidomics in food analysis concerning sample extraction, chromatographic separation, the identification and quantification of sphingolipids by MS and their structural elucidation by NMR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Understanding Human-Landscape Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

  4. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  5. Quantitative Analysis Method of Output Loss due to Restriction for Grid-connected PV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yuzuru; Oozeki, Takashi; Kurokawa, Kosuke; Itou, Takamitsu; Kitamura, Kiyoyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Yokota, Masaharu; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    Voltage of power distribution line will be increased due to reverse power flow from grid-connected PV systems. In the case of high density grid connection, amount of voltage increasing will be higher than the stand-alone grid connection system. To prevent the over voltage of power distribution line, PV system's output will be restricted if the voltage of power distribution line is close to the upper limit of the control range. Because of this interaction, amount of output loss will be larger in high density case. This research developed a quantitative analysis method for PV systems output and losses to clarify the behavior of grid connected PV systems. All the measured data are classified into the loss factors using 1 minute average of 1 second data instead of typical 1 hour average. Operation point on the I-V curve is estimated to quantify the loss due to the output restriction using module temperature, array output voltage, array output current and solar irradiance. As a result, loss due to output restriction is successfully quantified and behavior of output restriction is clarified.

  6. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices

  7. Reporting Practices and Use of Quantitative Methods in Canadian Journal Articles in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Alyssa; Harlow, Lisa L

    2017-05-01

    With recent focus on the state of research in psychology, it is essential to assess the nature of the statistical methods and analyses used and reported by psychological researchers. To that end, we investigated the prevalence of different statistical procedures and the nature of statistical reporting practices in recent articles from the four major Canadian psychology journals. The majority of authors evaluated their research hypotheses through the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA), t -tests, and multiple regression. Multivariate approaches were less common. Null hypothesis significance testing remains a popular strategy, but the majority of authors reported a standardized or unstandardized effect size measure alongside their significance test results. Confidence intervals on effect sizes were infrequently employed. Many authors provided minimal details about their statistical analyses and less than a third of the articles presented on data complications such as missing data and violations of statistical assumptions. Strengths of and areas needing improvement for reporting quantitative results are highlighted. The paper concludes with recommendations for how researchers and reviewers can improve comprehension and transparency in statistical reporting.

  8. Study of resolution enhancement methods for impurities quantitative analysis in uranium compounds by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Clayton P.; Salvador, Vera L.R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F.; Scapin, Marcos A.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis is a technique widely used for the determination of both major and trace elements related to interaction between the sample and radiation, allowing direct and nondestructive analysis. However, in uranium matrices these devices are inefficient because the characteristic emission lines of elements like S, Cl, Zn, Zr, Mo and other overlap characteristic emission lines of uranium. Thus, chemical procedures to separation of uranium are needed to perform this sort of analysis. In this paper the deconvolution method was used to increase spectra resolution and correct the overlaps. The methodology was tested according to NBR ISO 17025 using a set of seven certified reference materials for impurities present in U3O8 (New Brunswick Laboratory - NBL). The results showed that this methodology allows quantitative determination of impurities such as Zn, Zr, Mo and others, in uranium compounds. The detection limits were shorter than 50μg. g -1 and uncertainty was shorter than 10% for the determined elements. (author)

  9. Pleistocene Lake Bonneville and Eberswalde Crater of Mars: Quantitative Methods for Recognizing Poorly Developed Lacustrine Shorelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to quantify shoreline features on Earth has been aided by advances in acquisition of high-resolution topography through laser imaging and photogrammetry. Well-defined and well-documented features such as the Bonneville, Provo, and Stansbury shorelines of Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville are recognizable to the untrained eye and easily mappable on aerial photos. The continuity and correlation of lesser shorelines must rely quantitative algorithms for processing high-resolution data in order to gain widespread scientific acceptance. Using Savitsky-Golay filters and the geomorphic methods and criteria described by Hare et al. [2001], minor, transgressive, erosional shorelines of Lake Bonneville have been identified and correlated across the basin with varying degrees of statistical confidence. Results solve one of the key paradoxes of Lake Bonneville first described by G. K. Gilbert in the late 19th century and point the way for understanding climatically driven oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum in the Great Basin of the United States. Similar techniques have been applied to the Eberswalde Crater area of Mars using HRiSE DEMs (1 m horizontal resolution) where a paleolake is hypothesized to have existed. Results illustrate the challenges of identifying shorelines where long term aeolian processes have degraded the shorelines and field validation is not possible. The work illustrates the promises and challenges of indentifying remnants of a global ocean elsewhere on the red planet.

