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Sample records for nouveaux supraconducteurs mgb2

  1. Nouveaux supraconducteurs à haute température critique à base de mercure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, C.; Hervieu, M.; Martin, C.; Maignan, A.; Pelloquin, D.; Goutenoire, F.; Huvé, M.; Raveau, B.

    1994-11-01

    Structural and superconducting properties of new cations substituted mercury based oxides are described. They are mainly characterized by [ Hg{1-x}MxOδ] infty monolayers, however a compound with doubled [ Hg{1-x}MxOδ] infty layer is described for the first time. Critical temperatures vary in a large range 0leqslant T_cleqslant 130 K, but they are lower than those of related to pure mercury oxides. The influence of annealings in various atmospheres upon T_c is discussed. Les caractéristiques structurales et supraconductrices de nouveaux oxydes à base de mercure, dans lesquels le mercure est partiellement remplacé par un autre cation, sont décrites. Dans la majorité des cas, ces oxydes sont caractérisés par une monocouche [ Hg{1-x}MxOδ] infty ; cependant, pour la première fois un composé contenant une double couche majoritaire en mercure est isolé. Les températures critiques varient dans un large domaine (0-130 K) mais restent inférieures à celles des oxydes parents ll tout mercure gg. L'influence des recuits sous des atmosphères diverses est discutée.

  2. Mécanismes de la non-stœchiométrie dans les nouveaux supraconducteurs à haute Tboldmath_c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervieu, M.; Michel, C.; Martin, C.; Huvé, M.; van Tendeloo, G.; Maignan, A.; Pelloquin, D.; Goutenoire, F.; Raveau, B.

    1994-11-01

    Two new families of high T_c superconductors have been recently discovered : ll the mercury based oxides gg and the ll oxycarbonates gg. The main characteristics of the structural mechanisms were studied by high resolution electron microscopy. This paper deals with the description of the numerous order-disorder phenomena which have been observed on the cation and anion networks. Deux nouvelles familles de supraconducteurs ont récemment vu le jour : ll les oxydes à base de mercure gg et les ll oxycarbonates gg. Les caractéristiques essentielles des mécanismes structuraux ont été étudiées par microscopie électronique haute résolution. Les nombreux phénomènes ordre-désordre observés tant sur le réseau des cations que sur celui des anions sont exposés.

  3. The new superconductors. Les nouveaux supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, F

    1991-01-01

    The first half of the book is a scanning of superconductivity from 1911 to our days, with Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory in 1957, with the concept of phonons and the importance of the Brillouin zone, with the discovery of high-tc superconductors oxides by Bednortz and Mueller in 1986. The second part is dealing with physical investigation means for trying to explain this high-tc superconductivity.

  4. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the. FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, c/a ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent ...

  5. Electronic structure of MgB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  6. Materiaux composites supraconducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerjouan, Philippe; Boterel, Florence; Lostec, Jean; Bertot, Jean-Paul; Haussonne, Jean-Marie

    1991-11-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developped in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa2CU3O{7-δ} material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa2CU3O{7-δ}, by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa2CU3O{7-δ} material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. Les nouveaux matériaux supraconducteurs à haute température critique ont potentiellement un rôle important à jouer dans le domaine de l'électronique et de l'électrotechnique. En particulier, le dépôt d'oxydes supraconducteurs sur divers types de substrats est une technologie amenée à se développer. Nous avons donc entrepris une étude dont l'objet est la réalisation de conducteurs sérigraphiés sur alumine et composés essentiellement du matériau YBa2CU3O{7-δ}. Nous avons tout d'abord cherché à réaliser un composite verre/YBa2CU3O{7-δ}, par analogie au principe de réalisation de couches conductrices sérigraphiées, le verre permettant d'obtenir une liaison physico-chimique avec le substrat. Une étude préliminaire a permis de réaliser divers matériaux composites massifs, utilisant différentes familles de verres. Ces matériaux massifs, se présentant sous la forme de barreaux de

  7. Multiband model for tunneling in MgB2 junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Rogalla, Horst; Dolgov, O.V.; Kortus, J.; Kong, Y.; Jepsen, O.; Andersen, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical model for quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling in multiband superconductors is developed and applied to MgB2-based junctions. The gap functions in different bands in MgB2 are obtained from an extended Eliashberg formalism, using the results of band structure calculations. The

  8. Defect structure of ultrafine MgB2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateni, Ali; Somer, Mehmet; Repp, Sergej; Erdem, Emre; Thomann, Ralf; Acar, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    Defect structure of MgB 2 bulk and ultrafine particles, synthesized by solid state reaction route, have been investigated mainly by the aid of X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. Two different amorphous Boron (B) precursors were used for the synthesis of MgB 2 , namely, boron 95 (purity 95%–97%, <1.5 μm) and nanoboron (purity >98.5%, <250 nm), which revealed bulk and nanosized MgB 2 , respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrate uniform and ultrafine morphology for nanosized MgB 2 in comparison with bulk MgB 2 . Powder X-ray diffraction data show that the concentration of the by-product MgO is significantly reduced when nanoboron is employed as precursor. It is observed that a significant average particle size reduction for MgB 2 can be achieved only by using B particles of micron or nano size. The origin and the role of defect centers were also investigated and the results proved that at nanoscale MgB 2 material contains Mg vacancies. Such vacancies influence the connectivity and the conductivity properties which are crucial for the superconductivity applications

  9. Pulse laser irradiation into superconducting MgB2 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Daisuke; Miki, Shigehito; Satoh, Kazuo; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Shimakage, Hisashi; Wang, Zhen; Okayasu, Satoru; Katagiri, Masaki; Machida, Masahiko; Kato, Masaru; Ishida, Takekazu

    2005-01-01

    We performed 20-ps pulse laser irradiation experiments on a MgB 2 neutron detector to know a thermal-relaxation process for designing a MgB 2 neutron detector. The membrane-type structured MgB 2 device was fabricated to minimize the heat capacity of sensing part of a detector as well as to enhance its sensitivity. We successfully observed a thermal-relaxation signal resulting from pulse laser irradiation by developing a detection circuit. The response time was faster than 1 μs, meaning that the detector would be capable of counting neutrons at a rate of more than 10 6 events per second

  10. Pseudopotential approach to superconductivity in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.S.; Bhargava, Nidhi; Jain, Ritu; Goyal, Varsha; Sharma, Ritu; Sharma, Smita

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity in MgB 2 has been re-examined in BCS-Eliashberg framework by employing Mc-Millan's T c -equation and form factors of MgB 2 computed from the form factors of component metals (Model-I). The empty core model pseudopotential due to Ashcroft and random phase approximation form of dielectric screening due to Gellmann and Brueckner are used in the present work. An excellent agreement between the present values and other theoretically computed values of T c and with the relevant experimental data for MgB 2 confirms the validity of the present approach. The explicit dependence of λ and T c on the isotopic masses of Mg and B, as revealed from the present work, confirms the role of lattice vibrations in the superconducting behaviour of MgB 2 and the high value of T c in it may be attributed to the phonon mediated e-e interaction coupled with higher values of phonon frequencies due to light mass of B atoms. It has also been observed that the pseudo-atom model (Model-II) with appropriate choice of the potential parameter r c successfully explains high value of T c and isotope effect in MgB 2 , confirming the prominent role played by electron-phonon interaction in the high-T c superconductivity observed in MgB 2 . The isotope effect exponent α-values obtained from the two models are in complete agreement with each other and the present value α = 0.46 is also much closer to the BCS value of 0.5. Interaction strength N 0 V values obtained from the two models are also in perfect agreement with each other and the present value N 0 V = 0.48 suggests that MgB 2 is a strong coupling superconductor. (author)

  11. Dry cryomagnetic system with MgB2 coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abin, D. A.; Mineev, N. A.; Osipov, M. A.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2017-12-01

    MgB2 may be the future superconducting wire material for industrial magnets due to it’s higher operation temperature and potentially lower cost than low temperature superconductors (LTS) have. We designed a compact cryomagnetic system with the use of MgB2. The possibility of creating a magnet with a central field of 5 T from a commercial MgB2 wire by the “react and wound” method was investigated. The magnetic system is cooled by a cryocooler through a copper bus. The magnet has a warm bore diameter of 4 cm. The design of a magnet consisting of three concentric solenoids is proposed: an internal one of high-temperature superconductor (HTS), an average of MgB2, and an external of NbTi. The operating current of the system is 100 A. Two pairs of current leads are used. A separate pair of current leads for power supplying NbTi coil allows testing of MgB2 and HTS coils in an external field. The load curves for each of the magnets are calculated.

  12. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  13. Microwave absorption studies of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    band (9–. 10 GHz) spectrometer. Both polycrystalline pellet and single-grain MgB2, having nearly the same Tc (∼ 39 K) and same size (3×2×1 mm3), were used in the present investigations. Low field modulated microwave absorption signals ...

  14. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound, MgB2, using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange–correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  15. Preparation and characterization of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. The MgB2 superconductor, synthesized using solid-state and liquid-phase sintering methods, have been characterized for various properties. The upper critical field, irreversibility line and critical current density have been ...

  16. Microwave absorption studies of MgB 2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signals recorded for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10m) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The field dependent direct microwave ...

  17. Nanostructure characterization of Ni and B layers as artificial pinning centers in multilayered MgB2/Ni and MgB2/B superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosiati, H.; Hata, S.; Doi, T.; Matsumoto, A.; Kitaguchi, H.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructure characterization of Ni and B layers as artificial pinning centers (APCs). ► Relationship between nanostructure and J c property. ► Enhanced J c in parallel field by parallel APCs within the MgB 2 film. -- Abstract: Research on the MgB 2 /Ni and MgB 2 /B multilayer films fabricated by an electron beam (EB) evaporation technique have been extensively carried out. The critical current density, J c of MgB 2 /Ni and MgB 2 /B multilayer films in parallel fields has been suggested to be higher than that of monolayer MgB 2 film due to introducing the artificial pinning centers of nano-sized Ni and B layers. Nanostructure characterization of the artificial pinning centers in the multilayer films were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS))–EDS to understand the mechanism of flux pinning. The growth of columnar MgB 2 grains along the film-thickness direction was recognized in the MgB 2 /Ni multilayer film, but not in the MgB 2 /B multilayer film. Nano-sized Ni layers were present as crystalline epitaxial layers which is interpreted that Ni atoms might be incorporated into the MgB 2 lattice to form (Mg,Ni)B 2 phase. On the other hand, nano-sized B layers were amorphous layers. Crystalline (Mg,Ni)B 2 layers worked more effectively than amorphous B-layers, providing higher flux-pinning force that resulted in higher J c of the MgB 2 /Ni multilayer film than the MgB 2 /B multilayer film

  18. A new approach to MgB2 superconducting magnet fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazoe, A; Ando, T; Wada, H; Abe, H; Hirota, N; Sekino, M

    2008-01-01

    Fabrication of MgB 2 -based superconducting magnets has been attempted by a new approach using film coated on symmetric tubes. Superconducting MgB 2 films have been prepared on iron substrates by electroplating in molten electrolytes. The critical current (I c ) of the MgB 2 electroplating films at 4.2 K and at self-field was 15 A on the basis of 1 μV/cm of I c criterion. A model calculation has shown that MgB 2 -based superconducting magnets based on MgB 2 electroplating films have the potential to generate magnetic fields over 0.5 T

  19. Active Protection of an MgB2 Test Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Keun; Hahn, Seungyong; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study, experimental and computational, of a detect-and-activate-the-heater protection technique applied to a magnesium diboride (MgB2) test coil operated in semi-persistent mode. The test coil with a winding ID of 25 cm and wound with ~500-m long reacted MgB2 wire was operated at 4.2 K immersed in a bath of liquid helium. In this active technique, upon the initiation of a “hot spot” of a length ~10 cm, induced by a “quench heater,” a “protection heater” (PH) of ~600-cm long planted within the test coil is activated. The normal zone created by the PH is large enough to absorb the test coil’s entire initial stored energy and still keeps the peak temperature within the winding below ~260 K. PMID:22081754

  20. Electromagnetic densification of MgB2/Cu wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woźniak, M; Glowacki, B A

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic compaction of in situ MgB 2 /Cu wire has been achieved using a custom-built 200 J device. The monofilament core packing density was increased by 8% and up to 31% for unreacted and reacted wires respectively. The higher density of the MgB 2 core resulted in a critical current density increase of up to 75% in comparison to that for cold-drawn-only wire. Applying this treatment to a wire with Cu powder additions to the core and with an optimized heat treatment resulted in one of the highest ever reported values of J c for MgB 2 /Cu wires of 6.83 × 10 3  A cm −2 at 4.2 K and 6 T. (paper)

  1. Observation of pseudogap in MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S.; Medicherla, V. R. R.; Ali, Khadiza; Singh, R. S.; Manfrinetti, P.; Wrubl, F.; Dhar, S. K.; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the electronic structure of a specially prepared highly dense conventional high temperature superconductor, MgB2, employing high resolution photoemission spectroscopy. The spectral evolution close to the Fermi energy is commensurate to BCS descriptions as expected. However, the spectra in the wider energy range reveal the emergence of a pseudogap much above the superconducting transition temperature indicating an apparent departure from the BCS scenario. The energy scale of the pseudogap is comparable to the energy of the E2g phonon mode responsible for superconductivity in MgB2 and the pseudogap can be attributed to the effect of electron-phonon coupling on the electronic structure. These results reveal a scenario of the emergence of the superconducting gap within an electron-phonon coupling induced pseudogap and have significant implications in the study of high temperature superconductors.

  2. Investigation of pinning in MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, S.; Reissner, M.; Steiner, W.; Bauer, E.; Giovannini, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The pinning behaviour of bulk MgB 2 superconductors is peculiar in many respects. Pinning seems to be stronger than in classical high T C materials and there seems to be no weak link problem in these compounds, giving hope to produce bulk samples and wires with current densities appropriate for technical applications. But, although many studies concerning the pinning behaviour in this compound appeared in recent years, the results are still contradictory. In the present work we present results of an investigation of the pinning behaviour by magnetic relaxation measurements of three MgB 2 samples: a pure one, a sample with 8 at% Al substitution and a sample with 10 wt% of SiC admixture. A comparison of different analyses methods is given. (author)

  3. Insulator layer formation in MgB2 SIS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakage, H.; Tsujimoto, K.; Wang, Z.; Tonouchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of current-voltage characteristics on thin film deposition conditions was investigated using MgB 2 /AlN/NbN SIS junctions. By increasing the substrate temperature in AlN insulator deposition, the current density decreased and the normal resistance increased. The results indicated that an additional insulator layer between the MgB 2 and AlN formed, either before or during the AlN deposition. The thickness of the additional insulator layer was increased with an increase in the AlN deposition temperature. From the dependence of current density on the thickness of AlN in low temperature depositions, the thickness of the additional insulator layer was estimated to be 1-1.5 nm when the AlN insulator was deposited from 0.14 to 0.7 nm. Moreover, with the current density of MgB 2 /AlN/MgB 2 SIS junctions, further insulator layer formation was confirmed

  4. Limiteurs de courant supraconducteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaege , T.; Bekhaled , M.; Laumond , Y.; Pham , V.; Thomas , P.; Thérond , P.

    1994-01-01

    L'électrotechnique industrielle à 50-60 Hz représente pour les supraconducteurs un marché potentiel considérable. Parmi les applications envisageables, la limitation des courants de défaut sera probablement la première à trouver un essor industriel. Les propriétés mises en jeu sont tout à fait spécifiques des supraconducteurs, à savoir le grand contraste existant entre un état passant à haute densité de courant, et un état bloquant à haute résistivité, obtenu dès que le courant dépasse un seu...

  5. Properties of hot pressed MgB2/Ti tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, P.; Husek, I.; Melisek, T.; Fedor, J.; Cambel, V.; Morawski, A.; Kario, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hot axial and hot isostatic pressing was applied for single-core MgB 2 /Ti tapes. Differences in transport current density, n-exponents and critical current anisotropy are discussed and related to the grain connectivity influenced by pressing. The magnetic Hall probe scanning measurements allowed observing the isolated regions for axially hot pressed sample attributed to the longitudinally oriented cracks introduced by pressing. The highest current densities were measured for the tape subjected to hot isostatic pressing due to improved connectivity.

  6. Specific heat of MgB_2 after irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Sheikin, Ilya; Toulemonde, Pierre; Revaz, Bernard; Eisterer, Michael; Weber, Harald W.; Hinderer, Joerg; Junod, Alain

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB_2 by specific-heat measurements. In the pristine state, these measurements give a bulk confirmation of the presence of two superconducting gaps with 2 Delta 0 / k_B T_c = 1.3 and 3.9 with nearly equal weights. The scattering introduced by irradiation suppresses T_c and tends to average the two gaps although less than predicted by theory. We also found that by a suitable irradiation process by fast neutr...

  7. MgB2 thin films by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X.X.; Pogrebnyakov, A.V.; Xu, S.Y.; Chen, K.; Cui, Y.; Maertz, E.C.; Zhuang, C.G.; Li, Qi; Lamborn, D.R.; Redwing, J.M.; Liu, Z.K.; Soukiassian, A.; Schlom, D.G.; Weng, X.J.; Dickey, E.C.; Chen, Y.B.; Tian, W.; Pan, X.Q.; Cybart, S.A.; Dynes, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) has been the most effective technique for depositing MgB 2 thin films. It generates high magnesium vapor pressures and provides a clean environment for the growth of high purity MgB 2 films. The epitaxial pure MgB 2 films grown by HPCVD show higher-than-bulk T c due to tensile strain in the films. The HPCVD films are the cleanest MgB 2 materials reported, allowing basic research, such as on magnetoresistance, that reveals the two-band nature of MgB 2 . The carbon-alloyed HPCVD films demonstrate record-high H c2 values promising for high magnetic field applications. The HPCVD films and multilayers have enabled the fabrication of high quality MgB 2 Josephson junctions

  8. Al-doped MgB_2 materials studied using electron paramagnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateni, Ali; Somer, Mehmet; Erdem, Emre; Repp, Sergej; Weber, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Undoped and aluminum (Al) doped magnesium diboride (MgB_2) samples were synthesized using a high-temperature solid-state synthesis method. The microscopic defect structures of Al-doped MgB_2 samples were systematically investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance. It was found that Mg-vacancies are responsible for defect-induced peculiarities in MgB_2. Above a certain level of Al doping, enhanced conductive properties of MgB_2 disappear due to filling of vacancies or trapping of Al in Mg-related vacancy sites.

  9. MgB2-based superconductors for fault current limiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, V.; Prikhna, T.; Meerovich, V.; Eisterer, M.; Goldacker, W.; Kozyrev, A.; Weber, H. W.; Shapovalov, A.; Sverdun, V.; Moshchil, V.

    2017-02-01

    A promising solution of the fault current problem in power systems is the application of fast-operating nonlinear superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) with the capability of rapidly increasing their impedance, and thus limiting high fault currents. We report the results of experiments with models of inductive (transformer type) SFCLs based on the ring-shaped bulk MgB2 prepared under high quasihydrostatic pressure (2 GPa) and by hot pressing technique (30 MPa). It was shown that the SFCLs meet the main requirements to fault current limiters: they possess low impedance in the nominal regime of the protected circuit and can fast increase their impedance limiting both the transient and the steady-state fault currents. The study of quenching currents of MgB2 rings (SFCL activation current) and AC losses in the rings shows that the quenching current density and critical current density determined from AC losses can be 10-20 times less than the critical current determined from the magnetization experiments.

  10. Note: Progress on the use of MgB2 superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y G; Song, J B; Kim, J C; Kim, J M; Yoo, B H; Yun, S B; Hwang, D Y; Lee, H G

    2017-08-01

    This note presents a superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets. The MgB 2 superconducting joint was fabricated by a powder processing method using Mg and B powders to establish a wire-bulk-wire connection. The joint resistance measured using a field-decay method was magnets operating in the persistent current mode.

  11. Formation of MgB2 at ambient temperature with an electrochemical process: a plausible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, A B; Subhedar, K M; Hyam, R S; Talaptra, A; Sen, Pintu; Bandyopadhyay, S K; Pawar, S H

    2005-01-01

    The binary intermetallic MgB 2 superconductor has been synthesized by many research groups. However, the mechanism of its formation is not clearly understood. In this communication, a comprehensive mechanism of the formation of MgB 2 from Le Chatelier's principle of equilibrium reaction has been explained both for solid-state reaction and electrodeposition methods. (rapid communication)

  12. Measurement of the anisotropy ratios in MgB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon-Jung; Kang, Byeongwon; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2006-01-01

    We present our recent measurements on the anisotropy ratios of MgB 2 single crystals. Our measurements indicate that the anisotropy ratios of the penetration depth and of the upper critical field have different magnitudes and temperature dependences, as predicted by theoretical calculations. These results imply that the two-gap nature can strongly influence the superconducting properties of MgB 2

  13. Directional scanning tunneling spectroscopy in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iavarone, M.; Karapetrov, G.; Koshelev, A.E.; Kwok, W.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hinks, D.G.; Cook, R.; Kang, W.N.; Choi, E.M.; Kim, H.J.; Lee, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    The superconductivity in MgB 2 has a two-band character with the dominating band having a 2D character and the second band being isotropic in the three dimensions. We use tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to reveal the two distinct energy gaps at Δ 1 =2.3 meV and Δ 2 =7.1 meV. Different spectral weights of the partial superconducting density of states are a reflection of different tunneling directions in this multi-band system. The results are consistent with the existence of two-band superconductivity in the presence of strong interband superconducting pair interaction and quasiparticle scattering. The temperature evolution of the tunneling spectra shows both gaps vanishing at the bulk T c

  14. Specific heat of MgB2 after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Sheikin, Ilya; Toulemonde, Pierre; Revaz, Bernard; Eisterer, Michael; Weber, Harald W; Hinderer, Joerg; Junod, Alain

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB 2 by specific-heat measurements. In the pristine state, these measurements give a bulk confirmation of the presence of two superconducting gaps with 2Δ 0 /k B T c =1.3 and 3.9 with nearly equal weights. The scattering introduced by irradiation suppresses T c and tends to average the two gaps although less than predicted by theory. We also found that by a suitable irradiation process by fast neutrons, a substantial bulk increase of dH c2 /dT at T c can be obtained without sacrificing more than a few degrees in T c . The upper critical field of the sample after irradiation exceeds 28 T at T→0

  15. On heavy carbon doping of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Lee, K.-W.; Pickett, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy carbon doping of MgB 2 is studied by first principles electronic structure studies of two types, an ordered supercell (Mg(B 1-x C x ) 2 , x 0.0833) and also the coherent potential approximation method that incorporates effects of B-C disorder. For the ordered model, the twofold degenerate σ-bands that are the basis of the high temperature superconductivity are split by 60 meV (i.e. 7 meV/% C) and the σ Fermi cylinders contain 0.070 holes/cell, compared to 0.11 for MgB 2 . A virtual crystal treatment tends to overestimate the rate at which σ holes are filled by substitutional carbon. The coherent potential approximation (CPA) calculations give the same rate of band filling as the supercell method. The occupied local density of states of C is almost identical to that of B in the upper 2 eV of the valence bands, but in the range -8 eV to -2 eV, C has a considerably larger density of states. The calculations indicate that the σ Fermi surface cylinders pinch off at the zone center only above the maximum C concentration x ∼ 0.10. These results indicate that Mg(B 1-x C x ) 2 as well as Mg 1-x Al x B 2 is a good system in which to study the evolution of the unusual electron-phonon coupling character and strength as the crucial σ hole states are filled

  16. Towards a Cryogen-Free MgB2-Based Superconducting Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Alireza

    Studies on the application of Magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting films have shown promise for use with the radio-frequency (SRF) accelerating cavities. MgB2\\ coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) SRF cavities. The ultimate goal of our research is to demonstrate MgB2 coating on copper cavities to allow operation at about 20 K or so as a result of the high transition temperature (Tc) of MgB2 and taking advantage of the excellent thermal conductivity of copper. Here, we will report on our recent experimental results of applying hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) to grow MgB2 films on 2-inch diameter copper discs as well as on a 2.8 GHz resonator cavity *Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06H11357.

  17. Effects of sintering conditions on critical current properties and microstructures of MgB2 bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ueda, Shinya; Katsura, Yukari; Iwayama, Isao; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

    2005-01-01

    The effects of heating conditions on critical current properties and microstructures of undoped MgB 2 bulks were systematically studied. Strong correlation was observed between J c and microstructures. The network structure with an excellent inter-grain connectivity of MgB 2 grains contributed to high-J c under low magnetic fields, and small grain size of MgB 2 enhanced the grain boundary flux pinning. Long time heating at low temperatures below the melting point of magnesium was discovered to be most effective for synthesis of MgB 2 bulks having strongly connected MgB 2 network structure with small grains. The sample heated at 550 deg. C for 1200 h recorded a high-J c of 4.02 x 10 5 A cm -2 at 20 K in self-field, while high-temperature and long time heating brought a significant grain growth which resulted in low J c

  18. Limiteurs de courant supraconducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaege, T.; Bekhaled, M.; Laumond, Y.; Pham, V. D.; Thomas, P.; Thérond, P. G.

    1994-04-01

    50-60 Hz electrical engineering represents a considerable potential market for superconductors. Fault current limitation will probably be the first among the possible applications, to find an industrial opening. Exploited features are very specific of the superconductors, namely the large contrast existing between an on-state with high current density and an off-state with high electrical resistivity, obtained as soon as the current reaches a specified level. It thus becomes possible to warrant the grid from any current excursion over a specified value, with considerable impact on the protection and dimensions of conductors and devices, and increased possibilities of interconnexion. The current limiter technology is rather complex ; different structures have been proposed and tested ; they are resistive or inductive, based on low-T_c or high-T_c superconductors. The most advanced candidate to date is a resistive structure, using conductors made of ultra-fine niobium-titanium filaments in a coppemickel matrix, whose essential features are described hereunder. L'électrotechnique industrielle à 50-60 Hz représente pour les supraconducteurs un marché potentiel considérable. Parmi les applications envisageables, la limitation des courants de défaut sera probablement la première à trouver un essor industriel. Les propriétés mises en jeu sont tout à fait spécifiques des supraconducteurs, à savoir le grand contraste existant entre un état passant à haute densité de courant, et un état bloquant à haute résistivité, obtenu dès que le courant dépasse un seuil donné. Il est ainsi possible de garantir le réseau contre toute excursion du courant au-delà d'une valeur spécifiée, avec un impact important sur sa protection, son dimensionnement, son degré d'interconnexion. La technologie du limiteur de courant est assez complexe ; diverses structures ont été proposées et testées, résistives ou inductives, à base de supraconducteurs BTc ou HTc. Le

  19. MgB2 thick films on three-dimensional structures fabricated by HPCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengshan; Cai, Xingwei; Liao, Xuebin; Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Niu, Ruirui; Luo, Wenhao; Huang, Zigeng; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic shielding has been a key factor in the measurement of ultra-weak magnetic fields, especially for shielding from low frequency electromagnetic noise. With the recent development of superconducting quantum interference devices, superconducting magnetic shielding has become an important area of research. MgB2 has shown great potential in magnetic shielding for its remarkable superconducting properties, the feasibility of its use in this capacity having been demonstrated by MgB2 bulk samples. However, the potential for application of such bulk samples is limited. In this work, we have investigated the possibility of the fabrication of MgB2 films on three-dimensional (3D) structures using a hybrid physical‑chemical vapor deposition system. MgB2 films 10 μm thick have been fabricated on the outer surface of a polycrystalline Al2O3 cylinder. The deposited film showed a transition temperature (TC) of 39 K and J C of 5.1 × 105 A · cm‑2, which are comparable to those of planar MgB2 films. This work shows the feasibility of depositing MgB2 films onto a 3D structure, and sheds light on the potential use of MgB2 films in superconducting magnetic shielding.

  20. Growth of high quality large area MgB2 thin films by reactive evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Moeckly, Brian H.; Ruby, Ward S.

    2006-01-01

    We report a new in-situ reactive deposition thin film growth technique for the production of MgB2 thin films which offers several advantages over all existing methods and is the first deposition method to enable the production of high-quality MgB2 films for real-world applications. We have used this growth method, which incorporates a rotating pocket heater, to deposit MgB2 films on a variety of substrates, including single-crystalline, polycrystalline, metallic, and semiconductor materials u...

  1. Improving magnetic properties of MgB_2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of synthetic engine oil treatment on magnetic properties of bulk MgB_2 superconductors has been first time investigated and reported. • Synthetic engine oil used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source obviously has improved the superconducting magnetic properties of MgB_2. • The critical current density of all of MgB_2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range has been better than that of the pure MgB_2 sample. • The MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB_2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density ( J_c(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density f_p(b) and T_c performances of MgB_2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB_2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB_2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB_2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB_2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The J_c value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 10"3 A/cm"2, whereas for the MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the J_c is enhanced to 4.8 × 10"3 A/cm"2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (T_c) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was obtained from the sample which kept in synthetic engine oil for 300 min. Synthetic engine oil treatment results in remarkable improvement of the critical current density and pinning force performances of MgB_2 superconductors. It was found that all MgB_2 samples have a different pinning property at different measuring temperatures. Using synthetic engine oil as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source in MgB_2 bulk superconductors makes MgB_2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil a good candidate for industrial applications.

  2. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I.; Pujana, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Merino, J. M.; Tropeano, M.; Sun, J.; Canosa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator's main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator.

  3. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, I; Pujana, A; Sarmiento, G; Sanz, S; Merino, J M; Tropeano, M; Sun, J; Canosa, T

    2016-01-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB 2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator’s main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator. (paper)

  4. Phthalocyanine doping to improve critical current densities in MgB2 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianping; Ma Yanwei; Wang Dongliang; Gao Zhaoshun; Wang Lei; Qi Yanpeng; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Mossang, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Phthalocyanine-doped MgB 2 tapes were prepared by the in situ powder-in-tube method. The relationships between the critical current properties, crystallinity and microstructure were studied as a function of the phthalocyanine doping level. It is found that both H irr and H c2 were improved when MgB 2 samples were doped with phthalocyanine, which are mainly attributed to the effective carbon substitution and enhanced flux pinning strength caused by very fine grain sizes. Furthermore, compared to pure samples, the MgO content remained almost unchanged in all doped tapes, which is very beneficial to having better grain connectivity in MgB 2 . Significantly improved J c was obtained in the phthalocyanine-doped MgB 2 tapes, especially under high magnetic fields.

  5. Progress in the deposition of MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X X; Pogrebnyakov, A V; Zeng, X H; Redwing, J M; Xu, S Y; Li, Qi; Liu, Zi-Kui; Lettieri, J; Vaithyanathan, V; Schlom, D G; Christen, H M; Zhai, H Y; Goyal, A

    2004-01-01

    An MgB 2 thin film deposition technology is the first critical step in the development of superconducting electronics utilizing the 39 K superconductor. It turned out to be a challenging task due to the volatility of Mg and phase stability of MgB 2 , the low sticking coefficients of Mg at elevated temperatures, and the reactivity of Mg with oxygen. A brief overview of current deposition techniques is provided here from a thermodynamic perspective, with an emphasis on a very successful technique for high quality in situ epitaxial MgB 2 films, the hybrid physical-chemical vapour deposition. Examples of heterostructures of MgB 2 with other materials are also presented

  6. Development of MgB2 superconductor wire with high critical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Yi Jeong; Yi, Ji Hye; Lee, Ji Hyun; Tan, Kai Sin

    2009-07-01

    The MgB 2 superconductor with smaller grain size could improve its critical properties by providing flux pinning centers with high grain boundary density. The effects of C doping such as charcoal, paper ash and glycerin on the superconducting properties was investigated for in situ processed MgB 2 samples using low purity semi-crystalline B powder. The results show a decrease in Tc and an enhancement of Jc at high fields for the C-doped samples as compared to the un-doped samples. A combined process of a mechanical ball milling and liquid glycerin (C 3 H 8 O 3 ) treatment of B powder has been conducted to enhance the superconducting properties of MgB 2 . The mechanical ball milling was effective for grain refinement, and a lattice disorder was easily achieved by glycerin addition. With the combined process, the critical properties was further increased due to a higher grain boundary density and a greater C substitution. To get fine grain structure of MgB 2 with high critical current properties, mechanical milling for as-received B powder and low temperature solid-state reaction of 550 or 600 .deg. C were attempted to in situ powder-in-tube processed MgB 2 /Fe wires. The critical current properties of the MgB 2 wires using the milled B powder were enhanced due to a smaller grain size and an increased volume of the superconducting phase. The solid-state reaction of a low temperature process for the samples using the milled B powder resulted in a poorer crystallinity with a smaller grain size, which improved superconducting properties. We established the system to measure the transport current properties of the MgB 2 wires. The field dependence of the transport Jc was evaluated for the MgB 2 wires heat-treated at different heat treatment conditions using ball-milled and glycerin-treated B powder. The MgB 2 magnet was developed and the AC loss of MgB 2 wire was also investigated. A conduction cooling device to cool the MgB 2 coil down to 4 K has been fabricated and the coil was tested up to 100 A

  7. Preparation of high quality superconducting thin MgB2 films for electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdu, Andrei; Zdravkov, Vladimir; Sidorenko, Anatolie; Rossolenko, Anna; Ryazanov, Valerii; Bdikin, Igor; Kroemer, Oliver; Nold, Eberhard; Koch, Thomas; Schimmel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In this work we report the growth of high-Tc MgB 2 smooth films which are prepared in a two-step process: 1) deposition of the precursor films and 2) their annealing in Mg vapor with a specially designed, reusable reactor. Our method opens perspectives for the use of MgB 2 films in microelectronics, especially for high-frequency applications. (authors)

  8. Design of MgB2 Superconducting coils for the Ignitor Experiment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, G.; Penco, R.; Berta, S.; Coppi, B.; Giunchi, G.

    2009-11-01

    A feasibility study for the adoption of MgB2 superconducting cables for the largest (about 5 m in diameter) of the poloidal field coils of the Ignitor machine is being carried out. This initiative was prompted by the progress made in the fabrication of MgB2 long cables, and related superconducting magnets of relatively large dimensions. These magnets will be cryocooled at the operating temperature of 10-15 K that is compatible with the He-gas cryogenic cooling system of Ignitor as well as with the projected superconducting current density of the MgB2 material, at the magnetic field values (˜4-5 T) in which these coils are designed to operate. The optimal cable configuration has been identified that can provide an efficient cooling of the MgB2 conductors over times compatible with the machine duty cycles. MgB2 superconductors hold the promise of becoming suitable for high field magnets by appropriate doping of the material and of replacing gradually the normal conducting coils adopted, by necessity, in high field experiments. Therefore, an appropriate R&D program on the development of improved MgB2 material and related superconducting cabling options has been undertaken, involving different institutions.

  9. Flux pinning behaviors of Ti and C co-doped MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhao, D.; Shen, T.M.; Li, G.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, Y.; Cheng, C.H.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Flux pinning behavior of carbon and titanium concurrently doped MgB 2 alloys has been studied by ac susceptibility and dc magnetization measurements. It is found that critical current density and irreversibility field of MgB 2 have been significantly improved by doping C and Ti concurrently, sharply contrasted to the situation of C-only-doped or Ti-only-doped MgB 2 samples. AC susceptibility measurement reveals that the dependence of the pinning potential on the dc applied field of Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 has been determined to be U(B dc )∝B dc -1 compared to that of MgB 2 U(B dc )∝B dc -1.5 . As to the U(J) behavior, a relationship of U(J) ∝ J -0.17 is found fitting well for Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 with respect to U(J) ∝ J -0.21 for MgB 2 . All the results reveal a strong enhancement of the high field pinning potential in C and Ti co-doped MgB 2

  10. Development of Ti-sheathed MgB2 wires with high critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G; Fang, H; Hanna, M; Yen, F; Lv, B; Alessandrini, M; Keith, S; Hoyt, C; Tang, Z; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    Working towards developing lightweight superconducting magnets for future space and other applications, we have successfully fabricated mono-core Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires by the powder-in-tube method. The wires were characterized by magnetization, electrical resistivity, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry measurements. The results indicate that the Ti sheath does not react with the magnesium and boron, and the present wire rolling process can produce MgB 2 wires with a superconducting volume fraction of at least 64% in the core. Using the Bean model, it was found that at 5 K, the magnetic critical current densities, J c , measured in magnetic fields of 0, 5, and 8 T are about 4.2 x 10 5 , 3.6 x 10 4 , and 1.4 x 10 4 A cm -2 , respectively. At 20 K and 0 T, the magnetic J c is about 2.4 x 10 5 A cm -2 . These results show that at zero and low fields, the values of the magnetic J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires are comparable with the best results available for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires. At high fields, however, the J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires appears higher than that for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires

  11. Microwave surface impedance of MgB2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, B B; Klein, N; Kang, W N; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Choi, Eun-Mi; Lee, Sung-I K; Dahm, T; Maki, K

    2003-01-01

    The microwave surface impedance Z s = R s + jωμ 0 λ was measured with dielectric resonator techniques for two c-axis-oriented MgB 2 thin films. The temperature dependence of the penetration depth λ measured with a sapphire resonator at 17.93 GHz can be well fitted from 5 K close to T c by the standard BCS integral expression assuming the reduced energy gap Δ(0)/kT c to be as low as 1.13 and 1.03 for the two samples. From these fits the penetration depth at zero temperatures was determined to be 102 nm and 107 nm, respectively. The results clearly indicate the s-wave nature of the order parameter. The temperature dependence of surface resistance R s , measured with a rutile dielectric resonator, shows an exponential behaviour below about T c /2 with a reduced energy gap being consistent with the one determined from the λ data. The R s value at 4.2 K was found to be as low as 19 μΩ at 7.2 GHz, which is comparable with that of a high-quality high-temperature thin film of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . A higher-order mode at 17.9 GHz was employed to determine the frequency f dependence of R s ∝ f n(T) . Our results revealed a decrease of n with increasing temperature ranging from n = 2 below 8 K to n 1 from 13 to 34 K

  12. Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, B A; Nuttall, W J

    2008-01-01

    Importantly environmental factors are not the only policy-driver for the hydrogen economy. Over the timescale of the development of fusion energy systems, energy security issues are likely to motivate a shift towards both hydrogen production and fusion as an energy source. These technologies combine local control of the system with the collaborative research interests of the major energy users in the global economy. A concept Fusion Island Reactor that might be used to generate H 2 (rather than electricity) is presented. Exploitation of produced hydrogen as a coolant and as a fuel is proposed in conjunction with MgB 2 conductors for the tokomak magnets windings, and electrotechnical devices for Fusion Island's infrastructure. The benefits of using MgB 2 over the Nb-based conductors during construction, operation and decommissioning of the Fusion Island Reactor are presented. The comparison of Nb 3 Sn strands for ITER fusion magnet with newly developed high field composite MgB 2 PIT conductors has shown that at 14 Tesla MgB 2 possesses better properties than any of the Nb 3 Sn conductors produced. In this paper the potential of MgB 2 conductors is examined for tokamaks of both the conventional ITER type and a Spherical Tokamak geometry. In each case MgB 2 is considered as a conductor for a range of field coil applications and the potential for operation at both liquid helium and liquid hydrogen temperatures is considered. Further research plans concerning the application of MgB 2 conductors for Fusion Island are also considered

  13. Application of superconducting magnesium diboride (MGB2) in superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teng

    The superconductivity in magnesium diboride (MgB2) was discovered in 2001. As a BCS superconductor, MgB2 has a record-high Tc of 39 K, high Jc of > 107 A/cm2 and no weak link behavior across the grain boundary. All these superior properties endorsed that MgB2 would have great potential in both power applications and electronic devices. In the past 15 years, MgB2 based power cables, microwave devices, and commercial MRI machines emerged and the next frontier are superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. SRF cavities are one of the leading accelerator technologies. In SRF cavities, applied microwave power generates electrical fields that accelerate particle beams. Compared with other accelerator techniques, SRF cavity accelerators feature low loss, high acceleration gradients and the ability to accelerate continuous particle beams. However, current SRF cavities are made from high-purity bulk niobium and work at 2 K in superfluid helium. The construction and operational cost of SRF cavity accelerators are very expensive. The demand for SRF cavity accelerators has been growing rapidly in the past decade. Therefore, a lot of effort has been devoted to the enhancement of the performance and the reduction of cost of SRF cavities. In 2010, an acceleration gradient of over 50 MV/m has been reported for a Nb-based SRF cavity. The magnetic field at the inner surface of such a cavity is ~ 1700 Oe, which is close to the thermodynamic critical field of Nb. Therefore, new materials and technologies are required to raise the acceleration gradient of future SRF cavity accelerators. Among all the proposed approaches, using MgB2 thin films to coat the inner surface of SRF cavities is one of the promising tactics with the potential to raise both the acceleration gradient and the operation temperature of SRF cavity accelerators. In this work, I present my study on MgB2 thin films for their application in SRF cavities. C-epitaxial MgB2 thin films grown on SiC(0001) substrates showed Tc > 41 K and Jc > 107 A/cm2, which is superior to bulk MgB2 samples. Polycrystalline MgB2 thin films grown on metal substrates showed similar Tc and Jc compared with bulk samples, indicating MgB2 is suitable for coating a metal cavity. Large c-pitaxial MgB2 thin films were grown on 2-inch diameter c-sapphire wafers, showing our technique is capable of depositing large area samples. The lower critical field (Hc1) of MgB2 thin films was measured as well as it is know that bulk MgB2 has a small Hc1 and would suffer from vortex penetration at low magnetic fields. The penetrating magnetic vortices would result in loss in an applied RF field. However, due to the geometry barrier, thin film MgB2 would have a higher Hc1 than the bulk material. In my experiments, the Hc1 of MgB2 thin films increased with decreasing film thickness. At 5 K, a 100 nm epitaxial MgB2 thin film showed enhanced Hc1 ~ 1880 Oe, which is higher than Hc1 of Nb at 2 K. This showed that MgB2 coated SRF cavities have the potential to work at higher magnetic fields and higher temperature. Because the magnetic field distribution in the thin film Hc1 measurement is different from the magnetic field in a real SRF cavity, a few Nb ellipsoids were machined and coated with MgB2. The ellipsoid only has a magnetic field outside its surface and can serve as an inverse SRF cavity in the vortex penetration measurement. In the experiments, vortices penetrate into the bulk Nb ellipsoid at a magnetic field 400 Oe lower than the vortex penetration field of MgB2 coated Nb ellipsoids. This result confirmed our prediction that MgB2 coated SRF cavities could work at higher magnetic fields, thus producing higher acceleration gradients. In the last part of this thesis, I discussed how I used the dielectric resonator technique to measure the surface resistance (Rs) and Tc of MgB2 thin films. While the sensitivity of this technique was not high enough to lead to reliable Rs values, it can still serve for the determination of Tc for large area samples that are too bulky for other measurement systems.

  14. Enhancing the superconducting temperature of MgB2 by SWCNT dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Danhao; Jayasingha, Ruwantha; Hess, Dustin T.; Adu, Kofi W.; Sumanasekera, Gamini U.; Terrones, Mauricio

    2014-02-01

    We report, for the first time, an increase in the superconducting critical temperature, TC of commercial “dirty” MgB2 by a nonsubstitutional hole-doping of the MgB2 structure using minute, single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) inclusions. We varied the SWCNTs concentration from 0.05 wt% to 5 wt% and investigated the temperature-dependent resistivity from 10 K to 300 K. We used micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction to analyze the interfacial interactions between the SWCNTs and the MgB2 grains. We obtained an increase in TC from 33.0 to 37.8 K (ΔTC+=4.8 K), which is attributed to charge transfer from the MgB2 structure to the SWCNT structure. The charge transfer phenomenon is confirmed by micro-Raman analysis of the phonon states of the SWCNT tangential band frequency in the composites. We determined the charge transfer per carbon atom to be 0.0023/C, 0.0018/C and 0.0008/C for 0.05 wt%, 0.5 wt% and 5 wt% SWCNT inclusions, respectively, taking into account the contributions from the softening of the lattice constant and the nonadiabatic (dynamic) effects at the Fermi level. This report provides an experimental, alternative pathway to hole-doping of MgB2 without appealing to chemical substitution.

  15. MgB_{2} nonlinear properties investigated under localized high rf magnetic field excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin Tai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The high transition temperature and low surface resistance of MgB_{2} attracts interest in its potential application in superconducting radio frequency accelerating cavities. However, compared to traditional Nb cavities, the viability of MgB_{2} at high rf fields is still open to question. Our approach is to study the nonlinear electrodynamics of the material under localized rf magnetic fields. Because of the presence of the small superconducting gap in the π band, the nonlinear response of MgB_{2} at low temperature is potentially complicated compared to a single-gap s-wave superconductor such as Nb. Understanding the mechanisms of nonlinearity coming from the two-band structure of MgB_{2}, as well as extrinsic sources of nonlinearity, is an urgent requirement. A localized and strong rf magnetic field, created by a magnetic write head, is integrated into our nonlinear-Meissner-effect scanning microwave microscope [T. Tai et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 2615 (2011ITASE91051-822310.1109/TASC.2010.2096531]. MgB_{2} films with thickness 50 nm, fabricated by a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique on dielectric substrates, are measured at a fixed location and show a strongly temperature-dependent third harmonic response. We propose that several possible mechanisms are responsible for this nonlinear response.

  16. Evaluations of MgB2 Coatings on 2'' Copper Discs for Superconducting Radio Frequency Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Wenura; Tan, Teng; Lee, Namhoon; Banjade, Huta; Eremeev, Grigory; Welander, Paul; Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie; Kustom, Robert; Wolak, Matthäus; Nassiri, Alireza; Xi, Xiaoxing

    We propose that coating the inner walls of copper RF cavities with superconducting MgB2 (Tc = 39 K) can result in a viable alternative to the already established niobium-based SRF technology. This approach improves the thermal conductivity, allows for operation at higher temperatures, and reduces the need for large helium refrigeration, thereby resulting in lower operational costs. For our studies, we grew MgB2 films via hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) on 2'' Cu substrates. Since Mg and Cu readily form an alloy at higher temperatures, the HPCVD setup was modified in order to achieve lower deposition temperatures, minimize alloy formation, and provide high quality MgB2 films. This method yielded MgB2 coatings on 2'' Cu discs with transition temperatures around 38 K. The samples were characterized with regards to their RF attributes and showed similar performance in comparison to Nb reference samples. The presented results show that MgB2 coated copper can be a suitable alternative for use in SRF cavities.

  17. Energy gap in MgB2 superconductor: Andreev reflection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswal, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the nature of energy gap in MgB 2 superconductor, we have performed Andreev-reflection studies on MgB 2 / Ag planar junctions. The differential resistance (dV/dI) versus voltage (V) characteristics were recorded as a function of temperature, magnetic field and junction-type. The dV/dI vs V characteristic recorded at low temperature and zero-field for a clean MgB 2 / Ag planar junction exhibited several interesting features, such as, zero bias anomaly, a distinct double-minima, sharp resonance peaks near the energy gap etc. The data, however, could not be explained using Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory of isotropic superconductor, which indicated that energy gap in MgB 2 is not consistent with the weak-coupling BCS theory. This is further supported by unusual temperature and magnetic field dependence of the tunneling characteristics. The results indicate several possibilities for the energy gap in MgB 2 , such as, an anisotropic energy gap, two-energy or an unconventional gap scenario. (author)

  18. Molecular-Beam Epitaxially Grown MgB2 Thin Films and Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Laloë

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of its superconducting properties in 2001, magnesium diboride has generated terrific scientific and engineering research interest around the world. With a of 39 K and two superconducting gaps, MgB2 has great promise from the fundamental point of view, as well as immediate applications. Several techniques for thin film deposition and heterojunction formation have been established, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Here, we will present a brief overview of research based on MgB2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy coevaporation of Mg and B. The films are smooth and highly crystalline, and the technique allows for virtually any heterostructure to be formed, including all-MgB2 tunnel junctions. Such devices have been characterized, with both quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling reported. MgB2 remains a material of great potential for a multitude of further characterization and exploration research projects and applications.

  19. Design of MgB2 superconducting dipole magnet for particle beam transport in accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.; Zangenberg, N.; Baurichter, A.

    2006-01-01

    for the collaborating company Danfysik A/S, which has a strongtradition in building resistive magnets for particle accelerators[4]. A technology transfer project was formulated at the end of 2005 with the purpose to collect the knowledge about the MgB2 superconductor gained in the STVF program and in the European...... in a dipole magnet for guiding particle beams in a small scale accelerator is examined with the purpose to build lighter and smaller than the present resistive magnets. Here the criticalcurrent density of primarily MgB2 will be compared with current density determined by specifications similar to the Tevatron...... accelerator, B = 4:4 Tesla and coil aperture D = 76 mm [6], which has been identified by Danfysik A/S as interesting. It isconcluded that MgB2 is useful for the dipole application and construction of a small test coil of one half of the magnet is planned in 2007....

  20. Microstructure and pinning properties of hexagonal-disc shaped single crystalline MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. U.; Kim, J. Y.; Chowdhury, P.; Kim, Kijoon H.; Lee, Sung-Ik; Koh, D. S.; Tamura, N.; Caldwell, W. A.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    We synthesized hexagonal-disc-shaped MgB2 single crystals under high-pressure conditions and analyzed the microstructure and pinning properties. The lattice constants and the Laue pattern of the crystals from x-ray micro-diffraction showed the crystal symmetry of MgB2. A thorough crystallographic mapping within a single crystal showed that the edge and c axis of hexagonal-disc shape exactly matched the [101¯0] and the [0001] directions of the MgB2 phase. Thus, these well-shaped single crystals may be the best candidates for studying the direction dependences of the physical properties. The magnetization curve and the magnetic hysteresis curve for these single crystals showed the existence of a wide reversible region and weak pinning properties, which supported our single crystals being very clean.

  1. Possible superlattice formation in high-temperature treated carbonaceous MgB2 at elevated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschauner, Oliver; Errandonea, Daniel; Serghiou, George

    2006-01-01

    We report indications of a phase transition in carbonaceous MgB 2 above 9 GPa at 300 K after stress relaxation by laser heating. The transition was detected using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The observed changes are consistent with a second-order structural transition involving a doubling of the unit cell along c and a reduction of the boron site symmetry. Moreover, the Raman spectra suggest a reduction in electron-phonon coupling in the slightly modified MgB 2 structure consistent with the previously proposed topological transition in MgB 2 . However, further attributes including deviatoric stress, lattice defects, and compositional variation may play an important role in the observed phenomena

  2. Low-temperature synthesis of superconducting nanocrystalline MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.; Xiao, Z.; Lin, Q.; Claus, H.; Fang, Z.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) is considered a promising material for practical application in superconducting devices, with a transition temperature near 40 K. In the present paper, nanocrystalline MgB 2 with an average particle size of approximately 70 nm is synthesized by reacting LiBH 4 with MgH 2 at temperatures as low as 450 C. This synthesis approach successfully bypasses the usage of either elemental boron or toxic diborane gas. The superconductivity of the nanostructures is confirmed by magnetization measurements, showing a superconducting critical temperature of 38.7 K.

  3. Crystallinity and flux pinning properties of MgB2 bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Shimoyama, J.; Ueda, S.; Katsura, Y.; Iwayama, I.; Horii, S.; Kishio, K.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between flux pinning properties and crystallinity of MgB 2 bulks was systematically studied. Improved flux pinning properties under high fields were observed for samples with low crystallinity. Increased impurity scattering due to strain and defects in lattice corresponding to the degraded crystallinity was considered to enhance flux pinning strength at grain boundaries. Low-temperature synthesis and carbon substitution were confirmed to be effective for degrading crystallinity of MgB 2 bulks, resulting in high critical current properties under high fields

  4. Properties of stabilized MgB2 composite wire with Ti barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, P; Husek, I; Melisek, T; Holubek, T

    2007-01-01

    Stabilized four-filament in situ MgB 2 /Ti/Cu/Monel composite wire was produced by the rectangular wire-in-tube (RWIT) technique. 10 wt% of nanosize SiC was added into the Mg-B powder mixture, which was packed into the Ti/Cu and Monel tubes, respectively. The assembled composite was two-axially rolled into wire and/or tape form and sintered at temperatures of 650-850 deg. C/0.5 h. Stabilized MgB 2 wire with Ti barrier is studied in terms of field-dependent transport critical current density, effects of filament size reduction and thermal stability

  5. Laser-induced thermoelectric voltage in normal state MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Songqing; Zhou Yueliang; Zhao Kun; Wang Shufang; Chen Zhenghao; Jin Kuijuan; Lue Huibin; Cheng Bolin; Yang Guozhen

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced voltage has been observed in c-axis oriented MgB 2 thin film at room temperature. The amplitude of the signal is approximately proportional to the film thickness. For the film with the thickness of 150 nm, a very fast response has been detected when the film was irradiated by a 308 nm pulsed laser of 20 ns duration. The rise time and full width at half-maximum of the signal are about 3 and 25 ns, respectively. The physical origin of the laser-induced voltage can be attributed to a transverse thermoelectricity due to the anisotropic thermopower in MgB 2

  6. MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Acharya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc and high critical current density (Jc. The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.

  7. Preparation of MgB2 superconducting microbridges by focused ion beam direct milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuena; Li, Yanli; Xu, Zhuang; Kong, Xiangdong; Han, Li

    2017-01-01

    MgB2 superconducting microbridges were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) direct milling on MgB2 films. The surface topography of the microbridges were observed using SEM and AFM and the superconductivity was measured in this paper. Lots of cracks and holes were found near the milled area. And the superconducting transition temperature was decreased a lot and the bridges prepared were not superconducting due to ion damage after milled with large dose. Through these works, we explored the effect regular of FIB milling and experimental parameters on the performance of microbridges.

  8. Superconducting and normal state properties of carbon doped and neutron irradiated MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, R.H.T.; Samuely, P.; Szabo, P.; Holanova, Z.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C.; Finnemore, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    Current research in MgB 2 focuses on the effects various types of perturbations have on the superconducting properties of this novel two-gap superconductor. In this article we summarize the effects of carbon doping and neutron irradiation in bulk MgB 2 . Low levels of carbon doping and light neutron irradiation result in significant enhancements in H c2 . At high fluences, where superconductivity is nearly fully suppressed, superconductivity can be restored through post exposure annealing. However, this results in a change in the interdependencies of the normal state and superconducting properties (ρ 0 , T c , H c2 ), with little or no enhancement in H c2

  9. The preliminary study of the quench protection of an MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, F. P.; Berriaud, C.; Bonelli, A.; Pasquet, R.; Przybilski, H.; Schild, T.; Scola, L.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of general studies currently carried out at CEA/Saclay in collaboration with Sigmaphi Company on dry MgB2 magnet operating at 10 K and medium range field, 1 T up to 4 T., we plan to build a prototype-coil with a commercial MgB2 wire. This coil, the nominal axial magnetic field of which is 1 tesla, will be placed in a 3 teslas background field generated by a classical NbTi coil. This paper deals with the preliminary quench protection studies including stability and quench propagation modeling.

  10. Evaluation of carbon incorporation and strain of doped MgB2 superconductor by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh, W.K.; Zheng, R.K.; Ringer, S.P.; Li, W.X.; Xu, X.; Dou, S.X.; Chen, S.K.; MacManus-Driscoll, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is employed to study both the strain and the carbon substitution level in SiC-doped MgB 2 bulk samples. Raman spectroscopy was demonstrated to be a better method to distinguish the individual influences of strain and carbon than standard X-ray diffraction. It is found that the lattice parameter correlation method for C content determination is invalid for highly strained samples. Our result also provides an alternative explanation for lattice variation in non-carbon-doped MgB 2 , which is basically due to lattice strain.

