WorldWideScience

Sample records for notification levels related

  1. 76 FR 63188 - Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD 29 CFR Part 104 RIN 3142-AA07 Notification of Employee Rights Under... National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) to post notices informing their employees of their rights as employees... notification of employee rights under the National Labor Relations Act, further public education and outreach...

  2. 76 FR 54005 - Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... RELATIONS BOARD 29 CFR Part 104 RIN 3142-AA07 Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor... Argument for Informing Employees of Their Rights under the National Labor Relations Act,'' 32 Harv. J. on...

  3. 76 FR 82133 - Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD 29 CFR Part 104 RIN 3142-AA07 Notification of Employee Rights Under... National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) to post notices informing their employees of their rights as employees... notification of employee rights under the National Labor Relations Act, further public education and outreach...

  4. 77 FR 25868 - Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD 29 CFR Part 104 RIN 3142-AA07 Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act AGENCY: National Labor Relations Board. ACTION: Final rule; Court... subject to the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) to post notices informing their employees of their...

  5. 75 FR 80410 - Proposed Rules Governing Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... under the NLRA is remarkable given the significance of the Act as the cornerstone of private-sector... refrain from such activities, and information pertaining to the Board's role in protecting statutory... Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act AGENCY: National Labor Relations Board...

  6. 78 FR 9420 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NRNHL-12128; 2200-3200-665] National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions Nominations for the... Bacon--Harding Farm, (Cobblestone Architecture of New York State MPS), 3077 Oak Orchard Rd., Gaines...

  7. 77 FR 1722 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NRNHL-1212-9138; 2200-3200-665] National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions Nominations... and Architecture MPS) 318 S. Houston Ave., Russellville, 11001049 Pulaski County Capitol--Main...

  8. 76 FR 40930 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... Historic District, (Post-World War II and Modern Architecture in Raleigh, NC, 1845-1965 MPS) Roughly... Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions Nominations for the... the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington...

  9. Tuberculosis notifications in England: the relative effects of deprivation and immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocque, K; Doherty, M J; Bellis, M A; Spence, D P; Williams, C S; Davies, P D

    1998-03-01

    Metropolitan areas of England, including London boroughs, in 1991. To investigate the relative importance of deprivation, immigration and the elderly in explaining variations in tuberculosis rate. A retrospective study using multiple Poisson regression models to assess the interrelationship between various population parameters. Significant differences ere observed between London and other metropolitan districts in the measures of tuberculosis, immigration and the elderly. In addition, all population parameters were significantly intercorrelated in London: areas with a high proportion of immigrants had high levels of deprivation and low proportions of elderly. In other metropolitan districts, only immigration and the Jarman index were significantly associated, and removing the immigration component from the index removed this statistical significance. Multiple Poisson regression models revealed that the immigrant index had the strongest explanatory power in explaining tuberculosis rates, but there were significant interactions between this and measures of urban deprivation indices. That is, there was a greater effect of increasing deprivation at lower levels of immigration than at higher levels. This phenomenon was more pronounced in London boroughs than other metropolitan districts. The elderly index had no significant influence on tuberculosis rates. Although the association between tuberculosis and deprivation previously reported for the city of Liverpool is confirmed across all urban areas of England, the immigrant proportion of the population has a greater statistical power in explaining variations in rates of urban tuberculosis. However, tuberculosis notifications can be most accurately predicted by combining both measures than by either one alone.

  10. Filling gaps in notification data: a model-based approach applied to travel related campylobacteriosis cases in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amene, E; Horn, B; Pirie, R; Lake, R; Döpfer, D

    2016-09-06

    Data containing notified cases of disease are often compromised by incomplete or partial information related to individual cases. In an effort to enhance the value of information from enteric disease notifications in New Zealand, this study explored the use of Bayesian and Multiple Imputation (MI) models to fill risk factor data gaps. As a test case, overseas travel as a risk factor for infection with campylobacteriosis has been examined. Two methods, namely Bayesian Specification (BAS) and Multiple Imputation (MI), were compared regarding predictive performance for various levels of artificially induced missingness of overseas travel status in campylobacteriosis notification data. Predictive performance of the models was assessed through the Brier Score, the Area Under the ROC Curve and the Percent Bias of regression coefficients. Finally, the best model was selected and applied to predict missing overseas travel status of campylobacteriosis notifications. While no difference was observed in the predictive performance of the BAS and MI methods at a lower rate of missingness (campylobacteriosis cases was estimated at 0.16 (0.02, 0.48). The use of BAS offers a flexible approach to data augmentation particularly when the missing rate is very high and when the Missing At Random (MAR) assumption holds. High rates of travel associated cases in urban regions of New Zealand predicted by this approach are plausible given the high rate of travel in these regions, including destinations with higher risk of infection. The added advantage of using a Bayesian approach is that the model's prediction can be improved whenever new information becomes available.

  11. Individual and population level effects of partner notification for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L Althaus

    Full Text Available Partner notification (PN or contact tracing is an important aspect of treating bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. It facilitates the identification of new infected cases that can be treated through individual case management. PN also acts indirectly by limiting onward transmission in the general population. However, the impact of PN, both at the level of individuals and the population, remains unclear. Since it is difficult to study the effects of PN empirically, mathematical and computational models are useful tools for investigating its potential as a public health intervention. To this end, we developed an individual-based modeling framework called Rstisim. It allows the implementation of different models of STI transmission with various levels of complexity and the reconstruction of the complete dynamic sexual partnership network over any time period. A key feature of this framework is that we can trace an individual's partnership history in detail and investigate the outcome of different PN strategies for C. trachomatis. For individual case management, the results suggest that notifying three or more partners from the preceding 18 months yields substantial numbers of new cases. In contrast, the successful treatment of current partners is most important for preventing re-infection of index cases and reducing further transmission of C. trachomatis at the population level. The findings of this study demonstrate the difference between individual and population level outcomes of public health interventions for STIs.

  12. INEX 5 - General information. INEX 5 Exercise on Notification, Communication and Interfaces Related to Catastrophic Events Involving Radiation or Radiological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okyar, Halil Burcin; Lazo, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The INEX series of international nuclear emergency exercises, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving the arrangements for responding to nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies at the national and international level. Previous INEX exercises focussed largely on national and international aspects of early phase management of emergencies at nuclear power plants and more recently, in INEX 4, on issues in consequence management and transition to recovery in response to malicious acts involving the release of radioactive materials in an urban setting. Since the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, it has been recognised that notification, communication, and identifying and obtaining resources during catastrophic events can be difficult and the need for established protocols, policies, and procedures among and between country entities is critical for minimizing negative impacts. Therefore, the benefit and goal of INEX 5 is to provide a basis for enhancing national and international emergency management arrangements related to notification, communication and obtaining resources through the exchange of exercise outcomes and experiences from participating countries, in order to identify good practice and common issues to be addressed. INEX 5 will address emergency management aspects of notification, communication and interfaces between and among country and international organizations. INEX 5 is set up as a table top exercise with three levels of discussion for participants (prior to a release, recognizing/validating a release, and impacts to the radiological event from a catastrophic natural event). Countries can develop additional materials to expand this table top to a full field exercise if preferred. Prior to initiation of the table top, participants will be provided clear guidance about how the exercise will be conducted. Because this exercise may involve government agencies and

  13. [Notification of incidents related to patient safety in hospitals in Catalonia, Spain during the period 2010-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Glòria; Alava, Fernando; Navarro, Laura; Esquerra, Miquel; Lushchenkova, Oksana; Davins, Josep; Vallès, Roser

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to discover the aggregated results of a general notification system for incidents related to patient safety implemented in Catalan hospitals from 2010 to 2013. Observational study describing the incidents notified from January 2010 to December 2013 from all hospitals in Catalonia forming part of the project to create operational patient safety management units. The Patient Safety Notification and Learning System (SiNASP) was used. This makes it possible to classify incidents depending on the area where they occur, the type of incident notified, the consequences, the seriousness according to the Severity Assessment Code (SAC) and the profession of the notifying party, as the principal variables. The system was accessed via the Internet (SiNASP portal). Access was voluntary and anonymous or with a name given and later removed. During the study period, notification of a total of 5,948 incidents came from 22-29 hospitals. 5,244 of the incidents were handled by the centres and these are the ones analysed in the study. 64% (3,380) affected patients, 18% (950) created a situation capable of causing an incident and 18% (914) did not affect patients. 26% of incidents that affected patients (864) caused some kind of harm. Most incidents occurred during hospitalisation (54%) and in casualty (15%), followed by the ICU (9%) and the surgical block (8%). The most frequent notifying parties were nurses (71%) followed by doctors (15%) and pharmacists (9%). In terms of severity, most incidents were classified as low-risk (37%) or incidents that did not affect the patient (36%). However, 40 cases (0.76%) of extreme risk should be highlighted. In terms of the types of incident notified, most were due to a medication error (26.8%), followed by falls (16.3%) and patient identification (10.6%). The majority of notifications were incidents that affected patients and, of these, 26% caused harm. In general, they occurred in hospitalisation units and notification was

  14. Smart Device-Based Notifications to Promote Healthy Behavior Related to Childhood Obesity and Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century and it is a threat to the life of people according to World Health Organization. In this scenario, family environment is important to establish healthy habits which help to reduce levels of obesity and control overweight in children. However, little efforts have been focused on helping parents to promote and have healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we present two smart device-based notification prototypes to promote healthy behavior with the aim of avoiding childhood overweight and obesity. The first prototype helps parents to follow a healthy snack routine, based on a nutritionist suggestion. Using a fridge magnet, parents receive graphical reminders of which snacks they and their children should consume. The second prototype provides a graphical reminder that prevents parents from forgetting the required equipment to practice sports. Prototypes were evaluated by nine nutritionists from three countries (Costa Rica, Mexico and Spain. Evaluations were based on anticipation of use and the ergonomics of human–system interaction according to the ISO 9241-210. Results show that the system is considered useful. Even though they might not be willing to use the system, they would recommend it to their patients. Based on the ISO 9241-210 the best ranked features were the system’s comprehensibility, the perceived effectiveness and clarity. The worst ranked features were the system’s suitability for learning and its discriminability.

  15. Memorandum of understanding between the Government of the Kingdom of Norway and the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on early notification of a nuclear accident and exchange of safety related information concerning the operation and management of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Agreement was concluded in implementation of the IAEA 1986 Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident. Both Governments undertake to notify each other forthwith of any abnormal radiation levels in their respective countries. They will exchange safety related information on nuclear facilities and inform each other of measures to protect the population and the environment. (NEA)

  16. FRENCH TAXES NOTIFICATION OF JULY/AUGUST 2001 RELATING TO THE 2000 INCOME DECLARATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel residing in France who are not of French nationality are about to receive or have already received at their home addresses a document from their Centre des Impôts (CDI) [The Tax Office], which is drafted in a way that raises a number of questions. On page 1 of this pre-printed recto/verso form appears a computer print-out of the following statements: "LA DECLARATION QUE VOUS AVEZ DEPOSEE NE COMPORTE AUCUN REVENU POUR L'ANNEE 2000. JE VOUS INFORME QUE LE PRESENT AVIS NE CONSTITUE PAS UN JUSTIFICATIF D'ABSENCE DE TOUT REVENU. VOUS AVEZ DES REVENUS PERCUS EN PROVENANCE D'ORGANISMES INTERNATIONAUX, DE MISSIONS DIPLOMATIQUES OU CONSULAIRES EXONERES D'IMPOT EN FRANCE. INDIQUEZ-LES AU BAS DE CET AVIS.' (i.e. The declaration which you have returned shows no income for 2000. I would like to inform you that this notification does not represent certification of the absence of any income. You receive income from an international organization or a displomatic mission or consulate which is exempt...

  17. FRENCH TAXES NOTIFICATION OF JULY/AUGUST 2000 RELATING TO THE 1999 INCOME DECLARATION

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel residing in France who are not of French nationality are about to receive or have already received at their home addresses a document from their Centre des Impôts (CDI) [The Tax Office], which is drafted in a way that raises a number of questions. On page 1 of this pre-printed recto/verso form appears a computer printout of the following statements: 'LA DECLARATION QUE VOUS AVEZ DEPOSEE NE COMPORTE AUCUN REVENU POUR L'ANNEE 1999. JE VOUS INFORME QUE LE PRESENT AVIS NE CONSTITUE PAS UN JUSTIFICATIF D'ABSENCE DE TOUT REVENU. VOUS AVEZ DES REVENUS PERCUS EN PROVENANCE D'ORGANISMES INTERNATIONAUX, DE MISSIONS DIPLOMATIQUES OU CONSULAIRES EXONERES D'IMPOT EN FRANCE. INDIQUEZ-LES AU BAS DE CET AVIS.' (i.e. The declaration which you have returned shows no income for 1999. I would like to inform you that this notification does not represent certification of the absence of any income. You receive income from an international organisation or a diplomatic mission or consulate which is exempt fr...

  18. Vergi Hukukunda Tebligatta Yeni Bir Uygulama: Elektronik Tebligat(A Recent Implementation in Notification in Tax Law: Electronic Notification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice YURTSEVER

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tax-basis documents are to be notified to tax payers via various manners and methods. Timely notification is important on the basis of people given enough time and instruments for their right to legal remedies to be carried into effect. Notifications regarding tax collection are carried out according to Tax Precedure Law whereas notifications regarding tax trials for tax disputes are carried out according to Notification Law. In order to solve notification related problems, an analogy should be drawn between Tax Precedure Law and Notification Law. Also, in the case of notifications via traditional methods, it is seen that significant information for tax payers may not be delivered on time and therefore tax claim collections may be legally impossible. Within this framework, in order to provide timely taxation and complete the taxation procedure, by virtue of the development in IT, electronic notification in addition to the said notification methods should take place in regulations. It is obvious that electronic notification would be safer and faster in comparison to the physical notification methods. Notification taking days through traditinional notification methods could be received by the addressee via e-notification in such a swift way.

  19. For partner services, do we need "face-time," or FaceTime?: Trends in relative proportion of in-person notifications and HIV testing after introduction of a telephone option for HIV exposure notification by public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeagu, Chi-Chi N; Bocour, Angelica; Shepard, Colin W

    2014-11-01

    Public health usually notifies partners of STD exposure in-person despite availability of other options. We examined trends in in-person versus telephone notification for HIV 3 years after the introduction of a telephone option. Most notifications were made by telephone. Partners notified doubled; however, the proportion HIV testing declined slightly.

  20. 76 FR 5204 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Company Brewery, (Railroad Related Historic Commercial and Industrial Resources in Kansas City, Missouri... Skagit River and Newhalem Creek Hydroelectric Projects (Boundary Increase), WA 20 Corridor, Newhalem...

  1. Notification: Evaluation of EPA's Management of Resistance Issues Related to Herbicide Tolerant Genetically Engineered Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY16-0023, March 25, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to assess the EPA's management and oversight of resistance issues related to herbicide tolerant genetically engineered crops.

  2. 75 FR 39040 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Manistee Iron Works Machine Shop, 254 River St., Manistee, 10000477 Wayne County Rosedale Gardens Historic... Berry Morot Car Service Building, (Auto-Related Resources of St. Louis, Missouri [[Page 39041

  3. 75 FR 36441 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Lisa Deline, Acting Chief, National Register..., 325 Main St, Greenwood, 10000439 MISSOURI Greene County Springfield Grocer Company Warehouse, 323 N... Warehouse (Railroad Related Historic Commercial and Industrial Resources in Kansas City, Missouri MPS) 819 E...

  4. Under-reporting in hepatitis B notifications | Abdool Karim | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notification and laboratory data for the period January 1985 December 1988 were compared in order to estimate: (i) the minimum level of under-reporting of hepatitis B; and (ii) the consistency of the level of under-reporting, both regiorially and nationally. Ratios between hepatitis B notifications and positive hepatitis B ...

  5. 22 CFR 192.4 - Notification of eligible persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of eligible persons. 192.4 Section 192.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION General § 192.4 Notification of eligible persons. The Director General of the Foreign Service for the Department...

  6. Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, B.M.; Mallik, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated

  7. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Russell, P.J.; Avery, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive research investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low level and intermediate level waste immobilized in cement. Several topics have been investigated which include: (a) the study of the formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates; (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments; (c) colloid sorption behaviour; (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates; (e) characteristics of near-field materials in EC repository simulation tests; and (f) colloid migration behaviour. These experimental investigations should provide data and a basis for the development of transport models and leaching mechanisms, and thus relate directly to the part of the Task 3 programme concerned with migration and retention of radionuclides in the near field. 114 Figs.; 39 Tabs.; 12 Refs

  8. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  9. Emergency Notification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID ENS provides quick and effective notification messages during any emergency affecting the Ronald Reagan Building, SA-44, Potomac Yards and USAID Washington...

  10. 40 CFR 141.201 - General public notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminant level (MCL), maximum residual disinfection level (MRDL), treatment technique (TT), monitoring... comply with a prescribed treatment technique (TT). (iii) Failure to perform water quality monitoring, as...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking...

  11. Coastal subsidence and relative sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface fluid-pressure declines caused by pumping of groundwater or hydrocarbons can lead to aquifer-system compaction and consequent land subsidence. This subsidence can be rapid, as much as 30 cm per year in some instances, and large, totaling more than 13 m in extreme examples. Thus anthropogenic subsidence may be the dominant contributor to relative sea-level rise in coastal environments where subsurface fluids are heavily exploited. Maximum observed rates of human-induced subsidence greatly exceed the rates of natural subsidence of unconsolidated sediments (~0.1–1 cm yr−1) and the estimated rates of ongoing global sea-level rise (~0.3 cm yr−1).

  12. Using digital notifications to improve attendance in clinic: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Dan; Satkunanathan, Safarina; Reynolds, John; Stahl, Daniel; Wykes, Til

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Assess the impact of text-based electronic notifications on improving clinic attendance, in relation to study quality (according to risk of bias), and to assess simple ways in which notifications can be optimised (ie, impact of multiple notifications). Design Systematic review, study quality appraisal assessing risk of bias, data synthesised in meta-analyses. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (01.01.05 until 25.4.15). A systematic search to discover all studies containing quantitative data for synthesis into meta-analyses. Eligibility criteria Studies examining the effect of text-based electronic notifications on prescheduled appointment attendance in healthcare settings. Primary analysis included experimental studies where randomisation was used to define allocation to intervention and where a control group consisting of ‘no reminders’ was used. Secondary meta-analysis included studies comparing text reminders with voice reminders. Studies lacking sufficient information for inclusion (after attempting to contact study authors) were excluded. Outcome measures Primary outcomes were rate of attendance/non-attendance at healthcare appointments. Secondary outcome was rate of rescheduled and cancelled appointments. Results 26 articles were included. 21 included in the primary meta-analysis (8345 patients receiving electronic text notifications, 7731 patients receiving no notifications). Studies were included from Europe (9), Asia (7), Africa (2), Australia (2) and America (1). Patients who received notifications were 23% more likely to attend clinic than those who received no notification (risk ratio=1.23, 67% vs 54%). Those receiving notifications were 25% less likely to ‘no show’ for appointments (risk ratio=.75, 15% vs 21%). Results were similar when accounting for risk of bias, region and publication year. Multiple notifications were significantly more effective at improving

  13. 49 CFR 659.33 - Accident notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident notification. 659.33 Section 659.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight...

  14. 47 CFR 64.1603 - Customer notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 64.1603 Section 64.1603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Calling Party Telephone Number; Privacy § 64.1603 Customer...

  15. 29 CFR 1450.21 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification. 1450.21 Section 1450.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE COLLECTIONS OF CLAIMS OWED THE... notice stating at a minimum: (1) The agency's determination that a debt is owed, including the origin...

  16. User acceptance of mobile notifications

    CERN Document Server

    Westermann, Tilo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an alternative approach to studying smartphone-app user notifications. It starts with insights into user acceptance of mobile notifications in order to provide tools to support users in managing these. It extends previous research by investigating factors that influence users’ perception of notifications and proposes tools addressing the shortcomings of current systems. It presents a technical framework and testbed as an approach for evaluating the usage of mobile applications and notifications, and then discusses a series of studies based on this framework that investigate factors influencing users’ perceptions of mobile notifications. Lastly, a set of design guidelines for the usage of mobile notifications is derived that can be employed to support users in handling notifications on smartphones.

  17. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  18. Annotated Bibliography of Relative Sea Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    effects of increasing C02 on vegetation. In controlled environment experiments, higher C02 levels cause the stomata of plants to close down, decreasing...Changes in Maine," Nummedal, D., Pilkey, O.H., and Howard, J.D., eds., Sea-Level Fluctuations and Coastal Evolution , Special -Publication No. 41...and Coastal Evolution , Special Publication No. 41, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa, OK, pp 71-86. Eigenanalysis of tide

  19. Public relations work at a regional level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, H.R.

    1982-04-01

    With 'Elektrizitaets-AG Mitteldeutschland (EAM)' (power corporation central Germany) - head office in Kassel and five works maintained in Kassel, Goettingen, Marburg, Dillenburg and Hanau - public relations work has a tradition. It is seen as conscious, planned and continued effort to build up the public understanding: Public relations work is intended to present the enterprise as a community with a multitude of technical, economic and social tasks, which can be carried out with optimal success only if supported by the confidence of society.

  20. Mothers' Knowledge Levels Related to Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen BILGEN SIVRI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: This study was done to evaluate mothers’ level of knowledge regarding poisoning, to plan training for issues with an identified lack of knowledge, to collect required data regarding protection and approach issues on poisoning cases which may occur in children for various reasons. Methods: This descriptive study was performed after obtaining permission from the County Health Department and involved mothers who applied to Family Health Centers No. 1-7 between April 1st and May 31st 2012, and who agreed to participate in the study (n=290. The questionnaire was composed of three parts: “Personal Information Form,” “House Poisoning Evaluation Form” and “Home Poisoning Prevention Knowledge Level Form.” Results: Participant ages were between 16 and 50 years and the mean age was 33.09±7.10 years. The number of children ranged from 1 to 6, and 203 people had seven children under the age of six. 37.6% of the mothers were primary school graduates, while 74.5% were housewives. There was a significant relationship between the knowledge score of the mothers on poisoning and education, career, neighborhood, and social security (p<0.05. Conclusions: Childhood poisoning is the most common cause of admission to the hospital. Protective precautions such as family education, storage of medication out of reach of children and use of secure lids are thought to be important. Key words: First aid, level of knowledge, mother-child, nurses, poisoning

  1. 75 FR 77723 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... the notice shall include employee rights under the National Labor Relations Act (``Act''), 29 U.S.C...--Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act Sec. 22.1600 Scope of subpart. 22.1601...) * * * (27) 52.222-40, Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act (DEC 2010) (E.O...

  2. Early Notification Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulic, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear accidents are unexpected events characterized by losing of control over the sources of radiation. This may, directly or indirectly, create a danger to human life, health or property. In certain nuclear accidents, such dangers may be of a limited scope, which means that they constitute a threat only to those persons who work directly with the sources of radiation, or the equipment that comprises such sources, and their immediate working environment. Under certain conditions, as a consequence of major nuclear accidents, the broader population and considerable property might be endangered as well. The way in which nuclear accidents with the sources of ionizing radiation may occur, the intensity of doses that may exist in the radiation source environment, the nature and quantities of radioactive materials which might spread in the environment, the level of radiation exposure of the staff and the population due to a nuclear accident - all these may be considerably different in case of a nuclear accident with different radiation sources. Depending on the category of nuclear accident, major environmental pollutant releases are possible in such situations. The proposal for the establishment of a network of early notification monitors in the Republic of Croatia leans upon: a description of similar networks in Europe, the experience gathered during previous work with the existing monitors on the territory of the Republic of Slovenia, and direct experience of the three continuous radiological monitors established on the territory of the Republic of Croatia ('Rudjer Boskovic' Institute, Sljeme-Puntijarka and Velebit-Pljesivica). In this moment there are eight monitors MFM-202 installed on the territory of the Republic of Croatia, which are used to measure the dose rate. The position of eight monitors MFM-202 on the territory of the Republic of Croatia is displayed in MAP 1. Respecting the existing network of eight monitors MFM-202 for dose rate measuring (MAP 1), their

  3. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  4. Mass Notification for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Mass notification is a high priority in educational institutions. As the number of electronic communication devices has diversified, so has the complexity of designing an effective mass notification system. Picking the right system, with the right features, support services and price, can be daunting. This publication, updated quarterly due to…

  5. 22 CFR 212.38 - Predisclosure notification procedures for confidential commercial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Predisclosure notification procedures for confidential commercial information. 212.38 Section 212.38 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC INFORMATION Access to Agency Records § 212.38 Predisclosure notification procedures for...

  6. Notification of brain death in the hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Soares de Jesus Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identifying brain death in the hospital. Methods: it is a cross sectional and quantitative study which analyzed secondary data extracted from the notified brain death registers and from the medical records of the eligible patients. The data were processed and analyzed through descriptive statistics and comparisons. Results: of the 64 cases of notifications, the male gender predominated (67.2% within the age range from 40 to 59 years (64.1%. There was a greater proportion (71.8% of causes of death related to Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident and Traumatic Brain Injury caused by motorcycle accident, showing statistically significant difference (p<0.05 regarding the gender, age and location. Conclusion: the Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident was the most prevalent cause of notification of brain death and the Intensive Therapy Unit was the most notified venue.

  7. The Usefulness and Feasibility of Mobile Interface in Tuberculosis Notification (MITUN Voice Based System for Notification of Tuberculosis by Private Medical Practitioners--A Pilot Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banurekha Velayutham

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a notifiable disease and health care providers are required to notify every TB case to local authorities. We conducted a pilot study to determine the usefulness and feasibility of mobile interface in TB notification (MITUN voice based system for notification of TB cases by private medical practitioners.The study was conducted during September 2013 to October 2014 in three zones of Chennai, an urban setting in South India. Private clinics wherein services are provided by single private medical practitioners were approached. The steps involved in MITUN included: Registration of the practitioners and notification of TB cases by them through voice interactions. Pre and post-intervention questionnaires were administered to collect information on TB notification practices and feasibility of MITUN after an implementation period of 6 months.A total of 266 private medical practitioners were approached for the study. Of them, 184 (69% participated in the study; of whom 11 (6% practitioners used MITUN for TB notification. Reasons for not using MITUN include lack of time, referral of patients to government facility, issues related to patient confidentiality and technical problems. Suggestions for making mobile phone based TB notification process user-friendly included reducing call duration, including only crucial questions and using missed call or SMS options.The performance (feasibility and usefulness of MITUN voice based system for TB notification in the present format was sub-optimal. Perceived problems, logistical and practical issues preclude scale-up of notification of TB by private practitioners.

  8. 17 CFR 204.55 - Change in notification to Financial Management Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in notification to Financial Management Service. 204.55 Section 204.55 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 204.55 Change in notification to...

  9. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis

    2012-02-06

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined.

  10. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. School Management Related Knowledge Levels of Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge levels of the teachers affect the qualifications of operations and transactions in schools. School management related knowledge of the teachers is an essential tool to reach the targets of the school. The objective of this study was to determine the school management related knowledge levels of the teachers. Qualitative and…

  12. Business Event Notification Service (BENS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — BENS provides a notification of pre-defined business events to applications, portals, and automated business processes. Such events are defined in the Event Catalog,...

  13. Outbreaks of health care-associated influenza-like illness in France: Impact of electronic notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier-Marion, Elodie; Bénet, Thomas; Dananché, Cédric; Soing-Altach, Sophan; Maugat, Sylvie; Vaux, Sophie; Vanhems, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Mandatory notification of health care-associated (HA) infections, including influenza-like illness (ILI) outbreaks, has been implemented in France since 2001. In 2012, the system moved to online electronic notification of HA infections (e-SIN). The objectives of this study are to describe ILI outbreak notifications to Santé publique France (SPF), the French national public health agency, and to evaluate the impact of notification dematerialization. All notifications of HA ILI outbreaks between July 2001 and June 2015 were included. Notifications before and after e-SIN implementation were compared regarding notification delay and information exhaustiveness. Overall, 506 HA ILI outbreaks were reported, accounting for 7,861 patients and health care professionals. Median delay between occurrence of the first case and notification was, respectively, 32 and 13 days before and after e-SIN utilization (P < .001). Information exhaustiveness was improved by electronic notification regarding HA status (8.5% of missing data before and 2.3% after e-SIN, P = .003), hypotheses of cause (25.4% of missing data before vs 8.0% after e-SIN, P < .001), and level of event control (23.7% of missing data before vs 7.5% after e-SIN, P < .001). HA influenza notifications, including HA ILI or influenza, to health authorities are essential to guide decisional instances and health care practices. Electronic notifications have improved the timeliness and quality of information transmitted. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-09-15

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p teachers perceives the workplace as extremely stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  15. Global trend according to estimated number of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases at region and country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Päivi; Leena Saarela, Kaija; Takala, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    Although occupational accidents and work-related diseases have been of interest for a long time, due to lack of proper recording and notification systems the official numbers of occupational accidents and work-related diseases are missing for many countries. Presently, the demand for effectiveness and an interest in the economic aspects of accidents have increased prevention activities at company and country levels. Occupational accident data of selected countries and of World Health Organization regional divisions together with the global burden of disease were used in estimating global occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases. The trend of global occupational accidents and work-related diseases is presented at region and country levels. The years 1998, 2001, and 2003 are compared in the case of occupational accidents and the years 2000 and 2002 in the case of work-related diseases. The total number of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases has increased, but the fatality rates per 100,000 workers have decreased. There were almost 360,000 fatal occupational accidents in 2003 and almost 2 million fatal work-related diseases in 2002. Every day more than 960,000 workers get hurt because of accidents. Each day 5,330 people die because of work-related diseases. Information on occupational accidents and work-related diseases is needed so that countries may understand better the importance of occupational health and safety at country and company level. Especially companies in developing countries are not familiar with occupational safety and health. Statistical data is essential for accident prevention; it is a starting point for the safety work.

  16. Courtesy notification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steadman, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the improvements that have been implemented to enhance communications of a large Department of Energy site with state and local agencies. Through an aggressive off-site communications program, and with constant feedback from stakeholders, the site has established a clear line of communication that provides off-site agencies with timely and accurate information regarding its activities. This paper will discuss the implementation of the courtesy notification process, which takes into consideration the potential for media or public interest, and quarterly facility tours and briefing. This paper will include a historical time-line of events and incidents that have resulted in establishing the Off-site Communications Process and the demonstrated success in opening lines of communication with these off-site agencies. (author)

  17. Using digital notifications to improve attendance in clinic: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Dan; Satkunanathan, Safarina; Reynolds, John; Stahl, Daniel; Wykes, Til

    2016-10-24

    Assess the impact of text-based electronic notifications on improving clinic attendance, in relation to study quality (according to risk of bias), and to assess simple ways in which notifications can be optimised (ie, impact of multiple notifications). Systematic review, study quality appraisal assessing risk of bias, data synthesised in meta-analyses. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (01.01.05 until 25.4.15). A systematic search to discover all studies containing quantitative data for synthesis into meta-analyses. Studies examining the effect of text-based electronic notifications on prescheduled appointment attendance in healthcare settings. Primary analysis included experimental studies where randomisation was used to define allocation to intervention and where a control group consisting of 'no reminders' was used. Secondary meta-analysis included studies comparing text reminders with voice reminders. Studies lacking sufficient information for inclusion (after attempting to contact study authors) were excluded. Primary outcomes were rate of attendance/non-attendance at healthcare appointments. Secondary outcome was rate of rescheduled and cancelled appointments. 26 articles were included. 21 included in the primary meta-analysis (8345 patients receiving electronic text notifications, 7731 patients receiving no notifications). Studies were included from Europe (9), Asia (7), Africa (2), Australia (2) and America (1). Patients who received notifications were 23% more likely to attend clinic than those who received no notification (risk ratio=1.23, 67% vs 54%). Those receiving notifications were 25% less likely to 'no show' for appointments (risk ratio=.75, 15% vs 21%). Results were similar when accounting for risk of bias, region and publication year. Multiple notifications were significantly more effective at improving attendance than single notifications. Voice notifications appeared more effective than text

  18. Advancing Partner Notification Through Electronic Communication Technology: A Review of Acceptability and Utilization Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowski, Jennifer; Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Dewing, Sarah; Lurie, Mark N; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-06-01

    A cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention is the identification, tracing, and notification of sex partners of index patients. Although partner notification reduces disease burden and prevents new infections as well as reinfections, studies show that only a limited number of partners are ever notified. Electronic communication technologies, namely, the Internet, text messaging, and phone calls (i.e., e-notification), have the potential to expand partner services. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have investigated the acceptability and utility of e-notification. We identified 23 studies that met the following criteria: (a) 9 studies presented data on the acceptability of technology-based communications for contacting sex partner(s), and (b) 14 studies reported on the utilization of communication technologies for partner notification. Studies found high levels of interest in and acceptability of e-notification; however, there was little evidence for actual use of e-notification. Taken together, results suggest that electronic communications could have their greatest impact in notifying less committed partners who would otherwise be uninformed of their STI exposure. In addition, all studies to date have been conducted in resource-rich countries, although the low cost of e-notification may have its greatest impact in resource-constrained settings. Research is needed to determine the best practices for exploiting the opportunities afforded by electronic communications for expanding STI partner services.