  10. A novel approach for evaluating the performance of real time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Gavin J; Svenstrup, Helle F; Donald, Carol E; Carder, Caroline; Stephenson, Judith M; Morris-Jones, Stephen; Huggett, Jim F; Foy, Carole A

    2014-12-01

    Molecular diagnostic measurements are currently underpinned by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There are also a number of alternative nucleic acid amplification technologies, which unlike PCR, work at a single temperature. These 'isothermal' methods, reportedly offer potential advantages over PCR such as simplicity, speed and resistance to inhibitors and could also be used for quantitative molecular analysis. However there are currently limited mechanisms to evaluate their quantitative performance, which would assist assay development and study comparisons. This study uses a sexually transmitted infection diagnostic model in combination with an adapted metric termed isothermal doubling time (IDT), akin to PCR efficiency, to compare quantitative PCR and quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP) assays, and to quantify the impact of matrix interference. The performance metric described here facilitates the comparison of qLAMP assays that could assist assay development and validation activities.

  11. A novel approach for evaluating the performance of real time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin J. Nixon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostic measurements are currently underpinned by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. There are also a number of alternative nucleic acid amplification technologies, which unlike PCR, work at a single temperature. These ‘isothermal’ methods, reportedly offer potential advantages over PCR such as simplicity, speed and resistance to inhibitors and could also be used for quantitative molecular analysis. However there are currently limited mechanisms to evaluate their quantitative performance, which would assist assay development and study comparisons. This study uses a sexually transmitted infection diagnostic model in combination with an adapted metric termed isothermal doubling time (IDT, akin to PCR efficiency, to compare quantitative PCR and quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP assays, and to quantify the impact of matrix interference. The performance metric described here facilitates the comparison of qLAMP assays that could assist assay development and validation activities.

  12. Semi-quantitative methods yield greater inter- and intraobserver agreement than subjective methods for interpreting 99m technetium-hydroxymethylene-diphosphonate uptake in equine thoracic processi spinosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zadelhoff, Claudia; Ehrle, Anna; Merle, Roswitha; Jahn, Werner; Lischer, Christoph

    2018-05-09

    Scintigraphy is a standard diagnostic method for evaluating horses with back pain due to suspected thoracic processus spinosus pathology. Lesion detection is based on subjective or semi-quantitative assessments of increased uptake. This retrospective, analytical study is aimed to compare semi-quantitative and subjective methods in the evaluation of scintigraphic images of the processi spinosi in the equine thoracic spine. Scintigraphic images of 20 Warmblood horses, presented for assessment of orthopedic conditions between 2014 and 2016, were included in the study. Randomized, blinded image evaluation was performed by 11 veterinarians using subjective and semi-quantitative methods. Subjective grading was performed for the analysis of red-green-blue and grayscale scintigraphic images, which were presented in full-size or as masked images. For the semi-quantitative assessment, observers placed regions of interest over each processus spinosus. The uptake ratio of each processus spinosus in comparison to a reference region of interest was determined. Subsequently, a modified semi-quantitative calculation was developed whereby only the highest counts-per-pixel for a specified number of pixels was processed. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients. Inter- and intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficients were 41.65% and 71.39%, respectively, for the subjective image assessment. Additionally, a correlation between intraobserver agreement, experience, and grayscale images was identified. The inter- and intraobserver agreement was significantly increased when using semi-quantitative analysis (97.35% and 98.36%, respectively) or the modified semi-quantitative calculation (98.61% and 98.82%, respectively). The proposed modified semi-quantitative technique showed a higher inter- and intraobserver agreement when compared to other methods, which makes it a useful tool for the analysis of scintigraphic images. The

  13. Detection of human herpesvirus 8 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction: development and standardisation of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speicher David J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, the aetiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS, multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD, and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is rare in Australia, but endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of South-east Asia and Oceania. While the treatment of external KS lesions can be monitored by clinical observation, the internal lesions of KS, MCD and PEL require extensive and expensive internal imaging, or autopsy. In patients with MCD and PEL, if HHV-8 viraemia is not reduced quickly, ~50% die within 24 months. HHV-8 qPCR is a valuable tool for monitoring HHV-8 viraemia, but is not available in many parts of the world, including those with high prevalence of KS and HHV-8. Methods A new molecular facility with stringent three-phase workflow was established, adhering to NPAAC and CLSI guidelines. Three fully validated quantitative assays were developed: two for detection and quantification of HHV-8; one for GAPDH, necessary for normalisation of viral loads in tissue and peripheral blood. Results The HHV-8 ORF73 and ORF26 qPCR assays were 100% specific. All qPCR assays, displayed a broad dynamic range (102 to 1010 copies/μL TE Buffer with a limit of detection of 4.85x103, 5.61x102, and 2.59x102 copies/μL TE Buffer and a limit of quantification of 4.85x103, 3.01x102, and 1.38x102 copies/μL TE Buffer for HHV-8 ORF73, HHV-8 ORF26, and GAPDH respectively. The assays were tested on a panel of 35 KS biopsies from Queensland. All were HHV-8 qPCR positive with average viral load of 2.96x105 HHV-8 copies/μL DNA extract (range: 4.37x103 to 1.47x106 copies/μL DNA extract: When normalised these equate to an average viral load of 2.44x104 HHV-8 copies/103 cells (range: 2.20x102 to 7.38x105 HHV-8 copies/103 cells. Conclusions These are the first fully optimised, validated and MIQE compliant HHV-8 qPCR assays established in Australia. They worked well for qualitative detection of HHV-8 in archival tissue, and are well