  11. Defect structures in MgB2 wires introduced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, X Z; Serquis, A; Zhu, Y T; Civale, L; Hammon, D L; Peterson, D E; Mueller, F M; Nesterenko, V F; Gu, Y

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures of MgB 2 wires prepared by the powder-in-tube technique and subsequent hot isostatic pressing were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. A large amount of crystalline defects including small-angle twisting, tilting and bending boundaries, in which high densities of dislocations reside, was found forming sub-grains within MgB 2 grains. It is believed that these defects resulted from particle deformation during the hot isostatic pressing process and are effective flux pinning centres that contribute to the high critical current densities of the wires at high temperatures and at high fields

  12. Quantitative electron microscopy and spectroscopy of MgB2 wires and tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birajdar, B; Peranio, N; Eibl, O

    2008-01-01

    In MgB 2 the correlation of microstructure with superconducting properties, in particular the critical current density, requires powerful analytical tools. Critical current densities and electrical resistivities of different MgB 2 superconductors differ by orders of magnitudes and the current limiting mechanisms have not been fully understood. Granularity of MgB 2 is one significant reason for reduced critical current densities and is introduced intrinsically by the anisotropy of B c2 but also extrinsically by the microstructure of the material. B c2 enhancement by doping is another important challenge for chemical analysis and, at present, doping levels are not well controlled on the sub-μm scale. In this paper the quantitative electron microscopy and spectroscopy methods essential for the microstructural analysis of MgB 2 are described. By quantitative electron microscopy and spectroscopy we mean a combined SEM and TEM analysis that covers various length scales from μm to nm. Contamination-free sample preparation, chemical mapping including B, and advanced chemical quantification using x-ray microanalysis were essential elements of the applied methodology. The methodology was applied to in situ and ex situ MgB 2 wires and tapes with and without SiC additives. Quantitative B analysis by EDX spectroscopy was applied quantitatively in the SEM and TEM, which is a major achievement. Although MgB 2 is a binary system, the thermodynamics of phase formation is complex, and the complexity is dramatically increased if additives like SiC are used. The small, sub-μm grain sizes of the matrix and secondary phases require TEM methods. However, granularity on the μm scale was also identified and underlines the importance of the combined SEM and TEM studies. Significant differences in the microstructure were observed for in situ and ex situ samples. This holds particularly if SiC was added and yielded Mg 2 Si for in situ samples annealed at 600-650 deg. C and Mg-Si-O phases for ex situ samples annealed between 900-1050 deg. C. Only with such a systematic approach combining a large number of microscopy and spectroscopy methods, could a microstructure critical current density model be established that will be presented in another paper. Four microstructural parameters were identified as relevant for the critical current density of wires and tapes and these were: (1) MgB 2 grain size, (2) colony size (a colony is a dense arrangement of MgB 2 grains), (3) oxygen content and (4) volume fraction of B-rich secondary phases. MgB 2 grain size can only be determined by TEM, while colony size, oxygen content and volume fraction of B-rich secondary phases were determined by SEM methods. The formation of oxides was also studied in detail by TEM methods. The importance of electron microscopy methods in the understanding of the thermodynamics of phase formation in MgB 2 as well as in improving the synthesis technology and the superconducting properties of MgB 2 wires and tapes is described. (topical review)

  13. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Formation of MgB2 at ambient temperature with an electrochemical process: a plausible mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, A. B.; Subhedar, K. M.; Hyam, R. S.; Talaptra, A.; Sen, Pintu; Bandyopadhyay, S. K.; Pawar, S. H.

    2005-06-01

    The binary intermetallic MgB2 superconductor has been synthesized by many research groups. However, the mechanism of its formation is not clearly understood. In this communication, a comprehensive mechanism of the formation of MgB2 from Le Chatelier's principle of equilibrium reaction has been explained both for solid-state reaction and electrodeposition methods.

  14. An innovative technique to synthesize C-doped MgB2 by using chitosan as the carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovone, G; Kawale, S; Siri, A S; Vignolo, M; Bernini, C

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a new technique to synthesize carbon-doped MgB 2 powder. Chitosan was innovatively used as the carbon source during the synthesis of boron from boron oxide. This allowed the introduction of local defects, which later on served as pinning centers in MgB 2 , in the boron lattice itself, avoiding the traditional and time consuming ways of ex situ MgB 2 doping (e.g. ball milling). Two volume percentages of C-doping have been tried and its effect on the superconducting properties, evaluated by magnetic and transport measurements, are discussed here. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed nano-metric grains’ distribution in the boron and MgB 2 powder. Mono-filamentary MgB 2 wires have been fabricated by an ex situ powder-in-tube technique by using the thus prepared carbon-doped MgB 2 and pure MgB 2 powders. Transport property measurements on these wires were made and compared with MgB 2 wire produced using commercial boron. (fast track communication)

  15. Concurrent doping effect of Ti and nano-diamond on flux pinning of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ke, C.; Cheng, C.H.; Feng, Y.; Yang, Y.; Munroe, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nano-diamond and titanium concurrently doped MgB 2 nanocomposites have been prepared by solid state reaction method. The effects of carbon and Ti concurrent doping on J c -H behavior and pinning force scaling features of MgB 2 have been investigated. Although T c was slightly depressed, J c of MgB 2 have been significantly improved by the nano-diamond doping, especially in the high field region. In the mean time, the J c value in low field region is sustained though concurrent Ti doping. Microstructure analysis reveals that when nano-diamond was concurrently doped with titanium in MgB 2 , a unique nanocomposite in which TiB 2 forms a thin layer surrounding MgB 2 grains whereas nano-diamond particles were wrapped inside the MgB 2 grains. Besides, nano-diamond doping results in a high density stress field in the MgB 2 samples, which may take responsibility for the Δκ pinning behavior in the carbon-doped MgB 2 system.

  16. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB 2) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Michael; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Yue, Jinji; McFadden, Kevin; Doll, David; Phillips, John; Sumption, Mike D.; Bhatia, Mohit; Bohnenstiehl, Scot; Collings, E. W.

    2007-06-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB 2) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB 2 superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB 2 wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB 2 superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB 2 conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc.

  17. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB2) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Michael; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Yue, Jinji; McFadden, Kevin; Doll, David; Phillips, John; Sumption, Mike D.; Bhatia, Mohit; Bohnenstiehl, Scot; Collings, E.W.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB 2 superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB 2 wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB 2 superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB 2 conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc

  18. Feasibility study on partial insulation winding technique for the development of self-protective MgB2 magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, J. M.; Yoo, B. H.; Hwang, D. Y.; Lee, H. G.

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using the partial insulation winding technique for the development of a self-protective MgB2 MRI magnet with a fast charge-discharge rate. Charge-discharge and quench tests for a prototype PI MgB2 magnet confirmed that the magnet was successfully operated at full-field performance and exhibited self-protecting behavior in the event of a quench. Nonetheless, the required time to charge the 0.5-T/300-mm PI MgB2 magnet was almost five days, implying that the charge-discharge delay of the PI MgB2 magnet still needs to be ameliorated further to develop a real-scale MgB2 MRI magnet with a fast charge-discharge rate.

  19. Composite superconducting MgB2 wires made by continuous process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutukcu, Mehmet; Atamert, Serdar; Scandella, Jean Louis; Hopstock, Ron; Blackwood, Alexander C.; Dhulst, Chris; Mestdagh, Jan; Nijhuis, Arend; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    Previously developed manufacturing technology of a low-cost composite single core MgB2 superconductive wires has been investigated in details using monel sheath and titanium diffusion barrier. In this process Mg and nano-sized B as well as SiC dopant powders were fed continuously to a "U" shaped

  20. Critical current and cryogenic stability modelling of filamentary MgB2 conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glowacki, B.A.; Majoros, M.; Tanaka, K.

    2006-01-01

    The modelling of a single filament, 6 filaments and 19 filaments MgB(2) conductors was performed for two limiting cases: a) isothermal conditions considering J(c)(B) dependence, b) considering heating effects but with J(c) magnetic field independent. As a starting point of the modelling in case a...

  1. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on neutron irradiated MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Capua, Roberto; Salluzzo, Marco; Vaglio, Ruggero; Ferdeghini, Carlo; Ferrando, Valeria; Putti, Marina; Xi Xiaoxing; Aebersold, Hans U.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron irradiation was performed on MgB 2 thin films grown by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition. Samples irradiated with different neutron fluences, having different critical temperatures, were studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy in order to investigate the effect of the introduced disorder on the superconducting and spectroscopic properties. A monotonic increase of the π gap with increasing disorder was found

  2. Composite superconducting MgB2 wires made by continuous process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutukcu, Mehmet; Atamert, Serdar; Scandella, Jean Louis; Hopstock, Ron; Blackwood, Alexander C.; Dhulst, Chris; Mestdagh, Jan; Nijhuis, Arend; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    2018-01-01

    Previously developed manufacturing technology of a low-cost composite single core MgB2 superconductive wires has been investigated in details using monel sheath and titanium diffusion barrier. In this process Mg and nano-sized B as well as SiC dopant powders were fed continuously to a "U" shaped

  3. Two ways to model voltage-current curves of adiabatic MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenvall, A; Korpela, A; Lehtonen, J; Mikkonen, R

    2007-01-01

    Usually overheating of the sample destroys attempts to measure voltage-current curves of conduction cooled high critical current MgB 2 wires at low temperatures. Typically, when a quench occurs a wire burns out due to massive heat generation and negligible cooling. It has also been suggested that high n values measured with MgB 2 wires and coils are not an intrinsic property of the material but arise due to heating during the voltage-current measurement. In addition, quite recently low n values for MgB 2 wires have been reported. In order to find out the real properties of MgB 2 an efficient computational model is required to simulate the voltage-current measurement. In this paper we go back to basics and consider two models to couple electromagnetic and thermal phenomena. In the first model the magnetization losses are computed according to the critical state model and the flux creep losses are considered separately. In the second model the superconductor resistivity is described by the widely used power law. Then the coupled current diffusion and heat conduction equations are solved with the finite element method. In order to compare the models, example runs are carried out with an adiabatic slab. Both models produce a similar significant temperature rise near the critical current which leads to fictitiously high n values

  4. The Raman spectrum and lattice parameters of MgB2 as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Zhang Huarong; Chen Lin; Feng Yong

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the Raman spectrum and lattice parameters of polycrystalline MgB 2 have been investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. It is found that the lattice parameters show an approximately linear change with the temperature decrease, giving different thermal expansions along the a- and c-axes, which is caused by the comparatively weak metal-boron bonding in MgB 2 . The grain size of MgB 2 determined by means of x-ray diffraction is around 45 nm for both [100] and [001] directions. There is no evidence for any structural transition while the temperature changes from 300 K down to 12 K. An anomalous Raman band at 603 cm -1 is observed, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction for the E 2g in-plane boron stretching mode. The Raman frequency increases and the linewidth decreases as the temperature decreases. A possible origin of the temperature dependences of the Raman frequency and the linewidth is discussed. It is suggested that the grain size effect of MgB 2 on the nanometric scale will have a clear influence on the frequency and the linewidth of the Raman spectrum

  5. Design of an MgB2 race track coil for a wind generator pole demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    An MgB2 race track coil intended for demonstrating a down scaled pole of a 10 MW direct drive wind turbine generator has been designed. The coil consists of 10 double pancake coils stacked into a race track coil with a cross section of 84 mm × 80 mm. The length of the straight section is 0.5 m...

  6. Electrical, Structural and Mechanical Properties of Superconducting MGB2/MG Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulucan, S.

    2004-01-01

    The brittle nature of MgB 2 does not allow this material to be used as a stand-alone material for large scale applications based on wire production. MgB 2 /Mg composites were prepared using metal matrix composite fabrication technique. To obtain composites MgB 2 and Mg powders were mixed at different weight fractions and uniaxially pressed in a cylindrical dye under the pressure of 0.5 GPa and 1.0 GPa for two hours at various temperatures. XRD, SEM and EDX techniques were used for phase identification and microstructural studies. Resistivities of the composites were measured between 20 K and room temperature. The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of MgB 2 /Mg composites was investigated. For this purpose, compressive mechanical testing was performed to measure elastic modulus and strain at failure values of the composites. It was found that the relative weight fraction of the powders and the temperature have same considerable effect on the electrical, microstructural and the mechanical properties of the composites

  7. Microwave Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of High Tc Superconductor MGB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeseoglu, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Polycrystalline powders of MgB 2 have been synthesized by microwave synthesis technique. Crystallographic information of the sample was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The main phase was determined as MgB2, and secondary phases as MgB4 and MgO. The temperature dependence of magnetic properties of polycrystalline MgB2, synthesized by using microwave heating of the constituents have been characterized by SQUID magnetometer and X-band EPR spectrometer. The transition temperature to the superconducting phase is observed as 39K for both measurements. An isotropic, strong and very narrow EPR signal corresponding to free electron g-value (ge=2.0023) is observed. The observed line broadening with decreasing temperature might arise from the dipolar interactions between the superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Normally, the internal magnetic field originating from magnetic entities is expected to be more uniform as a result of highly ordered magnetic moments at low temperatures; giving narrower ESR line in contrary in our case. While the ESR line is broadened, the signal intensity is drastically decreased just below T c =39 K corresponding to a transition temperature from normal to superconducting state. Some minor changes in both intensity and line width curves might be taken as signs for changes of local crystalline field symmetry around weakly localized conduction electrons or holes, which are the sources of ESR signal in MgB 2 compound

  8. Texture gradients in Fe-sheathed ex situ produced MgB2 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezza, P; Gladyshevskii, R; Abaecherli, V; Fluekiger, R

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting Fe-sheathed MgB 2 monofilamentary tapes have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique, varying the particle size of the starting MgB 2 powder and applying either cold or hot rolling during the last deformation process. Measurements of the critical current density J c with the magnetic field applied parallel or perpendicular to the tape surface revealed a pronounced anisotropy for the cold rolled tapes, which was found to increase with increasing particle size and magnetic field strength. The microstructural origin of the J c anisotropy was confirmed by means of x-ray diffraction performed on the filaments after mechanical removal of the sheath. The local texture was studied in a series of diffraction patterns collected at different distances from the filament centre, removing each time some 25 μm of the filament thickness. In the cold rolled tapes, the average orientation of the MgB 2 grains was found to approach a preferred orientation with the crystallographic c-axis perpendicular to the tape surface, near the interface with the sheath; however, the misalignment angle increased towards the centre of the tape. In the hot rolled tapes, for which no J c anisotropy was observed, the grains were found to be approximately randomly oriented. Roughness measurements performed on the side of the Fe sheath in contact with the MgB 2 filament are in agreement with the difference in texture observed for cold and hot rolled tapes

  9. Superconducting properties of MgB2 particle impregnated with Mg-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Matsuda, Kenji; Mizutani, Manabu; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Kawabata, Tokimasa; Ikeno, Susumu; Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Aoyama, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional penetration method combined with semi-solid casting (SS-3DPC) was utilized to prepare magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) powder composite materials with various host materials of Mg, Mg-3%Al, Mg-3%Al-1%Zn, Mg-9%Al, and Mg-9%Al-1%Zn. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated predominant peak patterns of MgB 2 and a host alloy, implying that the host material tightly bonded MgB 2 grains without melting the MgB 2 powder. This was confirmed by SEM images. Measured electrical resistivity and magnetization versus temperature showed clear signals of superconducting transition temperature of 27-38 K for all the samples cut out from the billets. Magnetic hysteresis loop observed at 5 K enabled us to estimate a critical current density (J c ) based on the extended Bean model. Additions of aluminum and zinc elements to magnesium host-matrix were found to enhance J c and increase residual resistivity (ρ 0 ) suggesting that aluminum and zinc have an effect on pinning magnetic flux flow for J c enhancement, and scattering conduction electrons for increase of ρ 0 . (author)

  10. Pinning enhancement in MgB2 superconducting thin films by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetic field dependence of the critical current density Jc was calculated from the M–H loops and magnetic field dependence of ... MgB2 thin film; Fe2O3 nanoparticles; critical current density; r-plane Al2O3 substrate. 1. Introduction. The discovery of ... It was thought that from these cal- culations, one can choose an ...

  11. Low-temperature dependence of the optical conductivity in superconductor MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzamanian, M.A.; Yavary, H.; Moarrefi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The real part of the optical conductivity is calculated by using the Kubo formula approach, and in the framework of the two-bands model. It is shown that a single-gap model is insufficient to describe the optical behavior of superconductor MgB 2 film, but the two-gap model with different symmetries is sufficient to explain the experimental results

  12. Doping effects of carbon and titanium on the critical current density of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T M; Li, G; Cheng, C H; Zhao, Y

    2006-01-01

    MgB 2 bulks doped with Ti or/and C were prepared by an in situ solid state reaction method to determine the combined effect of C and Ti doping and to probe the detailed mechanism. The magnetization measurement shows that Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 sample has significantly improved flux pinning compared to the MgB 1.95 C 0.05 sample at 20 K, indicating that C and Ti are largely cooperative in improving the J c (H) behaviour. No TiC phase was detected in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Moreover, the overlap of the (100) peaks of MgB 1.95 C 0.05 and Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 showed that Ti doping does not reduce the amount of C in MgB 2 . Microstructural analyses revealed that the addition of Ti eliminated the porosity present in the carbon-doped MgB 2 pellet, resulting in an improved intergrain connectivity and an increase of effective current pass. Further, MgB 2 doped with C and Ti, which mainly consists of spherical grains about 200-300 nm in size, shows an higher grain homogeneity than the C-doped sample, suggesting that the Ti doping in MgB 1-x C x has played an important role in obtaining uniform grains

  13. Thickness dependence of J_c (0) in MgB_2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Jia, Chunyan; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A serial of MgB_2 superconducting films from 10 nm to 8 µm have been prepared. • T_c and J_c (5 K, 0 T) of films are high. • J_c (5 K, 0 T) reaches its maximum 2.3 × 10"8 A cm"−"2 for 100 nm films. • The relationship between thickness and J_c has been discussed in detail. - Abstract: MgB_2 superconducting films, whose thicknesses range from 10 nm to 8 µm, have been fabricated on SiC substrates by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method. It is the first time that the T_c and the J_c of MgB_2 films are studied on such a large scale. It is found that with the increasing of thickness, T_c elevates first and then keeps roughly stable except for some slight fluctuations, while J_c (5 K, 0 T) experiences a sharp increase followed by a relatively slow fall. The maximum J_c (5 K, 0 T) = 2.3 × 10"8 A cm"−"2 is obtained for 100 nm films, which is the experimental evidence for preparing high-quality MgB_2 films by HPCVD method. Thus, this work may provide guidance on choosing the suitable thickness for applications. Meanwhile, the films prepared by us cover ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, so the study on them will bring a comprehensive understanding of MgB_2 films.

  14. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on MgB2 superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparan, E.T.; Sidorenko, A.; Yanmaz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Since the discovery of superconductivity in binary MgB 2 compounds, extensive studies have been carried out because of its excellent properties for technological applications, such as high transition temperature (T c = 39 K), high upper critical field (H c2 ), high critical current density (J c ). Thin films are important for fundamental research as well as technological applications of any functional materials. Technological applications primarily depend on critical current density. The strong field dependence of J c for MgB 2 necessitates an enhancement in flux pinning performance in order to improve values in high magnetic fields. An effective way to improve the flux pinning is to introduce flux pinning centers into MgB 2 through a dopant having size comparable to the coherence length of MgB 2 . In this study, MgB 2 film with a thickness of about 600 nm was deposited on the MgO (100) single crystal substrate using a 'two-step' synthesis technique. Firstly, deposition of boron thin film was carried out by rf magnetron sputtering on MgO substrates and followed by a post deposition annealing at 850 degrees Celsius in magnesium vapour. In order to investigate the effect of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the structural and magnetic properties of films, MgB 2 films were coated with different concentrations of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles by a spin coating process. The effects of different concentrations of ferromagnetic Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on superconducting properties of obtained films were carried out by using structural (XRD, SEM, AFM), electrical (R-T) and magnetization (M-H, M-T and AC Susceptibility) measurements. It was calculated that anisotropic coefficient was about γ = 1.2 and coherence length of 5 nm for the uncoated film. As a result of coherence length, the appropriate diameters of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were found to be 10 nm, indicating that these nanoparticles served as the pinning centers. Based on the data obtained from this study, it can be said that the coated films indicated the presence of artificial pinning centers created by Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. It was found that the films coated with Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles slightly enhanced the critical current density of films. It was seen that especially the films coated by Fe 2 O 3 became stronger in the magnetic field.

  15. Multiple superconducting gaps in MgB2 single crystals from magnetic torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsumi, Toshiyuki; Xu, Mingxiang; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Ishida, Takekazu

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the magnetic torque of an MgB 2 single crystal in the various different fields below 10 kG by using a torque magnetometer and a 4 K closed cycle refrigerator. The MgB 2 single crystal was synthesized by the vapor transport method. The torque can be measured as an off-balance signal of the Wheatstone bridge of the four piezoresistors on a Si cantilever. The torque curves are analyzed by the Kogan model. The superconducting anisotropy γ is rather independent of temperature in 5 and 10 kG, but is dependent on field up to 60 kG. We consider that the field dependence of γ comes from the nature of the multiple superconducting gaps. The experimental results show that the π-band superconducting gaps have been deteriorated gradually up to a crossover field H * (π) ∼ 20 kG at 10 K when the magnetic field increases

  16. Influence of iridium doping in MgB2 superconducting wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2018-01-01

    MgB2 wires with iridium doping were manufactured using the in-situ technique in a composite Cu-Nb sheath. Reaction was performed at 700°C, 800°C or 900°C for 1h in argon atmosphere. A maximum of about 1.5 at.% Ir replaces Mg in MgB2. The superconducting transition temperature is slightly lowered...... by Ir doping. The formation of IrMg3 and IrMg4 secondary phase particles is evidenced, especially for a nominal stoichiometry with 2.0 at.% Ir doping. The critical current density and accommodation field of the wires are strongly dependent on the Ir content and are generally weakened in the presence...

  17. Mixed-state flux dynamics in bulk MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shi; Taylor, B.J.; Frederick, N.A.; Maple, M.B.; Nesterenko, V.F.; Indrakanti, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Electric field vs. current density (E-J) isotherms in the mixed-state of a bulk sample of the high-temperature superconductor MgB 2 (T c =38.5 K), synthesized under 200 MPa pressure by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), have been measured and analyzed in terms of the critical scaling model. Magnetization data reveal distinctly different critical current density (J c ) behaviors in high and low magnetic field critical scaling regions. E-J isotherm sets at fields ranging from 2 to 90 kOe conform to the vortex-glass (VG) scaling anzatz. Scaling analysis, resistivity data and J c data suggest that a Bragg-glass state may exist for H c2 (T), the VG transition line H g (T), and the magnetic irreversibility line H irr (T) has been established for bulk MgB 2

  18. MgB2 thin films on silicon nitride substrates prepared by an in situ method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticone, Eugenio; Gandini, Claudio; Portesi, Chiara; Rajteri, Mauro; Bodoardo, Silvia; Penazzi, Nerino; Dellarocca, Valeria; Gonnelli, Renato S

    2004-01-01

    Large-area MgB 2 thin films were deposited on silicon nitride and sapphire substrates by co-deposition of Mg and B. After a post-annealing in Ar atmosphere at temperatures between 773 and 1173 K depending on the substrate, the films showed a critical temperature higher than 35 K with a transition width less than 0.5 K. The x-ray diffraction pattern suggested a c-axis preferential orientation in films deposited on amorphous substrate. The smooth surface and the good structural properties of these MgB 2 films allowed their reproducible patterning by a standard photolithographic process down to dimensions of the order of 10 μm and without a considerable degradation of the superconducting properties

  19. MgB2 energy gap determination by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitmann, T W; Bu, S D; Kim, D M; Choi, J H; Giencke, J; Eom, C B; Regan, K A; Rogado, N; Hayward, M A; He, T; Slusky, J S; Khalifah, P; Haas, M; Cava, R J; Larbalestier, D C; Rzchowski, M S

    2004-01-01

    We report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) measurements of the gap properties of both ceramic MgB 2 and c-axis oriented epitaxial MgB 2 thin films. Both show a temperature dependent zero bias conductance peak and evidence for two superconducting gaps. We report tunnelling spectroscopy of superconductor-insulator-superconductor (S-I-S) junctions formed in two ways in addition to normal metal-insulator-superconductor (N-I-S) junctions. We find a gap δ = 2.2-2.8 meV, with spectral features and temperature dependence that are consistent between S-I-S junction types. In addition, we observe evidence of a second, larger gap, δ 7.2 meV, consistent with a proposed two-band model

  20. Effect of sheath material on critical current characteristics of MgB2 at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, M.; Yamauchi, K.; Kurokawa, T.; Otabe, E.S.; Matsushita, T.; Okada, M.; Tanaka, K.; Kumakura, H.; Kitaguchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Critical current density and irreversibility field were measured at various temperatures and magnetic fields for MgB 2 PIT tape specimens with different sheaths materials. The experimental results were compared with theoretical estimations using the flux creep-flow model. It is found that the hardness of sheath material indirectly affects the pinning property only through the packing density of MgB 2 . It is considered that the critical current density is mainly determined by a low value of distributed local critical current density determined by grain connectivity. On the other hand, the irreversibility field which is approximately the same among the three tapes is mainly determined by the average pinning strength

  1. MgB2 superconducting particles in a strong electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Xu, X.; Amr, E.

    2003-01-01

    The electric-field induced ball formation has been observed with MgB 2 powder in a strong static or quasi-static electric field. The effect of temperature and magnetic field on the ball formation shows surprising features. For quite a wide range of temperature from T c =39 K and below, the ball size is proportional to (1-T/T c ). As the temperature further goes below 20 K, the ball size becomes almost a constant. If MgB 2 particles are in a strong electric field and a moderate magnetic field, the electric-field induced balls align in the magnetic-field direction to form ball chains

  2. Effects of disorder on the microwave properties of MgB2 polycrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigo, G.; Gerbaldo, R.; Gozzelino, L.; Laviano, F.; Mezzetti, E.; Ummarino, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    The role of disorder in superconducting magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) policrystalline films is investigated in the high frequency range by a coplanar microwave resonator technique. Two sources of disorder are considered, heavy-ion irradiation damage and sample ageing. Microwave measurements are analyzed in the framework of the two-gap model with strong interband scattering contribution. It turns out that disorder enhancement increases the interband scattering rate, resulting in a reduction of the surface resistance at low temperatures, due to a slight increase of the π gap. Moreover, increasing disorder at grain boundaries induces a nonmonotonic residual surface resistance, showing the features of a resistive behavior for the highest disorder level. Finally, the effects of the different kinds of disorder on the intrinsic and on the grain-boundary properties of the MgB 2 films are compared and discussed

  3. Raman spectra of MgB2 at high pressure and topological electronic transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meletov, K.P.; Kulakov, M.P.; Kolesnikov, N.N.; Arvanitidis, J.; Kourouklis, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Raman spectra of the MgB 2 ceramic samples were measured as a function of pressure up to 32 GPa at room temperature. The spectrum at normal conditions contains a very broad peak at ∼ 590 cm -1 related to the E 2g phonon mode. The frequency of this mode exhibits a strong linear dependence in the pressure region from 5 to 18 GPa, whereas beyond this region the slope of the pressure-induced frequency shift is reduced by about a factor of two. The pressure dependence of the phonon mode up to ∼ 5 GPa exhibits a change in the slope as well as a hysteresis effect in the frequency vs. pressure behavior. These singularities in the E 2g mode behavior under pressure support the suggestion that MgB 2 may undergo a pressure-induced topological electronic transition [ru

  4. Scaling behavior of mixed-state hall effect in MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Soon-Gil; Seong, W.K.; Kang, W.N.; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Sung-Ik; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Hall resistivity (ρ xy ) and the longitudinal resistivity (ρ xx ) in c-axis-oriented superconducting MgB 2 thin films have been investigated in extended fields up to 18T. We have observed a scaling behavior between the Hall resistivity and the longitudinal resistivity, ρ xy =Aρ xx β , where the exponent (β) is observed to be independent of the temperatures and the magnetic fields. For a wide magnetic field region from 1 to 18T and a wide temperature region from 10 to 28K, a universal power law with β=2.0+/-0.1 was observed in c-axis-oriented MgB 2 thin films. These results can be well interpreted by using recent models

  5. Quench Property of Twisted-Pair MgB$_2$ Superconducting Cables in Helium Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Spurrell, J; Falorio, I; Pelegrin, J; Ballarino, A; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    CERN's twisted-pair superconducting cable is a novel design which offers filament transposition, low cable inductance and is particularly suited for tape conductors such as 2G YBCO coated conductors, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tapes and Ni/Monel-sheathed MgB2 tapes. A typical design of such twistedpair cables consists of multiple superconducting tapes intercalated with thin copper tapes as additional stabilizers. The copper tapes are typically not soldered to the superconducting tapes so that sufficient flexibility is retained for the twisting of the tape assembly. The electrical and thermal contacts between the copper and superconducting tapes are an important parameter for current sharing, cryogenic stability and quench propagation. Using an MgB2 twisted-pair cable assembly manufactured at CERN, we have carried out minimum quench energy (MQE) and propagation velocity (vp) measurements with point-like heat deposition localized within a tape. Furthermore, different contacts between the copper and superconductor aroun...

  6. Low-field vortex pinning model for undoped sintered MgB2 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agassi, Y D

    2011-01-01

    Sintered MgB 2 powders constitute a porous ensemble of irregularly shaped agglomerates of tightly packed grains. The low-field critical current density in such powders was experimentally observed to scale with the inverse of the average agglomerate size. Motivated by this observation we consider a flux pinning model which accounts for the MgB 2 powder porosity by focusing on a single finite-size agglomerate size. According to the model the observed critical current density dependence on the agglomerate size reflects the outward pull exerted on a vortex that is pinned in proximity to the agglomerate edges. The calculated critical current density replicates the observed scaling within agglomerate-size bounds. Implications of the model are discussed.

  7. Small Fermi energy, strong electron-phonon effects and anharmonicity in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelluti, E.; Pietronero, L.

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the electron-phonon properties in MgB 2 has attracted a huge interest after the discovery of superconductivity with T c 39 K in this compound. Although superconductivity is often described in terms of the conventional Eliashberg theory, properly generalized in the multiband/multigap scenario, important features distinguish MgB 2 from other conventional strong-coupling superconductors. Most important it is the fact that a large part of the total electron-phonon strength seems to be concentrated here in only one phonon mode, the boron-boron E 2g stretching mode. Another interesting property is the small Fermi energy of the σ bands, which are strongly coupled with the E 2g mode. In this contribution, we discuss how the coexistence of both these features give rise to an unconventional phenomenology of the electron-phonon properties

  8. The MgB2 superconducting energy gaps measured by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quilty, James William

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the superconducting energy gap in magnesium diboride is an essential part of understanding this unusual superconductor, and Raman scattering is a convenient and powerful technique which is able to directly measure the key physical properties of the gap. The Raman spectra of MgB 2 show clear superconductivity induced renormalisations and evidence is found for two superconducting gaps residing on the σ and π Fermi surfaces with maximum magnitudes of around 110 and 30 cm -1 . The larger gap appears as a sharp peak in the electronic Raman scattering continuum while the smaller gap manifests itself as a threshold in the low-frequency spectral intensity, indicating that the gaps form in different electronic environments. The physical properties of the gaps favour explanations of the extraordinarily high T c in MgB 2 within strong coupling theory

  9. Direct observation of superconducting gaps in MgB 2 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souma, S.; Machida, Y.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Matsui, H.; Wang, S.-C.; Ding, H.; Kaminski, A.; Campuzano, J. C.; Sasaki, S.; Kadowaki, K.

    2004-08-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been carried out to clarify the anomalous superconductivity of MgB 2. We observed three bands crossing the Fermi level, which are ascribed to B2p-σ, π and surface bands. We have succeeded for the first time in directly observing the superconducting gaps of these bands separately. We have found that the superconducting-gap sizes of σ and surface bands are 6.5 ± 0.5 and 6.0 ± 0.5 meV, respectively, while that of the π band is much smaller (1.5 ± 0.5 meV). The present experimental result unambiguously demonstrates the validity of the two-band superconductivity in MgB 2.

  10. Direct observation of superconducting gaps in MgB2 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souma, S.; Machida, Y.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Matsui, H.; Wang, S.-C.; Ding, H.; Kaminski, A.; Campuzano, J.C.; Sasaki, S.; Kadowaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been carried out to clarify the anomalous superconductivity of MgB 2 . We observed three bands crossing the Fermi level, which are ascribed to B2p-σ, π and surface bands. We have succeeded for the first time in directly observing the superconducting gaps of these bands separately. We have found that the superconducting-gap sizes of σ and surface bands are 6.5 ± 0.5 and 6.0 ± 0.5 meV, respectively, while that of the π band is much smaller (1.5 ± 0.5 meV). The present experimental result unambiguously demonstrates the validity of the two-band superconductivity in MgB 2

  11. Transport properties and Raman spectra of impurity substituted MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of MgB 2 are reviewed, with focus on the transport properties and Raman scattering measurements for impurity substituted crystals. Carbon and Aluminium substitution change band filling, introduce intraband and interband scattering. These effects are seen in the temperature dependence of resistivity, Hall coefficients, and phonon peak of Raman spectra. Manganese substitution introduces magnetic scattering, that increases resistivity but gives little change in Raman spectra. The effect of disorder in neutron irradiated samples is also discussed

  12. Surface barrier and bulk pinning in MgB$_2$ superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Pissas, M.; Moraitakis, E.; Stamopoulos, D.; Papavassiliou, G.; Psycharis, V.; Koutandos, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a modified method of preparation of the new superconductor MgB$_2$. The polycrystalline samples were characterized using x-ray and magnetic measurements. The surface barriers control the isothermal magnetization loops in powder samples. In bulk as prepared samples we always observed symmetric magnetization loops indicative of the presence of a bulk pinning mechanism. Magnetic relaxation measurements in the bulk sample reveal a crossover of surface barrier to bulk pinning.

  13. Design study of a 10 MW MgB2 superconductor direct drive wind turbine generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Liu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    A design study of a 10 MW direct drive wind turbine generator based on MgB2 superconducting wires is presented and the cost of the active materials of the generator is estimated to be between 226 €/kW and 84 €/kw, which is lower than the threshold values of 300 €/kW of the INNWIND.EU project. A n...

  14. Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Energy Gap in MgB2 Under Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekino, T.; Takasaki, T.; Fujii, H.; Muranaka, T.; Akimitsu, J.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of magnetic field on the multiple-gap structure in the superconductor MgB 2 have been studied by break junctions. With increasing the field, the gap value decreases with filling up of the states inside of the gap. The gap-closing field B c correlates with the gap size. The extrapolated B c value for the larger gap is almost consistent with the upper critical field of this compound. (author)

  15. Enhancement of Jc of MgB2 thin films by introduction of oxygen during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Zon; Doi, Toshiya; Hakuraku, Yoshinori; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of various pinning center are examined as the effective means for improvement of J c of MgB 2 thin films. We have investigated the effects of introduction of oxygen during deposition on the superconducting properties of MgB 2 thin films. MgB 2 thin films were prepared on polished sapphire C(0001) single crystal substrates by using electron beam evaporation technique (EB) without any post-annealing. The background pressure was less than 1.3x10 -6 Pa. The evaporation flux ratio of Mg was set at 30 times as high as that of B, and the growth rate of MgB 2 film was 1nm/s. The film thickness was typically 300nm at 5min deposition. The substrate temperature was 245 deg. C. Under these conditions, we controlled the oxygen partial pressure (P O 2 ) within the range from 1.3x10 -6 to 1.3x10 -3 Pa by using a quadrapole mass spectrometer. Although T c of deposited thin film decreased in order of P O 2 , ΔM in the magnetization hysteresis loops measured from 0 to 6T at 4.2K increased up to 1.3x10 -5 . On the other hand, thin film prepared under P O 2 of 1.3x10 -3 Pa does not show superconducting transition. Between these films, there is no difference in the crystal structure from X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results suggest that the pinning center in the thin films increased by introduction of oxygen. Extremely small amount of oxygen introduction has enabled the control of growth of oxide

  16. Intraband scattering studies in carbon- and aluminium-doped MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuely, P.; Szabo, P.; Hol'anova, Z.; Bud'ko, S.; Canfield, P.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic field effect on the point-contact spectra of the Al- and C-substituted MgB 2 is presented. It is shown that suppression of the π-band contribution to the spectrum is different in the aluminium- and carbon-doped samples. The carbon substitution leads to a stronger enhancement of the π-band scattering while the Al-doping does not change the ratio between the π and σ scatterings

  17. The mechanism of Tc performance for Zn doped MgB2 sintered in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.X.; Li, Y.; Chen, R.H.; Zeng, R.; Dou, S.X.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of magnetic field sintering on the critical transition temperature, T c , for the Zn doped MgB 2 superconductor was investigated with the observation of Raman scattering measurement and the Raman spectra fit analysis. The broadened E 2g mode in Raman spectra shows the strengthening of the electron-phonon coupling (EPC) for the sample sintered in magnetic field. A synchronous fluctuation is observed between the Raman characters of the E 2g mode and the T c .

  18. Comparison between nano-diamond and carbon nanotube doping effects on critical current density and flux pinning in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C H; Yang, Y; Munroe, P; Zhao, Y

    2007-01-01

    Doping effects of nano-diamond and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on critical current density of bulk MgB 2 have been studied. CNTs are found prone to be doped into the MgB 2 lattice whereas nano-diamond tends to form second-phase inclusions in the MgB 2 matrix, leading to a more significant improvement of J c (H) by doping by nano-diamond than by CNTs in MgB 2 . TEM reveals tightly packed MgB 2 nanograins (50-100 nm) with a dense distribution of diamond nanoparticles (10-20 nm) inside MgB 2 grains in nano-diamond-doped samples. Such a unique microstructure leads to a flux pinning behaviour different from that in CNTs-doped MgB 2

  19. Stabilization of the dissipation-free current transport in inhomogeneous MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treiber, S.; Stahl, C.; Schütz, G.; Soltan, S.; Albrecht, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate transport properties of inhomogeneous MgB 2 films. • An inhomogeneous microstructure stabilizes supercurrents. • Vortex pinning forces and energies have been analyzed experimentally. • In inhomogeneous films the increase of the pinning energy is responsible for stable supercurrents. - Abstract: In type-II superconductors at T = 0 the critical current density is determined by the pinning of flux lines. Considering an arbitrarily shaped energy landscape the pinning force at each pinning site is given by the derivative of the flux line energy with respect to the considered direction. At finite temperatures, in addition, thermal activation can lead to a depinning of flux lines. The governing property in this case is the depth of the corresponding pinning potential, i.e. the pinning energy. We show a detailed analysis of both pinning forces and pinning energies of MgB 2 films with inhomogeneous microstructure. We show that a pronounced increase of the pinning energy is responsible for the significantly enhanced stability of the dissipation-free current transport in thin inhomogeneous MgB 2 films. This is found even if the corresponding pinning forces are small

  20. World-record current in the MgB2 superconductor

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the High-Luminosity LHC project, experts from the CERN Superconductors team recently obtained a world-record current of 20 kA at 24 K in an electrical transmission line consisting of two 20-metre long cables made of Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) superconductor. This result makes the use of such technology a viable solution for long-distance power transportation.   The 20-metre long electrical transmission line containing the two 20 kA MgB2 cables. “The test is an important step in the development of cold electrical power transmission systems based on the use of MgB2,” says Amalia Ballarino, head of the Superconductors and Superconducting Devices section in the Magnet, Superconductors and Cryostat group of the Technology Department, and initiator of this project. “The cables and associated technologies were designed, developed and tested at CERN. The superconducting wire is the result of a long R&D effort that started ...

  1. Fabrication of superconducting MgB2 nanostructures by an electron beam lithography-based technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portesi, C.; Borini, S.; Amato, G.; Monticone, E.

    2006-03-01

    In this work, we present the results obtained in fabrication and characterization of magnesium diboride nanowires realized by an electron beam lithography (EBL)-based method. For fabricating MgB2 thin films, an all in situ technique has been used, based on the coevaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater, respectively. Since the high temperatures required for the fabrication of good quality MgB2 thin films do not allow the nanostructuring approach based on the lift-off technique, we structured the samples combining EBL, optical lithography, and Ar milling. In this way, reproducible nanowires 1 μm long have been obtained. To illustrate the impact of the MgB2 film processing on its superconducting properties, we measured the temperature dependence of the resistance on a nanowire and compared it to the original magnesium diboride film. The electrical properties of the films are not degraded as a consequence of the nanostructuring process, so that superconducting nanodevices may be obtained by this method.

  2. Peak effect and vortex dynamics in superconducting MgB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Sook; Jang, Dong-Jin; Kim, Heon-Jung; Kang, Byeongwon; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the vortex state of MgB 2 single crystals near the peak effect (PE) region, which is very different either from that of conventional low-temperature superconductors or from that of high-temperature cuprate superconductors, is introduced in this article. Relaxation from a disordered, metastable field-cooled (FC) state to an ordered, stable zero-field-cooled (ZFC) state of the MgB 2 single crystals under an applied magnetic field and current is investigated. From an analysis of the noise properties in the ZFC state, a dynamic vortex phase diagram of the MgB 2 is obtained near the PE region. Between the onset and the peak region in the critical current vs. magnetic field diagram, crossovers from a high-noise state to a noise-free state are observed with increasing current. Above the peak, however, an opposite phenomenon, crossovers from a noise-free to a high-noise state, is observed which has not been observed in any other superconductors. The hysteresis in the I-V curves and the two-level random telegraph noise in the time evolution of the voltage response under an constant applied current at the ZFC state are also studied in detail

  3. Influence of Ni and Cu contamination on the superconducting properties of MgB2 filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, A; Schlachter, S I; Runtsch, B; Ringsdorf, B; Fillinger, H; Orschulko, H; Drechsler, A; Goldacker, W

    2010-01-01

    Technical MgB 2 wires usually have a sheath composite consisting of different metals. For the inner sheath with direct contact to the superconducting filament, chemically inert Nb may be used as a reaction barrier and thermal stabilization is provided by a highly conductive metal like Cu. A mechanical reinforcement can be achieved by the addition of stainless steel. In order to illuminate the influence of defects in the reaction barrier, monofilament in situ wires with direct contact between the MgB 2 filament and frequently applied reactive sheath metals like Cu, Ni or Monel are studied. Reactions of Mg and B with a Cu-containing sheath lead to Cu-based by-products penetrating the whole filament. Reactions with Ni-containing sheaths lead to Ni-based by-products which tend to remain at the filament-sheath interface. Cu and/or Ni contamination of the filament lowers the MgB 2 -forming temperature due to the eutectic reaction between Mg, Ni and Cu. Thus, for the samples heat-treated at low temperatures J C and (partly) T C are increased compared to stainless-steel-sheathed wires. At high heat treatment temperatures uncontaminated filaments lead to the highest J C values. From the point of view of broken reaction barriers in real wires, the contamination of the filament with Cu and/or Ni does not necessarily constrain the superconductivity; it may even improve the properties of the wire, depending on the desired application.

  4. Intrinsic flux pinning mechanisms in different thickness MgB2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available MgB2 films in four thickness (60 nm, 200nm, 600nm and 1μm have been fabricated by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition technique (HPCVD. By measuring the magnetization hysteresis loops and the resistivity, we have obtained the transport and magnetic properties of the four films. After that, the pinning mechanisms in them were discussed. Comparing the pinning behaviors in these ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, it was found that there exist different pinning types in MgB2 films of different thickness. In combination with the study of the surface morphology, cross-section and XRD results, we concluded that MgB2 films had different growth modes in different growth stages. For thin films, films grew along c axis, and grain boundaries acted as surface pinning. While for thick films, films grew along c axis at first, and then changed to a-b axis growth. As a result, the a-b axis grains acted as strong volume pinning.

  5. Flux pinning properties of impurity doped MgB2 bulks synthesized by diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Shinya; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Katsura, Yukari; Iwayama, Isao; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

    2005-01-01

    Doping effects of carbon-containing impurities on the critical current properties and microstructure were systematically studied for highly dense MgB 2 bulks prepared by the diffusion method starting from magnesium and boron which are separately packed in sealed stainless tubes. Obtained samples exhibited improved critical current density, J c , simply by an increase of effective current pass. A non-doped MgB 2 recorded almost double high J c at 20 K compared with those of the conventional porous MgB 2 bulks having ∼50% of the theoretical density, while irreversibility field, H irr , did not largely change. J c under high magnetic fields were enhanced by doping of carbon-containing impurities, such as SiC and B 4 C. Optimal doping levels of SiC and B 4 C for high critical current properties at 20 K are found to be ∼2% and 5%, respectively, as nominal carbon concentration at boron site. Difference in the optimal doping levels is originated from the difference in their reactivity

  6. A trapped field of >3 T in bulk MgB2 fabricated by uniaxial hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrell, J H; Dennis, A; Shi, Y; Xu, Z; Campbell, A M; Babu, N Hari; Cardwell, D A; Dancer, C E J; Todd, R I; Grovenor, C R M

    2012-01-01

    A trapped field of over 3 T has been measured at 17.5 K in a magnetized stack of two disc-shaped bulk MgB 2 superconductors of diameter 25 mm and thickness 5.4 mm. The bulk MgB 2 samples were fabricated by uniaxial hot pressing, which is a readily scalable, industrial technique, to 91% of their maximum theoretical density. The macroscopic critical current density derived from the trapped field data using the Biot–Savart law is consistent with the measured local critical current density. From this we conclude that critical current density, and therefore trapped field performance, is limited by the flux pinning available in MgB 2 , rather than by lack of connectivity. This suggests strongly that both increasing sample size and enhancing pinning through doping will allow further increases in trapped field performance of bulk MgB 2 . (rapid communication)

  7. Improved flux pinning behaviour in bulk MgB2 achieved by nano-SiO2 addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui, X F; Zhao, Y; Xu, Y Y; Zhang, L; Sun, X F; Wang, Y Z; Zhang, H

    2004-01-01

    Bulk MgB 2 with SiO 2 nanoparticles added has been synthesized using a simple solid-state reaction route. The lattice constant in the c direction increases with additive content due to a small amount of Si being doped into the lattice of the MgB 2 ; however, T c is almost fixed at 37.2 K. The addition of SiO 2 nanoparticles also improves the J c -H and H irr -T characteristics of MgB 2 when the additive content is lower than 7%. At 20 K and 1 T, J c for the sample with 7% additive content reaches 2.5 x 10 5 A cm -2 . Microstructural analysis reveals that a high density of MgSi 2 nanoparticles (10-50 nm) exists inside the MgB 2 grains, leading to the formation of a nanocomposite superconductor

  8. Microstructural and crystallographic imperfections of MgB2 superconducting wire and their correlation with the critical current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Alzayed, Nasser S.; Oh, Sangjun; Choi, Seyong; Maeda, Minoru; Hata, Satoshi; Shimada, Yusuke; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Kim, Jung Ho

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the effects of structural imperfections in MgB2 superconducting wire has been conducted. As the sintering temperature becomes lower, the structural imperfections of the MgB2 material are increased, as reflected by detailed X-ray refinement and the normal state resistivity. The crystalline imperfections, caused by lattice disorder, directly affect the impurity scattering between the π and σ bands of MgB2, resulting in a larger upper critical field. In addition, low sintering temperature keeps the grain size small, which leads to a strong enhancement of pinning, and thereby, enhanced critical current density. Owing to both the impurity scattering and the grain boundary pinning, the critical current density, irreversibility field, and upper critical field are enhanced. Residual voids or porosities obviously remain in the MgB2, however, even at low sintering temperature, and thus block current transport paths.

  9. The effect of citric and oxalic acid doping on the superconducting properties of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, N; Singla, Rashmi; Varma, G D; Malik, V K; Bernhard, C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the effect of carbon doping on the structural and superconducting properties of MgB 2 using citric and oxalic acids as carbon sources. The bulk polycrystalline samples have been synthesized via a standard solid state reaction route with composition MgB 2 +x wt% of citric and oxalic acids (x = 0, 5 and 10). The x-ray diffraction results reveal the formation of dominantly MgB 2 with only a small amount of impurity phase MgO and substitution of C at the B site of MgB 2 for both dopants. Improvements in the upper critical field (H C2 ), irreversibility field (H irr ) and high field (>2.5 T) critical current density (J C ) have been observed on C doping in the samples. The correlations between superconducting properties and structural characteristics of the samples are described and discussed in this paper.

  10. Fabrication and radio frequency test of large-area MgB2 films on niobium substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhimao; Guo, Xin; Welander, Paul B.; Yang, Can; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Feng, Qingrong; Liu, Kexin

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a promising candidate material for superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities because of its higher transition temperature and critical field compared with niobium. To meet the demand of RF test devices, the fabrication of large-area MgB2 films on metal substrates is needed. In this work, high quality MgB2 films with 50 mm diameter were fabricated on niobium by using an improved HPCVD system at Peking University, and RF tests were carried out at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The transition temperature is approximately 39.6 K and the RF surface resistance is about 120 μΩ at 4 K and 11.4 GHz. The fabrication processes, surface morphology, DC superconducting properties and RF tests of these large-area MgB2 films are presented.

  11. Formation of polycrystalline MgB2 synthesized by powder in sealed tube method with different initial boron phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudanto, Sigit Dwi; Imaduddin, Agung; Kurniawan, Budhy; Manaf, Azwar

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium diboride, MgB2 is a new high critical temperature superconductor that discovered in the beginning of the 21st century. The MgB2 has a simple crystal structure and a high critical temperature, which can be manufactured in several forms like thin films, tapes, wires including bulk in the large scale. For that reason, the MgB2 has good prospects for various applications in the field of electronic devices. In the current work, we have explored the synthesis of MgB2 polycrystalline using powder in a sealed tube method. Different initial boron phase for the synthesized of MgB2 polycrystalline were used. These were, in addition to magnesium powders, crystalline boron, amorphous boron and combination both of them were respectively fitted in the synthesis. The raw materials were mixed in a stoichiometric ratio of Mg: B=1:2, ground using agate mortar, packed into stainless steel SS304. The pack was then sintered at temperature of 800°C for 2 hours in air atmosphere. Phase formation of MgB2 polycrystalline in difference of initial boron phase was characterized using XRD and SEM. Referring to the diffraction pattern and microstructure observation, MgB2 polycrystalline was formed, and the formation was effective when using the crystalline Mg and fully amorphous B as the raw materials. The critical temperature of the specimen was evaluated by the cryogenic magnet. The transition temperature of the MgB2 specimen synthesized using crystalline magnesium and full amorphous boron is 42.678 K (ΔTc = 0.877 K).

  12. Les supraconducteurs en courant alternatif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, A.; Laumond, Y.

    1991-02-01

    Since 1983, when the very first AC wire became available, the comprehension of electromagnetic phenomenas ruling over stability and losses of multifilamentary superconductors in AC use, has much improved. Improvements of manufacturing process has opened up the possibility of industrial scale manufacturing of up to one million, 140 nm in diameter, filaments. The AC loss performances and stability remains at the best level up to date. Les premiers brins supraconducteurs utilisables en courants alternatifs sont apparus en 1983. Depuis, des progrès importants ont été réalisés sur le plan de la compréhension des phénomènes électromagnétiques commandant les pertes et la stabilité dans des brins multifilamentaires à filaments ultrafins. L'amélioration des performances et des procédés de fabrication nous permet aujourd'hui de présenter des brins, fabriqués à l'échelle industrielle, comprenant jusqu'à près d'un million de filaments de 140 nm de diamètre, avec des niveaux de pertes et de stabilité inégalés à ce jour.

  13. Numerical investigations on the characteristics of thermomagnetic instability in MgB2 bulks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; Li, Maosheng; Zhou, Youhe

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of thermomagnetic instability in MgB2 bulks by numerically solving the macroscopic dynamics of thermomagnetic interaction governed by the coupled magnetic and heat diffusion equations in association with a modified E-J power-law relationship. The finite element method is used to discretize the system of partial differential equations. The calculated magnetization loops with flux jumps are consistent with the experimental results for MgB2 slabs bathed in a wide range of ambient temperatures. We reveal the evolution process of the thermomagnetic instability and present the distributions of the magnetic field, temperature, and current density before and after flux jumps. A 2D axisymmetric model is used to study the thermomagnetic instability in cylindrical MgB2 bulks. It is found that the number of flux jumps monotonously reduces as the ambient temperature rises and no flux jump appears when the ambient temperature exceeds a certain value. Moreover, the flux-jump phenomenon exists in a wide range of the ramp rate of the applied external field, i.e. 10-2-102 T s-1. Furthermore, the dependences of the first flux-jump field on the ambient temperature, ramp rate, and bulk thickness are investigated. The critical bulk thicknesses for stability are obtained for different ambient temperatures and sample radii. In addition, the influence of the capability of the interfacial heat transfer on the temporal response of the bulk temperature is discussed. We also find that the prediction of thermomagnetic instability is sensitive to the employment of the flux creep exponent in the simulations.