  19. Push Attack: Binding Virtual and Real Identities Using Mobile Push Notifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Loreti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular mobile apps use push notifications extensively to offer an “always connected” experience to their users. Social networking apps use them as a real-time channel to notify users about new private messages or new social interactions (e.g., friendship request, tagging, etc.. Despite the cryptography used to protect these communication channels, the strict temporal binding between the actions that trigger the notifications and the reception of the notification messages in the mobile device may represent a privacy issue. In this work, we present the push notification attack designed to bind the physical owners of mobile devices with their virtual identities, even if pseudonyms are used. In an online attack, an active attacker triggers a push notification and captures the notification packets that transit in the network. In an offline attack, a passive attacker correlates the social network activity of a user with the received push notification. The push notification attack bypasses the standard ways of protecting user privacy based on the network layer by operating at the application level. It requires no additional software on the victim’s mobile device.

  20. Notification of occupational disease and the risk of work disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A; Christensen, Michael V; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze if notification of an occupational disease increases the risk of work disability. METHODS: We included 2304 patients examined at the Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, 1998-2005 and followed them for two years. A total...... of 564 patients were notified of an occupational disease when they were examined at baseline and 1740 patients were not. We obtained weekly information on sick payment, unemployment payment, disability pension, rehabilitation benefit, and other social benefits during the two years of follow-up from...... a national register. Using Cox regression models, we analyzed notification and adjusted hazard ratios (HR (adj)) of work disability (defined as >12 weeks of social benefits during the first or second year of follow-up). RESULTS: Prior to notification, notified patients had higher levels of clinical...

  1. Relatives' level of satisfaction with advanced cancer care in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustussen, Mikaela; Hounsgaard, Lise; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2017-01-01

    Palliative cancer care in Greenland is provided by health professionals at local level, the national Queen Ingrid's Hospital and at Rigshospitalet in Denmark. To improve and develop care for relatives of patients with advanced cancer, we conducted a mixed method study examining relatives' level...... of satisfaction with care and treatment and their current main concerns. The aim was to investigate relatives' level of satisfaction with advanced cancer care and bring to light their current main concerns. The FAMCARE-20 questionnaire was translated to Greenlandic and pilot tested. The questionnaire...... was supplemented by open-ended questions about relative's current main concerns and analyzed with a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. Greenlandic patients with advanced cancer who were previously participating in a prospective study were asked if their closest adult relative would participate in the study...

  2. Salt marsh stability modelled in relation to sea level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Bartholdy, Anders; Kroon, Aart

    2010-01-01

    Accretion on a natural backbarrier salt marsh was modeled as a function of high tide level, initial salt marsh level and distance to the source. Calibration of the model was based on up to ca 80 year old marker horizons, supplemented by 210Pb/137Cs datings and subsequent measurements of clay...... that mass depth down core can be directly related to the bulk dry density of the surface layer by means of a logarithmic function. The results allow for an evaluation of the use of marker horizons in the topmost layers and show that it is important to know the level of the marker in relation to the salt...

  3. 78 FR 42510 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... support services, and other related elements of logistics support. \\*\\ as defined in Section 47(6) of the... countermeasures which might reduce weapon system effectiveness or be used in the development of a system with...

  4. 77 FR 74832 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... $130 million. TOTAL $130 million. * As defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (ii... the design, development and/or manufacturing data related to the GEM fuze. No design or manufacturing...

  5. 78 FR 66338 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Proposed to be Sold: See Attached Annex (viii) Date Report Delivered to Congress: 25 Oct 13 * as defined in...-how and primarily inherent in the design, development and/or manufacturing data related to the ATM...

  6. 15 CFR 700.73 - Notification of failure to comply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of failure to comply. 700.73 Section 700.73 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE...

  7. Notification of pesticide poisoning in the western Cape, 1987 - 1991 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a paucity of data on pesticide-related morbidity and mortality in South Africa. A review of notifications to the western Cape office of the Department of National Health and Population Development from 1987 to 1991 was undertaken to describe the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in the region.

  8. 47 CFR 64.4004 - Timeliness of required notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Timeliness of required notifications. 64.4004 Section 64.4004 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Account Record Exchange Requirements...

  9. 49 CFR 384.207 - Notification of licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of licensing. 384.207 Section 384.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS STATE COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM...

  10. Relative Price Levels and Current Accounts: An Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Aizenman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the links between current accounts and relative price levels, finding that current account changes are associated with sizable future relative price levels effects. This is done in panel regressions of the Penn effect, adding a lagged current account/GDP and other explanatory variables. Higher GDP/ capita and a greater export share of manufacturing tend to mitigate the real exchange rate impact of lagged current accounts. Active management of current accounts may provide a powerful adjustment channel, mitigating the real exchange rate effects of volatile terms of trade, and may explain the growing proliferation of Sovereign Wealth Funds.

  11. Belief Patterns and Anxiety Levels of Turkish EFL Students in Relation to Level of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Aysegül; Balçikanli, Cem

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether there is a relationship between anxiety levels and belief patterns of Turkish EFL students in relation to level of instruction. A total number of 207 students voluntarily participated in the study. To gather quantitative data, adapted Turkish versions of Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) and Foreign…

  12. University students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi; Watabe, Motoki

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of university students' understanding level about words related to nuclear power before and after Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant accident, and analyzed the difference between before and after the accident. The results show that university students' understanding level improved after the accident, especially in the case of reported words by mass media. Understanding level of some nuclear power security words which were not reported so much by mass media also improved. That may be caused by rising of people's concern about nuclear power generation after the accident, and there is a possibility that the accident motivated people to access such words via internet, journals, etc. (author)

  13. Temporal trends in TB notification rates during ART scale-up in Cape Town: an ecological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Sabine; Boulle, Andrew; Caldwell, Judy; Pienaar, David; Wood, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces individual tuberculosis (TB) risk by two-thirds, the population-level impact remains uncertain. Cape Town reports high TB notification rates associated with endemic HIV. We examined population trends in TB notification rates during a 10-year period of

  14. Vitamin D levels and menopause-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Erin S; Desai, Manisha; Perrin, Nancy; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Manson, JoAnn E; Cauley, Jane A; Michael, Yvonne L; Tang, Jean; Womack, Catherine; Song, Yiqing; Johnson, Karen C; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Woods, Nancy; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to determine whether vitamin D levels are associated with menopause-related symptoms in older women. A randomly selected subset of 1,407 women, among 26,104 potentially eligible participants of the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial of postmenopausal women aged 51 to 80 years, had 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels measured at the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial baseline visit. Information about menopause-related symptoms at baseline was obtained by questionnaire and included overall number of symptoms and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, and energy/fatigue, as well as individual symptoms. After exclusions for missing data, 530 women (mean [SD] age, 66.2 [6.8] y) were included in these analyses. Borderline significant associations between 25(OH)D levels and total number of menopausal symptoms were observed (with P values ranging from 0.05 to 0.06 for fully adjusted models); however, the effect was clinically insignificant and disappeared with correction for multiple testing. No associations between 25(OH)D levels and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, or energy/fatigue were observed (P's > 0.10 for fully adjusted models). There is no evidence for a clinically important association between serum 25(OH)D levels and menopause-related symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  15. Characteristics of medically related low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, G.J. Jr.; Teele, B.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes a survey that identified the current sources of medically generated radioactive wastes. Included are recommendations on how to reduce the volume of medically-related material classified as low-level radioactive wastes, to improve handling techniques for long-lived radioisotopes, and for options for the use of radioactive materials in medical studies. 8 refs., 11 tabs

  16. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  17. SOUND LABOR RELATIONS AT ENTERPRISE LEVEL IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichai Thosuwonchinda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the pattern of sound labor relations in Thailand in order to reduce conflicts between employers and workers and create cooperation. The research was based on a qualitative approach, using in-depth interview with 10 stakeholder groups of Thai industrial relations system. They were employees of non unionized companies at the shop floor level, employees of non unionized companies at the supervisor level, trade union leaders at the company level, trade union leaders at the national level, employers of non-unionized companies, employers’ organization leaders, and human resource managers, members of tripartite bodies, government officials and labor academics. The findings were presented in a model identifying 5 characteristics that enhance sound relations in Thailand, i.e. recognition between employer and workers, good communication, trust, data revealing and workers’ participation. It was suggested that all parties, employers, workers and the government should take part in the promotion of sound labor relations. The employer have to acknowledge labor union with a positive attitude, have good communication with workers , create trust with workers, disclose information, create culture of mutual benefits as well as accept sincerely the system that include workers’ participation. Workers need a strong labor union, good and sincere representatives for clear communication, trust, mutual benefits and seek conflict solutions with employer by win-win strategy. The government has a supporting role in adjusting the existing laws in the appropriate way, by creating policy for sound labor relations, and putting the idea of sound labor relations into practice.

  18. Epidemiology of gonorrhoea notifications in Australia, 2007-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Witteveen, April; Pennington, Kate; Higgins, Nasra; Lang, Carolyn; Lahra, Monica; Waddell, Russell; Kaldor, John

    2014-09-01

    Background An increase in the notification rate of gonorrhoea was observed in the national surveillance system. In Australia, gonorrhoea is relatively rare, apart from among some populations of Aboriginal people and men who have sex with men. Data about gonorrhoea cases reported between 2007 and 2012 from all Australian jurisdictions were extracted from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Analyses were undertaken of the time trends in counts and rates, according to jurisdiction, gender, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, diagnosis method and sexual orientation. The largest increase in notifications between 2007 and 2012 was observed in both men and women in New South Wales (2.9- and 3.7-fold greater in 2012 than 2007, respectively) and Victoria (2.4- and 2.7-fold greater in 2012 than 2007, respectively), men in the Australian Capital Territory and women in Queensland. The highest notification rates remained in Indigenous people in the Northern Territory and Western Australia, and particularly in women, although rates may have decreased over the study period. Changes in age and sex distribution, antimicrobial resistance and patterns of exposure and acquisition were negligible. There is an ongoing gonorrhoea epidemic affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, but the increases in notifications have occurred primarily in non-Aboriginal populations in the larger jurisdictions. Interpretation of these surveillance data, especially in relation to changes in population subgroups, would be enhanced by laboratory testing data. Further efforts are needed to decrease infection rates in populations at highest risk.

  19. Relative Sea Level, Tidal Range, and Extreme Water Levels in Boston Harbor from 1825 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talke, S. A.; Kemp, A.; Woodruff, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Long time series of water-level measurements made by tide gauges provide a rich and valuable observational history of relative sea-level change, the frequency and height of extreme water levels and evolving tidal regimes. However, relatively few locations have available tide-gauge records longer than 100 years and most of these places are in northern Europe. This spatio-temporal distribution hinders efforts to understand global-, regional- and local-scale trends. Using newly-discovered archival measurements, we constructed a 200 year, instrumental record of water levels, tides, and storm surges in Boston Harbor. We detail the recovery, datum reconstruction, digitization, quality assurance, and analysis of this extended observational record. Local, decadally-averaged relative sea-level rose by 0.28 ± 0.05 m since the 1820s, with an acceleration of 0.023 ±0.009 mm/yr2. Approximately 0.13 ± 0.02 m of the observed RSL rise occurred due to ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment, and the remainder occurred due to changes in ocean mass and volume associated with the onset of modern mean sea-level rise. Change-point analysis of the new relative sea level record confirms that anthropogenic rise began in 1924-1932, which is in agreement with global mean sea level estimates from the global tide gauge network. Tide range decreased by 5.5% between 1830 and 1910, likely due in large part to anthropogenic development. Storm tides in Boston Harbor are produced primarily by extratropical storms during the November-April time frame. The three largest storm tides occurred in 1851, 1909, and 1978. Because 90% of the top 20 storm tides since 1825 occurred during a spring tide, the secular change in tide range contributes to a slight reduction in storm tide magnitudes. However, non-stationarity in storm hazard was historically driven primarily by local relative sea-level rise; a modest 0.2 m increase in relative sea level reduces the 100 year high water mark to a once-in-10 year event.

  20. Changes in Holocene relative sea-level and coastal morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Sander, Lasse; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2015-01-01

    Changes in relative sea-level (RSL) during the Holocene are reconstructed based on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data collected across a raised beach ridge system on the island of Samsø, Denmark. The internal architecture of the beach ridge and swale deposits is divided into characteristic radar...... facies. We identify downlap points interpreted to mark the transition from the beachface to the upper shoreface and, thus, sea-level at the time of deposition. This new data set shows that beach steps can be preserved and resolved in GPR reflection data. This is important, as downlap points identified...... at the base of the beach steps should be corrected for beach step height in order to be used as a marker of sea-level. Identification of beach steps in combination with observed changes in dips of the interpreted beachface reflections can give information about changes in the morphodynamic conditions of beach...

  1. Nuclear medicine incident reporting in Australia: control charts and notification rates inform quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcos, G; Collins, L T; Georgiou, A; Westbrook, J I

    2015-06-01

    Australia has a statutory incident reporting system for radiopharmaceutical maladministrations, but additional research into registry data is required for the purpose of quality improvement in nuclear medicine. We (i) used control charts to identify factors contributing to special cause variation (indicating higher than expected rates) in maladministrations and (ii) evaluated the impact of heterogeneous notification criteria and extent of underreporting among jurisdictions and individual facilities, respectively. Anonymised summaries of Australian Radiation Incident Register reports permitted calculation of national monthly maladministration notification rates for 2007-2012 and preparation of control charts. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association of population, insurance and regulatory characteristics with maladministration notifications in each Australian State and Territory. Maladministration notification rates from two facilities with familiarity of notification processes and commitment to radiation protection were compared with those elsewhere. Special cause variation occurred in only 3 months, but contributed to 21% of all incidents (42 of 197 patients), mainly because of 'clusters' of maladministrations (n = 24) arising from errors in bulk radiopharmaceutical dispensing. Maladministration notification rates varied significantly between jurisdictions (0 to 12.2 maladministrations per 100 000 procedures (P < 0.05)) and individual facilities (31.7 vs 5.8 per 100 000; χ(2) = 40; 1 degree of freedom, P < 0.001). Unexpected increases in maladministration notifications predominantly relate to incident 'clusters' affecting multiple patients. The bulk preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is a vulnerable process and merits additional safeguards. Maladministration notification rates in Australia are heterogeneous. Adopting uniform maladministration notification criteria among States and Territories and methods to overcome underreporting are

  2. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  3. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  4. Linking the levels: network and relational perspectives for community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Christens, Brian D

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we assert that relationships and networks are of paramount importance for understanding and improving settings, neighborhoods, communities, and larger social systems. Despite previous acknowledgements of their relevance, relational and social network perspectives and analyses remain underrepresented in community psychological research and action. Here, we claim that network and relational perspectives can provide conceptual and empirical 'links' between levels of analysis, more fully reflecting a transactional view. We also describe some of the sophisticated methodologies that can be employed in empirical studies drawing on these perspectives. Additionally, we contend that core concepts in community psychology such as health promotion, empowerment, coalition building, and dissemination and implementation can be better understood when employing relational and network perspectives. As an introduction to this special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology, we draw out themes and key points from the articles in the issue, and offer recommendations for future advancement of these perspectives in the field.

  5. Relative Weight and Income at Different Levels of Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Silventoinen, Karri; Lahelma, Eero

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of relative weight with individual income at different levels of socioeconomic status among gainfully employed Finnish women and men. Methods. We used a population-based survey including 2068 women and 2314 men with linked income data from a taxation register. Regression analysis was used to calculate mean income levels within educational and occupational groups. Results. Compared with their normal-weight counterparts, obese women with higher education or in upper white-collar positions had significantly lower income; a smaller income disadvantage was seen in overweight women with secondary education and in manual workers. Excess body weight was not associated with income disadvantages in men. Conclusions. Obesity is associated with a clear income disadvantage, particularly among women with higher socioeconomic status. PMID:14998816

  6. [Analysis of an incident notification system and register in a critical care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pérez, M A; García-Iglesias, M; Palomino-Sánchez, I; Cano Ruiz, G; Cuenca Solanas, M; Alted López, E

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the incident communicated through a notification system and register in a critical care unit. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by performing an analysis of the records of incidents communicated anonymously and voluntarily from January 2007 to December 2013 in a critical care unit of adult patients with severe trauma. incident type and class, professional reports, and suggestions for improvement measures. A descriptive analysis was performed on the variables. Out of a total of 275 incidents reported, 58.5% of them were adverse events. Incident distributed by classes: medication, 33.7%; vascular access-drainage-catheter-sensor, 19.6%; devices-equipment, 13.3%, procedures, 11.5%; airway tract and mechanical ventilation, 10%; nursing care, 4.1%; inter-professional communication, 3%; diagnostic test, 3%; patient identification, 1.1%, and transfusion 0.7%. In the medication group, administrative errors accounted for a total of 62%; in vascular access-drainage-catheter-sensor group, central venous lines, a total of 27%; in devices and equipment group, respirators, a total of 46.9%; in airway self-extubations, a total of 32.1%. As regards to medication errors, 62% were incidents without damage. Incident notification by profession: doctors, 43%, residents, 5.6%, nurses, 51%, and technical assistants, 0.4%. Adverse events are the most communicated incidents. The events related to medication administration are the most frequent, although most of them were without damage. Nurses and doctors communicate the incidents with the same frequency. In order to highlight the low incident notification despite it being an anonymous and volunteer system, therefore, it is suggested to study measurements to increase the level of communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy Metals in Notifications of Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigłowski, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metals represent the fourth most often notified hazard category in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) from 1980–2016. The goal of the study was to examine the similarities in notifications of particular heavy metals within the RASFF year, product category, notifying country, country of origin, notification basis, notification type, distribution status, risk decision, and action taken, taking into account the particular product type, such as food, food contact material, and feed. The data originated from the RASFF database. Cluster analysis on pivot tables was applied using joining and two-way joining methods. Most notifications concerned food, in which the highest number were related to mercury, cadmium, chromium, lead, arsenic, and nickel. Notifications were mainly related to fish and food contact materials, in addition to fruits and vegetables, seafood, and dietetic food. The number of notifications decreased in 2015 and 2016. The majority of products were notified by Italy, Spain, Germany, and France. The notified products originated mainly from China and Spain. The notification was usually based on official controls on the market, as well as border controls. The notification types were mainly information, alert, and border rejections. Products were not frequently distributed due to distribution restriction to the notifying country or the possibility of distribution to the market. A risk decision was not usually made. The taken actions included re-dispatch of products, withdrawal from the market, or destruction. The data on heavy metals from the RASFF database can help European and national authorities in shaping public health. PMID:29461471

  8. Heavy Metals in Notifications of Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Pigłowski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals represent the fourth most often notified hazard category in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF from 1980–2016. The goal of the study was to examine the similarities in notifications of particular heavy metals within the RASFF year, product category, notifying country, country of origin, notification basis, notification type, distribution status, risk decision, and action taken, taking into account the particular product type, such as food, food contact material, and feed. The data originated from the RASFF database. Cluster analysis on pivot tables was applied using joining and two-way joining methods. Most notifications concerned food, in which the highest number were related to mercury, cadmium, chromium, lead, arsenic, and nickel. Notifications were mainly related to fish and food contact materials, in addition to fruits and vegetables, seafood, and dietetic food. The number of notifications decreased in 2015 and 2016. The majority of products were notified by Italy, Spain, Germany, and France. The notified products originated mainly from China and Spain. The notification was usually based on official controls on the market, as well as border controls. The notification types were mainly information, alert, and border rejections. Products were not frequently distributed due to distribution restriction to the notifying country or the possibility of distribution to the market. A risk decision was not usually made. The taken actions included re-dispatch of products, withdrawal from the market, or destruction. The data on heavy metals from the RASFF database can help European and national authorities in shaping public health.

  9. Examining of relation between emotional intelligence levels and professional burnout levels of Physical Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze ADİLOĞULLARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it is aimed to examining the relation between emotional intelligence levels and professional burnout levels of physical education teachers. Material and Methods: Population of the study consists of staff of the Ministry of Education who works at the central district in Mugla and its sample consists of 269 volunteer physical education teachers. The original of this scale is the scale consisting of 12 items which was developed from the 33 item work of Schutte et al., (2006. Answers were graded in terms of 5 point likert. Reliability (Cronbach Alpha=0.82-0.86 of this scale was found high in the research of Chan. Aslan and Ozata (2008 have applied the same scale on health employees and it was found that the questionnaire which was set up in total of 4 dimensions in Chan’s (2004-2006 work was perceived under four dimensions and 12 items as it was in its original as an outcome of the factor analysis. 22 item Maslach Burnout Inventory-MBI, which was developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981, shall be used to evaluate the burnout levels of the participants. Turkish adaptation of MBI was prepared by Ergin (1992 and the validity and reliability work of the scale in teacher sample was first made by Girgin (1995 and Sucuoglu and Kuloglu (1996 separately. Answers were graded in terms of 5 point likert. The statistical applications of the work were carried out in SPSS.15.00 program and percent frequency and t-test for groups of two and One-Way Anova test, correlation (r statistics to compare the groups of more than two were applied. Results: According to analysis results, it is observed that the emotional intelligence levels and profession burnout levels of physical education teachers not significantly vary depending on age, gender, marital status and years of professional experience variable. A negative relation was discovered between emotional intelligence levels and burnout levels of physical education teachers (p<0.01, r=-0

  10. Three levels of understanding physical relativity: Galileo's relativity, Up-to-date Galileo's relativity and Einstein's relativity: A historical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Nafornita, Corina

    2004-01-01

    We present a way of teaching Einstein's special relativity. It starts with Galileo's relativity, the learners know from previous lectures. The lecture underlines that we can have three transformation equations for the space-time coordinates of the same event, which lead to absolute clock readings, time intervals and lengths (Galileo's relativity), to absolute clock readings but to relative time intervals and lengths (up-to-date Galileo transformations) and to relative clock readings time inte...

  11. 24 CFR 290.11 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.11 Notification requirements. (a) In general. HUD may combine two or more of the required notifications, as appropriate, to simplify the disposition...

  12. 5 CFR 179.304 - Notification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification procedures. 179.304 Section 179.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.304 Notification procedures. Before collecting any debt...

  13. 40 CFR 63.9 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following information in writing to the Administrator: (i) A notification of intention to construct a new... information in writing to the Administrator: (i) A notification of intention to construct a new affected... Administrator in writing of the date of the performance evaluation at least 60 calendar days before the...

  14. Under-reporting in hepatitis B notifications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-02

    Mar 2, 1991 ... These conclusions must be tempered by consideration of the accuracy of the notification and laboratory data and the validity of the comparisons between these two sources of data. Accuracy ofnotification data. The accuracy of notification data may have been influenced by the dates on which the data were ...

  15. 40 CFR 75.61 - Notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS... the applicable State or local air pollution control agency may issue a waiver from the notification... will be completed and emissions will first exit to the atmosphere. (i) Notification of the planned date...

  16. 49 CFR 192.16 - Customer notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 192.16 Section 192.16... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.16 Customer notification. (a) This section applies to each operator of a service line who does not maintain the customer's buried piping up...

  17. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, W.; Schepers, K.; Kamphuis, J.H.; van Linden, S.; Bartling, S.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact

  18. 30 CFR 41.12 - Changes; notification by operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes; notification by operator. 41.12... OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Notification of Legal Identity § 41.12 Changes; notification by operator. Within 30 days after the occurrence of any change in the information...

  19. Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Handakas, E J; Kermenidou, M; Zarkadas, I; Gotti, A; Charisiadis, P; Makris, K; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Karakitsios, S P

    2017-12-31

    Charilaos Trikoupis bridge is the longest cable bridge in Europe that connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study, six air pollution monitoring campaigns (including major regulated air pollutants) were carried out from 2013 to 2015 at both sides of the bridge, located in the urban areas of Rio and Antirrio respectively. Pollution data were statistically analyzed and air quality was characterized using US and European air quality indices. From the overall campaign, it was found that air pollution levels were below the respective regulatory thresholds, but once at the site of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2μg/m 3 for PM 2.5 and ΡΜ 10 , respectively) during the 2nd winter period. Daily average PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels from two monitoring sites were well correlated to gaseous pollutant (CO, NO, NO 2 , NO x and SO 2 ) levels, meteorological parameters and factor scores from Positive Matrix Factorization during the 3-year period. Moreover, the elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was used for source apportionment. That analysis revealed that major emission sources were sulfates, mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, traffic and shipping emissions for PM 10 and PM 2.5 , for both Rio and Antirrio. Seasonal variation indicates that sulfates, mineral dust and traffic emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while biomass burning become the dominant during the cold season. Overall, the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the vicinity air pollution is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily traffic volume (~10,000 vehicles per day), the respective traffic fleet composition (~81% of the traffic fleet are private vehicles) and the speed limit (80km/h) which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Relation Between Conceptual Level and Counseling-Related Tasks: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Elizabeth L.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relation between a counselor's conceptual level (CL) and the counseling process. Counselors who were matched with a compatible environment performed better than those who were mismatched. Low-CL individuals performed significantly better in more highly structured environments, whereas high-CL individuals showed only a slight…

  1. Impact of a national QI programme on reducing electronic health record notifications to clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tina; Patel-Teague, Shilpa; Kroupa, Laura; Meyer, Ashley N D; Singh, Hardeep

    2018-03-05

    Emerging evidence suggests electronic health record (EHR)-related information overload is a risk to patient safety. In the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), EHR-based 'inbox' notifications originally intended for communicating important clinical information are now cited by 70% of primary care practitioners (PCPs) to be of unmanageable volume. We evaluated the impact of a national, multicomponent, quality improvement (QI) programme to reduce low-value EHR notifications. The programme involved three steps: (1) accessing daily PCP notification load data at all 148 facilities operated nationally by the VA; (2) standardising and restricting mandatory notification types at all facilities to a recommended list; and (3) hands-on training for all PCPs on customising and processing notifications more effectively. Designated leaders at each of VA's 18 regional networks led programme implementation using a nationally developed toolkit. Each network supervised technical requirements and data collection, ensuring consistency. Coaching calls and emails allowed the national team to address implementation challenges and monitor effects. We analysed notification load and mandatory notifications preintervention (March 2017) and immediately postintervention (June-July 2017) to assess programme impact. Median number of mandatory notification types at each facility decreased significantly from 15 (IQR: 13-19) to 10 (IQR: 10-11) preintervention to postintervention, respectively (Pmanage them. Nevertheless, our project suggests feasibility of using large-scale 'de-implementation' interventions to reduce unintended safety or efficiency consequences of well-intended electronic communication systems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Fat free mass and obesity in relation to educational level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rissanen Harri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to describe the body composition of Finnish adults, especially by education, and to investigate whether fat-free mass (FFM can explain educational gradients relating to body mass index (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR. Methods Data for this cross-sectional study were based on data collected in 2000-2001 for the Health 2000 Survey. Of the nationally representative sample of 8,028 Finnish men and women aged 30 years and older, 6,300 (78.5% were included in the study. Body composition measurements were carried out in the health examination, where FFM was assessed with eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis. Questions on education were included in the health interview. Results The mean FFM varied by education in older (≥ 65 y. men only. In the middle-aged group (30-64 y., highly educated men were less likely to belong to the lowest quintile of FFM (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93 compared with the least educated subjects. The level of education was inversely associated with the prevalence of high BMI and WHR in middle-aged men. In women, the respective associations were found both in middle-aged women and their older counterparts. Adjustment for FFM slightly strengthened the associations of education with BMI and WHR. Conclusions The association between education and FFM is weak. Educational gradients of high BMI and high WHR cannot be explained by FFM.

  3. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  4. Energy Efficient Scheduling for Mobile Push Notifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku Acer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Push notifications are small and succinct messages used by mobile applications to inform users of new events and updates. These notifications are pushed to the user devices by a set of dedicated notification servers (e.g., Apple Push Notification Server, Google Cloud Messaging Server, etc. as they arrive from the content providers of the mobile applications. However, due to their intrinsic small size and sporadic nature, the transfer of these messages is not power efficient, especially on cellular networks. To address this, we propose a network centric scheduling mechanism that delays the delivery of these messages as appropriate by sensing and predicting users' cellular network activities. A trace based evaluation with 60 users' cellular network logs of 30 days shows that we can reduce the energy consumption of mobile devices by 10% for an average delay of 150 seconds in notification delivery. As a network based system that does not require any modifications to user devices, scheduling push notifications opens up interesting opportunities for mobile operators to provide value added and differentiating services, especially considering the sharp rise of non-critical push notification messages.

  5. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) Notification Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    To encourage wide use of the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) data, especially among the scientific community, special notifications were prepared to inform them about the data's availability, its form, and the procedures for obtaining them. To achieve the widest distribution to the primary audiences of interest, mailings were made to scientists associated with the OSTA Resource Observation Division programs and to scientific and professional societies and journals. Accompanying the notifications to the societies and journals were samples of the HCMM imagery and a description of the image's predominant characteristics. A follow-up survey was completed to determine the effectiveness of the HCMM notifications.

  6. Relatives' level of satisfaction with advanced cancer care in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustussen, Mikaela; Hounsgaard, Lise; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2017-01-01

    (66%) and relatives were the most dissatisfied with the lack of inclusion in decision making related to treatment and care (71%) and the length of time required to diagnose cancer (70%). Responses to the open-ended questions revealed that relatives faced challenges in gaining access to information...... to information and to include relatives in decision making and in the future planning of palliative care services. An assessment of relatives' needs is essential to develop an adequate palliative care in a range of settings....

  7. Early Notification Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulic, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear accidents are unexpected events characterized by losing of control over the sources of radiation. This may, , directly or indirectly create a danger to human life, health or property. In certain nuclear accidents, such dangers may be of a limited scope, which means that they constitute a threat only to those persons who work directly with the sources of radiation, or the equipment that comprises such sources, and their immediate working environment. Under certain conditions, as a consequence of major nuclear accidents, the broader population and considerable property might be endangered as well. The way in which nuclear accidents with the sources of ionising radiation may occur, the intensity of doses that may exist in the radiation source environment, the nature and quantities of radioactive materials which might spread in the environment, the level of radiation exposure of the staff and the population due to a nuclear accident - all these may be considerably different in case of a nuclear accident with different radiation sources. Depending on the category of nuclear accident, major environmental pollutant releases are possible in such situations. (author)

  8. Pre-Trip Notification Database (PTNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PTNS contains pre-trip notification data from vessels participating in the Northeast Multispecies groundfish fishery from 2010 to present and the Longfin squid...

  9. Ambient Notifications and the Interruption Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Trapond Hiransalee

    2016-01-01

    The technology of mobile devices has changed our daily lives. Since smartphone have become a multi-functional device, many people spend unnecessary time on them, and could be interrupted by inappropriate notifications such as unimportant messages from social media. Notifications from smartphone could draw people's attention and distract them from their priorities and current tasks. This research investigated that if the users were notified by their surroundings instead of smartphone, would it...

  10. The relation between bullying, victimization, and adolescents' level of hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-08-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g. teasing) bullying more than girls. While the level of hopelessness among victims of physical and verbal bullying was higher than non-victims, no difference was found between the victims of indirect bullying and non-victims. Students who never talked to their teachers and parents about bullying reported higher levels of hopelessness than others. The implications of the study for intervention and prevention programs are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Relative population levels of citrus thrips Scirtothrips aurantii on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-03-15

    Mar 15, 1989 ... sth. Afr. 49: 159--161. MOUND, L.A. & PITKIN, B.R. 1972. Microscopic whole mounts of thrips (Thysanoptera). Entomologist's Gaz. 23: 121-125. SAMWAYS, M.J. 1986. Spatial distribution of Scirtothrips aurantii Faure (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and threshold levels for one per cent damage on citrus fruit ...

  12. State-level estimates of cancer-related absenteeism costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K; Trogdon, Justin G; Nwaise, Isaac; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Guy, Gery P; Orenstein, Diane

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is one of the top five most costly diseases in the United States and leads to substantial work loss. Nevertheless, limited state-level estimates of cancer absenteeism costs have been published. In analyses of data from the 2004-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for 2008, and the 2009 Current Population Survey, we used regression modeling to estimate annual state-level absenteeism costs attributable to cancer from 2004 to 2008. We estimated that the state-level median number of days of absenteeism per year among employed cancer patients was 6.1 days and that annual state-level cancer absenteeism costs ranged from $14.9 million to $915.9 million (median = $115.9 million) across states in 2010 dollars. Absenteeism costs are approximately 6.5% of the costs of premature cancer mortality. The results from this study suggest that lost productivity attributable to cancer is a substantial cost to employees and employers and contributes to estimates of the overall impact of cancer in a state population.

  13. 40 CFR 152.46 - Notification and non-notification changes to registrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification and non-notification changes to registrations. 152.46 Section 152.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Procedures...

  14. MIS 5e relative sea level indicators : new methodologies to sustain the quantitative estimate of past sea level changes

    OpenAIRE

    Lorscheid, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    During the Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5e global sea level was 6-9 m higher than today. The only direct observations of this sea level are paleo relative sea-level (RSL) indicators. Their relationship to sea level is called the indicative meaning and is quantified by the reference water level and the indicative range. In this thesis, some of the problems around the determination of the indicative meaning, precise elevation measurements and structured reporting of databases are addressed. In t...

  15. Nuclear Level Density, Quantum Chaos and Related Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelevinsky, V.; Karampagia, S.

    2018-02-01

    The knowledge of the level density is necessary for understanding nuclear reactions and many applications of nuclear science.We use the moments method based on the statistical properties of mesoscopic systems (interactions between the constituents and resulting quantum chaos) and the many-body Hamiltonian in a truncated orbital space avoiding the diagonalization of huge matrices. We briefly discuss the method, general results in comparison with other approaches and available data, the underlying physics, collective enhancement phenomenon, and constant temperature description.