  14. Quantitative kinetics of renal glucose metabolism by the isotope dilution method in the unanesthetized sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yasukuni; Ambo, Kaichi; Tsuda, Tsuneyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Renal glucose production and utilization rates in normal fed and fasted sheep were determined by the measurements of renal blood flow and arteriovenous 14 C-glucose and glucose concentration differences using the method of primed continuous infusion of u- 14 C-glucose. At the same time total body glucose turnover rate was measured, and the contribution of renal glucose production to glucose requirement in the whole animal was quantitatively estimated. The renal blood flow for fed and fasted sheep were 20 +- 1 and 20 +- 3 ml/min/kg, respectively. No significant difference in the renal blood flow existed between the groups. The total body glucose turnover rate in fasted sheep (1.68 +- 0.20 mg/min/kg) was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) than that of fed sheep (2.20 +- 0.13 mg/min/kg). The renal glucose production rate in fed sheep was 0.47 +- 0.05 mg/min/kg and this rate accounted for about 21.4% of the glucose turnover rate. The renal glucose production rate in fasted sheep decreased to about 45% of that in fed sheep. However, the renal glucose utilization rate was similar in fed (0.26 +- 0.04 mg/min/kg) and fasted sheep (0.27 +- 0.04 mg/min/kg). Net renal glucose production rate in fed sheep, which was measured by the method of arteriovenous glucose concentration differences, was 0.22 +- 0.05 mg/min/kg, but that in fasted sheep was a negative value. These results suggest that the kidney of ruminant seems to produce a significant amount of glucose and to utilize it simultaneously with production. (author)

  15. Advanced quantitative methods in correlating sarcopenic muscle degeneration with lower extremity function biometrics and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Kyle; Gíslason, Magnús; Sigurðsson, Sigurður; Guðnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara; Carraro, Ugo; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Sarcopenic muscular degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in aging populations. Recent investigations have realized the quantitative potential of computed tomography (CT) image analysis to describe skeletal muscle volume and composition; however, the optimum approach to assessing these data remains debated. Current literature reports average Hounsfield unit (HU) values and/or segmented soft tissue cross-sectional areas to investigate muscle quality. However, standardized methods for CT analyses and their utility as a comorbidity index remain undefined, and no existing studies compare these methods to the assessment of entire radiodensitometric distributions. The primary aim of this study was to present a comparison of nonlinear trimodal regression analysis (NTRA) parameters of entire radiodensitometric muscle distributions against extant CT metrics and their correlation with lower extremity function (LEF) biometrics (normal/fast gait speed, timed up-and-go, and isometric leg strength) and biochemical and nutritional parameters, such as total solubilized cholesterol (SCHOL) and body mass index (BMI). Data were obtained from 3,162 subjects, aged 66-96 years, from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study. 1-D k-means clustering was employed to discretize each biometric and comorbidity dataset into twelve subpopulations, in accordance with Sturges' Formula for Class Selection. Dataset linear regressions were performed against eleven NTRA distribution parameters and standard CT analyses (fat/muscle cross-sectional area and average HU value). Parameters from NTRA and CT standards were analogously assembled by age and sex. Analysis of specific NTRA parameters with standard CT results showed linear correlation coefficients greater than 0.85, but multiple regression analysis of correlative NTRA parameters yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.99 (Pbiometrics, SCHOL, and BMI, and particularly highlight the value of the

  16. Response monitoring using quantitative ultrasound methods and supervised dictionary learning in locally advanced breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Fung, Brandon; Tadayyon, Hadi; Tran, William T.; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive computer-aided-theragnosis (CAT) system was developed for the early assessment of responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The CAT system was based on quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy methods comprising several modules including feature extraction, a metric to measure the dissimilarity between "pre-" and "mid-treatment" scans, and a supervised learning algorithm for the classification of patients to responders/non-responders. One major requirement for the successful design of a high-performance CAT system is to accurately measure the changes in parametric maps before treatment onset and during the course of treatment. To this end, a unified framework based on Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (HSIC) was used for the design of feature extraction from parametric maps and the dissimilarity measure between the "pre-" and "mid-treatment" scans. For the feature extraction, HSIC was used to design a supervised dictionary learning (SDL) method by maximizing the dependency between the scans taken from "pre-" and "mid-treatment" with "dummy labels" given to the scans. For the dissimilarity measure, an HSIC-based metric was employed to effectively measure the changes in parametric maps as an indication of treatment effectiveness. The HSIC-based feature extraction and dissimilarity measure used a kernel function to nonlinearly transform input vectors into a higher dimensional feature space and computed the population means in the new space, where enhanced group separability was ideally obtained. The results of the classification using the developed CAT system indicated an improvement of performance compared to a CAT system with basic features using histogram of intensity.