  14. Stress-strain effects on powder-in-tube MgB2 tapes and wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Kazumune; Takaya, Ryuya; Kasaba, Koichi; Tachikawa, Kyoji; Yamada, Yutaka; Shimura, Satoshi; Koshizuka, Naoki; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of stress-strain on the critical current, I c , of ex situ powder-in-tube (PIT)-processed Ni-sheathed MgB 2 tapes and round wires as well as in situ PIT-processed Cu-sheathed wires at 4.2 K in a magnetic field up to 5 T have been studied. The effect of In powder addition on the Ni-sheathed MgB 2 wire was not so clear compared with that in the tape, in which the irreversible strain, ε irr , for the I c degradation onset increases significantly by the addition. This is attributed to the difference in the microstructure of the core associated with cold workings. A peak and gradual degradation behaviour of I c with strain beyond ε irr was found in the wire, whereas no evident peak and a steep degradation behaviour was found in the tape. As a possible reason, the difference in the triaxial residual stress state at 4.2 K due to the difference in geometry of the cross-section is suspected. The transverse compression tests revealed that I c of the wire did not degrade up to 270 MPa. Again, the effect of In addition was minimal. The Young's modulus of MgB 2 , 31-41 GPa, at room temperature was estimated by a tensile test of Cu sheath wire using a high-accuracy extensometer and the law of mixtures. The tensile strain dependence of I c in the Cu sheath wire was similar to that in the Ni-sheathed wire, ε irr being 0.4%. However, the stress corresponding to ε irr , 50 MPa, was about 1/10 of that for the Ni-sheath wire and the irreversible transverse compressive stress, 150 MPa, was also lower. The effect of bending strain on the I c in Cu-sheathed wire was compared with that of the tensile strain

  15. Contribution to the development of dry R and W MgB2 superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquet, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the majority of superconducting magnets, including MRI, are cooled by a bath of liquid helium at atmospheric pressure. Nevertheless, this type of cooling is expensive and imposes significant security constraints for large volumes. For these reasons, the cooling of superconducting magnets is desirable without liquid helium. Cryo-cooler provides dry cooling to 4 K without any liquid helium. However, the power available is low and dry cooling is difficult. In these conditions, it is complicate to use NbTi with dry cooling. But if we increase the operating temperature to 10 K, the power of cryo-cooler increases by a factor of ten. Nevertheless in this case, it is necessary to use of a high critical temperature superconductor. We choose to use MgB 2 R and W conductors because it is relatively low cost but it has the handicap to be sensible at mechanical stress. It is therefore necessary to be careful during their winding to not degrade their superconducting performance. As part of this thesis, we have developed a dry test facility to measure the critical current of MgB 2 R and W conductors as well as mock-ups. To do this, a new type of thermal contact based on aluminum nitride has been developed. In addition to this development, we designed two MgB 2 R and W magnet mock-ups: a solenoid and a double pancake. The double pancake was manufactured (with a new patented winding method) and it has been successfully tested. (author) [fr

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy of superconducting MgB2 by neutron inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, Takahiro

    2001-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering measurements have been performed on superconducting MgB 2 above and below T c . The temperature dependence of the generalized phonon density-of-states showed clear anomalous behaviour near 24 meV in the acoustic phonon region, which may be interpreted as evidence of a substantial contribution to the total electron-phonon coupling strength deriving from these phonons. Weaker evidence for a corresponding response in the high-energy B bond stretching phonons was also encountered. (author)

  17. Recent developments in melt processed Gd-123 and MgB2 materials at RTRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, M.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Suzuki, K.; Tomita, M.; Koblischka, M.R.; Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Large size Gd-123 bulk material grown in air, using novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. •Quality and uniformity of the Gd-123 materials are excellent. •Batch processed Gd-123 material was used for construction of chilled Maglev vehicle. •MgB 2 bulks can be utilized around 20 K similarly to the Gd-123 material at 77 K. -- Abstract: In this contribution we will report on the current status, recent developments in GdBa 2 Cu 3 O y “Gd-123” and MgB 2 material processing, characterization, and applications at the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI). Batch-processing of Gd-123 bulk material grown in air was performed using novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. In this way, we are able to fabricate materials with good quality, and uniform performance. We examined the technology of the uniform performance of the large 45 mm diameter, single grain Gd-123 bulks for use in application of NMR. For this purpose, four 5 mm thick pieces are cut vertically from a single grain Gd-123 material and the magnetic field distribution is measured using a scanning hall sensor. We found that all four pieces are single domain and exhibit a quite uniform field distribution. Furthermore, the batch-processed bulk materials are used for the construction of a chilled Maglev vehicle. On the other hand, to optimize the trapped field performance of bulk MgB 2 material, several samples were prepared by solid state reaction at different temperatures ranging from 750 to 950 °C in pure argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction results indicated that single phase and homogenous MgB 2 bulks are produced when sintering them around 775 °C. Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that an uniform grain size results by controlling the processing temperature. So, higher trapped fields can be achieved in sintered MgB 2 material

  18. Correlated vortex pinning in Si-nanoparticle doped MgB2

    OpenAIRE

    Kusevic, I.; Babic, E.; Husnjak, O.; Soltanian, S.; Wang, X. L.; Dou, S. X.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetoresistivity and critical current density of well characterized Si-nanoparticle doped and undoped Cu-sheathed MgB$_{2}$ tapes have been measured at temperatures $T\\geq 28$ K in magnetic fields $B\\leq 0.9$ T. The irreversibility line $B_{irr}(T)$ for doped tape shows a stepwise variation with a kink around 0.3 T. Such $B_{irr}(T)$ variation is typical for high-temperature superconductors with columnar defects (a kink occurs near the matching field $% B_{\\phi}$) and is very different ...

  19. Enhanced superconducting properties of MgB2 by carbon substitution using carbon containing nano additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadas, K.M.; Varghese, Neson; Vinod, K.; Rahul, S.; Thomas, Syju; Anooja, J.B.; Syamaprasad, U.; Sundaresan, A.; Roy, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study on the effect of doping of nano carbon, nano diamond and nano SiC in MgB 2 is carried out. The J c (H) is significantly enhanced for all doped samples compared to the pure sample among which MgB 1.9 C 0.1 (nano C) exhibits the best J c (H) performance. The enhanced performance is due to the effective substitution of C at B site which is confirmed by the systematic decrease in both α axis and T c . (author)

  20. The microwave surface impedance of MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, A J; Zhukov, A A; Nurgaliev, T; Lamura, G; Bugoslavsky, Y; Lockman, Z; MacManus-Driscoll, J L; Zhai, H Y; Christen, H M; Paranthaman, M P; Lowndes, D H; Jo, M H; Blamire, M G; Hao, Ling; Gallop, J C; Cohen, L F

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of measurements of the microwave surface impedance of a powder sample and two films of MgB 2 . The powder sample has a T c = 39 K and the films have T c = 29 K and 38 K. These samples show different temperature dependences of the field penetration depth. Over a period of six months, the film with T c = 38 K degraded to a T c of 35 K. We compare the results on all samples with data obtained elsewhere and discuss the implications as far as is possible at this stage

  1. Plasma Synthesized Doped Boron Nanopowder for MgB2 Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzik, James V.

    2012-01-01

    Under this program, a process to synthesize nano-sized doped boron powder by a plasma synthesis process was developed and scaled up from 20 gram batches at program start to over 200 grams by program end. Over 75 batches of boron nanopowder were made by RF plasma synthesis. Particle sizes were typically in the 20-200 nm range. The powder was synthesized by the reductive pyrolysis of BCl 3 in hydrogen in an RF plasma. A wide range of process parameters were investigated including plasma power, torch geometry, gas flow rates, and process pressure. The powder-in-tube technique was used to make monofilament and multifilament superconducting wires. MgB 2 wire made with Specialty Materials plasma synthesized boron nanopowder exhibited superconducting properties that significantly exceeded the program goals. Superconducting critical currents, J c , in excess of 10 5 A cm -2 at magnetic fields of 8 tesla were reproducibly achieved. The upper critical magnetic field in wires fabricated with program boron powder were H c2 (0) = 37 tesla, demonstrating the potential of these materials for high field magnet applications. T c in carbon-doped MgB 2 powder showed a systematic decrease with increasing carbon precursor gas flows, indicating the plasma synthesis process can give precise control over dopant concentrations. Synthesis rates increased by a factor of 400% over the course of the program, demonstrating the scalability of the powder synthesis process. The plasma synthesis equipment at Specialty Materials has successfully and reproducibly made high quality boron nanopowder for MgB 2 superconductors. Research and development from this program enabled Specialty Materials to successfully scale up the powder synthesis process by a factor of ten and to double the size of its powder pilot plant. Thus far the program has been a technical success. It is anticipated that continued systematic development of plasma processing parameters, dopant chemistry and concentration, wire processing technology, and collection technology will lead to the commercialization of boron nanopowder as a precursor for MgB 2 superconductors. Potential commercial applications include magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fault current limiters, wind turbine generators.

  2. Multifilamentary MgB2 wires fracture behavior during the drawing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, D.; Yan, G.; Zhou, L.; Li, J.S.; Li, C.S.; Wang, Q.Y.; Xiong, X.M.; Jiao, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    The fracture behavior of 6 + 1 filamentary MgB 2 superconductive wires is presented here. The composite wires were fabricated by in situ Powder-in-Tube method using Nb as a barrier and copper as a stabilizer. The microstructure of the material has a great influence on its fracture behavior. The microstructural aspects of crack nucleation and propagation are discussed. It shows that there are complicated correlations between fracture behavior and the main influencing parameters, which contain specific drawing conditions (drawing velocity, reduction in area per pass), materials properties (strength, yield stress, microstructure) as well as the extent of bonding between the metal sheaths at their interface.

  3. Temperature dependence of the optical conductivity and penetration depth in superconductor MgB2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moarrefi, M.; Yavari, H.; Elahi, M.

    2010-01-01

    By using Green's function method the temperature dependence of the optical conductivity and penetration depth of high-quality MgB 2 film are calculated in the framework of the two-band model. We compare our results with experimental data and we argue that the single gap model is insufficient to describe the optical and penetration depth behavior, but the two-band model with different symmetries describes the data rather well. In the two gap model we consider that the both components of optical conductivity are a weighted sum of the contribution from σ and π bonds and hybridization between them is negligible.

  4. Design of MgB2 superconducting dipole magnet for particle beam transport in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.; Givel, J.C.; Andersen, N.H.; Zangenberg, N.; Baurichter, A.

    2006-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the innovation potential of superconductivity at Risoe was performed in February 2004 by the main author of this report. Several suggestions for new products and new markets were formulated by the superconductivity group and examined by the innovation staff at Risoe. The existing markets of superconducting technology is within highly specialized scientific areas such as magnetic confinement in fusion energy, sample environment in neutron scattering and large scale accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at Cern, or in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) community using MR-imaging scanners in medicine and phase identification in organic chemistry. Only the NMR applications can be categorized as a highly profitable and commercial market today. The superconductivity group of Risoe formulated and presented the gearless superconducting wind turbine multipole generator as the most promising new concept, but further initiatives were stopped due to unclear patent possibilities. The experience of the innovation review was used in the STVF framework program 'New superconductors: mechanisms, processes and products' to identify potential new product for the collaborating company Danfysik A/S, which has a strong tradition in building resistive magnets for particle accelerators. A technology transfer project was formulated at the end of 2005 with the purpose to collect the knowledge about the MgB2 superconductor gained in the STVF program and in the European Framework Program 6 project HIPERMAG. It was presented at the Risoe innovation seminar January 2006, and recently a collaboration between Risoe and Danfysik A/S was initialized. The present report aims to outline a potential superconducting product within the STVF program. The use of the MgB 2 superconductors in a dipole magnet for guiding particle beams in a small scale accelerator is examined with the purpose to build lighter and smaller than the present resistive magnets. Here the critical current density of primarily MgB 2 will be compared with current density determined by specifications similar to the Tevatron accelerator, B = 4:4 Tesla and coil aperture D = 76 mm, which has been identified by Danfysik A/S as interesting. It is concluded that MgB 2 is useful for the dipole application and construction of a small test coil of one half of the magnet is planned in 2007. (au)

  5. Characterisation of nano-grains in MgB2 superconductors by transmission Kikuchi diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.C.K.; Yeoh, W.K.; Trimby, P.W.; De Silva, K.S.B.; Bao, P.; Li, W.X.; Xu, X.; Dou, S.X.; Ringer, S.P.; Zheng, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first application of the emerging transmission Kikuchi diffraction technique in the scanning electron microscope to investigate nano-grain structures in polycrystalline MgB 2 superconductors. Two sintering conditions were considered, and the resulting differences in superconducting properties are correlated to differences in grain structure. A brief comparison to X-ray diffraction results is presented and discussed. This work focusses more on the application of this technique to reveal grain structure, rather than on the detailed differences between the two sintering temperatures

  6. Raman study of electronic excitations in MgB2 with application of high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machtoub, L.; Takano, Y.; Kito, H.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first results of Raman scattering with application of magnetic field on magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ). In this work, we have investigated the magnetic field dependence of the 72 meV (E 2g mode) and the pair-breaking peak around 100 cm -1 which corresponds to σ-band gap. Intensity enhancement of Raman features around 800 cm -1 accompanied with broadening in the line shape of E 2g mode has been observed in some polycrystalline samples at 0 GPa. Results are compared with previous Raman study under hydrostatic pressure

  7. Using Fast Hot Shock Wave Consolidation Technology to Produce Superconducting MgB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gegechkori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The original hot shock wave assisted consolidation method combining high temperature was applied with the two-stage explosive process without any further sintering to produce superconducting materials with high density and integrity. The consolidation of MgB2 billets was performed at temperatures above the Mg melting point and up to 1000oC in partially liquid condition of Mg-2B blend powders. The influence of the type of boron (B isotope in the composition on critical temperature and superconductive properties was evaluated. An example of a hybrid Cu-MgB2–Cu superconducting tube is demonstrated and conclusions are discussed.

  8. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of MgB$_2$ Conductor for the Superconducting Link Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sugano, M; Bartova, B; Bjoerstad, R; Scheuerlein, C; Grasso, G

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of high luminosity upgrade of Large Hadron Collider at CERN, superconducting links are being developed. MgB2 wire is a candidate conductor for use in high-current cables. Mechanical properties of this material are of key importance for the definition of the cable design and operating conditions. In this study, we evaluated the Young's modulus of MgB2 filaments extracted from ex situ processed composite wires. The wires were produced in unit lengths of about 1 km and used in high-current cables. Single fiber tensile test was carried out on filaments composed of MgB2, Nb barrier, and Nb-Ni reaction layer. From the unloading modulus of filament specimens measured with different gauge lengths, the Young's modulus of composite filaments extracted from two different strands was determined to be 114 and 122 GPa at room temperature, respectively. By using the rule-of-mixture, the Young's modulus of MgB2 was estimated to be lower than that reported for highly dense MgB2 bulks. The reason for such diff...

  9. S-I-N tunneling spectroscopy of MgB2 superconductor: evidence of two superconducting energy gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Shashwati; Aswal, D.K.; Singh, Ajay; Gadkari, S.C.; Shah, K.; Gupta, S.K.; Sahni, V.C.

    2002-01-01

    The tunneling spectra of polycrystalline MgB 2 , have been recorded, at different temperatures between 29 K and T c , using planar superconductor- insulating-normal (S-I-N) tunneling spectroscopy. The planar S-I-N tunnel junctions have been fabricated by thermally evaporating Ag electrodes on MgB 2 surface. The naive layer, which forms at the surface of MgB 2 , due to atmospheric degradation, was employed as an insulating layer between Ag electrodes and MgB 2 . We have found presence of two clear superconducting energy gaps in MgB 2 . The magnitudes of these gaps at 29.5 K are 1.8 and 5.9 MeV, respectively. In the vicinity of T c , while larger energy gap obeyed BCS temperature dependence, the smaller energy gap deviated from BCS dependence. All the spectra exhibited zero-bias conductance, which decreased linearly with temperature and vanished at T c . (author)

  10. Magnetic microscopy for characterization of local critical current in iron-sheathed MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashikawa, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Kiss, T.; Ye, S.; Matsumoto, A.; Kumakura, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a characterization method of local critical current in MgB 2 wires. • Local homogeneity was visualized by the scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHPM). • Local critical current value was quantified with the aid of the finite element method (FEM). • MgB 2 wire still has inhomogeneous distribution in local critical current. • Higher potential than that estimated by the four-probe transport method was suggested. - Abstract: We have developed a characterization method of local critical current in iron-sheathed MgB 2 wires. Local homogeneity was visualized by the scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHPM). The value of local critical current was quantified with the aid of the finite element method (FEM) considering the ferromagnetic properties of the iron sheath. The results suggested that MgB 2 wires fabricated by internal Mg diffusion processes still have large longitudinal inhomogeneity and much higher potential than that estimated by the four-probe transport method. This will be very important information for making a correct strategy for further development of MgB 2 wires

  11. Vapor annealing synthesis of non-epitaxial MgB2 films on glassy carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. A.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Bae, J. H.; Stavrou, E.; Steich, D. J.; McCall, S. K.; Kucheyev, S. O.

    2018-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of 25–800 nm thick MgB2 films on glassy carbon substrates by Mg vapor annealing of sputter-deposited amorphous B films. Results demonstrate a critical role of both the initial B film thickness and the temperature–time profile on the microstructure, elemental composition, and superconducting properties of the resultant MgB2 films. Films with thicknesses of 55 nm and below exhibit a smooth surface, with a roughness of 1.1 nm, while thicker films have surface morphology consisting of elongated nano-crystallites. The suppression of the superconducting transition temperature for thin films scales linearly with the oxygen impurity concentration and also correlates with the amount of lattice disorder probed by Raman scattering. The best results are obtained by a rapid (12 min) anneal at 850 °C with large temperature ramp and cooling rates of ∼540 °C min‑1. Such fast processing suppresses the deleterious oxygen uptake.

  12. Flux pinning and inhomogeneity in magnetic nanoparticle doped MgB2/Fe wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Nikolina; Pajić, Damir; Mustapić, Mislav; Babić, Emil; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Horvat, Joseph; Skoko, Željko; Zadro, Krešo

    2010-06-01

    The effects of magnetic nanoparticle doping on superconductivity of MgB2/Fe wires have been investigated. Fe2B and SiO2-coated Fe2B particles with average diameters 80 and 150 nm, respectively, were used as dopands. MgB2 wires with different nanoparticle contents (0, 3, 7.5, 12 wt.%) were sintered at temperature 750°C. The magnetoresistivity and critical current density Jc of wires were measured in the temperature range 2-40 K in magnetic field B doped wires decreases quite rapidly with doping level (~ 0.5 K per wt.%). This results in the reduction of the irreversibility fields Birr(T) and critical current densities Jc(B,T) in doped samples (both at low (5 K) and high temperatures (20 K)). Common scaling of Jc(B,T) curves for doped and undoped wires indicates that the main mechanism of flux pinning is the same in both types of samples. Rather curved Kramer's plots for Jc of doped wires imply considerable inhomogeneity.

  13. MgB2 magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portesi, C.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, D.; Brinkman, A.; Monticone, E.; Gonnelli, R. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we show the results obtained in the fabrication and characterization of an MgB2 magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which incorporates two nanobridges as weak links in a superconducting loop. The nanobridges were realized by focused ion beam milling; they were 240 nm wide and had a critical current density of 107 A cm-2. The magnetometer was characterized at different temperatures and also measurements of the noise levels have been performed. The device shows Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K and the calculated effective area at low temperatures was 0.24 mm2. The transport properties of the magnetometer allow determining fundamental materials properties of the MgB2 thin films, such as the penetration depth.

  14. Effect of malic acid doping on the structural and superconducting properties of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, N.; Sudesh; Stuti Rani; Varma, G.D.

    2010-01-01

    The samples have been prepared via standard solid state reaction route with nominal compositions MgB 2 + x wt% malic acid (x = 0, 5 and 10) by sintering at two different temperatures: 800 and 850 deg C in argon atmosphere. Improvement in upper critical fields (H c2 ) and irreversibility field (H irr ) of doped samples as compared to undoped samples have been observed. At 10 K, critical current densities (J c ) of the 5 and 10 wt% malic acid doped MgB 2 samples sintered at 850 deg C have higher values as compared to undoped sample sintered at the same temperature in the fields greater than 3 T. However, J c values of 5 wt% malic acid doped sample are higher than 10 wt% doped sample in the entire applied field region (0 - 7 T). In case of the samples sintered at 800 deg C improvement in J c values of 5 wt% doped sample have been found in entire field region as compared to undoped sample. On the other hand we see deterioration in J c values of 10 wt% doped samples sintered at 800 deg C as compared to undoped samples sintered at same temperature. The correlations between structural and superconducting properties will be described and discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. MgB2 for Application to RF Cavities for Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Canabal, A.; Zhao, Y.; Romanenko, A.; Moeckly, B.H.; Nantista, C.D.; Tantawi, S.; Phillips, L.; Iwashita, Y.; Campisi, I.E.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) has a transition temperature (T c ) of ∼40 K, i.e., about 4 times as high as that of niobium (Nb).We have been evaluating MgB 2 as a candidate material for radio-frequency (RF) cavities for future particle accelerators. Studies in the last 3 years have shown that it could have about one order of magnitude less RF surface resistance (Rs) than Nb at 4 K. A power dependence test using a 6 GHz TE011 mode cavity has shown little power dependence up to ∼12 mT (120 Oe), limited by available power, compared to other high-Tc materials such as YBCO. A recent study showed, however, that the power dependence of Rs is dependent on the coating method. A film made with on-axis pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has showed rapid increase in Rs compared to the film deposited by reactive evaporation method. This paper shows these results as well as future plans

  16. Mechanically activated self-propagated high-temperature synthesis of nanometer-structured MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radev, D.D.; Marinov, M.; Tumbalev, V.; Radev, I.; Konstantinov, L.

    2005-01-01

    Nanometer-sized MgB 2 was prepared via a two-step modification of the mechanically activated self-propagated high-temperature synthesis. The experimental conditions and some structural and phase characteristics of the synthesized product are reported. It is shown that a single-phase material can be prepared after 2 h of intense mechanical treatment of the starting magnesium and boron powders and a synthesis induced at a current-pulse density of 30 A cm -2 . The average size of MgB 2 particles synthesized in this way is 70-80 nm. It is also shown that using the same reagents and the 'classic' high-temperature interaction at 850 deg C with a protective atmosphere of pure Ar, mean particle size of the MgB 2 obtained is 50 μm

  17. Growth of high-quality large-area MgB2 thin films by reactive evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckly, B H; Ruby, W S

    2006-01-01

    We report a new in situ reactive deposition thin film growth technique for the production of MgB 2 thin films which offers several advantages over all existing methods and is the first deposition method to enable the production of high-quality MgB 2 films for real-world applications. We have used this growth method, which incorporates a rotating pocket heater, to deposit MgB 2 films on a variety of substrates, including single-crystalline, polycrystalline, metallic, and semiconductor materials up to 4 inch in diameter. This technique allows growth of double-sided, large-area films in the intermediate temperature range of 400-600 deg. C. These films are clean, well-connected, and consistently display T c values of 38-39 K with low resistivity and residual resistivity values. They are also robust and uncommonly stable upon exposure to atmosphere and water. (rapid communication)

  18. Effects of TiC doping on the upper critical field of MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, S.C.; Zhou, L.; Yan, G.; Lu, Y.F.

    2008-01-01

    TiC doped MgB 2 bulks were fabricated by two-step reaction method. The sample with a nominal compositions of Mg(B 0.95 (TiC) 0.05 ) 4 was first sintered at 1000 deg. C for 0.5 h. An appropriate amount of Mg was added to reach the stoichiometry of Mg(B 0.95 (TiC) 0.05 ) 2 , which was sintered at 750 deg. C for 2 h. The H c2 for the micro-TiC doped MgB 2 reached 12 T at 20 K. And J c is 5.3 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at 20 K and 1 T. The results indicate that the two-step reaction method could effectively introduce the carbon in TiC into the MgB 2 crystalline lattice, and therefore improve the upper critical field

  19. NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts in MgB2 and AlB2: theory versus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavarini, E; Baek, S H; Suh, B J; Borsa, F; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C

    2003-01-01

    We have performed 11 B NMR measurements in 11 B enriched MgB 2 powder sample in the normal phase. The Knight shift was accurately determined by using the magic angle spinning technique. Results for 11 B and 27 Al Knight shifts (K) and relaxation rates (1/T 1 ) are also reported for AlB 2 . The data show a dramatic decrease of both K and 1/T 1 for 11 B in AlB 2 with respect to MgB 2 . We compare experimental results with ab initio calculated NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts. The experimental values for 1/T 1 and K are in most cases in good agreement with the theoretical results. We show that the decrease of K and 1/T 1 for 11 B is consistent with a drastic drop of the density of states at the boron site in AlB 2 with respect to MgB 2

  20. Electro-mechanical characterization of MgB2 wires for the Superconducting Link Project at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulou, K.; Ballarino, A.; Gharib, A.; Stimac, A.; Garcia Gonzalez, M.; Perez Fontenla, A. T.; Sugano, M.

    2016-08-01

    In previous years, the R & D program between CERN and Columbus Superconductors SpA led to the development of several configurations of MgB2 wires. The aim was to achieve excellent superconducting properties in high-current MgB2 cables for the HL-LHC upgrade. In addition to good electrical performance, the superconductor shall have good mechanical strength in view of the stresses during operation (Lorenz forces and thermal contraction) and handling (tension and bending) during cabling and installation at room temperature. Thus, the study of the mechanical properties of MgB2 wires is crucial for the cable design and its functional use. In the present work we report on the electro-mechanical characterization of ex situ processed composite MgB2 wires. Tensile tests (critical current versus strain) were carried out at 4.2 K and in a 3 T external field by means of a purpose-built bespoke device to determine the irreversible strain limit of the wire. The minimum bending radius of the wire was calculated taking into account the dependence of the critical current with the strain and it was then used to obtain the minimum twist pitch of MgB2 wires in the cable. Strands extracted from cables having different configurations were tested to quantify the critical current degradation. The Young’s modulus of the composite wire was measured at room temperature. Finally, all measured mechanical parameters will be used to optimize an 18-strand MgB2 cable configuration.

  1. Microscopic unravelling of nano-carbon doping in MgB2 superconductors fabricated by diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.C.K.; Yeoh, W.K.; De Silva, K.S.B.; Kondyurin, A.; Bao, P.; Li, W.X.; Xu, X.; Peleckis, G.; Dou, S.X.; Ringer, S.P.; Zheng, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First report on nano-carbon doped MgB 2 superconductors synthesized by diffusion method. • Microstructure and superconducting properties of the superconductors are discussed. • B 4 C region blocks the Mg from reacting with B in the 10% nano-carbon doped sample. • MgB 2 with 2.5% nano-carbon doped showed the highest J c , ≈10 4 A/cm 2 for 20 K at 4 T. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of nano-carbon doping as the intrinsic (B-site nano-carbon substitution) and extrinsic (nano-carbon derivatives) pinning by diffusion method. The contraction of the in-plane lattice confirmed the presence of disorder in boron sublattice caused by carbon substitution. The increasing value in full width half maximum (FWHM) in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns with each increment in the doping level reveal smaller grains and imperfect MgB 2 crystalline. The strain increased across the doping level due to the carbon substitution in the MgB 2 matrix. The broadening of the T c curves from low to high doping showed suppression of the connectivity of the bulk samples with progressive dirtying. At high doping, the presence of B 4 C region blocked the Mg from reacting with crystalline B thus hampering the formation of MgB 2 . Furthermore, the unreacted Mg acted as a current blocking phase in lowering down the grain connectivity hence depressing the J c of the 10% nano-carbon doped MgB 2 bulk superconductor

  2. Effects of Bi-2212 addition on the levitation force properties of bulk MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Guner, S.B.; Celik, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the effects of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+κ (Bi-2212) adding on the levitation force and magnetic properties of bulk MgB 2 obtained by hot press method. The amount of Bi-2212 was varied between 0 and 10 wt% (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 wt%) of the total MgB 2 . Moreover, we present MgB 2 bulk samples fabricated by using different production methods including hot pressing method to our knowledge. All samples were prepared by using elemental magnesium (Mg) powder, amorphous nano-boron (B) powder and Bi-2212 powder which are produced by hot press method. As a result of hot press process, compact pellet samples were manufactured. The vertical and lateral levitation force measurements were executed at the temperatures of 20, 24 and 28 K under zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) regimes for samples with various adding levels. At 24 K and 28 K under ZFC regime, the 2 wt% Bi-2212 added sample exhibits a higher vertical levitation force than the pure sample. Bi-2212 added MgB 2 samples compared to the pure sample have lower attractive force values in FC regime. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J c was calculated from the M-H loops for Bi-2212 added MgB 2 samples. The 2 wt% Bi-2212 added sample has the best levitation and critical current density performance compared to other samples. The critical temperature (T c ) has slightly dropped from 37.8 K for the pure MgB 2 sample to 36.7 K for the 10 wt% of Bi-2212 added sample. The transition temperature slightly decreases when Bi-2212 adding level is increased. (orig.)

  3. Sugar as an optimal carbon source for the enhanced performance of MgB2 superconductors at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, O. V.; Pan, A. V.; Wang, J. L.; Shcherbakov, A. V.; Dou, S. X.; Wexler, D.; Babić, E.; Jerčinović, M.; Husnjak, O.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an extended study of the effect of sugar doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductors. High values of the upper critical field (Bc2) of 36 T and the irreversibility field (Birr) of 27 T have been estimated at the temperature of 5 K in a bulk MgB2 sample with the addition of 10 wt% of sugar. The critical current density (Jc(Ba)) of sugar-doped samples has been significantly improved in the high field region. The value of transport Jc has reached as high as 108 A m-2 at 10 T and 5 K for Fe-sheathed sugar-doped MgB2 wire. The analysis of the pinning mechanism in the samples investigated indicated that dominant vortex pinning occurs on the surface type of pinning defects, such as grain boundaries, dislocations, stacking faults etc, for both pure and doped MgB2. In sugar-doped samples, pinning is governed by numerous crystal lattice defects, which appear in MgB2 grains as a result of crystal lattice distortion caused by carbon substitution for boron and nano-inclusions. The drastically improved superconducting properties of sugar-doped samples are also attributed to the highly homogeneous distribution and enhanced reactivity of this dopant with host Mg and B powders. The results of this work suggest that sugar is the optimal source of carbon for doping MgB2 superconductor, especially for application at high magnetic fields.

  4. Physical properties in flux line lattice state in MgB2 probed by μSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Kazuki; Muranaka, Takahiro; Akimitsu, Jun; Koda, Akihiro; Higemoto, Wataru; Kadono, Ryosuke

    2002-01-01

    We have performed muon spin rotation (μSR) measurements to deduce the magnetic penetration depth λ in the flux line lattice state of MgB 2 microscopically. It is observed that λ shows a quadratic temperature dependence which is predicted for the case of superconducting gap with line nodes. Furthermore, it clearly exhibits a strong field dependence, where λ increases almost linearly with H. These results strongly suggest that the superconducting order parameter in MgB 2 is highly anisotropic. (author)

  5. Design, manufacturing and tests of first cryogen-free MgB2 prototype coils for offshore wind generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, G; Sanz, S; Pujana, A; Merino, J M; Apiñaniz, S; Marino, I; Iturbe, R; Nardelli, D

    2014-01-01

    Although renewable sector has started to take advantage of the offshore wind energy recently, the development is very intense. Turbines reliability, size, and cost are key aspects for the wind industry, especially in marine locations. A superconducting generator will allow a significant reduction in terms of weight and size, but cost and reliability are two aspects to deal with. MgB 2 wire is presented as one promising option to be used in superconducting coils for wind generators. This work shows the experimental results in first cryogen-free MgB 2 prototype coils, designed according to specific requirements of TECNALIA's wind generator concept.

  6. Phase 1 Final Technical Report - MgB2 Synthesis: Pushing to High Field Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Mohit; McIntyre, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Accelerator Technology Corp. (ATC) has successfully completed its Phase 1 effort to develop rf plasma torch synthesis of MgB2 superconducting powder. The overall objective is to de-velop a way to introduce homogeneous alloying of C and SiC impurities into phase-pure MgB2. Several groups have attained remarkable benefits from such alloying in raising the upper critical field Hc2 from ∼14 T to ∼30 T (bulk) and ∼50 T (thin films). But no one has succeeded in pro-ducing that benefit homogeneously, so that current transport in a practical powder-in-tube (PIT) conductor is largely the same as without the alloying. ATC has conceived the possibility of attaining such homogeneity by passing aerosol suspen-sions of reactant powders through an rf plasma torch, with each reactant transported on a stream-line that heats it to an optimum temperature for the synthesis reaction. This procedure would uniquely access non-equilibrium kinetics for the synthesis reaction, and would provide the possi-bility to separately control the temperature and stoichiometry of each reactant as it enters the mixing region where synthesis occurs. It also facilitates the introduction of seed particles (e.g. nanoscale SiC) to dramatically enhance the rate of the synthesis reaction compared to gas-phase synthesis in rf plasma reported by Canfield and others. During the Phase 1 effort ATC commissioned its 60 kW 5 MHz rf source for a manufactur-ing-scale rf plasma torch. This effort required repair of numerous elements, integration of cooling and input circuits, and tuning of the load characteristics. The effort was successful, and the source has now been tested to ∼full power. Also in the Phase 1 effort we encountered a subsidiary but very important problem: the world is running out of the only present supply of phase-pure amorphous boron. The starting boron powder must be in the amorphous phase in order for the synthesis reaction to produce phase-pure MgB2. Even small contamination with crystalline boron results in the formation of parasitic phases such as MgB4, MgB7, etc. Such parasitic phases are a primary element of the connectivity problem, in which even though a sample powder may contain grains of high-quality MgB2, adjacent grains are surrounded by intergrowths of parasitic phases so that current trans-port is badly degraded. The best results to date have been obtained using boron powder produced long ago for a rocket propellant development project. The synthesis process was complex and is now largely lost, and the manufacturing equipment has long since been scrapped. The last batch of the powder has been used during recent years to support MgB2 R and D at several labs, but supplies are dwindling. ATC has identified a first application of its plasma torch to synthesize phase-pure amorphous boron flake using a rapid-quench splat technique. Inexpensive technical-grade boron would be purified of contaminants, then dispersed as an aerosol in inert gas and passed through the plasma torch to melt it into a spray. The spray would be splat-condensed on a rotating drum to form pure amorphous flake. The process would begin with technical-grade boron powder, having good stoichiometric purity, nanoscale particles, but significant contamination of MgO and crystalline boron. We used wet chemistry to remove B2O3 completely and reduced the MgO impurity, and analyzed the particle size distribution using a Coulter counter and the phase composition using X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD). The next step will be to build an rf plasma torch with a recirculating single-component aerosol feed and the cooled splat drum and collector, and undertake process devel-opment for amorphous boron powder. This revised goal has two benefits. First, it is an easier technology than our ultimate goal of a multi-component laminar flow torch. We have been counseled by those experienced in plasma torch technology that our ultimate goal will require a torch that should be feasible but has never been attempted. It may require an extended period of R and D for both the torch itself and the gas dynamics in the reaction region. Second, this simpler single-component process will yield a product powder that is important today for the many groups undertaking powder-metallurgy routes to MgB2. The above success and learning curve has brought us to a significant shift of strategy from what was originally set out in the Phase 1 plan. But this shift has brought us to within sight of a powder product that will itself be an enabling boost for the community of MgB2 developers.

  7. Structural and critical current properties in Al-doped MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.N.; Xiang, J.Y.; Lang, P.L.; Li, J.Q.; Che, G.C.; Zhao, Z.W.; Wen, H.H.; Tian, H.Y.; Ni, Y.M.; Zhao, Z.X.

    2004-01-01

    A series of Al-doped Mg 1-x Al x B 2 samples have been fabricated and systematic study on structure and superconducting properties have been carried out for the samples. In addition to a structural transition observed by XRD, TEM micrographs showed the existence of a superstructure of double c-axis lattice constant along the direction perpendicular to the boron honeycomb sheet. In order to investigate the effect of Al doping on flux pinning and critical current properties in MgB 2 , measurements on the superconducting transition temperature T c , irreversible field B irr and critical current density J c were performed too, for the samples with the doping levels lower than 0.15 in particular. These experimental observations were discussed in terms of Al doping induced changes in carrier concentration

  8. Structural and critical current properties in Al-doped MgB 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. N.; Xiang, J. Y.; Lang, P. L.; Li, J. Q.; Che, G. C.; Zhao, Z. W.; Wen, H. H.; Tian, H. Y.; Ni, Y. M.; Zhao, Z. X.

    2004-08-01

    A series of Al-doped Mg 1- xAl xB 2 samples have been fabricated and systematic study on structure and superconducting properties have been carried out for the samples. In addition to a structural transition observed by XRD, TEM micrographs showed the existence of a superstructure of double c-axis lattice constant along the direction perpendicular to the boron honeycomb sheet. In order to investigate the effect of Al doping on flux pinning and critical current properties in MgB 2, measurements on the superconducting transition temperature Tc, irreversible field Birr and critical current density Jc were performed too, for the samples with the doping levels lower than 0.15 in particular. These experimental observations were discussed in terms of Al doping induced changes in carrier concentration.

  9. Interplay of dendritic avalanches and gradual flux penetration in superconducting MgB2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantsev, D V; Goa, P E; Barkov, F L; Johansen, T H; Kang, W N; Lee, S I

    2003-01-01

    Magneto-optical imaging was used to study a zero-field-cooled MgB 2 film at 9.6 K where in a slowly increasing field the flux penetrates by an abrupt formation of large dendritic structures. Simultaneously, a gradual flux penetration takes place, eventually covering the dendrites, and a detailed analysis of this process is reported. We find an anomalously high gradient of the flux density across a dendrite branch, and a peak value that decreases as the applied field increases. This unexpected behaviour is reproduced by flux creep simulations based on the non-local field-current relation in the perpendicular geometry. The simulations also provide indirect evidence that flux dendrites are formed at an elevated local temperature, consistent with a thermo-magnetic mechanism of the instability

  10. Microwave second-harmonic response of ceramic MgB2 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliolo Gallitto, A.; Bonsignore, G.; Li Vigni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear microwave response of different ceramic MgB 2 samples has been investigated by the technique of second-harmonic emission. The second-harmonic signal has been investigated as a function of temperature, DC magnetic field and input microwave power. The attention has mainly been devoted to the response at low magnetic fields, where nonlinear processes arising from motion of Abrikosov fluxons are ineffective. The results show that different mechanisms are responsible for the nonlinear response in the different ranges of temperature. At low temperatures, the nonlinear response is due to processes involving weak links. At temperatures close to T c , a further contribution to the harmonic emission is present; it can be ascribed to modulation of the order parameter by the microwave field and gives rise to a peak in the temperature dependence of the harmonic signal

  11. Progress in electrical and mechanical properties of rectangular MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, P; Melisek, T; Kopera, L; Husek, I; Polak, M; Kulich, M

    2009-01-01

    Critical current densities and mechanical resistance of MgB 2 wires made by the rectangular wire-in-tube technique (RWIT) have been studied. Wires prepared from different precursor powders and variable sheath materials are compared. The best electrical performance (10 4 A cm -2 at 11.3 T) was measured for the wire with mechanically alloyed powder doped by SiC. While the critical current densities, J c , at 4.2 K are considerably influenced by the powder used, the differences at 20 K are much smaller. Flattened wires show different levels of critical current anisotropy influenced by the precursor powder used. Stress-strain characteristics and critical current degradation are strongly affected by the applied metallic materials and also by the filament's strength. The highest irreversible strain ε irr = 0.55% was measured for Ti/Cu/Monel sheathed wire with filaments from mechanically alloyed powder.

  12. The superconducting properties of co-doped polycrystalline MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J D; Perkins, G K; Branford, W; Yates, K A; Caplin, A D; Cohen, L F; Chen, Soo Kien; Rutter, N A; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L

    2007-01-01

    In this study we compare the critical current density, the irreversibility line and the upper critical field of four MgB 2 polycrystalline samples, which are either undoped or have 5% carbon or 5% carbon plus either 1% aluminium or 2% zirconium. We discuss how care must be taken for the extraction of the irreversibility line in such samples. We also show how ac susceptibility and Hall probe imaging can be used to examine whether the samples remain fully connected to the highest available fields. Compared to simple 5% carbon doping we find that co-doping provides modest improvement in the pinning properties at intermediate fields in the carbon plus zirconium doped sample

  13. Hall conductivity and the vortex phase in MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Soon-Gil; Seong, W K; Huh, Ji Young; Lee, T G; Kang, W N; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2007-01-01

    In a MgB 2 thin film superconductor, we have found that Hall conductivity (σ xy ) is described by the sum of two terms, σ xy = C 1 /H+C 3 H, where C 1 and C 3 are independent of the magnetic fields and have positive values. C 1 is observed to be proportional to (1-t) n with n = 4.2, where t is the reduced temperature (T/T c ), and C 3 is weakly dependent on the temperature. These results are consistent with those of the overdoped La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 superconductors. Based on Hall angle data, we obtained a vortex phase diagram with three regions, vortex-solid, crossover, and vortex-liquid regions in the H-T plane

  14. Critical current density of MgB2 thin films and the effect of interface pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Gupta, S K; Sen, Shashwati; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2004-01-01

    Preferentially oriented MgB 2 thin films with c-axis normal to the surface have been prepared and characterized for microstructure and transport properties. The magnetic field dependence of superconducting critical current density J c has been determined from the magnetization hysteresis (M-H) loops at various temperatures using the Bean's critical state model. High J c of these films show their potential for applications. We have also measured the angular dependences of J c . The angular dependence is seen to be in agreement with the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model except that at angles close to the ab plane, increased pinning due to film-substrate interaction is observed. The angular range where interface pinning is effective has been determined by measurement of asymmetry in dissipation on reversal of current for fields applied at angles close to the ab plane

  15. Comparative study of neutron irradiation and carbon doping in MgB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzler, C.; Zehetmayer, M.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.

    2007-01-01

    We compare the reversible and irreversible magnetic properties of superconducting carbon doped and undoped MgB 2 single crystals before and after neutron irradiation. A large number of samples with transition temperatures between 38.3 and 22.8 K allows us to study the effects of disorder systematically. Striking similarities are found in the modification of the reversible parameters by irradiation and doping, which are discussed in terms of impurity scattering and changes of the Fermi surface. The irreversible properties are influenced by two counteracting mechanisms: they are enhanced by the newly introduced pinning centers but degraded by changes in the thermodynamic properties. Accordingly, the large neutron induced defects and the small defects from carbon doping lead to significantly different effects on the irreversible properties. Finally, the fishtail effect caused by all kinds of disorder is discussed in terms of an order-disorder transition of the flux-line lattice

  16. Using specific heat to scan gaps and anisotropy of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, F.; Wang, Y.; Toulemonde, P.; Guritanu, V.; Junod, A.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H.W.; Lee, S.; Tajima, S.

    2004-01-01

    We performed specific heat measurements to study the superconducting properties of the ∼40 K superconductor MgB 2 , up to 16 T, using polycrystal and single crystal samples. Our results establish the validity of the two-gap model. We tested the effect of disorder by irradiating our sample. This procedure decreased T c down to ∼26 K, but did not suppress completely the smaller gap, at variance with theoretical expectations. A positive effect of the irradiation was the increase of H c2 up to almost 30 T. Our results on the single crystal allow the anisotropy of each band to be determined independently, and show the existence of a cross-over field well below H c2 characterizing the physics of the small-gapped band. We also present preliminary results on Nb 3 Sn, showing similar, but weaker effects

  17. Phase dynamics of single long Josephson junction in MgB2 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimouriya, Shanker Pd.; Ghimire, Bal Ram; Kim, Ju H.

    2018-05-01

    A system of perturbed sine Gordon equations is derived to a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) long Joseph-son junction as an extension of the Ambegaokar-Baratoff relation, following the long route of path integral formalism. A computer simulation is performed by discretizing the equations using finite difference approximation and applied to the MgB2 superconductor with SiO2 as the junction material. The solution of unperturbed sG equation is taken as the initial profile for the simulation and observed how the perturbation terms play the role to modify it. It is found initial profile deformed as time goes on. The variation of total Josephson current has also been observed. It is found that, the perturbation terms play the role for phase frustration. The phase frustration achieves quicker for high tunneling current.

  18. Tests on MgB2 for Application to SRF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Canabal, A.; Los Alamos; Zhao, Y.; Wollongong U.; Romanenko, A.; Cornell U., LNS; Nantista, C.; Tantawi, S.; SLAC; Phillips, L.; Jefferson Lab; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res.; Campisi, I.; Oak Ridge; Moeckly, B.; Superconductor Tech., Santa Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) has a transition temperature (T c ) of ∼40 K, i.e., about 4 times higher than niobium (Nb). Studies in the last 3 years have shown that it could have about one order of magnitude less RF surface resistance (R s ) than Nb at 4 K and seems to have much less power dependence than high-T c materials such as YBCO. However, it was also found that it will depend on the way you deposit the film. The result from on-axis pulsed laser deposition (PLD) showed rapid increase in R s with higher surface magnetic fields compared to the film deposited with reactive evaporation method

  19. The increase in Tc for MgB2 superconductor under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z-X; Jin, C-Q; You, J-Y; Li, S-C; Zhu, J-L; Yu, R-C; Li, F-Y; Su, S-K

    2002-01-01

    We report in situ high-pressure studies up to 1.0 GPa on MgB 2 superconductor which had been synthesized at high pressure. The as-prepared sample is of high quality as regards having a sharp superconducting transition (T c ) at 39 K. The in situ high-pressure measurements were carried out using a Be-Cu piston-cylinder-type instrument with a mixed oil as the pressure-transmitting medium, which provides a quasi-hydrostatic pressure environment at low temperature. The superconducting transitions were measured using the electrical conductance method. It is found that T c increases with pressure in the initial pressure range, leading to a parabolic-like T c -P evolution

  20. A possibility of enhancing Jc in MgB2 film grown on metallic hastelloy tape with the use of SiC buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putri, W. B. K.; Kang, B.; Ranot, M.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, W. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have grown MgB 2 on SiC buffer layer by using metallic Hastelloy tape as the substrate. Hastelloy tape was chosen for its potential practical applications, mainly in the power cable industry. SiC buffer layers were deposited on Hastelloy tapes at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C by using a pulsed laser deposition method, and then by using a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique, MgB 2 films were grown on the three different SiC buffer layers. An enhancement of critical current density values were noticed in the MgB 2 films on SiC/Hastelloy deposited at 500 and 600 degrees C. From the surface analysis, smaller and denser grains of MgB 2 tapes are likely to cause this enhancement. This result infers that the addition of SiC buffer layers may contribute to the improvement of superconducting properties of MgB 2 tapes.

  1. EDX and ion beam treatment studies of filamentary in situ MgB2 wires with Ti barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosova, A.; Kovac, P.; Husek, I.; Kopera, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → SiC-doped MgB 2 wires with Ti barrier showed good Jc in magnetic field. → Explanation why the Ti barrier fits to SiC-doped MgB 2 filaments. → Ti barrier getters Si from SiC-doped filaments and improve their properties. → Si accumulated in an inner layer of Ti barrier protects filaments from Cu diffusion. → Ion beam treatment helps to discover microstructure of complicated systems. - Abstract: In situ SiC-doped filamentary MgB 2 wires (with the diameter of 0.860 and 0.375 mm) with Cu stabilization separated by Ti barrier layers supported by outer SS sheath and annealed at 800 deg. C/0.5 h have been studied by combination of EDX analysis and ion beam selective etching. It was found that several Ti-Cu inter-metallic compounds were created by Cu-Ti interdiffusion and thus the barrier protection against Cu penetration into the superconducting filaments is limited. We showed an advantage of Ti use as the barrier material in our wires. Ti getters silicon out from the superconducting filament, what purges superconducting MgB 2 from Si and creates an additional Si-rich layer in inner part of Ti barrier which prevents Cu diffusion more effectively.

  2. Automatic development of normal zone in composite MgB2/CuNi wires with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, A.; Kajikawa, K.; Takahashi, M.; Okada, M.

    2010-06-01

    One of the promising applications with superconducting technology for hydrogen utilization is a sensor with a magnesium-diboride (MgB2) superconductor to detect the position of boundary between the liquid hydrogen and the evaporated gas stored in a Dewar vessel. In our previous experiment for the level sensor, the normal zone has been automatically developed and therefore any energy input with the heater has not been required for normal operation. Although the physical mechanism for such a property of the MgB2 wire has not been clarified yet, the deliberate application might lead to the realization of a simpler superconducting level sensor without heater system. In the present study, the automatic development of normal zone with increasing a transport current is evaluated for samples consisting of three kinds of MgB2 wires with CuNi sheath and different diameters immersed in liquid helium. The influences of the repeats of current excitation and heat cycle on the normal zone development are discussed experimentally. The aim of this paper is to confirm the suitability of MgB2 wire in a heater free level sensor application. This could lead to even more optimized design of the liquid hydrogen level sensor and the removal of extra heater input.

  3. Magnetic properties and critical current density of bulk MgB2 polycrystalline with Bi-2212 addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T M; Li, G; Zhu, X T; Cheng, C H; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    Bulk samples of MgB 2 were prepared with 0, 3, 5, and 10 wt% Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (Bi-2212) particles, added using a simple solid-state reaction route in order to investigate the effect of inclusions of a material with higher T c than the superconducting matrix. The density, diamagnetic signal, and critical current density, J c , of the samples change significantly with the doping level. It is found that J c is significantly enhanced by the Bi-2212 addition. Microstructural analysis indicates that a small amount of Bi-2212 is decomposed into Cu 2 O and other impurity phases while a significant amount of unreacted Bi-2212 particles remains in MgB 2 matrix, and these act as effective pinning centres for vortices. The enhanced pinning force is mainly attributable to these highly dispersed inclusions inserted in the MgB 2 grains. Despite the effectiveness of the high-T c inclusions in increasing superconducting critical currents in our experiment, our results seem to demonstrate the superiority of attractive centres over repulsive ones. A pinning mechanism is proposed to account for the contribution of this type of pinning centre in MgB 2 superconductors. (rapid communication)

  4. Fabrication of extruded wire of MgB2/Al composite material and its superconducting property and microstructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matsuda, K.; Nishimura, K.; Ikeno, S.; Mori, K.; Aoyama, S.; Yabumoto, Y.; Hishinuma, Y.; Müllerová, Ilona; Frank, Luděk; Yurchenko, V. V.; Johansen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 97, - (2008), 012230:1-6 E-ISSN 1742-6596. [European Conference on Applied Superconductivity /8./ - EUCAS 2007. Brussels, 16.09.2007-20.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MgB2/Al composite * superconductors * electron microscopy Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  5. Crystallinity and superconductivity of as-grown MgB2 thin films with AlN buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Shimakage, H.; Wang, Z.; Kaya, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layers on the superconducting properties of MgB 2 thin film were investigated. The AlN buffer layers and as-grown MgB 2 thin films were deposited in situ using the multiple-target sputtering system. The best depositing condition for the AlN/MgB 2 bi-layer occurred when the AlN was deposited on c-cut sapphire substrates at 290 deg. C. The crystallinity of the AlN/MgB 2 bi-layer was studied using the XRD φ-scan and it showed that AlN and MgB 2 had the same in-plane alignment rotated at an angle of 30 deg. as compared to c-cut sapphire. The critical temperature of the MgB 2 film was 29.8 K and the resistivity was 50.0 μΩ cm at 40 K

  6. Effects of graphite doping on critical current density and microstructure of MgB2 bulks by an improved Mg-diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, X.F.; Zhao, Y.; Feng, Y.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    abstract: A series of graphite-doped MgB 2 bulks with high density have been successfully prepared by an improved Mg-diffusion method in ambient pressure. The effects of graphite doping on lattice parameters, T c , J c and microstructure of MgB 2 have been investigated. The results show that compared to the nano-C-doped or CNTs-doped MgB 2 , C is not easy to substitute B in graphite-doped MgB 2 . However, at the same C content, the graphite-doped MgB 2 has a higher J c . At 10 K and self-field, the J c for MgB 1.985 C 0.015 reaches 0.58 MA/cm 2 . For the MgB 1.945 C 0.055 , at 5 K, 7 T and 10 K, 6 T the J c achieves 10,000 A/cm 2 which is two orders of magnitude higher than that for the undoped sample. In addition to improving electron scattering and intergranular connectivity, the unreacted graphite in the graphite-doped MgB 2 is proposed to be responsible to the excellent J c properties of MgB 2 in high fields, due to depressed grain growth and enhanced grain boundary flux pinning

  7. Effect of process variables on synthesis of MgB2 by a high energy ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurama Haldun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of superconductivity of MgB2 in 2001, with a critical temperature of 39 K, offered the promise of important large-scale applications at around 20 K. Except than the other featured synthesis methods, mechanical activation performed by high energy ball mills, as bulk form synthesis or as a first step of wire and thin film productions, has considered as an effective alternative production route in recent years. The process of mechanical activation (MA starts with mixing the powders in the right proportion and loading the powder mixture into the mill with the grinding media. The milled powder is then consolidated into a bulk shape and heat-treated to obtain desired microstructure and properties. Thus, the important components of the MA process are the raw materials, mill type and process variables. During the MA process, heavy deformation of particles occure. This is manifested by the presence of a variety of crystal defects such as dislocations, vacancies, stacking faults and increased number of particle boundaries. The presence of this defect structure enhances the diffusivity of solute hence the critical currents and magnetic flux pinning ability of MgB2 are improved. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of process variables such as ball-to-powder mass ratio, size of balls, milling time, annealing temperature and contribution of process control agent (toluene on the product size, morphology and conversion level of precursor powders to MgB2 after subsequent heat treatment. The morphological analyses of the samples were performed by a high vacuum electron microscope ZEISS SUPRA VP 50. The phase compositions of the samples were performed with an Rigaku-Rint 2200 diffractometer, with nickel filtered Cu Kα radiation and conversion level. The MgB2 phase wt % was calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The obtained results were discussed according to the process variables to find out their affect on the structure of MgB2 and to determine the optimum synthesis condition. It was found that the ball-to-powder mass ratio of precursors mixed and the milling time remarkably affect the MgB2 phase wt % and product size.

  8. Multi-gap superconductivity in MgB2: Magneto-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, G.; Mialitsin, A.; Dennis, B.S.; Zhigadlo, N.D.; Karpinski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic Raman scattering studies on MgB 2 single crystals as a function of excitation and polarization have revealed three distinct superconducting features: a clean gap below 37 cm -1 and two coherence peaks at 109 and 78 cm -1 which we identify as the superconducting gaps in π- and σ-bands and as the Leggett's collective mode arising from the fluctuation in the relative phase between two superconducting condensates residing on corresponding bands. The temperature and field dependencies of the superconducting features have been established. A phononic Raman scattering study of the E 2g boron stretching mode anharmonicity and of superconductivity induced self-energy effects is presented. We show that anharmonic two phonon decay is mainly responsible for the unusually large linewidth of the E 2g mode. We observe ∼2.5% hardening of the E 2g phonon frequency upon cooling into the superconducting state and estimate the electron-phonon coupling strength associated with this renormalization

  9. Transport relaxation measurements and glassy state effects in superconducting MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olutas, M.; Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.

    2008-01-01

    Time dependent effects in superconducting MgB 2 have been studied systematically for the first time by transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) as a function of transport current (I), temperature (T) and external magnetic field (H). At very low dissipation levels (below ∼1 μV), it was observed that the sample voltage grows up smoothly in time by exhibiting the details of initial stage of relaxation process. At high dissipation levels, steady state corresponding to constant flow rate is maintained within a very short time and monitoring of details of flux dynamic evolving along sample becomes difficult on long time scales. Another interesting behavior is the appearance of voltage peak when the transport current was reduced to a finite value. After peak, it was observed that the sample voltage relaxes smoothly by leveling off within a very short time. The evolution of V-t curves suggests that formation of resistive flow channels along sample develops easily, which is quite similar to that of obtained for the superconducting ceramic samples whose grain boundaries are improved. Time dependent effects were also observed in magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) as the field sweep rate (dH/dt) varies. The observations were interpreted mainly in terms of flux trapping in grains

  10. Investigation of the resistive transition of MgB2 thin film through current noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, C; Rajteri, M; Portesi, C; Monticone, E; Masoero, A; Mazzetti, P

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present measurements concerning the current noise produced during the resistive transition in a MgB 2 polycrystalline thin film. The power spectrum of the current noise, observed when the temperature is slowly changed across its critical value, presents a large electrical noise of the 1/f n type (n ≅ 3) over a quite wide range of frequencies. This noise may be considered as generated by the abrupt creation of resistive strips across the specimen constituted by grains which have undergone the resistive transition. A computer model that takes into account fluctations of the grain critical currents and of the number of grain per strips, has been developed to simulate the resistive transition and to evaluate the noise power spectrum. When the temperature is incresed and reaches its critical value, resistive strips are formed according to a percolative process, giving rise to resistance steps which are at the origin of the noise. The theoretical results obtained by this model are in good agreement, concerning both the shape and intensity of the noise power spectrum, with the experimental data directly measured on the specimen

  11. Development of ex situ processed MgB2 wires and their applications to magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braccini, Valeria; Nardelli, Davide; Penco, Roberto; Grasso, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the relatively short time dedicated to the development of magnesium diboride conductors since its discovery in early 2001, a substantial improvement was soon achieved in their manufacture and use. Unlike many others HTS and LTS materials, the MgB 2 conductor processing is more open to a number of improvements and modifications that help in making it more attractive for several DC and AC applications. Many kilometres of conductors were already produced throughout the world and it is now possible to start seriously thinking about a systematic industrial production of this material, as it is already possible to purchase it in reasonable lengths on the free market. These remarkable lengths of conductor were also wound in coils and their performance continuously improved in the past years. Here we will present a review of the recent results and a perspective for the future development of this 'new' superconductor, starting from the optimisation of the precursor powders needed to improve the magnetic field behaviour of the tapes, to the conductor development, i.e. the production of multifilamentary Cu-stabilized tapes in lengths up to 1.78 km, to the realization of the first large-scale application devices such as MRI magnets and fault current limiters

  12. Development and fundamental study on a superconducting induction/synchronous motor incorporated with MgB2 cage windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Yamada, Y; Nishio, H; Sugano, M; Amemiya, N; Kajikawa, K; Wakuda, T; Takahashi, M; Okada, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a fundamental study of the rotating characteristics of a induction/synchronous motor by use of superconducting MgB 2 cage windings is carried out based on analysis and experiment. Current transport properties of the produced monofilamentary MgB 2 wires are firstly characterized, and then utilized for the determination of the current carrying capacity of the rotor bars. Then, the motor model is designed and fabricated with the aid of conventional (copper) stator windings. We successfully observe the synchronous rotation of the fabricated motor at a rotation speed range from 300 to 1800 rpm. We can also realize an almost constant torque versus speed curve, and this characteristic is explained from the steep take-off of the electric field versus the current density curve, based on the nonlinear electrical equivalent circuit. These results are promising for the practical applications of a high efficiency motor for a liquid hydrogen circulation pump.