  16. Free market in practice. Customer loyalty related to service level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewald, H.

    2003-01-01

    Sixty percent of the bulk consumers of energy have changed to a different supplier since the liberalization of the market. Newcomers like Vattenfall and EnBW are doing reasonably well, while small (gas) companies like Cogas and Rendo are also performing a lot better than the known big players, especially where it concerns the level of service. These are some of the remarkable results of research conducted by the market research agency Datamonitor [nl

  17. Relative Performance Evaluation amongst Business Unit Level Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elten, Hilco

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Relative Performance Evaluation (RPE) is a widely studied topic in the theoretical and analytical accounting and economics literatures. The empirical literature also addresses this topic, with its main focus on executive compensation. The current study extends the literature by assessing the

  18. 28 CFR 551.153 - Cancelling the notification request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continue receiving notification of the inmate's release(s). (c) A notification request by a victim and/or witness ordinarily terminates when the inmate has completed service of the sentence for the serious crime...

  19. 40 CFR 25.4 - Information, notification, and consultation responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DRINKING WATER ACT, AND THE CLEAN WATER ACT § 25.4 Information, notification, and consultation... portions if the list is subdivided, shall receive timely and periodic notification of the availability of...

  20. 76 FR 68015 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... prominent and readily seen by employees who are covered by the National Labor Relations Act and engage in... 1] RIN 9000-AL76 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and...

  1. Explaining between-race differences in African-American and European-American women's responses to breast density notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Mark; Albrecht, Terrance L; Yilmaz-Saab, Zeynep; Penner, Louis; Norman, Andria; Purrington, Kristen

    2017-12-01

    Prior research shows between-race differences in women's knowledge and emotions related to having dense breasts, thus suggesting that between-race differences in behavioral decision-making following receipt of breast density (BD) notifications are likely. Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this study examined differences in emotion-related responses (i.e., anxiety, worry, confusion) and behavioral cognition (e.g., intentions, behavioral attitudes) following receipt of BD notifications among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. This study also examined whether race-related perceptions (i.e., discrimination, group-based medical mistrust), relevant knowledge and socioeconomic status (SES) explained the between race differences. Michigan women (N = 457) who presented for routine screening mammogram and had dense breasts, no prior breast cancer diagnoses, and had screen-negative mammograms were recruited from July, 2015 to March 2016. MANOVA was used to examine between race differences in psychological responses (i.e., emotional responses and behavioral cognition), and a multi-group structural regression model was used to examine whether race-related constructs, knowledge and SES mediated the effect of race on emotional responses and behavioral cognition. Prior awareness of BD was accounted for in all analyses. AA women generally reported more negative psychological responses to receiving BD notifications regardless of prior BD awareness. AA women had more favorable perceptions related to talking to their physicians about the BD notifications. Generally, race-related perceptions, SES, and related knowledge partially accounted for the effect of race on psychological response. Race-related perceptions and SES partially accounted for the differences in behavioral intentions. Between-race differences in emotional responses to BD notifications did not explain differences in women's intentions to discuss BD notifications with their physicians

  2. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  3. University Students Grit Level And Grit Achievement Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Beyhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grit is explaining in Dictionary of the Turkish language Association as determination and desire to have identified the level of long-term goals. Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, and Kelly (2007 are definiting it as, perseverance and passion for Long-Term Goals. In addition to stating that grit is an important factor in measuring the intelligence and the success. At the same time they have stressed that the grit is much more important predictors of success. Even Duckworth and Quinn (2009 argued that grit is more effective than intelligence scores for explainig the success. There are some studies that they are advocating grit is closely associated with self-discipline, self-regulation and goal orientation, and grit is the main factor for exlaining that concpts(Duckworth & Quinn, 2009; Peterson & Seligman, 2004. In this study, university student success and their grit's are analysed. Therefore, determining the relationship between success and grit is used for descriptive screening model. This study was conducted with 451 students in Education Faculty at Necmettin Erbakan University in 2015-2016 academic year spring semester. In order to data collecting "Grit-S scale", developed by Duckworth and Quinn (2009 and adapted to Turkish by Sarıcam and others (2015, was used. Datum were analysed by SPSS 16 soft ware and frequency, mean, standard deviation and regresion test were used as statistical techniques. The achievement scores of students have found a significant correlation between the grit scores.

  4. Parents' Perspectives on Parental Notification of College Students' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were…

  5. 30 CFR 41.11 - Notification by operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Notification of Legal Identity § 41.11 Notification by... of the legal identity of the operator in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (b...) the Federal mine identification numbers of all other mines in which any corporate officer has a 20...

  6. Maximizing HIV partner notification opportunities for index patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that provider-assisted partner notification could potentially help clients with disclosure in relationships that would likely be under after (self-)disclosure of HIV status. This means, depending on the situation, provider-assisted partner notification and couple's counselling complement passive notification. This conditional view ...

  7. 10 CFR 950.21 - Notification of covered event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of covered event. 950.21 Section 950.21... Process § 950.21 Notification of covered event. (a) A sponsor shall submit in writing to the Claims Administrator a notification that a covered event has occurred that has delayed the schedule for construction or...

  8. The effects of new media for emergency tornado notification on the digital divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Stephanie

    This study explored the possible continued existence of a digital divide as it related to how residents in two disperse communities received notification of late season tornado events in 2013. The theoretical perspective of the Diffusion of Innovations, Knowledge Gap and Structuration theories were used to examine how notifications were received based on socioeconomic indicators of total household income and education affected the ability for respondents to be notified of the impending danger. Results varied for the communities surveyed, both supporting and negating how specific socioeconomic factors influence how respondents received notifications and the behavior they took after the message was received. Findings of the study indicate that higher total household income and higher education are often times associated with how respondents receive warnings of tornadoes in their area, but associations are not always consistent. Findings of this study show differences in how each community receives and reacts to tornado warnings.

  9. Level 2 PSA insights relative to filtered vent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deremer, R.K.; Fleming, K.N.; Landolt, J.

    1996-01-01

    A full-scope Level 2 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) of the Goesgen Nuclear Power Plant was completed early in 1994. During the PSA, a containment filtered vent system was installed at the plant to meet requirements of the Swiss safety authorities. The purpose of the vent system is to provide a mechanism to depressurize the containment atmosphere in a controlled manner during the late phase of a severe accident in order to preclude gradual over pressurization of the containment and filter any release of radioactive materials to the environment. To ensure a high degree of reliability, it was required to include a design feature to open the vent passively via the use of a rupture disc whose opening is highly reliable and independent of operator actions. The PSA addressed two issues associated with the vent system: (1) What is the optimum pressure to select for the rupture disc setpoint? and (2) What is the best strategy for the use of the rupture disc isolation valves (i.e., should they be left open normally to ensure the opening of the vent at the rupture disc setpoint or should they be left closed and opened by the operator only during a severe accident)? Based on the results generated by the PSA, which indicated that the downside risk of inadvertent opening in the early phase of an accident was greater than the upside benefit of a passively actuated vent in the late phase of an accident, it was concluded that it is prudent to have the rupture disc normally isolated from the containment

  10. 77 FR 16679 - Emergency Planning and Notification; Emergency Planning and List of Extremely Hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... to the Emergency Planning requirements that have a non-reactive solid EHS in solution, to first... Planning Committee LOC--Level of Concern MSDS--Material Safety Data Sheet NFPA--National Fire Protection... emergency planning reporting and notification requirements and hazardous inventory reporting requirements...

  11. Climate-related relative sea-level changes from Chesapeake Bay, U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Timothy; Horton, Benjamin; Kemp, Andrew; Cahill, Niamh; Mann, Michael; Engelhart, Simon; Kopp, Robert; Brain, Matthew; Clear, Jennifer; Corbett, Reide; Nikitina, Daria; Garcia-Artola, Ane; Walker, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Proxy-based reconstructions of relative sea level (RSL) from the coastlines of the North Atlantic have revealed spatial and temporal variability in the rates of RSL rise during periods of known Late-Holocene climatic variability. Regional driving mechanisms for such variability include glacial isostatic adjustment, static-equilibrium of land-ice changes and/or ocean dynamic effects as well as more localized factors (e.g. sediment compaction and tidal range change). We present a 4000-year RSL reconstruction from salt-marsh sediments of the Chesapeake Bay using a foraminiferal-based transfer function and a composite chronology. A local contemporary training set of foraminifera was developed to calibrate fossil counterparts and provide estimates of paleo marsh elevation with vertical uncertainties of ±0.06m. A composite chronology combining 30 radiocarbon dates, pollen chronohorizons, regional pollution histories, and short-lived radionuclides was placed into a Bayesian age-depth framework yielding low temporal uncertainties averaging 40 years. A compression-only geotechnical model was applied to decompact the RSL record. We coupled the proxy reconstruction with direct observations from nearby tide gauge records before rates of RSL rise were quantified through application of an Errors-In-Variables Integrated Gaussian Process model. The RSL history for Chesapeake Bay shows 6 m of rise since 2000 BCE. Between 2000 BCE and 1300 BCE, rates of RSL increasing to 1.4 mm/yr precede a significant decrease to 0.8 mm/yr at 700 BCE. This minimum coincides with widespread climate cooling identified in multiple paleoclimate archives of the North Atlantic. An increase in the rate of RSL rise to 2.1 mm/yr at 200 CE similarly precedes a decrease in the rate of RSL rise at 1450 CE (1.3 mm/yr) that coincides with the Little Ice Age. Modern rates of RSL rise (3.6 mm/yr) are the fastest observed in the past 4000 years. The temporal length and decadal resolution of the RSL reconstruction

  12. An Analysis of the Effects of Smartphone Push Notifications on Task Performance with regard to Smartphone Overuse Using ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kim, So-Yeong; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group.

  13. An Analysis of the Effects of Smartphone Push Notifications on Task Performance with regard to Smartphone Overuse Using ERP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Kee Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group.

  14. An Analysis of the Effects of Smartphone Push Notifications on Task Performance with regard to Smartphone Overuse Using ERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kim, So-Yeong; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group. PMID:27366147

  15. The Relation between Self Esteem Levels and Life Quality Levels of Disabled and Non-Disabled Tennis Sportsmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civan, Adem

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the self-esteem and life quality levels of disabled and non-disabled tennis sportsmen; and also to set forth the relation between their self-esteem and life quality levels. The research group consists of total 44 sportsmen including 22 disabled tennis sportsmen (n[subscript (female)]=9, n[subscript…

  16. Health-related quality of life is related to cytokine levels at 12 months in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Kupper, Nina; Schoormans, Dounya

    2010-01-01

    and change in MCS were related to increased 12-month sTNFR1 levels. All significant findings relate a worse HRQoL at baseline or a deterioration over time to increased sTNFR1/2 levels. These findings suggest that immune activation may be one of the pathways underlying the relationship between poor HRQo...

  17. Scientific Opinion related to a notification from DuPont Nutrition Biosciences Aps on behenic acid from mustard seeds to be used in the manufacturing of certain emulsifiers pursuant to Article 21(2) of Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 – for permanent exemption from labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion related to a notification from DuPont Nutrition Biosciences Aps on behenic acid from mustard seeds to be used in the manufacturing of certain...... emulsifiers pursuant to Article 21(2) of Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 – for permanent exemption from labelling. Behenic acid is produced from rapeseed–mustard seed variants prevalent in India, namely Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (oriental mustard), Brassica rapa (L.) (brown/yellow Sarson or Toria), Brassica napus (L...... consumption of emulsifiers manufactured using behenic acid from mustard seeds (E 470a, E 471 and E 477) are unlikely to trigger an allergic reaction in susceptible individuals (i.e. mustard-allergic individuals) under the proposed conditions of use....

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to a notification from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) on ovalbumin/egg white to be used in the manufacture of wine as clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    following double-blind placebo controlled food challenges with wines fined with ovalbumin/egg white. This application refers to new analytical methods developed for the detection of egg allergens in the fining agent and the detection of ovalbumin in wine. There were no changes in the wine manufacturing...... provided in the present application, the Panel concludes that wines fined with ovalbumin/egg white products may trigger adverse reactions in susceptible individuals under the proposed conditions of use. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion related to a notification from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine on ovalbumin/egg white to be used in the manufacture of wine...

  19. 75 FR 28009 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification To Convene Workgroups of Experts for Rapid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification To Convene Workgroups of Experts for Rapid Advice on Scientific and Technical Issues Related to the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces...

  20. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... to occur within the near-road environment in larger urban areas. State and local air agencies are... related to air quality, sources of air pollution, and the strategies to attain and maintain air quality... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

  1. 76 FR 66717 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ...-road NO 2 monitoring stations in larger urban areas. In August 2010, EPA's Office of Air and Radiation..., research related to air quality, sources of air pollution, and the strategies to attain and maintain air... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air...

  2. 45 CFR 1603.6 - Duties of Corporation upon receipt of notification of violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duties of Corporation upon receipt of notification of violation. 1603.6 Section 1603.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION STATE ADVISORY COUNCILS § 1603.6 Duties of Corporation upon receipt of...

  3. 77 FR 47853 - Request for Notification From Industry Organizations Interested in Participating in Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... FDA-regulated products, (9) pediatric ethical issues including research involving children as subjects... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Notification From Industry Organizations... pediatric diseases or conditions, (3) the ethics, design, and analysis of clinical trials related to...

  4. 45 CFR 1321.23 - Notification of State plan or State plan amendment approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of State plan or State plan amendment approval. 1321.23 Section 1321.23 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE..., OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities...

  5. 15 CFR 711.7 - Where to submit declarations, reports and advance notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where to submit declarations, reports and advance notifications. 711.7 Section 711.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL...

  6. 15 CFR 711.2 - Who submits declarations, reports, and advance notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who submits declarations, reports, and advance notifications. 711.2 Section 711.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS...

  7. 15 CFR 711.1 - Overviews of declaration, reporting, and advance notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overviews of declaration, reporting, and advance notification requirements. 711.1 Section 711.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  8. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, D. H.; Sy, D. N.; Linh, N. D.; Hoan, T. M.; Dien, H. T.; Thuy, T. B.; Hoa, N. P.; Tung, L. B.; Cobelens, F.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of

  9. 76 FR 71465 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations Supplement; Notification Requirements for Awards of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ...-order contract award concerns intelligence or intelligence- related activities of DoD, notification shall also be provided to the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives. II. Discussion and Analysis of Public Comments A...

  10. Relation between Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels in Colon Cancer Tissue and Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels at Initial Surgery and Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Gota; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Okada, Kazutake; Tanaka, Akira; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Kamijo, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is widely used for postoperative surveillance of colon cancer. Even if serum CEA is negative at initial surgery, it may turn positive at recurrence. We investigated the relation between serum CEA levels and the immunohistochemical staining status of CEA in the primary and resected metastatic tissues. Out of 224 patients with recurrent colon cancer between 1998 and 2012, we studied 46 patients in whom serum CEA levels were measured and immunohistochemical staining for CEA was possible in the primary and metastatic tissues. The positive rate of serum CEA did not differ between initial surgery and recurrence, regardless of whether the cutoff value was set at 5 or 10 ng/ml (p = 0.829, p = 0.671). There was no relation between the CEA staining status and serum CEA level at initial surgery. However, the CEA staining status of metastatic tissue was significantly related to the serum CEA level at recurrence (p = 0.0046 and p = 0.0026). The immunohistochemical staining status of CEA in metastatic tissue is closely related to the serum CEA level. This finding suggests that serum CEA levels are influenced not only by the CEA production capacity of cancer cells but also by the ability of the surrounding tissue to release CEA into the blood. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  12. 29 CFR 20.107 - Debtor notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... notification. (a) The agency head (or designee) of the creditor Labor Department agency shall send appropriate..., agencies should give due regard to the need to act promptly so the ability to refer a debt for tax refund... make a reasonable attempt to notify the debtor by using the most recent address information obtained...

  13. 48 CFR 245.7308 - Antitrust notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... action would tend to create or maintain a situation inconsistent with the antitrust laws. (c) If the Attorney General advises that the proposed disposition is inconsistent with the antitrust laws, do not... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antitrust notification...

  14. 78 FR 79560 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ..., we feel that simply waiving the Buy America requirement, which is based on the domestic content of... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY... regarding the FHWA's finding that a partial Buy America waiver is appropriate for the obligation of Federal...

  15. 78 FR 70395 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... construction and vehicles, we feel that simply waiving the Buy America requirement, which is based on the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY... regarding the FHWA's finding that a partial Buy America waiver is appropriate for the obligation of Federal...

  16. 38 CFR 75.117 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conspicuous posting on the home page of VA's Web site and notification in major print and broadcast media... the following: (1) A brief description of what happened, including the date of the data breach and of... address, account number, disability code); (3) A brief description of what the agency is doing to...

  17. 33 CFR 135.307 - Notification contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification contents. 135.307 Section 135.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND...

  18. 33 CFR 135.305 - Notification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification procedures. 135.305 Section 135.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND...

  19. 78 FR 55337 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ..., disassembled, and preserved for relocation. This innovative solution brought together State and local officials... percent of the steel in the Freedom Bridge to Carnegie Steel, a United States manufacturer, State... Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration...

  20. 32 CFR 989.24 - Public notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limit local notification to the SPOC, local government representatives, and local news media. For all...). (6) Availability of the final EIS. (7) The ROD for an EIS. (c) For actions of local concern, the list... with EPF funds an advertisement in a prominent section of the local newspaper(s) of general circulation...

  1. 40 CFR 63.151 - Initial notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.151 Initial notification. (a...

  2. Consumer understanding, interpretation and perceived levels of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Kleef, van E.; Mela, D.J.; Hulshof, T.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether and how consumers may (over-) interpret satiety claims, and (b) whether and to what extent consumers recognize that personal efforts are required to realize possible satiety-related or weight loss benefits. Following means-end chain theory, we

  3. Anticipated Notification of Sexual Partners following STD Diagnosis among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L Clark

    Full Text Available New strategies to support partner notification (PN are critical for STD control and require detailed understanding of how specific individual and partnership characteristics guide notification decisions.From 2011 to 2012, 397 MSM and TW recently diagnosed with HIV, syphilis, or another STD completed a survey on anticipated notification of recent sexual partners and associated factors. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of participants to provide further depth to quantitative findings. Prevalence ratios and generalized estimating equation (GEE models were used to analyze participant- and partner-level factors associated with anticipated PN.Among all partners reported, 52.5% were described as "Very Likely" or "Somewhat Likely" to be notified. Anticipated notification was more likely for main partners than casual (adjusted Prevalence Ratio [aPR], 95% CI: 0.63, 0.54-0.75 or commercial (aPR, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.31-0.62 partners. Other factors associated with likely notification included perception of the partner as an STD source (aPR, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.10-1.48 and anticipated future sexual contact with the partner (aPR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.11-1.52. An HIV diagnosis was associated with a lower likelihood of notification than non-HIV STDs (aPR: 0.68, 0.55-0.86. Qualitative discussion of the barriers and incentives to PN reflected a similar differentiation of anticipated notification according to partnership type and type of HIV/STD diagnosis.Detailed attention to how partnership characteristics guide notification outcomes is essential to the development of new PN strategies. By accurately and thoroughly assessing the diversity of partnership interactions among individuals with HIV/STD, new notification techniques can be tailored to partner-specific circumstances.

  4. Anticipated Notification of Sexual Partners following STD Diagnosis among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Segura, Eddy R.; Salvatierra, Hector J.; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R.

    2016-01-01

    Background New strategies to support partner notification (PN) are critical for STD control and require detailed understanding of how specific individual and partnership characteristics guide notification decisions. Methods From 2011 to 2012, 397 MSM and TW recently diagnosed with HIV, syphilis, or another STD completed a survey on anticipated notification of recent sexual partners and associated factors. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of participants to provide further depth to quantitative findings. Prevalence ratios and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to analyze participant- and partner-level factors associated with anticipated PN. Results Among all partners reported, 52.5% were described as “Very Likely” or “Somewhat Likely” to be notified. Anticipated notification was more likely for main partners than casual (adjusted Prevalence Ratio [aPR], 95% CI: 0.63, 0.54–0.75) or commercial (aPR, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.31–0.62) partners. Other factors associated with likely notification included perception of the partner as an STD source (aPR, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.10–1.48) and anticipated future sexual contact with the partner (aPR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.11–1.52). An HIV diagnosis was associated with a lower likelihood of notification than non-HIV STDs (aPR: 0.68, 0.55–0.86). Qualitative discussion of the barriers and incentives to PN reflected a similar differentiation of anticipated notification according to partnership type and type of HIV/STD diagnosis. Discussion Detailed attention to how partnership characteristics guide notification outcomes is essential to the development of new PN strategies. By accurately and thoroughly assessing the diversity of partnership interactions among individuals with HIV/STD, new notification techniques can be tailored to partner-specific circumstances. PMID:27685158

  5. Anticipated Notification of Sexual Partners following STD Diagnosis among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Segura, Eddy R; Salvatierra, Hector J; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    New strategies to support partner notification (PN) are critical for STD control and require detailed understanding of how specific individual and partnership characteristics guide notification decisions. From 2011 to 2012, 397 MSM and TW recently diagnosed with HIV, syphilis, or another STD completed a survey on anticipated notification of recent sexual partners and associated factors. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of participants to provide further depth to quantitative findings. Prevalence ratios and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to analyze participant- and partner-level factors associated with anticipated PN. Among all partners reported, 52.5% were described as "Very Likely" or "Somewhat Likely" to be notified. Anticipated notification was more likely for main partners than casual (adjusted Prevalence Ratio [aPR], 95% CI: 0.63, 0.54-0.75) or commercial (aPR, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.31-0.62) partners. Other factors associated with likely notification included perception of the partner as an STD source (aPR, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.10-1.48) and anticipated future sexual contact with the partner (aPR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.11-1.52). An HIV diagnosis was associated with a lower likelihood of notification than non-HIV STDs (aPR: 0.68, 0.55-0.86). Qualitative discussion of the barriers and incentives to PN reflected a similar differentiation of anticipated notification according to partnership type and type of HIV/STD diagnosis. Detailed attention to how partnership characteristics guide notification outcomes is essential to the development of new PN strategies. By accurately and thoroughly assessing the diversity of partnership interactions among individuals with HIV/STD, new notification techniques can be tailored to partner-specific circumstances.

  6. Applying sea-level indicators to validate reconstructions of relative sea level during the last glacial termination phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemann, V.; Latinović, M.; Thomas, M.; Unger, A.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of sea-level variations allow the validation of numerical models applied to reconstruct past and predict future sea-level change. Sea-level indicators (SLIs) are used as the main source for deriving relative sea-level (RSL) variations on time scales for which tide-gauge and satellite measurements are not available. However, the leveling of an SLI relative to present sea level does not provide a direct measure of former RSL, but only an indication according to the conditions under which the sample was deposited. This information depends on the sample type as on its environment and has to be mapped to RSL by an appropriate transfer function. The data itself has to be extracted by an objective procedure from primary information or data compilations usually provided in geological or paleontological literature of different primary focus, quality and detail. In addition to the height information, the precision of dating varies between different indicators and in case of radiocarbon-dated material, the ages have to furthermore calibrated. Likelihood functions are derived from the indicative meaning of different SLI types and dating uncertainties in order to evaluate model-based sea-level predictions against geological inference. This procedure is accompanied by applying the visual analytics tool SLIVISU developed at GFZ-Potsdam. This tool allows access to a relational database system where all meta information of compiled sea-level indicators are provided as well as the combination with model predictions at location and age of the respective SLIs. In this regard it serves as a tool to validate the model results and impact of the indicators regarding their spatial-temporal context. This study is part of the 'German Paleo-Climate Modelling Initiative' (PalMod).

  7. Under-notification of giardiasis in Auckland, New Zealand: a capture-recapture estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. E.; Hope, V. T.; Scragg, R.; Graham, J.

    2005-01-01

    Estimation of the degree of undercount is important for disease surveillance. Capture-recapture techniques are now being used to evaluate the completeness of disease ascertainment. This study estimated the level of under-notification of giardiasis in the Auckland adult population using a capture-recapture method. Two independent datasets of giardiasis cases > or = 15 years were generated from the 1998-1999 Auckland Giardiasis Study (AGS) case database and cases notified to Auckland Regional Public Health Services (ARPHS) for the same period of time. Cases were matched and under-notification was estimated using a two-sample capture-recapture method. During the 12-month period, 199 cases participated in the AGS and 413 cases were notified to ARPHS. The capture-recapture calculation indicated that only 49% of cases were notified. Under-notification by a factor of 2 obscures the true burden of giardiasis. Socio-economic conditions and water quality may influence disease notification inversely. Capture-recapture techniques are useful in evaluating the completeness of surveillance. PMID:15724713

  8. The relation between off-job recovery and job resources: person-level differences and day-level dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, I.M.W.; Gevers, J.M.P.; Jonge, J. de; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that recovery from work and job resources can counteract negative effects of high job demands, but less is known about how off-job recovery and job resources are related to each other. In this two-level daily diary study, 67 employees filled out daily surveys over the course of 8

  9. Health information exchange in the wild: the association between organizational capability and perceived utility of clinical event notifications in ambulatory and community care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R; Ancker, Jessica S

    2017-01-01

    Event notifications are real-time, electronic, automatic alerts to providers of their patients' health care encounters at other facilities. Our objective was to examine the effects of organizational capability and related social/organizational issues upon users' perceptions of the impact of event notifications on quality, efficiency, and satisfaction. We surveyed representatives (n = 49) of 10 organizations subscribing to the Bronx Regional Health Information Organization's event notification services about organizational capabilities, notification information quality, perceived usage, perceived impact, and organizational and respondent characteristics. The response rate was 89%. Average item scores were used to create an individual domain summary score. The association between the impact of event notifications and organizational characteristics was modeled using random-intercept logistic regression models. Respondents estimated that organizations followed up on the majority (83%) of event notifications. Supportive organizational policies were associated with the perception that event notifications improved quality of care (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12; 95% CI, = 1.05, 4.45), efficiency (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.00, 4.21), and patient satisfaction (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.13, 5.81). Higher quality of event notification information was also associated with a perceived positive impact on quality of care (OR = 2.84; 95% CI = 1.31, 6.12), efficiency (OR = 3.04; 95% CI = 1.38, 6.69), and patient satisfaction (OR = 2.96; 95% CI = 1.25, 7.03). Health care organizations with appropriate processes, workflows, and staff may be better positioned to use event notifications. Additionally, information quality remains critical in users' assessments and perceptions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Does regional disadvantage affect health-related sport and physical activity level? A multi-level analysis of individual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Pamela; Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the role of regional government quality in health-related participation in sport and physical activity among adults (18-64 years) in 28 European countries. The importance of the analysis rests in the relative autonomy that regional and local governments have over policy decisions connected with sport and physical activity. While existing studies have focussed on economic and infrastructural investment and expenditure, this research investigates the quality of regional governments across 208 regions within 28 European countries. The individual-level data stem from the 2013 Eurobarometer 80.2 (n = 18,675) and were combined with regional-level data from Eurostat. An individual's level of participation in sport and physical activity was measured by three variables reflecting whether an individual's activity level is below, meets, or exceeds the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results of multi-level analyses reveal that regional government quality has a significant and positive association with individual participation in sport and physical activity at a level meeting or exceeding the guidelines. The impact is much larger than that of regional gross domestic product per capita, indicating that regional disadvantage in terms of political quality is more relevant than being disadvantaged in terms of economic wealth.

  11. Direct proof of the tree-level scattering amplitude recursion relation in Yang-mills theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Ruth; Cachazo, Freddy; Feng, Bo; Witten, Edward

    2005-05-13

    Recently, by using the known structure of one-loop scattering amplitudes for gluons in Yang-Mills theory, a recursion relation for tree-level scattering amplitudes has been deduced. Here, we give a short and direct proof of this recursion relation based on properties of tree-level amplitudes only.

  12. [Change of awareness level of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and relation with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaizumi, Kanae; Harada, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of those who are unaware of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (Food Guide). A longitudinal study was conducted using an Internet-based questionnaire with 1,012 Japanese adults (40.2 +/- 10.0 years, mean +/- SD) recruited from registrants of a Japanese social research company. Conducted between November 2007 (T1) and December 2008 (T2), the survey included items on awareness level ("I know the contents." "I have heard of this Guide." or "I have not heard of this Guide.") of the Food Guide as the dependent variable, and demographics factors (e.g., age, education status, marital status, household income, and employment status) and health-related characteristics (obesity, abdominal obesity, and insufficient physical activity) as the independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relation between awareness level and each variable. The relation between change of awareness level (T1-T2) and each variable was analyzed using a chi-square test. All the analyses were stratified by gender. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for all variables, men with a household income of 5,000,000-10,000,000 yen (OR=1.78; 95% CI=1.10-2.88) were positively associated with awareness level ("I have heard of this Guide."). In contrast, unmarried women were negatively associated with awareness level in T1 ("I know the contents"; OR=0.35; 95% CI=0.17-0.70. "I have heard of this Guide"; OR=0.50; 95% CI=0.27-0.92). In men, the awareness level of the Food Guide increased from T1 to T2, change of awareness level (T1; "I have not heard of this Guide") and education status being related (P=0.023). In women, the awareness levels overall did not improve from T1 to T2, but change of awareness level (T1; "I have heard of this Guide") was associated with household income (P<0.001). In both men and women, change of awareness level was not

  13. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  14. Tuberculosis Incidence and Case Notification Rates in Kosovo and the Balkans in 2012: Cross-country Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhasani, Xhevat; Hafizi, Hasan; Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a considerable burden especially for millions of young adults and disadvantaged people worldwide. The TB incidence and notification rates are good indicators of TB situation in a country. Our aim was to compare TB incidence and notification rates in Kosovo and in seven other Balkan countries. Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of published data on TB incidence and notification rates in eight Balkan countries in 2012. Notification rates were expressed per 100,000 inhabitants and were calculated based on the number of TB cases reported divided by the population of each country under analysis. The TB incidence in Kosovo (47/100,000) was considerably higher compared to its four neighboring countries: Albania (16/100,000), Macedonia, Montenegro (18/100,000) and Serbia (23/100,000). The TB notification rates in Kosovo and other countries closely mimicked the incidence rates in these countries. The exceptionally high TB incidence rate in Kosovo could be due to many factors including low health and medical-seeking behaviors of the local population, poverty and low education levels. Effective interventions should be adapted to the local context in order to increase the chances of success.

  15. Land Subsidence in Chiayi, Taiwan, from Compaction Well, Leveling and ALOS/PALSAR: Aquaculture-Induced Relative Sea Level Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Hung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chiayi County is located in the largest alluvial plain of Taiwan with extensive aquaculture and rice farming sustained by water extracted from groundwater wells. Chiayi is a typical aquaculture area affected by land subsidence, yet such lands worldwide combine to provide nearly 90% of global aquaculture products, greatly reducing oceanic overfishing problems. This study uses precision leveling, multi-layer compaction monitoring well (MLCW and spaceborne SAR interferometry (InSAR to examine the cause and effect of land subsidence in Chiayi associated with groundwater extractions and changes. Heights at benchmarks in a leveling network are measured annually and soil compactions at 24–26 layers up to 300-m depths at 7 MLCWs are collected at one-month intervals. Over 2007–2011, 15 ALOS/PALSAR images are processed by the method of TCPInSAR to produce subsidence rates. All sensors show that land subsidence occur in most parts of Chiayi, with rates reaching 4.5 cm/year around its coast, a result of groundwater pumping from shallow to deep aquifers. MLCWs detect mm-accuracy seasonal soil compactions coinciding with groundwater level fluctuations and causing dynamic compactions. Compactions near Taiwan High Speed Rail may reduce the strength of the rail’s supporting columns to degrade its safety. The SAR images yield subsidence rates consistent with those from leveling and compaction wells after corrections for systematic errors by the leveling result. Subsidence in Chiayi’s coastal area leads to relative sea level rises at rates up to 15 times larger than the global eustatic sea level rising rate, a risk typical for world’s aquaculture-rich regions. At the fish pond-covered Budai Township, InSAR identifies subsidence spots not detected by leveling, providing crucial geo-information for a sustainable land management for aquaculture industry.

  16. Examining the Relation between Social Values Perception and Moral Maturity Level of Folk Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Pinar Karacan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between social values perceptions and moral maturity levels of folk dancers, and evaluate this relation in terms of some variables. The relational screening model was used in the study. The "Multi-dimensional Social Values Scale," which was developed by Bolat (2013), and the…

  17. Notification of brain death in the hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Soares de Jesus Souza; Gerlene Grudka Lira; Rachel Mola

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identifying brain death in the hospital. Methods: it is a cross sectional and quantitative study which analyzed secondary data extracted from the notified brain death registers and from the medical records of the eligible patients. The data were processed and analyzed through descriptive statistics and comparisons. Results: of the 64 cases of notifications, the male gender predominated (67.2%) within the age range from 40 to 59 years (64.1%). There was a greater proportion (71.8...

  18. 78 FR 5854 - Notification of the First Meetings of the U.S.-Korea FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... both: (1) Deborah Grout, International Relations Officer, U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Oceans...-2013-0002. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Grout, International Relations Officer, (202) 647... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8164] Notification of the First Meetings of the U.S.-Korea FTA...