  17. Knee Kinematic Improvement After Total Knee Replacement Using a Simplified Quantitative Gait Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sarailoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to extract suitable spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters to determine how Total Knee Replacement (TKR alters patients’ knee kinematics during gait, using a rapid and simplified quantitative two-dimensional gait analysis procedure. Methods: Two-dimensional kinematic gait pattern of 10 participants were collected before and after the TKR surgery, using a 60 Hz camcorder in sagittal plane. Then, the kinematic parameters were extracted using the gait data. A student t-test was used to compare the group-average of spatiotemporal and peak kinematic characteristics in the sagittal plane. The knee condition was also evaluated using the Oxford Knee Score (OKS Questionnaire to ensure thateach subject was placed in the right group. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in knee flexion during stance and swing phases after TKR surgery. The walking speed was increased as a result of stride length and cadence improvement, but this increment was not statistically significant. Both post-TKR and control groups showed an increment in spatiotemporal and peak kinematic characteristics between comfortable and fast walking speeds. Discussion: The objective kinematic parameters extracted from 2D gait data were able to show significant improvements of the knee joint after TKR surgery. The patients with TKR surgery were also able to improve their knee kinematics during fast walking speed equal to the control group. These results provide a good insight into the capabilities of the presented method to evaluate knee functionality before and after TKR surgery and to define a more effective rehabilitation program.

  18. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-02-01

    To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  19. Spin echo SPI methods for quantitative analysis of fluids in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqing; Han, Hui; Balcom, Bruce J

    2009-06-01

    Fluid density imaging is highly desirable in a wide variety of porous media measurements. The SPRITE class of MRI methods has proven to be robust and general in their ability to generate density images in porous media, however the short encoding times required, with correspondingly high magnetic field gradient strengths and filter widths, and low flip angle RF pulses, yield sub-optimal S/N images, especially at low static field strength. This paper explores two implementations of pure phase encode spin echo 1D imaging, with application to a proposed new petroleum reservoir core analysis measurement. In the first implementation of the pulse sequence, we modify the spin echo single point imaging (SE-SPI) technique to acquire the k-space origin data point, with a near zero evolution time, from the free induction decay (FID) following a 90 degrees excitation pulse. Subsequent k-space data points are acquired by separately phase encoding individual echoes in a multi-echo acquisition. T(2) attenuation of the echo train yields an image convolution which causes blurring. The T(2) blur effect is moderate for porous media with T(2) lifetime distributions longer than 5 ms. As a robust, high S/N, and fast 1D imaging method, this method will be highly complementary to SPRITE techniques for the quantitative analysis of fluid content in porous media. In the second implementation of the SE-SPI pulse sequence, modification of the basic measurement permits fast determination of spatially resolved T(2) distributions in porous media through separately phase encoding each echo in a multi-echo CPMG pulse train. An individual T(2) weighted image may be acquired from each echo. The echo time (TE) of each T(2) weighted image may be reduced to 500 micros or less. These profiles can be fit to extract a T(2) distribution from each pixel employing a variety of standard inverse Laplace transform methods. Fluid content 1D images are produced as an essential by product of determining the

  20. Effect of data quality on quantitative phase analysis (QPA) using the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlett, N.; Madsen, I.; Lwin, T.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method has become a valuable tool in modern X-ray diffraction. XRD is a recognised research tool and has been successfully employed in the developmental stages of many industrial processes. It is now becoming increasingly important as a means of process control either (i) in site quality control laboratories or (ii) even on-line. In on-line applications, the optimisation of data collection regimes is of critical importance if rapid turn-around, and hence timely process control, is to be achieved. This paper examines the effect of data quality on the quantification of phases in well characterised suites of minerals. A range of data collection regimes has been systematically investigated with a view to determining the minimum data required for acceptable quantitative phase analyses. Data has been collected with variations in the following process factors: 1st step, width ranging from 0.01 to 0.3 deg 2θ ;2nd step, counting time ranging from 0.0125 to 4 sec/step 3rd step, upper limit in the scan range varying from 40 to 148 deg 2θ. The data has been analysed using whole-pattern (Rietveld) based methods using two distinctly different analytical approaches: (i) refinement of only pattern background and individual scale factors for each phase; (ii) refinement of unit cell dimensions, overall thermal parameters, peak width and shape in addition to the background and scale factors. The experimental design for this work included a ternary design of the three component phases (fluorite, CaF 2 ; zincite, ZnO; corundum, Al 2 O 3 ) to form seven mixtures of major and minor phases of different scattering powers and the combination of the three process factors (variables) to form a factorial plan. The final data generation plan is a combination/crossing of the three process variable factorial plan with the three component mixture plan. It allows a detailed data analysis to provide information on the effect of the process