  13. Mechanical properties and bending strain effect on Cu-Ni sheathed MgB2 superconducting tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Minyi; Chen, Jiangxing; Jiao, Zhengkuan; Kumakura, H.; Togano, K.; Ding, Liren; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Zhiyou; Han, Hanmin; Chen, Jinglin

    2004-01-01

    The Young's modulus (E) of Cu-Ni sheathed MgB 2 monofilament tape was measured using electric method. It is about 8.05 x 10 10 Pa, the same order of Cu and its alloys. We found that the lower E value of the MgB 2 component seemed to relate to the lower filament density. The benefits of pre-compression in filaments were discussed in terms of improving stress distribution in the wires and tapes during winding and operation of superconducting magnets. The magnetic field dependence of J c was investigated on the sample subjected to various strain levels through bending with different radii at 4.2 K

  14. Critical current density improvements in MgB2 superconducting bulk samples by K2CO3 additions  

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    MgB2 bulk samples with potassium carbonate doping were made by means of reaction of elemental Mg and B powders mixed with various amounts of K2CO3. The Tc of the superconducting phase as well as its a-axis parameter were decreased as a result of carbon doping. Potassium escaped the samples during...... reaction. The critical current density of MgB2 was improved both in self field and under applied magnetic field for T ≤ 30 K, with optimum results for 1 mol% K2CO3 addition. The normalized flux pinning force (f(b)) shows that the flux pinning mechanism at low field is similar for all samples, following...

  15. Persistence of metastable vortex lattice domains in MgB2 in the presence of vortex motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastovski, C; Schlesinger, K J; Gannon, W J; Dewhurst, C D; DeBeer-Schmitt, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J; Eskildsen, M R

    2013-09-06

    Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.

  16. Effects of α-particle beam irradiation on superconducting properties of thin film MgB2 superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Duong, Pham van; Ha, Dong Hyup; Oh, Young Hoon; Kang, Won Nam; Chai, Jong Seo [Sungkunkwan Univeversity, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Ran Young [Kore Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Superconducting properties of thin film MgB2 superconductors irradiated with 45 MeV α-particle beam were studied. After the irradiation, enhancement of the critical current density and pinning force was observed, scaling close to strong pinning formula. Double logarithmic plots of the maximum pinning force density with irreversible magnetic field show a power law behavior close to carbon-doped MgB2 film or polycrystals. Variation of normalized pinning force density in the reduced magnetic field suggests scaling formulas for strong pinning mechanism like planar defects. We also observed a rapid decay of critical current density as the vortex lattice constant decreases, due to the strong interaction between vortices and increasing magnetic field.

  17. Measurement of the penetration depth and coherence length of MgB2 in all directions using transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loudon, J. C.; Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that images of flux vortices in a superconductor taken with a transmission electron microscope can be used to measure the penetration depth and coherence length in all directions at the same temperature and magnetic field. This is particularly useful for MgB2, where these quantities...... vary with the applied magnetic field and values are difficult to obtain at low field or in the c direction. We obtained images of flux vortices from a MgB2 single crystal cut in the ac plane by focused ion beam milling and tilted to 45 degrees. with respect to the electron beam about...... the crystallographic a axis. A new method was developed to simulate these images that accounted for vortices with a nonzero core in a thin, anisotropic superconductor and a simplex algorithm was used to make a quantitative comparison between the images and simulations to measure the penetration depths and coherence...

  18. MgB2 and Mg1-xAlxB2 single crystals: high pressure growth and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpinski, J.; Kazakov, S.M.; Jun, J.; Zhigadlo, N.D.; Angst, M.; Puzniak, R.; Wisniewski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Single crystals of MgB 2 have been grown with a high pressure cubic anvil technique. They grow via the peritectic decomposition of the MgNB 9 ternary nitride. The crystals are of a size up to 2 x 1 x 0.1 mm 3 with a weight up to 230 μg. Typically they have transition temperatures between 38 and 38.6 K with a width of 0.3-0.5 K. Investigations of the P-T phase diagram prove that the MgB 2 phase is stable at least up to 2190 deg. C at high hydrostatic pressure in the presence of Mg vapor under high pressure. Substitution of aluminum for magnesium in single crystals leads to stepwise decrease of T c . This indicates a possible appearance of superstructures or phases with different T c 's. The upper critical field decreases with Al doping

  19. First-principles study of the (0001)-MgB2 surface finished in Mg and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, Sully; Martínez, Jairo Arbey Rodríguez; Moreno-Armenta, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    We present a study based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) of the volume and two surfaces (0001) of MgB 2 , one of them terminated in Mg and the other one terminated in B. Each one of the surface was relaxed and their electronic properties were determined. From calculation of the enthalpy of formation we found that the Mg-terminated surface is energetically favored. The bands seem to present a formation similar to the Dirac's cone as that are presented in graphene, but in MgB 2 is above of the Fermi level. In the three cases, volume and the two surfaces, the behaviour is boron-metallic, because there are strong presence of B orbital's in the neighborhood of the Ferm level

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy studies on carbon-doped MgB2 superconductor nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateni, Ali; Somer, Mehmet; Erdem, Emre; Repp, Sergej; Weber, Stefan; Acar, Selcuk; Kokal, Ilkin; Häßler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and carbon-doped magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) samples were synthesized using two sets of mixtures prepared from the precursors, amorphous nanoboron, and as-received amorphous carbon-doped nanoboron. The microscopic defect structures of carbon-doped MgB 2 samples were systematically investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mg vacancies and C-related dangling-bond active centers could be distinguished, and sp 3 -hybridized carbon radicals were detected. A strong reduction in the critical temperature T c was observed due to defects and crystal distortion. The symmetry effect of the latter is also reflected on the vibrational modes in the Raman spectra

  1. Nanoparticles of the superconductor MgB2: structural characterization and in situ study of synthesis kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Chunxiang; Liu Debao; Shen Yutian; Sun Jinbin; Meng Fanbin; Wang Ru; Liu Shuangjin; Greer, A.L.; Chen, S.K.; Glowacki, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Single-crystal MgB 2 nanoparticles, with diameters in the range 20-100 nm, have been synthesized in situ in the sample chamber of an X-ray diffractometer. The reaction kinetics are analyzed and related to the atomic-level structure of the particles as observed by high-resolution electron microscopy. Synthesis conditions may have a significant influence on microstructure and superconducting properties

  2. Dynamic vortex-phase diagram of MgB2 single crystals near the peak-effect region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Byeongwon; Chowdhury, P.; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Park, Min-Seok; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic vortex-phase diagram of MgB 2 single crystals has been constructed by using voltage noise characteristics. Between the onset (H on ) and the peak (H p ) magnetic fields, crossovers from a state with large noises to a noise-free state were observed with increasing current while above H p , a reverse behavior was found. We will discuss the dynamic vortex phase diagram and the possible origins of the crossovers

  3. The effect of copper additions in the synthesis of in situ MgB2 Cu-sheathed wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woźniak, M.; Hopkins, S.C.; Gajda, D.; Glowacki, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    The powder-in-tube (PIT) technique has been used to fabricate copper-sheathed magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) wires using an insitu reaction method. The effect of copper powder additions, magnesium-boron molar ratio and heat treatment is studied by SEM, XRD, transport critical current I c (B) and resistivity ρ(T, B) measurements. The results show that addition of copper powder to the core of the wire accelerates the formation of MgB 2 and hence increases its amount and greatly decreases the amount of Mg-Cu intermetallic phases present in the core of the wire after heat treatment. Excess magnesium proved to be effective in compensating for Mg loss due to interdiffusion with the Cu of the wire sheath and resulted in less unreacted boron in the core for wires without added Cu, but seems to oppose the accelerated formation of MgB 2 in Cu added wires. The highest critical current density, 2.8 × 10 4 A cm -2 at 3 T and 4.2 K, was achieved for a wire with a stoichiometric Mg:B ratio and 3 at.% added copper powder heat treated at 700 °C for 5 min.

  4. In-situ synchrotron x-ray study of MgB2 formation when doped by SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, A. B.; Grivel, J.-C.; Andersen, N. H.; Herrmann, M.; Häßler, W.; Birajdar, B.; Eibl, O.; Saksl, K.

    2008-02-01

    We have studied the evolution of the reaction xMg + 2B + ySiC → zMg1-p(B1-qCq)2 + yMg2Si in samples of 1, 2, 5 and 10 wt% SiC doping. We found a coincident formation of MgB2 and Mg2Si, whereas the crystalline part of the SiC nano particles is not reacting at all. Evidence for incorporation of carbon into the MgB2 phase was established from the decrease of the a-axis lattice parameter upon increasing SiC doping. An estimate of the MgB2 lower limit grain size was found to decrease from L100 = 795 Å and L002 = 337 Å at 1 wt% SiC to L100 = 227 Å and L002= 60 Å at 10 wt% SiC. Thus superconductivity might be suppressed at 10 wt% SiC doping due to the grain size approaching the coherence length.

  5. Fabrication and properties of multifilamentary MgB 2 wires by in-situ powder-in-tube process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Y.; Jiao, G. F.; Liu, G. Q.; Xiong, X. M.; Yan, S. C.; Zhang, P. X.; Sulpice, A.; Mossang, E.; Feng, Y.; Yan, G.

    2010-11-01

    We have fabricated the long TiC-doped MgB2 wires with 6 filaments by in-situ powder-in-tube method using Nb as the barrier and copper as the stabilizer. To improve the strength of wires, the Nb-core was used as the central filament. The transport engineering critical current density (Jce) of the samples sintered at different temperature were measured, which reaches 2.5 × 104 A/cm2 at 4.2 K, 5 T. 100 m MgB2 wires with different diameter were wound into coils and the transport critical current (Ic) of the coil were measured at 30 K in self-field. The Jce value 100 m coil achieves 1.1 × 104 A/cm2 in 1.2 mm wire. The reasons leading to the enhancement of high field Jce were discussed. The results show a good potential to fabricate high performance MgB2 wires and tapes at ambient pressure on an industrial scale.

  6. The Influence of CuFe2O4 Nanoparticles on Superconductivity of MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Nikolina; Pajić, Damir; Skoko, Željko; Mustapić, Mislav; Babić, Emil; Zadro, Krešo; Horvat, Joseph

    The influence of CuFe2O4 nanoparticle doping on superconducting properties of Fe-sheated MgB2 wires has been studied. The wires containing 0, 3 and 7.5 wt.% of monodisperse superparamagnetic nanoparticles (˜7 nm) were sintered at 650°C or 750°C for 1 hour in the pure argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction patterns of doped samples showed very small maxima corresponding to iron boride and an increase in the fraction of MgO phase indicating some interaction of nanoparticles with Mg and B. Both magnetic and transport measurements (performed in the temperature range 2-42 K and magnetic field up to 16 T) showed strong deterioration of the superconducting properties upon doping with CuFe2O4. The transition temperatures, Tc, of doped samples decreased for about 1.4 K per wt.% of CuFe2O4. Also, the irreversibility fields Birr(T) decreased progressively with increasing doping. Accordingly, also the suppression of Jc with magnetic field became stronger. The observed strong deterioration of superconducting properties of MgB2 wires is at variance with reported enhancement of critical currents at higher temperatures (determined from magnetization) in bulk MgB2 samples doped with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The probable reason for this discrepancy is briefly discussed

  7. Behaviour of filamentary MgB2 wires subjected to tensile stress at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kováč, P; Kopera, L; Melišek, T; Hušek, I; Rindfleisch, M; Haessler, W

    2013-01-01

    Different filamentary MgB 2 wires have been subjected to tensile stress at 4.2 K. Stress–strain and critical current versus stress and strain characteristics of wires differing by filament architecture, sheath materials, deformation and heat treatment were measured and compared. It was found that the linear increase of critical current due to the pre-compression effect (ranging from 5% up to ≈20%) is affected by thermal expansion and the strength of used metallic sheaths. The values of irreversible strain ε irr and stress σ irr depend dominantly on the applied outer sheath and its final heat treatment conditions. Consequently, the strain-tolerance of MgB 2 wires is influenced by several parameters and it is difficult to see a clear relation between I c (ε) and σ(ε) characteristics. The lowest ε irr was measured for Monel sheathed wires (0.3–0.6%), medium for GlidCop ® sheath (0.48–0.6%), and the highest ε irr = 0.6–0.9% were obtained for MgB 2 wires reinforced by the stainless steel 316L annealed at temperature between 600 and 800 ° C. The highest ε irr = 0.9% and σ irr = 900 MPa were measured for the work-hardened steel, which is not considerably softened by the heat treatment at 600 ° C/2.5 h. (paper)

  8. Refinement of Crystalline Boron and the Superconducting Properties of MgB2 by Attrition Ball Milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Shin, S. Y.; Park, H. W.; Jun, B. H.; Kim, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report refinement of crystalline boron by an attrition ball milling system and the superconducting properties of the MgB 2 pellets prepared from the refined boron. In this work, we have conducted the ball milling with only crystalline boron powder, in order to improve homogeneity and control the grain size of the MgB 2 that is formed from it. We observed that the crystalline responses in the ball-milled boron became broader and weaker when the ball-milling time was further increased. On the other hand, the B 2 O 3 peak became stronger in the powders, resulting in an increase in the amount of MgO within the MgB 2 volume. The main reason for this is a greater oxygen uptake. From the perspective of the superconducting properties, however, the sample prepared from boron that was ball milled for 5 hours showed an improvement of critical current density (J c ), even with increased MgO phase, under an external magnetic field at 5 and 20 K.

  9. Superconductivity and thermal property of MgB2/aluminum matrix composite materials fabricated by 3-dimensional penetration casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Kenji; Saeki, Tomoaki; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Ikeno, Susumu; Mori, Katsunori; Yabumoto, Yukinobu

    2006-01-01

    Superconductive MgB 2 /Al composite material with low and high volume fractions of particles were fabricated by our special pre-packing technique and 3-dimensional penetration casting method. The composite material showed homogeneous distribution of MgB 2 particles in the Al-matrix with neither any aggregation of particles nor defects such as cracks or cavities. The critical temperature of superconducting transition (T C ) was determined by electrical resistivity and magnetization to be about 37-39 K. Specific heat measurements further supported these T C findings. The Meissner effect was also verified in the liquid He, in which a piece of the composite floated above a permanent magnet. The thermal conductivity of the MgB 2 /Al composite material was about 25 W/K·m at 30K, a value much higher than those found for NbTi or Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires normally used in practice, which are 0.5 and 0.2 W/K·m at 10 K, respectively. A billet of the superconducting material was successfully hot-extruded, forming a rod. The same as the billet sample, the rod showed an onset T C of electrical resistivity of 39 K. (author)

  10. Superconducting current generators; Generateurs supraconducteurs de courant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genevey, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1970-07-01

    After a brief summary of the principle of energy storage and liberation with superconducting coils,two current generators are described that create currents in the range 600 to 1400 A, used for two storage experiments of 25 kJ and 50 kJ respectively. The two current generators are: a) a flux pump and b) a superconducting transformer. Both could be developed into more powerful units. The study shows the advantage of the transformer over the flux pump in order to create large currents. The efficiencies of the two generators are 95 per cent and 40 to 60 per cent respectively. (author) [French] Apres un rappel succinct du principe de stockage d'energie dans un solenoide supraconducteur et de sa liberation, nous decrivons deux generateurs de courant qui nous ont permis d'obtenir les courants necessaires (600 a 1400 A) aux experiences de stockage d'energie envisagees (27 kJ et 50 kJ): 1) - une pompe a flux, 2) - un transformateur supraconducteur. Ces generateurs sont extrapolables. Cette etude montre que si nous voulons creer un courant intense, le transformateur grace a son rendement eleve (> 95 pour cent) est preferable actuellement aux pompes a flux dont le rendement est de 40 a 60 pour cent. (auteur)

  11. Evaluation of Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in composite wires for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Michinaka; Ballarino, Amalia; Bartova, Barbora; Bjoerstad, Roger; Gerardin, Alexandre; Scheuerlein, Christian

    2016-02-01

    MgB2 wire is a promising superconductor for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider at CERN. The mechanical properties of MgB2 must be fully quantified for the cable design, and in this study, we evaluate the Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in wires with a practical level of critical current. The Young’s moduli of MgB2 filaments by two different processes, in situ and ex situ, were compared. Two different evaluation methods were applied to an in situ MgB2 wire, a single-fiber tensile test and a tensile test after removing Monel. In addition, the Young’s modulus of the few-micron-thick Nb-Ni reaction layer in an ex situ processed wire was evaluated using a nanoindentation testing technique to improve the accuracy of analysis based on the rule of mixtures. The Young’s moduli of the in situ and ex situ MgB2 wires were in the range of 76-97 GPa and no distinct difference depending on the fabrication process was found.

  12. submitter Evaluation of Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in composite wires for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sugano, Michinaka; Bartova, Barbora; Bjoerstad, Roger; Gerardin, Alexandre; Scheuerlein, Christian

    2015-01-01

    MgB2 wire is a promising superconductor for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider at CERN. The mechanical properties of MgB2 must be fully quantified for the cable design, and in this study, we evaluate the Young's modulus of MgB2 filaments in wires with a practical level of critical current. The Young's moduli of MgB2 filaments by two different processes, in situ and ex situ, were compared. Two different evaluation methods were applied to an in situ MgB2 wire, a single-fiber tensile test and a tensile test after removing Monel. In addition, the Young's modulus of the few-micron-thick Nb–Ni reaction layer in an ex situ processed wire was evaluated using a nanoindentation testing technique to improve the accuracy of analysis based on the rule of mixtures. The Young's moduli of the in situ and ex situ MgB2 wires were in the range of 76–97 GPa and no distinct difference depending on the fabrication process was found.

  13. Ex-situ manufacturing of SiC-doped MgB2 used for superconducting wire in medical device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbirowo, Satrio; Imaduddin, Agung; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a superconductor material with a relatively high critical temperature. Due to its relatively high critical temperature, this material is promising and has the potential to replace Nb3Sn for wire superconducting used in many medical devices. In this work, nanoparticle SiC-doped MgB2 superconducting material has been fabricated through an ex-situ method. The doping of nanoparticle SiC by 10 and 15 wt% was conducted to analyze its effect on specific resistivity of MgB2. The experiment was started by weighing a stoichiometric amount of MgB2 and nanoparticles SiC. Both materials were mixed and grounded for 30 minutes by using an agate mortar. The specimens were then pressed into a 6 mm diameter stainless steel tube, which was then reduced until 3 mm through a wire drawing method. X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted to confirm the phase, whereas the superconductivity of the specimens was analyzed by using resistivity measurement under cryogenic magnetic system. The results indicated that the commercial MgB2 showed a critical temperature of 37.5 K whereas the SiC doped MgB2 has critical temperature of 38.3 K.

  14. Superior critical current density obtained in MgB_2 bulks via employing carbon-coated boron and minor Cu addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Junming; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Xin, Ying; Jin, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Usage of carbon-coated boron leads to high level of homogeneous carbon doping. • Cu addition improves MgB_2 grain connectivity, leading to higher J_c at low fields. • Cu addition reduces MgO impurity, also contributing to the improvement of J_c. - Abstract: High performance Cu doped MgB_2 bulks were prepared by an in-situ method with carbon-coated amorphous boron as precursor. It was found that the usage of carbon-coated boron in present work leads to the formation of uniformly refined MgB_2 grains, as well as a high level of homogeneous carbon doping in the MgB_2 samples, which significantly enhance the J_c in both Cu doped and undoped bulks compared to MgB_2 bulks with normal amorphous boron precursor. Moreover, minor Cu can service as activator, and thus facilitates the growth of MgB_2 grains and improves crystallinity and grain connectivity, which can bring about the excellent critical current density (J_c) at self fields and low fields (the best values are 7 × 10"5 A/cm"2 at self fields, and 1 × 10"5 A/cm"2 at 2 T, 20 K, respectively). Simultaneously, minor Cu addition can reduce the amount of MgO impurity significantly, also contributing to the improvement of J_c at low fields. Our work suggests that Cu-activated sintering combined with employment of carbon-coated amorphous boron as precursor could be a promising technique to produce practical MgB_2 bulks or wires with excellent J_c on an industrial scale.

  15. Co-current Doping Effect of Nanoscale Carbon and Aluminum Nitride on Critical Current Density and Flux Pinning Properties of Bulk MgB2 Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of nanoscale aluminum nitride (n-AlN) and carbon (n-C) co-doping on superconducting properties of polycrystalline bulk MgB2 superconductor has been investigated. Polycrystalline pellets of MgB2, MgB2 + 0.5 wt% AlN (nano), MgB_{1.99}C_{0.01} and MgB_{1.99}C_{0.01} + 0.5 wt% AlN (nano) have been synthesized by a solid reaction process under inert atmosphere. The transition temperature (TC) estimated from resistivity measurement indicates only a small decrease for C (nano) and co-doped MgB2 samples. The magnetic field response of investigated samples has been measured at 4, 10, and 20 K in the field range ± 6 T. MgB2 pellets co-doped with 0.5 wt% n-AlN and 1 wt% n-C display appreciable enhancement in critical current density (J_C) of MgB2 in both low (≥ 3 times), as well as, high-field region (≥ 15 times). J_C versus H behavior of both pristine and doped MgB2 pellets is well explained in the light of the collective pinning model. Further, the normalized pinning force density f_p(= F_p/F_{pmax}) displays a fair correspondence with the scaling procedure proposed by Eisterer et al. Moreover, the scaled data of the pinning force density (i.e., f_p{-}h data) of the investigated pellets at different temperature are well interpreted by a modified Dew-Hughes expression reported by Sandu and Chee.

  16. Very high upper critical fields in MgB2 produced by selective tuning of impurity scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A; Patnaik, S; Braccini, V; Kim, K H; Mielke, C; Song, X; Cooley, L D; Bu, S D; Kim, D M; Choi, J H; Belenky, L J; Giencke, J; Lee, M K; Tian, W; Pan, X Q; Siri, A; Hellstrom, E E; Eom, C B; Larbalestier, D C

    2004-01-01

    We report a significant enhancement of the upper critical field H c2 of different MgB 2 samples alloyed with nonmagnetic impurities. By studying films and bulk polycrystals with different resistivities ρ, we show a clear trend of an increase in H c2 as ρ increases. One particular high resistivity film had a zero-temperature H c2 (0) well above the H c2 values of competing non-cuprate superconductors such as Nb 3 Sn and Nb-Ti. Our high-field transport measurements give record values H c2 perp (0) ∼ 34 T and H c2 par (0) ∼ 49 T for high resistivity films and H c2 (0) ∼ 29 T for untextured bulk polycrystals. The highest H c2 film also exhibits a significant upward curvature of H c2 (T) and a temperature dependence of the anisotropy parameter γ(T)=H c2 par / H c2 opposite to that of single crystals: γ(T) decreases as the temperature decreases, from γ(T c ) ∼ 2 γ(0) ∼ 1.5. This remarkable H c2 enhancement and its anomalous temperature dependence are a consequence of the two-gap superconductivity in MgB 2 , which offers special opportunities for further H c2 increases by tuning of the impurity scattering by selective alloying on Mg and B sites. Our experimental results can be explained by a theory of two-gap superconductivity in the dirty limit. The very high values of H c2 (T) observed suggest that MgB 2 can be made into a versatile, competitive high-field superconductor

  17. Effect of nano-carbon particle doping on the flux pinning properties of MgB2 superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanian, S.; Horvat, J.; Wang, X. L.; Munroe, P.; Dou, S. X.

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline MgB2-xCx samples with x=0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 nano-particle carbon powder were prepared using an in-situ reaction method under well controlled conditions to limit the extent of C substitution. The phases, lattice parameters, microstructures, superconductivity and flux pinning were characterized by XRD, TEM, and magnetic measurements. It was found that both the a-axis lattice parameter and the Tc decreased monotonically with increasing doping level. For the sample doped with...

  18. Mapping flux avalanches in MgB2 films-equivalence between magneto-optical imaging and magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colauto, F; Choi, E M; Lee, J Y; Lee, S I; Yurchenko, V V; Johansen, T H; Ortiz, W A

    2007-01-01

    Vortex avalanches are known to occur in MgB 2 films within a certain range of temperatures and magnetic fields. These events, resulting from a thermomagnetic instability, were first revealed by real-time magneto-optical imaging, which exposed dendritic paths of abrupt flux propagation. This very powerful technique has, however, a practical limitation, since sensors that are currently available cannot be used at high magnetic fields. This letter shows that results obtained using dc magnetometry are in good correspondence with those furnished by magneto-optical imaging, demonstrating that the two techniques can be efficiently used as complementary tools to map vortex avalanches in superconducting films. (rapid communication)

  19. Multi-band description of the specific heat and thermodynamic critical field in MgB2 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, R.; Jarosik, M. W.; Tarasewicz, P.; Durajski, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    The thermodynamic properties of MgB2 superconductor can be explained using the multi-band models. In the present paper we have examined the experimental data available in literature and we have found out that it is possible to reproduce the measured values of the superconducting energy gaps, the thermodynamic critical magnetic field and specific heat jump within the framework of two-band Eliashberg formalism and appropriate defined free energy difference between superconducting and normal state. Moreover, we found that the obtained results differ significantly from the predictions of the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory.

  20. Optimization of the copper addition to the core of in situ Cu-sheathed MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woźniak, M; Juda, K L; Hopkins, S C; Glowacki, B A; Gajda, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent results on powder-in-tube in situ Cu-sheathed MgB 2 wires have shown that copper powder additions to the core can accelerate the formation of MgB 2 , increasing its volume fraction and greatly decreasing the amount of Mg–Cu intermetallic phases present in the core after heat treatment. The amount of added copper and heat treatment conditions strongly affect the critical current of the wire and require optimization. To identify the optimum parameters, eight wires with starting core compositions of Mg+2B+xCu with x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.09, 0.12 and 0.15 were prepared with two heating ramp rates and their properties were investigated by SEM, XRD and J c and n-value measurements. The highest J c was found to be for x = 0.09, whereas x = 0.03 resulted in the highest n-value. The results are relatively independent of the heating ramp rate used for heat treatment. (paper)

  1. Large-scale high-resolution scanning Hall probe microscope used for MgB2 filament characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V; Fedor, J; Gregusova, D; Kovac, P; Husek, I

    2005-01-01

    The scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) is an important imaging tool used for detailed studies of superconductors in basic science as well as in the industrial sector. It can be used for the studies of losses, current distribution, and effects at grain boundaries. However, only a few SHPMs for magnetic field imaging at temperatures below 77 K have been proposed up to now, most of them designed for small-area (∼10x10 μm 2 ) scanning. We present a large-scale low-temperature SHPM developed for imaging the entire magnetic field in close proximity to magnetic and superconducting samples at 4.2-300 K. The microscope combines a large scanned area and high spatial and magnetic field resolution. The instrument is designed as an insert of standard helium flowing cryostats. The Hall sensor scans an area up to 7 x 25 mm 2 in the whole temperature interval with a spatial resolution better than 5 μm. The presented system is used for the study of ex situ prepared MgB 2 filament. We show that external magnetic field induces local supercurrents in the MgB 2 , from which the critical current can be estimated. Moreover, it indicates the microstructure and space homogeneity of the superconductor

  2. Field cooling of a MgB2 cylinder around a permanent magnet stack: prototype for superconductive magnetic bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, E; Giunchi, G

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of bulk superconductors as levitators of permanent magnets (PMs) has been extensively studied for the textured YBCO high-temperature superconductor material, in the temperature range lower than 77 K, obtaining extremely high trapped fields but also experiencing limitations on the mechanical characteristics of the material and on the possibility to produce large objects. Alternatively, bulk MgB 2 , even if it is superconducting at lower temperatures, has fewer mechanical problems, when fully densified, and presents stable magnetization in the temperature range between 10 and 30 K. With the reactive Mg-liquid infiltration technique we have produced dense MgB 2 bulk cylinders of up to 65 mm diameter and 100 mm height. This kind of cylinder can be consider as a prototype of a passive magnetic bearing for flywheels or other rotating electrical machines. We have conductively cooled one of these superconducting cylinders inside a specially constructed cryostat, and the levitation forces and stiffness, with respect to axial movements of various arrangements of the PM, have been measured as a function of the temperature below T c . We verified the very stable characteristics of the induced magnetization after several cycles of relative movements of the PM and the superconducting cylinder.

  3. Effects of carbon concentration and filament number on advanced internal Mg infiltration-processed MgB2 strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G Z; Sumption, M D; Zwayer, J B; Susner, M A; Collings, E W; Rindfleisch, M A; Thong, C J; Tomsic, M J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show that an advanced internal Mg infiltration method (AIMI) is effective in producing superconducting wires containing dense MgB 2 layers with high critical current densities. The in-field critical current densities of a series of AIMI-fabricated MgB 2 strands were investigated in terms of C doping levels, heat treatment (HT) time and filament numbers. The highest layer J c for our monofilamentary AIMI strands was 1.5 × 10 5 A cm −2 at 10 T, 4.2 K, when the C concentration was 3 mol% and the strand was heat-treated at 675 ° C for 4 h. Transport critical currents were also measured at 4.2 K on short samples and 1 m segments of 18-filament C doped AIMI strands. The layer J c s reached 4.3 × 10 5 A cm −2 at 5 T and 7.1 × 10 4 A cm −2 at 10 T, twice as high as those of the best powder-in-tube strands. The analysis of these results indicates that the AIMI strands, possessing both high layer J c s and engineering J e s after further optimization, have strong potential for commercial applications. (paper)

  4. Critical Current and Stability of MgB$_2$ Twisted-Pair DC Cable Assembly Cooled by Helium Gas

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069632; Ballarino, Amalia; Yang, Yifeng; Young, Edward Andrew; Bailey, Wendell; Beduz, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Long length superconducting cables/bus-bars cooled by cryogenic gases such as helium operating over a wider temperature range are a challenging but exciting technical development prospects, with applications ranging from super-grid transmission to future accelerator systems. With limited existing knowledge and previous experiences, the cryogenic stability and quench protection of such cables are crucial research areas because the heat transfer is reduced and temperature gradient increased compared to liquid cryogen cooled cables. V-I measurements on gas-cooled cables over a significant length are an essential step towards a fully cryogenic stabilized cable with adequate quench protection. Prototype twisted-pair cables using high-temperature superconductor and MgB2 tapes have been under development at CERN within the FP7 EuCARD project. Experimental studies have been carried out on a 5-m-long multiple MgB$_2$ cable assembly at different temperatures between 20 and 30 K. The subcables of the assembly showed sim...

  5. Experimental testing and modelling of a resistive type superconducting fault current limiter using MgB2 wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A C; Pei, X; Oliver, A; Husband, M; Rindfleisch, M

    2012-01-01

    A prototype resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) was developed using single-strand round magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) wire. The MgB 2 wire was wound with an interleaved arrangement to minimize coil inductance and provide adequate inter-turn voltage withstand capability. The temperature profile from 30 to 40 K and frequency profile from 10 to 100 Hz at 25 K were tested and reported. The quench properties of the prototype coil were tested using a high current test circuit. The fault current was limited by the prototype coil within the first quarter-cycle. The prototype coil demonstrated reliable and repeatable current limiting properties and was able to withstand a potential peak current of 372 A for one second without any degradation of performance. A three-strand SFCL coil was investigated and demonstrated scaled-up current capacity. An analytical model to predict the behaviour of the prototype single-strand SFCL coil was developed using an adiabatic boundary condition on the outer surface of the wire. The predicted fault current using the analytical model showed very good correlation with the experimental test results. The analytical model and a finite element thermal model were used to predict the temperature rise of the wire during a fault. (paper)

  6. The elastic properties, generalized stacking fault energy and dissociated dislocations in MgB2 under different pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Huifang

    2013-05-31

    The 〈112̄0〉 perfect dislocation in MgB2 is suggested to dissociate into two partial dislocations in an energy favorable way 〈112̄0〉 → 1/2 〈112̄0〉 + SF + 1/2 〈112̄0〉. This dissociation style is a correction of the previous dissociation 〈1000〉 → 1/3 〈11̄00〉 SF + 1/3 〈 2100〉proposed by Zhu et al. to model the partial dislocations and stacking fault observed by transmission electron microscopy. The latter dissociation results in a maximal stacking fault energy rather than a minimal one according to the generalized stacking fault energy calculated from first-principles methods. Furthermore, the elastic constants and anisotropy of MgB2 under different pressure are investigated. The core structures and mobilities of the 〈112̄0〉 dissociated dislocations are studied within the modified Peierls-Nabarro (P-N) dislocation theory. The variational method is used to solve the modified P-N dislocation equation and the Peierls stress is also determined under different pressure. High pressure effects on elastic anisotropy, core structure and Peierls stress are also presented. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  7. Conceptual designs of conduction cooled MgB2 magnets for 1.5 and 3.0T full body MRI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Tanvir; Al Amin, Abdullah; Deissler, Robert J; Sabri, Laith; Poole, Charles; Brown, Robert W; Tomsic, Michael; Doll, David; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Peng, Xuan; Mendris, Robert; Akkus, Ozan; Sumption, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Conceptual designs of 1.5 and 3.0 T full-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets using conduction cooled MgB2 superconductor are presented. The sizes, locations, and number of turns in the eight coil bundles are determined using optimization methods that minimize the amount of superconducting wire and produce magnetic fields with an inhomogeneity of less than 10 ppm over a 45 cm diameter spherical volume. MgB2 superconducting wire is assessed in terms of the transport, thermal, and mechanical properties for these magnet designs. Careful calculations of the normal zone propagation velocity and minimum quench energies provide support for the necessity of active quench protection instead of passive protection for medium temperature superconductors such as MgB2. A new ‘active’ protection scheme for medium Tc based MRI magnets is presented and simulations demonstrate that the magnet can be protected. Recent progress on persistent joints for multifilamentary MgB2 wire is presented. Finite difference calculations of the quench propagation and temperature rise during a quench conclude that active intervention is needed to reduce the temperature rise in the coil bundles and prevent damage to the superconductor. Comprehensive multiphysics and multiscale analytical and finite element analysis of the mechanical stress and strain in the MgB2 wire and epoxy for these designs are presented for the first time. From mechanical and thermal analysis of our designs we conclude there would be no damage to such a magnet during the manufacturing or operating stages, and that the magnet would survive various quench scenarios. This comprehensive set of magnet design considerations and analyses demonstrate the overall viability of 1.5 and 3.0 T MgB2 magnet designs. PMID:29170604

  8. Enhancement of the critical current density and flux pinning of MgB2 superconductor by nanoparticle SiC doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S. X.; Soltanian, S.; Horvat, J.; Wang, X. L.; Zhou, S. H.; Ionescu, M.; Liu, H. K.; Munroe, P.; Tomsic, M.

    2002-10-01

    Doping of MgB2 by nano-SiC and its potential for the improvement of flux pinning were studied for MgB2-x)(SiCx/2 with x=0, 0.2, and 0.3 and for 10 wt % nano-SiC-doped MgB2 samples. Cosubstitution of B by Si and C counterbalanced the effects of single-element doping, decreasing Tc by only 1.5 K, introducing intragrain pinning centers effective at high fields and temperatures, and significantly enhancing Jc and Hirr. Compared to the undoped sample, Jc for the 10 wt % doped sample increased by a factor of 32 at 5 K and 8 T, 42 at 20 K and 5 T, and 14 at 30 K and 2 T. At 20 K and 2 T, the Jc for the doped sample was 2.4 x105 A/cm2, which is comparable to Jc values for the best Ag/Bi-2223 tapes. At 20 K and 4 T, Jc was twice as high as for the best MgB2 thin films and an order of magnitude higher than for the best Fe/MgB2 tapes. The magnetic Jc is consistent with the transport Jc which remains at 20 000 A/cm2 even at 10 T and 5 K for the doped sample, an order of magnitude higher than the undoped one. Because of such high performance, it is anticipated that the future MgB2 conductors will be made using a formula of MgBxSiyCz instead of pure MgB2.

  9. MgB2 thin-film bolometer for applications in far-infrared instruments on future planetary missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.; Cao, N.; Costen, N.; La, A.; Nguyen, L.; Stevenson, T.; Waczynski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A SiN membrane based MgB 2 thin-film bolometer, with a non-optimized absorber, has been fabricated that shows an electrical noise equivalent power of 2.56 × 10 -13 W/√Hz operating at 30 Hz and a responsivity of 702 kV/W. It is predicted that with the inclusion of a gold black absorber that an optical specific detectivity of 8.3 × 10 10 cm/√Hz/W at an operational frequency of 10 Hz, can be realized for integration into future planetary exploration instrumentation where high sensitivity is required in the 17-250 μm spectral wavelength range.

  10. Effect of sorbic acid doping on flux pinning in bulk MgB2 with the percolation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.; Wang, L.; Sun, H.H.; Zhao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the doping effect of sorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 2 ), from 0 to 20 wt.% of the total MgB 2 , on critical temperature (T c ), critical current density (J c ), irreversibility field (H irr ) and crystalline structure. The XRD patterns of samples show a slightly decrease in a-axis lattice parameter for doped samples, due to the partial substitution of carbon at boron site. On the other hand, we investigate the influence of doping on the behavior of flux pinning and J c (B) in the framework of percolation theory and it is found that the J c (B) behavior could be well fitted in high field region. The two key parameters, anisotropy and percolation threshold, play very important roles. It is believed that the enhancement of J c is due to the reduction of anisotropy in high field region.

  11. Ripple Field AC Losses in 10-MW Wind Turbine Generators With a MgB2 Superconducting Field Winding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Magnusson, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) synchronous generators are proposed as a promising candidate for 10-20-MW direct-drive wind turbines because they can have low weights and small sizes. A common way of designing an SC machine is to use SC wires with high current-carrying capability in the dc field winding...... and the ac armature winding is made with copper conductors. In such generators, the dc field winding is exposed to ac magnetic field ripples due to space harmonics from the armature. In generator design phases, the ac loss caused by these ripple fields needs to be evaluated to avoid local overheating...... and an excessive cooling budget. To determine the applicability of different design solutions in terms of ac losses, this paper estimates the ac loss level of 10-MW wind generator designs employing a MgB2 SC field winding. The effects on ac losses are compared between nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic teeth...

  12. Enhancement of the irreversibility field in bulk MgB2 by TiO2 nanoparticle addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    MgB2 samples doped with TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared and the effect of TiO2 addition on the superconducting transition temperature (T-c), irreversibility field (H-irr) and critical current density (J(c)) were investigated. It is found that the hexagonal lattice parameters a and c decrease...... with TiO2 doping. Tc decreases gradually from 38.2 to 37.8 K as the TiO2 content increases from 0 to 15 wt%. The H-irr increases at 20 K from 4.3 to 4.9 T as the TiO2 content increases from 0 to 10 wt%, and at the same temperature J(c) increases from 450 to 4250 A/cm(2) at 4.2 T. (C) 2004 Published...

  13. Magnetic anisotropy of thin sputtered MgB2 films on MgO substrates in high magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savio Fabretti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the magnetic anisotropy ratio of thin sputtered polycrystalline MgB2 films on MgO substrates. Using high magnetic field measurements, we estimated an anisotropy ratio of 1.35 for T = 0 K with an upper critical field of 31.74 T in the parallel case and 23.5 T in the perpendicular case. Direct measurements of a magnetic-field sweep at 4.2 K show a linear behavior, confirmed by a linear fit for magnetic fields perpendicular to the film plane. Furthermore, we observed a change of up to 12% of the anisotropy ratio in dependence of the film thickness.

  14. Potentialities in electronics of new high critical temperature superconductors. Potentialites en electronique des nouveaux supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartemann, P [Thomson-CSF, 75 - Paris (FR)

    1989-09-01

    The main electronic applications of superconductors involve the signal processing, the electromagnetic wave detection and the magnetometry. Characteristics of devices based on conventional superconductors cooled by liquid helium are given and the changes induced by incorporating high-temperature superconductors are estimated. After a survey of new superconductor properties, the superconducting devices for analog or digital signal processing are reviewed. The gains predicted for high-temperature superconducting analog devices are considered in greater detail. Different sections deal with the infrared or (sub)millimeter wave detection. The most sensitive apparatuses for magnetic measurements are based on SQUIDs. Features of SQUIDs made of granular high-temperature superconducting material samples (grain boundaries behave as barriers of intrinsic junctions) are discussed.

  15. Stress/strain characteristics of Cu alloy sheath in situ processed MgB2 superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Kazumune; Kasaba, Koichi; Shoji, Yoshitaka

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical properties of copper and copper alloy (Cu-Zr, Cu-Be and Cu-Cr) sheath in situ PIT-processed MgB 2 superconducting wires were studied at room temperature (RT) and 4.2 K. The effects of stress-strain on the critical current (I c ) of the wires have also been studied at 4.2 K and in magnetic fields up to 5 T. It has been clarified that alloying the Cu sheath significantly increases the yield and flow stresses of the wires at both RT and 4.2 K. The 0.5% flow stresses of the Cu alloy sheath wire were 147-237 MPa, whereas that of Cu was 55 MPa. At RT, serration corresponding to multiple cracking was observed around a strain of 0.4% and the stress-strain curves saturated beyond that point. The strain dependence of I c prior to the critical strain (ε irr ) was different depending on the magnetic field; being almost constant at 2 T and increasing with strain at 5 T. The I c decreased beyond ε irr , which is much larger for Cu alloy sheath wires as compared to Cu sheath wire. This is due to the difference in the residual compressive strain in the MgB 2 core during cooling from the heat-treatment temperature to 4.2 K, which is determined through relaxation by yielding in the sheath materials. The transverse compression tests revealed that the I c of the Cu alloy sheath wire did not degrade up to 314 MPa, which is also higher than that of Cu sheath wire. (author)

  16. Estimation of hysteretic losses for MgB2 tapes under the operating conditions of a generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Llanos, Carlos Roberto; Zermeño, Víctor M R; Grilli, Francesco; Sanz, Santiago; Trillaud, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Hysteretic losses in the MgB 2 wound superconducting coils of a 550 kW synchronous hybrid scaled generator were estimated as part of the European project SUPRAPOWER led by the Spanish Fundación Tecnalia Research and Innovation. Particular interest was given to the losses caused by the magnetic flux ripples in the rotor coils originating from the conventional stator during nominal operation. To compute these losses, a 2D finite element analysis was conducted and Maxwell’s equations written in the H-formulation were solved considering the nonlinear material properties of the conductor materials. The modeled tapes are made of multiple MgB 2 filaments embedded in a Ni matrix and soldered to a high purity copper strip and insulated with Dacron braid. Three geometrical models of single tape cross sections of decreasing complexity were studied: (1) the first model reproduced closely the actual cross section obtained from tape micrographs. (2) The second model was obtained from the computed elasto-plastic deformation of a round Ni wire. (3) The third model was based on a simplified cross section with the superconducting filaments bundled in a single elliptical bulky structure. The last geometry allowed the validation of the modeling technique by comparing numerical losses with results from well-established analytical expressions. Additionally, the following cases of filament transpositions of the multi-filamentary tape were studied: no transposition, partial and full transposition; thereby improving understanding of the relevance of the tape fabrication process on the magnitude of the determination of ac losses. Finally, choosing the right level of geometrical detail, the following operational regimes of the machine and its impact on individual superconducting tape losses in the rotor were studied: bias-dc current, ramping current under ramping background field and magnetic flux ripples under dc background current and field. (paper)

  17. Estimation of hysteretic losses for MgB2 tapes under the operating conditions of a generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Llanos, Carlos Roberto; Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Sanz, Santiago; Trillaud, Frederic; Grilli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Hysteretic losses in the MgB2 wound superconducting coils of a 550 kW synchronous hybrid scaled generator were estimated as part of the European project SUPRAPOWER led by the Spanish Fundación Tecnalia Research & Innovation. Particular interest was given to the losses caused by the magnetic flux ripples in the rotor coils originating from the conventional stator during nominal operation. To compute these losses, a 2D finite element analysis was conducted and Maxwell’s equations written in the H-formulation were solved considering the nonlinear material properties of the conductor materials. The modeled tapes are made of multiple MgB2 filaments embedded in a Ni matrix and soldered to a high purity copper strip and insulated with Dacron braid. Three geometrical models of single tape cross sections of decreasing complexity were studied: (1) the first model reproduced closely the actual cross section obtained from tape micrographs. (2) The second model was obtained from the computed elasto-plastic deformation of a round Ni wire. (3) The third model was based on a simplified cross section with the superconducting filaments bundled in a single elliptical bulky structure. The last geometry allowed the validation of the modeling technique by comparing numerical losses with results from well-established analytical expressions. Additionally, the following cases of filament transpositions of the multi-filamentary tape were studied: no transposition, partial and full transposition; thereby improving understanding of the relevance of the tape fabrication process on the magnitude of the determination of ac losses. Finally, choosing the right level of geometrical detail, the following operational regimes of the machine and its impact on individual superconducting tape losses in the rotor were studied: bias-dc current, ramping current under ramping background field and magnetic flux ripples under dc background current and field.

  18. Influence of the cooling rate on the main factors affecting current-carrying ability in pure and SiC-doped MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, O V; Pan, A V; Soltanian, S; Dou, S X; Wexler, D

    2007-01-01

    We have systematically studied and compared the effect of cooling rate on microstructure, critical current density, upper critical field and irreversibility field in pure and 10 wt% SiC-added MgB 2 superconductors. The sintering process was carried out on the samples at a temperature of 750 deg. C for 1 h followed by quenching or cooling to room temperature in 0.3 h (2433 deg. C h -1 ), 14 h (52 deg. C h -1 ) and 25 h (30 deg. C h -1 ). Changes in the microstructure due to variations in cooling rate have been studied with the help of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Correlations between microstructure and superconducting properties have been observed, identified and explained for both pure and SiC-added MgB 2 samples. Modifications to the pinning environment and grain boundary transparency are considered to be responsible for variations in the current-carrying ability. The dominant pinning on grain boundaries in the pure MgB 2 samples and on nano-inclusions (inducing accompanying defects) in the SiC-doped samples is clearly distinguished. On the basis of our experimental results, we have concluded that the cooling rate can be an important parameter influencing the superconducting properties of MgB 2 samples

  19. Numerical simulation of quench protection for a 1.5 T persistent mode MgB2 conduction-cooled MRI magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Baig, Tanvir; Poole, Charles; Amin, Abdullah; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The active quench protection of a 1.5 T MgB2 conduction-cooled MRI magnet operating in persistent current mode is considered. An active quench protection system relies on the detection of the resistive voltage developed in the magnet, which is used to trigger the external energizing of quench heaters located on the surfaces of all ten coil bundles. A numerical integration of the heat equation is used to determine the development of the temperature profile and the maximum temperature in the coil at the origin, or ‘hot spot’, of the quench. Both n-value of the superconductor and magnetoresistance of the wire are included in the simulations. An MgB2 wire manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. was used as the basis to model the wire for the simulations. With the proposed active quench protection system, the maximum temperature was limited to 200 K or less, which is considered low enough to prevent damage to the magnet. By substituting Glidcop for the Monel in the wire sheath or by increasing the thermal conductivity of the insulation, the margin for safe operation was further increased, the maximum temperature decreasing by more than 40 K. The strain on the MgB2 filaments is calculated using ANSYS, verifying that the stress and strain limits in the MgB2 superconductor and epoxy insulation are not exceeded.

  20. Transport properties and exponential n-values of Fe/MgB2 tapes with various MgB2 particle sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezza, P.; Abaecherli, V.; Clayton, N.; Senatore, C.; Uglietti, D.; Suo, H.L.; Fluekiger, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fe/MgB 2 tapes have been prepared starting with pre-reacted binary MgB 2 powders. As shown by resistive and inductive measurements, the reduction of particle size to a few microns by ball milling has little influence on B c2 , while the superconducting properties of the individual MgB 2 grains are essentially unchanged. Reducing the particle size causes an enhancement of B irr from 14 to 16 T, while J c has considerably increased at high fields, its slope J c (B) being reduced. At 4.2 K, values of 5.3 x 10 4 and 1.2 x 10 3 A/cm 2 were measured at 3.5 and 10 T, respectively, suggesting a dominant role of the conditions at the grain interfaces. A systematic variation of these conditions at the interfaces is undertaken in order to determine the limit of transport properties for Fe/MgB 2 tapes. The addition of 5% Mg to MgB 2 powder was found to affect neither J c nor B c2 . For the tapes with the highest J c values, very high exponential n factors were measured: n=148, 89 and 17 at 3.5, 5 and 10 T, respectively and measurements of critical current versus applied strain have been performed. The mechanism leading to high transport critical current densities of filamentary Fe/MgB 2 tapes based on MgB 2 particles is discussed

  1. Influence of particle size of Mg powder on the microstructure and critical currents of in situ powder-in-tube processed MgB_2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Hiroaki; Ye, Shujun; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Nitta, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated in situ powder-in-tube(PIT) MgB_2 wires using three kinds of Mg powders with particle size of ∼45 μm, ∼150 μm and 212∼600 μm. Mg particles were elongated to filamentary structure in the wires during cold drawing process. Especially, long Mg filamentary structure was obtained for large Mg particle size of 212∼600 μm. Critical current density, J_c, increased with increasing Mg particle size for 1 mm diameter wires. This is due to the development of filamentary structure of high density MgB_2 superconducting layer along the wires. This MgB_2 structure is similar to that of the internal Mg diffusion (IMD) processed MgB_2 wires. However, J_c of the wires fabricated with 212∼600 μm Mg particle size decreased and the scattering of J_c increased with decreasing wire diameter, while the J_c of the wires with ∼45 μm Mg particle was almost independent of the wire diameter. The cross sectional area reduction of the Mg particles during the wire drawing is smaller than that of the wire. When using large size Mg particle, the number of Mg filaments in the wire cross section is small. These two facts statistically lead to the larger scattering of Mg areal fraction in the wire cross section with proceeding of wire drawing process, resulting in smaller volume fraction of MgB_2 in the wire and lower J_c with larger scattering along the wire. SiC nano powder addition is effective in increasing J_c for all Mg particle sizes. (author)

  2. Ball-milling and AlB2 addition effects on the hydrogen sorption properties of the CaH2 + MgB2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavo, B.; Girella, A.; Agresti, F.; Capurso, G.; Milanese, C.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Calcium hydride + magnesium-aluminum borides as candidates for hydrogen storage. → Long time ball milling improves hydrogen sorption kinetics of the CaH 2 +MgB 2 system. → Coexistence of MgB 2 and AlB 2 does not improve hydrogen sorption performances. → Total substitution of MgB 2 with AlB 2 improves the system kinetics and reversibility. → Below 400 deg. C almost the full hydrogen capacity of the CaH 2 + AlB 2 system is reached. - Abstract: Among the borohydrides proposed for solid state hydrogen storage, Ca(BH 4 ) 2 is particularly interesting because of its favourable thermodynamics and relatively cheap price. Composite systems, where other species are present in addition to the borohydride, show some advantages in hydrogen sorption properties with respect to the borohydrides alone, despite a reduction of the theoretical storage capacity. We have investigated the milling time influence on the sorption properties of the CaH 2 + MgB 2 system from which Ca(BH 4 ) 2 and MgH 2 can be synthesized by hydrogen absorption process. Manometric and calorimetric measurements showed better kinetics for long time milled samples. We found that the total substitution of MgB 2 with AlB 2 in the starting material can improve the sorption properties significantly, while the co-existence of both magnesium and aluminum borides in the starting mixture did not cause any improvement. Rietveld refinements of the X-ray powder diffraction spectra were used to confirm the hypothesized reactions.

  3. Critical current density in MgB2 bulk samples after co-doping with nano-SiC and poly zinc acrylate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Suo, H.; Ma, L.; Zhang, T.; Liu, M.; Zhou, M.

    2011-01-01

    SiC and poly zinc acrylate complexes co-doped MgB 2 bulk has been synthesized. Co-doping can cause higher carbon substitutions and the second phase particles. Co-doping can further increase the Jc value of MgB 2 bulk on the base of the SiC doping. The co-doped MgB 2 bulk samples have been synthesized using an in situ reaction processing. The additives is 8 wt.% SiC nano powders and 10 wt.% [(CH 2 CHCOO) 2 Zn] n poly zinc acrylate complexes (PZA). A systematic study was performed on samples doped with SiC or PZA and samples co-doped with both of them. The effects of doping and co-doping on phase formation, microstructure, and the variation of lattice parameters were studied. The amount of substituted carbon, the critical temperature (T c ) and the critical current density (J c ) were determined. The calculated lattice parameters show the decrease of the a-axis, while no obvious change was detected for c-axis parameter in co-doped samples. This indicates that the carbon was substituted by boron in MgB 2 . The amount of substituted carbon for the co-doped sample shows an enhancement compared to that of the both single doped samples. The co-doped samples perform the highest J c values, which reaches 3.3 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at 5 K and 7 T. It is shown that co-doping with SiC and organic compound is an effective way to further improve the superconducting properties of MgB 2 .

  4. Theoretical investigation of the vortex state in new superconductors: MgB2 and PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, V.H.

    2006-01-01

    As illustrated by the present thesis work, gap function anisotropy and crystal anisotropy are combined when influencing superconducting properties under a magnetic field. In order to study the mixed state of the recently discovered multiband superconductor MgB 2 , we first derive the Ginzburg-Landau functional for a two-gap superconductor from a weak coupling BCS model. The interaction between the two condensates is then described by a unique Josephson-type coupling. The two-gap theory then enables to explain the curvature and the anisotropy of the upper critical field, as well as the 30 degrees change of orientation for the vortex lattice which is observed when increasing the strength of the magnetic field applied along the c-tilde axis. Besides, we investigate the vortex lattice geometry in the superconducting heavy fermion PrOs 4 Sb 12 . When taking into account non local corrections for an s-wave T h -tetrahedral superconductor, we can explain the observed deformation of the lattice by the crystal symmetry of the compound. Ab initio results of the band structures confirm quantitatively our analysis. (author)

  5. Carbon-coated boron using low-cost naphthalene for substantial enhancement of Jc in MgB2 superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranot, Mahipal; Shinde, K. P.; Oh, Y. S.; Kang, S. H.; Jang, S. H.; Hwang, D. Y.; Chung, K. C. [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Carbon coating approach is used to prepare carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} bulk samples using low-cost naphthalene (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}) as a carbon source. The coating of carbon (C) on boron (B) powders was achieved by direct pyrolysis of naphthalene at 120 degrees C and then the C-coated B powders were mixed well with appropriate amount of Mg by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there is a noticeable shift in (100) and (110) Bragg reflections towards higher angles, while no shift was observed in (002) reflections for MgB2 doped with carbon. As compared to un-doped MgB{sub 2}, a systematic enhancement in Jc(H) properties with increasing carbon doping level was observed for naphthalene-derived C-doped MgB{sub 2} samples. The substantial enhancement in Jc is most likely due to the incorporation of C into MgB{sub 2} lattice and the reduction in crystallite size, as evidenced by the increase in the FWHM values for doped samples.