  19. Agent-Based Mobile Event Notification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Fahim El-Gazzar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the noticeable move towards using mobile devices (mobile phones and PDAs and wireless technologies have made information available in the context of "anytime, anywhere using any mobile device" experience. Delivering information to mobile devices needs some sort of communication means such as Push, Pull, or mixed (Push and Pull technologies to deliver any chunk of information (events, ads, advisory tips, learning materials, etc.. Events are the most important pieces of information that should be delivered timely wherever the user is. Agent-based technology offers autonomous, flexible, adaptable, and reliable way of delivering events to any device, anywhere, and on time. Publish/subscribe communication model is the basic infrastructure for event-based communication. In this paper, we define the need to mobilize the event notification process in educational environment and the possible categories of event notifications that students can receive from their educational institution. This paper also proposes a framework for agent-based mobile event notification system. The proposed framework is derived from the concept of push–based publish/subscribe communication model but taking advantage from software agents to serve in the mobile environment. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis for the proposed system.

  20. SENT SMS : School Event Notification Through SMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramil G. Lumauag

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are now considered as an essential part of people’s daily lives which is used for communication and provides diversified information. The use of mobile phone is not only limited to communication alone, but now used for subscription to value-added services like disaster warning, alert systems, and notifications. The development of School Event Notification Through SMS (SENT SMS is beneficial to students, teachers, and parents in receiving first-hand information from the school right into their mobile phone. With the use of SMS Notification, students will be notified with the upcoming events of the school, changes in schedule of events, and suspension of classes due to bad weather. Teachers will be notified for schedule of meetings, emergency meetings, and deadlines of requirements. Parents will also be informed about the school activities and be aware of the activities of their children in school. The system was tested and evaluated using ISO 9126 standard questionnaire for software quality characteristics such as functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. The result implies that the overall usefulness of the system is very effective, that is, it is highly functional, highly reliable, highly usable, highly efficient, highly maintainable and highly portable.

  1. A Coordinated Approach to Communicating Pediatric-Related Information on Pandemic Influenza at the Community Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2009-12-16

    The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.

  2. Increased deoxythymidine triphosphate levels is a feature of relative cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Frederiksen, Jane H; Olsen, Maria Nathalie Angleys

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular levels of nucleotides have been hypothesized as early indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Utilizing relative decline of cognitive ability as a predictor of AD risk, we evaluated the correlation between chang...

  3. Double trouble at high density: cross-level test of resource-related adaptive plasticity and crowding-related fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gergs

    Full Text Available Population size is often regulated by negative feedback between population density and individual fitness. At high population densities, animals run into double trouble: they might concurrently suffer from overexploitation of resources and also from negative interference among individuals regardless of resource availability, referred to as crowding. Animals are able to adapt to resource shortages by exhibiting a repertoire of life history and physiological plasticities. In addition to resource-related plasticity, crowding might lead to reduced fitness, with consequences for individual life history. We explored how different mechanisms behind resource-related plasticity and crowding-related fitness act independently or together, using the water flea Daphnia magna as a case study. For testing hypotheses related to mechanisms of plasticity and crowding stress across different biological levels, we used an individual-based population model that is based on dynamic energy budget theory. Each of the hypotheses, represented by a sub-model, is based on specific assumptions on how the uptake and allocation of energy are altered under conditions of resource shortage or crowding. For cross-level testing of different hypotheses, we explored how well the sub-models fit individual level data and also how well they predict population dynamics under different conditions of resource availability. Only operating resource-related and crowding-related hypotheses together enabled accurate model predictions of D. magna population dynamics and size structure. Whereas this study showed that various mechanisms might play a role in the negative feedback between population density and individual life history, it also indicated that different density levels might instigate the onset of the different mechanisms. This study provides an example of how the integration of dynamic energy budget theory and individual-based modelling can facilitate the exploration of mechanisms

  4. Crowding and perceptual organization: Target's objecthood influences the relative strength of part-level and configural-level crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkner, Yossef; Kimchi, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    In visual crowding, identification of a peripheral object is impaired by nearby objects. Recent studies have demonstrated that crowding is not limited only to interaction between low-level features or parts, as presumed by most models of crowding, but can also occur between high-level, configural representations of objects. In this study we show that the relative strength of crowding at the part level versus the configural level is dependent on the strength of the target's perceptual organization. The target's strength of organization was manipulated by presence or absence of closure and good continuation or by proximity between the target's parts. The flankers were similar either to the target parts or to the target configuration. The stronger the target's organization was, the weaker the crowding was by part flankers (Experiments 1 and 2). Most importantly, the target's strength of organization interacted with target-flanker similarity, such that crowding by target-flanker similarity in configuration was greater than that by target-flanker similarity in parts for strongly organized targets, but lesser for weakly organized targets (Experiments 3 and 4). These results provide strong evidence that perceptual-organization processes play an important role in crowding.

  5. 34 CFR 104.32 - Location and notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.32 Location and notification. A recipient... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location and notification. 104.32 Section 104.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 40 CFR 255.40 - Notification of status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of status. 255.40 Section 255.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 255.40 Notification of status. This subpart describes procedures which may ultimately be required by...

  7. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations...

  8. 9 CFR 118.2 - Method of detention; Notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of detention; Notifications. 118.2 Section 118.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.2 Method of detention; Notifications. An authorized representative of the...

  9. 40 CFR 61.09 - Notification of startup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of startup. 61.09 Section...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 61.09 Notification of startup. (a) The owner or operator of each stationary source which has an initial startup after the effective...

  10. 28 CFR 73.3 - Form of notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Affairs, Criminal Division. The letter, telex, or facsimile shall include the information set... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of notification. 73.3 Section 73.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATIONS TO THE ATTORNEY GENERAL BY AGENTS...

  11. 48 CFR 246.371 - Notification of potential safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safety issues. 246.371 Section 246.371 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Notification of potential safety issues. (a) Use the clause at 252.246-7003, Notification of Potential Safety Issues, in solicitations and contracts for the acquisition of— (1) Repairable or consumable parts...

  12. 28 CFR 511.14 - Notification of possible search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of possible search. 511.14... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT POLICY Searching and Detaining or Arresting Non-Inmates § 511.14 Notification of possible search. We display conspicuous notices at the entrance to all Bureau facilities...

  13. 40 CFR 152.117 - Notification to applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification to applicant. 152.117 Section 152.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.117 Notification to...

  14. 43 CFR 29.8 - Notification and advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advertising for a period of not less than thirty days. (e) The advertisement must appear in one or more local... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification and advertisement. 29.8... LIABILITY FUND § 29.8 Notification and advertisement. (a) As soon as the person in charge of a vessel has...

  15. 45 CFR 164.406 - Notification to the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification to the media. 164.406 Section 164.406... § 164.406 Notification to the media. (a) Standard. For a breach of unsecured protected health... the discovery of the breach as provided in § 164.404(a)(2), notify prominent media outlets serving the...

  16. 11 CFR 111.23 - Representation by counsel; notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation by counsel; notification. 111.23..., 437d(a)) Enforcement § 111.23 Representation by counsel; notification. (a) If a respondent wishes to be... Commission by sending a letter of representation signed by the respondent, which letter shall state the...

  17. 40 CFR 166.7 - User notification; advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false User notification; advertising. 166.7... § 166.7 User notification; advertising. (a) A State or Federal agency that obtains an exemption may... received) delivers or offers to deliver any pesticide, to advertise the pesticide for any use authorized by...

  18. 7 CFR 1412.44 - Notification of base acres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of base acres. 1412.44 Section 1412.44... through 2012 § 1412.44 Notification of base acres. The operator and owners of record of a farm will be notified in writing of the number of base acres eligible for enrollment in a contract, unless such operator...

  19. 5 CFR 330.706 - Notification of displaced employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of displaced employees. 330... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.706 Notification of displaced employees. (a) In addition to meeting the requirements of...

  20. 77 FR 51780 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section..., and Airfield Lighting System, spare and repair parts, support equipment, personnel training and...

  1. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of..., support equipment, personnel training and training equipment, Quality Assurance Team, tools and test...

  2. 77 FR 40026 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... test equipment, repair and return support, training equipment and personnel training, U.S. Government...

  3. 77 FR 65185 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section...-9X-2 Captive Air Training Missiles, 2 AIM- 9X-2 NATM Special Air Training Missiles, 2 CATM-9X-2 Block...

  4. 77 FR 53180 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. ] This is published to fulfill the requirements of...; support equipment; spare and repair parts; repair and return; personnel training and training equipment; U...

  5. 77 FR 49434 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section..., support equipment, tools and test equipment, technical data and publications, personnel training and...

  6. 76 FR 60461 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section..., repair and return support, training equipment and personnel training, U.S. Government and contractor...

  7. Classification & Labelling Inventory: role of ECHA and notification requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Schöning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The CLP Regulation introduces the criteria of the UN Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling (UN GHS in the EU. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA manages the CLP related tasks - such as harmonised classification and labelling, handling requests for alternative names and maintaining the Classification & Labelling Inventory (C&L - to ensure consistent implementation in the EU. The obligations for industry depend on their role in the supply chain. Manufacturers and importers have to notify to ECHA the identity and classification and labelling of substances within one month of placing them on the market either on their own or in a mixture, and regardless of the quantitity. As of 3 January 2011 ECHA has received some 3.1 million notifications of over 107 000 substances. This information is stored in the C&L Inventory and accessible to Member State Competent Authorities. The non-confidential information will be made publicly available on ECHA's website in 2011.

  8. Analysis of Scientific Research Related Anxiety Levels of Undergraduate Students'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Sefa; Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to identify the scientific research-related anxiety levels of the undergraduate students studying in the department of faculty of science and letters and faculty of education to analyse these anxiety levels in terms of various variables (students' gender, using web based information sources, going to the library,…

  9. Serum homocysteine levels in relation to clinical progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, C.E.; Killestein, J.; Kragt, J.J.; Polman, C.H.; Dijkstra, C.D.; Blom, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases and have even been identified as a risk factor for some of these. Homocysteine levels may be elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but large studies are lacking and the relation with disease

  10. Quantification of mold contamination in multi-level buildings using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible use of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) to quantify mold contamination in multi-level, office buildings. Settled-dust samples were collected in multi-level, office buildings and the ERMI value for each sample de...

  11. Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has

  12. Gender- and race-related physical activity levels of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases are becoming a global epidemic. This article reflects on physical activity levels of undergraduate students at a university in South Africa. Gender and race differences in relation to these levels were investigated. A self-reported measure of physical activity suitable to ...

  13. The Impact of Pathological Levels of Internet-Related Anxiety on Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Joiner, Richard; Gavin, Jeff; Crook, Charles; Maras, Pam; Guiller, Jane; Scott, Adrian J.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the use of the Internet during the first year of university education of students who have pathological levels of Internet anxiety with those who do not. Two hundred and sixteen first year psychology students (females 184, males 32) were surveyed for their levels of Internet-related anxiety, from which 12 (5.6%) were…

  14. The Relation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Nitric Oxide Levels to Prognosis and Differential Diagnosis of Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, Kasım

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the differential diagnosis of bacterial, tuberculous and viral meningitis, and the relation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NO levels and meningitis prognosis. Twenty patients with bacterial meningitis, 9 with tuberculous meningitis, 11 with viral meningitis/meningoencephalitis and 21 control patients were included in the study. CSF NO levels were investigated by measuring the levels of nitrite with a colorimetric test...

  15. A longitudinal study of hepatitis C virus testing and infection status notification on behaviour change in people who inject drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelman, T.; Morris, M. D.; Zang, G.; Rice, T.; Page, K.; Maher, L.; Lloyd, A.; Grebely, J.; Dore, G. J.; Kim, A. Y.; Shoukry, N. H.; Hellard, M.; Bruneau, J.; Cox, Andrea L.; Lauer, Georg; McGovern, Barbara H.; Prins, Maria; Hahn, Judy; Shiboski, Stephen; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Alavi, Maryam; Bouchard, Rachel; Evans, Jennifer; Grady, Bart; Aneja, Jasneet; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Teutsch, Suzy; White, Bethany; Wells, Brittany; Applegate, Tanya; Matthews, Gail; Yeung, Barbara; Schinkel, Janke; Prince, Leslie Erin; Roy, Elise; Bates, Anna; Enriquez, Jarliene; Chow, Sammy; McCredie, Luke; Aitken, Campbell; Doyle, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and counselling have the potential to impact individual behaviour and transmission dynamics at the population level. Evidence of the impact of an HCV-positive status notification on injection risk reduction is limited. The objective of our study was to (1)

  16. 47 CFR 17.7 - Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures requiring notification to..., MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.7 Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA. A notification to the Federal Aviation...

  17. 12 CFR 12.5 - Notification by agreement; alternative forms and times of notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... written notification within a reasonable time if a person having the power to terminate the account, or, if there is no such person, any person holding a vested beneficial interest in the account, requests... the customer pursuant to § 12.4 (a) or (b) within a reasonable time. (d) Collective investment fund...

  18. Preservice Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Level of Relating Mathematical Concepts in Daily Life Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Oylum

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice elementary mathematics teachers' ability of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context. Two research questions were set; what is the preservice elementary mathematics teachers' level of relating mathematical concepts and daily life context regarding to their education year and…

  19. Levels of Cigarette and Alcohol Use Related to Eating-Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granner, Michelle L.; Black, David R.; Abood, Doris A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined smoking and drinking levels relative to body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness among female college students. Student surveys indicated that frequency of smoking and drinking significantly and linearly related to body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Negative-affect reduction motivations for use of these substances more…

  20. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Bluszcz

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  1. Noise levels, noise annoyance, and hearing-related problems in a dental college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer; Ali, Wesal Jasim

    2017-05-04

    Through a cross-sectional survey and integrated sound level meter, this research examined noise exposure and auditory- and nonauditory-related problems experienced by students of a dentistry college located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A structured interview questionnaire was used to examine hearing-related problems, noise annoyance, and awareness of 114 students toward noise. The results showed that maximum noise levels were between 65 and 79 dB(A) with peak levels (high and low frequencies) ranging between 89 and 93 dB(A). Around 80% of the students experienced a certain degree of noise annoyance; 54% reported one of the hearing-related problems; and about 10% claimed to have hearing loss to a certain extent. It is recommended that sound-absorbent materials be used during the construction of dental clinics and laboratories to reduce the noise levels.

  2. Public Health benefits of partner notification for sexually transmitted infections and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Low, N; Martin Hilber, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    -related morbidity and mortality, reaching people with asymptomatic STI and people who do not present for diagnosis, counselling and treatment. Considerable variation in the ways of implementation exists across countries. Differences in laws, policies, regulations and clinical guidelines contribute to this. Health...... as patient referral, provider referral, and contract or conditional referral. Lack of consensus about the most effective methods of partner notification is another reason for the diversity of practice across countries and also represents a challenge to improving partner efforts....

  3. Estimate of mortality reduction with implementation of advanced automatic collision notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen; Wu, Jingshu; Kang, Thomas; Craig, Matthew

    2017-05-29

    Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) is a system on a motor vehicle that notifies a public safety answering point (PSAP), either directly or through a third party, that the vehicle has had a crash. AACN systems enable earlier notification of a motor vehicle crash and provide an injury prediction that can help dispatchers and first responders make better decisions about how and where to transport the patient, thus getting the patient to definitive care sooner. The purposes of the current research are to identify the target population that could benefit from AACN, and to develop a reasonable estimate range of potential lives saved with implementation of AACN within the vehicle fleet. Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) years 2009-2015 and National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) years 2000-2015 were obtained. FARS data were used to determine absolute estimates of the target population who may receive benefit from AACN. These estimates accounted for a number of factors, such as whether a fatal occupant had nearby access to a trauma center and also was correctly identified by the injury severity prediction algorithm as having a "high probability of severe injury." NASS-CDS data were used to provide relative comparisons among subsets of the population. Specifically, relative survival rate ratios between occupants treated at trauma centers versus at non-trauma centers were determined using the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier estimator. Finally, the fatality reduction rate associated with trauma center care was combined with the previously published fatality reduction rate for faster notification time to develop a range for possible lives saved. Two relevant target populations were identified. A larger subset of 6893 fatalities can benefit only from earlier notification associated with AACN. A smaller subgroup of between 1495 and 2330 fatalities can benefit from both earlier notification and change in treatment

  4. Protective role of educational level on episodic memory aging: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Séverine; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while participants performed a word-stem cued-recall task. Age-related memory deficits were greater for the less educated individuals. Age differences in the ERP old/new effects were also modulated by the level of education. This study demonstrated that the effects of age on episodic memory and ERP correlates of retrieval success are smaller in participants with high educational levels than those with lower levels. These findings provide support for the reserve hypothesis and highlight the need to consider individual differences when studying cognitive and cerebral changes in aging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Almeida da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. METHOD: correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. RESULT: 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. CONCLUSION: motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  6. 76 FR 23809 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...) Ozone Review Panel to conduct a peer review on EPA's Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related... CASAC Ozone NAAQS Review Panel will hold a public meeting to peer review EPA's first external review... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

  7. 75 FR 57779 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Dioxin Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Dioxin Review... SAB Dioxin Review Panel to continue its review of EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin... U.S.C., App. 2, notice is hereby given that the SAB Dioxin Review Panel will hold a public meeting...

  8. Relative and absolute level populations in beam-foil--excited neutral helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.

    1975-01-01

    Relative and absolute populations of 19 levels in beam-foil--excited neutral helium at 0.275 MeV have been measured. The singlet angular-momentum sequences show dependences on principal quantum number consistent with n -3 , but the triplet sequences do not. Singlet and triplet angular-momentum sequences show similar dependences on level excitation energy. Excitation functions for six representative levels were measured in the range 0.160 to 0.500 MeV. The absolute level populations increase with energy, whereas the neutral fraction of the beam decreases with energy. Further, the P angular-momentum levels are found to be overpopulated with respect to the S and D levels. The overpopulation decreases with increasing principal quantum number

  9. Relative and absolute level populations in beam-foil-excited neutral helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J.

    1975-01-01

    Relative and absolute populations of 19 levels in beam-foil-excited neutral helium at 0.275 MeV have been measured. The singlet angular-momentum sequences show dependences on principal quantum number consistent with n to the -3rd power, but the triplet sequences do not. Singlet and triplet angular-momentum sequences show similar dependences on level excitation energy. Excitation functions for six representative levels were measured in the range from 0.160 to 0.500 MeV. The absolute level populations increase with energy, whereas the neutral fraction of the beam decreases with energy. Further, the P angular-momentum levels are found to be overpopulated with respect to the S and D levels. The overpopulation decreases with increasing principal quantum number.

  10. Changes of serum leptin and other related hormones levels in simple obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jinhua; Wang Yaping; Xu Yan; Gao Yufeng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To measure the serum leptin concentration in simple obese children together with other four kinds of related hormones. Methods: Serum Leptin, Ins, T 3 , T 4 and GH levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in thirty-eight obese children and thirty healthy controls. Results: The levels of serum leptin, Ins and T 3 in obese group were dramatically higher than those in control group (all P 4 concentration between simple obese children and control group (P > 0.05), Serum GH levels was significantly decreased in simple obese children (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between serum leptin levels and lns levels (r = 0.46, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In simple obese children there were leptin resistance and endocrine metabolic disturbances, the later might be correlated with the increasing of serum leptin levels; It is suggested that Leptin resistance might play a key role in the development of obesity

  11. Notification of change in a data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility is an event driven system; tasks that handle specific events are active only when those events occur. One method of monitoring and generating events is the data base notification facility; a task can request that it be loaded and started by the dbms if a data element is touched or goes outside of a specified range. The motivations for this facility (along with an example of its use and some specifics regarding how it is done) are presented

  12. Postglacial relative sea level change at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (West Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Polishchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and integration of data obtained in our field and laboratory investigations of 2008–2012 together with results of previous paleogeographic studies were conducted to reveal parameters and factors of the post-glacial changes in the relative sea-level on the Fildes Peninsula and the King George Island. Results of dating of organic material taken from cross-sections of Quaternary deposits, data on morphology of marine landforms as well as on bottom sediments in lakes were used to construct a curve of changes in the relative sea-level.Our research has shown that the rapid rise of relative sea level in the area (since the beginning of the Holocene decelerated about 8000 years BP, achieving its maximum about 7000 years BP. This was followed by the fall of relative sea-level (the land elevation by 18–20  m in total, and it was characterized by relatively high rate of fall during periods of 6000– 5000 years BP, 4000–2500 years BP, and during the last 1500 years; the rate decreased in 5000–4000 years BP and 2500– 1600 years BP. The changes in relative sea level in this region were determined by the following factors: the eustatic component of the global changes in sea-level and, possibly, oscillations in the global sea level of another nature; local parameters of the Last glacial maximum; a course of the Peninsula deglaciation; regional physical characteristics of the Earth's crust and the mantle substances; local tectonic processes, including the isostatic rebound. Since the beginning of the Holocene up to about 7000 years BP, the main contribution to changes of the relative sea-level in this area was made by the global eustatic factor. The subsequent fall of the relative sea-level (elevation of the Peninsula surface proceeded under condition of reduced role of the eustatic factor and predominance of other factors.

  13. Creep behavior of sweetgum OSB: effect of load level and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.H. Pu; R.C. Tang; Chung-Yun Hse

    1994-01-01

    Flexural creep behavior of laboratory-fabricated sweetgum oriented strandboard (OSB). under constnat (65% and 95%) and cyclic (65% 95% at a 96-hr. frequency) relative humidity (RH) conditions at 75 F (23.9 C) is presented. Two levels (4.5% and 6.5%) of resin content (RC) of phenol-formaldehyde were used in fabricating the test panels. Two load levels (20% and...

  14. The medical practice of euthanasia in Belgium and The Netherlands: legal notification, control and evaluation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Rurup, Mette L; De Keyser, Els; Deliens, Luc

    2009-05-01

    To describe and compare current legal procedures for notifying, controlling and evaluating (NCE-procedures) euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands, and to discuss the implications for a safe and controllable euthanasia practice. We systematically studied and compared official documents relating to the Belgian and the Dutch NCE-procedures for euthanasia. In both countries, physicians are required to notify their cases to a review Committee, stimulating them to safeguard the quality of their euthanasia practice and to make societal control over the practice of euthanasia possible. However, the procedures in both countries differ. The main differences are that the Dutch notification and control procedures are more elaborate and transparent than the Belgian, and that the Belgian procedures are primarily anonymous, whereas the Dutch are not. Societal evaluation is made in both countries through the Committees' summary reports to Parliament. Transparent procedures like the Dutch may better facilitate societal control. Informing physicians about the law and the due care requirements for euthanasia, and systematic feedback about their medical actions are both pivotal to achieving efficient societal control and engendering the level of care needed when performing such far-reaching medical acts.

  15. Geographic factors related to site suitability of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zittel, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A number of factors related to the site suitability of low-level waste disposal sites are discussed. The factors are a combination of those which might be considered environmental and those dealing with site criteria. Among the factors covered are: possible population criteria, alternative site selection, transportation criteria and community involvement considerations. All these factors are discussed in a manner based on the premise that the technology exists to carry out low-level waste disposal in a manner such that public health and safety can be insured. The conclusion of the discussion is that problems encountered in siting low-level waste facilities will be largely societal and political in nature

  16. Geographic factors related to site suitability of low-level waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittel, H. E.

    Factors related to the site suitability of low level waste disposal sites are discussed including those which might be considered environmental and those dealing with site criteria. Possible population criteria, alternative site selection, transportation criteria, and community involvement are considered. All these factors are based on the premise that the technology exists to carry out low level waste disposal in a manner such that public health and safety can be insured. It is concluded that problems encountered in siting low level waste facilities are largely societal and political in nature.

  17. Pulse synchronization system for picosecond pulse-pumped OPCPA with femtosecond-level relative timing jitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batysta, František; Antipenkov, Roman; Green, Jonathan T; Naylon, Jack A; Novák, Jakub; Mazanec, Tomáš; Hříbek, Petr; Zervos, Charalampos; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich

    2014-12-01

    A simple and compact scheme for synchronization of the pump and signal pulses for short-pulse OPCPA is demonstrated. Relative timing jitter of 17 fs RMS is achieved (1% of the pump pulse duration) and the system remains locked for hours. The scheme uses a balanced optical cross correlator to detect relative delays between the pump and signal pulses and can be operated with just 10's of μJ of pump energy and pJ-level signal energies.

  18. The relationship between Piaget and cognitive levels in persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, M A; Linton, A D; Barnes, S J; Cleary, B L; Lichtenstein, M J

    1996-02-01

    Clinical observations and research studies have documented that people with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) appear to regress developmentally during the course of the disease. The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine the association between changes in Piaget levels of cognitive development and cognitive decline in nursing home residents in various stages of ADRD. Fifty-seven people were tested three times at yearly intervals, using the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam to determine cognitive levels and a set of 14 Piaget tasks to determine cognitive developmental levels: 1) Formal Operations; 2) Concrete Operations; 3) Preoperational; and 4) Sensorimotor. Mean MMSE scores declined from 12.7 to 9.4, and there was a downward trend in Piaget levels over the study period. ANOVA showed significant differences (p Piaget levels, and Spearman rho analysis showed significant correlations between Piaget levels and MMSE for each year (p < 0.0005, Years 1, 2, 3). The results suggest that there is a concurrent decline in cognitive developmental levels and cognition in people in various stages of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

  19. Serum PBDE levels in exposed rats in relation to effects on thyroxine homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Aune, M.; Larsson, L.; Hallgren, S. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is a group of environmental chemicals for which lately both interest and knowledge have increased considerably. Among the BFRs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have attained special interest. Much data on environmental and human levels have been presented and several toxicological reviews are now published. Among interesting results is the difference in human PBDE levels that seem to exist between U.S.A. and Europe, results that suggest differences in exposure but without being able to pin-point the exact sources. In experimental studies PBDEs alter serum thyroxin levels, an effect seen both in rats and in mice. The mechanism(s) are still not completely clarified, but are thought to include alterations in serum transport, induced enzymatic degradation and possibly also direct effects on the thyroid gland. As perinatal alterations in thyroid homeostasis could affect brain development, early effects on thyroid hormones may be of special concern. Indeed, PBDEs have been shown to affect behaviour and learning in mice, when given neonatally. The aim of the present study was to relate the serum levels of PBDEs in rats to effects of these compounds on thyroxine homeostasis in these animals. Specifically, the relation between serum PBDE levels and effects on serum thyroxine levels was investigated, after two weeks of daily oral exposure. The result may have consequences for the future risk assessment activities on PBDE and specifically in finding the critical serum PBDE concentration at which the effect on thyroid hormone levels begin to occur.

  20. Simultaneous reconstruction, segmentation, and edge enhancement of relatively piecewise continuous images with intensity-level information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.; Johnson, V.

    1991-01-01

    A multinomial image model is proposed which uses intensity-level information for reconstruction of contiguous image regions. The intensity-level information assumes that image intensities are relatively constant within contiguous regions over the image-pixel array and that intensity levels of these regions are determined either empirically or theoretically by information criteria. These conditions may be valid, for example, for cardiac blood-pool imaging, where the intensity levels (or radionuclide activities) of myocardium, blood-pool, and background regions are distinct and the activities within each region of muscle, blood, or background are relatively uniform. To test the model, a mathematical phantom over a 64x64 array was constructed. The phantom had three contiguous regions. Each region had a different intensity level. Measurements from the phantom were simulated using an emission-tomography geometry. Fifty projections were generated over 180 degree, with 64 equally spaced parallel rays per projection. Projection data were randomized to contain Poisson noise. Image reconstructions were performed using an iterative maximum a posteriori probability procedure. The contiguous regions corresponding to the three intensity levels were automatically segmented. Simultaneously, the edges of the regions were sharpened. Noise in the reconstructed images was significantly suppressed. Convergence of the iterative procedure to the phantom was observed. Compared with maximum likelihood and filtered-backprojection approaches, the results obtained using the maximum a posteriori probability with the intensity-level information demonstrated qualitative and quantitative improvement in localizing the regions of varying intensities

  1. Community pharmacists' burnout levels and related factors: an example from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgan, Zeynep; Aslan, Dilek; Yegenoglu, Selen

    2011-02-01

    To determine community pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences as well as factors associated with burnout. Study was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, 251 pharmacists were randomly selected from 1,504 community pharmacists registered in Ankara Chamber of Pharmacists. A questionnaire including questions related to pharmacists' individual and professional characteristics and Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered. The data was collected between February 27 and May 25, 2007. Three Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales (emotional exhaustion-EE, depersonalization-D, and personal accomplishment-PA) scores. Pharmacists' mean emotional exhaustion score was found to be 16.84 (SD: 6.25), depersonalization score was 4 (Range: 0-14), and personal accomplishment score was 22 (Range: 9-32). Of the pharmacists, 1.2% had high level of EE, .8% had high level of D, and 71.3% had high level of inefficacy. Age, marital status, work experience, work contentment, workload, time pressure, stress, and satisfaction with customers were found to be related with pharmacists' burnout levels. It can be useful to monitor pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences periodically. Interventions on individual and organizational basis were needed to cope with burnout, respond to job demands, minimize the level of chronic stress, and increase work contentment and satisfaction.

  2. Schistosome Infection Intensity Is Inversely Related to Auto-Reactive Antibody Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutapi, Francisca; Imai, Natsuko; Nausch, Norman; Bourke, Claire D.; Rujeni, Nadine; Mitchell, Kate M.; Midzi, Nicholas; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Maizels, Rick M.; Mduluza, Takafira

    2011-01-01

    In animal experimental models, parasitic helminth infections can protect the host from auto-immune diseases. We conducted a population-scale human study investigating the relationship between helminth parasitism and auto-reactive antibodies and the subsequent effect of anti-helminthic treatment on this relationship. Levels of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and plasma IL-10 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 613 Zimbabweans (aged 2–86 years) naturally exposed to the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium. ANA levels were related to schistosome infection intensity and systemic IL-10 levels. All participants were offered treatment with the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel and 102 treated schoolchildren (5–16 years) were followed up 6 months post-antihelminthic treatment. ANA levels were inversely associated with current infection intensity but were independent of host age, sex and HIV status. Furthermore, after allowing for the confounding effects of schistosome infection intensity, ANA levels were inversely associated with systemic levels of IL-10. ANA levels increased significantly 6 months after anti-helminthic treatment. Our study shows that ANA levels are attenuated in helminth-infected humans and that anti-helminthic treatment of helminth-infected people can significantly increase ANA levels. The implications of these findings are relevant for understanding both the aetiology of immune disorders mediated by auto-reactive antibodies and in predicting the long-term consequences of large-scale schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:21573157

  3. Orbit-related sea level errors for TOPEX altimetry at seasonal to decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselborn, Saskia; Rudenko, Sergei; Schöne, Tilo

    2018-03-01

    Interannual to decadal sea level trends are indicators of climate variability and change. A major source of global and regional sea level data is satellite radar altimetry, which relies on precise knowledge of the satellite's orbit. Here, we assess the error budget of the radial orbit component for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission for the period 1993 to 2004 from a set of different orbit solutions. The errors for seasonal, interannual (5-year), and decadal periods are estimated on global and regional scales based on radial orbit differences from three state-of-the-art orbit solutions provided by different research teams: the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), the Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS), and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The global mean sea level error related to orbit uncertainties is of the order of 1 mm (8 % of the global mean sea level variability) with negligible contributions on the annual and decadal timescales. In contrast, the orbit-related error of the interannual trend is 0.1 mm yr-1 (27 % of the corresponding sea level variability) and might hamper the estimation of an acceleration of the global mean sea level rise. For regional scales, the gridded orbit-related error is up to 11 mm, and for about half the ocean the orbit error accounts for at least 10 % of the observed sea level variability. The seasonal orbit error amounts to 10 % of the observed seasonal sea level signal in the Southern Ocean. At interannual and decadal timescales, the orbit-related trend uncertainties reach regionally more than 1 mm yr-1. The interannual trend errors account for 10 % of the observed sea level signal in the tropical Atlantic and the south-eastern Pacific. For decadal scales, the orbit-related trend errors are prominent in a several regions including the South Atlantic, western North Atlantic, central Pacific, South Australian Basin, and the Mediterranean Sea. Based on a set of test orbits calculated at GFZ, the sources of the

  4. Plasma glutamine levels before cardiac surgery are related to post-surgery infections; an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Buter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low plasma glutamine level was found in 34% of patients after elective cardiothoracic surgery. This could be a result of the inflammation caused by surgical stress or the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC. But it is also possible that plasma glutamine levels were already lowered before surgery and reflect an impaired metabolic state and a higher likelihood to develop complications. In the present study plasma glutamine levels were measured before and after cardiac surgery and we questioned whether there is a relation between plasma glutamine levels and duration of ECC and the occurrence of postoperative infections. Methods We performed a single-centre prospective, observational study in a closed-format, 20-bed, mixed ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. We included consecutive patients after elective cardiac surgery with use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood samples were collected on the day prior to surgery and at admission on the ICU. The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (Regional Review Committee Patient-related Research, Medical Centre Leeuwarden, nWMO 115, April 28th 2015. Results Ninety patients were included. Pre-operative plasma glutamine level was 0.42 ± 0.10 mmol/l and post-operative 0.38 ± 0.09 mmol/l (p < 0.001. There was no relation between duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic occlusion time and changes in plasma glutamine levels. A logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the presence of a positive culture during the post-operative course and pre-operative plasma glutamine levels (p = 0.04. Conclusion Plasma glutamine levels are significantly lower just after cardiac surgery compared to pre-operative levels. We did not find a relation between the decrease in plasma glutamine levels and the duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic clamp time. There was a correlation between pre-operative plasma glutamine levels

  5. Domain-Specific Creativity in Relation to the Level of Empathy and Systemizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, Daniel; Plháková, Alena; Záškodná, Tereza

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore self-reported domain-specific creativity in relation to the level of empathy, systemizing, and the Big Five personality dimensions. The research sample consisted of 1112 college students to whom the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS), the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ), Baron-Cohen's empathy and…

  6. The timing of Mediterranean sapropel deposition relative to insolation, sea-level and African monsoon changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, K. M.; Grimm, R.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Marino, G.; Ziegler, M.; Rohling, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin is sensitive to global sea-level changes and African monsoon variability on orbital timescales. Both of these processes are thought to be important to the deposition of organic-rich sediment layers or 'sapropels' throughout the eastern Mediterranean, yet their relative

  7. TIME TO PREGNANCY IN RELATION TO TOTAL TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN TAP WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time to pregnancy in relation to total trihalomethane levels in tap waterShanna H. Swan, Cuirong Ren, Gayle C. Windham, Laura Fenster, Kirsten Waller. (University of Missouri and California Department of Health Services). We have previously reported increased risks o...