  1. VerSi. A method for the quantitative comparison of repository systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaempfer, T.U.; Ruebel, A.; Resele, G. [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Moenig, J. [GRS Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Decision making and design processes for radioactive waste repositories are guided by safety goals that need to be achieved. In this context, the comparison of different disposal concepts can provide relevant support to better understand the performance of the repository systems. Such a task requires a method for a traceable comparison that is as objective as possible. We present a versatile method that allows for the comparison of different disposal concepts in potentially different host rocks. The condition for the method to work is that the repository systems are defined to a comparable level including designed repository structures, disposal concepts, and engineered and geological barriers which are all based on site-specific safety requirements. The method is primarily based on quantitative analyses and probabilistic model calculations regarding the long-term safety of the repository systems under consideration. The crucial evaluation criteria for the comparison are statistical key figures of indicators that characterize the radiotoxicity flux out of the so called containment-providing rock zone (einschlusswirksamer Gebirgsbereich). The key figures account for existing uncertainties with respect to the actual site properties, the safety relevant processes, and the potential future impact of external processes on the repository system, i.e., they include scenario-, process-, and parameter-uncertainties. The method (1) leads to an evaluation of the retention and containment capacity of the repository systems and its robustness with respect to existing uncertainties as well as to potential external influences; (2) specifies the procedures for the system analyses and the calculation of the statistical key figures as well as for the comparative interpretation of the key figures; and (3) also gives recommendations and sets benchmarks for the comparative assessment of the repository systems under consideration based on the key figures and additional qualitative

  2. The importance of quantitative measurement methods for uveitis: laser flare photometry endorsed in Europe while neglected in Japan where the technology measuring quantitatively intraocular inflammation was developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Carl P; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2017-06-01

    Laser flare photometry (LFP) is an objective and quantitative method to measure intraocular inflammation. The LFP technology was developed in Japan and has been commercially available since 1990. The aim of this work was to review the application of LFP in uveitis practice in Europe compared to Japan where the technology was born. We reviewed PubMed articles published on LFP and uveitis. Although LFP has been largely integrated in routine uveitis practice in Europe, it has been comparatively neglected in Japan and still has not received FDA approval in the USA. As LFP is the only method that provides a precise measure of intraocular inflammation, it should be used as a gold standard in uveitis centres worldwide.

  3. A Comparative Study on Tobacco Cessation Methods: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Results of this review indicate that the scientific papers in the most recent decade recommend the use of NRT and Champix in combination with educational interventions. Additional research is needed to compare qualitative and quantitative studies for smoking cessation.

  4. Operation Iraqi Freedom 04 - 06: Opportunities to Apply Quantitative Methods to Intelligence Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Eric C

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate the need for a quantitative analytical capability within organizations and staffs that provide intelligence analysis to Army, Joint, and Coalition Force headquarters...

  5. Investigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Magnesium Alloys by Quantitative Fractography Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozańska M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the use of quantitative fracture description may lead to significant progress in research on the phenomenon of stress corrosion cracking of the WE43 magnesium alloy. Tests were carried out on samples in air, and after hydrogenation in 0.1 M Na2SO4 with cathodic polarization. Fracture surfaces were analyzed after different variants of the Slow Strain Rate Test. It was demonstrated that the parameters for quantitative evaluation of fracture surface microcracks can be closely linked with the susceptibility of the WE43 magnesium alloy operating under complex state of the mechanical load in corrosive environments. The final result of the study was the determination of the quantitative relationship between Slow Strain Rate Test parameters, the mechanical properties, and the parameters of the quantitative evaluation of fracture surface (microcracks.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of fault coverage for digitalized systems in NPPs using simulated fault injection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Joon

    2004-02-01

    Even though digital systems have numerous advantages such as precise processing of data, enhanced calculation capability over the conventional analog systems, there is a strong restriction on the application of digital systems to the safety systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This is because we do not fully understand the reliability of digital systems, and therefore we cannot guarantee the safety of digital systems. But, as the need for introduction of digital systems to safety systems in NPPs increasing, the need for the quantitative analysis on the safety of digital systems is also increasing. NPPs, which are quite conservative in terms of safety, require proving the reliability of digital systems when applied them to the NPPs. Moreover, digital systems which are applied to the NPPs are required to increase the overall safety of NPPs. however, it is very difficult to evaluate the reliability of digital systems because they include the complex fault processing mechanisms at various levels of the systems. Software is another obstacle in reliability assessment of the systems that requires ultra-high reliability. In this work, the fault detection coverage for the digital system is evaluated using simulated fault injection method. The target system is the Local Coincidence Logic (LCL) processor in Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS). However, as the LCL processor is difficult to design equally for evaluating the fault detection coverage, the LCL system has to be simplified. The simulations for evaluating the fault detection coverage of components are performed by dividing into two cases and the failure rates of components are evaluated using MIL-HDBK-217F. Using these results, the fault detection coverage of simplified LCL system is evaluated. In the experiments, heartbeat signals were just emitted at regular interval after executing logic without self-checking algorithm. When faults are injected into the simplified system, fault occurrence can be detected by

  7. A scoring system for appraising mixed methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods primary studies in Mixed Studies Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Griffiths, Frances; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique

    2009-04-01

    A new form of literature review has emerged, Mixed Studies Review (MSR). These reviews include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In the present paper, we examine MSRs in health sciences, and provide guidance on processes that should be included and reported. However, there are no valid and usable criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of the qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. To propose criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies or study components. A three-step critical review was conducted. 2322 references were identified in MEDLINE, and their titles and abstracts were screened; 149 potentially relevant references were selected and the full-text papers were examined; 59 MSRs were retained and scrutinized using a deductive-inductive qualitative thematic data analysis. This revealed three types of MSR: convenience, reproducible, and systematic. Guided by a proposal, we conducted a qualitative thematic data analysis of the quality appraisal procedures used in the 17 systematic MSRs (SMSRs). Of 17 SMSRs, 12 showed clear quality appraisal procedures with explicit criteria but no SMSR used valid checklists to concomitantly appraise qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In two SMSRs, criteria were developed following a specific procedure. Checklists usually contained more criteria than needed. In four SMSRs, a reliability assessment was described or mentioned. While criteria for quality appraisal were usually based on descriptors that require specific methodological expertise (e.g., appropriateness), no SMSR described the fit between reviewers' expertise and appraised studies. Quality appraisal usually resulted in studies being ranked by methodological quality. A scoring system is proposed for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies for SMSRs. This

  8. Single Case Method in Psychology: How to Improve as a Possible Methodology in Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Kjær, Elisa; Nedergaard, Jensine I

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of including Single-Case Method (SCM), as a possible methodology in quantitative research in the field of psychology, has been argued as useful, e.g., by Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Their article introduces a historical and conceptual analysis of SCMs and proposes changing the, often prevailing, tendency of neglecting SCM as an alternative to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST). This article contributes by putting a new light on SCM as an equally important methodology in psychology. The intention of the present article is to elaborate this point of view further by discussing one of the most fundamental requirements as well as main characteristics of SCM regarding temporality. In this respect that; "…performance is assessed continuously over time and under different conditions…" Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Defining principles when it comes to particular units of analysis, both synchronic (spatial) and diachronic (temporal) elements should be incorporated. In this article misunderstandings of the SCM will be adduced, and further the temporality will be described in order to propose how the SCM could have a more severe usability in psychological research. It is further discussed how to implement SCM in psychological methodology. It is suggested that one solution might be to reconsider the notion of time in psychological research to cover more than a variable of control and in this respect also include the notion of time as an irreversible unity within life.

  9. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF VOLUMETRIC ICE CONTENT IN FROZEN GROUND BY DIPOLE ELECTROMAGNETIC PROFILING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Neradovskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric estimation of the ice content in frozen soils is known as one of the main problems in the engineering geocryology and the permafrost geophysics. A new way to use the known method of dipole electromagnetic profiling for the quantitative estimation of the volumetric ice content in frozen soils is discussed. Investigations of foundation of the railroad in Yakutia (i.e. in the permafrost zone were used as an example for this new approach. Unlike the conventional way, in which the permafrost is investigated by its resistivity and constructing of geo-electrical cross-sections, the new approach is aimed at the study of the dynamics of the process of attenuation in the layer of annual heat cycle in the field of high-frequency vertical magnetic dipole. This task is simplified if not all the characteristics of the polarization ellipse are measured but the only one which is the vertical component of the dipole field and can be the most easily measured. Collected data of the measurements were used to analyze the computational errors of the average values of the volumetric ice content from the amplitude attenuation of the vertical component of the dipole field. Note that the volumetric ice content is very important for construction. It is shown that usually the relative error of computation of this characteristic of a frozen soil does not exceed 20% if the works are performed by the above procedure using the key-site methodology. This level of accuracy meets requirements of the design-and-survey works for quick, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly zoning of built-up remote and sparsely populated territories of the Russian permafrost zone according to a category of a degree of the ice content in frozen foundations of engineering constructions.

  10. Toxicity of ionic liquids: Database and prediction via quantitative structure–activity relationship method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yongsheng; Zhao, Jihong; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Xiangping; Zhang, Suojiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive database on toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) was established. • Relationship between structure and toxicity of IL has been analyzed qualitatively. • Two new QSAR models were developed for predicting toxicity of ILs to IPC-81. • Accuracy of proposed nonlinear SVM model is much higher than the linear MLR model. • The established models can be explored in designing novel green agents. - Abstract: A comprehensive database on toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) is established. The database includes over 4000 pieces of data. Based on the database, the relationship between IL's structure and its toxicity has been analyzed qualitatively. Furthermore, Quantitative Structure–Activity relationships (QSAR) model is conducted to predict the toxicities (EC 50 values) of various ILs toward the Leukemia rat cell line IPC-81. Four parameters selected by the heuristic method (HM) are used to perform the studies of multiple linear regression (MLR) and support vector machine (SVM). The squared correlation coefficient (R 2 ) and the root mean square error (RMSE) of training sets by two QSAR models are 0.918 and 0.959, 0.258 and 0.179, respectively. The prediction R 2 and RMSE of QSAR test sets by MLR model are 0.892 and 0.329, by SVM model are 0.958 and 0.234, respectively. The nonlinear model developed by SVM algorithm is much outperformed MLR, which indicates that SVM model is more reliable in the prediction of toxicity of ILs. This study shows that increasing the relative number of O atoms of molecules leads to decrease in the toxicity of ILs