  6. MgB2-Based Bolometer Array for Far Infra-Red Thermal Imaging and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-superconducting critical temperature (T(sub c) approximately 39 K) of the simple binary, intermetallic MgB, [1] makes it a very good candidate for the development of the next generation of electrooptical devices (e.g. [2]). In particular, recent advances in thin film deposition teclmiques to attain higb quality polycrystalline thin film MgB, deposited on SiN-Si substrates, with T(sub c) approximately 38K [3] coupled with the low voltage noise performance of the film [4] makes it higbly desirable for the development of moderately cooled bolometer arrays for integration into future space-bourne far infra-red (FIR) spectrometers and thermal mappers for studying the outer planets, their icy moons and other moons of interest in the 17-250 micrometer spectral wavelength range. Presently, commercially available pyroelectric detectors operating at 300 K have specific detectivity, D(*), around 7 x 10(exp 8) to 2 x 10(exp 9) centimeters square root of Hz/W. However, a MgB2 thin film based bolometer using a low-stress (less than 140 MPa) SiN membrane isolated from the substrate by a small thermal conductive link, operating at 38 K, promises to have two orders of magnitude higher specific detectivity [5][6].

  7. Growth of superconducting MgB2 films by pulsed-laser deposition using a Nd-YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, P; Togano, K; Awaji, S; Watanabe, K

    2006-01-01

    Thin films of MgB 2 on r-cut Al 2 O 3 substrates have been grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) using a Nd-YAG laser (fourth harmonic-266 nm) instead of the popular KrF excimer laser. The growth window to obtain superconducting films is laser energy 350-450 mJ and vacuum pressure with Ar-buffer gas of 1-8/10 Pa (initial background vacuum 0.5-1 x 10 -3 Pa). Films were deposited at room temperature and post-annealed in situ and ex situ at temperatures of 500-780 0 C and up to 1 h. Films are randomly oriented with maximum critical temperature (offset of resistive transition) of 27 K. SEM/TEM/EDS investigations show that they are mainly composed of small sphere-like particles (≤20 nm), and contain oxygen and some carbon, uniformly distributed in the flat matrix, but the amount of Mg and/or oxygen is higher in the aggregates-droplets (100-1000 nm) observed on the surface of the film's matrix. Some aspects of the processing control and dependences on film characteristics are discussed. The technique is promising for future development of coated conductors

  8. MgB2 Thin-Film Bolometer for Applications in Far-Infrared Instruments on Future Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.; Cao, N.; Costen, N.; La, A.; Stevenson, T.; Waczynski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A SiN membrane based MgB2 thin-film bolometer, with a non-optimized absorber, has been fabricated that shows an electrical noise equivalent power of 256 fW/square root Hz operating at 30 Hz in the 8.5 - 12.35 micron spectral bandpass. This value corresponds to an electrical specific detectivity of 7.6 x 10(exp 10) cm square root Hz/W. The bolometer shows a measured blackbody (optical) specific detectivity of 8.8 x 10(exp 9) cm square root Hz/W, with a responsivity of 701.5 kV/W and a first-order time constant of 5.2 ms. It is predicted that with the inclusion of a gold black absorber that a blackbody specific detectivity of 6.4 x 10(exp 10) cm/square root Hz/W at an operational frequency of 10 Hz, can be realized for integration into future planetary exploration instrumentation where high sensitivity is required in the 17 - 250 micron spectral wavelength range.

  9. Algorithmes et architectures pour ordinateurs quantiques supraconducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, A.

    2003-09-01

    'utilisation de qubits basés sur les jonctions Josephson. On présente entre autres une approche originale pour l'interaction entre qubits. Cette approche est très générale puisqu'elle peut être appliquée à différents designs de qubits. Finalement, on s'intéresse à la lecture des qubits supraconducteurs de flux. Le détecteur suggéré ici a l'avantage de pouvoir être découplé du qubit lorsqu'il n'y a pas de mesure en cours.

  10. Critical current density analysis of ex situ MgB2 wire by in-field and temperature Hall probe imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolome, E; Granados, X; Cambel, V; Fedor, J; Kovac, P; Husek, I

    2005-01-01

    The irreversible magnetic behaviour at different temperatures of an ex situ Fe-alloy/MgB 2 wire, exhibiting a granular compositional distribution, was studied using an in-field, high resolution Hall probe imaging system. Quantitative information about the local current density was obtained by solving the Biot-Savart inversion problem. The flux penetration and current distribution maps obtained can be attributed to a inhomogeneous compositional 'plum-cake-like' system, consisting of large, isolated MgB 2 agglomerations embedded in a matrix of finely distributed MgB 2 +MgO. The critical current densities within the grains and their evolution with the applied magnetic field and temperature have been obtained, and compared to the mean J c (H,T) in the matrix

  11. A Novel Method for Measurements of the Penetration Depth of MgB2 Superconductor Films by Using Sapphire Resonators with Short-Circuited Parallel Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ho Sang; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. H.; Lee, Sang Young; Seong, W. K.; Lee, N. H.; Kang, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a measurement method that enables to measure the penetration depth(λ) of superconductor films by using a short-ended parallel plate sapphire resonator. Variations in the (λof MgB 2 films could be measured down to the lowest temperature using a sapphire resonator with a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x film at the bottom. A model equation of λλ 0 [1-(T/T c ) τ ] -1/2 for MgB 2 films appeared to describe the observed variations of the resonant frequency of the sapphire resonator with temperature, with λ 0 , τ and T c used as the fitting parameters.

  12. Enhancement of the critical current density in FeO-coated MgB2 thin films at high magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei E. Surdu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of depositing FeO nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm onto the surface of MgB2 thin films on the critical current density was studied in comparison with the case of uncoated MgB2 thin films. We calculated the superconducting critical current densities (Jc from the magnetization hysteresis (M–H curves for both sets of samples and found that the Jc value of FeO-coated films is higher at all fields and temperatures than the Jc value for uncoated films, and that it decreases to ~105 A/cm2 at B = 1 T and T = 20 K and remains approximately constant at higher fields up to 7 T.

  13. de Haas-van Alphen effect investigations of the electronic structure of pure and aluminum-doped MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, A.; Yelland, E.A.; Fletcher, J.D.; Cooper, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the superconducting properties of MgB 2 is strongly linked to our knowledge of its electronic structure. In this paper we review experimental measurements of the Fermi surface parameters of pure and Al-doped MgB 2 using the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect. In general, the measurements are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions of the electronic structure, including the strength of the electron-phonon coupling on each Fermi surface sheet. For the Al doped samples, we are able to measure how the band structure changes with doping. These results are in excellent agreement with calculations based on the virtual crystal approximation. We also review work on the dHvA effect in the superconducting state

  14. Enhancement of Critical Current Density and Flux Pinning in Acetone and La2O3 Codoped MgB2 Tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhao-Shun; Ma Yan-Wei; Wang Dong-Liang; Zhang Xian-Ping; Awaji Satoshi; Watanabe Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    MgB 2 tape samples with simultaneous additions of acetone and La 2 O 3 were prepared by an in-situ processed powder-in-tube method. Compared to the pure and single doped tapes, both transport J c and fluxing pinning are greatly improved by acetone and La 2 O 3 codoping. Acetone supplies carbon into the MgB 2 crystal lattice and increases the upper critical field, while the La 2 O 3 reacts with B to form LaB 6 nanoparticles as effective flux pining centers. The improvement of the superconducting properties in codoped tapes can be attributed to the combined effects of improvement in H c2 and flux pinning. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Enhanced J c property in nano-SiC doped thin MgB2/Fe wires by a modified in situ PIT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.H.; Nakane, T.; Hatakeyama, H.; Kumakura, H.

    2005-01-01

    A modified in situ PIT process, which included a short time pre-annealing and intermediate drawing step in the conventional in situ PIT process, was employed to fabricate thin round MgB 2 /Fe wires from MgH 2 and B powders. The pores and cracks resulted from the MgH 2 decomposition during the pre-annealing were effectively eliminated by the intermediate drawing step, which subsequently increased the core density and J c property of final heat treated wires. A higher reduction rate after the pre-annealing led to a larger enhancement in J c within this study. The reproducibility of our new process on the J c improvement in MgB 2 wires was confirmed in two series of wires doped with 5 mol% or 10 mol% nano-SiC particles separately

  16. Impuretés et systèmes corrélés. Des chaînes aux cuprates supraconducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobroff, J.

    2005-01-01

    Impurities and correlated systems Discovery of high TC superconductors has opened the new field of strongly correlated fermions physics. In these compounds, mostly transition metal oxides, strong correlations between electrons affect sharply their electronic properties. In order to determine accurately these correlations and their possible link with superconductivity, we study the effect of local defects such as non magnetic impurities. In fact, in the more simple case of insulating spin chains and ladders, these impurities induce a staggered magnetism in their neighborhood which reveals the underlying electronic correlations. Similar effects are observed in high TC superconductors, using local probes such as nuclear magnetic resonance. These observations allow to get a better understanding of both normal and superconducting state of these oxides, both full of surprises. La découverte des supraconducteurs à haute température critique a ouvert la voie à une nouvelle physique, celle des fermions fortement corrélés. Dans ces systèmes, le plus souvent des oxydes de métaux de transition, les fortes corrélations entre électrons affectent profondément leurs propriétés électroniques et induisent de nouveaux états originaux : liquides de spins, supraconductivité, etc. Pour mesurer ces corrélations et ainsi déterminer leur lien éventuel avec la supraconductivité, nous proposons d'étudier l'effet de défauts ponctuels tels que des impuretés non magnétiques. En effet, dans le cas plus simple de chaînes ou d'échelles de spin isolantes, ces impuretés induisent dans leur voisinage immédiat un magnétisme alterné révélateur des corrélations électroniques. Des effets semblables sont observés dans les supraconducteurs à haute température critique, grâce à des sondes locales comme la résonance magnétique nucléaire. Ces observations permettent de mieux comprendre à la fois l'état normal et supraconducteur de ces oxydes, tous deux riches en

  17. Fabrication of a Scaled MgB2 Racetrack Demonstrator Pole for a 10-MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Niklas; Eliassen, Jan Christian; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2018-01-01

    Field windings made of MgB2 wires or tapes are considered for their potential to reduce volume, weight, and cost of large offshore wind turbine generators. To gain experience of how to use this relatively new material in full-scale generators, tests of different winding methodologies and techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe in detail the steps used to wind a racetrack coil with a length of 1 m and a width of 0.5 m out of 4.5 km of MgB2 superconducting tape. The width corresponds to a full-scale pole of a 10-MW generator, whereas the length of the straight section is shorter than...... the corresponding full-scale pole. The coil was built up of ten double pancake coils. Each double pancake coil was wet wound using a semiautomatic winding process, where Stycast 2850 was applied directly to the MgB2 tape without any other dedicated electrical insulation. The strengths and weaknesses of the winding...

  18. Superconductivity, critical current density, and flux pinning in MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 superconductor after SiC nanoparticle doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S. X.; Pan, A. V.; Zhou, S.; Ionescu, M.; Wang, X. L.; Horvat, J.; Liu, H. K.; Munroe, P. R.

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effect of SiC nanoparticle doping on the crystal lattice structure, critical temperature Tc, critical current density Jc, and flux pinning in MgB2 superconductor. A series of MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 samples with x=0-1.0 were fabricated using an in situ reaction process. The contraction of the lattice and depression of Tc with increasing SiC doping level remained rather small most likely due to the counterbalancing effect of Si and C co-doping. The high level Si and C co-doping allowed the creation of intragrain defects and highly dispersed nanoinclusions within the grains which can act as effective pinning centers for vortices, improving Jc behavior as a function of the applied magnetic field. The enhanced pinning is mainly attributable to the substitution-induced defects and local structure fluctuations within grains. A pinning mechanism is proposed to account for different contributions of different defects in MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 superconductors.

  19. Effects of MgO impurities and micro-cracks on the critical current density of Ti-sheathed MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G.; Alessandrini, M.; Yen, F.; Hanna, M.; Fang, H.; Hoyt, C.; Lv, B.; Zeng, J.; Salama, K.

    2007-01-01

    Ti-sheathed monocore MgB 2 wires with improved magnetic critical current density (J c ) have been fabricated by in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) method and characterized by magnetization, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical resistivity measurements. For the best wire, the magnetic J c values at 5 K and fields of 2 T, 5 T, and 8 T are 4.1 x 10 5 A/cm 2 , 7.8 x 10 4 A/cm 2 , and 1.4 x 10 4 A/cm 2 , respectively. At 20 K and fields of 0.5 T and 3 T, the J c values are about 3.6 x 10 5 A/cm 2 and 3.1 x 10 4 A/cm 2 , respectively, which are much higher than those of the Fe-sheathed mono-core MgB 2 wires fabricated with the same in situ PIT process and under the same fabricating conditions. It appears that the overall J c for the average Ti-sheathed wires is comparable to that of the Fe-sheathed wires. Our X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicates that J c in the Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires can be strongly suppressed by MgO impurities and micro-cracks

  20. Impedance de surface dans les supraconducteurs quasi-bidimensionnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkir, Driss Brice

    Ce travail a caractere experimental et theorique vise l'etude de l'etat supraconducteur de trois familles de composes: les supraconducteurs conventionnels, les organiques et les cuprates YBCO. Pour ce faire, nous avons utilise une technique hyperfrequence, a savoir la mesure d'impedance de surface en fonction de la temperature et du champ magnetique. Dans les supraconducteurs conventionnels, nous avons mesure pour la premiere fois le pic de "coherence" dans la partie reelle de la conductivite. Bien que predit par la theorie BCS, ce pic n'avait pas ete clairement observe en raison de difficultes techniques liees a ce type d'experience. D'autre part, la theorie d'Eliashberg appliquee a la partie reelle de la conductivite du niobium nous a revele l'importance des mesures hyperfrequences pour mieux extraire la partie basse frequence de la densite spectrale alphasp2F(omega). Cette possibilite est attrayante puisque c'est precisement la region de frequences de alphasp2F(omega) ou les donnees d'effet tunnel sont imprecises. Les resultats obtenus sur la longueur de penetration dans les organiques et les cuprates ont permis de montrer que le gap presente des lignes de zeros au niveau de Fermi ou qu'il est, a tout le moins, fortement anisotrope. En effet, la dependance en temperature de la longueur de penetration dans les cristaux purs est lineaire a basse temperature et elle devient quadratique dans les cristaux dopes. Pour le cas des supraconducteurs organiques quasi-bidimensionnels (Et)sb2X, nous avons aussi observe un maximum sur la partie reelle de la conductivite qui n'a rien a voir avec un pic de coherence. Pour ces composes, nous avons effectue une des toutes premieres etudes des fluctuations supraconductrices en temperature et en champ magnetique. Nous montrons que la paraconductivite sigmasp' due aux fluctuations presente un comportement de type Aslamazov-Larkin de nature tridimensionnelle. Ces mesures sont appuyees par les resultats theoriques d'un modele Ginzburg

  1. Applications magnétoélectriques des supraconducteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Mangin, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    La supraconductivité est devenue incontournable, par exemple avec l’IRM qui équipe nos hôpitaux. Elle permet de spectaculaires réalisations tels le LHC du CERN qui a mis en évidence le boson de Higgs, le projet de fusion nucléaire ITER, le train à sustentation magnétique, etc. Ces applications dans divers domaines reposent sur l’aptitude des fils supraconducteurs à transporter de très fortes intensités de courant et sur l’énorme champ magnétique que des bobines supraconductrices peuvent créer. Elles sont l’objet du présent ouvrage avec d’abord l’élaboration des fils supraconducteurs, prouesse technologique tant pour les câbles Nb – Ti et Nb3Sn que pour les rubans de cuprates. Ensuite, pour chaque application, sont présentés les phénomènes physiques et le fonctionnement des dispositifs technologiques ; le lecteur peut ainsi acquérir une vision globale des apports scientifiques de ces technologies et de leurs enjeux, scientifiques, médicaux et sociétaux. Trois autres ouvrag...

  2. Applications magnétoélectriques des supraconducteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Mangin, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    La supraconductivité est devenue incontournable, par exemple avec l’IRM qui équipe nos hôpitaux. Elle permet de spectaculaires réalisations tels le LHC du CERN qui a mis en évidence le boson de Higgs, le projet de fusion nucléaire ITER, le train à sustentation magnétique, etc. Ces applications dans divers domaines reposent sur l’aptitude des fils supraconducteurs à transporter de très fortes intensités de courant et sur l’énorme champ magnétique que des bobines supraconductrices peuvent créer. Elles sont l’objet du présent ouvrage avec d’abord l’élaboration des fils supraconducteurs, prouesse technologique tant pour les câbles Nb – Ti et Nb$_{3}$Sn que pour les rubans de cuprates. Ensuite, pour chaque application, sont présentés les phénomènes physiques et le fonctionnement des dispositifs technologiques ; le lecteur peut ainsi acquérir une vision globale des apports scientifiques de ces technologies et de leurs enjeux, scientifiques, médicaux et sociétaux. Trois autres o...

  3. Recent achievements in MgB 2 physics and applications: A large-area SQUID magnetometer and point-contact spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, R. S.; Daghero, D.; Calzolari, A.; Ummarino, G. A.; Tortello, M.; Stepanov, V. A.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Rogacki, K.; Karpinski, J.; Portesi, C.; Monticone, E.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, D.; Brinkman, A.

    2006-03-01

    In the first part of the present paper we discuss the fabrication and the characterization of an MgB2-based SQUID magnetometer with a directly coupled large-area pick-up loop, made on an MgB2 film deposited by an all in situ technique. The coarse structure of the SQUID was defined by optical lithography and Ar-ion milling, while the two nanobridges acting as weak links in the superconducting loop were made by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The device was characterized at different temperatures and showed Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K as well as a noise level already compatible with the recording of an adult magnetocardiogram. In the second part, concerning the fundamental physics of MgB2, we present the results of very recent point-contact measurements on Mg1-xMnxB2 single crystals with 34.1 ⩾ Tc ⩾ 13.3 K (i.e. 0.37% ⩽ x ⩽ 1.5%). The experimental conductance curves were fitted with the generalized two-band BTK model and their behaviour in magnetic fields was studied to check if both the order parameters (OPs) of the σ and π bands were present in the whole doping range. The dependence of the OPs (evaluated through the fit) on the Andreev critical temperature of the junctions is analyzed in the framework of the two-band Eliashberg theory by including the effects of magnetic impurities. The results give an evidence of a dominant effect of the magnetic impurities on the σ-band channel.

  4. Specific heat of MgB2 in a one- and a two-band model from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, A.A.; Dolgov, O.V.; Jepsen, O.; Kong, Y.; Andersen, O.K.; Gibson, B.J.; Ahn, K.; Kremer, R.K.; Kortus, J.

    2002-01-01

    The heat capacity anomaly at the transition to superconductivity of the layered superconductor MgB 2 is compared to first-principles calculations with the Coulomb repulsion, μ*, as the only parameter which is fixed to give the measured T c . We solve the Eliashberg equations for both an isotropic one-band model and a two-band model with different superconducting gaps on the π-band anσd-band Fermi surfaces. The agreement with experiments is considerably better for the two-band model than for the one-band model. (author)

  5. Specific heat of the 38-K superconductor MgB_2 in the normal and superconducting state: bulk evidence for a double gap

    OpenAIRE

    Junod, Alain; Wang, Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Toulemonde, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    The specific heat of two polycrystalline samples of MgB_2 is presented and analyzed (2 - 300 K, 0 - 16 T), together with magnetic properties. The main characteristics are a low density of states at the Fermi level, high phonon frequencies, and an anomalous temperature- and field- dependence of the specific heat at T < T_c. A two-gap model with a gap ratio of 3:1 fits the specific heat in zero field. The smaller gap is washed out by a field of 0.5 T.

  6. comportement des nouveaux riz africains face a la pyriculariose

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Key words : Riz, NERICA variety, blast, inoculation, resistance, Côte d'Ivoire. INTRODUCTION. Les nouveaux riz africains ou NERICA (New Rice for Africa) sont des hybrides interspécifiques. (Oryza glaberrima X O. sativa) mises au point par l'ADRAO (actuellement dénommé Centre. Africain pour le Riz) dans les années 90.

  7. De nouveaux vaccins pour animaux pourraient aider davantage d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 juil. 2013 ... Marie-Danielle Smith. Des scientifiques canadiens et africains mettent au point de nouveaux vaccins pour lutter contre les maladies animales et limiter les pertes économiques en Afrique subsaharienne. Certains de ces vaccins pourraient permettre de lutter contre des maladies semblables au Canada.

  8. The reduction of optimal heat treatment temperature and critical current density enhancement of ex situ processed MgB2 tapes using ball milled filling powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwanade, Akio; Kawada, Satoshi; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    The optimal heat treatment temperature (Topt) at which best performance in the critical current density (Jc) property at 4.2 K is obtained is influenced by the quality or reactivity of the filling powder in ex situ processed MgB2 tapes. Using a controlled fabrication process, the Topt decreases to 705-735 °C, which is lower than previously reported by more than 50 °C. The Topt decrease is effective to suppress both the decomposition of MgB2 and hence the formation of impurities such as MgB4, and the growth of crystallite size which decreases upper critical filed (Hc2). These bring about the Jc improvement and the Jc value at 4.2 K and 10 T reaches 250 A/mm2. The milling process also decreases the critical temperature (Tc) below 30 K. The milled powder is easily contaminated in air and thus, the Jc property of the contaminated tapes degrades severely. The contamination can raise the Topt by more than 50 °C, which is probably due to the increased sintering temperature required against contaminated surface layer around the grains acting as a barrier.

  9. Deposition of MgB2 Thin Films on Alumina-Buffered Si Substrates by using Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T. G.; Park, S. W.; Seong, W. K.; Huh, J. Y.; Jung, S. G.; Kang, W. N.; Lee, B. K.; An, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    [ MgB 2 ] thin films were fabricated using hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method on silicon substrates with buffers of alumina grown by using atomic layer deposition method. The growth war in a range of temperatures 500 - 600 degrees C and under the reactor pressures of 25 - 50 degrees C. There are some interfacial reactions in the as-grown films with impurities of mostly Mg 2 Si, MgAl 2 O 4 , and other phases. The T c 's of MgB 2 films were observed to be as high as 39 K, but the transition widths were increased with growth temperatures. The magnetization was measured as a function of temperature down to the temperature of 5 K, but the complete Meissner effect was not observed, which shows that the granular nature of weak links is prevailing. The formation of mostly Mg 2 Si impurity in HPCVD process is discussed, considering the diffusion and reaction of Mg vapor with silicon substrates.

  10. Pressure dependence of the Raman spectrum, lattice parameters and superconducting critical temperature of MgB2: evidence for pressure-driven phonon-assisted electronic topological transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.F.; Struzhkin, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    We overview recent high-pressure studies of high-temperature superconductor MgB 2 by Raman scattering technique combined with measurements of superconducting critical temperature T c and lattice parameters up to 57 GPa. An anomalously broadened Raman band at 620 cm -1 is observed and assigned to the in-plane boron stretching E 2g mode. It exhibits a large Grueneisen parameter indicating that the vibration is highly anharmonic. The pressure dependencies of the E 2g mode and T c reveal anomalies at 15-22 GPa (isotope dependent). The anharmonic character of the E 2g phonon mode, its anomalous pressure dependence, and also that for T c are interpreted as a result of a phonon-assisted Lifshitz electronic topological transition

  11. Effets Josephson generalises entre antiferroaimants et entre supraconducteurs antiferromagnetiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasse, Dominique

    L'effet Josephson est generalement presente comme le resultat de l'effet tunnel coherent de paires de Cooper a travers une jonction tunnel entre deux supraconducteurs, mais il est possible de l'expliquer dans un contexte plus general. Par exemple, Esposito & al. ont recemment demontre que l'effet Josephson DC peut etre decrit a l'aide du boson pseudo-Goldstone de deux systemes couples brisant chacun la symetrie abelienne U(1). Puisque cette description se generalise de facon naturelle a des brisures de symetries continues non-abeliennes, l'equivalent de l'effet Josephson devrait donc exister pour des types d'ordre a longue portee differents de la supraconductivite. Le cas de deux ferroaimants itinerants (brisure de symetrie 0(3)) couples a travers une jonction tunnel a deja ete traite dans la litterature Afin de mettre en evidence la generalite du phenomene et dans le but de faire des predictions a partir d'un modele realiste, nous etudions le cas d'une jonction tunnel entre deux antiferroaimants itinerants. En adoptant une approche Similaire a celle d'Ambegaokar & Baratoff pour une jonction Josephson, nous trouvons un courant d'aimantation alternee a travers la jonction qui est proportionnel a sG x sD ou fG et sD sont les vecteurs de Neel de part et d'autre de la jonction. La fonction sinus caracteristique du courant Josephson standard est donc remplacee.ici par un produit vectoriel. Nous montrons que, d'un point de vue microscopique, ce phenomene resulte de l'effet tunnel coherent de paires particule-trou de spin 1 et de vecteur d'onde net egal au vecteur d'onde antiferromagnetique Q. Nous trouvons egalement la dependance en temperature de l'analogue du courant critique. En presence d'un champ magnetique externe, nous obtenons l'analogue de l'effet Josephson AC et la description complete que nous en donnons s'applique aussi au cas d'une jonction tunnel entre ferroaimants (dans ce dernier cas, les traitements anterieurs de cet effet AC s'averent incomplets). Nous

  12. Réalisation d'écrans magnétiques supraconducteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Lainée , F.; Kormann , R.

    1992-01-01

    Nous mesurons à 77 K les caractéristiques d'écrantage basse fréquence et bas champ d'écrans supraconducteurs en YBaCuO. Celles-ci se comparent favorablement à celles d'écrans en mumétal. La réalisation pratique d'écrans supraconducteurs est dès lors possible pour l'écrantage de petits volumes. Les géométries de réalisation d'écrans pour les grands volumes sont également discutées.

  13. Relationship between the new superconductors and two-or three-dimensional antiferromagnetism. Relations entre les nouveaux supraconducteurs et l'antiferromagnetisme bi et tridimensionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, J P [Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France); Zanoun, Y

    1992-04-01

    With the classical superconductors there is nearly always an opposition with the local or itinerant magnetism. For the new superconductors there is a coexistence regime with the two-dimensional Cu antiferromagnetism of short coherence length, a fact which can be related to a new attractive interaction due to magnetic fluctuations. However, the opposition between this new superconducting state and the three-dimensional antiferromagnetism is analyzed as a function of x proportional to the density of conduction electrons or holes, through the Ginzburg-Landau opposition term {gamma}M{sup 2}{psi}{sup 2} between the two order parameters: if {gamma} is beyond a critical value then there can be no overlap of the two transition temperatures T{sub CM}(x) and T{sub CS}(x), with nevertheless a common border observed for Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}.

  14. The influence of the roll diameter in flat rolling of of superconducting in situ and ex situ MgB2 tape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Michael Halloway; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    , 150 and 210 mm in each step. The investigation has shown that the in situ powder is more readily compacted than the ex situ powder, with an average increase of relative density after mechanical processing of 37% for in situ powder and 19% for ex situ powder. Statistical analysis showed that the choice......Applying the powder in tube (PIT) method, single-filament MgB2/Fe wire and tape has been manufactured applying both the ex situ and the in situ approach. The influence of the roll diameter in three-step flat rolling on the powder density and critical temperature has been examined using rolls of 70...... roll in the first and second reductions followed by the 150 mm or 210 mm roll in the last reduction was the optimum strategy for both powder types. AC susceptibility testing showed that for the in situ tapes there was no correlation between the powder density and the critical temperature. For ex situ...

  15. Negative effects of crystalline-SiC doping on the critical current density in Ti-sheathed MgB2(SiC)y superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G; Fang, H; Luo, Z P; Hoyt, C; Yen, F; Guchhait, S; Lv, B; Markert, J T

    2007-01-01

    Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires doped with nanosize crystalline-SiC up to a concentration of 15 wt% SiC have been fabricated, and the effects of the SiC doping on the critical current density (J c ) and other superconducting properties studied. In contrast with the previously reported results that nano-SiC doping with a doping range below 16 wt% usually enhances J c , particularly at higher fields, our measurements show that SiC doping decreases J c over almost the whole field range from 0 to 7.3 T at all temperatures. Furthermore, it is found that the degradation of J c becomes stronger at higher SiC doping levels, which is also in sharp contrast with the reported results that J c is usually optimized at doping levels near 10 wt% SiC. Our results indicate that these negative effects on J c could be attributed to the absence of significant effective pinning centres (mainly Mg 2 Si) due to the high chemical stability of the crystalline-SiC particles

  16. Fabrication of seven-core multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with high critical current density by an internal Mg diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togano, K; Hur, J M; Matsumoto, A; Kumakura, H

    2009-01-01

    We found that the reaction between a Mg core and a B powder layer in an internal Mg diffusion (IMD)-processed multi-filamentary wire can proceed rapidly even at a furnace temperature lower than the melting point of Mg (650 deg. C), resulting in the formation of a reacted layer with a fine composite structure and, hence, excellent in-field critical current properties. The multi-filamentary wire is composed of an outermost Cu-Ni sheath and seven filaments with a Ta sheath, a Mg core, and B+SiC powder filled in the space between the Ta sheath and the Mg core. Heat treatment at 645 deg. C for 1 h produced a reacted layer with dense composite structure along the inner wall of the Ta sheath and a hole at the center of each core. This reaction probably initiated from the heat generation at the B/Mg interface, resulting in a temperature rise of the Mg core and the occurrence of liquid Mg infiltration. The J c value at 4.2 K for the reacted layer exceeds 10 5 cm -2 at 9 T, which is the highest reported so far for MgB 2 wire, including powder-in-tube (PIT)-processed wires. These results indicate that the IMD process can compete in terms of practical wire fabrication with the conventional PIT process.

  17. Study of the potential of three different MgB2 tapes for application in cylindrical coils operating at 20 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitel, J; Kováč, P; Tropeano, M; Grasso, G

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this theoretical study is to illustrate the potential of three different MgB 2 tapes, developed by Columbus Superconductors, for application in cylindrical coils. First, the distribution of critical currents and electric fields of individual turns is compared when the winding of the model coil is made with tapes having different I c (B) and anisotropy values. Second, the influence of the winding geometry on basic parameters of cylindrical coils which consist of a set of pancake coils, such as critical current I cmin , central magnetic field B 0 and stored energy E, is analysed. The winding geometry of the coils, i.e. the outer winding radius and the coil length, with the same inner winding radius, was changed from a disc shape to a long thin solenoid in such a way that the overall tape length was held constant, and considered as a parameter. Finally, the winding cross-section of the coil is optimized with respect to the constant tape length in order to reach the maximum central field. The results of calculations show that for a given overall tape length and inner winding radius there exists only one winding geometry which generates the maximum central field. The overall tape length, as a parameter, is changed in a broad range from 500 m to 10 km. All calculations were performed using the experimental data measured at 20 K while the effect of the anisotropy in the I c (B) characteristic of the short samples is taken into account. (paper)

  18. Superconducting properties of in situ powder-in-tube-processed MgB2 tapes fabricated with sub-micrometre Mg powder prepared by an arc-plasma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H; Uchiyama, N; Matsumoto, A; Kitaguchi, H; Kumakura, H

    2007-01-01

    We fabricated in situ powder-in-tube-processed MgB 2 /Fe tapes using sub-micrometre Mg powder prepared by applying an arc-plasma method. We found that the use of this sub-micrometre Mg powder was very effective in increasing the J c values. The transport J c value of 10 mol% SiC-added tapes fabricated with this sub-micrometre Mg powder reached 275 A mm -2 at 4.2 K and 10 T. This value was about six times that of 5 mol% SiC-added tapes fabricated with commercial Mg powder. Microstructure analyses suggest that this J c enhancement is primarily due to the smaller MgB 2 grain size

  19. The superconducting gaps of C-substituted and Al-substituted MgB2 single crystals by point-contact spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghero, D.; Gonnelli, R.S.; Ummarino, G.A.; Calzolari, A.; Dellarocca, Valeria; Stepanov, V.A.; Zhigadlo, N.; Kazakov, S.M.; Karpinski, J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of carbon and aluminum substitutions on the gaps of the two-band superconductor MgB 2 by means of point-contact measurements in Mg(B 1-x C x ) 2 and Mg 1-y Al y B 2 single crystals with 0≤x≤0.132 and 0≤y≤0.21. The gap amplitudes, Δ ω and Δ π , were determined by fitting the conductance curves of the point contacts with the standard Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) model generalized to the two-band case. Whenever possible, their values were confirmed by the independent fit (with a single-band BTK model) of the partial contribution of the two bands to the conductance, separated by means of a suitable magnetic field B*. In C-substituted crystals, the two gaps remain clearly distinct up to x∝0.10, but at x=0.132 we observed for the first time their merging into a single gap Δ≅3 meV with a gap ratio 2Δ=k B T c close to the standard BCS value. In Al-substituted crystals, we found no evidence of this gap merging. Instead, Δ π reaches the value 0.4 meV at y=0.21, where Δ π saturates at about 4 meV. These results are compared with other recent experimental findings in polycrystals and with the predictions of the models for multiband superconductivity. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Réalisation d'écrans magnétiques supraconducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainée, F.; Kormann, R.

    1992-02-01

    Low fields and low frequency shielding properties of YBCO magnetic shields are measured at 77 K. They compare favourably with shielding properties of mumetal shields. Therefore high-T_c superconducting magnetic shields can already be used to shield small volumes. The case of magnetic shields for large volumes is also discussed. Nous mesurons à 77K les caractéristiques d'écrantage basse fréquence et bas champ d'écrans supraconducteurs en YBaCuO. Celles-ci se comparent favorablement à celles d'écrans en mumétal. La réalisation pratique d'écrans supraconducteurs est dès lors possible pour l'écrantage de petits volumes. Les géométries de réalisation d'écrans pour les grands volumes sont également discutées.

  1. MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPERCONDUCTING MGB(2).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHU,Y.; LI,Q.; WU,L.; VOLKOV,V.; GU,G.; MOODENBAUGH,A.R.

    2001-07-12

    Recently, Akimitsu and co-workers [1] discovered superconductivity at 39 K in the intermetallic compound MgB{sub 2}. This discovery provides a new perspective on the mechanism for superconductivity. More specifically, it opens up possibilities for investigation of structure/properties in a new class of materials. With the exceptions of the cuprate and C{sub 60} families of compounds, MgB{sub 2} possesses the highest superconducting transition temperature T{sub c}. Its superconductivity appears to follow the BCS theory, apparently being mediated by electron-phonon coupling. The coherence length of MgB{sub 2} is reported to be longer than that of the cuprates [2]. In contrast to the cuprates, grain boundaries are strongly coupled and current density is determined by flux pinning [2,3]. Presently, samples of MgB{sub 2} commonly display inhomogeneity and porosity on the nanoscale, and are untextured. In spite of these obstacles, magnetization and transport measurements show that polycrystalline samples may carry large current densities circulating across many grains [3,4]. Very high values of critical current densities and critical fields have been recently observed in thin films [5,6]. These attributes suggest possible large scale and electronic applications. The underlying microstructure can be intriguing, both in terms of basic science and in applied areas. Subsequent to the discovery, many papers were published [1-13], most dealing with synthesis, physical properties, and theory. There have yet been few studies of microstructure and structural defects [11, 14]. A thorough understanding of practical superconducting properties can only be developed after an understanding of microstructure is gained. In this work we review transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of sintered MgB{sub 2} pellets [14]. Structural defects, including second phase particles, dislocations, stacking faults, and grain boundaries, are analyzed using electron diffraction, electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), high resolution imaging, and structural modeling.

  2. Gestion decentralisee de l'ecole Au benin. Quand de nouveaux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quand de nouveaux acteurs interviennent sur la scene educative. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... autres instruments organisant la gouvernance éducative décentralisée en république du Bénin, des observations et des ...

  3. Combined addition of nano diamond and nano SiO2, an effective method to improve the in-field critical current density of MgB2 superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahul, S.; Varghese, Neson; Vinod, K.; Devadas, K.M.; Thomas, Syju; Anees, P.; Chattopadhyay, M.K.; Roy, S.B.; Syamaprasad, U.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Both nano diamond and nano SiO 2 caused significant modifications in the structural properties of pure MgB 2 sample. → Reduction in T C for the best codoped sample was approximately 2 K. → The best codoped sample yielded a J C , an order of magnitude more than the undoped one at 5 K and 8 T. → The enhanced flux pinning capability provided by the additives is responsible for the improved in-field J C . -- Abstract: MgB 2 bulk samples added with nano SiO 2 and/or nano diamond were prepared by powder-in-sealed-tube (PIST) method and the effects of addition on structural and superconducting properties were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the addition caused systematic reduction in 'a' lattice parameter due to the substitution of C atoms at B sites and the strain caused by reacted intragrain nano particles of Mg 2 Si as evinced by transmission electron microscope image. Scanning electron microscopy images showed distinct microstructural variations with SiO 2 /diamond addition. It was evident from DC magnetization measurements that the in-field critical current density [J C (H)] of doped samples did not fall drastically like the undoped sample. Among the doped samples the J C (H) of co-doped samples were significantly higher and the best co-doped sample yielded a J C , an order of magnitude more than the undoped one at 5 K and 8 T.

  4. Phenomenologie et caractérisation des supraconducteurs à haute Tc

    OpenAIRE

    Peyral , P.; Lebeau , C.; Rosenblatt , J.; Burin , Jean-Philippe; Raboutou , A.; Pena , O.; Perrin , C.

    1991-01-01

    Les propriétés de transport des supraconducteurs dépendent à la fois de la structure microscopique du matériau idéal et des caractéristiques mésoscopiques (la granularité) de chaque échantillon. Du point de vue expérimental il est essentiel de pouvoir séparer leurs effet respectifs. Nous parvenons à cette séparation en décrivant quantitativement la transition résistive sous champ nul en deux étapes: supraconductrice intragranulaire et cohérente intergranulaire. Des théories connues des fluctu...

  5. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T → 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  6. Fast liberation of energy stored using superconductors; Liberation rapide d'energie stockee au moyen de supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, G; Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After a rapid description of the circumstances in which they first thought of using superconducting materials for the storage and liberation of energy, the authors examine, in comparison to condensers, the energy densities which can thus be stored, the methods used for introducing this energy into the superconducting circuit and for trapping it, and the law governing the discharge of this energy into a purely dissipative impedance. This leads to a derivation of the expression for the energy yield which depends on the characteristics of the switch used for opening the superconducting circuit. An experimental study has been made of a superconducting switch with a view to understanding the various parameters. As a result of this analysis, transitions of this switch, over the whole of its mass, were obtained for periods of a few microseconds, and energy yields close to unity were obtained. The obtention of fast discharges is now no longer a technological problem. (authors) [French] Rappelant tres brievement les circonstances dans lesquelles ont pris naissance leurs premieres idees d'utilisation des materiaux supraconducteurs pour le stockage et la liberation d'energie les auteurs examinent, par rapport aux condensateurs, les densites d'energie que l'on peut ainsi stocker, les methodes utilisables pour introduire cette energie dans le circuit supraconducteur et pour la pieger, la loi de decharge de cette energie dans une impedance purement dissipative. Ceci conduit a l'expression du rendement en energie. Ce rendement depend des caracteristiques de l'interrupteur qui sert a ouvrir le circuit supraconducteur. Le cas de l'interrupteur supraconducteur a ete analyse experimentalement de facon a en degager les differents parametres. La suite de cette analyse, des transitions de l'interrupteur, dans la totalite de sa masse, ont ete obtenues dans des temps de quelques microsecondes permettant des rendements en energie se rapprochant de l'unite. L'obtention de decharges rapides

  7. Aspects technologiques d'un alternateur synchrone entièrement supraconducteur de 18 kVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Védrine, P.; Brunet, Y.; Tixador, P.; Bonnet, P.; Laumond, Y.; Sabrié, J. L.

    1991-02-01

    Taking advantage of the recent development of low loss a.c. superconducting conductors, the realization of a fully superconducting generator is now possible. In collaboration with GEC-ALSTHOM we have first, in the CRTBT-LEG lab, defined the main characteristics of the machine and the technological problems induced by the use of superconducting wires both at the armature and the field windings. We have now constructed the first fully superconducting generator with separated cryostats, for the stator and rotor windings. Le faible niveau de pertes en régime alternatif obtenu dans des brins multifilamentaires NbTi produits par GEC-ALSTHOM, a permis à partir de 1984 d'envisager la réalisation d'un alternateur synchrone dont les deux enroulements, inducteur et induit, seraient supraconducteurs. Le travail entrepris au CRTBT-LEG en collaboration avec GEC-ALSTHOM a eu pour objectif de définir les caractéristiques de la machine, d'identifier puis de résoudre les problèmes technologiques liés aux conditions d'utilisation de ces supraconducteurs, afin de réaliser maintenant, le premier alternateur entièrement supraconducteur à axe horizontal avec des cryostats statorique et rotorique séparés.

  8. De nouveaux mécanismes de résilience : rapport interactif au sujet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 nov. 2012 ... On y trouve de nombreux liens vers des ressources relatives au programme et aux projets, ainsi que des pistes pour explorer plus en profondeur les résultats des recherches scientifiques. Lire le rapport De nouveaux mécanismes de résilience (PDF, 2,98 Mo). Une version récente d'Adobe Reader est ...

  9. Les nouveaux acteurs de la coopération en Afrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte de la mondialisation et, aujourd’hui, de la crise financière mondiale, de nouveaux acteurs de la coopération émergent en Afrique. Ces partenaires desserrent la contrainte financière et les conditionnalités, augmentent les marges de manœuvre et dopent le marché des matières premières, mais ils accroissent aussi les risques de réendettement et de faiblesse de la coordination des politiques d’aide. Ces partenariats remettent-ils en question les nouvelles pratiques de la coopération des pays de l’OCDE ? Justifient-ils le retour à une realpolitik ou reproduisent-ils les anciennes erreurs des puissances industrielles ? Ces erreurs peuvent-elles être corrigées ? La question se pose également de savoir si la crise mondiale qui touche profondément l’Afrique conduira à un retrait ou à un relais des nouvelles puissances émergentes. Ce chapitre distingue les nouveaux enjeux géopolitiques de l’Afrique dans un monde multipolaire puis les nouveaux acteurs de la coopération en Afrique, avant d’explorer les perspectives qui s’ouvrent pour la coopération en Afrique, notamment eu égard à la crise mondiale.

  10. Préparation et caracterisation de composites ll verre-supraconducteur gg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin-Semène, L.; Pradel, A.; Ribes, M.; Belouet, C.

    1994-11-01

    Several types of " glass/superconductor " composites were prepared by a uniaxial hot pressing method. The BiSrCaCuO oxides were the materials under investigation in this work. A preliminary study of glasses obtained in this BiSrCaCuO system indicated that phase separation with nodules of 50 to 100 nm generally occurs. Glasses used as parts of composites are : 1) PbOB2O3 ones because of their low transition temperature and their large thermal stability which were favourable to texturation of superconducting grains, 2) BiSrCaCuO (2212, 2223, 4334) glasses because further recrystallisation could be carried out to improve grain connectivity and at last 3) mixture of BiSrCaCuO glass and V2O5 or PbO-B2O3 to insure a compromise between texturing and connectivity. Resistivity and current density measurements indicated that these types of composites were potential candidates for use as current limiters. Différents composites " verre/supraconducteur " ont été préparés par pressage à chaud uniaxial. Nos travaux ont porté sur les oxydes " BiSrCaCuO ". Une étude préalable des verres de ce système a permis de mettre en évidence une séparation de phase avec présence de nodules dont la taille est comprise entre 50 et 100 nm. Les verres choisis pour l'élaboration de ces composites ont été : 1 ) le verre PbO-B2O3 dont la basse température de transition vitreuse et la grande stabilité thermique étaient des éléments favorables à une bonne texturation des grains supraconducteurs, 2) les verres BiSrCaCuO purs (2212, 2223, 4334) dont la recristallisation partielle par recuit a posteriori devait assurer une meilleure connectivité entre grains, et enfin 3) des mélanges " BiSrCaCuO (V) " + V2O5 OU PbO-B2O3 qui devaient permettre d'assurer un compromis entre texturation et connectivité. Les mesures de résistivité et de densité de courant montrent que ces composites sont de bons candidats pour des applications de limiteur de courant.

  11. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  12. Energy storage. Possibilities of superconductors for high power discharges; Stockage d'energie. Possibilites des supraconducteurs en vue des decharges de grandes puissances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After briefly examining the various processes for energy storage and fast liberation, the author stresses the new possibilities of superconductors in this field. (author) [French] Apres un bref examen des differents procedes de stockage et de liberation rapide d'energie, l'auteur souligne les perspectives nouvelles qu'apportent les supraconducteurs dans ce domaine. (auteur)

  13. Croissance des couches minces et des multicouches de matériaux supraconducteurs H Tboldmath_c : bilan et perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contour, J. P.

    1994-11-01

    The main physical and chemical techniques of epitaxial growth of High T_c superconductor thin films are described together with their in situ analysis facilities and discussed with respect to their cost, sophistication and results (T_c, J_c growth defects, thickness and composition uniformity, crystallinity, electronic applications...). The future trends of the growth machines are then examined in connection with the present results and the development of superconductor electronics. Après la présentation des principales techniques de croissance physique et physicochimique de couches minces d'oxydes supraconducteurs à haute température critique, un bilan des résultats sera dressé par rapport aux différentes propriétés des films (transition résistive, courant critique, défauts de croissance, uniformité d'épaisseur et de composition, cristallinité...), aux difficultés de mise en œuvre et au coût de l'expérience. Les perspectives des différentes techniques seront ensuite examinées dans le cadre du développement potentiel d'une électronique utilisant les matériaux supraconducteurs H T_c.

  14. Phenomenologie et caractérisation des supraconducteurs à haute T_c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyral, P.; Lebeau, C.; Rosenblatt, J.; Burin, J. P.; Raboutou, A.; Pena, Q.; Perrin, C.

    1991-11-01

    Transport properties of high T_c superconductors depend on the microscopic structure of the ideal material and on the mesoscopic characteristics of each sample. From an experimental point of view it is essential to separate their efrects. This can be done by describing quantitatively the resistive transition in zero field as a two-step process : a superconducting intragranular transition and an intergranular coherence transition. Well-known theories of critical fluctuations and Gaussian fluctuations allow us to obtain important characteristic parameters of the intragranular material such as the critical temperature, the normal resistivity and the width of the critical region. Les propriétés de transport des supraconducteurs dépendent à la fois de la structure microscopique du matériau idéal et des caractéristiques mésoscopiques (la granularité) de chaque échantillon. Du point de vue expérimental il est essentiel de pouvoir séparer leurs effet respectifs. Nous parvenons à cette séparation en décrivant quantitativement la transition résistive sous champ nul en deux étapes: supraconductrice intragranulaire et cohérente intergranulaire. Des théories connues des fluctuations critiques et gaussiennes nous permettent alors d'obtenir des paramètres importants pour la caractérisation du matériau intragranulaire, comme sa température critique, sa résistivité normale et la largeur de sa région critique.

  15. Transition de dépiégeage élastique de vortex supraconducteurs*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fily Yaouen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present 2D numerical simulation results of superconductor vortex lattices driven over a random disorder. The vortex dynamics at the depinning threshold Fc is studied at zero temperature in the case of weak disorder. The dynamics is elastic and the depinning transition is analysed in the framework of a second order phase transition where the velocity response v to the driving force F behaves like v ~ (F − Fcβ. The analysis of the critical region of several large lattice sizes leads to the result that β = 0.27 ± 0.04. Nous présentons des résultats de simulations numériques à deux dimensions sur des réseaux de vortex dans les supraconducteurs que l’on met en mouvement dans un potentiel aléatoire. On étudie la dynamique des vortex au seuil de dépiégeage Fc dans le cas d’un faible désordre à température nulle. Les régimes élastiques au seuil de dépiégeage sont analysés dans le cadre des transitions de phase continues (transitions du second ordre. La réponse en vitesse v à la force d’entraînement F se comporte comme v ~ (F − Fcβ au voisinage immédiat du seuil de dépiégeage. Dans la région critique obtenue pour différentes grandes tailles du système simulé, nous mesurons l’exposant critique β = 0.27 ± 0.04.

  16. Developpement d'une methode calorimetrique de mesure des pertes ac pour des rubans supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolez, Patricia

    Le travail de recherche effectue dans le cadre de ce projet de doctorat a permis la mise au point d'une methode de mesure des pertes ac destinee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Pour le choix des principes de cette methode, nous nous sommes inspires de travaux anterieurs realises sur les supraconducteurs conventionnels, afin de proposer une alternative a la technique electrique, presentant lors du debut de cette these des problemes lies a la variation du resultat des mesures selon la position des contacts de tension sur la surface de l'echantillon, et de pouvoir mesurer les pertes ac dans des conditions simulant la realite des futures applications industrielles des rubans supraconducteurs: en particulier, cette methode utilise la technique calorimetrique, associee a une calibration simultanee et in situ. La validite de la methode a ete verifiee de maniere theorique et experimentale: d'une part, des mesures ont ete realisees sur des echantillons de Bi-2223 recouverts d'argent ou d'alliage d'argent-or et comparees avec les predictions theoriques donnees par Norris, nous indiquant la nature majoritairement hysteretique des pertes ac dans nos echantillons; d'autre part, une mesure electrique a ete realisee in situ dont les resultats correspondent parfaitement a ceux donnes par notre methode calorimetrique. Par ailleurs, nous avons compare la dependance en courant et en frequence des pertes ac d'un echantillon avant et apres qu'il ait ete endommage. Ces mesures semblent indiquer une relation entre la valeur du coefficient de la loi de puissance modelisant la dependance des pertes avec le courant, et les inhomogeneites longitudinales du courant critique induites par l'endommagement. De plus, la variation en frequence montre qu'au niveau des grosses fractures transverses creees par l'endommagement dans le coeur supraconducteur, le courant se partage localement de maniere a peu pres equivalente entre les quelques grains de matiere

  17. Lévitation magnétique par association d'aimants permanents et de supraconducteurs à haute température critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebel, P.; Tixador, P.; Chaud, X.

    1995-06-01

    Since their discovery in the years 1986/87, the high critical temperature superconductors have reached nowadays performances interesting enough to conceive passive magnetic bearings and suspensions which would combined permanent magnets and naturally stable superconducting pellets. After underlining the principal factors that affect the superconductormagnet interaction, different experimental results are given about vertical and axial forces with some stiffness values. The magnetization curve of a superconductor help to understand the hysteretic behavior of the force as a function of the distance between superconductor and magnet. So called simple and hybrid structures of superconducting magnetic suspension are presented. Finally simple numerical simulations allow to draw some interesting conclusions about both geometry and best fitting structure of permanent magnets. Depuis leur découverte dans les années 1986/87, les supraconducteurs à haute température critique ont désormais atteint des performances intéressantes et rendent envisageables des paliers et suspensions magnétiques passives associant aimants permanents et pastilles supraconductrices naturellement stables. Après avoir indiqué les termes importants influençant l'interaction supraconducteur - aimant, différents relevés expérimentaux sont donnés pour les forces verticales et transversales avec quelques valeurs de raideurs. La courbe d'aimantation d'un supraconducteur permet de comprendre le comportement hystérétique de la force en fonction de la distance supraconducteur-aimant. Les structures dites simple et hybride des suspensions magnétiques supraconductrices sont présentées. Enfin quelques simulations numériques simples permettent de dégager quelques conclusions intéressantes quant aux géométries respectives et aux structures d'aimants permanents les mieux adaptées.

  18. Evaluation experimentale et theorique du comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metiche, Slimane

    La demande croissante en poteaux pour les differents reseaux d'electricite et de telecommunications a rendu necessaire l'utilisation de materiaux innovants, qui preservent l'environnement. La majorite des poteaux electriques existants au Canada ainsi qu'a travers le monde, sont fabriques a partir de materiaux traditionnels tel que le bois, le beton ou l'acier. Les motivations des industriels et des chercheurs a penser a d'autres solutions sont diverses, citons entre autre: La limitation en longueur des poteaux en bois ainsi que la vulnerabilite des poteaux fabriques en beton ou en acier aux agressions climatiques. Les nouveaux poteaux en materiaux composites se presentent comme de bons candidats a cet effet, cependant; leur comportement structural n'est pas connu et des etudes theoriques et experimentales approfondies sont necessaires avant leur mise en marche a grande echelle. Un programme de recherche intensif comportant plusieurs projets experimentaux, analytiques et numeriques est en cours a l'Universite de Sherbrooke afin d'evaluer le comportement a court et a long termes de ces nouveaux poteaux en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres (PRF). C'est dans ce contexte que s'inscrit la presente these, et notre recherche vise a evaluer le comportement a la flexion de nouveaux poteaux tubulaires coniques fabriques en materiaux composites par enroulement filamentaire et ce, a travers une etude theorique, ainsi qu'a travers une serie d'essais de flexion en "grandeur reelle" afin de comprendre le comportement structural de ces poteaux, d'optimiser la conception et de proposer une procedure de dimensionnement pour les utilisateurs. Les poteaux en Polymeres Renforces de Fibres (PRF) etudies dans cette these sont fabriques avec une resine epoxyde renforcee de fibres de verre type E. Chaque type poteaux est constitue principalement de trois zones ou les proprietes geometriques (epaisseur, diametre) et les proprietes mecaniques sont differentes d'une zone a l'autre. La difference

  19. Traité des nouveaux risques précaution, crise, assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Godard, Olivier; Lagadec, Patrick; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann

    2002-01-01

    Au-delà des dénonciations de la technologie prométhéenne, s'appuyant sur les acquis de la recherche économique et d'autres disciplines des sciences sociales, cet ouvrage pionnier rassemble les pièces d'un puzzle dispersé. Le motif en est clair: dégager les axes d'une gouvernance des nouveaux risques. Celle-ci repose sur trois piliers qui organisent le panorama offert : la précaution - de la théorie du risque à celle des régimes politiques dans un univers à la fois non probabiliste et controversé; la prévention et la gestion de crises - dont les traits saillants sont montrés à partir de trois cas exemplaires : la contamination criminelle d'un produit pharmaceutique ; la destruction du réseau électrique québécois en 1998 ; l'épidémie de la vache folle au Royaume-Uni ; l'assurance des risques à grande échelle (désastres naturels, catastrophes technologiques et terrorisme de masse) qui, avérés ou potentiels, bouleversent l'économie de l'assurance. Pourquoi un Traité ? La raison en es...