  8. Differences in the association between smoking and relative body weight by level of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molarius, A.; Seidell, J C

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in the association between smoking and relative body weight by sex, age group and level of education. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: About 36,000 men and women who participated in the Monitoring Project on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the

  9. Cognitive Developmental Levels of Preschool Children in Relation to Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogelman, Hülya Gülay; Seçer, Zarife; Önder, Alev

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the cognitive developmental levels of five- to six-year-old preschool children with regard to their peer relationships. The relational survey method was used in the study. One hundred and fifty one children aged five- to six-years-old participated in the study. The Child Behaviour Scale, Peer…

  10. Accommodation space, relative sea level, and the archiving of paleo-earthquakes along subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Rubin, Charles; Daryono, Mudrik; Ismail, Nazli; Hawkes, Andrea D.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Cahill, Niamh

    2015-01-01

    The spatial variability of Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) change influences the capacities of coastal environments to accommodate a sedimentary record of paleoenvironmental change. In this study we couch a specific investigation in more general terms in order to demonstrate the applicability of the relative sea-level history approach to paleoseismic investigations. Using subsidence stratigraphy, we trace the different modes of coastal sedimentation over the course of time in the eastern Indian Ocean where RSL change evolved from rapidly rising to static from 8000 yr ago to present. Initially, the coastal sites from the Aceh, Sumatra, coastal plain, which are subject to repeated great earthquakes and tsunamis, built up a sedimentary sequence in response to a RSL rise of 1.4 mm/yr. The sequence found at 2 sites 8 km apart contained 3 soils of a mangrove origin (Rhizophora,Bruguiera/Ceriops, Avicennia pollen, and/or intertidal foraminifera) buried by sudden submergence related to coseismic subsidence and 6 tsunami sands that contain pristine subtidal and planktic foraminifera. After 3800 cal yr B.P. (years before A.D. 1950), sea level stabilized and remained such to the present. The stable relative sea level reduced accommodation space in the late Holocene, suggesting that the continued aggradation of the coastal plain was a consequence of periodic coastal inundation by tsunamis.

  11. Medical devices; exemption from premarket notification; class II devices; wheelchair elevator. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing an order granting a petition requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical platform lifts. These devices are used to provide a means for a person with a mobility impairment caused by injury or other disease to move from one level to another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for exemption for this device that will provide a reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device without submission of a premarket notification (510(k)). This exemption from 510(k), subject to these conditions, is immediately in effect for wheelchair elevators. All other devices classified under FDA's wheelchair elevator regulations, including attendant-operated stair climbing devices for wheelchairs and portable platform lifts, continue to require submission of 510(k)s. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with the section of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permitting the exemption of a device from the requirement to submit a 510(k).

  12. New constraints on MIS 7 and 5 relative sea-level at Bermuda: a speleothem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Karine; Henderson, Gideon; Mason, Andrew; Thomas, Alexander; Williams, Bruce; Rowe, Mark; van Hengstum, Peter; Chandler, Robert

    2014-05-01

    It is now widely accepted that a sea-level rise is associated with global warming [1]. However, its rate, and the height it might reach by the end of the century remain poorly constrained. This study aims to provide better information and precision on the rates and magnitudes of past sea-level change, for periods when sea-level is close to its modern value, using speleothems from Bermudian caves. Speleothems interrupt their growth when they are submerged by sea-water, so U-Th dating periods of growth in coastal sites allows the reconstruction of past sea-level variation versus absolute time [e.g. 2,3,4]. We will present new MC-ICP-MS U-Th ages, trace elements and isotopic data from a set of speleothems (stalagmites, stalactites, flowstones) collected from -14 to +12 m versus modern sea level from several caves in this northern Atlantic archipelago. Relative sea-level (RSL) at Bermuda is of particular interest because it is at a distance from northern hemisphere ice sheets where the isostatic response to ice-unloading is uncertain. RSL reconstruction therefore provides both an indicates of possible rates of sea level change, and a test for glacial-isostatic-adjustment (GIA) models. We will present new relative sea level data for late MIS7, and the different highstands of MIS5. The RSL at Bermuda for these episodes appears to be higher than present. For MIS5a, this is significantly distinct from what is expected from the eustatic sea level. These results will be considered in the context of previous assessments of eustatic change, and of GIA models. [1] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report, Cambridge Univ. Press. [2] Harmon et al. (1981) Nature 289, 357-360. [3] Richards et al. (1994) Nature 367, 481-483. [4] Bard (2002) EPSL 196, 135-146.

  13. Reproductive activity and survivorship of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at different temperatures and relative humidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Lima, T C; Geremias, L D; Parra, J R P

    2010-02-01

    We studied a population of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) identified by morphological and molecular techniques from the semiarid region of the Brazilian northeast. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on the survival and reproductive parameters of L. sativae in cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) (Fabales: Fabaceae) was evaluated. We used temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C (50 +/- 10% RH) and relative humidity values of 30, 50, 70, and 90 +/- 10% (25 +/- 1 degrees C) under a 14 L:10 D photoperiod. Adult longevity decreased as temperature and relative humidity increased and was greater, in general, for females. The preoviposition and oviposition periods also decreased as temperature increased, whereas relative humidity only caused reductions in the oviposition period at higher levels. Fecundity was similar in the range from 18 to 30 degrees C but decreased at 32 degrees C with respect to relative humidity; the best performances of L. sativae occurred at lower levels. The pattern of oviposition rate changed with temperature and relative humidity. Regardless of temperature and relative humidity, L. sativae laid between 75 and 92% of its eggs on the adaxial surface of the cowpea leaves. This information will be highly useful to design a leafminer production system aimed at the multiplication of natural enemies, as well as for pest management in the field.

  14. Land subsidence and relative sea-level rise in the southern Chesapeake Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack; Pope, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The southern Chesapeake Bay region is experiencing land subsidence and rising water levels due to global sea-level rise; land subsidence and rising water levels combine to cause relative sea-level rise. Land subsidence has been observed since the 1940s in the southern Chesapeake Bay region at rates of 1.1 to 4.8 millimeters per year (mm/yr), and subsidence continues today. This land subsidence helps explain why the region has the highest rates of sea-level rise on the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Data indicate that land subsidence has been responsible for more than half the relative sea-level rise measured in the region. Land subsidence increases the risk of flooding in low-lying areas, which in turn has important economic, environmental, and human health consequences for the heavily populated and ecologically important southern Chesapeake Bay region. The aquifer system in the region has been compacted by extensive groundwater pumping in the region at rates of 1.5- to 3.7-mm/yr; this compaction accounts for more than half of observed land subsidence in the region. Glacial isostatic adjustment, or the flexing of the Earth’s crust in response to glacier formation and melting, also likely contributes to land subsidence in the region.

  15. Prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level among medical students in Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, depression among medical students is an important health issue at the global level. There is also a paucity of information on its relation to the stress level. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level and other factors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, coastal south India. Beck Depression Inventory Scale was used for screening of depression and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale to assess perceived stress level. Data on associated factors were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 48.4% (215/444. According to the cutoff scores, 229 (51.6% students scored as normal (0–9, 149 (33.6% as mild (10–18, 60 (13.5% as moderate (19–29, 3 (0.7% as severe (30–40, and 3 (0.7% students scored as very severe (>40 depression. Depression was significantly less among those with mild stress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.010 and moderate stress level (adjusted OR = 0.099 compared to severe stress level and those without interpersonal problems (adjusted OR = 0.448. Conclusion: Depression is more common among medical students. Stress coping mechanisms and improvement of interpersonal relationship may help to reduce depressive symptoms among medical students.

  16. [Benzodiazepine prescription in the elderly in different health care levels: characteristics and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Baztán, Agurne; Roqueta, Cristina; Martínez-Fernández, M Isabel; Colprim, Daniel; Puertas, Pedro; Miralles, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of benzodiazepine (BZD) prescription and the factors related to prescribing them in the elderly in the community, in an acute general hospital (AH) and in a convalescence geriatric unit (CGU). Retrospective study of 334 CGU inpatients discharged from an AH. A comprehensive geriatric assessment included functional and cognitive evaluation before hospitalization, at admission and at discharge from CGU (Barthel index, Lawton index and Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination), as well as comorbidity (Charlson index), polypharmacy and social situation. The percentage of benzodiazepine prescriptions at the different healthcare levels was compared and their related factors were evaluated (Chi-squared test). The prevalence of benzodiazepine prescriptions in the community was 23.6%, and being female and polypharmacy were related factors to prescribing at this level. During AH admission, this proportion increased up to 38.6%, and after CGU admission decreased to 21.,9%. Factors related to prescription in AH were, being female, polypharmacy and osteoarticular-fracture related diagnosis, and in CGU, being female and polypharmacy. The prevalence of benzodiazepine prescribing was high among elderly people at every healthcare level (community, AH and CGU), and polypharmacy was one of the significant factors associated with prescribing. This prescribing was increased during AH admission due to a medical or surgical process. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum APOE, leptin, CFH and HTRA1 levels in Pakistani age related macular degeneration patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Ambreen, Fareeha

    2017-06-01

    To determine the association between serum levels of apolipoprotein E, leptin, complimentary factor H and high temperature requirement A-1 in patients with age-related macular degeneration. This case-control study was conducted at the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, from May to October 2013, and comprised patients with age-related macular degeneration and matching controls. The confirmation of age-related macular degeneration was carried out through slit lamp examination, fundoscopy and ocular coherence tomography. The selected subjects were not suffering with any other systemic or ophthalmic complication(s). Serum apolipoprotein E, leptin, complimentary factor H and high temperature requirement A-1 were estimated in serum samples of all subjects. SPSS 18 was used for data analysis. Of the 190 participants, 90(47.4%) were patients with age-related macular degeneration and 100(52.6%) were controls. Significantly elevated serum apolipoprotein E (page-related macular degeneration patients.

  18. New Relations for Gauge-Theory and Gravity Amplitudes at Loop Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Song; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2017-04-21

    In this Letter, we extend the tree-level Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) amplitude relations to loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity. By rearranging the propagators of gauge and gravity loop integrands, we propose the first manifestly gauge- and diffeomorphism-invariant formulation of their double-copy relations. The one-loop KLT formula expresses gravity integrands in terms of more basic gauge invariant building blocks for gauge-theory amplitudes, dubbed partial integrands. The latter obey a one-loop analogue of the BCJ relations, and both KLT and BCJ relations are universal to bosons and fermions in any number of spacetime dimensions and independent on the amount of supersymmetry. Also, one-loop integrands of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory are related to partial integrands of pure gauge theories.

  19. Technology, Incentives, or Both? Factors Related to Level of Hospital Health Information Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sunny C; Everson, Jordan; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2018-02-28

    To assess whether the level of health information exchange (HIE) in U.S. hospitals is related to technology capabilities, incentives to exchange, or both. A total of 1,812 hospitals attesting to stage 2 of Medicare's Meaningful Use Incentive Program through April 2016. Hospital-level, multivariate OLS regression with state fixed effects was used to analyze the relationship between technology capability and incentives measures, and percent of care transitions with summary of care records (SCRs) sent electronically to subsequent providers. Stage 2 hospitals reported sending SCRs electronically for an average of 41 percent (median = 33 percent) of transitions. HIE level is related to four capability measures, one incentive measure, and one measure that is related to both capability and incentive. Percent of transitions with SCRs sent electronically was 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.1-5.1) for hospitals with a third-party HIE vendor, 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.5-5.4) for hospitals with an EHR vendor as their HIE vendor, and 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.4-5.4) for hospitals that automatically alert primary care providers. The direction and statistical significance of the relationships between specific EHR vendor and electronic SCR transmission level varied by vendor. Nonprofits and government hospitals performed 5 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 1.5-9.1) and 8 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 3.4-12.3) than for-profits. Hospitals in systems performed 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.8-6.1). The overall level of HIE is low, with hospitals sending an SCR electronically for less than half of patient transitions. Specific hospital characteristics related to both technology capabilities and incentives were associated with higher levels of HIE. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Breast Density Notification Legislation and Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis: Early Evidence from the SEER Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Ilana; Asch, Steven M; Bendavid, Eran; Bhattacharya, Jay; Owens, Douglas K

    2017-06-01

    Twenty-eight states have passed breast density notification laws, which require physicians to inform women of a finding of dense breasts on mammography. To evaluate changes in breast cancer stage at diagnosis after enactment of breast density notification legislation. Using a difference-in-differences analysis, we examined changes in stage at diagnosis among women with breast cancer in Connecticut, the first state to enact legislation, compared to changes among women in control states. We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) registry, 2005-2013. Women ages 40-74 with breast cancer. Breast density notification legislation, enacted in Connecticut in October of 2009. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Our study included 466,930 women, 25,592 of whom lived in Connecticut. Legislation was associated with a 1.38-percentage-point (95 % CI 0.12 to 2.63) increase in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states who had localized invasive cancer at the time of diagnosis, and a 1.12-percentage-point (95 % CI -2.21 to -0.08) decline in the proportion of women with ductal carcinoma in situ at diagnosis. Breast density notification legislation was not associated with a change in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states with regional-stage (-0.09 percentage points, 95 % CI -1.01 to 1.02) or metastatic disease (-0.24, 95 % CI -0.75 to 0.28). County-level analyses and analyses limited to women younger than 50 found no statistically significant associations. Single intervention state, limited follow-up, potential confounding from unobserved trends. Breast density notification legislation in Connecticut was associated with a small increase in the proportion of women diagnosed with localized invasive breast cancer in individual-level but not county-level analyses. Whether this finding reflects potentially beneficial early detection or potentially harmful overdiagnosis is not known. Legislation was not

  1. Failure of tooth eruption and brachydactyly in pseudohypoparathyroidism are not related to plasma parathyroid hormone-related protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Mariana Tenorio Antunes; Matias, Diogo Toledo; Faria, Maria Estela Justamante de; Martin, Regina Matsunaga

    2016-04-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a genetic disorder characterized by resistance to the peripheral action of PTH due to maternally inherited heterozygous inactivating mutations in the coding sequence of Gsα or intronic regions of GNAS leading to aberrant splice variants (PHP1A), or methylation defects at GNAS (PHP1B). Brachydactyly is a clinical feature associated with both PHP1A and PHP1B, although it is more frequent in PHP1A patients. Loss-of-function mutations in PTHLH, the gene coding for parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) were previously described in some patients with brachydactyly. Primary failure of tooth eruption (PFE) is related to some syndromes involving skeletal development, but it is also known as a nonsyndromic autosomal dominant condition. Previous studies showed that familial nonsyndromic PFE is caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the G protein-coupled receptor (PTH1R) for PTH and PTHrP. Thus, we hypothesized that PTHrP resistance could result in failure of tooth eruption (FTE) and/or brachydactyly in PHP. Nineteen patients with a molecular diagnosis of PHP underwent dental panoramic radiography (DPR), hand radiography and had their PTHrP levels measured. Patients with alterations at DPR were submitted to clinical dental evaluation. Nine patients had FTE and 7 patients had brachydactyly; 4 patients presented both features and none of them presented high PTHrP levels. Fourteen patients had PTHrP levels within the normal range and only one patient had slightly elevated PTHrP levels. Additionally, three novel GNAS mutations were described. We described the dental abnormalities in a large series of PHP patients that were followed in a single tertiary center. No relationship between plasma PTHrP levels and failure of tooth eruption, dental manifestations of PHP or brachydactyly was found. It is important that doctors pay attention to dental manifestations of the disease in order to refer patients to a proper care with

  2. Height, Weight, and Aerobic Fitness Level in Relation to the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    Tall stature and obesity have been associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but there have been conflicting reports of the effects of aerobic fitness. We conducted a national cohort study to examine interactions between height or weight and level of aerobic fitness among 1,547,478 Swedish military conscripts during 1969-1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men) in relation to AF identified from nationwide inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximal age, 62 years). Increased height, weight, and aerobic fitness level (but not muscular strength) at age 18 years were all associated with a higher AF risk in adulthood. Positive additive and multiplicative interactions were found between height or weight and aerobic fitness level (for the highest tertiles of height and aerobic fitness level vs. the lowest, relative excess risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40, 0.62; ratio of hazard ratios = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.65). High aerobic fitness levels were associated with higher risk among men who were at least 186 cm (6 feet, 1 inch) tall but were protective among shorter men. Men with the combination of tall stature and high aerobic fitness level had the highest risk (for the highest tertiles vs. the lowest, adjusted hazard ratio = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.80). These findings suggest important interactions between body size and aerobic fitness level in relation to AF and may help identify high-risk subgroups.

  3. Alterations of serum levels of BDNF-related miRNAs in patients with depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Jie Li

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious and potentially life-threatening mental disorder with unknown etiology. Emerging evidence shows that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and microRNAs (miRNAs play critical roles in the etiology of depression. Here this study was aimed to identify and characterize the roles of BDNF and its putative regulatory miRNAs in depression. First, we identified that miR-182 may be a putative miRNA that regulates BDNF levels by bioinformatic studies, and characterized the effects of miR-182 on the BDNF levels using cell-based studies, side by side with miR-132 (a known miRNA that regulates BDNF expression. We showed that treatment of miR-132 and miR-182 respectively decreased the BDNF protein levels in a human neuronal cell model, supporting the regulatory roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF expression. Furthermore, we explored the roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF levels in depression using human subjects by assessing their serum levels. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with depression showed lower serum BDNF levels (via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and higher serum miR-132 and miR-182 levels (via the real-time PCR. Finally, the Pearson's (or Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to study whether there was a relationship among the Self-Rating Depression Scale score, the serum BDNF levels, and serum BDNF-related miRNA levels. Our results revealed that there was a significant negative correlation between the SDS scores and the serum BDNF levels, and a positive correlation between the SDS scores and miR-132 levels. In addition, we found a reverse relationship between the serum BDNF levels and the miR-132/miR-182 levels in depression. Collectively, we provided evidence supporting that miR-182 is a putative BDNF-regulatory miRNA, and suggested that the serum BDNF and its related miRNAs may be utilized as important biomarkers in the diagnosis or as therapeutic targets of depression.

  4. Relation between serum vitamin B12 level and duration of treatment with carbamazepine in epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tariqul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 levels in the serum of 58 epileptic patients receiving only carbamazepine for at least 6 months were measured. Same number of epilepsy patients with no history of taking antiepileptic medicine were taken as control. The mean level of vitamin B12 in carbamazepine-treated epileptic patients was 265.5 pg/mL whereas it was 478.3 pg/mL in control. Increased duration of treatment of carbamazepine in epilepsy caused significantly decreased level of serum vitamin B12 (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.9, p<0.0001. In conclusion, serum vitamin B12 level significantly decreased in relation to duration of carbamazepine treatment in epileptic patients.

  5. Soluble Mesothelin-Related Peptides Levels in Patients with Malignant Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Franko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP are a potential tumor marker for malignant mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in SMRP levels in patients with malignant mesothelioma before treatment and in various responses to treatment and to investigate whether SMRP level could be useful in evaluating tumor response to treatment. The study included patients with malignant mesothelioma treated at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana between March 2007 and December 2009. Blood samples were collected before treatment and/or in various responses to treatment. SMRP levels were determined using ELISA assay based upon a combination of two monoclonal antibodies. Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the differences in SMRP levels in various responses to treatment.

  6. Pharmacovigilance in oncology: pattern of spontaneous notifications, incidence of adverse drug reactions and under-reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Berlofa Visacri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The high toxicity and narrow therapeutic window of antineoplastic agents makes pharmacovigilance studies essential in oncology. The objectives of the current study were to analyze the pattern of spontaneous notifications of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in oncology patients and to analyze the incidence of ADRs reported by outpatients on antineoplastic treatment in a tertiary care teaching hospital. To compose the pattern of ADR, the notification forms of reactions in oncology patients in 2010 were reviewed, and the reactions were classified based on the drug involved, mechanism, causality, and severity. To evaluate the incidence of reactions, a questionnaire at the time of chemotherapy was included, and the severity was classified based on the Common Terminology Criteria. The profiles of the 10 responses reported to the Pharmacovigilance Sector were type B, severe, possible, and they were primarily related to platinum compounds and taxanes. When the incidence of reactions was analyzed, it was observed that nausea, alopecia, fatigue, diarrhea, and taste disturbance were the most frequently reported reactions by oncology patients, and the grade 3 and 4 reactions were not reported. Based on this analysis, it is proposed that health professionals should be trained regarding notifications and clinical pharmacists should increasingly be brought on board to reduce under-reporting of ADRs.

  7. An Inverse Relative Age Effect in Male Alpine Skiers at the Absolute Top Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Øyvind; Pedersen, Arve Vorland; Aune, Tore K; Lorås, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    The Relative Age Effect (RAE) can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men ( N = 234) and women ( N = 235). The data indicated that the relatively younger male athletes at the absolute top level had accumulated, on average, more World Cup points compared to the relatively older skiers. No such effect was observed among the female skiers. This finding suggest the existence of a reversed relative age effect in male elite alpine skiing.

  8. EXAMINING THE STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING LEVEL TOWARDS THE CONCEPTS OF SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özcan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Special theory of relativity is one of the difficult subjects of physics to be understood by the students. The current research designed as a qualitative research aim to determine the pre-service physics teachers’ understanding level and the alternative conceptions about three core concepts of special theory of relativity, such as time dilatation, length contraction and reference frames. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and were analyzed by using content analysis. At the end of the analysis process the understanding level of the students was determined to be “complete understanding”, “incomplete understanding” and “misunderstanding”. In order to achieve this, the students’ conceptual frameworks based on the operational definitions made by the students were determined firstly. The findings obtained in this research indicate that high school teachers as well as university instructors should take special care with some points in the teaching of the subjects related with special theory of relativity. This research might be useful to other studies to be done in the future, especially for investigating the students’ mental models related to special theory of relativity.

  9. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. An Inverse Relative Age Effect in Male Alpine Skiers at the Absolute Top Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Bjerke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Relative Age Effect (RAE can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men (N = 234 and women (N = 235. The data indicated that the relatively younger male athletes at the absolute top level had accumulated, on average, more World Cup points compared to the relatively older skiers. No such effect was observed among the female skiers. This finding suggest the existence of a reversed relative age effect in male elite alpine skiing.

  11. Increased serum level of prolactin is related to autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, Q; Yang, X; Li, M

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to aid effector B cells and augment autoimmunity, but the role of PRL in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of PRL and autoantibody production in SLE. Blood levels of PRL, anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in samples from 30 adult patients with SLE and 25 healthy controls. The relationships between the serum level of PRL and SLE disease activity, as well as the titres of the ds-DNA antibody, IgM and IgG were determined. The serum level of PRL was higher in the SLE patients than in the healthy controls. PRL concentration increased during SLE flares-ups and decreased following disease remission. There was a positive correlation between the PRL concentration and serum levels of IgM, IgG and ds-DNA antibody titre. These data suggest that the serum level of PRL was closely related to the antibody production and disease activity of SLE patients. PRL concentration was dramatically reduced upon the remission of disease activity, indicating that PRL levels might be a promising predictor of SLE disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Education mitigates age-related decline in N-Acetylaspartate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M; Radchenkova, Polina; Sutton, Bradley P; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-03-01

    Greater educational attainment is associated with better neurocognitive health in older adults and is thought to reflect a measure of cognitive reserve. In vivo neuroimaging tools have begun to identify the brain systems and networks potentially responsible for reserve. We examined the relationship between education, a commonly used proxy for cognitive reserve, and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in neurologically healthy older adults (N=135; mean age=66 years). Using single voxel MR spectroscopy, we predicted that higher levels of education would moderate an age-related decline in NAA in the frontal cortex. After controlling for the variance associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, sex, annual income, and creatine levels, there were no significant main effects of education (B=0.016, P=0.787) or age (B=-0.058, P=0.204) on NAA levels. However, consistent with our predictions, there was a significant education X age interaction such that more years of education offset an age-related decline in NAA (B=0.025, P=0.031). When examining working memory via the backwards digit span task, longer span length was associated with greater education (Peducation interaction on digit span performance nor a significant moderated mediation effect between age, education, and NAA on digit span performance. Taken together, these results suggest that higher levels of education may attenuate an age-related reduction in neuronal viability in the frontal cortex.

  13. Inflammation-related microRNA expression level in the bovine milk is affected by mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Chang; Fujikawa, Takuro; Maemura, Tadashi; Ando, Takaaki; Kitahara, Go; Endo, Yasuyuki; Yamato, Osamu; Koiwa, Masateru; Kubota, Chikara; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) in tissue and liquid samples have been shown to be associated with many diseases including inflammation. We aimed to identify inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine mastitis milk. Expression level of inflammation-related miRNA in milk from mastitis-affected and normal cows was analyzed using qPCR. We found that expression level of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 was significantly upregulated in California mastitis test positive (CMT+) milk. We further analyzed these miRNA using a chip-based QuantStudio Digital PCR System. The digital PCR results correlated with those of qPCR, demonstrating upregulation of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-222, and miR-383 in CMT+ milk. In conclusion, we identified miRNA that are upregulated in CMT+ milk. These miRNA exhibited sensitivity and specificity greater than 80% for differentiating between CMT+ milk and normal milk. Our findings suggest that inflammation-related miRNA expression level in the bovine milk was affected by mastitis, and miRNA in milk have potential for use as biomarkers of bovine mastitis.

  14. Menstrual Irregularities and Related Plasma Hormone Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated with Beta Interferone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehya Garshasbi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of central nervous system.Women are more susceptible to this disease. One of the obvious clinical complaints in women with multiple sclerosis specially treated with Beta Interferones is menstrual cycle irregularity. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of menstrual irregularities and probable changes in blood levels of related hormones (FSH, LH, PRL, TSH, T4, T3 in 58 females with definite MS treated with beta interferones versus 58 healthy women. In comparison to the control group, the patients had higher prevalence of irregular menstruation (P=0.001, oligomenorrhea (p=0.03, abnormal amount of menstrual blood flow (P=0.001, abnormal duration of menstrual flow (P=0.01 and missed period (P=0.04. Mean LH level in patients group was higher than control group (P=0.04.Hyperprolactinemia (>25.5ng/ml was more prevalent in patients group .There were not a significant difference in plasma levels of FSH and thyroid hormones between two groups. There were some relations between the type of Beta interferones and the subtype of menstrual irregularities in the patients. In conclusion, the results of this study emphasized the high rate of menstrual problem and changes of related plasma hormone levels in MS patients.

  15. 76 FR 72684 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... (EEFC) or Commercial Fire Control, or Modular Mission Computers, ALQ-213 Electronic Warfare Management Systems, ALE- 47 Countermeasures Dispenser Systems, Cartridge Actuated [[Page 72686

  16. Design of a Scalable Event Notification Service: Interface and Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carzaniga, Antonio; Rosenblum, David S; Wolf, Alexander L

    1998-01-01

    Event-based distributed systems are programmed to operate in response to events. An event notification service is an application-independent infrastructure that supports the construction of event-based systems...

  17. 77 FR 46421 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The..., government furnished equipment, common hardware and software, communication support equipment, tools and test..., common hardware and software, communication support equipment, tools and test equipment, spare and repair...

  18. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  19. Association of hair iron levels with creativity and psychological variables related to creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru eTakeuchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Previous studies have suggested an association between creativity and the dopaminergic system, and that physical activity facilitates creativity. Iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and physical activity. Here, we newly investigated the associations between hair iron levels and creativity, dopamine-related traits and states [novelty seeking, extraversion, and vigor (motivational state], as well as the physical activity level. In the present study, we addressed this issue by performing a hair mineral analysis to determine iron levels and a behavioral creativity test of divergent thinking and related psychological measures among young adults (254 men, 88 women; mean age 20.79 ± 2.03 years. Iron levels did not show any significant association with creativity but displayed significant positive associations with novelty seeking, extraversion, and physical activity level. These results may be partly congruent with the notion that iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and imply that iron is important for traits and physical activity, which facilitate creativity. Future interventional or longitudinal studies are warranted to identify any causal effects.

  20. Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan A. Obeidat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (PMS due to primary dysmenorrhea among a sample of university female students, and to explore possible association with vitamin D and parathyroid (PTH levels, as well as frequency of consumption of dairy products. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: One Jordanian university. Subjects: A total of 177 female students aged between 18 and 24 years who experienced primary dysmenorrhea participated in the study and completed a self administered questionnaire to collect information concerning demographics, menstruation- related information, associated specified premenstrual symptoms, and consumption of dairy products. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D level and intact parathyroid hormone level were measured. Results: Of the 177 participants 91.5% had two or more symptoms among which fatigue, mood swings, anxiety, abdominal bloating, and depression were the most prevalent symptoms. There was no evident association between presence of symptoms and vitamin D status, PTH level or dairy products consumption. Headaches and social withdrawal were significantly lower in those women who consumed high amounts of dairy products. Conclusion: Premenstrual symptoms are very common in young women with primary dysmenorrhea. PMS has no relation to levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone or dairy products consumption. Headache and social withdrawal may be affected by dairy product consumption.

  1. The Evaluation Acute Traumatic Stress Level in Close Relatives of Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Yasemin; Ünal, Yes Im; Öztürk, Dilek A; Emir, Gülser K; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Kutlu, Gulnihal

    2017-09-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. Both stroke patients and their family can therefore experience increased traumatic stress level. The participants are close relatives of patients (n=65) who had a first time stroke (CRPWS) hospitalized. A control group (CG) (n=61), who had no history of chronic illness in their family and had at least one traumatic life event experience. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Modified Rankin Scale, Personal Information Form, Life Events Checklist, Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, were used in the study. We found no significant association between NIHSS and MRS of patients and traumatic stress level of the family member. The traumatic stress level was significantly higher in the CRPWS group than in the CG group. Traumatic stress level was higher in women than men and was not associated with perceived social support in the CRPWS group. The traumatic stress level of the relatives was not associated with the clinical features of the stroke patients. In the early phase, after the diagnosis of stroke, psychological support may be important to prevent CRPWS from PTSD.

  2. Pepsinogen I/II ratio is related to glucose, triacylglycerol, and uric acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Muhei; Fukui, Michiaki; Kuroda, Masaaki; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Oda, Yohei; Naito, Yuji; Toda, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Naoto

    2012-04-01

    Under- and overnutrition are associated with a worse prognosis and constitute independent risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is increasingly important to understand the factors that affect nutritional and metabolic statuses. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the pepsinogen I/II ratio and several biochemical markers. A cross-sectional study was performed in 1985 subjects who underwent a health screening test. Subjects had no medications for hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. All subjects were classified into two groups. Subjects with a pepsinogen I/II ratio below 3 were defined as having atrophic gastritis. The relations between the pepsinogen I/II ratio and several biochemical markers, including total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, uric acid, cholinesterase, and glucose levels, were evaluated. The presence of atrophic gastritis was significantly associated with age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and triacylglycerol, uric acid, cholinesterase, and hemoglobin levels. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the pepsinogen I/II ratio was an independent determinant of glucose level (β = 0.104, P < 0.0001), triacylglycerol level (β = 0.072, P = 0.0014), uric acid level (β = 0.048, P = 0.0138), and hemoglobin (β = 0.037, P = 0.0429) after adjustments for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and body mass index. The pepsinogen I/II ratio was related to glucose, triacylglycerol, and uric acid levels. Such an association fosters the idea that a decreased pepsinogen I/II ratio seems favorable for the prevention of overnutrition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards a level playing field for EU’s energy-related taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    It follows from economic theory that externalities are the relevant yardstick for internalizing taxes. Yet with established approaches to account for external costs in Europe, estimates differ from the level suggested with American approaches, though we might see some convergence in methodologies...... in the years to come. Under the present circumstances in Europe legal doctrines seem to have higher prominence than economic—and when the very framework of an EU energy taxation directive is acknowledged, energy-related taxation has indeed a purpose in its own right in creating a more level playing field...

  4. Application of the Generalized Work Relation for an N-level Quantum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ishikawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient periodic operation to obtain the maximum work from a nonequilibrium initial state in an N–level quantum system is shown. Each cycle consists of a stabilization process followed by an isentropic restoration process. The instantaneous time limit can be taken in the stabilization process from the nonequilibrium initial state to a stable passive state. In the restoration process that preserves the passive state a minimum period is needed to satisfy the uncertainty relation between energy and time. An efficient quantum feedback control in a symmetric two–level quantum system connected to an energy source is proposed.