  11. Antimicrobial activity of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate in comparison to chlorhexidine using the quantitative suspension method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, A; Sofrata, A; Slizen, V; Sugars, R V; Gustafsson, A; Gudkova, E I; Kazeko, L A; Ramberg, P; Buhlin, K

    2015-07-17

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P) belongs to the polymeric guanidine family of biocides and contains a phosphate group, which may confer better solubility, a detoxifying effect and may change the kinetics and dynamics of PHMG-P interactions with microorganisms. Limited data regarding PHMG-P activity against periodontopathogenic and cariogenic microorganisms necessitates studies in this area. Aim is to evaluate polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate antimicrobial activity in comparison to chlorhexidine. Quantitative suspension method was used enrolling Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Both tested antiseptics at their clinically-used concentrations, of 0.2% (w/v) and 1% (w/v), correspondingly provided swift bactericidal effects against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and C. albicans, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis with reduction factors higher than 6.0. Diluted polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate and chlorhexidine to 0.05% continued to display anti-bacterial activity and decreased titers of standard quality control, periopathogens to below 1.0 × 10(3) colony forming units/ml, albeit requiring prolonged exposure time. To achieve a bactericidal effect against S. mutans, both antiseptics at all concentrations required a longer exposure time. We found that a clinically-used 1% of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate concentration did not have activity against L. acidophilus. High RF of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate and retention of bactericidal effects, even at 0.05%, support the use of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate as a biocide with sufficient anti-microbial activity against periopathogens. Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate displayed bactericidal activity against periopathogens and S. mutans and could potentially be applied in the management of oral

  12. Improvement in precision and trueness of quantitative XRF analysis with glass-bead method. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Ogasawara, Noriko; Yuhara, Yoshitaroh; Yokoyama, Yuichi

    1995-01-01

    The factors which lower the precisions of simultaneous X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer were investigated. Especially in quantitative analyses of oxide powders with glass-bead method, X-ray optical characteristics of the equipment affects the precision of the X-ray intensities. In focused (curved) crystal spectrometers, the precision depends on the deviation of the actual size and position of the crystals from those of theoretical designs, thus the precision differs for each crystal for each element. When the deviation is large, a dispersion of the measured X-ray intensities is larger than the statistical dispersion, even though the intensity itself keeps unchanged. Moreover, a waviness of the surface of glass-beads makes the difference of the height of an analyzed surface from that of the designed one. This difference makes the change of the amount of the X-ray incident on the analyzing crystal and makes the dispersion of the X-ray intensity larger. Considering these factors, a level of the waviness must be regulated to improve the precision under exsisting XRF equipments. In this study, measurement precisions of 4 simultaneous XRF spectrometers were evaluated, and the element lead (Pb-Lβ1) was found to have the lowest precision. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of the measurements of 10 glass-beads for the same powder sample was 0.3% without the regulation of the waviness of analytical surface. With mechanical flattening of the glass-bead surface, the level of waviness, which is the maximum difference of the heights in a glass-bead, was regulated as under 30 μm, RSD was 0.038%, which is almost comparable to the statistical RSD 0.033%. (author)

  13. Toxoplasmose : une nouvelle approche vaccinale à base de nanoparticules d’amidon donne des résultats prometteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Le Rouzic, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Pour lutter contre la toxoplasmose chez les ovins, des chercheurs de l’INRA, de l’Université de Tours et de la Faculté de Médecine de Lille ont développé une nouvelle approche vaccinale, utilisant des nanoparticules d’amidon et une administration par voie muqueuse. Cette approche ouvre de nouvelles perspectives vers des vaccins plus sûrs et plus efficaces.

  14. Nuclear medicine and imaging research. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation. Progress report, January 15, 1985-January 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.

    1985-09-01

    This program of research addresses problems involving the basic science and technology of radioactive tracer methods as they relate to nuclear medicine and imaging. The broad goal is to develop new instruments and methods for image formation, processing, quantitation, and display, so as to maximize the diagnostic information per unit of absorbed radiation dose to the patient. These developments are designed to meet the needs imposed by new radiopharmaceuticals developed to solve specific biomedical problems, as well as to meet the instrumentation needs associated with radiopharmaceutical production and quantitative clinical feasibility studies of the brain with PET VI. Project I addresses problems associated with the quantitative imaging of single-photon emitters; Project II addresses similar problems associated with the quantitative imaging of positron emitters; Project III addresses methodological problems associated with the quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of diagnostic imaging procedures. The original proposal covered work to be carried out over the three-year contract period. This report covers progress made during Year Three. 36 refs., 1 tab

  15. Quantitative Research Methods Training in Education Leadership and Administration Preparation Programs as Disciplined Inquiry for Building School Improvement Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2017-01-01

    The quantitative research methods course is a staple of graduate programs in education leadership and administration. Historically, these courses serve to train aspiring district and school leaders in fundamental statistical research topics. This article argues for programs to focus as well in these courses on helping aspiring leaders develop…