  20. Study of super-conductors in the aluminium-magnesium system; Etude des supraconducteurs du systeme aluminium-magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnin, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-05-01

    The author has designed and built an apparatus for the measurement of the magnetization of superconducting alloys by the classical method of extraction. Its originality is due to the employment of a cryostat having two helium baths. The lowest temperature reached by pumping on the innermost helium bath using a primary pump combined with a BOOSTER pump is 0.75 deg. K. Temperatures are determined with a aid of Hartshorn bridge. With this apparatus, it has been possible to study the influence of extended defects on the irreversible behaviour of the magnetization of aluminium-magnesium alloys. It has been shown that the effect of these defects is important chiefly in the superconductors alloys of the second kind. The introduction of the extended defects was controlled by electron microscopy and by the measure of the residual resistivities. Finally, the author has measured for these alloys the critical fields Hc, Hc1, Hc2, the transition temperatures Tc and the coefficients of electronic specific heat {gamma}. (author) [French] L'auteur a realise un appareillage lui permettant de mesurer l'aimantation d'alliages supraconducteurs par la methode classique d'extraction. L'originalite du montage reside en la construction d'un cryostat a double bain d'helium. La temperature la plus basse atteinte en pompant sur le bain d'helium interieur a l'aide d'une pompe BOOSTER est de 0.75 deg. K. Les temperatures sont determinees a l'aide d'un pont de Hartshorn. C'est avec cet appareillage que l'auteur a pu etudier l'influence des defauts etendus sur le comportement irreversible de l'aimantation d'alliages d'aluminium-magnesium. Il a montre que l'influence de ces defauts est essentiellement sensible dans les alliages supraconducteurs de la deuxieme espece. L'introduction des defauts etendus a ete controlee par microscopie electronique et par mesure de resistivite residuelle. Enfin, pour tous ces alliages ont ete mesures: les champs critiques Hc, Hc1, Hc2, les temperatures critiques Tc

  1. De nouveaux acteurs de la régulation du travail dans la gestion par projets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Legault

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte d’une grande transformation de l’économie mondiale, on constate de plus en plus l’inadéquation des efforts de théorisation des relations de travail qui datent du fordisme, notamment du modèle d’analyse systémique (Dunlop, 1958 comme du modèle stratégique (Kochan, Katz et McKersie, 1986 ; dans ces deux modèles en effet, trois acteurs se partagent exclusivement la scène de l’action : les syndicats, les employeurs et l’État, et leurs interactions se déroulent essentiellement dans le cadre de l’État-nation. Or, on voit émerger de nouveaux modes de régulation qui, à leur tour, illustrent la nécessité d’intégrer de nouveaux acteurs et de nouvelles frontières aux modèles théoriques du système de relations industrielles. Une enquête menée auprès de 88 professionnels de l’informatique des entreprises de services technologiques aux entreprises, dans une population composée à parts égales d’hommes et de femmes, a permis d’y relever des pratiques de régulation qui non seulement remettent en cause les termes traditionnels de la régulation fordiste qui hier encore dominaient les bureaucraties professionnelles où on employait les professionnels de l’informatique, mais encore les frontières traditionnelles du système de relations industrielles selon deux aspects : celui des trois acteurs principaux : les employeurs, les travailleurs et l’État, par l’ajout du client et des équipes de travail ; et celui de la séparation entre les contextes du système de relations industrielles et ce système lui-même.As the global economy undergoes a major transformation, the inadequacy of labour relations theories dating back to Fordism, especially the systemic analysis model (Dunlop, 1958 and the strategic model (Kochan, Katz, & McKersie, 1986, in which only three actors—union, employer and State—share the stage is becoming increasingly obvious. A good example is provided by companies

  2. Theory, analysis and applications of the operation of the superconducting transformer supplying a direct current to a non-dissipative superconducting charge circuit; Theorie, analyse et applications du fonctionnement du transformateur supraconducteur alimentant en courant continu un circuit de charge supraconducteur non dissipatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The author derives the very simple equations governing the operation of a transformer with superconducting windings supplying direct current to a non-dissipative superconducting charge circuit. An analysis of the various possible modes of operation with direct or slowly varying current raises the problem of the magnetic core. The study. leads to a conclusion which a priori might be surprising: the elimination of the magnetic core and the use of a primary super-conductor. An example of a possible realization of such a transformer is given as an indication, and the present prospects for different applications are considered. (author) [French] L'auteur etablit les equations tres simples de fonctionnement du transformateur a enroulements supraconducteurs alimentant en courant continu un circuit de charge supraconducteur non dissipatif. L'analyse de divers modes de fonctionnement possibles en courant continu ou lentement variable souleve le probleme du noyau magnetique. L'etude aboutit a une conclusion qui a priori aurait pu surprendre: l'elimination du noyau magnetique et l'utilisation d'un primaire supraconducteur. Un exemple de realisation possible d'un tel transformateur est donne a titre indicatif et les perspectives d'applications actuelles sont envisagees. (auteur)

  3. Dispositif de mesure de pertes dans les conducteurs supraconducteurs utilisés en régime variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Naour, S.; Lacaze, A.; Laumond, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A thermometric apparatus to measure AC losses in superconductor wires for 50 Hz applications is described. This method consists in isolating the sample from a helium bath via a thermal resistance. Dissipated power is determined by two thermometers located on both edges of a thermal resistance. The measurement's calibration is done using an ohmic heater. The measurement accuracy is 10% for losses in excess of 2 mW/m. Un dispositif expérimental, pour mesurer les pertes générées dans les conducteurs supraconducteurs utilisés en régime alternatif 50 Hz, est décrit. La méthode, basée sur le principe thermométrique, consiste à isoler l'échantillon du bain d'hélium par une résistance thermique. La puissance dissipée est déterminée à l'aide de deux sondes de température disposées de part et d'autre de la résistance. L'étalonnage de la mesure est assuré par une chaufferette. La précision des mesures est de 10% pour des pertes linéiques supérieures à 2 mW/m.

  4. Etude théorique et expérimentale d'un processus thermique dans un limiteur supraconducteur de courant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, J.; Netter, D.; Rezzoug, A.; Caron, J. P.

    1995-12-01

    The increasing of fault current level in electrical networks leads to a new interest for superconducting current limiters since 1983 when an ac wire with low losses has been developed. They are based on the natural transition from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state. In order to study the transition usual models are not sufficient. This paper deals with a numerical resolution of the electro-thermical coupled problem. Computed and experimental results are favorably compared. Some factors which affect the transition as well as the influence of the starting instant are studied. L'accroissement des courants de court-circuit dans les réseaux électriques a ravivé l'intérêt pour les limiteurs supraconducteurs de courant depuis la mise au point en 1983 de fil supraconducteur à faibles pertes en régime variable. Le principe de fonctionnement de ces limiteurs est fondé sur la transition vers l'état normal du matériau supraconducteur. Les modèles simplifiés s'avèrent insuffisants pour l'étude de la transition, une méthode de résolution numérique du problème électrothermique est donc faite. Les résultats des simulations sont comparés à ceux d'expérimentation puis deux études, l'une de facteurs influant sur la propagation de la transition, l'autre du type de court-circuit, sont menées.

  5. Use of superconductors for storage and discharge of electrical energy; L'utilisation des supraconducteurs pour le stockage et la decharge de l'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    After recalling the elementary properties which led to superconductors being used for generating very strong magnetic fields, as well as the methods used to attain the required very low temperatures in practice, the author presents in its elementary form the principle of storage and liberation of energy. A more detailed analysis of the successive charging, trapping, storage and discharge operations shows up the different aspects of the problem and is followed by a review of the very small amount of research published up to now and also by a presentation of the original work which has been carried out in this field. It is already possible to use superconducting materials as they are (i.e. although their characteristics have been adjusted with a view only to obtain very strong magnetic fields). Much more will be obtained from superconductors when they have been correctly adapted to this new very promising application to the storage and discharge of electrical energy. (authors) [French] Rappelant les proprietes elementaires qui avaient conduit a utiliser les supraconducteurs pour engendrer des champs mangetiques intenses, ainsi que les moyens utilises pour atteindre pratiquement les tres basses temperatures necessaires, l'auteur presente sous sa forme elementaire le principe du stockage et de la liberation de l'energie. Une analyse plus detaillee des operations successives de charge, piegeage, stockage et decharge de l'energie, faisant apparaitre differents aspects du probleme, permet de faire le point sur les rares travaux connus a ce jour et de presenter le travail original qui a ete effectue dans ce domaine. On peut deja exploiter les materiaux supraconducteurs tels qu'ils sont (c'est-a-dire malgre que leurs caracteristiques n'aient ete ajustees qu'en vue de realiser des champs magnetiques intenses). On obtiendra encore bien davantage des supraconducteurs lorsqu'ils auront ete correctement adaptes a cette nouvelle application pleine de promesses que representent le

  6. Nouveaux pétroles : quel avenir ? Partie 2 New Oil: What's in the Future? Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boy De la Tour X.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available PaL'accroissement des prix de 1973 a rendu accessible toute une plage de pétroles chers, mais ces nouveaux pétroles soulèvent encore des problèmes techniques considérables et leur compétitivité économique a été très affectée par le retournement du marché pétrolier. Quel est l'état des technologies ? Que reste-t-il des ambitieux projets conçus dans les années 70 ? Aux horizons 2000/2010, quel sera l'impact de ces nouveaux pétroles, en terme de quantités et au plan stratégique ? Telles sont les questions auxquelles la présente étude tente de répondre. The increase in oil prices in 1973 made an entire range of expensive oil available, but this new oil still raises considerable technical problems, and its economic competitiveness has been greatly affected by the downturn in the oil market. What is the state of the art of existing technologies ? What remains of the ambitious projects conceived in the 1970s? As of 2000/2010, what will the impact of this new oil be in terms of amounts and from the strategic standpoint? These are the questions that the present study attempts to answer.

  7. Excitations Élémentaires au Voisinage de la Surface de Séparation d'un Métal Normal et d'un Métal Supraconducteur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-James, Par D.

    On étudie le spectre d'excitation pour une couche de métal normal déposée sur un supraconducteur. On montre que si l'interaction attractive électron-électron est négligeable dans le métal normal, il n'y a pas de gap d'énergie dans le spectre d'excitation, même si l'épaisseur de la couche normale est petite. Une étude analogue, conduisant à une conclusion similaire, est menée pour deux supraconducteurs accolés et pour des sphères de métal normal baignant dans un supraconducteur. L'effet prévu pourrait expliquer quelques résultats particuliers observés dans des mesures d'effet tunnel dans des supraconducteurs durs. The excitation spectrum of a layer of normal metal (N) deposited on a superconducting substrate (S) is discussed. It is shown that if the electron-electron attractive interaction is negligibly small in (N) there is no energy gap in the excitation spectrum even if the thickness of the layer (N) is small. A similar study, with equivalent conclusions, has been carried out for two superconductors and for normal metal spheres embedded in a superconductor. The effect may possibly explain some peculiar results of tunnelling experiments on hard superconductors.

  8. Sur la modélisation des supraconducteurs : le ``modèle de l'état critique'' de Bean, en trois dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossavit, A.

    1993-03-01

    Macroscopic modelling of superconductors demands a substitution of some nonlinear behavior law for Ohm's law. For this, a version of Bean's “critical state” model, derived from the setting of a convex functional of the current density field, valid in dimension 3 without any previous assumption about the direction of currents, is proposed. It is shown how two standard three-dimensional finite element methods (“h-formulation” and “e-formulation”), once fitted with this model, can deal with situations were superconductors are present. La modélisation macroscopique des supraconducteurs suppose le remplacement de la loi d'Ohm par une loi de comportement non linéaire adéquate. On présente à cet effet une version du “modèle de Bean”, ou modèle de l'état critique, basée sur la construction d'une certaine fonctionnelle convexe du champ des densités de courant, qui est valable en dimension 3 sans hypothèses préalables sur la direction des courants. On montre comment adapter deux méthodes standards de calcul de courants de Foucault par élérnents finis en trois dimensions (“en h” et “en e”) à la présence de supraconducteurs, en incorporant ce modèle.

  9. Mesure de la conductivité complexe et de la résistance de surface de films supraconducteurs YBaCuO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, F.; Lepercq, P.; Carru, J. C.; Playez, E.; Thivet, C.; Perrin, A.; Chambonnet, D.

    1994-11-01

    We describe in this paper 2 non destructive measurement methods in microwaves (18-26 GHz) well-suited to the characterization of conducting and superconducting thin films. From the experimental values we show that it is possible to infer, without any hypothesis, the following parameters : σ^*, R_s, X_s and λ between 20 K and 300 K. Some examples are given with metallic and superconducting samples from various origins. At 22 GHz and below 75 K, YBaCuO films deposited on MgO have a surface resistance inferior to bulk copper one. Dans cet article nous décrivons 2 méthodes de mesure non destructives adaptées à la caractérisation en microondes (18-26 GHz) de films minces conducteurs et supraconducteurs. A partir des valeurs expérimentales nous montrons qu'il est possible d'en déduire les grandeurs caractéristiques à savoir σ^*, R_s, X_s et λ entre 20 K et 300 K. Nous donnons des exemples de caractérisation de films métalliques et supraconducteurs provenant de différentes origines. A 22 GHz, en dessous de 75 K, les films YBaCuO déposés sur MgO ont une résistance de surface inférieure à celle du cuivre massif.

  10. Study of superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn coils; Etude de bobinages supraconducteurs en Nb{sub 3}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivet, B

    1963-07-01

    Composite superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm and a length of about 100 m were made, and Hc-Ic diagrams were plotted up to fields of 80 kgauss for short lengths. Two solenoids producing fields of about 20 kgauss were studied. Nb{sub 3}Sn solenoids, as opposed to those of Nb-Zr or Nb-Ti, appear to have a predictable behavior. Solenoids with less insulation produced stronger fields than heavily insulated solenoids. (author) [French] Une etude des fils composites supraconducteurs de Nb{sub 3}Sn a ete entreprise au C.E.N. Saclay, en collaboration avec la Societe S.O.D.E.R.X. Des fils de 0,5 mm de diametre et d'une centaine de metres de longueur ont ete produits de facon experimentale. Des diagrammes Hc-Ic ont pu etre traces, jusqu'en des champs de 80 kG, sur des echantillons de petite longueur. Deux solenoides ont ete etudies produisant les champs de l'ordre de 20 kg. Il semble que, contrairement aux alliages Nb-Zr ou Nb-Ti, les solenoides en Nb{sub 3}Sn aient un comportement previsible d'apres les tests sur des echantillons courts. On montrera d'autre part qu'un bobinage a faible isolement peut produire un champ notablement plus eleve qu'un bobinage isole. Une production plus extensive permettra, dans les semaines a venir, la fabrication de solenoides de plus grosse dimension et produisant des champs plus eleves. (auteur)

  11. SHMUTZ & PROTON-DIAMANT H + Irradiated/Written-Hyper/Super-conductivity(HC/SC) Precognizance/Early Experiments Connections: Wet-Graphite Room-Tc & Actualized MgB2 High-Tc: Connection to Mechanical Bulk-Moduli/Hardness: Diamond Hydrocarbon-Filaments, Disorder, Nano-Powders:C,Bi,TiB2,TiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderman, Irwin; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; Lewis, Thomas; Young, Frederic; Smith, Adolph; Dresschhoff-Zeller, Gieselle

    2013-03-01

    SHMUTZ: ``wet-graphite''Scheike-....[Adv.Mtls.(7/16/12)]hyper/super-SCHMUTZ-conductor(S!!!) = ``wet''(?)-``graphite''(?) = ``graphene''(?) = water(?) = hydrogen(?) =ultra-heavy proton-bands(???) = ...(???) claimed room/high-Tc/high-Jc superconductOR ``p''-``wave''/ BAND(!!!) superconductIVITY and actualized/ instantiated MgB2 high-Tc superconductors and their BCS- superconductivity: Tc Siegel[ICMAO(77);JMMM 7,190(78)] connection to SiegelJ.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(80)] disorder/amorphous-superconductivity in nano-powders mechanical bulk/shear(?)-moduli/hardness: proton-irradiated diamond, powders TiB2, TiC,{Siegel[Semis. & Insuls.5:39,47, 62 (79)])-...``VS''/concommitance with Siegel[Phys.Stat.Sol.(a)11,45(72)]-Dempsey [Phil.Mag. 8,86,285(63)]-Overhauser-(Little!!!)-Seitz-Smith-Zeller-Dreschoff-Antonoff-Young-...proton-``irradiated''/ implanted/ thermalized-in-(optimal: BOTH heat-capacity/heat-sink & insulator/maximal dielectric-constant) diamond: ``VS'' ``hambergite-borate-mineral transformable to Overhauser optimal-high-Tc-LiBD2 in Overhauser-(NW-periodic-table)-Land: CO2/CH4-ETERNAL-sequestration by-product: WATER!!!: physics lessons from

  12. O. Godard, C. Henry, P. Lagadec, E. Michel-Kerjan, 2002, Traité des nouveaux risques, éditions Gallimard, collection folio-actuel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Zuindeau

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Si le risque est inhérent à la condition humaine elle-même, ces dernières décennies ont néanmoins permis de faire apparaître des types de risques inconnus jusqu’alors. Les risques consécutifs au réchauffement climatique, les risques supposés liés aux OGM, de possibles nouveaux vecteurs de transmission pathologique (maladie de la vache folle ne sont que quelques exemples de ces nouveaux risques, dont la première caractéristique évidente est l’origine anthropique, mais qui ont surtout pour dén...

  13. Modélisation des phénomènes électromagnétiques dans les matériaux supraconducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslouh, M.; Bouillault, F.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a numerical method to determine the losses in a solid superconductor plunged in transverse magnetic field or in transport current. The model which is based on the Bean critical state, shows that the hysteretic phenomena are taken in account. Cet article présente une méthode de calcul permettant la détermination des pertes dans un matériau massif supraconducteur soumis à un champ magnétique transversal ou parcouru par un courant de transport. Le modèle, basé sur celui de l'état critique de Bean, met en évidence le caractère hystérétique des phénomènes.

  14. Caractérisation de composites supraconducteurs aléatoires - phases au bismuth/argent : contribution à l'étude des jonctions faibles dans ces matériaux

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes , Laurent

    1998-01-01

    Les oxydes supraconducteurs à température critique élevée, à base de bismuth et comportant 2 ou 3 plans cuivre, sont synthétisés suivant diverses méthodes. Nous réalisons ensuite l'élaboration par frittage de matériaux composites aléatoires, constitués d'une dispersion de grains supraconducteurs de phase au bismuth 2212 dans une matrice d'argent. Nous étudions la résistivité électrique et l' aimantation en effet d'écran des matériaux en fonction de la température, du champ magnétique et de la...

  15. Concerning the study of the irreversible magnetic behaviour of superconductivity; Contribution a l'etude du comportement magnetique irreversible des supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    The influence of the presence of extended lattice defects on the magnetic behaviour has been studied for the case of type I superconductors, such as Re and Ta, and in a more quantitative manner for the type II superconductor niobium. In this case, measurements of the thermal conductivity have given an estimate of the relative concentration of lattice defects in each specimen. These measurements show that the larger the number of lattice defects, the more irreversible becomes the magnetization curve, and the larger becomes the values of the critical current, which is related by a simple model to the magnetization values. Finally, a study by transmission electron microscopy has confirmed on the one hand the diversity of the extended lattice defects and on the other hand has allowed the formulation of several hypothesis on their respective influence. [French] L'influence de la presence de defauts etendus sur le comportement magnetique a ete etudie pour des supraconducteurs de premiere espece, tels que le rhenium et le tantale, et plus quantitativement pour un supraconducteur de deuxieme espece, le niobium. Dans ce cas, des mesures de conductibilite thermique ont permis d'estimer la concentration relative des defauts du reseau dans chaque echantillon. Ces mesures montrent que plus les defauts du reseau sont nombreux, plus la courbe d'aimantation est irreversible, et plus les valeurs du courant critique, reliees par un modele simple aux valeurs de l'aimantation, sont elevees. Enfin une etude par microscopie electronique en transmission - a permis d'une part de constater la diversite des defauts etendus et d'autre part de formuler quelques hypotheses sur leurs influences respectives.

  16. Investigation de l'anisotropie du gap supraconducteur dans les composes Ba(Fe(1-x)Co(x))2As2, Ba(1-x)K(x)Fe2As2, LiFeAs et Fe1-deltaTe(1-x)Se(x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jean-Philippe

    ommaire La structure du gap supraconducteur et sa modulation sont intimement liees au potentiel d'interaction responsable de l'appariement des electrons d'un supraconducteur. Ainsi, l'etude de la structure du gap-SC et de sa modulation permettent de faire la lumiere sur la nature du mecanisme d'appariement des electrons. A cet egard, les resultats experimentaux des supraconducteurs a base de fer ne cadrent pas dans un seul ensemble, ce qui est en opposition au gap-SC universel des cuprates. Dans ce qui suit, nous presenterons une etude systematique du gap-SC pour plusieurs pnictides. En effet, en utilisant la conductivite thermique, une sonde directionnelle du gap-SC, nous avons ete en mesure de reveler la structure du gap-SC pour les composes suivants : Ba1-xKxFe 2As2, Ba(Fe1-xCo x)2As2, LiFeAs et Fe1-deltaTe 1-xSex. L'etude de ces quatre composes, de trois differentes familles structurales, a pu etablir un tableau partiel mais tres exhaustif de la structure du gap-SC de pnictides. En effet, tel qu'illustre dans cette these, ces quatre composes ne possedent aucun noeud dans leur structure du gap-SC a dopage optimal. Toutefois, a une concentration differente de celle optimale pour les composes K-Ba122 et Co-Ba122, des noeuds apparaissent sur la surface de Fermi, aux extremites 'du dome supraconducteur. Ceci suggere fortement que, pour ces composes, la presence de noeuds sur la surface de Fermi est nuisible a la phase supraconductrice. Mots-cles: Supraconducteurs a base de fer, Pnictides, Structure du gap supraconducteur, Conductivite thermique

  17. Etude hyperfrequence et ultrasonore des supraconducteurs organiques kappa-(ET)(2)X (X = copper(thiocyanogen), copper[N(CN)(2)]bromine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikach, Kamal

    2001-09-01

    Dans ce travail je presente une etude de l'impedance de surface, ainsi que de l'attenuation et la variation de la vitesse ultrasonores dans les etats normal et supraconducteur sur les composes organiques k-(ET)2X (X = Cu(SCN) 2, Cu[N(CN)2]Br). A partir des mesures d'impedance de surface, les deux composantes sigma 1 et sigma2 de la conductivite complexe sont extraites en utilisant le modele de Drude. Ces mesures montrent que la symetrie du parametre d'ordre dans ces composes est differente de celle du cas BCS. Afin de comprendre le profil de sigma1 (T) nous avons etudie les fluctuations supraconductrices a partir de la paraconductivite sigma'( T). Cette etude est rendue possible grace a la structure quasi-2D des composes k-(ET)2X dans lesquelles les fluctuations supraconductrices sont fortes. Ces dernieres sont observees sur deux decades de temperatures dans le Cu(SCN)2. L'application du modele de Aslamazov-Larkin 2D et 3D montre la possibilite du passage du regime 2D a haute temperature au regime 3D au voisinage de Tc. En se basant sur ce resultat, nous avons calcule la paraconductivite en utilisant une approche a l'ordre d'une boucle a partir du modele de Lawrence-Doniach. En tenant compte de la correction par la self energie dans la limite dynamique (17 GHz), l'ajustement de la paraconductivite calculee est en bon accord avec les donnees experimentales. Le couplage interplan obtenu est compatible avec le caractere quasi-2D des composes organiques. Le temps de relaxation des quasi-particules dans l'etat supraconducteur est ensuite extrait pour la premiere fois dans ces composes dont le comportement en fonction de la temperature est compatible avec la presence des noeuds dans le gap. Dans l'etat normal, la variation de la vitesse ultrasonore presente un comportement anormal caracterise par un fort ramollissement a T = 38 K et 50 K dans k-(ET) 2Cu(SCN)2 et k-(ET)2Cu[N(CN) 2]Br respectivement dont l'amplitude est independante du champ magnetique jusqu'a H = Hc 2

  18. Unconventional conventional superconductivity in MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, Igor

    2002-03-01

    State-of-the-art numerical estimates of the electron-phonon coupling (EPC) constant are of the order of 0.8, which is just a little too low for Tc=39 K. Furthermore, there are indication that this conventional picture faces some problems: (a) specific heat suggests EPC even smaller that the calculatons (b) there is evidence of a gap smaller than 3.5 Tc, and of more than one gap (c) Low-temperature thermodynamics disagrees with the simple BCS picture. There are also theoretical indications of interesting deviations from the standard Eliashberg theory: (1) most of the coupling comes from interaction of just two phonons with two (out of four) bands. (2) The phonons in question are strongly anharmonic (3) Very unusually, nonlinear coupling of these phonons with electrons (i.e., two-phonon exchange) is stronger that the linear coupling. (4) Calculations predict two considerably different order parameters for the two sets of bands. This multigap scenario explains naturally a number of puzzling experiments, but seems to be at odds with the lack of any correlation between the residual resistivity and Tc. One can reconcile these, though, if the defect scattering occurs primarily in the intraband channels. This is supported by chemical arguments and by recent optical experiments. Furthermore, the hypothesis of two qualitatively different scattering rates for the two types of bands is consistent with a number of otherwise hard to explain transport measurements.

  19. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    High Pressure Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. Abstract. Results ... compared to the experimentally determined values of these quantities. ... that spectroscopies which probe the superconducting gap.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  1. Study of superconductors of the second type in the lead-thallium system; Etude des supraconducteurs de la deuxieme espece du systeme plomb-thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bon Mardion, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The author has shown by magnetization measurements on lead-thallium alloys having from 5 to 70 atom per cent of thallium, that superconductors of the second type definitively exist. The results obtained, in particular on the upper critical field H{sub C2} are in good agreement with the models of Ginzburg, Landau, Abrikosov, Gorkov and Goodman. Finally resistivity measurements have confirmed the occurrence of a fourth upper critical field, the existence of which has been theoretically predicted by St James and de Gennes. (author) [French] L'auteur par des mesures d'aimantation sur les alliages plomb-thallium, de composition variant de 5 pour cent a 70 pour cent At. de thallium, a montre qu'il fallait admettre definitivement l'existence des supraconducteurs de la deuxieme espece. Les resultats obtenus, en particulier sur le champ critique superieur H{sub c2} sont en bon accord avec les modeles de Ginzburg, Landau, Abrikosov, Gorkov et Goodman. Enfin des mesures de resistivite ont confirme l'existence d'un quatrieme champ critique superieur H{sub c3}, existence prevue theoriquement par St James et de Gennes. (auteur)

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  3. La ruée vers l’or. Nouveaux écrans, nouvelles recettes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Augros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Autrefois assises sur l’unique marché des salles, les sources des recettes du cinéma se sont multipliées à l’apparition de nouveaux écrans (télévision, vidéo pour adopter un mode séquentiel (les fenêtres de diffusion. Après une certaine stabilisation dans les années 80, l’arrivée sur le marché d’autres écrans (internet, écrans portables met à mal en France et aux Etats-Unis la périodisation installée. Alors qu’en France, le mode de financement du cinéma et la place cruciale de Canal Plus dans les recettes du cinéma conduisent à un raccourcissement de la séquence sans que les professionnels n’envisagent une disparition du modèle, aux Etats-Unis, le déclin du marché vidéo met à l’ordre du jour une abolition pure et simple du séquençage. Les compagnies indépendantes notamment expérimentent de façon croissante les sorties de films sur tous les écrans disponibles sous l’œil intéressé des majors, prêtes à adopter le modèle s’il s’avère pertinent.Stemming ab initio exclusively from the theatre box-office, revenues of films diversified when television and video became alternative ways of screening movies. Thus, a business model was established and stabilized in the 1980s along screening windows. The digital revolution broke this business model in France as well as in the United States. However, while in France, the film investment schemes and Canal Plus Group’s established position as a major source of finance led to the shortening of release windows but not to the disappearance of the release windows format, in the United States, the declining DVD sales and revenues forced the major studios to study new methods of distribution and new business models, based on day-and-date releases and on the gradual dissolution of the windows model. The major companies have been carefully watching the independent film companies experimentations with release windows ready to adopt this new business model if

  4. Élaboration et performances de matériaux supraconducteurs {YBa_2Cu_3O_7} massifs texturés de taille croissante

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.; Beaugnon, E.; Porcar, L.; Bourgault, D.; Tournier, R.; Erraud, A.; Tixador, P.

    1998-03-01

    Industrial applications of the bulk superconducting YBa_2Cu_3O_7 material imply to control the growth of large oriented monodomains in samples of big size (several centimeters). The laboratory EPM-Matformag is committed to produce such materials according to three different methods (zone melting, solidification controlled by a magnetic field, crystal growth from a seed). The results obtained show that it is possible by such methods to elaborate a material with high performances at the centimeter scale and to produce it in series. The availability of such materials allows the measure of physical properties on a large scale and the testing of prototypes for cryo-electrotechnical applications (magnetic bearing, flywheel, coupling device, current lead...). Les applications industrielles des matériaux supraconducteurs massifs YBa_2Cu_3O_7 impliquent de contrôler la croissance de larges monodomaines orientés dans des échantillons de grande taille (plusieurs centimètres). Le laboratoire EPM-Matformag s'est appliqué à produire de tels matériaux selon trois techniques différentes (fusion de zone, solidification contrôlée sous champ magnétique, croissance cristalline à partir d'un germe). Les résultats obtenus montrent qu'il est possible par de telles techniques d'obtenir un matériau performant à l'échelle des centimètres et de le produire en série. La disponibilité de tels matériaux permet de mesurer des propriétés physiques à grande échelle et de tester des prototypes d'applications cryo-électrotechniques (palier magnétique, volant d'inertie, coupleur, amenée de courant, limiteur de courant...).

  5. L’Art pour l’Art or L’Art pour Tous? The Tension between Artistic Autonomy and Social Engagement in Les Temps Nouveaux, 1896-1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Prins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1896 and 1903, Jean Grave, editor of the anarchist journal LesTemps Nouveaux, published an artistic album of original prints, withthe collaboration of (avant-garde artists and illustrators. While anarchisttheorists, including Grave, summoned artists to create social art,which had to be didactic and accessible to the working classes, artistswished to emphasize their autonomous position instead. Even thoughGrave requested ‘absolutely artistic’ prints in the case of this album,artists had difficulties with creating something for him, trying to combinetheir social engagement with their artistic autonomy. The artisticalbum appears to have become a compromise of the debate between theanarchist theorists and artists with anarchist sympathies.

  6. Preparation and chemical crystallographic study of new hydrides and hydro-fluorides of ionic character; Preparation et etude cristallochimique de nouveaux hydrures et fluorohydrures a caractere ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyung-Ho

    1988-07-22

    Within the context of a growing interest in the study of reversible hydrides with the perspective of their application in hydrogen storage, this research thesis more particularly addressed the case of ternary hydrides and fluorides, and of hydro-fluorides. The author reports the development of a method of preparation of alkaline hydrides, of alkaline earth hydrides and of europium hydride, and then the elaboration of ternary hydrides. He addresses the preparation of caesium fluorides and of calcium or nickel fluorides, of Europium fluorides, and of ternary fluorides. Then, he addresses the preparation of hydro-fluorides (caesium, calcium, europium fluorides, and caesium and nickel fluorides). The author presents the various experimental techniques: chemical analysis, radio-crystallographic analysis, volumetric mass density measurement, magnetic measurements, ionic conductivity measurements, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance. He reports the crystallographic study of some ternary alkaline and alkaline-earth hydrides (KH-MgH{sub 2}, RbH-CaH{sub 2}, CsH-CaH{sub 2}, RbH-MgH{sub 2} and CsH-MgH{sub 2}) and of some hydro-fluorides (CsCaF{sub 2}H, EuF{sub 2}H, CsNiF{sub 2}H) [French] Dans une premiere partie, de nouveaux hydrures ternaires ont ete prepares et caracterises. Les systemes etudies sont AH-MH 2 (A = K, Rb, Cs et M = Mg, Ca). Dans les systemes AH-MgH 2 l'evolution structurale a ete discutee en fonction du caractere iono-covalent de la liaison magnesium-hydrogene. Dans une deuxieme partie, plusieurs nouveaux fluorohydrures ont ete mis en evidence. L'effet de la substitution de l'hydrogene au fluor dans ces phases a ete etudiee en utilisant la RMN, la spectroscopie Moessbauer, la conductivite ionique et les mesures magnetiques.

  7. Reconstruction de la surface de Fermi dans l'etat normal d'un supraconducteur a haute Tc: Une etude du transport electrique en champ magnetique intense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, David

    Des mesures de resistance longitudinale et de resistance de Hall en champ magnetique intense transverse (perpendiculaire aux plans CuO2) ont ete effectuees au sein de monocristaux de YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) demacles, ordonnes et de grande purete, afin d'etudier l'etat fondamental des supraconducteurs a haute Tc dans le regime sous-dope. Cette etude a ete realisee en fonction du dopage et de l'orientation du courant d'excitation J par rapport a l'axe orthorhombique b de la structure cristalline. Les mesures en champ magnetique intense revelent par suppression de la supraconductivite des oscillations magnetiques des resistances longitudinale et de Hall dans YBa2Cu 3O6.51 et YBa2Cu4O8. La conformite du comportement de ces oscillations quantiques au formalisme de Lifshitz-Kosevich, apporte la preuve de l'existence d'une surface de Fermi fermee a caractere quasi-2D, abritant des quasiparticules coherentes respectant la statistique de Fermi-Dirac, dans la phase pseudogap d'YBCO. La faible frequence des oscillations quantiques, combinee avec l'etude de la partie monotone de la resistance de Hall en fonction de la temperature indique que la surface de Fermi d'YBCO sous-dope comprend une petite poche de Fermi occupee par des porteurs de charge negative. Cette particularite de la surface de Fermi dans le regime sous-dope incompatible avec les calculs de structure de bande est en fort contraste avec la structure electronique presente dans le regime surdope. Cette observation implique ainsi l'existence d'un point critique quantique dans le diagramme de phase d'YBCO, au voisinage duquel la surface de Fermi doit subir une reconstruction induite par l'etablissement d'une brisure de la symetrie de translation du reseau cristallin sous-jacent. Enfin, l'etude en fonction du dopage de la resistance de Hall et de la resistance longitudinale en champ magnetique intense suggere qu'un ordre du type onde de densite (DW) est responsable de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. L'analogie de

  8. Contribution to the microwave characterisation of superconductive materials by means of sapphire resonators; Contribution a la caracterisation hyperfrequence de materiaux supraconducteurs par des resonateurs-saphirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanus, Xavier

    1993-12-06

    The objective of this research thesis is to find a compact resonant structure which would allow the residual surface impedance of superconductive samples to be simply, quickly and economically characterised. The author first explains why he decided to use a sapphire single-crystal as inner dielectric, given some performance reached by resonant structures equipped with such inner dielectrics, and given constraints adopted from the start. He explains the origin of microwave losses which appear in this type of resonant structure, i.e. respectively the surface impedance as far as metallic losses are concerned, and the sapphire dielectric loss angle for as far as dielectric losses are concerned. The experimental installation and the principle of microwave measurements are described. The performance of different possible solutions of resonant structures from starting criteria is presented. The solution of the cavity-sapphire with a TE{sub 011} resonant mode is derived [French] Le but de cette etude est de trouver une structure resonnante compacte permettant de caracteriser simplement, rapidement et economiquement l'impedance de surface residuelle d'echantillons supraconducteurs. Les contraintes de mise en oeuvre et les performances atteintes par des resonateurs avec saphirs synthetiques justifient le choix d'un tel dielectrique a faible angle de perte. L'evaluation des performances experimentales appuyee par des modelesanalytiques permet de rejeter differentes solutions. Ainsi les resonateurs fermes avec saphirs minces sont rejetes en raison des mauvais contacts metalliques. Les resonateurs ouverts avec saphirs minces et epais sont egalement rejetes, meme pour les modes de resonance en principe confines, en raison des pertes par rayonnement. La seule solution est donc d'utiliser une cavite-saphir TE{sub 011} qui offre une configuration de champs naturellement confines. Des mesures sur une premiere cavite en niobium massif ont permis de selectionner un saphir obtenu par

  9. Etudes optiques de nouveaux materiaux laser: Des orthosilicates dopes a l'ytterbium: Le yttrium (lutetium,scandium) pentoxide de silicium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoyer, Aurelie

    La decouverte et l'elaboration de nouveaux materiaux laser solides suscitent beaucoup d'interet parmi la communaute scientifique. En particulier les lasers dans la gamme de frequence du micron debouchent sur beaucoup d'applications, en telecommunication, en medecine, dans le domaine militaire, pour la, decoupe des metaux (lasers de puissance), en optique non lineaire (doublage de frequence, bistabilite optique). Le plus couramment utilise actuellement est le Nd:YAG dans cette famille de laser, mais des remplacants plus performants sont toujours recherches. Les lasers a base d'Yb3+ possedent beaucoup d'avantages compares aux lasers Nd3+ du fait de leur structure electronique simple et de leur deterioration moins rapide. Parmi les matrices cristallines pouvant accueillir l'ytterbium, les orthosilicates Yb:Y 2SiO5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO 5 se positionnent tres bien, du fait de leur bonne conductivite thermique et du fort eclatement de leur champ cristallin necessaire a l'elaboration de lasers quasi-3 niveaux. De plus l'etude fine et systematique des proprietes microscopiques de nouveaux materiaux s'avere toujours tres interessante du point de vue de la recherche fondamentale, c'est ainsi que de nouveaux modeles sont concus (par exemple pour le champ cristallin) ou que de nouvelles proprietes inhabituelles sont decouvertes, menant a de nouvelles applications. Ainsi d'autres materiaux dopes a l'ytterbium sont connus pour leurs proprietes de couplage electron-phonon, de couplage magnetique, d'emission cooperative ou encore de bistabilite optique, mais ces proprietes n'ont encore jamais ete mises en evidence dans Yb:Y 2SiO5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO 5. Ainsi, cette these a pour but l'etude des proprietes optiques et des interactions microscopiques dans Yb:Y2SiO 5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO5. Nous utilisons principalement les techniques d'absorption IR et de spectroscopie Raman pour determiner les excitations du champ cristallin et les modes de vibration dans le materiau

  10. Les nouveaux défis pour l’anthropologie de la santé New challenges for anthropology of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Massé

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’anthropologie de la santé a connu une évolution spectaculaire au cours des dernières décennies. Elle doit toutefois composer aujourd’hui avec les contributions de plusieurs autres disciplines des sciences sociales et humaines dans le champ d’étude des dimensions sociales, politiques et culturelles de la santé et de la maladie. Pour conserver sa crédibilité comme “science sociale” et pour faire face à l’émergence de nouveaux objets de recherche, elle devra relever plusieurs défis, tant au plan de ses outils conceptuels, mais aussi et surtout au plan de sa maîtrise des méthodologies qualitatives et quantitatives. Mais cela, sans mettre de côté son profond souci pour une réflexion critique sur les politiques de santé et pour une phénoménologie de la souffrance.Medical anthropology has become one of the major subdiscipline in anthropology in the past decades. However, it has today to deal with the interest of other social sciences disciplines for the social, cultural and political dimensions of disease, health and care. In order to strengthen its leadership and to increase its credibility in dealing with new emerging research objects, medical anthropologists will have to accept many challenges, conceptual, theoretical, but especially methodological. This paper discusses some of these challenges.

  11. Fluctuations Magnetiques des Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnels: Application AU Compose Supraconducteur LANTHANE(2-X) Strontium(x) Cuivre OXYGENE(4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Pierre

    Nous presentons une etude des fluctuations magnetiques de la phase normale de l'oxyde de cuivre supraconducteur La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO_4 . Le compose est modelise par le Hamiltonien de Hubbard bidimensionnel avec un terme de saut vers les deuxiemes voisins (modele tt'U). Le modele est etudie en utilisant l'approximation de la GRPA (Generalized Random Phase Approximation) et en incluant les effets de la renormalisation de l'interaction de Hubbard par les diagrammes de Brueckner-Kanamori. Dans l'approche presentee dans ce travail, les maximums du facteur de structure magnetique observes par les experiences de diffusion de neutrons sont associes aux anomalies 2k _{F} de reseau du facteur de structure des gaz d'electrons bidimensionnels sans interaction. Ces anomalies proviennent de la diffusion entre particules situees a des points de la surface de Fermi ou les vitesses de Fermi sont tangentes, et conduisent a des divergences dont la nature depend de la geometrie de la surface de Fermi au voisinage de ces points. Ces resultats sont ensuite appliques au modele tt'U, dont le modele de Hubbard usuel tU est un cas particulier. Dans la majorite des cas, les interactions ne determinent pas la position des maximums du facteur de structure. Le role de l'interaction est d'augmenter l'intensite des structures du facteur de structure magnetique associees a l'instabilite magnetique du systeme. Ces structures sont souvent deja presentes dans la partie imaginaire de la susceptibilite sans interaction. Le rapport d'intensite entre les maximums absolus et les autres structures du facteur de structure magnetique permet de determiner le rapport U_ {rn}/U_{c} qui mesure la proximite d'une instabilite magnetique. Le diagramme de phase est ensuite etudie afin de delimiter la plage de validite de l'approximation. Apres avoir discute des modes collectifs et de l'effet d'une partie imaginaire non-nulle de la self-energie, l'origine de l'echelle d'energie des fluctuations magnetiques est examinee

  12. Formes du regroupement pluriprofessionnel en soins de premiers recours. Une typologie des maisons, pôles et centres de santé participant aux Expérimentations des nouveaux modes de rémunération (ENMR)

    OpenAIRE

    Anissa Afrite; Julien Mousques

    2014-01-01

    Dans le cadre d’un programme de recherche global sur le lien entre le regroupement pluriprofessionnel en soins de premiers recours dans les sites participant aux Expérimentations des nouveaux modes de rémunération (ENMR) et la performance des médecins généralistes en matière d’activité, de productivité, d’efficacité et d’efficience de leurs pratiques, cette recherche a pour objectif d’analyser la structure, l’organisation et le fonctionnement des maisons, pôles et centres de santé participant...

  13. Les nouveaux carburants pour l'automobile. Carburants oxygénés : emploi et émissions New Automotive Fuels. Oxygenated Fuels: Their Use and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibet J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A la lumière de résultats nouveaux obtenus à l'IFP et de publications récentes sur le sujet, on étudie les principales répercussions de l'emploi de carburants oxygénés sur les émissions de polluants à l'échapement et sur les risques possibles associés à la manipulation des produits. Les polluants examinés sont les alkyles de plomb, l'oxyde de carbone, les oxydes d'azote, les produits imbrûlés, les aldéhydes et les hydrocarbures aromatiques polynucléaires. Les émissions de fumées et de particules solides par les moteurs diesel font aussi l'objet de quelques commentaires. On aborde également les problèmes de pertes par évaporation et on fournit quelques informations sur la toxicité des alcools et des aldéhydes. L'étude fait apparaître un besoin réel de nouvelles recherches dans le domaine, mais elle indique déjà que l'emploi de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants ne devrait pas changer l'ordre de grandeur des niveaux de polluants. In the light of new results from IFP and recent publications on the subject, this article examines the main repercussions of the use of oxygenated fuelss on pollutant exhauts emissions and on possible risks associated with the handling of products. The pollutants examined are lead alkyls, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned products, aldehydes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Emissions of smoke and solid particles by diesel engines are also the subject of various comments. Likewise, the article takes up the problem of losses by evaporation, and some information is provided on the toxicity of alcohols and aldehydes. This study reveals the real need for further research in the field, but it already shows that the use of oxygenated organic products as fuels should not bring about much change in the order of magnitude of pollutant levels.

  14. 9 décembre 2016 - Visite du hall d'assemblage des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC par le Prof. D. Le Bihan, Directeur, NeuroSpin; membre de l’Académie des Sciences, République française avec le Directeur des accélérateurs et de la technologie F. Bordry et le chef de groupe L. Bottura.

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    9 décembre 2016 - Visite du hall d'assemblage des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC par le Prof. D. Le Bihan, Directeur, NeuroSpin; membre de l’Académie des Sciences, République française avec le Directeur des accélérateurs et de la technologie F. Bordry et le chef de groupe L. Bottura.

  15. Les nouveaux systèmes de propulsion envisageable pour les véhicules urbains Potential New Proplusion Systems for Urban Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salé B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On demande de plus en plus aux véhicules particuliers utilisés en zone urbaine de répondre à un certain nombre de contraintes relatives à la pollution, au bruit et aux économies d'énergie. Il convient donc d'examiner les différents modes de propulsion qui peuvent être retenus en les classant en deux grandes catégories les systèmes thermomécaniques et les systèmes électrochimiques. Les systèmes thermomécaniques, et parmi eux les moteurs à explosion, présentent l'avantage de disposer à la fois d'une puissance massique élevée et d'une énergie massique importante grâce aux possibilités de stockage qu'offrent les hydrocarbures légers. Dans ces conditions il apparaissait tentant, au moins en première étape, d'adapter les moteurs à explosion classiques aux exigences nouvelles en matière d'environnement et d'économie et ceci d'autant plus que ce type de moteur couvre à l'heure actuelle et pour plusieurs années encore la quasi-totalité du parc automobile. Un effort de recherche important a déjà permis de réduire dans une forte proportion les émissions de polluants par l'adaptation de nouveaux modes de combustion ou par l'utilisation de pots catalytiques. Cet effort s'étend d'ailleurs à l'étude d'autres convertisseurs thermomécaniques, tels que le moteur Stirling, qui conjugue les avantages d'un rendement plus élevé à celui d'une pollution réduite, et tels que le moteur à vapeur handicapé cependant par un rendement et une puissance massique faibles. Mais les systèmes thermomécaniques ne peuvent satisfaire à la fois toutes les exigences précédentes. C'est pourquoi on s'oriente vers l'emploi de sources électrochimiques, qui suppriment les deux nuisances pollution et bruit et sont généralement très bonnes du point de vue du rendement global. Le principal écueil concerne le problème du stockage de l'énergie électrique. Bien que des progrès importants aient été obtenus avec les solutions classiques

  16. Influence de l'introduction de défauts colonnaires amorphes sur les propriétés de transport d'un monocristal supraconducteur à haute Tc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmont, Franck; Hébert, Sylvie; Hardy, Vincent; Martin, Christine; Simon, Charles; Provost, Jackie

    1997-12-01

    Columnar defects can be introduced in high T_c superconductors by irradiation with high energy heavy ions. The concentration of these artificial pinning centers with a well characterized morphology is easily controlled. The pinning efficiency of these defects has been often demonstrated, mainly from magnetization measurements. In the present work, measurements of the electrical resistance along the c axis, R_c(T), in the presence of columnar defects are presented. They show the ability of these defects to prevent the thermal fluctuations effects. The measurements have been performed on the same crystal before and after the heavy ion irradiation. L'irradiation aux ions lourds de haute énergie permet d'introduire des défauts colonnaires amorphes dans les supraconducteurs à haute T_c. Ces centres de pinning artificiel, de morphologie connue, sont introduits en concentration facile à maîtriser. L'efficacité de ces défauts a été très souvent démontrée à partir de mesures d'aimantation. L'étude présentée ici : mesure de la résistance selon l'axe c, R_c(T), en présence de défauts colonnaires parallèles à l'axe c, montre que ces défauts sont capables de s'opposer efficacement à l'effet des fluctuations thermiques. Les mesures ont été faites sur le même monocristal avant et après l'irradiation.

  17. Les nouveaux horizons de l’ecclésiologie médiévale. Ecclésiologie et hérésiologie (Moyen Âge, Temps modernes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Iogna-Prat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Le Père Yves Congar, auquel l’une des journées du cycle les «Nouveaux horizons de l’ecclésiologie» a été consacrée l’an passé, a en bonne partie fondé son histoire de l’ecclésiologie sur le couple ecclésiologie/hérésiologie, notant le fait avéré que les grands tournants ecclésiologiques sont, au Moyen Âge, le plus souvent concomitants de graves crises internes – par exemple le Grand Schisme – ou de remises en cause venues de milieux «dissidents» – ou dénoncés et poursuivis comme tels. Les réf...

  18. Microstructure and Pinning Properties of Hexagonal Disc Shaped Single Crystalline MgB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J. R.

    2003-04-30

    We synthesized hexagonal-disc-shaped MgB{sub 2} single crystals under high-pressure conditions and analyzed the microstructure and pinning properties. The lattice constants and the Laue pattern of the crystals from X-ray micro-diffraction showed the crystal symmetry of MgB{sub 2}. A thorough crystallographic mapping within a single crystal showed that the edge and c-axis of hexagonal-disc shape exactly matched the (10-10) and the (0001) directions of the MgB{sub 2} phase. Thus, these well-shaped single crystals may be the best candidates for studying the direction dependences of the physical properties. The magnetization curve and the magnetic hysteresis for these single crystals showed the existence of a wide reversible region and weak pinning properties, which supported our single crystals being very clean.

  19. Mixed State of a Dirty Two-Band Superconductor: Application to MgB2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshelev, A.E.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the vortex state in a two-band superconductor with strong intraband and weak interband electronic scattering rates. Coupled Usadel equations are solved numerically, and the distributions of the pair potentials and local densities of states are calculated for two bands at different

  20. Critical state instability in Nb-clad MgB2 superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beilin, V.; Felner, I.; Tsindlekht, M.I.; Dul'kin, E.; Mojaev, E.; Roth, M.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetization hysteresis loops of Cu/MgB 2 , Nb/MgB 2 , Cu/Nb/MgB 2 and Fe/Cu/MgB 2 wires in parallel magnetic fields of up to 5 T were studied in the temperature range from 5 to 35 K. All Nb-clad samples exhibited a thermomagnetic instability (TMI) in the form of magnetization jumps. In a thick wire (about 2 mm in core diameter), the TMI persisted up to the unexpectedly high temperature of 32 K. Thin wires showed low TMI which vanished at T > 10 K. Cu/MgB 2 wires which did not contain a Nb barrier, showed no signs of TMI. The TMI in thin wires exhibited good reproducibility and stability in the jump pattern (JP) (jump amplitudes and positions), while thick wires showed the worst time stability. We found that moderate flat rolling of the round unstable Cu/Nb/MgB 2 wire resulted in negligible TMI at 5 K in the processed flat tape. The TMI amplitudes of studied samples correlated with the adiabatic stability parameter, β -1

  1. MgB2 magnetometer with directly coupled pick-up loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portesi, C.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, Dick; Brinkman, Alexander; Monticone, E.; Gonnelli, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which

  2. Pinning enhancement in MgB 2 superconducting thin films by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... coated with different concentrations of Fe2O3 nanoparticles by spin coating process. ... Turkey; Ereğli Faculty of Education, Primary Education Department, Bülent Ecevit ... Manuscript received: 8 May 2012; Manuscript revised: 22 July 2012 ...

  3. Effect of Er doping on the superconducting properties of porous MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    20 K reaches 9.7 T. These results imply that the RE element Er fills the pores, enhances the density and the grain connectivity. Hence, the ... ing elements, such as Mn, Fe, Co and Ni, which can depair ..... Lyard L, Szabó P, Klein T, Marcus J, Marcenat C, Kim K H, ... Rogado N, Hayward M A, Regan K A, Wang Y, Ong N P,.

  4. Theoretical study of superconductivity in MgB 2 and its alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    total density of states (DOS) and; the partial DOS around the Fermi energy, F, clearly show the importance of B -electrons for superconductivity. For BeB2 and NaB2, our results indicate qualitative similarities but significant quantitative differences in their electronic structure due to differences in the number of valence ...

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Evidence for a Nodal Energy Gap in MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    the larger gap, the so-called  gap, is a conventional s wave. The model is an extension of the BCS theory that accounts for the elastic anisotropy...obeys the BCS-theory textbook expression that is characterized by an exponential temperature dependence, specifically,[17,18]    2 TS RESR T R C f...that was based on measurement of the IMD [3]. Accounting for the  energy-gap contribution at higher temperatures lies outside the scope of this work

  6. AC Loss Analysis of MgB2-Based Fully Superconducting Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddersen, M.; Haran, K. S.; Berg, F.

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting electric machines have shown potential for significant increase in power density, making them attractive for size and weight sensitive applications such as offshore wind generation, marine propulsion, and hybrid-electric aircraft propulsion. Superconductors exhibit no loss under dc conditions, though ac current and field produce considerable losses due to hysteresis, eddy currents, and coupling mechanisms. For this reason, many present machines are designed to be partially superconducting, meaning that the dc field components are superconducting while the ac armature coils are conventional conductors. Fully superconducting designs can provide increases in power density with significantly higher armature current; however, a good estimate of ac losses is required to determine the feasibility under the machines intended operating conditions. This paper aims to characterize the expected losses in a fully superconducting machine targeted towards aircraft, based on an actively-shielded, partially superconducting machine from prior work. Various factors are examined such as magnet strength, operating frequency, and machine load to produce a model for the loss in the superconducting components of the machine. This model is then used to optimize the design of the machine for minimal ac loss while maximizing power density. Important observations from the study are discussed.

  7. Aluminum and carbon substitution in MgB2. Electron doping and scattering effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuely, P.; Szabo, P.; Pribulova, Z.; Angst, M.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C.; Klein, T.; Lyard, L.; Marcus, J.; Marcenat, C.; Kang, B.W.; Kim, H.-J.; Lee, H.-S.; Lee, H.-K.; Lee, S.I.

    2007-01-01

    The point-contact spectroscopy is used to address the evolution of two superconducting energy gaps in the Al- and C-doped magnesium diboride polycrystals and single crystals with T c 's from 39 to 22 K prepared by different techniques. The obtained evolution of two gaps does not show any anomalous behavior but can be consistently described by the combination of the (prevailing) band filling effect and a (minor) increased interband scattering as proposed by Kortus et al. [Kortus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 027002]. The approaching of two gaps is stronger in the Al-doped systems but interband scattering is still not large enough to merge two gaps. The full merging can expected only for higher dopings with T c 's below 10-15 K. In-magnetic-field measurements are used to analyze the intraband scatterings introduced by these two substitutions. It is shown that the carbon doping introduces significant disorder mainly by decreasing the diffusion coefficient in the π band while the Al substitution leaves the samples in the clean limit

  8. A New Cryocooler for MgB2 Superconducting Systems in Turboelectric Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft design...

  9. A New Cryocooler for MgB2 Superconducting Systems in Turboelectric Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft design...

  10. Effect of interband interaction on isotope effect exponent of MgB2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interband interaction of the electron–phonon interaction shows more effect on the isotope exponent than on the non-phonon interaction. Acknowledgement. The authors would like to thank Thailand Research Fund for financial support and the University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce for partial financial support and.