  5. Fermi level alignment in molecular nanojunctions and its relation to charge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Robert; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2006-01-01

    by orders of magnitude. We present a quantitative analysis of the relation between this level alignment (which can be estimated from charging free molecules) and charge transfer for bipyridine and biphenyl dithiolate (BPDT) molecules attached to gold leads based on density functional theory calculations......The alignment of the Fermi level of a metal electrode within the gap of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule is a key quantity in molecular electronics, which can vary the electron transparency of a single-molecule junction...

  6. The roles of emojis in mobile phone notifications

    OpenAIRE

    Tauch, C; Kanjo, E

    2016-01-01

    The texts in mobile messages are not always easy to decipher since tone and body language is removed from the context. Emojis offer an attractive way to express emotions to avoid misunderstandings of message tone. In this paper we shed the light on the roles of Emojis in phone notification, we conducted an in-situ study to gather phone notification data. We outline the relationship between Emojis and various social network applications including WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter. Early results a...

  7. A message queue based event notification system : football lottery system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yunpeng

    2010-01-01

    Master's thesis in Computer science The event notification service enables user of getting informed about the occurrence of their events of interest. Message queue technology provides asynchronous message exchange functions between computer processes. This thesis presents a solution of building event notification system using the message queue approach. The events in the experiment are generated during the football match and used for both stateless and stateful processing. ...

  8. Quantifying and Projecting Relative Sea-Level Rise in The Deltaic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, C. K.; Chung-Yen, K.; Calmant, S.; Yang, T. Y.; Guo, Q.; Jia, Y.; Ballu, V.; Guo, J.; Karptychev, M.; Krien, Y.; Kusche, J.; Tseng, K. H.; Wan, J.; Uebbing, B.

    2017-12-01

    Half of the world's population lives within 200 km of coastlines. Accelerated sea-level rise, compounded by effects of population growth, severe land subsidence due to fluvial sediment compaction/load, and anthropogenic oil and natural gas and ground water extraction, tectonic motion, and the increasing threat of more intense and more frequent cyclone-driven storm surges, have exacerbated the vulnerability of many of world's deltaic regions, including the Bangladesh and the Mississippi River Deltas. At present, understanding and quantifying the natural and anthropogenic processes governing these solid Earth vertical motion processes remain elusive to enable addressing coastal vulnerability due to current and future projection of relative sea-level rise for deltaic regions at the regional scales. Bangladesh, a low-lying and one of the most densely populated countries in the world located at the Bay of Bengal, is prone to transboundary monsoonal flooding, and is believed to be aggravated by more frequent and intensified cyclones resulting from anthropogenic climate change. The Mississippi River Deltaic region has been severely subsiding due primarily to fluvial sediment compaction and load during the last 10 centuries, oil/gas and groundwater extractions, and commercial developments, making it vulnerable to sea-level rise hazards. Here we present results of global geocentric sea-level rise, 1950-2016, separating vertical land motion at global tide gauge datum, by integrating tide gauge and radar altimeter records in a novel sea-level reconstruction scheme, focusing on the Mississippi River and the Bangladesh Deltas. We then integrate the resulting sea level estimates with historic imageries, GPS and InSAR data, as well as sediment isostatic and load model predicted present-day land subsidence, to constrain the 3D land motion to study the impacts of various scenarios of future relative sea level projections on the Bangladesh Delta to the end of the 21st Century and

  9. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  10. Elevated Systemic Levels of Endocannabinoids and Related Mediators Across the Menstrual Cycle in Women With Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Maria; Cioffi, Raffaella; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Verde, Roberta; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Garavaglia, Elisabetta; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Cannabinoids and modulators of the endocannabinoid system affect specific mechanisms that are critical to the establishment and development of endometriosis. The aim of this study was to measure the systemic levels of endocannabinoids and related mediators in women with and without endometriosis and to investigate whether such levels correlated with endometriosis-associated pain. Plasma and endometrial biopsies were obtained from women with a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis (n = 27) and no endometrial pathology (n = 29). Plasma levels of endocannabinoids (N-arachidonoylethanolamine [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and related mediators (N-oleoylethanolamine [OEA] and N-palmitoylethanolamine [PEA]), messenger RNA expression of some of their receptors (cannabinoid receptor type 1 [CB1], CB2, transient receptor potential vanilloid type [TRPV1]), and the enzymes involved in the synthesis (N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D [NAPE-PLD]) and degradation (fatty acid amide hydrolase 1 [FAAH]) of AEA, OEA, and PEA were evaluated in endometrial stromal cells. The systemic levels of AEA, 2-AG, and OEA were elevated in endometriosis in the secretory phase compared to controls. The expression of CB1 was higher in secretory phase endometrial stromal cells of controls versus endometriosis. Similar expression levels of CB2, TRPV1, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH were detected in controls and endometriosis. Patients with moderate-to-severe dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia showed higher AEA and PEA levels than those with low-to-moderate pain symptoms, respectively. The association of increased circulating AEA and 2-AG with decreased local CB1 expression in endometriosis suggests a negative feedback loop regulation, which may impair the capability of these mediators to control pain. These preliminary data suggest that the pharmacological manipulation of the action or levels of these mediators may offer an alternative option for the management of endometriosis

  11. Serum levels of lipid metabolites in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Tivadar; Johnson, William M; Dong, Zhiqian; Maeda, Tadao; Maeda, Akiko; Sakai, Tsutomu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Mieyal, John J; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes adult-onset blindness. There are 2 forms of this progressive disease: wet and dry. Currently there is no cure for AMD, but several treatment options have started to emerge making early detection critical for therapeutic success. Analysis of the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice that display light-induced retinal degeneration indicates that 11-cis-retinal and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were significantly decreased as compared with the eyes of control dark-adapted C57BL/6J mice. In addition, exposure to intense light correlated with higher levels of prostaglandin G2 in the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice. Intense light exposure also lowered DHA levels in the eyes of wild-type C57BL/6J mice without discernible retinal degeneration. Analysis of human serum from patients with AMD recapitulated these dysregulated DHA levels and revealed dysregulation of arachidonic acid (AA) levels as well (∼32% increase in patients with AMD compared with average levels in healthy individuals). From these observations, we then built a statistical model that included levels of DHA and AA from human serum. This model had a 74% probability of correctly identifying patients with AMD from controls. Addition of a genetic analysis for one of the most prevalent amino acid substitutions in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene linked to AMD, Ala(69)→Ser, did not improve the statistical model. Thus, we have characterized a reliable method with the potential to detect AMD without a genetic component, paving the way for a larger-scale clinical evaluation. Our studies on mouse models along with the analysis of human serum suggest that our small molecule-based model may serve as an effective tool to estimate the risk of developing AMD. © FASEB.

  12. Serum Osteoprotegerin Levels Related With Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Pinar; Erdenen, Fusun; Aral, Hale; Emre, Turker; Kose, Sennur; Altunoglu, Esma; Dolgun, Anil; Inal, Berrin Bercik; Turkmen, Aydin

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels in relation to cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on different regimens of renal replacement therapy. A total of 143 patients with CKD and 30 healthy controls were included in this study and divided into five categories, including predialysis patients with chronic renal failure (preD; n = 36), chronic peritoneal dialysis patients (PD; n = 36), hemodialysis patients (HD; n = 35), renal transplant patients (RT; n = 36), and controls (n = 30). Data on demographics, concomitant diseases and CV risk factors, serum OPG levels, and correlates of serum OPG levels were determined. Serum OPG (pmol/l) levels were significantly higher in HD (P <0.001 for each), PD (P <0.001 for each), and preD (P <0.01 vs. control, P <0.05 vs. RT) groups than RT and control groups. Diabetics than nondiabetics in HD (P = 0.008), PD (P = 0.024), and RT (P = 0.004) groups and males than females in PD group (P = 0.021) had higher OPG levels. Serum OPG levels were associated positively with age in HD (P <0.001), PD (P = 0.001), and in overall population (P <0.001). Our findings revealed increased serum levels of OPG in dialysis and preD patients compared to RT and controls. In the patient groups receiving two dialysis treatment, the levels were worse, indicating a more pronounced vascular injury. Age, C-reactive protein (CRP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and cystatin C (CysC) in CKD patients, CRP and PTH in the control subjects, and age and BMI in the overall population were the significant correlates of serum OPG levels. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya [Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Yoshinaga, Jun, E-mail: junyosh@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan); Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  14. [Factors associated with TB/HIV coinfection: evidence from notification data in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, 2001-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Evela da Silva; Saraceni, Valeria; Souza, Alexandra Brito de; Magno, Regma da Silva; Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2017-06-12

    Tuberculosis (TB) in persons living with HIV (PLHIV) is the leading infectious cause of AIDS-related death. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection, evaluate notification of the two diseases over time by probabilistic database linkage, and identify factors associated with AIDS and TB notifications. Prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection was 7.7%. The group of PLHIV with subsequent TB diagnosis was the most representative, despite available preventive measures. Underreporting of TB among AIDS cases was 35%, and 19.6% of TB cases could have been reported as AIDS. For AIDS cases with mention of TB, living in the state capital showed 75% greater odds of being reported to the Tuberculosis Notification System (SINAN-TB), and having died increased the odds of reporting by 40%. Of TB cases with mention of HIV, brown skin color, age 25 to 39 years, living in the state capital, and having evolved to death were associated with higher odds of reporting to the AIDS Notification System. Periodic linkage of these databases can be a powerful tool for programs to decrease underreporting.

  15. Distributions and natural levels of related metals in a trophic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, J.D.

    1976-06-01

    The first objective was to test the hypothesis that metal distributions and trends in organisms are, in part, a function of metal positions in the periodic table in unpolluted ecosystems. The data have shown that large soil crustal abundance differences of related elements (e.g. alkali metals) are proportionately approximated in higher organisms. Concentration factors for related nutritious and nonessential and toxic metals were determined along a trophic pathway. When the concentration factors were reported as the concentration of a particular metal by itself, all metal concentrations increased along the trophic pathway. The second objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that distributions and natural levels of chemically related nonessential and toxic metals can better be known when the metals are reported as a ratio, in ash, of the nonessential or toxic metal to its chemically related nutritious metal (e.g. strontium/calcium) as the metals are transferred through trophic pathways. The data have shown that when this method of reporting metal abundances in trophic levels is used, nonessential and toxic metals are discriminated against, relative to their chemically related nutritious metal, as the metals are transferred through the trophic pathway levels. The third objective was designed to test the hypothesis that surface deposition of toxic metals upon plants influences the trends of metal abundances through trophic pathways. This study indicates that metal pollution in the form of deposition upon plant surfaces bypasses the discrimination mechanisms in plants, and consequently elevates the total body burden in herbivores. It is likely that there is no herbivore defense for this type of metal exposure, because herbivores have probably come to rely, in part, upon the discriminatory mechanism of plants throughout the course of evolutionary history to keep toxic metal burdens low

  16. Morning pentraxin3 levels reflect obstructive sleep apnea-related acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobukai, Yusuke; Koyama, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-11-15

    This study investigated morning levels of pentraxin3 (PTX3) as a sensitive biomarker for acute inflammation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A total of 61 consecutive patients with OSA were divided into two groups: non-to-mild (n = 20) and moderate-to-severe (n = 41) OSA based on their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score. Those patients with moderate-to-severe OSA were further divided into continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treated (n = 21) and non-CPAP-treated (n = 20) groups. Morning and evening serum PTX3 and high-sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured before and after 3 mo of CPAP therapy. The baseline hs-CRP and PTX3 levels were higher in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA than in those with non-to-mild OSA. Moreover, the serum PTX3 levels, but not the hs-CRP levels, were significantly higher after than before sleep in the moderate-to-severe OSA group (morning PTX3, 1.96 ± 0.52; evening PTX3, 1.71 ± 0.44 ng/ml). OSA severity as judged using the AHI was significantly correlated with serum PTX3 levels but not hs-CRP levels. The highest level of correlation was found between the AHI and morning PTX3 levels (r = 0.563, P morning serum hs-CRP and PTX3 levels in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA; however, the reduction in PTX3 levels in the morning was greater than that in the evening (morning -29.8 ± 16.7% vs. evening -12.6 ± 26.8%, P = 0.029). Improvement in the AHI score following CPAP therapy was strongly correlated with reduced morning PTX3 levels(r = 0.727, P morning PTX3 levels reflect OSA-related acute inflammation and are a useful marker for improvement in OSA following CPAP therapy. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Muscle Torque and its Relation to Technique, Tactics, Sports Level and Age Group in Judo Contestants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman’s r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  18. Absorption of technetium by plants in relation to soil type contamination level and time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousny, J.M.; Myttenaere, C. (Louvain Univ. (Belgium). Lab. de Physiologie Vegetale)

    1981-01-01

    Plants of Pisum sativum (var. Merveille de Kelvedon) were grown on seven typical european soils contaminated with different levels of /sup 99/Tc(0.17; 1.7 and 17 ..mu..Ci/kg). Added initially as pertechnetate, the technetium absorption has been studied for three successive cultures. The translocation of technetium from soil to plant leaves is high, but its transfer is reduced in soils rich in organic matter (Fen) or poorly drained (Braunerde). Aging reduces the technetium transfer and modify its relative distribution in plant (relatively more technetium is found in fruits); these results let suppose some modification of the technetium chemical form in soils with time.

  19. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-aged population. Methods Data were obtained from 1211 male and female respondents (39.4 ± 10.9 year, mean ± SD from an Internet-based survey of registrants of an Internet research service. Physical activity level was estimated from the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan, respondents were divided into a recommended group, an insufficient group, and an inactive group according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. Multivariate analyses of covariance were utilized. Results Across both genders, the recommended group had significantly higher physical functioning (PF scores than the inactive group (p Conclusion Individuals who attained the recommended level of physical activity had better scores on some dimensions of HRQOL than those who did not, suggesting that the recommended level of physical activity may be applicable not only to the physiological objective outcomes but also to some dimensions in both the physical and mental aspects of HRQOL.

  20. Progression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrinogen levels in relation to incident type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, Andreas; Williams, Ken; Tracy, Russell P; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Haffner, Steven M

    2006-04-11

    Several studies have shown that fibrinolytic and coagulation abnormalities as well as low-grade inflammation predict cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We studied in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study the relation of incident diabetes to dynamic changes of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen. After a follow-up of 5.2 years, diabetes developed in 140 (16.6%) of 843 individuals (57% women; mean age [range], 54.7 [40, 69] years) (converters versus nonconverters). Baseline and follow-up levels of PAI-1 and fibrinogen (demographically and smoking adjusted) were higher in converters versus nonconverters (mean [SE]): at baseline, 23.7 ng/mL (1.5) versus 14.5 (0.4) and 286.2 mg/dL (4.8) versus 273.6 (2.1); at follow-up, 45.3 ng/mL (3.2) versus 25.9 (0.8) and 292.0 mg/dL (5.6) versus 275.2 (2.5); all P<0.05. In a demographically and smoking-adjusted logistic regression model, the change in PAI-1 was related to incident diabetes (OR for a 1-SD change [CI], 1.75 [1.37, 2.22]; P<0.001) after adjusting for baseline PAI-1 levels. After further adjusting for insulin sensitivity (SI) or waist, change in PAI-1 remained significantly related to incident diabetes (OR, 1.66 [1.28, 2.15], and 1.64 [1.28, 2.10]; P<0.001). In contrast, change in fibrinogen was not significantly related to incident diabetes. Progression of PAI-1 levels over time, in addition to high baseline PAI-1 levels, is associated with incident diabetes. PAI-1 levels (but not fibrinogen) further increase with the rising glucose levels and the development of diabetes. These findings extend the current knowledge on the relation of fibrinolysis and coagulation abnormalities to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Circulating levels of p,p'-DDE are related to prevalent hypertension in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P. Monica; Penell, Johanna; Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van; Lind, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin given to experimental animals increase the blood pressure. We therefore investigated if circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were related to hypertension in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods: One thousand and sixteen subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Twenty-three POPs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Results: Seven hundred and thirty-two subjects (72%) showed hypertension. When the POPs were treated as continuous variables and adjusted for gender only, two PCBs with a low number of chlorine atoms (PCB 105 and 118) were related to prevalent hypertension. Also the OC pesticide p,p'-DDE was related to hypertension. The strongest of these associations was seen for p,p'-DDE (OR 1.35 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.17–1.56, p<0.0001). Following further adjustment also for BMI, smoking status, education level and exercise habits, only p,p'-DDE was still significantly related to hypertension (OR 1.23 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.06–1.43, p=0.006). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of an elderly population, high levels of circulating levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension, further strengthening the experimental findings that POPs might influence blood pressure. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation between POPs and hypertension. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly men and women were analyzed. • The main exposure was circulating levels of 23 different POPs. • Hypertension was defined as ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive treatment. • High levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension

  2. Circulating levels of p,p'-DDE are related to prevalent hypertension in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ulleråkersvägen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Penell, Johanna [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ulleråkersvägen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van [MTM Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, Lars [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin given to experimental animals increase the blood pressure. We therefore investigated if circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were related to hypertension in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods: One thousand and sixteen subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Twenty-three POPs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Results: Seven hundred and thirty-two subjects (72%) showed hypertension. When the POPs were treated as continuous variables and adjusted for gender only, two PCBs with a low number of chlorine atoms (PCB 105 and 118) were related to prevalent hypertension. Also the OC pesticide p,p'-DDE was related to hypertension. The strongest of these associations was seen for p,p'-DDE (OR 1.35 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.17–1.56, p<0.0001). Following further adjustment also for BMI, smoking status, education level and exercise habits, only p,p'-DDE was still significantly related to hypertension (OR 1.23 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.06–1.43, p=0.006). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of an elderly population, high levels of circulating levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension, further strengthening the experimental findings that POPs might influence blood pressure. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation between POPs and hypertension. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly men and women were analyzed. • The main exposure was circulating levels of 23 different POPs. • Hypertension was defined as ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive treatment. • High levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with

  3. Earthquake-related water-level changes at 16 closely clustered wells in Tono, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C.-Y.; Azuma, S.; Igarashi, G.; Ohno, M.; Saito, H.; Wakita, H.

    1999-06-01

    Water-level/pressure data recorded at a dense network of 16 wells of depths ranging from 23 to 201 m within 400 m of the Tono Mine in Gifu prefecture, central Japan, have been studied in search of possible earthquake-related changes. The study area is traversed by the east-west trending Tsukiyoshi fault, which is ordinarily impermeable, sustaining a significantly higher groundwater pressure on the north side of the fault than the south side. On March 16, 1997, a local earthquake of magnitude 5.8 occurred about 50 km south of Tono. The related water-level/pressure changes recorded at different sites showed different features. At three deeper wells on the north side of the fault the water level and pressure showed large coseismic drops (up to 29 cm) followed by larger rises (of as much as 1.8 m). Two days before the earthquake the water level at another deeper well began to show a total drop of about 3 m during the next 2 months. Most of the shallow wells on the north side of the fault showed water-level drops after the earthquake. On the south side, however, only a small delayed surge and a subsequent gradual increase were recorded at a deeper well. Long-term data since 1989 at one of the deeper wells on the north side showed coseismic drops and recoveries for 25 moderate local and large distant earthquakes up to about 1000 km away. The different observed earthquake-related water-level/pressure changes cannot be explained by the static strain field calculated on the basis of poroelastic dislocation models; the changes require earthquake-related permeability changes at the monitoring sites. The high sensitivity of some of the water wells to seismic shaking may be due to the near-critical condition of the tapped aquifer/barrier system beginning several years prior to the March 16 earthquake, such that the local seismic shaking caused by each of the above mentioned earthquakes was sufficient to produce some quickly recoverable fissures in the system, resulting in the

  4. Age-Related Deficits in Efficiency of Low-Level Lateral Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eSchlaghecken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In a masked prime task using a 0-ms prime-target inter-stimulus-interval, responses on compatible trials (prime and target match are usually faster and more accurate than responses on incompatible trials (prime-target mismatch. This positive compatibility effect comprises benefits on compatible relative to neutral trials and costs on incompatible relative to neutral trials. Comparing performance in 2- vs. 4-alternative-response versions of the task indicates that benefits are due to direct priming of a motor response, whereas costs reflect inhibition of the alternative response tendency. The present study investigates whether normal aging is associated with a selective deficit in the inhibitory component, affecting both low-level motor and higher-level executive control. Testing 20 young and 20 older adults, we found that (a overall, prime-induced benefits were of similar magnitude across age groups, but inhibition-based costs were smaller in older compared to young adults; (b increasing the number of response alternatives caused the same pattern of unaltered benefits and reduced costs in both age groups; and (c costs, but not benefits, in the 2-alternative condition were significantly predicted by scores on the digit-symbol substitution task (DSST, independently of age and other background variables. Results demonstrate the possibility of isolating an inhibitory component in low-level perceptuo-motor control. Importantly, this component shows an age-related decline in the absence of a corresponding decline of visuo-motor excitability, and appears to be linked to performance on a higher-level processing speed task. We hypothesize that aging might affect the brain's ability to establish precise short-term lateral inhibitory links, and that even in young adults, the efficiency of such links is a significant contributing factor in higher-level cognitive performance.

  5. Relation of constipation problem and physical activity level in university students

    OpenAIRE

    ilkim Citak Karakaya; Zeynep Kilic; Umut Yilmaz; Mehmet Gurhan Karakaya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is a rarely investigated issue in studies focusing on constipation problem in university students. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the relation of constipation problem and physical activity level in university students, and to find out the strategies they use to cope with constipation. Methods: Socio-demographic characteristics of 194 collegians were recorded and presence of constipation was determined by Rome II Criteria for Co...

  6. METODE RESET PASSWORD LEVEL ROOT PADA RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RDBMS MySQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taqwa Hariguna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Database merupakan sebuah hal yang penting untuk menyimpan data, dengan database organisasi akan mendapatkan keuntungan dalam beberapa hal, seperti kecepatan akases dan mengurangi penggunaan kertas, namun dengan implementasi database tidak jarang administrator database lupa akan password yang digunakan, hal ini akan mempersulit dalam proses penangganan database. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali cara mereset password level root pada relational database management system MySQL.

  7. The Relation Between Skill Levels and the Cyclical Variability of Employment, Hours, and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Keane; Eswar S Prasad

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses micro data to examine differences in the cyclical variability of employment, hours, and wages for skilled and unskilled workers. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that, at the aggregate level, skilled and unskilled workers are subject to essentially the same degree of cyclical variation in wages. That is, relative offer wage differentials between skilled and unskilled workers are acyclical. However, we do find important differences in the patterns of employment and hour...

  8. Evaluation of an online partner notification program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Westergaard, Benton; Mickiewicz, Theresa A; Richardson, Doug; Ling, Sarah; Sapp, Terri; Jordan, Rebecca; Wilmoth, Ralph; Kachur, Rachel; McFarlane, Mary

    2011-05-01

    Internet-based programs for sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV partner notification have generated considerable interest as public health interventions; yet data are lacking to support widespread dissemination. We report on a clinic-based and web-based evaluation of the Colorado inSPOT online partner notification program. Clinic-based surveys were conducted at a large urban STI clinic before and after the implementation of feasible clinic interventions as well as nonclinic campaigns to promote the use of inSPOT Colorado. Questions assessed recognition and use of the site. Website statistics were provided by the inSPOT service, including the number of site hits, e-cards sent, and specific STI exposures identified on the card. Recognition and use of the service among STI clinic patients remained low (<6%) despite the interventions. Site statistics demonstrated an immediate but quickly diminishing response after placement of a banner ad on a popular gay website. Newspaper advertisements and radio public service announcements showed small increases in website use. Analysis of STIs specified on the e-cards, showed scabies and pediculosis as the most-identified STIs, accounting for nearly 30% of all e-cards sent. Clinic survey data indicated that when respondents were faced with the hypothetical situation of being diagnosed with an STI, more than 90% would notify partners in person; only 5% would use e-mail or the Internet. Our data did not support the effectiveness of the inSPOT intervention among a predominantly heterosexual population in a large urban STI clinic.

  9. THE RELATION BETWEEN PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE NEUTROPHILS (PMN AND THE GLICEMIC LEVEL AT THE SPORTSMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cotuna

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We tried to find a relation between the phagocytes activity of the neutrophils and the level of glicemy in athletes applying the ANOVA test, taking into account the fact that hyperglicemy reduces the phagocytes activity of the neutrophils which becomes so more spherical and burden after the contact with foreign particles. The phagocyte activity of neutrophils (PMN had been established through NBT technique and the glicemy level was determined by Hagerdon – Jansen method. From these notices processed by ANOVA test applied on the values of phagocyte activity of PMN and on glicemy level we conclude that does not exist a tendency of association of these two parameters in a relationship.

  10. Tidal Variability Related to Sea Level Variability in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Adam T.; Jay, David A.; Zaron, Edward D.; Talke, Stefan A.; Pan, Jiayi; Lin, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Ocean tides are changing worldwide for reasons unrelated to astronomical forcing. Changes in tidal properties coupled with altered mean sea level (MSL) may yield higher peak water levels and increased occurrence of short-term exceedance events, such as storm surge and nuisance flooding. Here we investigate the hypothesis that changes in relative sea level are correlated with alterations in tidal amplitudes. Our approach focuses on the correlation between short-term (monthly to interannual) fluctuations in sea level with changes in tidal properties of major ocean tides (M2, and K1; S2 and O1) at 152 gauges. Results suggest that sea level variability is correlated to interannual tidal variability at most (92%) of tide gauges in the Pacific, with statistically significant rates between ±10 and ±500 mm per meter sea level rise observed. These tidal anomalies, while influenced by basin-scale climate processes and sea level changes, appear to be locally forced (in part) and not coherent over amphidromic or basin-wide scales. Overall, the Western Pacific shows a greater concentration of tide/sea level correlations at interannual time scales than the Eastern Pacific; 44% and 46% of gauges are significant in K1 and O1 in the west compared to 29% and 30% in the east, and 63% and 53% of gauges in the west are significant in M2 and S2 versus 47% and 32% in the east. Seasonal variation in tidal properties is less apparent in the empirical record, with statistically significant seasonal variations observed at only 35% of all gauges, with the largest concentrations in Southeast Asia.

  11. The Relation Between Blood Lead Levels and Osteoporosis in Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurver Turfaner Ertürk

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic heavy element which is to 90% deposited in bone until the 6th decade and is given to the blood with pregnancy, lactation and physiologic osteoporosis. When it is over certain amounts it may cause osteoporosis and an increase in cardiac events and cancer. In order to evaluate the effect of menopause and osteoporosis on blood lead 20 post-menopausal osteoporotic, 19 non-osteoporotic and 21 pre-menopausal women were selected and their blood levels were measured. In post-menopausal women, its relation with bone mineral density was also investigated. There was no difference between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women and pre and postmenopausal women in terms of blood lead (Pb. There was no relation between age and Pb levels but in non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women there was a negative correlation between Pb levels and duration of menopause. There was no relation between bone mineral density and blood lead whereas blood lead and environmental pollution displayed a meaningful correlation.

  12. How school climate relates to chronic absence: A multi-level latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Johnson, Stacy R; Bettencourt, Amie; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2017-04-01

    Chronic absence is a significant problem in schools. School climate may play an important role in influencing chronic absence rates among schools, yet little research has evaluated how school climate constructs relate to chronic absence. Using multilevel latent profile analysis, we evaluated how profiles of student perceptions of school climate at both the student and school level differentiated school-level rates of chronic absence. Participants included 25,776 middle and high school students from 106 schools who completed a district administered school climate survey. Students attended schools in a large urban school district where 89% of 6th through 12th grade students were African-American and 61% were eligible for the federally subsidized school meals program. Three student-level profiles of perceptions of school climate emerged that corresponded to "positive," "moderate," and "negative" climate. Two predominant patterns regarding the distribution of these profiles within schools emerged that corresponded to the two school-level profiles of "marginal climate" and "climate challenged" schools. Students reporting "moderate" and "negative" climate in their schools were more likely to attend schools with higher chronic absence rates than students reporting that their school had "positive" climate. Likewise, "climate challenged" schools had significantly higher chronic absence rates than "marginal climate" schools. These results suggest that school climate shares an important relation with chronic absence among adolescent students attending urban schools. Implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cattle naturally infected by Eurytrema coelomaticum: Relation between adenosine deaminase activity and zinc levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskopf, Hyolanda M; Schwertz, Claiton I; Machado, Gustavo; Bottari, Nathieli B; da Silva, Ester S; Gabriel, Mateus E; Lucca, Neuber J; Alves, Mariana S; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Morsch, Vera M; Mendes, Ricardo E; da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2017-02-01

    The enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) is critical for modulating the immune system, and in the presence of zinc, its activity is catalyzed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ADA activity in pancreas of cattle naturally infected by Eurytrema coelomaticum in relation to the results of zinc levels, pathological findings and parasite load. For this study 51 slaughtered cattle were used. The animals were divided into two groups: Group A consisting of animals naturally infected by E. coelomaticum (n=33) and Group B of uninfected animals (n=18). Blood and pancreas were collected of each animal for analysis of zinc and ADA, respectively. Infected cattle showed a reduction on seric levels of zinc, and decreased ADA activity in the pancreas (P>0.05). A positive correlation between zinc levels and ADA activity was observed. Thus, high parasite load and severity of histopathologic lesions affect the ADA activity in pancreas, as well as the zinc levels in serum of infected animals (negative correlation between these variables). Therefore, we can conclude that cattle infected by E. coelomaticum have low ADA activity in pancreas, which can be directly related to zinc reduction, responsible for ADA activation and catalyzes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Holocene coastal response to monsoons and relative sea-level changes in northeast peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, David J.; Culver, Stephen J.; Corbett, D. Reide; Parham, Peter R.; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohd; Yaacob, Rosnan

    2014-09-01

    Sedimentological, geomorphic, and ground penetrating radar (GPR) data are combined with optically stimulated luminescence data to define the Holocene evolution of a coastal system in peninsular Malaysia. The Setiu coastal region of northeast Malaysia comprises five geological and geomorphic units representing distinct evolutionary phases of this coastline. Estimated marine limiting point elevations indicate deposition of an early aggradational shoreline associated with a sea-level elevation of -0.1 to +1.7 m (MSLPMVGD datum) between ∼6.8 ka and 5.7 ka, in agreement with previous sea-level studies from the Malay-Thai peninsula. A hiatus occurs in the record between ∼5.7 ka and 3.0 ka, possibly due to a relative sea-level oscillation and shoreline erosion. Long-term relative sea-level fall and possible still-stands created strandplains that are interrupted by aggradational to transgressive paleo-barrier and estuary formation corresponding with brief episodes of RSL rise. Analyses of GPR facies and OSL ages suggest annual clinoform deposition, with geometries dictated by variations in ENSO. These data demonstrate the utility of high resolution studies of coastal facies as useful proxy indicators for paleoclimate studies at subdecadal to millennial time-scales.

  15. Nuisance Flooding and Relative Sea-Level Rise: the Importance of Present-Day Land Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karegar, Makan A; Dixon, Timothy H; Malservisi, Rocco; Kusche, Jürgen; Engelhart, Simon E

    2017-09-11

    Sea-level rise is beginning to cause increased inundation of many low-lying coastal areas. While most of Earth's coastal areas are at risk, areas that will be affected first are characterized by several additional factors. These include regional oceanographic and meteorological effects and/or land subsidence that cause relative sea level to rise faster than the global average. For catastrophic coastal flooding, when wind-driven storm surge inundates large areas, the relative contribution of sea-level rise to the frequency of these events is difficult to evaluate. For small scale "nuisance flooding," often associated with high tides, recent increases in frequency are more clearly linked to sea-level rise and global warming. While both types of flooding are likely to increase in the future, only nuisance flooding is an early indicator of areas that will eventually experience increased catastrophic flooding and land loss. Here we assess the frequency and location of nuisance flooding along the eastern seaboard of North America. We show that vertical land motion induced by recent anthropogenic activity and glacial isostatic adjustment are contributing factors for increased nuisance flooding. Our results have implications for flood susceptibility, forecasting and mitigation, including management of groundwater extraction from coastal aquifers.