  16. Study on a quantitative evaluation method of equipment maintenance level and plant safety level for giant complex plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a quantitative method on maintenance level which is determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability by maintenance crew is discussed. And also a quantitative evaluation method on safety level for giant complex plant system is discussed. As a result of consideration, the following results were obtained. (1) It was considered that equipment condition after maintenance work was determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability possessed by maintenance crew. The equipment condition determined by the two factors was named as 'equipment maintenance level' and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (2) It was considered that CDF in a nuclear power plant, evaluated by using a failure rate counting the above maintenance level was quite different from CDF evaluated by using existing failure rates including a safety margin. Then, the former CDF was named as 'plant safety level' of plant system and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (3) Enhancing equipment maintenance level means an improvement of maintenance quality. That results in the enhancement of plant safety level. Therefore, plant safety level should be always watched as a plant performance indicator. (author)

  17. Validation of quantitative analysis method for triamcinolone in ternary complexes by UV-Vis spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE DARLOS A. AQUINO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Triamcinolone (TRI, a drug widely used in the treatment of ocular inflammatory diseases, is practically insoluble in water, which limits its use in eye drops. Cyclodextrins (CDs have been used to increase the solubility or dissolution rate of drugs. The purpose of the present study was to validate a UV-Vis spectrophotometric method for quantitative analysis of TRI in inclusion complexes with beta-cyclodextrin (B-CD associated with triethanolamine (TEA (ternary complex. The proposed analytical method was validated with respect to the parameters established by the Brazilian regulatory National Agency of Sanitary Monitoring (ANVISA. The analytical measurements of absorbance were made at 242nm, at room temperature, in a 1-cm path-length cuvette. The precision and accuracy studies were performed at five concentration levels (4, 8, 12, 18 and 20μg.mL-1. The B-CD associated with TEA did not provoke any alteration in the photochemical behavior of TRI. The results for the measured analytical parameters showed the success of the method. The standard curve was linear (r2 > 0.999 in the concentration range from 2 to 24 μg.mL-1. The method achieved good precision levels in the inter-day (relative standard deviation-RSD <3.4% and reproducibility (RSD <3.8% tests. The accuracy was about 80% and the pH changes introduced in the robustness study did not reveal any relevant interference at any of the studied concentrations. The experimental results demonstrate a simple, rapid and affordable UV-Vis spectrophotometric method that could be applied to the quantitation of TRI in this ternary complex. Keywords: Validation. Triamcinolone. Beta-cyclodextrin. UV- Vis spectrophotometry. Ternary complexes. RESUMO Validação de método de análise quantitativa para a triancinolona a partir de complexo ternário por espectrofotometria de UV-Vis A triancinolona (TRI é um fármaco amplamente utilizado no tratamento de doenças inflamatórias do globo ocular e

  18. Development of an SRM method for absolute quantitation of MYDGF/C19orf10 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Ravi C; Krokhin, Oleg V; El-Gabalawy, Hani S; Wilkins, John A

    2016-06-01

    To develop a MS-based selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assay for quantitation of myeloid-derived growth factor (MYDGF) formerly chromosome 19 open reading frame (C19orf10). Candidate reporter peptides were identified in digests of recombinant MYDGF. Isotopically labeled forms of these reporter peptides were employed as internal standards for assay development. Two reference peptides were selected SYLYFQTFFK and GAEIEYAMAYSK with respective LOQ of 42 and 380 attomole per injection. Application of the assay to human serum and synovial fluid determined that the assay sensitivity was reduced and quantitation was not achievable. However, the partial depletion of albumin and immunoglobulin from synovial fluids provided estimates of 300-650 femtomoles per injection (0.7-1.6 nanomolar (nM) fluid concentrations) in three of the six samples analyzed. A validated sensitive assay for the quantitation of MYDGF in biological fluids was developed. However, the endogenous levels of MYDGF in such fluids are at or below the current levels of quantitation. The levels of MYDGF are lower than those previously reported using an ELISA. The current results suggest that additional steps may be required to remove high abundance proteins or to enrich MYDGF for SRM-based quantitation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A fast semi-quantitative method for Plutonium determination in an alpine firn/ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, J.; Cozzi, G.; Vallelonga, P.; Schwikowski, M.; Sigl, M.; Boutron, C.; Barbante, C.

    2009-04-01

    deposition decreased very sharply reaching a minimum in 1967. The third period (1967-1975) is characterized by irregular Pu profiles with smaller peaks (about 20-30% compared to the 1964 peak) which could be due to French and Chinese tests. Comparison with the Pu profiles obtained from the Col du Dome and Belukha ice cores by AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) shows very good agreement. Considering the semi-quantitative method and the analytical uncertainty, the results are also quantitatively comparable. However, the Pu concentrations at Colle Gnifetti are normally 2-3 times greater than in Col du Dome. This could be explained by different air mass transport or, more likely, different accumulation rates at each site.