  11. The charge transfer induced by Cr doping in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huarong; Zhao Jiyin; Shi Lei

    2005-01-01

    Mg 1-x Cr x B 2 polycrystal bulk samples with 0 x 5% have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction and studied by X-ray diffraction, SEM and Raman spectrum. It is found that the c-axis of the lattice decreases as the Cr content increases, while the a-axis remains unchanged. Moreover, crystal grain size increases apparently with Cr doping concentration increase. The normal-state resistivity increases and the superconducting transition temperature (T c ) decreases from 38.2 K (x = 0) to 35.1 K (x 0.03) with the increase of Cr content. It is suggested that the charge transfer between the Mg-layer and the B-layer causes the decrease of the charge carrier concentration and induces the changes of T c and normal-state resistivity. On the other hand, by the Raman scattering study, it is found that the linewidth of Raman spectrum increases with the increase of Cr content, which is resulted by the competition between the electron-phonon interaction and substitution-induced disorder. The Raman peak has no evident shift due to the countervailing between the effects of the electron-phonon coupling and the grain size

  12. An investigation into preparation of silver sheathed superconducting wires with a high critical temperature; Etude des problemes poses par l'elaboration de fils supraconducteurs gaines argent a haute temperature critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaffron, Laurent

    1992-04-03

    We have shown that the critical current density of YBaCuO superconducting wires prepared using 'powder in tube' method is limited by the following principal factors: - cracks and porosity arising from the shrinkage of the powder during sintering, - irregularities in the wire section, - presence of secondary phases in the phase diagram of the three oxides, - incomplete re-oxidation at the centre of the wire, - insufficient, or complete lack of, texture in the wire, - presence of amorphous, non superconducting phase across the grains that blocks grain boundary migration. We have reduced the deleterious effects due to the first four factors by modifying prior nature of the powder, by reinforcing the sheath and by modifying the thermal treatments. We also used creep sintering to produce a strong texture; however, our study shows that texture, though necessary, is not a sufficient condition for a high current. This is because the latter is limited by the presence of the amorphous phase at too many grain boundaries. Finally, we have obtained wires in which grain boundaries are clean and which have very high critical currents by melting the wire in a thermal gradient and by passing it through the gradient very slowly. Such a technique, however, is too slow for producing superconductors. (author) [French] Nous avons montre que les principales causes qui limitent l'intensite que peuvent transporter les fils supraconducteurs d'YBaCuO elabores selon la technique dite de la poudre dans le tube sont: - la fissuration et la porosite engendrees par le retrait de la poudre lors du frittage, - l'irregularite de la section de la ceramique, - la presence des phases secondaires du diagramme d'equilibre des oxydes d'yttrium, de baryum et de cuivre, - la difficulte de reoxygener a coeur la ceramique, - la faiblesse voire l'absence de texturation, - la presence de phase amorphe non supraconductrice traversant les grains ou bloquant la migration de leurs joints. En jouant sur le

  13. Study of superconductors with high critical temperature by using the vibrating blade technique: anelastic properties, vortices dynamics; Etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique par la technique de la lame vibrante: - proprietes anelastiques, - dynamique des vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Brion, Sophie

    1991-10-04

    This research thesis reports the application of the vibrating blade technique to the study of high critical temperature superconductors, first for the anelastic properties, and then for vortices dynamics. As far as the study of anelastic properties is concerned, the author reports the measurement of dissipation and of Young modulus, between 4 K and 300 K and at about 1 khz, in YbaCuO ceramics with various oxygen content. A detailed study of the tetragonal phase reveals the existence of a single relaxation process, the magnitude of which depends on the compound oxygen content and on its thermal treatment. In the second part, the author reports the measurement, under magnetic field and within a temperature range lower than the superconducting critical temperature, of a YbaCuO crystal with two different oxygen concentrations. At low temperature, the author studies the contribution of vortices trapped in an irreversible state. At high temperature, this contribution disappears and thus defines an irreversibility line beyond which vortices are in a reversible regime. This line is studied for different magnetic field orientations with respect to CuO planes. It is interpreted in terms of de-trapping thermally activated by vortices [French] La technique de la lame vibrante a ete appliquee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique, pour leurs proprietes anelastiques d'abord, pour la dynamique des vortex ensuite. Dans la gamme de temperature 4 K - 300 K, nous avons mesure la dissipation et le module d'Young, a une frequence de 1 kHz environ, dans des ceramiques YBaCuO (phase 123) de differentes teneurs en oxygene (variant de O{sub 6} a O{sub 7}). Nous avons observe plusieurs pics de dissipation. Une etude detaillee de la phase tetragonale (de O{sub 6} a O{sub 6,4}) a mis en evidence un seul processus de relaxation, active thermiquement avec une energie de 0,1 eV et dont l'ampleur depend de la teneur en oxygene du compose et de son traitement thermique. Cette

  14. Réalisation d'un appareillage a lame vibrante pour l'étude des lignes de flux dans les supraconducteurs à haute température critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woirgard, J.; Salmon, E.; Gaboriaud, R. J.; Rabier, J.

    1994-03-01

    A very sensitive apparatus using the vibrating reed technique in a magnetic field is described. This new technic is an internal friction measurement which has been developed and applied to the study of vortex pinning in high T_c type II superconductors. The vibrating reed is simply used as a sample holder for the superconductor which can be oriented thin films, bulk samples or powders. The salient feature of this experimental set-up is the excitation mode of the reed for which the imposed vibration frequency can be freely chosen in the range 10^{-4}-10 Hz. Furthermore, the measurement sensitivity improves the performances obtained up to now by such similar apparatus as forced torsion pendulums. Damping values corresponding to phase lags between 10^{-5} and 10^{-4} radian can be readily obtained for vibration frequencies in the range 10^{-1} 10 Hz. Some preliminary results show damping peaks which might be due to the so-called fusion of the vortex network obtained with thin films whose thickness is 1000 Å and with textured bulk samples of YBaCuO. Une nouvelle technique basée sur la mesure du frottement intérieur en vibrations forcées est appliquée à l'étude de l'ancrage des vortex dans les oxydes supraconducteurs à haute température critique. Dans cette méthode la lame, excitée électrostatiquement, voit son rôle limité à celui de porte-échantillon sur lequel peuvent être disposés des couches minces, des échantillons massifs ou des poudres. L'originalité de cet appareillage réside dans la conception du mode d'excitation de la lame : la fréquence d'oscillation forcée peut être choisie dans une large gamme allant de 10^{-4} Hz à quelques dizaines de hertz. D'autre part, la sensibilité de la mesure améliore sensiblement les performances obtenues jusqu'à ce jour en vibrations forcées. Des amortissements correspondant à des déphasages compris entre à 10^{-5} et 10^{-4} radian peuvent être facilement mesurés. Les premiers essais r

  15. Superconducting superlattices. Les super reseaux de supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triscone, J M; Fischer, O [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1993-03-01

    By piling up ultra-thin layers of discrete materials, physicists now have a choice method for the study of superconductivity at high temperature. These superlattices are prepared by successive layers of YBaCuO and PrBaCuO deposited by cathode sputtering to study the variation of superconductivity with layer thickness. The transition temperature decreases rapidly when the distance between two layers increases. Current vortices are created, without a magnetic field, widening the transition temperature. The variation of resistivity near critical temperature in a magnetic field shows that the energy required to displace vortices is increasing with the thickness of the YBaCuO layer, with thin layers anisotropy is high and energy dissipation is important. (G.R.). refs., figs.

  16. Superconducting composites materials. Materiaux composites supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerjouan, P; Boterel, F; Lostec, J; Bertot, J P; Haussonne, J M [Centre National d' Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), 22 - Lannion (FR)

    1991-11-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developed in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. 8 refs.; 14 figs.; 9 tabs.

  17. CERN : Nouveaux records lors d'une période d'exploitation au PS/SPS ; Un nouveau rôle pour les ISR ; Deuxième région d'intersection pour le système pp du SPS ; Détermination de la durée de vie du charme ; Calcul en Sicile et au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    CERN : Nouveaux records lors d'une période d'exploitation au PS/SPS ; Un nouveau rôle pour les ISR ; Deuxième région d'intersection pour le système pp du SPS ; Détermination de la durée de vie du charme ; Calcul en Sicile et au CERN

  18. Ancrage des vortex dans les supraconducteurs Description phénoménologique de la réponse linéaire d'un de vortex ancré

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütke-Entrup, N.; Plaçais, B.; Mathieu, P.; Simon, Y.

    énétration complexe dans l'état mixte sur une variété d'échantillons qui va des supraconducteurs classiques (Nb, V, PbIn), aux composés de fermions lourds non-conventionnels (UPt3), en passant par les cuprates à haute température critique (YBaCuO). La large gamme des fréquences explorées (1 kHz 10 MHz) permet de couvrir le changement de régime entre la réponse quasistatique dominée par l'interaction élastique des vortex avec les défauts, et la réponse haute fréquence amortie par la friction visqueuse du réseau de vortex au cristal ionique. Pour décrire quantitativement le spectre de fréquence, nous nous appuyons sur une théorie phénoménologique qui fait une distinction explicite et rigoureuse entre lignes de vortex, décrites par un champ omega, et lignes de champ magnétique B. On prédit ainsi l'existence d'un second mode électrodynamique, évanescent et de courte portée, lié à la tension de ligne des vortex. On montre que la réponse aux petits mouvements, amplitude et phase, est réglée par une condition limite supplémentaire sur le réseau de vortex à la surface ; elle prend la forme d'une condition de glissement avec une longueur phénoménologique contrôlée par la rugosité de l'échantillon. Le spectre de fréquence associé à ce mécanisme se distingue nettement du spectre de Campbell, générique des modèles d'ancrage en volume. Nos mesures sur des échantillons PbIn, Nb, V et YBaCuO confirment entièrement notre modèle, y compris des effets de taille peu intuitifs qui se produisent à basse fréquence quand l'échantillon devient transparent au mode flux flow. En revanche, l'étude des vortex dans les phases B et C d'UPt3 montre une contribution importante du volume à l'ancrage des vortex.

  19. 23 octobre 2012 - Le Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie C. Monteil signe le livre d'or en présence du Directeur général R. Heuer, la chef des Relations Internationales F. Pauss, le chef du département Physique P. Bloch et le chef du département Technologie F. Bordry; visite du hall de test des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC avec F. Bordry.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    23 octobre 2012 - Le Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie C. Monteil signe le livre d'or en présence du Directeur général R. Heuer, la chef des Relations Internationales F. Pauss, le chef du département Physique P. Bloch et le chef du département Technologie F. Bordry; visite du hall de test des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC avec F. Bordry.

  20. 20 fevrier 2012 - Le Vice-Président du Gouvernement Wallon et Ministre du Développement durable et de la Fonction Publique en charge de l’Energie du Logement et de la Recherche J.-M. Nollet, Royaume de Belgique, visite la salle de contrôle de CMS au Point 5, la caverne expérimentale CMS et le hall de tests des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC. Les chefs de département T. Lagrange et F. Hemmer accompagnent la délégation. L. Walckiers guide la visite SM18.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    20 fevrier 2012 - Le Vice-Président du Gouvernement Wallon et Ministre du Développement durable et de la Fonction Publique en charge de l’Energie du Logement et de la Recherche J.-M. Nollet, Royaume de Belgique, visite la salle de contrôle de CMS au Point 5, la caverne expérimentale CMS et le hall de tests des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC. Les chefs de département T. Lagrange et F. Hemmer accompagnent la délégation. L. Walckiers guide la visite SM18.

  1. New talents Novos talentos Nouveaux talents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available New talents are arriving: this note wishes to attract the attention of our readers to three posters chosen by an international jury at IGC2012, the World congress of the International Geographical UnionFour topics were chosen for the IGC2012 (Global Change & Globalization, Society and Environment, Risks & Conflicts, Urbanization and Demographic Change, these four key topics were also the guiding categories for the call for posters.The poster exhibitions were held on Tuesday August the 28th a...

  2. Tumeur de Frantz: deux nouveaux cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellarbi, Salma; Sina, Mohamed; Jahid, Ahmed; Zouaidia, Fouad; Bernoussi, Zakia; Mahassini, Najat

    2013-01-01

    A travers cet article, nous détaillons les caractéristiques clinico-pathologiques et discutons l'histogenèse de la tumeur de Frantz. Deux patients opérés pour tumeur de Frantz. Ils ont eu un traitement chirurgical seul. L'étude morphologique était couplée à un examen immuno-histochimique (IHC) utilisant les anticorps anti CD10, anti- vimentine, anti-énolase neuronale spécifique (NSE), anti-synaptophysine, anti-chromogranine A et anti-cytokératine. Un immuno-marquage à l'anti-oestrogène et l'anti-progestérone a été réalisé dans un cas. Il s'agissait d'une femme âgée de 45ans et d'un garçon de 12 ans. Les aspects échographiques et scannographiques étaient non spécifiques. Une exérèse chirurgicale complète a été réalisée dans les deux cas. L'analyse histologique évoquait une tumeur de Frantz. Le diagnostic a été retenu après étude immuno-histohimique. L'évolution était favorable sans récidive avec respectivement un recul de 18 et 16 mois. La tumeur de Frantz est une entité rare. Son diagnostic repose sur l'examen anatomopathologique complété par l'étude immuno-histochimique. Son pronostic est excellent après résection chirurgicale. PMID:23503717

  3. Des univers multiples nouveaux horizons cosmiques

    CERN Document Server

    Barrau, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Notre univers ne serait-il qu’une fraction d’un vaste multivers ? À l’heure des résultats expérimentaux de Planck et du LHC, de nouvelles questions essentielles se posent quant à l’unicité de l’Univers lui-même. Se pourrait-il que notre cosmos ne soit qu’un îlot dérisoire perdu dans un vaste multivers ? Il est aujourd’hui légitime de le supposer. Mais cette proposition vertigineuse est-elle encore scientifique ? La récente mesure détaillée du rayonnement cosmologique fossile ouvre la voie à de nouvelles approches. Faisant le point sur ces avancées, Aurélien Barrau nous dévoile, dans cette édition actualisée, les théories cosmologiques les plus audacieuses.

  4. New Light Alloys (Les Nouveaux Alliages Legers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    composites r~alis~s avec I’alliage 15-3-3-3 (15-3) de TIMET, alliage 8 m~tastable, facilement laminable et disponible sous forme de feuillards de...part au procMd6 de fabrication - les matdriaux devant tre disponibles soit sous forme de feuillards, soit sous forme de poudres pr~alli~es - , d’autre...a naturaI so an ariii~ aain a( TeSI 5 40 SIC 1 Fig. 9. Compressive and tensile yield stress 1.b In time (secnds in an 6-Al 0 reinforced Al-A ICu alloy

  5. Le poin: Mondialisation, Agro-industries, Globalisation des Modes alimentaires et Nouveaux Enjeux Sanitaires : L’Agriculture Biologique, peut-elle être, une solution du problème [Globalization, Agri-industries, food globalization and sanitary new challenges : Organic agriculture, can it be a solution

    OpenAIRE

    Hassini TSAKI

    2016-01-01

    Les nutritionnistes, épidémiologistes, chercheurs de biologie, médecins, agrobiologistes et autres compétences de vocations connexes demeurent, aujourd’hui et pour une plus juste définition et diagnostic de ces phénomènes liés à la nutrition et santé publique, dans la nécessité pour une meilleure approche d’intégration des informations, de privilégier l’établissement d’une synthèse collégiale sur les différents aspects d’incidences de nos nouveaux modes alimentaires en relation avec les nom...

  6. Le poin: Mondialisation, Agro-industries, Globalisation des Modes alimentaires et Nouveaux Enjeux Sanitaires : L’Agriculture Biologique, peut-elle être, une solution du problème [Globalization, Agri-industries, food globalization and sanitary new challenges : Organic agriculture, can it be a solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassini TSAKI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Les nutritionnistes, épidémiologistes, chercheurs de biologie, médecins, agrobiologistes et autres compétences de vocations connexes demeurent, aujourd’hui et pour une plus juste définition et diagnostic de ces phénomènes liés à la nutrition et santé publique, dans la nécessité pour une meilleure approche d’intégration des informations, de privilégier l’établissement d’une synthèse collégiale sur les différents aspects d’incidences de nos nouveaux modes alimentaires en relation avec les nombreuses et nouvelles maladies chroniques en développement dans nos sociétés modernes (obésité, maladies cardio-vasculaires, diabète, hypertension artérielle, cancers, etc.….

  7. Optimization of superconductivity properties in MgB2 Wires and tapes to generate high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, German

    2005-01-01

    We present, in this work, a study of the effects of doping, heat treatments and mechanisms of deformation, over the microstructure and superconducting properties of powder in tube (PIT) M g B 2 wires and tapes.We observed that nano-SiC doping improves the critical current density (J c ) and the upper critical field (H c 2).The combined use of doping and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing), produces samples with high density and improves J c s.We studied the influence of number and temperature of intermediate heat treatments (TTI), during the fabrication of wires and tapes.We observed that TTI made at low temperature ( o C), results in wires and tapes with better microstructure than those made at high temperature.Moreover, the increment of the heat treatments numbers at high temperature, decreases the quality of microstructure and J c .In the study of sheaths materials, we observed that the J c values measured by magnetization in Ti sheath samples are two order of magnitude larger than the values measured by transport, which indicates macroscopic fracture problems.On other hand, we fabricated tapes with excellent J c values (10 4 A/cm 2 at 4K and 7T), which are similar to those of samples made with HIPing.This tape presents some degree of grains alignment, as a consequence of rolling.We observed J c anisotropy in both transport and magnetization measurements in a range between 4 and 26K, and the same effect in H c 2.The anisotropy factor in Jc increase with applied field, while the anisotropy in Hc2 is constant with temperature (H c 2 parallel H c 2 perpendicular ∼1.2).Finally, we observed that carbon nanotubes doping improves H c 2 and this effects is most important at temperatures below 5K.This increase in H c 2 was predicted by Gurevich [45], as an effect of modification in scattering coefficient between electronics bands of M g B 2 by doping [es

  8. Research on ReBCO and MgB2 Wires and Cables at the University of Twente

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-15

    behaviour and its influence on critical properties. The predictive model is verified by experiments. Four cable types (CORC, stacked tape, Roebel, CICC...Besides  that,  a  detailed  modeling  work  on  the  mechanical   behaviour  and  it’s  influence  on  the...these  loads.  A  set  of  experimental  setups,  as  well  as  a   convenient  and  accurate  method  of  stress

  9. Effect on deformation process of adding a copper core to multifilament MgB2 superconducting wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Michael Halloway; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Using the PIT method, multifilament wire with different packing strategies has been manufactured. In all, three types of wire have been investigated, a 19-filament configuration using ex-situ powder in an Fe-matrix and two 8-filament configurations in an Fe-matrix applying a copper core, one using....... This finding is supported by numerical simulations of the deformation process which indicate that tensile stresses are. concentrated around the middle of the wire during the drawing process. As such, strategic packing of the multifilament configuration can reduce the need for annealing during the mechanical...

  10. Optical Engines as Representative Tools in the Development of New Combustion Engine Concepts Moteurs transparents comme outils représentatifs dans le développement de nouveaux concepts des moteurs à combustion interne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashdan J.

    2011-11-01

    missions dans les moteurs transparents. Ces aspects ont été également traités dans cette étude. Une meilleure compréhension des différences de comportement entre les moteurs monocylindres transparents et moteurs standards (opaques a permis de développer des stratégies de fonctionnement permettant de compenser ces différences entre les deux moteurs. Il a été démontré dans cette étude qu’un recoupement du calage de la combustion et des émissions polluantes est possible même dans les conditions correspondant à la combustion Diesel LTC. La capacité d’assurer un comportement représentatif des moteurs transparents en termes de combustion et d’émissions augmente la valeur ajoutée des données expérimentales acquises soulignant alors l’importance de ces moyens comme outils de recherche dans le développement de nouveaux concepts de combustion.

  11. The search for new radioisotopes; La recherche de nouveaux noyaux et de nouveaux elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, M [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Armbruster, P [GSI, Max-Planck-Str., Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Phosphorus-30 was the first artificial radioisotope, it was produced by F. and I. Joliot-Curie in 1934, since then 2460 new nuclei have been discovered. This document reviews the radioisotopes known and the methods used to separate them. The authors describe the discovery of new radioisotopes such as Nickel-78 produced in the fission of high energy uranium ions impinging on a lead target (IPN-GSI collaboration) and the discovery of Nickel-48 by a team CENBG-Ganil. All this experience is useful for the processing of nuclear wastes by using transmutation. (A.C.)

  12. New developments in the analysis and measurement of thicknesses by excitation of the fluorescent lines by means of {beta} particles; Nouveaux developpements de l'analyse et de la mesure des epaisseurs par excitation des raies de fluorescence au moyen de particules {beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Seibel, G [Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie, 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)

    1960-07-01

    The process for analysing and measuring the thickness of deposits by {beta}-X fluorescence which we have already described has undergone further development. The use of promethium-147 and krypton-85 sources makes it possible to reduce the background noise which is observed with strontium-90. We present the results obtained for various measurements of the thickness of metallic coatings and the continuous measurement of calcium and of iron in ore samples. We describe the tests carried out with a view to analysing the X-rays by means of a crystal. (author) [French] Le procede d'analyse et de mesure des epaisseurs de depots par fluorescence {beta}-X que nous avons precedemment decrit a fait l'objet de nouveaux developpements. L'emploi de sources de prometheum-147 et de krypton-85 permet de reduire le bruit de fond que l'on observe avec le strontium-90. Nous dormons les resultats obtenus pour diverses mesures d'epaisseurs de depots metalliques et la mesure en continu du calcium et du fer dans les carottes de minerais. Nous decrivons les essais effectues en vue d'analyser le rayonnement X au moyen d'un cristal. (auteur)

  13. High-temperature superconductors. Les supraconducteurs a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontemps, N; Combescot, R; Monod, P [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France)

    1992-02-01

    High-tc superconductivity was discovered in 1986. The prospects of being able to dispose of superconductors cooled by liquid nitrogen instead of liquid helium, and fundamental physics questions raised by these new compounds drag an unprecedented scientific mobilization. Today, the super conductive state nature become clearer. But, to all expectations, their normal state nature is proved to present quite more difficulties. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Superconducting magnetic shields production. Realisation d'ecrans magnetiques supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lainee, F; Kormann, R [Thomson-CSF, Domaine de Corbeville, 91 - Orsay (FR); Lainee, F [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 91 - Evry (FR)

    1992-02-01

    Low fields and low frequency shielding properties of YBCO magnetic shields are measured at 77 K. They compare favourably with shielding properties of mumetal shields. Therefore high-T{sub c} superconducting magnetic shields can already be used to shield small volumes. The case of magnetic shields for large volumes is also discussed. 3 refs; 6 figs; 4 tabs.

  15. Etude de la magnetoresistance du compose supraconducteur YB a2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    00 ;0,01 ; 0,03 ; 0,06 ; 0,10 ; 0,20 ; 0,25) ont été élaborés par la méthode de réaction à l'état solide. L'effet de différents cycles de recuit sur la substitution du cuivre par le titane dans l'YBCO a été faite à travers des mesures de résistivité ...

  16. The Importance of Water-Hydrocarbon Phase Equilibria During Reservoir Production and Drilling Operations Nouveaux défis liés à la présence d'équilibres eau-hydrocarbures lors des opérations de production et de forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou H.

    2006-12-01

    érature crée de nouveaux défis pour l'ingénieur pétrolier. Un bref état de l'art des équilibres eau-hydrocarbures est présenté dans un premier temps. À haute température, de grandes quantités d'eau peuvent se trouver dans la phase hydrocarbonée (jusqu'à 10% moles, et à haute pression, on trouvera des quantités non négligeables de gaz dissous dans l'eau. Des mesures de solubilités mutuelles ont donné lieu à un grand nombre de modèles. Étant donné les limites des données expérimentales, les restrictions des modèles sont soulignées. Des études récentes ont indiqué l'intérêt d'utiliser des constantes de Henry pour la prédiction de la solubilité d'hydrocarbures dans l'eau. Les nouveaux défis sont abordés sur la base de quelques publications récentes. L'eau présente en phase hydrocarbonée peut conduire à des dépôts de sels autour du puits, et peut modifier l'estimation de la quantité de gaz en place. Elle peut également donner lieu à une modification des pressions de saturation. La présence d'eau dans les conduites de transport impose un traitement supplémentaire pour éviter la formation d'hydrates. Les hydrocarbures dissous en phase aqueuse peuvent, de leur côté, modifier la composition du fluide, particulièrement lorsque la pression devient très faible. La toxicité de l'eau contenant du H2S ou des aromatiques peut créer de réels problèmes lorsqu'il s'agit de nappes aquifères ou lorsqu'il est question de rejeter les eaux de production. Lors du forage, la présence de gaz dissous dans le fluide de forage (souvent à base d'eau peut représenter un danger réel en causant des éruptions. Une attention particulière doit être portée aux injections de gaz acides dans des réservoirs, car l'effet de ces fluides injectés peut être difficile à prédire. En conclusion, au vu des besoins industriels présentés, des suggestions sont proposées pour des acquisitions de données supplémentaires ou pour améliorer les mod

  17. Fluctuations on the magnetic response of superconducting thin films of Nb and MgB2 - Percolation limit of vortex mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colauto, F.; Orgiani, P.; Xi, X.X.; Kang, W.N.; Choi, E.M.; Kim, H.J.; Lee, S.I.; Patino, E.; Blamire, M.G.; Ortiz, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Application of a magnetic field of sufficient intensity orthogonal to superconducting thin films may produce dendritic patterns, where penetrated and Meissner regions coexist. The dendritic mode can be detected by AC-susceptibility measurements, since fingers penetrated by the magnetic field act as intergranular material. Measurements of the AC-susceptibility have the conventional shape for smaller values of magnitude and frequency of the excitation field. However, for frequencies in the vicinity of 1 kHz and AC-fields around 3 Oe and above, the curve deviates from its canonical behavior and fluctuates, the excursion becoming wider as the amplitude is increased. In this contribution we present results of a systematic study conducted to determine the threshold between smooth and fluctuating regimes of the magnetic response of the film, which is interpreted as the percolation limit of vortex mobility throughout the sample

  18. MgB2 Süperiletken Tellerde Alternatif Akım Kaybı ve Akı Perçinleme Mekanizmaları

    OpenAIRE

    SAFRAN, Serap

    2010-01-01

    Bu çalışmada çok filamanlı Bi-2223/Ag şerit ve farklı kılıf malzemesine sahip tek ve çok filamanlı MgB2 teller için alternatif akım (AA) kaybı deneysel olarak ölçüldü.  Bu süperiletkenler için teorik olarak manyetik alan şerit yüzeyine dik olarak uygulandığı zaman AA kayıp hesaplanarak deneysel sonuçlarla karşılaştırıldı. Deneysel verilerle hesaplamalar arasında iyi bir uyum gözlendi. Hesaplamalar için ticari sonlu elemanlar yazılımı (Comsol Multiphysi...

  19. Comment on "Anisotropic s-wave superconductivity: Comparison with experiments on MgB2" by A. I. Posazhennikova et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishonov, T. M.; Penev, E. S.; Indekeu, J. O.

    2003-02-01

    An analytical result for the renormalization of the jump of the heat capacity ΔC/CN by the anisotropy of the order parameter is derived within the framework of the very recent model proposed by Posazhennikova, Dahm and Maki (Europhys. Lett., 60 (2002) 134), for both oblate and prolate anisotropy. The graph of ΔC/CN vs. the ratio of the gaps on the equator and the pole of the Fermi surface, Δe/Δp, allows a direct determination of the gap anisotropy parameter Δe/Δp by fitting data from specific-heat measurements ΔC/CN. Using the experimental value ΔC/CN = 0.82 ± 10% by Wang, Plackowski, and Junod (Physica C 355 (2001) 179) we find Δe/Δp approx 4.0.

  20. Thermophysical properties of new materials; Proprietes thermophysiques des materiaux nouveaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `thermo-kinetics` section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 5 papers entitled: `characterization of thermal properties using periodical methods at the Odeillo test centre: developments and applications`; `measurement of the distribution of local thermophysical properties by IR images processing and averaging technique`; `extension of shock probes to the characterization of multi-layers - development of a simple device for the characterization of insulating materials or shear fluids`; `thermal local diffusivity of constituents of carbon/carbon composites`; `new method for the thermal diffusivity measurement of thermo-hardenable resins during polymerization`. (J.S.)

  1. Les nouveaux contours du champ intellectuel musulman en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Frégosi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Islam in France hides a heterogeneous human reality which is quite removed from the stereotypes and clichés that generally abound about it. This is also true of the French Muslim intellectual landscape, a competitive space, in which diverse actors hold distinct and often opposing visions and representations of Islam, confront each other and strive nevertheless to present their Islam as the socially legitimized version that is compatible with the surrounding society. This article attempts to delimit the boundaries of the Muslim intellectual field by studying its dynamics and by proposing a typology of French Muslim intellectuals.

  2. Third session: new projects; Session 3: Les Projets nouveaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iracane, D. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Dupuy, J.P. [AREVA-Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Perotto, G. [AREVA-Framatome-ANP, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Ithurralde, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Cabrillat, J.C. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Becle, D. [FRAMATOME, AREVA-FANP, 69 - Lyon (France); Pivet, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Minguet, J.L. [AREVA-Technicatome, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The RJH (Jules Horowitz reactor) is a 100 MWth research reactor, cooled and moderated by water, that has been designed to operate with high density (8 g U/cm{sup 3}) and low enrichment fuel (19.75%) uranium molybdenum fuel. Its main neutron performances are expected to be: -) maximum fast neutron flux (E > 0.907 MeV) in the sample: 5.10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s, -) maximum thermal neutron flux (E < 0.625 eV): 4.10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s, and -) maximal neutron damage: 16 dpa/year. RJH that will be built on the Cea's site of Cadarache, is scheduled to enter into service in 2014, it will take over the activities of the Osiris reactor and its operating life is planned to be over 50 years long. The Cabri research reactor is located on the Cadarache site, it has been operating since 1962 and is now undergoing important upgrading operations whose aim is to make the facility fit to study the behaviour of new nuclear fuels in accidental situations. The RES test reactor is a facility whose aim is to qualify nuclear fuels and core configurations of existing propulsion reactors onboard of aircraft carriers or submarines and to propose innovative concepts for future propulsion reactors. (A.C.)

  3. Nouveaux centres de cyberpolitique pour les pays du Sud | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 avr. 2018 ... L'appel ouvert avait pour but de cibler les organismes indépendants voués à la recherche sur les politiques qui s'appuient sur la recherche pour éclairer et influencer les politiques nationales dans les domaines des droits numériques, de la cybersécurité et des politiques d'innovation. Parmi les 59 ...

  4. Deux nouveaux Ctenophthalmus (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Ctenophthalmidae de Tanzanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudisoit A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Lors d’une étude épidémiologique du foyer pesteux de Lushoto, quelques puces rares ou nouvelles ont été collectées. Nous décrivons ici l’une d’entre elles, Ctenophthalmus (Ethioctenophthalmus teucqae n. sp. L’examen de spécimens de comparaison déposés au National History Museum (Londres, nous permet d’en créer une sous-espèce, C. (E. teucqae shumeensis n. ssp.

  5. New reactor concepts; Nieuwe rectorconcepten - nouveaux reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meskens, G.; Govaerts, P.; Baugnet, J.-M.; Delbrassine, A

    1998-11-01

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost.

  6. Nouveaux centres de cyberpolitique pour les pays du Sud | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 avr. 2018 ... L'Association internationale de ressources en eau (IWRA), en étroite collaboration avec le CRDI, organise un webinaire intitulé "Changements climatiques et gestion adaptive de l'eau: des... Voir davantageNouveau webinaire IWRA/CRDI sur les changements climatiques et la gestion adaptive de l'eau ...

  7. Les Nouveaux Miserables: modern victims of social asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D R

    1995-10-01

    During the past 30 years, social and economic barriers to health care services have increased for many Americans, especially for the nation's most vulnerable populations. Health status actually has declined for certain populations during this time. Meanwhile, national attention has been focused primarily on containing health care costs and on devising strategies for reforming the financing of health care rather than strategies for achieving improvements in the health status of the population. Existing methods of financing health care services, health research priorities, the increasing centralization and compartmentalization of health care services, and the recent failure of national health reform all serve to hinder this nation's progress towards developing a comprehensive and accountable health care system focused on promoting and achieving improved health as well as treating sickness. Recent changes in the health care marketplace, however, including a growing movement toward measuring the outcomes of medical treatments and an emphasis on improving the quality of services, have increased interest among payers and providers of health care services in investing in preventive services. Health maintenance organizations and other integrated health care delivery systems are beginning to devise incentives for increasing preventive care as well as for containing costs. The transformation of the nation's current medical care system into a true health care system will require innovative strategies designed to merge the existing fragmented array of services into coordinated and comprehensive systems for delivering primary and preventive health care services in community settings. The Community-Oriented Primary Care concept successfully blends these functions and has achieved measurable results in reducing health care costs and improving access to preventive services for identified populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Sur trois zoanthaires nouveaux pour Tuléar, Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herberts, C.

    1976-01-01

    Description of three Zoanthids new to the Tulear region (S.W. Madagascar): a macrocnemic species, Epizoanthus cf. minutus Duerden, 1898, and two brachycnemic species, Zoanthus pacificus Walsh & Bowers, 1971, and Z. vietnamensis Pax, 1957. These new records bring the number of zoanthids known from

  9. Brouillons scolaires et critique génétique : nouveaux regards, nouveaux égards ?

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre-Cols, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    En s’interrogeant sur ce qui a commencé de changer dans la réflexion et les pratiques en didactique de l’écriture depuis la prise en compte de la critique génétique au début des années quatre-vingt, l’auteur dégage un bilan en trois points : La critique génétique propose un ancrage théorique et une méthode d'analyse des activités d'écriture.La critique génétique permet de (se) représenter toute écriture comme un travail et une recherche.La critique génétique place le sujet scripteur au centre...

  10. New developments in the analysis and measurement of thicknesses by {beta}-particle excitation of X fluorescent rays; Nouveaux developpements de l'analyse et de la mesure des epaisseurs par excitation des raies de fluorescence X au moyen de particules {beta}; Novye usovershenstvovaniya analiza i izmereniya plotnosti putem vozbuzhdeniya fluorestsiruyushchikh spektrov rentgenovskogo lucha beta-chastitsami; Nuevos adelantos en el analisis y la medicion de espesores mediante la excitacion de rayos X por particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France); Seibel, G [Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie, St-Germain-en-Laye (France)

    1962-01-15

    The method of analysing and measuring the thickness of deposits by {beta}-X fluorescence which we previously described has been further developed. Using Pm{sup 147} and Kr{sup 85} sources, it is possible to reduce the background observed with Sr{sup 90}. We quote the results obtained for various thickness measurements of metal deposits, an analysis of the solutions, and the continuous measurement of calcium and iron in core samples. We describe experiments made for analysis of the X-radiation by crystal. (author) [French] Le procede d'analyse et de mesure des epaisseurs de depots par fluorescence {beta}-X que nous avons precedemment decrit a fait l'objet de nouveaux developpements. L'emploi de sources de {sup 147}Pm et de {sup 85}Kr permet de reduire le bruit de fond que l'on observe avec le {sup 90}Sr. Nous donnons les resultats obtenus pour diverses mesures d'epaisseurs de depots metalliques, l'analyse des solutions et la mesure en continu du calcium et du fer dans les carottes de minerais. Nous decrivons les essais effectues en vue d'analyser le rayonnement X au moyen d'un cristal. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han introducido nuevos perfeccionamientos en su procedimiento de analisis y de medicion de espesores de depositos por fluorescencia de rayos X excitada por particulas beta. La utilizacion de fuentes de {sup 147}Pm y de {sup 85}Kr permite reducir la actividad de fondo que se observa empleando {sup 90}Sr. Los autores exponen los resultados obtenidos en materia de mediciones de espesores de depositos metalicos, analisis de soluciones y medicion continua del calcio y del hierro en muestras de minerales extraidas por sondeo. Tambien describen los ensayos realizados con miras a analizar los rayos X por medio de un cristal. (author) [Russian] Protsess analiza i izmereniya plotnosti sloev putem fluorestsiruyushchikh beta- i rentgenovskikh luchej, kotoryj opisyvalsya nami ran'she, byl predmetom novykh usovershenstvovanij. Ispol'zovanie istochnikov prometeya-147 i

  11. Geopolitics of petroleum. A new market. New risks. New worlds; Geopolitique du petrole. Un nouveau marche. De nouveaux risques. Des nouveaux mondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestrange, C. de; Paillard, Ch.A.; Zelenko, P

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this book is to shade light on a complex world in complete evolution, the stakes of which for today's societies being proportional to the energy and economical importance of petroleum. The big petroleum fear of consuming countries and the reactions linked with oil shocks are now old stories. The producing countries are today at least as vulnerable to price variations and fluxes restrictions as the consumers of developed countries. Two countries, USA and Saudi Arabia, and one organisation, the OPEC, play a key role in the regulation of this system, the equilibrium of which is now threatened by the reinforcement of preoccupations like environment and human rights protection. New challenges occur: the increase of demand, the concentration of offer, some technological changes that would limit the petroleum needs in the future, and the increasing insecurity of key oil-producing regions. At a shorter term, the geopolitical context of Middle-East is the most worrying. (J.S.)

  12. Josephson junction in superconducting oxides thick films. Jonction Josephson en couche epaisse d'oxydes supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, C; Monfort, Y; Lam Chok Sing, M; Bloyet, D; Brousse, T; Provost, J; Raveau, B [Institut des Sciences de la Matiere du Rayonnement, 14 - Caen (FR)

    1992-02-01

    Constrictions engraved in YBaCuO thick films fabricated by screen printing on YSZ substrate (J{sub c} > 3 000 A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K) have been studied. Microwave irradiation of the devices at LN{sub 2} showed distinct Shapiro steps demonstrating the presence intrinsic Josephson junctions. The latter have an I{sub c}(T) dependence fitting (1 - T/T{sub c}){sup 2} characteristic of SNS junctions. Furthermore, dc SQUID effects have also been observed with a peak-to-peak response {approx equal} 0.2 {mu}V and with a magnetic field periodicity extending through several hundred of {phi}{sub o}. An energy resolution close to 3 x 10{sup -29} J/Hz is estimated for our constriction operating in the white noise frequency range (f > 50 Hz) at 77 K. This sensitivity is adequate to use this flux sensor in many applications: geomagnetism, magnetocardiology,... 19 refs; 7 figs.

  13. Irradiation effects in superconductor oxides. Effets d'irradiation dans les oxydes supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rullier-Albenque, F; Konczykowski, M [CEA-Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. d' Etudes des Solides Irradies

    1993-01-01

    Several effects of irradiation on the 92 K - oxide superconductor YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] are reported. Whatever irradiation type, the critical temperature T[sub c] is found to decrease and the resistivity to increase. At sufficiently high damage levels, YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] is no longer superconducting and even displays a semiconducting-like behaviour. The alterations of superconducting properties are clearly related to oxygen defects - in the CuO[sub 2] planes or CuO chains... but we have shown experimentally that copper defects are also important. Magnetic properties of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] in mixed state are also very sensitive to irradiation. By pinning the flux lines, irradiation defects can considerably increase the critical current density j[sub c]. At present, irradiations by highly energetic heavy ions (6 GeV Pb for instance), which produce cylindrical tubes of amorphous material (latent tracks) throughout the whole thickness of the samples, are probably the most efficient way to enhance j[sub c]. (Author). 18 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Superconducting materials and fabrication process. Materiaux supraconducteurs et leur procede de preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafon, M O; Magnier, C

    1989-03-24

    A fine powder of superconducting material is obtained from an aqueous solution of rare earth, alkaline earth metal and transition metal nitrates and/or acetates which is dried by atomization, calcined and eventually crushed.

  15. Jonction Josephson en couche épaisse d'oxydes supraconducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, C.; Monfort, Y.; Sing, M. Lam Chok; Bloyet, D.; Brousse, T.; Provost, J.; Raveau, B.

    1992-02-01

    Constrictions engraved in YBaCuO thick films fabricated by screen printing on YSZ substrate (J_c>3 000 A/cm^2 at 77 K) have been studied. Microwave irradiation of the devices at LN2 showed distinct Shapiro steps demonstrating the presence intrinsic Josephson junctions. The latter have an I_c(T) dependence fitting (1-T/T_c)^2 characteristic of SNS junctions. Furthermore, dc SQUID effects have also been observed with a peak-to-peak response simeq 0.2 μV and with a magnetic field periodicity extending through several hundred of φ_0. An energy resolution close to 3× 10^{-29} J/Hz is estimated for our constriction operating in the white noise frequency range (f>50 Hz) at 77 K. This sensitivity is adequate to use this flux sensor in many applications : geomagnetism, magnetocardiology, ... Nous avons étudié des constrictions gravées dans des couches épaisses d'YBaCuO déposées sur substrat de YSZ (J_c>3 000 A/cm^2 à 77 K). L'observation de marches de Shapiro lors d'irradiations des échantillons à 77 K par un champ HF met clairement en évidence la présence de jonctions Josephson intrinsèques de type SNS, leur dépendance en température du courant critique étant en (1-T/T_c)^2. De plus, nous avons obtenu des réponses en champ magnétique, caractéristiques des SQUIDs dc, d'amplitude 0,2 μVcc et dont la périodicité s'étend sur plusieurs centaines de φ_0. La résolution en énergie est de l'ordre de 3× 10^{-29} J/Hz en zone de bruit blanc (f>50 Hz) à 77 K. Cette sensibilité est suffisante pour envisager son utilisation dans des applications telles que : géomagnétisme, magnétocardiologie, ...

  16. Superconductors preparation process and products obtained. Procede de preparation de supraconducteurs et produits ainsi obtenus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafon, M O; Magnier, C

    1989-03-24

    A superconducting fine powder is prepared by mixing a rare earth sol with a solution of at least an alkaline earth nitrate and at least a transition metal nitrate, the pH is fixed for the said nitrates to stay in solution. The mixture is dried, calcined and eventually crushed.

  17. Prise en compte des ``courants de London'' dans la modélisation des supraconducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossavit, Alain

    1997-10-01

    A model is given, in variational form, in which volumic “Bean currents”, ruled by Bean's law, and surface “London currents” coexist. This macroscopic model generalizes Bean's one, by appending to the critical density j_c a second parameter, with the dimension of a length, similar to London's depth λ. The one-dimensional version of the model is investigated, in order to link this parameter with the standard observable H-M characteristics On propose un modèle, sous forme variationnelle, associant des “courants de Bean” volumiques, décrits par la loi de Bean, et des “courants de London”, surfaciques. Ce modèle macroscopique généralise celui de Bean, caractérisé par le courant critique j_c, et fait intervenir un second paramètre, homogène à une longueur, analogue au λ de London. La version unidimensionnelle du modèle est étudiée en détail de manière à relier ce paramètre à l'observation des caractéristiques H-M usuelles.

  18. Theory of itinarant ferromagnetism in superconducting semimetals. Theorie du ferromagnetisme itinerant dans des semimetaux supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Tran, C; Nguyen Van, C [Groupe de Physique Theorique, Inst. National Polytechnique de Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Manh, D [Groupe de Physique Theorique, Inst. National Polytechnique de Hanoi (Viet Nam) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Lab. d' Etudes des Proprietes Electroniques des Solides, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1991-11-01

    A theory of itinerant ferromagnetism in superconducting semimetals is proposed. A nonzero mean magnetisation appears in the superconducting state due to the interaction (interference) of spin density wave (SDW), charge density wave (CDW) and Cooper pair wave. Phase diagram and physical properties of the states considered are investigated analytically and numerically. (orig.).

  19. Stabilized superconducting materials and fabrication process. Materiaux supraconducteurs stabilises et leur procede d'obtention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B; Dance, J M; Etourneau, J; Lozano, L; Tressaud, A; Tournier, R; Sulpice, A; Chaussy, J; Lejay, P

    1989-10-06

    Superconducting ceramics are fluorinated at a temperature {le} 120{sup 0}C. Are also claimed new superconducting materials with a fluorine concentration gradient decreasing from the surface to the core. Superconductivity is stabilized and/or improved.

  20. Non-superconducting persistent currents. Des courants permanents mais pas supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, A; Mailly, D

    1993-03-01

    Forecasted ten years ago a quantum effect is evidenced: persistent currents in small non-superconducting loops in a magnetic field at low temperature. The loop (diameter 2.5 micrometer) is etched in a semiconducting structure GaAs/GaAlAs, where the coherence length is 25 [mu]m, the current is measured with a squid on the same chip, a value of 4 nano amps is found which agrees well with the theoretical value of 5 nA.

  1. Cooling device of superconducting coils. Dispositif de refroidissement de bobinages supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthil, R; Lottin, J C

    1985-08-30

    This device is rotating around an horizontal axis. The superconducting coils are contained in a cryogenic enclosure feeded in liquid helium forced circulation. They are related to an electric generator by electric mains each of them comprising a gas exchanger, and an exchanger-evaporator set between the cryogenic device and those exchangers. The exchanger-evaporator is aimed at dissipating the heat arriving by conductors connected to the superconducting coils. According to the invention, the invention includes an annular canalization with horizontal axis in which the connection conductors bathe in liquid helium.

  2. Low critical temperature superconductors for electromagnets; Supraconducteurs a basse temperature critique pour electroaimants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A

    2002-07-01

    After a brief history of the main discoveries in applied superconductivity (section 1), we discuss the structure and properties of NbTi and Nb3 Sn (section 2). Then, we explain why low critical-temperature superconductors are produced under the form of multifilamentary composites (section 3), and we review the manufacturing processes of NbTi and Nb3Sn wires (section 4). We follow by a description of the transition from the superconducting to the normal resistive state of multifilamentary composite wires (section 5) and we detail their magnetization properties section 6). Last, we present the most commonly used cable configurations (section 7) and we provide simple formulae illustrating on a few examples the computation of losses generated under time-varying magnetic fields (section 8). (author)

  3. Superconductors with low critical temperature for electro-magnets; Supraconducteurs a basse temperature critique pour electroaimants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A

    2002-07-01

    Among the superconductors with low critical temperature that are used to build magnets, NbTi has reached a development state that allows a massive production for big equipment of physics and an industrial production in the domain of medicine imaging. The material that might challenge the supremacy of NbTi is Nb{sub 3}Sn but some technical difficulties have yet to be overcome. This report begins with a review of the different industrial processes used to produce superconducting wires based on the NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn materials. The transition from the superconducting state to the resistive normal state is described for both materials, the magnetizing of multi-wire superconducting cables is also presented. The author details the different patterns of wires in cables and proposes a formulary that allows the determination, in some simple cases,of energy losses that are generated in a superconducting cable by a variable magnetic field. (A.C.)

  4. Fault current limitation with HTc superconductors; Limitation de courant a partir de materiaux supraconducteurs HTc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzon, D.

    2002-09-15

    This report deals with the possibility of using high critical temperature (HTc) superconductors for current limitation. The transition from a superconductive to a high dissipative state could be used to limit inrush currents. This application of superconductivity is very attractive because it's an innovative device for electrical networks without any conventional equivalence at high voltage. This device would allow to improve the density of connections and the continuity of the electrical distribution. This study can be divided into two fields. The aim of the first one is to analyse the behaviour of different HTc superconductors for current limitation. We carried out experimental measurements to characterise those conductors during a nominal AC rating (measurements of losses) and during a fault setting. Particularly, a description of the transition in bulk textured YBCO samples near Tc was made of inhomogeneous transition of the device and to estimate its losses. Finally, a 1 kV / 100 A demonstrator made of 43 meanders of textured YBCO was tested at 90,5 K. Thermal gradients seem to be responsible of the altering of some of the samples. The other part of this study concerns the dynamic of the transition. Near Tc, our experiments showed that the transition is more homogeneous. Experimental measurements also showed the influence of thermal exchanges with the cryogenic surrounding on the transition. This point can be justified if the dissipated energy is locally concentrated. (author)

  5. Fault current limitation with HTc superconductors; Limitation de courant a partir de materiaux supraconducteurs HTc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzon, D

    2002-09-15

    This report deals with the possibility of using high critical temperature (HTc) superconductors for current limitation. The transition from a superconductive to a high dissipative state could be used to limit inrush currents. This application of superconductivity is very attractive because it's an innovative device for electrical networks without any conventional equivalence at high voltage. This device would allow to improve the density of connections and the continuity of the electrical distribution. This study can be divided into two fields. The aim of the first one is to analyse the behaviour of different HTc superconductors for current limitation. We carried out experimental measurements to characterise those conductors during a nominal AC rating (measurements of losses) and during a fault setting. Particularly, a description of the transition in bulk textured YBCO samples near Tc was made of inhomogeneous transition of the device and to estimate its losses. Finally, a 1 kV / 100 A demonstrator made of 43 meanders of textured YBCO was tested at 90,5 K. Thermal gradients seem to be responsible of the altering of some of the samples. The other part of this study concerns the dynamic of the transition. Near Tc, our experiments showed that the transition is more homogeneous. Experimental measurements also showed the influence of thermal exchanges with the cryogenic surrounding on the transition. This point can be justified if the dissipated energy is locally concentrated. (author)

  6. Two band superconductivity for MgB2: Tc and isotope exponent α as a function of the carrier number n and the role of the center of the band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Nunez, J.J.; Schmidt, A.A.; Bianconi, A.; Perali, A.

    2005-08-01

    We study a two band superconducting, assuming that we have two tight binding bands, ε 2 (k-vector) = ε 2 (0) - t 2 [cos(k x ) + cos(k y ) + s 2 cos(k z )] - μ and ε 3 (k-vector) ε 3 (0) - t 3 [cos(k x ) + cos(k y )+s 3 cos(k z )] - μ. We solve the two gap equations at T = T c and calculate T c x n and μ x n for various values of pairing interaction, V, and Debye frequency, ω D . Also, from an expression developed in a previous paper by two of the present authors, we calculate α x n, where n is the number of carriers per site per band and α is the isotope exponent. We take only interband scattering, V, as a first approach. We find that in order to have superconductivity (T c ≠ 0), large values of V are necessary. Also, for V/ω D > 1, we obtain α > 1.00 and for V/ω D >1.00, the isotope exponent becomes less than 1. (author)

  7. Modèles d'affaires ouverts : nouveaux mécanismes de revenus pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  8. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A; Jurkowski, R [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  9. Étudiants en écosanté – Bourses aux nouveaux chercheurs visant à ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 mai 2011 ... Aborder les enjeux importants de l'environnement et de la santé de la population par une approche écosanté est une vision commune partagée par quatre personnes des régions extrêmement différentes du monde.

  10. L'organisation de la formation agricole au benin : quels nouveaux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ingénierie des Dispositifs de Formation (DIF). Des investigations et analyses, il ressort que les formations offertes aux ruraux sont compatibles avec leurs besoins en formation mais l'élaboration de ces programmes est caractérisée par une forte ...

  11. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P.; Le Nest, J.F.; Gandini, A. [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  12. Étudiants en écosanté – Bourses aux nouveaux chercheurs visant à ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'innovation et le leadership ... lauréats du concours « Affiches-Étudiants », et la Dre Susilowati Tana, lauréate du concours « Présentation de recherche en écosanté » ont tous été reconnus pour leurs contributions dans le ...

  13. Oil and international security: old and new issues; Petrole et securite internationale: de nouveaux enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1998-09-01

    This paper questions the effectiveness of the link between international oil and (inter)national security. First, it explains an acknowledge the rise and decline of the traditional case of this link: the threat that so called ''oil dependence'' inflicts upon the national economy, hence the problem it raises for government. The reason for that decline is looked for in the emergence of multiple forms of competition in oil and energy markets, making the ''oil weapon'' less credible and its use less desirable and less possible. In oil like in any other commodity, the normal situation is the competition between suppliers for access to markets. For all basic economics tells us and experience has confirmed, analyses and policies (at least in France) are still strongly influenced by the ''oil security'' thinking shaped in the eve of the 1970 crises. Yet, those fallacies may be the strongest obstacle to the acknowledgment of the real oil security issues we face. The main one is the possible political destabilization of the Middle East due to oil competition between its members in an increasingly competitive world market. The consequences on regional antagonisms of the come back of Iraqi oil to the market on one hand, the internal stability of Iran and Saudi Arabia in a situation of lasting low oil revenues on the other hand, are reviewed as the main possible factors of regional destabilization in a context of strong competition in the world oil market. A large scale political burst with major oil producers concerned would certainly hurt developed and developing economy. That leads us to this paradoxical situation: the very cause of the decline of the traditional oil dependence issue is, due to Middle East situation, the main cause of possible destabilization of world oil market today. (author)

  14. Afrique occidentale et centrale — De nouveaux défis relevés avec ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 janv. 2011 ... Ainsi, les éleveurs de l'Afrique occidentale et centrale doivent composer avec un certain nombre de changements écologiques et sociaux, tels que la vente de pâturages à des agriculteurs. La privatisation de superficies qui étaient jusque-là réservées à la vaine pâture occasionne souvent des problèmes ...

  15. Nouveaux ligands donneurs mixtes contenant un atome de phosphore sp2.

    OpenAIRE

    Seeboth , Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    The work presented here brings together the results on the preparation of phosphamétallocènes mainly around M = Ru. A better understanding of phenomena governing the coordination of transition metals on soft anions phospholures and preparation of phospholures modified by ester group allowed us to promote the coordination mode of 5 and solve the chirality by simple crystallization. We showed that this synthesis method of resolution is quite general and apply in those cases where M = Fe, Ru, an...

  16. Les nouveaux mécanismes du contrôle organisationnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeri Carvalho da Silva

    Full Text Available Dans cet essai on discute les mécanismes de contrôle mis en évidence par l'adoption de nouvelles technologies de gestion qui ont proporcionné une restructuration productive. La relevance de cette discussion est dans la compréhension que l'adoption de ces nouvelles technologies impliquent des alterations dans le système de contrôle que, même si elles ne remplacent pas complètement les modes de contrôle utilisés avant, mettent l'accent sur un mode de contrôle plus subtil que privilegie des mécanismes qu'influencient le partage d'une vision de monde.

  17. De nouveaux mécanismes de résilience

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CRDI

    Explorez sur cette carte les différents types d'investissements .... Résultat : les services météorologiques du Kenya ont mis en place ..... régionale et nationale, conjugué à l'usage de la télédétection et d'autres techniques diagnostiques, ...

  18. Anciens et nouveaux parias. Des usages des migrations et du transit dans la politique libyenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saïd Haddad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reinvesting in Africa during the years of embargo was the first step in al Qaddafi’s Libyan strategy to break its international isolation (1992-1999. After the suspension of the embargo, Libya’s foreign policy aimed at restoring economic and political ties with the West.But post-embargo Libya is also facing the rise of a large African migration, the result of Libyan diplomacy to reinvest in Africa. Traditionally considered a receiving country, Libya is now becoming a land of emigration.The study of migration to (and from Libya offers an illustration of the way a southern Mediterranean country - and a former rogue state – puts it to use in the field of diplomacy, especially in its relations with the European Union. Meanwhile, Libya has to deal with the political and social challenge of African migrations. How migratory movements not only affect Libyan diplomacy but also reflect the domestic situation is what this paper is about.

  19. Les nouveaux besoins en eau et en terres dans l'Altiplano bolivien ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    19 févr. 2015 ... L'Altiplano ou « haute plaine » de Bolivie est un plateau semi-aride qui représente un tiers de la superficie du pays et abrite 2,8 millions d'habitants, soit 30 % de la population bolivienne. L'Altiplano est aussi l'un des endroits les plus pauvres du pays.

  20. Pour éviter de nouveaux « Walkerton » | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 juil. 2011 ... Une belle occasion pour réfléchir au drame de Walkerton engendré par la contamination du réseau d'alimentation en eau potable de cette ville ... Même nous, Canadiens, qui semblons à l'abri de tout besoin, devrons relever un défi de taille à mesure que l'agriculture, l'essor de l'industrie et celle de ...

  1. « Les OGM face aux nouveaux paradigmes de la biologie »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosclaude Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment and risk management of GMOs are inherited from the paradigm of molecular biology born in the 1960s and from theories of evolutionary biology dominant in the years that saw the onset of GMOs. But these paradigms have been greatly challenged by recent advances in these disciplines : the dissolution of the concept of gene, the identification of epigenetic phenomena transmitted hereditarily, the discovery of the new continent of microRNAs, the metapopulation theory, the ability to trace gene flow over long distances, imply otherwise consider the properties of a genetically modified organism, whether or not dedicated to the dispersion in the environment. A symposium organized last february in Paris, in the framework of the ANR GMOs was designed to take the measure of these transformations of the paradigms of biology and to let clear how these results force to rethink the impacts of GMOs in the light of the new biology.

  2. De nouveaux livres illustrent les diverses façons dont les TIC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 mai 2016 ... ... de l'incidence des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) dans les pays en développement. ... Impact of Information Society Research in the Global South, publié sous la direction ... Articles connexes ...

  3. OPS : élaborer de nouveaux partenariats et consolider ceux qui ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 mai 2011 ... Involving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin America. Research shows that an integrated approach to dengue control—focusing on ecological, biological, and social factors—can reduce vector densities. View moreInvolving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin ...

  4. Impact 2.0 : nouveaux mécanismes d'arrimage entre la recherche et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Parallèlement, les services et les applications Web, notamment les wikis et les sites de réseautage social, connaissent un essor phénoménal à l'échelle planétaire. Ce qu'on appelle le Web 2.0 a déjà des retombées significatives sur la vie sociale et l'action politique des gens, de même que sur des secteurs comme la ...