  16. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  17. Antimüllerian hormone levels are independently related to ovarian hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L.; Wroblewski, Kristen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Mortensen, Monica; Ehrmann, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels to polycystic ovaries and ovarian androgenic function. Design Prospective case-control study. Setting General clinical research center. Participant(s) Eumenorrheic asymptomatic volunteers without (V-NO; n = 19; reference population) or with (V-PCO; n = 28) a polycystic ovary and hyperandrogenemic anovulatory subjects grouped according to ovarian function into typical PCOS (PCOS-T; n = 37) and atypical PCOS (PCOS-A; n = 18). Intervention(s) Pelvic ultrasonography, short dexamethasone androgen-suppression test (SDAST), and GnRH agonist (GnRHag) test. Main Outcome Measure(s) Baseline AMH levels were related to polycystic ovary status, testosterone response to SDAST, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to GnRHag test. Result(s) AMH levels correlated with SDAST and GnRHag test outcomes. AMH was elevated (>6.2 ng/mL) in 32% of V-PCO versus 5% V-NO. The 21% of V-PCO who met Rotterdam PCOS criteria all had functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, but AMH levels were similar to nonhyperandrogenic V-PCO. AMH >10.7 ng/mL discriminated V-PCO from PCOS with 96% specificity and 41% sensitivity for PCOS-T, and insignificantly for PCOS-A. Conclusion(s) AMH levels are independently related to ovarian androgenic function and polycystic ovaries. Very high AMH levels are specific but insensitive for PCOS. In the absence of hyperandrogenism, moderate AMH elevation in women with normal-variant polycystic ovaries seems to indicate an enlarged oocyte pool. PMID:22541936

  18. Relations of serum phosphorus and calcium levels to the incidence of cardiovascular disease in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Ravi; Sullivan, Lisa M; Fox, Caroline S; Wang, Thomas J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Gaziano, J Michael; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2007-05-14

    Higher levels of serum phosphorus and the calcium-phosphorus product are associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or prior CVD. However, it is unknown if serum phosphorus levels influence vascular risk in individuals without CKD or CVD. We prospectively evaluated 3368 Framingham Offspring study participants (mean age, 44 years; 51% were women) free of CVD and CKD. We used multivariable Cox models to relate serum phosphorus and calcium levels to CVD incidence. On follow-up (mean duration, 16.1 years), there were 524 incident CVD events (159 in women). In multivariable analyses and adjusting for established risk factors and additionally for glomerular filtration rate and for hemoglobin, serum albumin, proteinuria, and C-reactive protein levels, a higher level of serum phosphorus was associated with an increased CVD risk in a continuous fashion (adjusted hazard ratio per increment of milligrams per deciliter, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.63; P=.02; P value for trend across quartiles = .004). Individuals in the highest serum phosphorus quartile experienced a multivariable-adjusted 1.55-fold CVD risk (95% confidence interval, 1.16%-2.07%; P=.004) compared with those in the lowest quartile. These findings remained robust in time-dependent models that updated CVD risk factors every 4 years and in analyses restricted to individuals without proteinuria and an estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 90 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Serum calcium was not related to CVD risk. Higher serum phosphorus levels are associated with an increased CVD risk in individuals free of CKD and CVD in the community. These observations emphasize the need for additional research to elucidate the potential link between phosphorus homeostasis and vascular risk.

  19. Third Level of International Relations: Characteristics of Sub-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Arteev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is in the genre of the review for textbook O. V. Plotnikova and O. Y. Dubrovina International relations of the regions States: characteristics and features (Moscow: Norma; INFRA-M, 2016. 192 p.. Textbook on international activities of sub-state/subnational actors in international relations. Under the sub-state/subnational actors refers to the regions of the States. The authors propose an along with interstate relations (first level and supranational organizations (second level to distinguish a third level of international relations - international relations of the regions in Federal and unitary States. The topic is very relevant due to the ongoing restructuring of the architecture of international relations and world politics. In addition, these processes lead to involvement in international relations new actors. The resulting configuration and the role of traditional players. In addition to long-term evolutionary processes, we should not forget about the position of Russia in the last few years. It is obvious that the current tensions around the Russian Federation may not be fully resolved with the old methods. At the same time, sub-state/ subnational actors as subjects of a combined nature, the role played by regions of the Russian Federation, able to combine harmoniously in its international activities as the techniques characteristic of the traditional actors - States and developments in the tools of non-traditional actors - international non-governmental and non-profit organizations etc. As a result of positive results can be achieved faster and at the interstate level. The review considers the subject and the relevance of the topic, presents the analysis of the content of the work. Marked strengths of the textbook, including those associated with the consideration of the diagonal ties and the political components in the international activities of the regions. In addition to the advantages, attention is paid to the analysis of

  20. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  1. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Silva

    Full Text Available Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds, sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances. A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads during different performance phases (attack and defense in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3. Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  2. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of

  3. Costs and cost effectiveness of different strategies for chlamydia screening and partner notification: an economic and mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katy; Adams, Elisabeth; Grant, Arabella; Macleod, John; Bell, Gill; Clarke, Jan; Horner, Paddy

    2011-01-04

    To compare the cost, cost effectiveness, and sex equity of different intervention strategies within the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme. To develop a tool for calculating cost effectiveness of chlamydia control programmes at a local, national, or international level. An economic and mathematical modelling study with cost effectiveness analysis. Costs were restricted to those of screening and partner notification from the perspective of the NHS and excluded patient costs, the costs of reinfection, and costs of complications arising from initial infection. England. Population Individuals eligible for the National Chlamydia Screening Programme. Cost effectiveness of National Chlamydia Screening Programme in 2008-9 (as cost per individual tested, cost per positive diagnosis, total cost of screening, number screened, number infected, sex ratio of those tested and treated). Comparison of baseline programme with two different interventions-(i) increased coverage of primary screening in men and (ii) increased efficacy of partner notification. In 2008-9 screening was estimated to cost about £46.3m in total and £506 per infection treated. Provision for partner notification within the screening programme cost between £9 and £27 per index case, excluding treatment and testing. The model results suggest that increasing male screening coverage from 8% (baseline value) to 24% (to match female coverage) would cost an extra £22.9m and increase the cost per infection treated to £528. In contrast, increasing partner notification efficacy from 0.4 (baseline value) to 0.8 partners per index case would cost an extra £3.3m and would reduce the cost per infection diagnosed to £449. Increasing screening coverage to 24% in men would cost over six times as much as increasing partner notification to 0.8 but only treat twice as many additional infections. In the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme increasing the effectiveness of partner notification is likely

  4. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-12-01

    Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat-mortality associations outside of cities. We investigated whether heat-mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009-2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863-1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204.

  5. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat–mortality associations outside of cities. Objective: We investigated whether heat–mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. Methods: We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009–2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863–1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204 PMID:27152420

  6. Brachial blood flow under relative levels of blood flow restriction is decreased in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, J Grant; Ade, Carl J; Black, Christopher D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2018-05-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR), the application of external pressure to occlude venous return and restrict arterial inflow, has been shown to increase muscular size and strength when combined with low-load resistance exercise. BFR in the research setting uses a wide range of pressures, applying a pressure based upon an individual's systolic pressure or a percentage of occlusion pressure; not a directly determined reduction in blood flow. The relationship between relative pressure and blood flow has not been established. To measure blood flow in the arm under relative levels of BFR. Forty-five people (18-40 years old) participated. Arterial occlusion pressure in the right arm was measured using a 5-cm pneumatic cuff. Blood flow in the brachial artery was measured at rest and at pressures between 10% and 90% of occlusion using ultrasound. Blood flow decreased in a nonlinear, stepped fashion. Blood flow decreased at 10% of occlusion and remained constant until decreasing again at 40%, where it remained until 90% of occlusion. The decrease in brachial blood flow is not proportional to the applied relative pressure. The prescription of blood flow restriction should take into account the stimulus provided at each relative level of blood flow. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on alcohol-related medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2017-01-01

    .001).Conclusions: High alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of alcohol-related medical events among those with low compared with high education. This interaction may be explained by differences in vulnerability and drinking patterns across educational groups. See video abstract at, http......Background: Alcohol-related mortality is more pronounced in lower than in higher socioeconomic groups in Western countries. Part of the explanation is differences in drinking patterns. However, differences in vulnerability to health consequences of alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups...... may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...

  8. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-03

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population.

  9. STUDY OF SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN LEVEL AND ITS RELATION TO ERYTHROPOIETIC ACTIVITY IN BETA THALASSEMIA CHILDREN .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Ragab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background  :Serum haptoglobin (Hp is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state.  Objective: We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods: Twenty  two β-thalassemia major (TM ,20 β-thalassemia  intermedia (TI children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered . Serum ferritin , Hp  and transferrin receptor  levels (sTfR  (by ELISA , alanine aminotransferase (ALT and  aspartate aminotransferase (AST  (by colorimetric method were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus  (HCV  were done by PCR. Results:  The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl , 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl  and 122  ± 18.5(mg/dl   for TM ,TI and the controls respectively . Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001  with significant lower level in TM compared to TI  children ( P= 0.034  .Significant inverse correlations were  found between serum Hp and sTfR levels in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI as well as among HCV infected children. STfR   was the only significant independent predictor for  serum Hp level (t= -5.585 , P<0.0001 . Among  HCV infected patients , no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases  .Conclusion:  Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated   well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of  sTfR without significant relation  HCV infection . Large sample  multicenter studies are  recommended.

  10. Relative Sea Level Trends Along the Coast of the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Calmant, S.; Papa, F.; Delebecque, C.; Islam, A. S.; Shum, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    In the coastal belt of the Bay of Bengal, the sea level rise is one of a major threat, linked to climate change, which drastically affects the livelihoods of millions of people. A comprehensive understanding of sea level trends and its variability in this region is therefore crucial and should help to anticipate the impacts of climate change and implement adaptation strategies. This region is bordered mostly by Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand. Here, we revisit the sea level changes in the Bay of Bengal region from tide gauges and satellite altimetry over the period 1993-2014. The 23 monthly mean tide gauge records, used in this study, are retrieved from PSMSL (15 records) and supplemented with Bangladeshi observations (8 records). We show that, over the satellite altimetry era, the sea level interannual/decadal variability is mainly due to ocean thermal expansion variability driven by IOD/ENSO events and their low frequency modulation. We focus on relative sea level rise at major coastal cities and try to separate the climatic signal (long term trend plus interannual/decadal variability) from local effects, in particular vertical land movements. Results from GPS are analysed where available. When no such data exist, vertical land movements are deduced from the combined use of tide gauge and altimetry data. While the analysis is performed over the whole region, a particular attention is given to the low-lyingBangladesh's coastal area.

  11. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in inflammatory bowel disease and related colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuming; Zhu, Yaqun; Pu, Wangyang; Xiao, Li; Li, Kai; Xing, Chungen; Jin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Both of chronic inflammation and abnormal immune in inflammatory bowel disease can induce colon cancer. Previous research showed that cell apoptosis and necrosis become the main source of circulating DNA in the peripheral blood during tumorigenesis that reduced along with methylation degree. However, its role in the process of colitis transforming to colon cancer is not clarified. Drinking 3% DSS was used to establish colitis model, while 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) combined with azo oxidation methane (AOM) intraperitoneal injection was applied to establish colitis related colon cancer model. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in peripheral blood were tested. Morphology observation, HE staining, and p53 and β-catenin expression detection confirmed that drinking 3% DSS and 3% DSS combined with AOM intraperitoneal injection can successfully establish colitis and colitis associated colorectal cancer models. Circulating DNA level in colitis and colon cancer mice increased by gradient compared with control, while significant difference was observed between each other. Circulating DNA methylation level decreased obviously in colitis and colon cancer, and significant difference was observed between each other. Abnormal protein expression, circulating DNA and its methylation level in ulcerative colitis associated colorectal tissues change in gradient, suggesting that circulating DNA and its methylation level can be treated as new markers for colitis cancer transformation that has certain significance to explore the mechanism of human ulcerative colitis canceration.

  12. Sex-related differences in the association of ghrelin levels with obesity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Guillén, Leandro; Ortega, Lorena; Navarro, Pilar; Riestra, Pía; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Garcés, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    The utility of ghrelin as a biomarker may be different depending on gender. The aim of this study was to assess ghrelin levels in a population-based sample of adolescents, and to evaluate their association with obesity and obesity-related parameters depending on sex. The studied population included 601 randomly selected 14-to 16-year-old children. Anthropometrical data were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio calculated. Body composition was assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. Total serum ghrelin levels were determined using a multiplexed bead immunoassay. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA and insulin by RIA. Ghrelin levels were significantly higher in girls than in boys. Serum ghrelin concentrations were significantly lower (pobese than in normal weight (NW) girls, but showed no differences by weight category in boys. Ghrelin showed a significant negative relationship with waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio and fat mass (pgenders, and with weight and BMI (pdifferent association of ghrelin levels with obesity by gender that suggests a different appetite and energy expenditure control depending on sex at this age.

  13. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  14. Linkage of Maternity Hospital Episode Statistics data to birth registration and notification records for births in England 2005-2014: methods. A population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattani, Nirupa; Macfarlane, Alison

    2018-02-15

    Maternity Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data for 2005-2014 were linked to birth registration and birth notification data (previously known as NHS Numbers for Babies or NN4B) to bring together some key demographic and clinical data items not otherwise available at a national level. The linkage algorithm that was previously used to link 2005-2007 data was revised to improve the linkage rate and reduce the number of duplicate HES records. Birth registration and notification linked records from the Office for National Statistics ('ONS birth records') were further linked to Maternity HES delivery and birth records using the NHS Number and other direct identifiers if the NHS Number was missing. For the period 2005-2014, over 94% of birth registration and notification records were correctly linked to HES delivery records. Two per cent of the ONS birth records were incorrectly linked to the HES delivery record and 5% of ONS birth records were linked to more than one HES delivery record. Therefore, a considerable amount of time was spent in quality assuring these files. The linkage rate for birth registration and notification records to HES delivery records steadily improved from 2005 to 2014 due to improvement in the quality and completeness of patient identifiers in both HES and birth notification data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  16. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Zahraei, Nafisehsadat Nekuei; Nazarian, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity) as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03) and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01) negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004). The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03). Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03), social support (P = 0.03), and perceived severity (P = 0.045). Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them.

  17. Relating ASD symptoms to well-being: moving across different construct levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, M K; Borsboom, D; Begeer, S; Geurts, H M

    2017-09-11

    Little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the well-being (WB) of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A plausible hypothesis is that ASD symptomatology has a direct negative effect on WB. In the current study, the emerging tools of network analysis allow to explore the functional interdependencies between specific symptoms of ASD and domains of WB in a multivariate framework. We illustrate how studying both higher-order (total score) and lower-order (subscale) representations of ASD symptomatology can clarify the interrelations of factors relevant for domains of WB. We estimated network structures on three different construct levels for ASD symptomatology, as assessed with the Adult Social Behavior Questionnaire (item, subscale, total score), relating them to daily functioning (DF) and subjective WB in 323 adult individuals with clinically identified ASD (aged 17-70 years). For these networks, we assessed the importance of specific factors in the network structure. When focusing on the highest representation level of ASD symptomatology (i.e. a total score), we found a negative connection between ASD symptom severity and domains of WB. However, zooming in on lower representation levels of ASD symptomatology revealed that this connection was mainly funnelled by ASD symptoms related to insistence on sameness and experiencing reduced contact and that those symptom scales, in turn, impact different domains of WB. Zooming in across construct levels of ASD symptom severity into subscales of ASD symptoms can provide us with important insights into how specific domains of ASD symptoms relate to specific domains of DF and WB.

  18. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03 and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01 negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004. The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03. Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03, social support (P = 0.03, and perceived severity (P = 0.045. Conclusions: Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them.

  19. Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Francis J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not

  20. Smoking,serum antioxidant vitamin levels and age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Akkaya Çakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate associations between the grades of age related macular degeneration(AMDand serum levels of antioxidant vitamins(vitamin A, C and Eand smoking. METHODS: Fifty-three AMD patients and 31 individuals having ages matching with the patient group were enrolled the study. Colored fundus photographs of the macula were used to place participants(n=84into one of the five groups(Grade I-Vbased on the frequency and severity of the lesions associated with AMD. Serum antioxidant vitamin levels were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Smoking status was classified as non-smoker, ex-smoker and current smoker. Total number of packs smoked per year, was defined.RESULTS: The distribution of vitamin A, E, and C levels were 0.874±0.326mg/L, 10.739±4.874mg/L, 1.737±0.447mg/L in control group and 0.880±0.305mg/L, 9.487±6.060mg/L, 1.870±2.191mg/L in AMD group, respectively. The difference between AMD and control group was not statistically significant for vitamin A, E and C levels(P>0.05. There were no significant differences between subgroups of AMD for vitamin A(P=0.881and vitamin E(P=0.293but there was a contradicting rise of vitamin C levels(P=0.044with increasing levels of the disease. There were no significant differences between AMD and control group regarding smoking status, but there was a significant difference for total number of packs smoked per year(P=0.02. An increase of number of total packs smoked per year was determined along with the rising grade of AMD(P=0.007. CONCLUSION: We found no relation between AMD and serum levels of vitamin A and E but vitamin C levels was increase with AMD grades unexpectedly. We found dose-response relationship between smoking and AMD.

  1. Heterogeneity in regional notification patterns and its impact on aggregate national case notification data: the example of measles in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butler Alisa R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A monthly time series of measles case notifications exists for Italy from 1949 onwards, although its usefulness is seriously undermined by extensive under-reporting which varies strikingly between regions, giving rise to the possibility of significant distortions in epidemic patterns seen in aggregated national data. Results A corrected national time series is calculated using an algorithm based upon the approximate equality between births and measles cases; under-reporting estimates are presented for each Italian region, and poor levels of reporting in Southern Italy are confirmed. Conclusion Although an order of magnitude larger, despite great heterogeneity between regions in under-reporting and in epidemic patterns, the shape of the corrected national time series remains close to that of the aggregated uncorrected data. This suggests such aggregate data may be quite robust to great heterogeneity in reporting and epidemic patterns at the regional level. The corrected data set maintains an epidemic pattern distinct from that of England and Wales.

  2. Resilience to traumatic events related to urban violence and increased IL10 serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teche, Stefania P; Rovaris, Diego L; Aguiar, Bianca W; Hauck, Simone; Vitola, Eduardo S; Bau, Claiton H D; Freitas, Lucia H; Grevet, Eugenio H

    2017-04-01

    The exposition to traumatic events related to urban violence is epidemic in Brazil, with rate of 80% in the general population, and is becoming a major cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The objective of the study was to compare serum levels of pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) in PTSD and resilient individuals. We hypothesized that resilient individuals present an attenuated pro-inflammatory and enhanced anti-inflammatory state. We conducted a case-control study comparing 30 resilient individuals and 30 PTSD patients exposed to traumatic events related to urban violence. The groups were evaluated using Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20), Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Davidson Trauma Scale. For all individuals, blood samples were collected to determine IL-6, IL-10 and cortisol serum levels. All samples were frozen at -80°C until the assay and were analyzed with the same immunoassay kit and in duplicates. The resilient group presented higher IL-10 levels than PTSD patients [mean (CI95%); 1.03 (0.52-2.08) pg/mL vs. 0.29 (0.20-0.43) pg/mL; P=0.002]. There were no differences in terms of IL-6 or cortisol levels. The results provided evidence for increased levels of IL-10 in resilient individuals when compared to PTSD patients, probably conferring them a better anti-inflammatory response after exposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stop and think: Exploring mobile notifications to foster reflective practice on meta-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Kalz, Marco; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, smartphone users are constantly receiving notifications from applications that provide feedback, as reminders, recommendations or announcements. Nevertheless, there is little research on the effects of mobile notifications to foster meta-learning. This paper explores the effectiveness of

  4. Public Notification Instructions and Templates for the Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed public notification (PN) templates to help with implementation of the PN Rule. This document aims to assist water systems with the Public Notification requirements specific to the Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR).

  5. 75 FR 4451 - Notification of United States Mint 2010 Commemorative Coin Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Notification of United States Mint 2010 Commemorative Coin Pricing ACTION: Notification of United States Mint 2010 Commemorative Coin Pricing. SUMMARY... Scouts of America Centennial Silver Dollar Commemorative Coins, respectively. [[Page 4452

  6. Risk assessment, identification, and notification (RAIN) system : a novel approach for traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-31

    Primary research focused on the design and development of an energy-efficient Risk Notification Message Dissemination Protocol (RNMDP) for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). RNMDP propagates Risk Notification Messages (RNMs) from a location of origi...

  7. The global coastline dataset: the observed relation between erosion and sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Luijendijk, A.; Hagenaars, G.

    2017-12-01

    Erosion of sandy coasts is considered one of the key risks of sea-level rise. Because sandy coastlines of the world are often highly populated, erosive coastline trends result in risk to populations and infrastructure. Most of our understanding of the relation between sea-level rise and coastal erosion is based on local or regional observations and generalizations of numerical and physical experiments. Until recently there was no reliable global scale assessment of the location of sandy coasts and their rate of erosion and accretion. Here we present the global coastline dataset that covers erosion indicators on a local scale with global coverage. The dataset uses our global coastline transects grid defined with an alongshore spacing of 250 m and a cross shore length extending 1 km seaward and 1 km landward. This grid matches up with pre-existing local grids where available. We present the latest results on validation of coastal-erosion trends (based on optical satellites) and classification of sandy versus non-sandy coasts. We show the relation between sea-level rise (based both on tide-gauges and multi-mission satellite altimetry) and observed erosion trends over the last decades, taking into account broken-coastline trends (for example due to nourishments).An interactive web application presents the publicly-accessible results using a backend based on Google Earth Engine. It allows both researchers and stakeholders to use objective estimates of coastline trends, particularly when authoritative sources are not available.

  8. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Survey of Anxiety Levels and Its Relation to Students Demographic of Alborz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Norouzinia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, changing lifestyles, social relations and the advancement of technology causes fear, threats and concerns of different groups in society, especially students. Adverse impact of Anxiety on the efficacy and talents, personality and social identity formation of students, threat to achieve the goals of academic achievement and mental health. The present study was conducted to determine level of anxiety and some of their demographic correlates in the Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 1390. Methods: This study is a descriptive cross sectional study. The study population included all students of the Alborz university. 305 students were selected by stratified random sampling method. The data collection instrument was a demographic questionnaire and standardized Spielberger Anxiety Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: Based on our results, 64 percent of students were anxious. Anxiety levels were significantly higher in men than women (p=0.049. The level of anxiety and interesting in medical course (p<0.001, non-academic study (p=0.007 and a major physical illness (p=0.009 had significant correlations with together. Conclusion: Results showed a high percentage of students anxious. Regarding the relation between anxiety and other problems such as depression and other disorders including failure in educational function, social relationships and lifestyle, Training courses on coping skills for anxiety and stress as well as consulting services and further guidance is recommended for them.

  10. Testosterone levels in healthy men are related to amygdala reactivity and memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Spalek, Klara; Rasch, Björn; Gschwind, Leo; Coynel, David; Fastenrath, Matthias; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2012-09-01

    Testosterone is a steroid hormone thought to influence both emotional and cognitive functions. It is unknown, however, if testosterone also affects the interaction between these two domains, such as the emotional arousal-induced enhancement of memory. Healthy subjects (N=234) encoded pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and underwent a free recall test 10 min after memory encoding. We show that higher endogenous testosterone levels at encoding were associated with higher arousal ratings of neutral pictures in men. fMRI analysis revealed that higher testosterone levels were related to increased brain activation in the amygdala during encoding of neutral pictures. Moreover, endogenous testosterone levels were positively correlated with the number of freely recalled neutral pictures. No such relations were found in women. These findings point to a male-specific role for testosterone in enhancing memory by increasing the biological salience of incoming information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007. High levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05. The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05. The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions.

  12. Relations between the school physical environment and school social capital with student physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brenton; Trites, Stephen; Janssen, Ian

    2013-12-17

    The physical and social environments at schools are related to students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive effects of the school physical environment and school social capital on the MVPA of students while at school. Data from 18,875 grade 6-10 students from 331 schools who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were analyzed using multi-level regression. Students answered questions on the amount of time they spend in MVPA at school and on their school's social capital. Administrator reports were used to create a physical activity related physical environment score. The school physical environment score was positively associated with student MVPA at school (β = 0.040, p school social capital and MVPA was also positive (β = 0.074, p students attending schools with the lowest number of physical environment features and about 40 minutes/week for students attending schools with the lowest school social capital scores by comparison to students attending schools with the highest scores. The findings suggest that school social capital may be a more important factor in increasing students MVPA than the school physical environment. The results of this study may help inform interventions aimed at increasing student physical activity levels.

  13. Coping strategies in liver patients as a function of relatives' anxiety level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Cabello, E; Martín-Rodríguez, A; Pérez-San-Gregorio, M A; Fernández-Jiménez, E; Sousa-Martín, J M; Bernardos-Rodríguez, A

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether differences in the coping strategies used by liver patients during the pretransplantation phase were a function of their relatives' level of anxiety. We assessed 75 pre-liver transplantation patients and 75 relatives (one per patient). To assess relatives' anxiety status, we used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Questionnaire of Coping with Stress in Cancer Patients (CAEPO) to study patients' coping strategies. Three subgroups of relatives were established as a function of their scores on the HADS anxiety subscale: normal anxiety (G(1)), dubious anxiety (G2), and clinical anxiety (G(3)). To verify intergroup differences in the coping strategies used by the patients, we used the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test. We also performed pairwise comparisons with nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test (with Bonferroni's correction) and Cohen's d as an effect size index. Focusing on the most relevant effect sizes, the pairwise contrasts indicated the following differences: a) normal anxiety (G(1)) and dubious anxiety (G(2)): seeking social support (d = 0.502); b) normal anxiety (G(1)) and clinical anxiety (G(3)): coping and active fighting (d = 0.607), self-control and emotional control (d = 0.658), and seeking social support (d = 0.944); and c) dubious anxiety (G(2)) and clinical anxiety (G(3)): coping and active fighting (d = 0.743), self-control and emotional control (d = 0.722), and seeking social support (d = 0.515). In general, during the pre-liver transplantation study, the liver patients whose relatives showed clinical levels of anxiety used these three healthy coping strategies to a lesser extent: coping and active fighting, self-control and emotional control, and seeking social support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, conjugated diene (CD, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl (PC, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P<0.05. The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01. Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01. And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

  15. Effects of crack cocaine addiction and stress-related genes on peripheral BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovaris, Diego L; Schuch, Jaqueline B; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; da Silva, Bruna S; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Müller, Diana; Stolf, Anderson R; von Diemen, Lisia; Ceresér, Keila M M; Pianca, Thiago G; Szobot, Claudia M; Kessler, Felix H P; Roman, Tatiana; Bau, Claiton H D

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes on susceptibility to crack cocaine addiction and BDNF levels. Crack addicted patients who sought treatment (n = 280) and non-addicted individuals (n = 241) were assessed. Three SNPs in NR3C1 (rs6198, rs41423247, and rs10052957), three in CRHR1 (rs12944712, rs110402, and rs878886), and one in BDNF (rs6265) were genotyped. No significant effect was seen in the case-control analyses. Crack cocaine addicted patients showed significantly lower serum BDNF levels. Significant effects were observed for NR3C1 rs41423247 and rs10052957. These effects were restricted to non-addicted individuals and they were supported by significant gene-by-disease status interactions. For CRHR1, all SNPs were associated with BDNF levels. Although there were significant effects only in the analysis restricted to non-addicted individuals, the lack of significant results in the gene-by-disease status interaction analyses suggest a general effect on BDNF levels. The haplotype analyses presented the same effect seen in the single marker analyses. This study suggests that SNPs in the NR3C1 and CRHR1 genes may influence BDNF levels, but this effect is blunted in the context of crack cocaine addiction. Therefore, our data may be interpreted in light of several studies showing pronounced effects of crack cocaine on BDNF levels. Since peripheral BDNF is a biomarker for several psychiatric phenotypes, our results may be useful in interpreting previous associations between stress-related SNPs, drug addiction, and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated levels of Dickkopf-related protein 3 in seminal plasma of prostate cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenzmaier Christoph

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of Dkk-3, a secreted putative tumor suppressor, is altered in age-related proliferative disorders of the human prostate. We now investigated the suitability of Dkk-3 as a diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa in seminal plasma (SP. Methods SP samples were obtained from 81 patients prior to TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on the basis of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA; > 4 ng/mL levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. A sensitive indirect immunoenzymometric assay for Dkk-3 was developed and characterized in detail. SP Dkk-3 and PSA levels were determined and normalized to total SP protein. The diagnostic accuracies of single markers including serum PSA and multivariate models to discriminate patients with positive (N = 40 and negative (N = 41 biopsy findings were investigated. Results Biopsy-confirmed PCa showed significantly higher SP Dkk-3 levels (100.9 ± 12.3 vs. 69.2 ± 9.4 fmol/mg; p = 0.026. Diagnostic accuracy (AUC of SP Dkk-3 levels (0.633 was enhanced in multivariate models by including serum PSA (model A; AUC 0.658 or both, serum and SP PSA levels (model B; AUC 0.710. In a subpopulation with clinical follow-up > 3 years post-biopsy to ensure veracity of negative biopsy status (positive biopsy N = 21; negative biopsy N = 25 AUCs for SP Dkk-3, model A and B increased to 0.667, 0.724 and 0.777, respectively. Conclusions In multivariate models to detect PCa, inclusion of SP Dkk-3 levels, which were significantly elevated in biopsy-confirmed PCa patients, improved the diagnostic performance compared with serum PSA only.

  17. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; Vandellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time-that is, between one year's achievement and the subsequent year's dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved performance saw decreased dropout rates following these successes. However, we find

  18. Diffusivity of the uncinate fasciculus in heroin users relates to their levels of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, N M L; Cheung, S-H; Chan, C C H; Zeng, H; Liu, Y-P; So, K-F; Lee, T M C

    2015-04-28

    Heroin use is closely associated with emotional dysregulation, which may explain its high comorbidity with disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, the understanding of the neurobiological etiology of the association between heroin use and emotional dysregulation is limited. Previous studies have suggested an impact of heroin on diffusivity in white matter involving the emotional regulatory system, but the specificity of this finding remains to be determined. Therefore, this study investigated the association between heroin use and diffusivity of white matter tracts in heroin users and examined whether the tracts were associated with their elevated anxiety and depression levels. A sample of 26 right-handed male abstinent heroin users (25 to 42 years of age) and 32 matched healthy controls (19 to 55 years of age) was recruited for this study. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected, and their levels of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Our findings indicated that heroin users exhibited higher levels of anxiety and depression, but the heroin use-associated left uncinate fasciculus was only related to their anxiety level, suggesting that association between heroin and anxiety has an incremental organic basis but that for depression could be a threshold issue. This finding improves our understanding of heroin addiction and its comorbid affective disorder and facilitates future therapeutic development.

  19. The Relative Age Effect on Soccer Players in Formative Stages with Different Sport Expertise Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Práxedes, Alba; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Pizarro, David; Del Villar, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    The Relative Age Effect (RAE) in sport has been targeted by many research studies. The objective of this study was to analyze, in amateur clubs, the RAE of soccer players, according to the sport expertise level of the team (e.g., A, B, C and subsequent) that they belong to within the same game category. 1,098 soccer players in formative stages took part in the study, with ages varying between 6 and 18 years old (U8 to U19 categories). All of them were members of 4 Spanish federated clubs. The birth dates were classified into 4 quartiles (Q1 = Jan-Mar; Q2 = Apr-Jun; Q3 = Jul-Sept; Q4 = Oct-Dec)according to the team they belonged to. The results obtained in the chi-squared test and d value (effect size) revealed the existence of RAE in the teams with the highest expertise level, "A" (X2 = 15.342, p = .002, d = 0.4473) and "B" (X2 = 10.905, p = .012, d = 0.3657). However, in the lower level teams, "C and subsequent", this effect was not observed. Present findings show that players born during the first months of the year tend to be selected to play in teams with a higher sport expertise level of each category, due to their physical maturity. Consequently, this causes differences in terms of the experience they accumulate and the motivation that this creates in these players.

  20. Age-related changes in plasma levels of BDNF in Down syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licastro Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of coronary artery diseases is low among Down Syndrome (DS patients and they rarely die of atherosclerotic complications. Histopathological investigations showed no increase in atherosclerosis, or even a total lack of atherosclerotic changes, in DS Aim The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between age and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in Down Syndrome (DS. Subjects and methods Three groups of DS patients were studied: the first consisted of 23 children (age 2-14 years; the second of 14 adults (age 20-50 years, the third group of 13 elderly persons (>60 years and a controls group of 20 healthy patients (age 15-60 years. The analytes of interest were quantified using a biochip array analyzer (Evidence®, Randox Ltd., Crumlin, UK. Results Plasma BDNF was higher in DS patients than in controls and there was a significant age-related increase. Serum levels of IL-6 and MCP-1 were also higher in DS children and adults, but not in older patients, than in healthy control. High levels of circulating BDNF may protect DS patients from the clinical complications of atherosclerosis. However, the striking drop in peripheral BDNF levels with age might predispose these patients to clinical manifestations of dementia in later life.

  1. The relation between serum vitamin D levels and clinical findings of fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Kılıç Baygutalp

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study was performed to identify serum 25-OH vitamin D levels and to investigate the relationship between 25-OH vitamin D and clinical findings on patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. Methods:Nineteen premenopausal women with FMS who were diagnosed according to ACR 1990 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria and 24 premenopausal healthy women as control group were included in the study. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were determined in both patient and control groups. Widespread body pain, headache, fatigue, morning stiffness, sleep disorder, the number of tender points, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ scores and Beck depression scores were evaluated as clinical findings in patients with FMS. Results:Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were significantly lower in patients with FMS than those in control group (p=0.01. There were significantly negative correlations between 25-OH vitamin D levels and widespread body pain (r=-0.731, Beck depression scores (r=-0.777, headache (r=-0.629, and sleep disorder (r=-0.767 in the FMS group (p<0.01. Conclusion: It was concluded that 25-OH vitamin D deficiency may be related to the clinical findings such as widespread body pain, depression, headache and sleep disorder in patients with FMS.