  5. Oil and international security: old and new issues; Petrole et securite internationale: de nouveaux enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1998-09-01

    This paper questions the effectiveness of the link between international oil and (inter)national security. First, it explains an acknowledge the rise and decline of the traditional case of this link: the threat that so called ''oil dependence'' inflicts upon the national economy, hence the problem it raises for government. The reason for that decline is looked for in the emergence of multiple forms of competition in oil and energy markets, making the ''oil weapon'' less credible and its use less desirable and less possible. In oil like in any other commodity, the normal situation is the competition between suppliers for access to markets. For all basic economics tells us and experience has confirmed, analyses and policies (at least in France) are still strongly influenced by the ''oil security'' thinking shaped in the eve of the 1970 crises. Yet, those fallacies may be the strongest obstacle to the acknowledgment of the real oil security issues we face. The main one is the possible political destabilization of the Middle East due to oil competition between its members in an increasingly competitive world market. The consequences on regional antagonisms of the come back of Iraqi oil to the market on one hand, the internal stability of Iran and Saudi Arabia in a situation of lasting low oil revenues on the other hand, are reviewed as the main possible factors of regional destabilization in a context of strong competition in the world oil market. A large scale political burst with major oil producers concerned would certainly hurt developed and developing economy. That leads us to this paradoxical situation: the very cause of the decline of the traditional oil dependence issue is, due to Middle East situation, the main cause of possible destabilization of world oil market today. (author)

  6. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A.; Jurkowski, R. [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  7. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Liban : Des chercheurs trouvent de nouveaux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 déc. 2010 ... Le bassin versant d'Arsaal, niché dans une région rurale du nord-est du Liban à la population dispersée, compte environ 36 000 personnes, 80 000 moutons et chèvres et deux millions d'arbres fruitiers. Le terrain montagneux et accidenté est parsemé de carrières qui fournissent les pierres dont a besoin ...

  8. Nouveaux mécanismes de résilience dans les pays semi-arides ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La vision qu'a le consortium d'un développement résilient face aux aléas du climat est celle d'un développement qui s'attaque à la pauvreté et optimise la capacité des populations de s'adapter aux changements climatiques, mais qui prévoit aussi qu'il faille changer des choses pour concrétiser cette vision. Le programme ...

  9. The new challenges of the energy policy; Quels nouveaux defis pour la politique energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Political uncertainties, reserves depletion, increase of the energy consumption and environmental impact are many reasons to wonder on our the future choices in matter of energy (consumption habits, energy conservation). In this context the meeting, which took place at Paris the 18 march 2003, aims to wonder on the increasing energy demand, the evolution of the consumption and production habits and the decision making. The full text of the presentations and allocution are provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. De nouveaux défis d'ordre politique dans un paysage économique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 janv. 2011 ... Profil du domaine de programme Politique sociale et économique ... la communication au service du développement (TIC-D) du CRDI ... groupes devra prendre des risques », nouer des relations, créer des liens de confiance.

  11. Modèles d'affaires ouverts : nouveaux mécanismes de revenus pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet de recherche vise à examiner les principaux modèles d'affaires qui émergent dans une société réseautée, les répercussions qu'ont ces modèles sur les droits des consommateurs et des créateurs et le rôle qu'ils peuvent jouer pour favoriser une plus grande inclusion et la diversité culturelle. Le projet se penchera ...

  12. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P; Le Nest, J F; Gandini, A [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d` Heres (France)

    1997-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  13. OPS : élaborer de nouveaux partenariats et consolider ceux qui ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 mai 2011 ... L'Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) « est devenue très engagée [en ce qui a trait à l'écosanté] quand l'Évaluation des écosystèmes pour le millénaire a été faite, » a indiqué le Dr Corvalan. Entreprise en 2001, l'Évaluation des écosystèmes pour le millénaire a evalué les conséquences du ...

  14. Comparison of airtightness retesting results. Comparaison des resultats de nouveaux tests d'etancheite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Polyethylene vapour barrier and airtight drywall are two methods used by the building industry to reduce air leakage in residential homes. Concern has been expressed that polyethylene air/vapour barriers degrade over time. This concern has led various agencies to test and retest homes for air leakage. This report is the compilation of the data collected as a result of that testing. Raw data were collected on 145 homes from various sources. Data were screened and the tests of homes were omitted from the analysis if, the fan tests were done on the same house by different firms, if the construction of the house was not sufficiently complete, or if the initial air change rate per hour (ACH) was greater than 3. With these omissions from the database, 90 homes remained to be analyzed. The 90 homes were separated into two groups, those with an intial ACH less than 1.5 and those with an initial ACH between 1.5 and 3.0. The data were recorded in two tables which included the ACH, the time in months, the percentage change, and the difference in change between the first test and each subsequent test. These data indicate a relatively minor average change in airtightness. Keeping in mind the quantity of data collected and the time period examined, there is no indication that significant problems exist that would necessitate a change to the current building practice. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. De nouveaux défis d'ordre politique dans un paysage économique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    accès à l'éducation, la nutrition et la prévalence des maladies — le sort des ... en dehors de Lima et il a favorisé la création de liens entre le milieu de la ... Le programme Paix, conflits et développement porte sur l'origine des ...

  16. Nuclear law and new legal concepts; Droit nucleaire et concepts juridiques nouveaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atias, Ch.; Warusfel, B. [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France); Byk, Ch. [Association Internationale droit, ethique et science, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-02-01

    The articles on this topic have been written from three of the papers of the Conference organized on January 14, in Paris by the 'Law and Insurance' Section of the French Nuclear Energy Society together with the French Section of the International Nuclear Law Association. The first two articles deal with transparency, its justifications and limits. The third article analyses the rights of the future generations and our duties towards them. (authors)

  17. L'agriculture urbaine atteint de nouveaux sommets sur les terrasses ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 févr. 2011 ... La plupart des systèmes hydroponiques sont formés de milieux de culture ou de « modules de croissance » remplis d'un « substrat » inerte ou d'un support de culture comme la vermiculite ou la sciure de bois, lesquels remplacent le terreau pour retenir les racines des plantes et l'humidité. Les racines sont ...

  18. Nouveaux cours de sécurité - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ergonomie des postes de travail sur écran 1/2 journée de sensibilisation sur les risques engendrés par une mauvaise posture lors du travail sur écran (mal de dos, fatigue visuelle, douleurs des poignets...) et des bonnes pratiques pour y remédier. Prochaine session le jeudi 5 juin 2003 à 14 heures. Risques liés au bruit 1/2 journée de sensibilisation sur les risques concernant les postes de travail exposés à des forts niveaux sonores et les moyens pour s'en protéger. Prochaines sessions le mercredi 18 juin 2003 - 1 session le matin de 9 h à 12 h30 - 1 session l'après-midi de 14 h à 17h30 Les cours, en français seront gratuits et animés par Clemente Pilly et Ribordy Marion/ PM Postures pur l'ergonomie et par Jacques Coillard /Bureau Véritas pour le bruit. Les programmes détaillés de ces cours et les inscriptions sont accessibles aux adresses suivantes: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/tech/ENSTEC/P2003/Safety/ergonomie_f.asp http://humanresources.web.cern....

  19. Les nouveaux besoins en eau et en terres dans l'Altiplano bolivien ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    19 févr. 2015 ... La culture principale est le quinoa, une céréale riche en nutriments qui constitue depuis longtemps la base de l'alimentation des peuples autochtones et qui a considérablement gagné en popularité à travers le monde. Le prix moyen du quinoa a augmenté de presque 500 % depuis les années 1980, et la ...

  20. Big Bang et au-delà les nouveaux horizons de l'Univers

    CERN Document Server

    Barrau, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    Notre Univers a-t-il un début ? Est-il unique ? La science moderne a révolutionné notre compréhension de l’Univers. Bien que l’étude du cosmos soit sans doute aussi ancienne que la pensée, notre image du réel est en ce moment même en train de se redessiner. Il est maintenant possible de connaître certains aspects des processus qui eurent lieu moins d’un milliardième de milliardième de milliardième de seconde après le Big Bang. À la lumière des dernières découvertes du satellite Planck, Aurélien Barrau décrit en termes simples le cosmos qui se dessine sous nos yeux. Trous noirs, modèle standard de la physique des particules, gravité… les piliers et les énigmes du Big Bang sont abordés les uns après les autres, à la manière d’une balade aux origines de l’Univers. « Parce que la science est avant tout une aventure humaine, j’ai esquissé, ici et là, en contrepoint des explications physiques fournies dans la langue la plus simple et la plus accessible possible, mon expér...

  1. COMPLEXES POLYMETALLIQUES DE LANTHANIDES (III) POUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT DE NOUVEAUX MATERIAUX LUMINESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal , Claire

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of f elements in highly organized polymetallic complexes is of great interest in supramolecularchemistry and allows the combination of their nanoscopic size with the magnetic or optical properties of the metal ions. However due to the difficulty in controlling the coordination environment of these ions, the assembly of lanthanide-based polynuclear architectures has lagged behind that of other systems. These factors make the rational design for the construction of supramolecu...

  2. Les Politiques Sociales Transnationales: Les nouveaux défis de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    C'est particulièrement vrai si les inégalités sur le plan du développement ... à des réformes des politiques sociales dans des secteurs sociaux de premier plan. ...... Latina: veinte tesis sociopoliticas y un corolario, Santiago ( Chili ), Fondo de ...

  3. Kairos Management : Nouveaux outils pour le Management des Opportunités

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuping A.; Le Méhauté, Alain; Chedru, Marie; Raynal, Serge; Paquin, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    L'objectif de la présente communication est d'abord de formuler une critique rapide des outils du Management par Objectif et par Projet. Une telle critique, formulée par des Auteurs qui s'en sont faits les chantres, ne porte pas sur les méthodologies qu'il fallait il y a trente ans développer comme elles l'ont été, en particulier au Québec. Elle porte plus précisément sur l'étape précédant la définition du projet. Celui-ci doit être choisi dans un portefeuille de projets disposant pour chacun...

  4. Projets et développemepts en cryoélectrotechnique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, P.; Laumond, Y.

    1991-02-01

    The use of superconductivity in electrical engineering is reviewed. It deals with low T_c superconductors as only applications under development are considered. The article describes first the " classical " uses under constant or slow varying magnetic field: coils for Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, they are expected as a power system stabilizer and not only as a energy storage system. The present status of superconducting field a.c. generators is reviewed and the different programs over the world are described: in Germany (KWU/Siemens), in UDSSR, and in Japan where the program Super GM is led by the Engineering Research Association for Superconductive Generation Equipment and Materials. After a description of ultra-fine multifilamentary wires for 50-60 Hz use their applications are reviewed: electrical machines, above all fully superconducting a.c. generators, transformers and limiters based on the superconducting-normal transition above the critical current. Les diverses applications de la supraconductivité en électrotechnique ou courants forts sont passées en revue. Comme il s'agit de développements en cours, seule la supraconductivité à basse température est considérée. Les applications " classiques " des supraconducteurs sont abordées en premier. Ce sont les bobines de stockage (S.M.E.S.), qui peuvent fonctionner également en régulateur, les alternateurs à inducteur supraconducteur (SC) avec les programmes japonais (super GM), allemand (KWU Siemens) et soviétique, sans oublier la lévitation magnétique... Ensuite, après un bref rappel sur les multifilamentaires ultrafins utilisables aux fréquences industrielles apparus en 1983, l'article considère les applications de ces nouveaux conducteurs SC : machines électriques avec les alternateurs entièrement supraconducteurs surtout, transformateurs et enfin limiteurs qui utilisent le phénomène original de la transition supra/normal pour limiter les surintensités.

  5. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... studies of superconducting MgB2 and a sample containing ∼ 10% by weight of MgO in MgB2 are reported. The NRMA results indicate near absence of intergranular weak links in the pure MgB2 sample. A linear temperature dependence of the lower critical field c1 is observed indicating a non- wave superconductivity.

  6. Non-resonant microwave absorption studies of superconducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) studies of superconducting MgB2 and a sample containing 10% by weight of MgO in MgB2 are reported. The NRMA results indicate near absence of intergranular weak links in the pure MgB2 sample. A linear temperature dependence of the lower critical field Hc1 is ...

  7. Electrochemical treatment of an oxide material, application to superconductors, and obtained superconductors. Procede de traitement electrochimique d'un materiau sous forme oxyde, application aux supraconducteurs et supraconducteurs ainsi obtenus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, J C; Pouchard, M; Wattiaux, A

    1991-06-07

    The present invention describes the electrochemical treatment of a superconductor oxide so as to modify its stoichiometry. These materials comprise in their anionic lattice oxygenated and hydrogenated species. These treated materials are prepared by an electrochemical process in which the oxide is an electrode in a liquid electrolysis. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Phenomenology and characterization of high T sub c superconductors. Phenomenologie et caracterisation des supraconducteurs a haute T sub c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyral, P; Lebeau, C; Rosenblatt, J; Burin, J P; Raboutou, A; Pena, Q; Perrin, C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 35 - Rennes (FR)

    1991-11-01

    Transport properties of high T{sub c} superconductors depend on the microscopic structure of the ideal material and on the mesoscopic characteristics of each sample. From an experimental point of view it is essential to separate their effects. This can be done by describing quantitatively the resistive transition in zero field as a two-step process: a superconducting intragranular transition and an intergranular coherence transition. Well-known theories of critical fluctuations and Gaussian fluctuations allow us to obtain important characteristic parameters of the intragranular material such as the critical temperature, the normal resistivity and the width of the critical region. 20 refs.; 2 figs.

  9. Superconducting materials fabrication process and materials obtained. Procede de preparation de materiaux supraconducteurs et materiaux ainsi obtenus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafon, M O; Magnier, C

    1989-03-24

    The preparation process of a fine powder of YBaCuO type superconductors of easy sintering comprises: mixing in presence of alcohol an aqueous solution of rare earth nitrate or acetate, alkaline earth nitrate or acetate and copper nitrate or acetate and an oxalic acid solution, the pH value of the mixture is comprised between 2 and 4, the obtained precipitate is separated, dried, calcined and eventually crushed.

  10. Superconducting materials fabrication process and products obtained. Procede de fabrication de materiaux supraconducteurs et produits ainsi obtenus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, B; Odier, P

    1989-09-15

    A fabrication process of a fine superconducting powder easy to sinter is claimed. It consists in thermal treatment of an aerosol containing an organic and/or inorganic salt and/or a hydroxide of a rare earth, an alkaline earth metal and a transition metal in a ratio corresponding to the stoichiometry of the superconducting materials.

  11. Analyse des proprietes electroniques de supraconducteurs a l'aide de la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Simon

    In this thesis, the electronic structure of different kinds of superconductors is explored with the density functional theory. A brief explanation of this theory is done in the introduction. The Hubbard model is also presented as it can be used to solve shortcomings of the theory in some materials such as cuprates. The blend of the two theories is the DFT+U which is used to describe materials with strongly correlated electrons. Afterward, a paper describing the electron-phonon coupling in the superconductor NbC1- xNx is presented. Results from this work show the role of the Fermi surface in the electron pairing mechanism leading to superconductivity. Based on these results, a model is developed explaining how the critical temperature is influenced by the change in frequency of the vibration modes. Then, quantum oscillation results based on a detailed analysis of Fermi surfaces, allowing a direct comparison with experimental data, are presented within two papers. The first one is about a material in the iron pnictide family, the LaFe2P2. Our calculations show that the Fermi surface of this material is different from the superconducting doped BaFe2As2 which explains why this material shows no sign of superconductivity. The second paper is about the heavy fermion system YbCoIn5. To do this, a new efficient method to calculate de Haas-van Alphen frequencies is developed. Finally, a paper on superconducting YBa2Cu3O6.5 is presented. Using DFT+U, the role of various magnetic orders on the Fermi surface are studied. The results allow a better understanding of the measured quantum oscillations in this material.

  12. Characterization of superconducting thin films deposited by laser ablation. Caracterisation de films minces supraconducteurs deposes par ablation laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentis, M; Delaporte, P [I.M.F.M., 13 - Marseille (FR); Gerri, M; Marine, W [Aix-Marseille-2 Univ., 13-Marseille (FR). Centre Universitaire de Luminy

    1991-05-01

    Thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are deposited by laser ablation on MgO and YSZ substrates. Deposits by infrared (I.R.) Nd: YAG are non stoechiometric. The films having the best superconductor qualities are deposited by ablation with an excimer U.V. laser ({lambda} = 308 nm). These films are epitaxiated with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate. The film quality depends on the substrate temperature, oxygen pressure and cooling speed.

  13. Technologies for tomorrow. Biotechnologies, nuclear fusion, laser, superconductors. Des technologies pour demain. Biotechnologies, fusion nucleaire, laser, supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorland, G [ed.

    1992-01-01

    Written for a large public, this book deals with the principles, the history of their discovery, the development of the research and industrial applications. Theoretical problems are such that these technologies are still basic research and their applications have an economic impact so low that they are very limited.

  14. Different types of superconductors: their effect on equipment design. Les differents types de supraconducteurs: influence sur la conception des materiels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, A; Manuel, P [Electricite de France (EDF); Fevrier, A [Compagnie Generale d' Electricite (CGE), 91 - Marcoussis (FR)

    1989-01-01

    Development of superconductors for AC current and of higher critical temperature superconducting materials enlarged the field of research in cryoelectrotechnic. The paper discusses the materials characteristics in relation with the functional needs in the equipments. Are reviewed the main points governing conductor design for a given application, the characteristics and manufacturing technics for different superconducting materials. It is shown how lighter, smaller equipments can be designed as well as new ones for functions not covered with present apparatus. 17 refs.

  15. Evaporation of new refrigerants on tubes with improved surfaces; Evaporation de nouveaux refrigerants sur des tubes a surface amelioree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, N.; Favrat, D.; Thome, J. R.; Nidegger, E.; Zuercher, O. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lab. d` Energetique Industrielle (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-07-15

    The substitution of old refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps and organic Rankine cycles for heat recovery, request a good knowledge of heat transfer properties of substitute fluids. The test measurements in LENI test facility (concentric tubes with water flowing in a counter-current flow) with new refrigerants like HFC134a, HCFC123, R-404A, R-402A, have established a new data bank with new refrigerants, a comparison with old refrigerants like CFC11, CFC12 CFC/HCFC502 and with existent correlations. Correlations were programmed to calculate and compare heat transfer coefficient during the tests. To develop a new correlation based on flow regimes, a high speed Sony video tape camera is used to observe and identify flow patterns. Important images are captured, digitalized, stored for later analysis and sent to a color plotter. Several flow pattern maps were programmed and compared to flow regimes observed on the test rig. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for HFC134a and HCFC123 evaporating inside a microfin tube. In addition, microfin heat transfer augmentation relative to plain tube test data was investigated. The presence of oil in the evaporator has an effect on heat transfer coefficient. Local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured for refrigerant HFC134a-oil ester (Mobil EAL Arctic 68). A new thermodynamic approach for modeling mixtures of refrigerants and lubricating oils is developed. A very high accuracy, straight vibrating tube type of density flowmeter is used to measure oil concentrations of flowing HFC134a-oil mixtures. (author) 28 figs., 25 refs.

  16. Histoires de vie et Formation de Nouveaux Savoirs Vitaux (Life Histories and the Formation of New Life Knowledge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Gaston

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of life histories as a means for making sense of personal events and their application to education. Distinguishes three models for the use of life histories in education: the biographical model, the autobiographical model, and the dialectical model. (22 citations) (MAB)

  17. L'entrée en sexualité à Rabat : les nouveaux « arrangements » entre les sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Bakass; Michèle Ferrand

    2013-01-01

    The social and religious order in Morocco is still based on such values as the honour and good name of the family wherein premarital female sexuality is proscribed and an intact hymen is irrefutable evidence of a successful family upbringing. Using data from the 2006-2008 ECAF qualitative survey, this article shows that the combined effects of economic crisis (reducing young men’s access to the labour market and their ability to support a family) and more widespread access to education (parti...

  18. Description de Coléoptères nouveaux de la Malaisie, de l’Inde et de la Chine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1897-01-01

    Long. 13 mill. — Oblonga, sat convexa, dilute piceola, vage ænescens, opaca, labro dilute testaceo, elytris utrinque plaga magna media, intus constricta et parte apicali lutosis, lateribus utrinque plagulis 2 triangularibus cum prothoracis lateribus æneo-pernitidis, quasi specularibus; capite basin

  19. Le développement d’une agriculture durable a-t-il besoin de nouveaux apprentissages ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Piraux

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En étudiant les apprentissages produits par la mise en place des contrats territoriaux d’exploitation (CTE puis des contrats d’agriculture durable (CAD à l’île de la Réunion, nous montrons de quelle manière ces outils ont impulsé les prémices d’une agriculture durable dont nous pensons que les apprentissages sont une composante essentielle. Notre travail s’appuie sur des entretiens avec les acteurs du développement rural, techniciens des organisations de développement notamment. Nous montrons que les apprentissages ont été nombreux tant au niveau individuel que collectif, entre conseillers et agriculteurs et entre conseillers d’organismes différents, et relèvent de nature différente (organisationnelle, sociale ou relationnelle.By studying the trainings produced by the installation of the territorial farm contracts (CTE, Contrat Territorial d’Exploitation then the sustainable agricultural contracts (CAD, Contrat d’Agriculture Durable in the Reunion Island, we proved how they encouraged the first steps of a sustainable agriculture. Our work is based on discussions with the actors of rural development, particularly extension technicians of the organizations of development. We establish that the trainings were numerous as well at the individual level as collective, between advisers and farmers and advisers of different organisms, and that they got different nature, organisational, social as well relational.

  20. Incorporation de fines issues de granulats recyclés dans la fabrication de nouveaux liants hydrauliques

    OpenAIRE

    Nelfia , Lisa Oksri

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work focuses on the valorization of recycled aggregates as main component for hydraulic binders. This is included in a current issue of waste management, protection of natural resources and environment, reduction of greenhouse gases emissions in cement production. In France, on 260 millions tons of inert wastes produced per year, 90 millions tons are still stored in non-hazardous landfill. This waste deposit has to be reduced to increase the production of recycled aggregates curre...

  1. Workshop on the applications of new computer tools to thermal engineering; Applications a la thermique des nouveaux outils informatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on the applications of new computer tools to thermal engineering has been organized by the French society of thermal engineers. Seven papers have been presented, from which two papers dealing with thermal diffusivity measurements in materials and with the optimization of dryers have been selected for ETDE. (J.S.)

  2. Nouveaux procédés verts d'oxydation de l'acide oléique

    OpenAIRE

    Godard, Anaïs

    2012-01-01

    Dans un contexte de raréfaction des ressources pétrolières et de pressions environnementales, l’industrie chimique a besoin d'innover en développant de nouvelles filières destinées à l'élaboration de bioproduits, à partir de matières premières d'origine végétale. Les acides gras insaturés obtenus à partir des huiles végétales, constituent ainsi une ressource renouvelable à fort potentiel permettant de diversifier les approvisionnements d'origine pétrolière. Notre intérêt s'est porté sur la ré...

  3. Coléoptères nouveaux de l’Afrique du Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1888-01-01

    Long. 22 à 25 mill. — Elongatus, convexus, fuscus aut brunneo-castaneus, modice nitidus, fulvo-pubescens; capite dense punctato, inter oculos sat late impresso, antice declivi, margine obtuse rotundato; antennis fuscis, medium corporis attingentibus, articulo 1° punctato, 2° minuto, 3° vix majore,

  4. New thermodynamical systems. Alternative of compression-absorption; Nouveaux systemes thermodynamiques. Alternative de la compression-absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feidt, M.; Brunin, O.; Lottin, O.; Vidal, J.F. [Universite Henri Poincare Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Hivet, B. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a 5 years joint research work carried out by Electricite de France (EdF) and the ESPE group of the LEMTA on compression-absorption heat pumps. It shows how a thermodynamical model of machinery, completed with precise exchanger-reactor models, allows to simulate and dimension (and eventually optimize) the system. A small power prototype has been tested and the first results are analyzed with the help of the models. A real scale experiment in industrial sites is expected in the future. (J.S.) 20 refs.

  5. The new energy challenges: climate, economy, geopolitics; Les nouveaux defis de l'energie: climat, economie, geopolitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J.M. [Paris-Dauphine Univ., 75 - Paris (France); Aoun, M.C.; Campaner, N.; Cruciani, M.; Geoffron, P.; Gubaidullin, A.; Hristova, I.; Keppler, J.H.; Lautier, D.; Mandil, C.; Meritet, S.; Ouedraogo, N.; Rouhier, S.; Salaun, F.; Simon, Y.; Zaleski, C.P

    2009-07-01

    Oil, coal and natural gas, three polluting and non-renewable energies, supply more than 80% of the World daily energy consumption. Today, the scientific community has acknowledged the responsibility of this consumption on the global warming which may have dramatic impacts on physical, economical, social and political equilibria of our planet. Climate has become a public resource which belongs to everybody, the management of which should be done collectively and prospectively. However, the nation-states defend their wealth, their immediate interest without globalization and long-term outlook. This book treats of the new energy challenges under their regional and global aspects. This allows to better understand the dynamics of a multipolar world. Each region of the world has its own specificity, its capital of natural resources, its history, its own level of economic development, and its vulnerability with respect to climate change. For hundreds of million people, priority is given to the economic growth and wealth generation, but such a priority is synonymous of rise of the energy consumption and increase of greenhouse gas emissions. This opposition between 'more energy' and 'less emissions' is source of new economical and geopolitical tensions. Only a reinforcement of the world governance can solve these contradictions by the affirmation of a solidarity between populations, and for the first time, between generations. (J.S.)

  6. Morocco: The new migration flows / Le Maroc face aux nouveaux flux migratoires / Marruecos frente a los nuevos flujos migratorios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Benamar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Irregular migration, fueled in recent years by a massive influx of sub-Saharans who leave North Africa, where Morocco is included as destination in Europe (Spain and Italy as privileged points of entry is taking alarming dimensions and repeatedly dramatic, taking into account the price paid in lives to cross the Mediterranean. Faced with this new reality, Morocco raises revise its immigration policy and take legislative, institutional and even operational to respond to this new situation for the country measures. We analyze this situation based on a survey (ETF et AMERM, 2012, covering the entire national territory, although we will focus especially in the north of Morocco, who was interested returnees immigrants, candidates for illegal immigration and our experience in a European project POCTEFEX 2011-2013 program to which you have participated as a partner (Czech, 2014, were studied: the evolution of process control and management of migration flows; the main challenges of sub-Saharan immigration to Morocco, and the challenges and opportunities for Morocco as new host country of immigrants.

  7. Grammaire le nouvel entraînez-vous avec 450 nouveaux exercices : niveau débutant

    CERN Document Server

    Sirejols, Evelyne

    1996-01-01

    Des activités d'apprentissage et de réemploi pour s'exercer, tester ses connaissances et ainsi progresser en français. • Chaque point de grammaire est introduit par un proverbe ou une citation. • Chaque exercice est accompagné d'un exemple.

  8. Grammaire le nouvel entraînez-vous avec 450 nouveaux exercices : niveau intermédiaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sirejols, Evelyne

    1996-01-01

    Des activités d'apprentissage et de réemploi pour s'exercer, tester ses connaissances et ainsi progresser en français. • Chaque point de grammaire est introduit par un proverbe ou une citation. • Chaque exercice est accompagné d'un exemple.

  9. Nouveaux formats, nouvelles images : les expériences des années cinquante

    OpenAIRE

    Berthomé, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Le cinéma américain ne se porte pas bien, en ce début des années cinquante. Après l’euphorie d’une courte période qui a vu ses recettes culminer en 1946 avec 90 millions d’entrées par semaine, la désaffection du public a commencé à se manifester, accélérée par l’obligation faite aux grands studios de se séparer de leurs circuits de cinémas. En 1950, les entrées sont tombées à 60 millions par semaine. Il n’y en aura plus que 46 en 1953, 40 en 1960. Parallèlement, les 14 000 postes de télévisio...

  10. Rejet en transplantation cardiaque : au-delà du C4d, les nouveaux marqueurs biologiques, immunologiques et cellulaires

    OpenAIRE

    Tible , Marion

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation is currently the only option for long-term treatment for patients with terminal heart failure. Despite considerable advances in immunosuppressive therapy, allograft rejection remains a major cause of graft loss. In this regard, recent studies have highlighted the importance of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) as an important contributory factor in the evolution of vascular graft disease and, ultimately, graft loss. The cornerstone of the rejection diagnosis is based o...

  11. Vortex lines in layered superconductors. I. From 3D to 2D behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, D.

    1994-02-01

    The fundamental aspects of vortices in layered superconductors (natural or artificial multilayered materials) are reviewed, focusing on the role of anisotropy and very short coherence lengths. These materials divide into three classes, with increasing T_c's : chalcogenides, organic superconductors and high-T_c copper oxides. The first part of the paper summarizes the quantitative features of the vortex lattice, due to the incorporation of anisotropy in the 3D Ginzburg-Landau or London descriptions : anisotropy of critical fields and vortex lattice, elastic coefficients and melting. This kind of model describes most of the properties of moderately anisotropic compounds as Y : 123. The second part concerns the Josephson-coupled layered systems and identifies in which regimes vortices exhibit a quasi-2D character. Qualitatively new features as Josephson vortices, 2D vortices, Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and lock-in of vortices are reviewed. This analysis is adapted to compounds as Bi : 2212 or multilayers, but also to Y : 123 for some aspects. On passe en revue les aspects fondamentaux des vortex dans les supraconducteurs lamellaires (naturels ou superréseaux artificiels), en mettant l'accent sur le rôle de l'anisotropie et des très courtes longueurs de cohérence. Ces composés se divisent en trois classes, de T_c croissants : chalcogénures, supraconducteurs organiques et oxydes de cuivre à haut T_c. La première partie de l'article résume les aspects quantitatifs dus à l'incorporation de l'anisotropie dans les descriptions 3D Ginzburg-Landau ou London du réseau de vortex.: anisotropie des champs critiques et du réseau de vortex, coefficients élastiques et fusion. Ce type de modèle décrit une grande partie des propriétés des composés modérément anisotropes tels que Y : 123. La seconde partie concerne les systèmes lamellaires à couplage Josephson et identifie dans quels régimes les vortex présentent un caractère quasi-2D. Des effets

  12. Structure, stoichiometry and spectroscopy of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C. N. R.

    In the new oxide superconductors, structure and oxygen stoichiometry play the most crucial role. Thus, all the high-temperature oxide superconductors are orthorhombic perovskites with low-dimensional features. Oxygen stoichiometry in YBa2Cu3O7-δ has an important bearing on the structure as well as superconductivity. This is equally true in the La3-xBa3+xCu 6O14+δ system of which only the 123 oxide (x = 1) with the orthorhombic structure shows high Tc. Orthorhombicity though not essential, is generally found ; it is necessary for the formation of twins. The nature of oxygen and copper in the cuprates has been examined by electron spectroscopy. Copper in these cuprates is only in 1 + and 2 + states. It seems likely that oxygen holes are responsible for superconductivity of the cuprates as well as Ba(Bi, Pb)O3. High Tc superconductivity is also found in oxides of the Bi-(Ca, Sr)-Cu-O and related oxides possessing Cu-O sheets. Dans les nouveaux oxydes supraconducteurs, la structure et la stoechiométrie de l'oxygène jouent un rôle absolument crucial. Ainsi, tous les oxydes supraconducteurs à haute température critique sont des pérovskites orthorhombiques possédant des propriétés de basse dimensionnalité. La stoechiométrie de l'oxygène dans YBa2Cu3O7- δ a une influence importante tant sur la structure que sur la supraconductibilité. Ceci est également valable pour les composés du type La3 -xBa3 + xCu 6O14 + δ parmi lesquels seul l'oxyde 123 (x = 1) à structure orthorhombique présente un grand T. Bien que ce ne soit pas essentiel, cette orthorhombicité est fréquente ; elle est nécessaire à la formation de macles. La nature de l'oxygène et du cuivre a été observée par spectroscopie électronique... Dans ces cuprates, le cuivre est dans les seuls états de valence + 1 et + 2. Vraisemblablement, les trous logés sur l'oxygène sont responsables de la supraconductibilité des cuprates comme de Ba(Bi, Pb)O3. La supraconductibilité existe aussi

  13. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the resistance as a function of temperature and magnetic field in clean polycrystalline samples of NbSe2, MgB2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO) superconductors. Thermally activated flux flow behaviour is seen in all the three systems and clearly identified in bulk MgB2. While the activation energy at low fields for MgB2 ...

  14. The role of MgO content in ex situ MgB2 wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovac, P.; Hugek, I.; Meligek, T.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study of the effect of MgO content in the MgB2 powder used for ex situ made composite wires was carried out. Two single-core MgB2/Fe/Cu wires were made using commercial MgB2 powders from Alfa Aesar containing different fraction of MgO. Critical temperature and critical currents of...

  15. Superconductive materials. Structural mechanisms and nano-structures of some mixed skeletons oxides. Materiaux supraconducteurs. Mecanismes structuraux et nanostructures de quelques oxydes a charpentes mixtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervieu, M [Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1993-12-01

    Two families of superconductive crystals are described: the phosphate bronze of tungsten family [A[sub x](P[sub 2]O[sub 4])[sub 2](WO[sub 3])[sub 2m] or (PO[sub 2])[sub 4](WO[sub 3])[sub 2m] or A[sub x](PO[sub 2])[sub 4](WO[sub 3])[sub 2m

  16. Sur la modélisation des supraconducteurs: le "modèle de l'état critique" de bean, en trois dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossavit, A.

    1994-03-01

    La formule (22), p. 386, soit u_x(v) = si|v| < j_c(x); alors; 0; sinon; ρ(x)|v|^2/2, aurait dû être u_x(v) = si|v| < j_c(x); alors; 0; sinon; ρ(x)(|v|^2)/2. La même erreur apparaît dans l'introduction (page 376, une ligne après l'équation (10)) et page 390.

  17. Analyse de l'état mécanique et microstructural de films minces supraconducteurs YBa_2 Cu_3O_7 par diffraction des rayons X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzary, S.; Badawi, K. F.; Bimbault, L.; Rabier, J.; Gaboriaud, R. J.; Goudeau, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical and microstructural analysis in a 100nm thin film is presented in this study. Using X-ray diffraction with a tensorial approach, we have determined stresses, strains, stress-free lattice parameters, microdistorsions and diffracting coherent domains size. Stress-free lattice parameters are higher than the bulk values. A high value of stresses is explained as a combination of coherent stresses, thermal stresses and intrinsic ones. Diffraction peaks line profiles analysis suggests grain boundaries presence as well as high lattice elastic microdistorsions. Cette étude présente une analyse de l'état mécanique et microstructurale dans un film mince de 100nm d'épaisseur d'YBCO déposé sur un substrat de MgO. En utilisant la diffraction des rayons X couplée à une approche tensorielle, nous avons déterminé les déformations, les contraintes, les paramètres libres de contraintes, les microdistorsions élastiques ainsi que la taille des domaines cohérents de diffraction. Les paramètres libres de contrainte sont supérieurs à ceux du massif. Une valeur élevée des contraintes est expliquée à partir des contraintes de cohérence, des contraintes thermiques et intrinsèques. L'analyse des profils des pics de diffraction suggère la présence de sous-joints et de distorsions élastiques élevées au niveau des mailles cristallographiques.

  18. Influence of various parameters on the elaboration of superconducting oxides. Influence de divers parametres sur la synthese d'oxydes supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, F; Monnereau, O; Vacquier, G; Sorbier, J P; Fournel, A [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (FR); Mokrani, R [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ., 13 - Marseille (FR)

    1989-01-01

    Several oxides able to give rise to a high T{sub c} superconductivity have been studied. Samples were prepared in both series: La(Ba{sub 2-x}La{sub x}) Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7+y} and YBa{sub 2} (Cu{sub 3-x}Ag{sub x})O{sub 7-y}. The evolution of the resistance versus the composition has been studied on sintered samples. The results assess the importance of the experimental conditions of the synthesis. In the system La(Ba{sub 2-x}La{sub x})Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7+y} our results complete the work of Segre et al. and precise composition at which the superconductivity transition disappear for the profit of the semiconductive behaviour. The samples YBa{sub 2}(Cu{sub 3-x}Ag{sub x})O{sub 7-y} has for x = 0 electrical properties very dependent of the thermal treatment. Some characteristic data are shown. The partial substitution of Cu by Ag for x {ge} 1 enables to keep the superconducting behaviour.

  19. High critical temperature superconductors: Progress achieved after two years. Les supraconducteurs haute temperature critique: L'etat des lieux deux ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, J M; Rammal, R; Vittorge, M C

    1989-01-01

    Progress concerning the theory of high temperature superconductors and activity of laboratories of the CNRS (France) are reviewed and news on strategy, budgets, theoretical research, materials characterization, fabrication process technology transfers, commercialisation, uses and data bases are given.

  20. Contributions to the study of superconducting multifilamentary composites and cables; Contributions a l`etude du comportement des composites et cables supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck, B

    1992-03-01

    This report is a collection of published papers in French and in English on superconducting composites and cables. All domains concerning the behaviour of superconductors in coils for field generation have been covered: critical current, current distribution, instabilities, losses in varying field. This document provides with expressions and criteria for conductor design, with conditions for achieving given performances and with criteria for design and optimization of structures of multifilamentary composites and cables. These publications have played a determining role in the understanding of the behaviour of superconductors and in their use in high performing magnets.

  1. Etude, par principes premiers, des effets de la correlation entre electrons sur les proprietes electroniques et magnetiques de polymeres pontes et de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesant, Simon

    Description of complex systems by Density functional theory is treated in this thesis. First, the Density functional theory and a few functionals used to simulate cristals are presented. Specifically, the LDA and GGA functionnals are described and their limits are exposed. Furthermore, the Hubbard model as well as the LDA+U functionnal are addressed in this chapter. These methods enable the study of highly correlated materials. Then, results obtained on polymers are summarized in two articles. The first one treats the band gap variation of ladder-type polymers compared to non ladder type ones. The second article considers small band gap polymers. In this case, it will be shown that an hybrid functional, which contains exact exchange, is required to describe the electronic properties of the polymers under study. Finally, the last chapter address the study of cuprates superconductors. The LDA+U can account for the localization of electrons in copper orbitals. Consequently, a study of the impact of this functionnal on electronic properties of cuprates is conducted. The chapter is ended by an article treating magnetic orders in doped La 2CuO4. Supplementary materials of the second article and a description of the theory of superconductivity of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer are put in annex. Keywords : Electronic correlation, DFT, LDA+U, cuprates, polymers, magnetic orders

  2. Study of Nb{sub 3}Sn cables for superconducting quadrupoles; Etude de cables Nb{sub 3}Sn pour quadripoles supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otmani, R

    1999-10-01

    In particle physics, the quest for higher energies may be satisfied by the use of niobium-tin superconducting magnets. Such magnets are made of Rutherford type cables which are wound from superconducting strands. The strands are made by the 'internal tin' method. The aim of this study is to determine the main parameters for the fabrication of a quadrupole. The two main requirements the cable must fulfill are high critical current and low losses. The main parameters were determined from different measurements and models. Thus, the key parameters for the current transport capacity are the number and the diameter of the filaments, the number of sub-elements, the surface of superconductor and the copper-to-non-copper ratio. For the hysteresis losses, the main parameters appear to be the effective filament diameter and the spacing of the filaments. For intra-strand losses, the main parameters appear to be the filaments' diameter, the filament spacing, the nature of the diffusion barrier and the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper. The interstrand resistances for the cable are the key parameters for the losses. Thus, the nature of the strands coating or the presence of a stainless steel core can strongly diminish the cable losses. Finally, a design, for the strands and the cables for the fabrication of a quadrupole is proposed. (author)

  3. Étude d’un moteur supraconducteur à flux axial avec une transmission magnétique supraconductrice intégrée

    OpenAIRE

    Dolisy , Bastien

    2015-01-01

    The study of an axial-field high temperature superconducting (HTS) motor for applications requiring high torque densities is proposed. The HTS motor consists of a stator with copper winding and an inductor with superconducting coils. A HTS magnetic coupler is used as a part of the system, to transmit the torque from the HTS motor to the load. This solution is a good alternative to the usually used torques tubes as it results in the reduction of conduction thermal losses and offers an intrinsi...

  4. Effets dimensionnels dans un système désordonné au voisinage des transitions métal-isolant et supraconducteur-isolant

    OpenAIRE

    Marrache-Kikuchi , Claire

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature transport in disordered conducting materials imply quantum interference, Coulomb repulsion, and superconducting fluctuations. Since 2D is the lower critical dimension for the existence of metallic and superconducting states, we have studied two quantum phase transitions - the Superconductor-to-Insulator Transition (SIT) and the Metal-to-Insulator Transition (MIT) - when the thickness of a disordered system - here a-NbSi - is lowered. The underlying problem is the transition be...

  5. Ceramic insulation for superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn cables; Isolation ceramique pour cables supraconducteurs en Nb{sub 3}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigsegur, A

    2005-01-15

    Nb{sub 3}Sn is the best superconductor candidate for the realization of high field magnets (>11 Tesla), its implementation remains delicate because of the great brittleness of material after the heat treatment necessary to the formation of Nb{sub 3}Sn compounds. The conventional insulation for Nb{sub 3}Sn requires to perform, after the heat treatment, a vacuum resin impregnation, which adds to the cost and raises failure risk. We have proposed an innovating ceramic insulation deposited directly on the unreacted conducting cable. After the heat treatment of the niobium tin, we obtain a coil having a mechanical cohesion, while maintaining a proper conductor positioning and a suitable electric insulation. After a rheological study, to characterize the impregnated suspension, we have shown that using this insulation in a coil manufacture process does not affect the electrical properties of the Nb{sub 3}Sn wires. A solenoid of small dimensions was tested with success in high external magnetic fields and has produced a magnetic field of 3.8 T under 740 A. (author)

  6. Study of magnetic fluctuations in superconducting cuprates with high critical temperature; Etude des fluctuations magnetiques dans les cuprates supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidis, Y

    1995-11-27

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetic properties of YBa{sub 2} Cu{sub 3} O{sub 6+x} (YBCO) and of La{sub 2} CuO{sub 4} (LSCO), non-doped and doped with Zn or various amounts of oxygen. The influence of the variation of the composition on magnetic and superconducting properties has been measured. (C.B.) 182 refs.

  7. Spin dynamics in high-T{sub C} superconducting cuprates; Dynamique de spins dans les oxydes de cuivre supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourges, Ph

    2003-07-01

    This work is dedicated to the detailed investigations of the magnetic resonance peak in the superconducting state of cuprates. The existence of such a peak could be the signature of a mechanism linked to magnetism that could explain high critical temperature superconductivity. Inelastic neutron scattering is an adequate tool for the understanding of cuprate properties because it reveals magnetic fluctuations whose behaviour and variety depend strongly on temperature and on the level of doping. The last part of this work is dedicated to the study of spin dynamics in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} system.

  8. Effects of Cu or Ag additions on the kinetics of MgB2 phase formation in Fe-sheated wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Bednarcik, J.

    2008-01-01

    MgB2/Fe wires have been produced by the powder-in-tube technique following the in situ route. The influence of low amounts of Cu or Ag additions into the precursor powder mixture on the kinetics of MgB2 formation was studied in situ by means of synchrotron x-ray diffraction during heat-treatments...

  9. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 , and superconducting transition in carbon doped MgB2 are presented. The superconducting transition temperature in MgB 2 − x C x as obtained from susceptibility and resistivity measurements is observed to decrease systematically from ...

  10. Advanced modern superconductive materials for the machines and devices working on the principles of levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikhna, T.A.; Novikov, N.V.; Savchuk, Ya.M.; Sverdun, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    By the high-pressure (2 GPa) high-temperature (800-900 degree C) synthesis from Mg and B taken in the MgB 2 stoichiometric ratio and with 10 wt.% of Ti, the MgB 2 -based nanostructural superconductive material with the record values of critical current density, J c , and the irreversible fields has been obtained

  11. The future of new calculation concepts in dosimetry based on the Monte Carlo Methods; Avenir des nouveaux concepts des calculs dosimetriques bases sur les methodes de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makovicka, L.; Vasseur, A.; Sauget, M.; Martin, E.; Gschwind, R.; Henriet, J. [Universite de Franche-Comte, Equipe IRMA/ENISYS/FEMTO-ST, UMR6174 CNRS, 25 - Montbeliard (France); Vasseur, A.; Sauget, M.; Martin, E.; Gschwind, R.; Henriet, J.; Salomon, M. [Universite de Franche-Comte, Equipe AND/LIFC, 90 - Belfort (France)

    2009-01-15

    Monte Carlo codes, precise but slow, are very important tools in the vast majority of specialities connected to Radiation Physics, Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. A discussion about some other computing solutions is carried out; solutions not only based on the enhancement of computer power, or on the 'biasing'used for relative acceleration of these codes (in the case of photons), but on more efficient methods (A.N.N. - artificial neural network, C.B.R. - case-based reasoning - or other computer science techniques) already and successfully used for a long time in other scientific or industrial applications and not only Radiation Protection or Medical Dosimetry. (authors)

  12. De nouveaux procédés d’extraction des huiles pour des produits finis de haute qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Michel

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available New concerns have appeared recently from the European and American consumers about quality, safety and environmental impact of the food products. In the particular case of European countries, the coming back of traditional products with a high sentimental value should be noticed. To fit the forthcoming demand of the consumer, the Oils and Fats industry have to develop a new approach based on alternative technologies that may emerge from the research with very specific objectives: no solvents, mild technologies, less energy consumption and final wastes. The purpose of this article is to discuss about the new biological tools capable to generate alternative ways for the oil elaboration: use of enzymes for destructuration of the vegetal or animal tissues and the subsequent utilisation of membrane techniques for the separation and purification steps. These new technologies involving less heat and mechanical stress to the oil, lead to a better “native” quality of the final products. However, fundamental research is needed on the separation mechanisms of those complex mixtures to optimise the process and prepare the transfer to the industrial conditions. The present article reports a contribution on the aqueous extraction of rapeseed oil as an example

  13. « Nouveaux servages » et société en Europe (XIIIe-XXe siècle 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Carrier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ces trois journées de colloque ont rassemblé près d’une centaine de personnes, universitaires, étudiants et membres des sociétés savantes, dans la tradition des colloques de l’AHSR, association qui vise à rassembler les publics les plus variés autour de thématiques d’histoire rurale, tout en restant au plus haut niveau scientifique. Ce sont tantôt les superbes locaux du Fort Griffon de Besançon, mis à disposition par l’IUFM de Franche-Comté, qui ont accueilli les participants, tantôt le musée...

  14. Chimie organométallique des éléments f : vers de nouveaux développements : complexes cyanures des éléments f

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The cyanide ligand is one of the most widely used ligands in coordination chemistry of d-transition metals. The low number of cyanide complexes of lanthanides and actinides incited us to develop this field for reactivity and theoretical aspects, and also for their potentially interesting physicochemical properties. In this Ph.D., we investigated the reactivity of [An(Cot)₂] (An = Th, U ; Cot = C₈H₈²⁻) and [Mf(N*)₃]ʲ˖ (j = 0, 1; Mf = Ce, U ; N* = ⁻N(SiMe₃)₂) precursors toward the cyanide ion. ...

  15. Testing new phenomena in high energy elastic scattering; Tests de nouveaux phenomenes dans le physique elastique et diffractive a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, Pierre; Basarab Nicolescu [Theoretical Physics Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Leader Elliot [Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WCIE 7HX (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    We generalize a relation proposed recently by Giffon, Predazzi and Samokhin, linked to the behaviour of elastic scattering at asymptotically high energies. We demonstrate that their result, established within a limited class of possible asymptotic behaviour, is actually very general and can be proved in an essentially axiomatic framework. We discuss how this relation can be used as a basis for detecting new phenomena at RHIC and LHC energies. (authors)

  16. New SPECT tracers: Example of tracers of proteoglycans and melanin; Nouveaux traceurs TEMP: exemple des traceurs des proteoglycanes et de la melanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachin, F.; Mestas, D.; Kelly, A.; Merlin, C.; Veyre, A.; Maublant, J. [CRLCC Jean-Perrin, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cachin, F.; Chezal, J.M.; Miot-Noirault, E.; Moins, N.; Auzeloux, P.; Vidal, A.; Bonnet-Duquennoy, M.; Boisgard, S.; D' Incan, M.; Madelmont, J.C.; Maublant, J. [Universite d' Auvergne, EA 4231, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Boisgard, S. [CHRU Gabriel-Montpied, Service d' Orthopedie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); D' Incan, M. [CHRU Gabriel-Montpied, Service de Dermatologie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Redini, F. [Inserm, U957-EA3822, Faculte de Medecine, 44 - Nantes (France); Filaire, M. [Universite d' Auvergne, Lab. d' Anatomie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2009-02-15

    The majority of research program on new radiopharmaceuticals turn to tracers used for positron emission tomography (PET). Only a few teams work on new non fluorine labeled tracers. However, the coming of SPECT/CT gamma cameras, the arrival of semi-conductors gamma cameras should boost the development of non-PET tracers. We exhibit in this article the experience acquired by our laboratory in the conception and design of two new non fluorine labelled compounds. The {sup 99m}Tc-N.T.P. 15-5 (N.T.P. 15-5 for N-[tri-ethyl-ammonium]-3-propyl-[15]ane-N5) which binds to proteoglycans could be used for the diagnosis and staging of osteoarthritis and chondrosarcoma. The iodo benzamides, specific to the melanin, are nowadays compared to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose in a phase III clinical trial for the diagnosis and detection of melanoma metastasis. Our last development focus on N-[2-(diethyl-amino)ethyl]-4 and 2-iodo benzamides respectively B.Z.A. and B.Z.A.2 hetero-aromatic analogues usable for melanoma treatment. (authors)

  17. Enseigner dans un programme universitaire innovant : de nouveaux rôles à apprivoiser, des actes pédagogiques à diversifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lefebvre

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche vise à décrire, à partir d’observations empiriques, les rôles exercés et les actes pédagogiques effectués par les enseignantes et les enseignants engagés dans quatre programmes universitaires canadiens jugés innovants. L’observation directe en classe a permis de recueillir leurs propos qui ont été analysés à l’aide de deux grilles construites progressivement au cours de l’étude: la liste des dimensions théoriques et la grille des niveaux de centration sur l’apprentissage. Les résultats obtenus démontrent que les rôles et les actes pédagogiques observés apparaissent moins diversifiés et moins centrés sur l’apprentissage que ce qui est attendu dans un contexte novateur de formation.This research, based on empirical observations, describes the roles and teaching acts carried out by professors engaged in four innovative university programs in Canada. Classrooms observations were used to collect data, which were then analyzed using two grids built progressively during the study: a list of theoretical dimensions and a grid showing degrees of focus on learning. In terms of results, the roles and actions of the four university professors were found to be less diversified and less centered on student learning than was expected from their innovative instructional context.

  18. New energy and environmental paradigms: Europe's place; Les nouveaux paradigmes energetiques et environnementaux : la place de l'Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetti Di Vadalbero, D. [Commission Europeenne (Belgium)

    2008-07-15

    The 'energy-climate change' association, is high on Europe's priority list. From a legal point of view, with the treaty of Lisbon, energy becomes the shared responsibility of the European Union and member countries, and the Commission offers to reinforce the greenhouse effect gas emission quota exchange system and promote sustainable energies. From an economic point of view, modelling studies show that the cost of failing to act on climate change will be much higher tomorrow than the cost of the measures passed today. From a geopolitical point of view, EU's gas supply plans (Nabucco, South Stream, TAP and North Stream) are representative of other stakes than merely energy and trade stakes. From a technological point of view, Europe is banking a lot on the fusion, capturing and storage of CO{sub 2} and hydrogen and fuel cells. Apart from the legal, economic, geopolitical and technological aspects, if Europe wants to maintain its role as a world leader in the areas of energy and climate change prevention, it needs to increase its efforts in terms of sustainable behaviours and development planning. Its image, security, competitiveness and environment depend on it. (author)

  19. New aspects of the structure of the proton revealed by the collider Hera; Nouveaux aspects de la structure du proton avec le collisionneur HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z

    2000-12-01

    Since its commissioning in 1991, the ep collider HERA has been running successfully for almost a decade without stopping improving its performance. In this report, the inclusive cross section and structure function measurements for the deep inelastic scattering of neutral and charged current processes in the full HERA kinematic domain are reviewed. The results are compared with the Standard Model expectations for the deep inelastic scattering processes. The new insights into the proton structure and on the underlying strong and electroweak interactions are discussed. (author)

  20. Nouveaux modes de coordination des acteurs dans le développement local: cas des zones rurales au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Hounmenou

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Les politiques de développement en cours dans plusieurs pays du sud, notamment dans ceux de l’Afrique sub-saharienne ont amorcé un nouveau tournant à partir de la fin des années 1980. A la faveur de l’instauration du climat de démocratie dans plusieurs de ces pays à partir de cette période, nombre d’entre eux ont procédé à de profondes réformes, donnant à la société civile et aux populations à la base, un droit de regard plus important dans la conduite des affaires les concernant. L’une des manifestations les plus importantes de ces réformes se traduit par la mise en œuvre de la décentralisation. Ce processus vise entre autres, la prise en compte des réalités locales et la responsabilisation des communautés à la base dans la gestion de leur développement. Il s’agit en d’autres termes, de favoriser le renforcement des capacités des populations locales, en vue de leur permettre de prendre en charge de façon durable, la gestion de leurs propres affaires dans le cadre de la gouvernance participative. Amorcé en janvier 1993, avec les états généraux de l’administration territoriale, le processus de la décentralisation au Bénin n’a connu sa phase de concrétisation qu’avec les élections et l’installation des élus locaux en début 2003. En prélude à l’avènement de la décentralisation, plusieurs localités béninoises font l’objet, depuis le milieu des années 1990, d’expériences d’appui au développement des communautés locales. C’est le cas notamment, des villages des départements de l’Atlantique et des Collines. A travers ces expériences, se mettent en place, divers dispositifs de gouvernance locale au sein des systèmes locaux d’action publique relatifs aux localités rurales. Il s’agit notamment, des comités villageois de suivi ou de gestion, des dispositifs de comités villageois de développement dans le département de l’Atlantique, et du dispositif des projets de territoire dans les Collines. En leur permettant de révéler leurs préférences collectives de développement, la concertation et la mobilisation des populations locales au sein de ces dispositifs favorisent leur proximité des niveaux de prise de décisions les concernant.The currency development policies in many southern countries, especially in those of sub-Saharan Africa have started a new turn, by the end of the years 1980. With the favor of the democracy climate in many of those countries from that period, number of them have proceeded to the deep reforms, giving to the civil society and the basic populations, an important right of glance in the management of the matters which concern them. One of the important manifestations of those reforms, is expressed by the implementation of the decentralization process. Otherwise, it is also to favor the local populations capacities reinforcement, in order to make them able to well support their own matters management, in the frame of the participative governance, through the decentralization process. Begun in January 1993 with the general statement of territorial administration, the decentralization process in Benin, has known its operational step with the election and the installation of the new local elected, about the beginning of the year 2003. Early, since the middle of the years 1990, in many Benin localities, local communities development experiences have been taking place, in order to prepare populations to the decentralization advent. It’s especially the case of some villages in Atlantic department and all of those in Collines. Through those experiences, various systems of local governance are taking place in rural areas. It’s the case of “village committees of monitoring or management’’, “village committee of development” system in Atlantic region, and the “territory project” system in Collines region. By allowing them to reveal their common preferences of development, the consulting and the mobilization of the local populations inside those systems favor their proximity to the level at which the decisions concerning them are taken.