  2. Superoxide Dismutase1 Levels in North Indian Population with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to estimate the levels of superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1 in patients of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and examine the role of oxidative stress, smoking, hypertension, and other factors involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. Methods. 115 AMD patients and 61 healthy controls were recruited for this study. Serum SOD1 levels were determined by ELISA and were correlated to various risk factors. Logistic regression model of authenticity, by considering SOD1 as independent variable, has been developed along with ROC curve. Results. The SOD1 levels were significantly higher in AMD patients as compared to those of the controls. The difference was not significant for wet and dry AMD. However, the difference was significant between wet AMD subtypes. Nonsignificance of the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit statistic (χ2=10.516, df=8, P=0.231 indicates the appropriateness of logistic regression model to predict AMD. Conclusion. Oxidative stress in AMD patients may mount compensatory response resulting in increased levels of SOD1 in AMD patients. To predict the risk of AMD on the basis of SOD1, a logistic regression model shows authenticity of 78%, and area under the ROC curve (0.827, P=.0001 with less standard error of 0.033 coupled with 95% confidence interval of 0.762–0.891 further validates the model.

  3. Preeclampsia and Hypertension During Pregnancy in Areas with Relatively Low Levels of Traffic Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Christian; Håberg, Siri Eldevik; Aamodt, Geir; Stigum, Hein; Magnus, Per; London, Stephanie J; Nystad, Wenche; Nafstad, Per

    2017-12-28

    Objectives Air pollution exposure may contribute to the development of preeclampsia and hypertension during pregnancy. However, the evidence for such a relation is still limited. We investigated the associations between exposure for moderate to low levels of air pollution during pregnancy and preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in selected urban and county areas of Norway. Methods This study used a sub-group of 17,533 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Air pollution levels at residential addresses were estimated using land use regression models and back-extrapolated to the period of each pregnancy. Information on preeclampsia and gestational hypertension were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and information on lifestyle factors was collected from questionnaires completed by the women during pregnancy. Results Moderate mean levels of NO 2 (13.6 ± 6.9 µg/m 3 ) at residential address during pregnancy were not associated with preeclampsia and pregnancy hypertension. We found no statistically significant associations per 10 µg/m 3 change in NO 2 exposure and preeclampsia (adjusted OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08) or hypertension during pregnancy (adjusted OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.78, 1.06). Conclusions for Practice In this large Norwegian pregnancy cohort, we found no statistically significant associations for moderate to low levels of pregnancy NO 2 exposure and preeclampsia or hypertension during pregnancy.

  4. Human resource in tourism and hospitality industry: Relation between level of education and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a concise summary of current problems including the impact of education on (dissatisfaction of human resources in tourism and hospitality industry. In recent years, many researches have been focused on the phenomena of the relation between level of education and job satisfaction of the employees in tourism organizations as it is well known that employee satisfaction enhance competitiveness and efficiency in business. A current issue was set as the fundamental goal in designing this paper, and the basic parameter of the research is employee satisfaction with business operations and working conditions, or to be more precise, examining the extent of (dissatisfaction with the given segments depending on the employees' educational level. This paper represents a synthesis of the electronic research, the analysis of available references, as well as the use of descriptive, analytical and synthetic methods, and it will result in a critical analysis and confirmation (denial of certain hypotheses.

  5. Protein Expression Level of Skin Wrinkle-Related Factors in Hairless Mice Fed Hyaluronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Jin; Song, Hye-Jin; Yu, Heui-Jong; Rha, Chan Su; Kim, Dae-Ok; Choe, Soo-Young; Sohn, Johann

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the wrinkle improving effect of hyaluronic acid intakes. Wrinkles were induced by exposing the skin of hairless mice to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation for 14 weeks. Hyaluronic acid was administered to the mice for 14 weeks including 4 weeks before experiments. Skin tissue was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine protein expression of wrinkle-related markers. The group supplemented with high concentrations of hyaluronic acid appeared significantly better than control group for collagen, matrix metalloproteinase 1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 assay. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and hyaluronic acid synthase 2 (HAS-2) were not shown to be significantly different. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid administration regulated expression levels of proteins associated with skin integrity, and improved the wrinkle level in skin subjected to UVB irradiation.

  6. WBGT clothing adjustments for four clothing ensembles under three relative humidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas E; Luecke, Christina L; Schwartz, Skai W; Kirkland, K Scott; Ashley, Candi D

    2005-05-01

    Threshold limit values for heat stress and strain are based on an upper limit wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) for ordinary work clothes, with clothing adjustment factors (CAF) for other clothing ensembles. The purpose of this study was to determine the CAF for four clothing ensembles (Cotton Coveralls, Tyvek 1424 Coveralls, NexGen Coveralls, and Tychem QC Coveralls) against a baseline of cotton work clothes and to determine what effect relative humidity may have. A climatic chamber was used to slowly increase the level of heat stress by increasing air temperature at three levels of relative humidity (20%, 50%, and 70%). Study participants wore one of the five ensembles while walking on a treadmill at a moderate metabolic rate of 155 W m-2 (about 300 W). Physiological data and environmental data were collected. When the participant's core temperature reached a steady state, the dry bulb temperature was increased at constant relative humidity. The point at which the core temperature began to increase was defined as the inflection point. The environmental temperature recorded 5 min before the inflection point was used to calculate the critical WBGT for each ensemble. A three-way analysis of variance with ensemble by humidity protocol interactions and a multiple comparison test were used to make comparisons among the mean values. Only the vapor-barrier ensemble (Tychem QC) demonstrated an interaction with humidity level. The following CAFs are proposed: Cotton Coveralls (0 degrees C-WBGT), Tyvek 1424 Coveralls (+1), NexGen Coveralls (+2), and Tychem QC Coveralls (+10).

  7. Statin-related aminotransferase elevation according to baseline aminotransferases level in real practice in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Lee, S H; Kim, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Kim, S-H; Choi, I-Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, J H

    2016-06-01

    Higher rate of statin-related hepatotoxicity has been reported for Koreans than for Westerners. Moreover, statin-related aminotransferase elevation for those who show borderline levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤×3 of UNL) at baseline has not been fully investigated. Post-statin changes AST/ALT levels during the first year for 21 233 Korean outpatients at two large academic teaching hospitals from January 2009 to December 2013 were analysed using electronic health record data. The date of the first statin prescription was set as baseline. We also performed a comparative analysis of statin-related AST/ALT elevations according to the type of statin, followed by an analysis of clinical risk factors. The progression rate to abnormal AST/ALT values [>×3 the upper normal limit (UNL)] was significantly higher (2·4-16% vs. 0·3-1·7%, P ×1, but ≤×3 of UNL) compared with normal AST/ALT values at baseline. Those with normal baseline AST/ALT did not show significantly different progression rate between different statin medications (P = 0·801). However, patients taking pitavastatin (HR = 0·76, P = 0·657) were least likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT, whereas those taking fluvastatin (HR = 2·96, P = 0·029) were the most likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT compared with atorvastatin for patients who were with baseline borderline AST/ALT. However, given the small sample sizes and the observational nature of our study, these need further study. It is advisable to regularly monitor AST/ALT levels even in patients with AST/ALT increases >×1. Future studies should aim to determine the possible risk factors for each specific statin type by analysing various confounding variables. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The relations between the academic success levels of the boys playing basketball and certain variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut CANLI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between the academic success levels of the boys playing basketball and certain variables such as age, basketball playing times, the number of the weekly average trainings and motoric skills. Material and Methods: 93 students participated voluntarily in the study from three different sports clubs. The ages in which the participants started basketball varied between 10 and 13, and their durations of weekly trainings differed from each other. The end-of-the-year academic success average points of the participants were considered in determining the academic success levels; and the International Physical Performance Test Profile (IPPTP (Kamar, 2008 was used in measuring the motoric skills. The issue of whether there was a significant difference between the participants was determined by using the SPSS 21.0 Package Program together with the One-Way ANOVA Test. Results: According to the findings, it was determined that there were no relations between the academic success rates and the basketball playing durations, the number of weekly trainings, and their motoric skills (p>0.05. On the other hand, a statistically significant difference was determined between the age variable and the academic success levels (p<0.05. Conclusions: No significant differences were detected between the motoric skills, number of trainings, starting basketball dates and the academic success levels of the sportsmen who receive basic basketball training (which contribute to the development of motoric skills with different numbers of weekly training and with different basketball starting dates; while a negative significance was detected between the age variable and academic success.

  9. Antinuclear antibody levels in Polymorphic Light Eruption and their relation to the severity of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: PLE is an idiopathic photodermatosis characterised by a polymorphic eruption ranging from papulo-vesicular lesions to large plaques, located predominantly in a photoexposed distribution. It is an acquired disease and is the most common idiopathic photodermatosis. It is characterised by recurrent abnormal delayed reaction to sunlight. PLE is the most common idiopathic photodermatosis, the prevalence of which has been estimated to be around 10-20% in USA, England and Ireland. Previous studies have shown elevated levels of ANA in 2.9-19% of patients with PLE. Aim: The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of ANA positivity in a cohort of patients of ethnic kashmiri origin with Polymorphic light eruption and to examine whether there is any relation of their levels with the severity of disease.Methods: Patients with Polymorphic light eruption clinically who attended the Outpatient Deptt. of Dermatology GMC Srinagar were referred to the Deptt. of Biochemistry GMC Srinagar where patients blood samples were analysed for ANA index by ELISA method (BRIO SEAC ITALY.Results: Our study consisted of 36 patients (with 23 males and 13 females with age group ranging between 15-65 years presenting with typical clinical features of PLE without associated autoimmune connected tissue diseases like discoid lupus erythematosus or systemic lupus erythematosus and 20 healthy age and sex matched controls. Two patients (1 male and 1female showed positive results and 1 patient (female showed equivocal results. Among the control group one patient showed ANA positivity. Thus total frequency of ANA positivity of of 5.55% was observed among the cases and 5% among the controls with frequency of 4.34% in males and 7.69% in females.Conclusion: ANA levels were found in 5.55% of patients with PLE, however there is no relation between the levels of ANA in PLE and with the severity of disease (p value >0.05.

  10. The Relative Age Effect on Soccer Players in Formative Stages with Different Sport Expertise Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Práxedes, Alba; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Pizarro, David; Del Villar, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Relative Age Effect (RAE) in sport has been targeted by many research studies. The objective of this study was to analyze, in amateur clubs, the RAE of soccer players, according to the sport expertise level of the team (e.g., A, B, C and subsequent) that they belong to within the same game category. 1,098 soccer players in formative stages took part in the study, with ages varying between 6 and 18 years old (U8 to U19 categories). All of them were members of 4 Spanish federated c...

  11. Serum levels of lipid metabolites in age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Orban, Tivadar; Johnson, William M.; Dong, Zhiqian; Maeda, Tadao; Maeda, Akiko; Sakai, Tsutomu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Mieyal, John J.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes adult-onset blindness. There are 2 forms of this progressive disease: wet and dry. Currently there is no cure for AMD, but several treatment options have started to emerge making early detection critical for therapeutic success. Analysis of the eyes of Abca4−/−Rdh8−/− mice that display light-induced retinal degeneration indicates that 11-cis-retinal and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were significantly decrea...

  12. Application of generic exemption levels for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, C.C.; Bossio, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In essence, exemption is an authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the user of the radioactive source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. This paper briefly describes and analyses these scenarios and also, describes the status of an implementation guide of these levels in the Argentinean Regulatory System. (author)

  13. Application of Generic Exemption Levels for Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Carolina C.; Bossio, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    In essence, exemption is an authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the user of the radioactive source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. This paper briefly describes and analyses these scenarios and also, describes the status of an implementation guide of these levels in the Argentinean Regulatory System. (authors) [es

  14. What factors do relate with plasma B type natriuretic peptide levels? A study by nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Keita; Sarai, Masayoshi; Sato, Takahisa [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2002-02-01

    To find clinical factors relating with plasma B type natriuretic peptide levels (BNP), early and delayed imagings at rest were done in 104 patients with heart diseases (66 males/38 females, mean age of 65.4 y) after the intravenous injection of 111 MBq of {sup 123}I-MIDI (metaiodobenzylguanidine). Myocardial SPECT synchronized with electrocardiography was also done after 600 MBq of {sup 123}I-MIDI injection. In the same day, BNP was measured. Images were taken with ADAC gamma camera VERTEX-plus of 2-detector type. Log BNP was found related with age, H/M(D) (heart/mediastinum count ratio, delayed) and BMI (body mass index) as well as EF (left ventricular ejection fraction) and since the correlation was more significant than BNP, log BNP was considered to be a more sensitive measure. (K.H.)

  15. A study on dietary habits, health related lifestyle, blood cadmium and lead levels of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Nari; Hyun, Whajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Mansoo; Song, Kyunghee

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 and 66.0 ± 6.9, respectively, showing that male students had significantly higher blood pressure than female students (P habits score of female students was significantly higher than that of male students (P improve their dietary and health related living habits.

  16. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathez, D.; Paul, D.; de Belilovsky, C.; Sultan, Y.; Deleuze, J.; Gorin, I.; Saurin, W.; Decker, R.; Leibowitch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials

  17. Changes in carbohydrate levels and relative water content (RWC) to distinguish dormancy phases in sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Heiko; Blanke, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Perennial trees require chilling, i.e. a period of cold temperature in the winter, for flowering next spring; sweet cherry is particularly prone to lack of chilling. The objective of this study is to identify possible transition points to clearly distinguish dormancy phases by relating carbohydrate and relative water content (RWC) in reproductive buds to concomitant chilling fulfilment. This contribution proposes the use of four transition points between the dormancy phases and their characterization in terms of carbohydrates, water contents in combination with chilling values and may allow upscaling to other dormancy studies in trees; two groups of cherry varieties were defined based on their different initial sorbitol and starch level in the autumn. The first separation between para- and (deep) d-endo-dormancy is characterized as a transition from a decrease (variety group 1) or a constant level (variety group 2) to a sharp increase in hexoses and sorbitol and a drop of starch content. The second transition point (d-endo- to f-endo-dormancy) is characterized as the changes in both hexoses (increase) and starch (decrease) terminate and ca. 650 Chilling Hours (CH), i.e. insufficient chilling in the concomitant forcing experiment with cut branches. This third transition point (f-endo- to eco-dormancy) was characterized by ca. 1000 CH, the minimum chilling requirement and restrained flowering (cut branches). The fourth transition point (forcing initiation) marked an increase in water content at ca. 1550 CH, optimum chilling for cherry and coincided with natural flowering. A ratio of hexoses (glucose plus fructose) to starch content (dormancy) and a ratio of 14-20:1 typical for endo-dormancy, whereas the release from dormancy was associated with a decline to less than 10:1 at the end of winter (eco-dormancy). To our knowledge, this is the first time that transition points are identified based on constituents (carbohydrates and relative water content) in floral buds

  18. STD screening, testing, case reporting, and clinical and partner notification practices: a national survey of US physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Montaño, Daniel E; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Phillips, William R; Armstrong, Keira; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-11-01

    This study presents results from a national survey of US physicians that assessed screening, case reporting, partner management, and clinical practices for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV infection. Surveys were mailed to a random sample of 7300 physicians to assess screening, testing, reporting, and partner notification for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. Fewer than one third of physicians routinely screened men or women (pregnant or nonpregnant) for STDs. Case reporting was lowest for chlamydia (37 percent), intermediate for gonorrhea (44 percent), and higher for syphilis, HIV, and AIDS (53 percent-57 percent). Physicians instructed patients to notify their partners (82 percent-89 percent) or the health department (25 percent-34 percent) rather than doing so themselves. STD screening levels are well below practice guidelines for women and virtually nonexistent for men. Case reporting levels are below those legally mandated; physicians rely instead on patients for partner notification. Health departments must increase collaboration with private physicians to improve the quality of STD care.

  19. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging. PMID:24653697

  20. Spontaneous evolution in bilirubin levels predicts liver-related mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

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    Minjong Lee

    Full Text Available The accurate prognostic stratification of alcoholic hepatitis (AH is essential for individualized therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to develop a new prognostic model to predict liver-related mortality in Asian AH patients. We conducted a hospital-based, retrospective cohort study using 308 patients with AH between 1999 and 2011 (a derivation cohort and 106 patients with AH between 2005 and 2012 (a validation cohort. The Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to select significant predictors of liver-related death from the derivation cohort. A new prognostic model was internally validated using a bootstrap sampling method. The discriminative performance of this new model was compared with those of other prognostic models using a concordance index in the validation cohort. Bilirubin, prothrombin time, creatinine, potassium at admission, and a spontaneous change in bilirubin levels from day 0 to day 7 (SCBL were incorporated into a model for AH to grade the severity in an Asian patient cohort (MAGIC. For risk stratification, four risk groups were identified with cutoff scores of 29, 37, and 46 based on the different survival probabilities (P<0.001. In addition, MAGIC showed better discriminative performance for liver-related mortality than any other scoring system in the validation cohort. MAGIC can accurately predict liver-related mortality in Asian patients hospitalized for AH. Therefore, SCBL may help us decide whether patients with AH urgently require corticosteroid treatment.

  1. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging.

  2. 45 CFR 211.4 - Notification to legal guardian, spouse, next of kin, or interested persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification to legal guardian, spouse, next of..., RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 211.4 Notification to legal guardian, spouse, next of kin, or interested... (or in advance thereof, if possible), provide for notification of his legal guardian, or in the...

  3. Salivary levels of suspected periodontal pathogens in relation to periodontal status and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Troil-Lindén, B; Torkko, H; Alaluusua, S; Jousimies-Somer, H; Asikainen, S

    1995-11-01

    The primary ecological niche for suspected periodontal pathogens seems to be the subgingival area, even though periodontal pathogens are also frequently recovered from saliva. The interrelationship of different periodontal conditions and the salivary levels of suspected periodontal pathogens is not known. In the present study, salivary levels of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Campylobacter rectus, and Peptostreptococcus micros were determined by bacterial culture and related to clinical periodontal status in 40 subjects with either advanced, moderate, or initial/no periodontitis. Culture-positive subjects harbored the 5 bacterial species in mean numbers ranging from 2 x 10(5) to 6 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL saliva. A. actinomycetemcomitans was found in none and P. gingivalis in one of the subjects with initial periodontitis, whereas both species were found in 33% and 44%, respectively, of the subjects with moderate periodontitis and in 60% and 40%, respectively, of the subjects with advanced periodontitis. The mean numbers of CFU/mL of P. intermedia, C. rectus and P. micros were significantly higher in subjects with advanced periodontitis than in subjects with initial/no periodontitis. Ten patients with advanced periodontitis were treated mechanically and with adjunctive systemic metronidazole, and were re-examined 1 and 6 months after treatment. Periodontal treatment eradicated or significantly reduced the levels of salivary periodontal pathogens for half a year, whereas in untreated subjects, the levels and the detection frequencies generally remained fairly stable. In conclusion, the results showed that the salivary levels of periodontal pathogens reflect the periodontal status of the patient.

  4. The influence of activation level on belief bias in relational reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Adrian P

    2013-04-01

    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining its likelihood of retrieval and therefore its effect on the reasoning process. This theory explores two main influences of belief on the activation levels of these conclusions. First, believable conclusions have higher activation levels and so are more likely to be recalled during the evaluation of reasoning problems than unbelievable conclusions, and therefore, they have a greater influence on the reasoning process. Secondly, prior beliefs about the conclusion have a base level of activation and may be retrieved when logically irrelevant, influencing the evaluation of the problem. The theory of activation and memory is derived from the Atomic Components of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture and so this account is formalized in an ACT-R cognitive model. Two experiments were conducted to test predictions of this model. Experiment 1 tested strength of belief and Experiment 2 tested the impact of a concurrent working memory load. Both of these manipulations increased the main effect of belief overall and in particular raised belief-based responding in indeterminately invalid problems. These effects support the idea that the activation level of conclusions formed during reasoning influences belief bias. This theory adds to current explanations of belief bias by providing a detailed specification of the role of working memory and how it is influenced by prior knowledge. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Reconstructing Common Era relative sea-level change on the Gulf Coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Matthew J.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Moyer, Ryan P.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Cahill, Niamh

    2017-01-01

    To address a paucity of Common Era data in the Gulf of Mexico, we reconstructed ~ 1.1 m of relative sea-level (RSL) rise over the past ~ 2000 years at Little Manatee River (Gulf Coast of Florida, USA). We applied a regional-scale foraminiferal transfer function to fossil assemblages preserved in a core of salt-marsh peat and organic silt that was dated using radiocarbon and recognition of pollution, 137Cs and pollen chronohorizons. Our proxy reconstruction was combined with tide-gauge data from four nearby sites spanning 1913–2014 CE. Application of an Errors-in-Variables Integrated Gaussian Process (EIV-IGP) model to the combined proxy and instrumental dataset demonstrates that RSL fell from ~ 350 to 100 BCE, before rising continuously to present. This initial RSL fall was likely the result of local-scale processes (e.g., silting up of a tidal flat or shallow sub-tidal shoal) as salt-marsh development at the site began. Since ~ 0 CE, we consider the reconstruction to be representative of regional-scale RSL trends. We removed a linear rate of 0.3 mm/yr from the RSL record using the EIV-IGP model to estimate climate-driven sea-level trends and to facilitate comparison among sites. This analysis demonstrates that since ~ 0 CE sea level did not deviate significantly from zero until accelerating continuously from ~ 1500 CE to present. Sea level was rising at 1.33 mm/yr in 1900 CE and accelerated until 2014 CE when a rate of 2.02 mm/yr was attained, which is the fastest, century-scale trend in the ~ 2000-year record. Comparison to existing reconstructions from the Gulf coast of Louisiana and the Atlantic coast of northern Florida reveal similar sea-level histories at all three sites. We explored the influence of compaction and fluvial processes on our reconstruction and concluded that compaction was likely insignificant. Fluvial processes were also likely insignificant, but further proxy evidence is needed to fully test this hypothesis. Our results

  6. GENDER DISTINCTIONS OF MICROALBUMINURIA AND ITS RELATION TO INTRARENAL HEMODYNAMIC AND LEPTIN LEVEL IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

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    V. I. Podzolkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess an incidence of microalbuminuria (MAU depending on gender and its relation to intrarenal hemodynamic, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and leptin serum level in essential hypertension (HT. Material and methods. 149 patients (61 men and 88 women, aged 49.4±7.1 years, body mass index 32.2±3.8 kg/m2 with HT degree 2-3 were examined. Clinical characteristics in men and women were comparable. Ultrasonography of intrarenal vessels was performed in all patients. GFR was calculated by isotope nephroangioscintigraphy. Leptin serum level was determined\\ by radioimmunoassay. MAU was detected by semiquantitative test. Results were processed with SPSS-11.0 software package. Results. MAU incidence was higher among female hypertensives in contrast to males: 40% vs 26% (p=0.056. Hypertensives with MAU of both genders demonstrated higher both resistance index (RI and pulsatility index (PI. Gender differences of both RI and PI in patients with MAU were highly significant (p<0.001 at all levels of arterial visualization (renal, segmental and interlobar. Female hypertensives with MAU had lower GFR (79.1±13.2 ml/min/1.73m2 than those without MAU (89.3±17.2 ml/min/1.73m2. Male hypertensives with MAU had higher GFR than those without MAU: 126±32.5 vs 105.4±16.7 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. Serum leptin level in females with MAU was higher than this in female patients without MAU: 103.5±38.7 vs 76.7±46.4 ng/ml (p=0.04, respectively. Leptin levels did not differ in males with or without MAU. In males MAU positively correlated with GFR (r=0.372, р=0.003, where-as in females – correlation was negative (r=-0.34, р=0.02. Besides, in females MAU correlated with serum leptin level (r=0.48, p=0.01 Conclusion. Female hypertensives with MAU demonstrate more stable elevation of RI and PI in contrast to hypertensive males with MAU. MAU level correlates with GFR in opposite ways: in males positively whereas in females — negatively.

  7. Prospective Study of Plasma Homocysteine Level and Risk of Age-related Macular Degeneration in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, William G.; Cook, Nancy R.; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective data to examine the association of homocysteine and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are limited. We examined the prospective relation of plasma homocysteine level and AMD in a large cohort of apparently healthy women. Methods We evaluated the relationship between baseline levels of plasma homocysteine and incident AMD among 27,479 female health professionals aged 40 years or older. Main outcome measures were total AMD, defined as a self-report documented by medical record evidence of an initial diagnosis after randomization, and visually significant AMD, defined as confirmed incident AMD with visual acuity of 20/30 or worse attributable to this condition. Results During an average of 10 years of follow-up, a total of 452 cases of AMD, including 182 cases of visually-significant AMD, were documented. Women in the highest versus lowest quartile of plasma homocysteine had modestly, but statistically non-significant, increased risks of total (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95–1.63; p for trend, 0.07) and visually-significant AMD (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.92–2.17; p for trend, 0.052) in age- and treatment-adjusted analyses. Conclusions These prospective data from a large cohort of apparently-healthy women do not support a strong role for homocysteine in AMD occurrence. PMID:25777307

  8. Jump-Squat Performance and Its Relationship With Relative Training Intensity in High-Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; Ortega-Becerra, Manuel A; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the relationship between the relative load in full squats and the height achieved in jump-squat (JS) exercises and to determine the load that maximizes the power output of high-level athletes. Fifty-one male high-level track-and-field athletes (age 25.2 ± 4.4 y, weight 77. ± 6.2 kg, height 179.9 ± 5.6 cm) who competed in sprinting and jumping events took part in the study. Full-squat 1-repetition-maximum (1-RM) and JS height (JH) with loads from 17 to 97 kg were measured in 2 sessions separated by 48 h. Individual regression analyses showed that JH (R2 = .992 ± .005) and the jump decrease (JD) that each load produced with respect to the unloaded countermovement jump (CMJ) (R2 = .992 ± 0.007) are highly correlated with the full-squat %1-RM, which means that training intensities can be prescribed using JH and JD values. The authors also found that the load that maximizes JS's power output was 0%RM (ie, unloaded CMJ). These results highlight the close relationship between JS performance and relative training intensity in terms of %1-RM. The authors also observed that the load that maximizes power output was 0%1-RM. Monitoring jump height during JS training could help coaches and athletes determine and optimize their training loads.

  9. A High-Resolution Reconstruction of Late-Holocene Relative Sea Level in Rhode Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, R. B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kemp, A.; Cahill, N.; Halavik, B. T.; Corbett, D. R.; Brain, M.; Hill, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts have utilized salt-marsh peats and the macro- and microfossils preserved within them to reconstruct high-resolution records of relative sea level (RSL). We followed this approach to investigate spatial and temporal RSL variability in southern New England, USA, by reconstructing 3,300 years of RSL change in lower Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. After reconnaisance of lower Narragansett Bay salt marshes, we recovered a 3.4m core at Fox Hill Marsh on Conanicut Island. We enumerated foraminiferal assemblages at 3cm intervals throughout the length of the core and we assessed trends in δ13C at 5 cm resolution. We developed a composite chronology (average resolution of ±50 years for a 1 cm slice) using 30 AMS radiocarbon dates and historical chronological markers of known age (137Cs, heavy metals, Pb isotopes, pollen). We assessed core compaction (mechanical compression) by collecting compaction-free basal-peat samples and using a published decompaction model. We employed fossil foraminifera and bulk sediment δ13C to estimate paleomarsh elevation using a Bayesian transfer function trained by a previously-published regional modern foraminiferal dataset. We combined the proxy RSL reconstruction and local tide-gauge measurements from Newport, Rhode Island (1931 CE to present) and estimated past rates of RSL change using an Errors-in-Variables Integrated Gaussian Process (EIV-IGP) model. Both basal peats and the decompaction model suggest that our RSL record is not significantly compacted. RSL rose from -3.9 m at 1250 BCE reaching -0.4 m at 1850 CE (1 mm/yr). We removed a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) contribution of 0.9 mm/yr based on a local GPS site to facilitate comparison to regional records. The detrended sea-level reconstruction shows multiple departures from stable sea level (0 mm/yr) over the last 3,300 years and agrees with prior reconstructions from the US Atlantic coast showing evidence for sea-level changes that

  10. PM1 levels are related to CO concentrations and health impacts in the city Athens Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Polichetti, Giuliano; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Kalabokis, Vasilios; Gialouris, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Senekas, as early as 60 A.D., was the first to refer to air pollution and the possibility of imposing restrictions in Rome. In 1307, during the reign of Edward I, legislation was introduced to prevent the use of sea coal in kilns and limeburners in London. In the 19th century the first problems arising from elevated levels of smoke in cities appear. By 1930, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania suffered from heavy smoke pollution and the 1952 London smog episode stands out as one of the worst pollution disasters given the number of people who died as a result. Mega city pollution has become a serious problem to human health and in an effort to analyze and mitigate this threat, the European and worldwide scientific communities are, at present, placing considerable time, effort and resources in the field. It is well known that vehicle related NOx and CO emissions represent the main public health hazard (cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes) in the main industrialized cities of Europe with high traffic volumes. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of PM1, CO and the related health impacts within the greater Athens area (GAA). Several portable and ground based detectors were employed for the PM and CO measurements, capable of detecting CO levels in the ambient environment, up to 1000 ppm. Sampling took place on road sidewalks at a specified hour every morning to coincide with the peak in vehicle traffic. Controls were performed with no traffic and compared to normal traffic days and days with extreme traffic congestion, which included PM and CO concentration measurements. In addition, in order to monitor potentially related health impacts, daily admissions to the Emergency Departments of the Social Security Institute and Regional Hospitals of Athens were recorded. Results demonstrate a significant correlation between both PM1 and CO and particulate matter symptomatology, such as dispnea, fatigue, headache, dacryrrea and dry cough. These findings

  11. Fungal and bacterial growth in floor dust at elevated relative humidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, K C; Weschler, C J; Peccia, J

    2017-03-01

    Under sustained, elevated building moisture conditions, bacterial and fungal growth occurs. The goal of this study was to characterize microbial growth in floor dust at variable equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) levels. Floor dust from one home was embedded in coupons cut from a worn medium-pile nylon carpet and incubated at 50%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, and 100% ERH levels. Quantitative PCR and DNA sequencing of ribosomal DNA for bacteria and fungi were used to quantify growth and community shifts. Over a 1-wk period, fungal growth occurred above 80% ERH. Growth rates at 85% and 100% ERH were 1.1 × 10 4 and 1.5 × 10 5 spore equivalents d -1 mg dust -1 , respectively. Bacterial growth occurred only at 100% ERH after 1 wk (9.0 × 10 4 genomes d -1 mg dust -1 ). Growth resulted in significant changes in fungal (Pbacterial community structure (Pbacterial species that were attributable to elevated ERH. Resuspension modeling indicated that more than 50% of airborne microbes could originate from the resuspension of fungi grown at ERH levels of 85% and above. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Relation Between Ghrelin Hormone Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Normal Adults

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    Y Naghiaee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ghrelin hormone is a polypeptide with 28 amino acids that is secreted along the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in fundus of stomach. Some physiological functions of ghrelin include increase of appetite and food intake, energy balance, stimulation of growth hormone secretion and heart output and decrease in blood pressure. Recently, relation of ghrelin and bone mineral density has been considered. Methods: This descriptive study included 33 adult persons above 20 years of age. Bone mineral density was determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in femur and lumbar regions. T-score over than -1 was considered as normal case. Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA method. Results: The mean of age, body mass index and serum ghrelin were 40±10.6years, 27±3.6 kg/m² and 100.5±128 pg/ml, respectively. Correlation of ghrelin and variables was not statistically significant except weight (p=0.05. Conclusion: Range of serum ghrelin levels varies with age. In the present research, there was no relationship between ghrelin levels and bone mineral density in femur and lumbar regions. More studies with larger number of samples are proposed.

  13. How do we love? Romantic love style in men is related to lower testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babková Durdiaková, J; Celec, P; Koborová, I; Sedláčková, T; Minárik, G; Ostatníková, D

    2017-09-22

    Testosterone has been widely investigated in associations with many aspects of social interactions, emotions and behavior. No research has been conducted on its contribution to the variability of love styles in human. The aim of this paper was to uncover the possible relationship between not only the actual plasma testosterone levels, but also the prenatal testosterone level (expressed as 2D:4D ratio) and the sensitivity of androgen receptor and love typology in young healthy men. There are six love styles which are primary including Eros (passionate romantic love), Ludus (playful) and Storge (friendly) and secondary love consisting of Mania (obsessive), Pragma (practical realistic) and Agape (altruistic). Our results pointed out that low testosterone concentrations are associated with higher score for Eros, Ludus, Pragma, Mania love style. No significant association was proved for other tested parameters of androgenicity (2D:4D, sensitivity of androgen receptor) and love style after correction was applied. Different attitudes and behavior in relationships do have a biological foundation related to endogenous testosterone levels in plasma. Future studies should address questions about the family and social background of participants to differentiate here between moral rules or/and social-conventional rules.

  14. Are Men's Perceptions of Sexually Dimorphic Vocal Characteristics Related to Their Testosterone Levels?

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    Michal Kandrik

    Full Text Available Feminine physical characteristics in women are positively correlated with markers of their mate quality. Previous research on men's judgments of women's facial attractiveness suggests that men show stronger preferences for feminine characteristics in women's faces when their own testosterone levels are relatively high. Such results could reflect stronger preferences for high quality mates when mating motivation is strong and/or following success in male-male competition. Given these findings, the current study investigated whether a similar effect of testosterone occurs for men's preferences for feminine characteristics in women's voices. Men's preferences for feminized versus masculinized versions of women's and men's voices were assessed in five weekly test sessions and saliva samples were collected in each test session. Analyses showed no relationship between men's voice preferences and their testosterone levels. Men's tendency to perceive masculinized men's and women's voices as more dominant was also unrelated to their testosterone levels. Together, the results of the current study suggest that testosterone-linked changes in responses to sexually dimorphic characteristics previously reported for men's perceptions of faces do not occur for men's perceptions of voices.

  15. Variability of Relative Sea Level Rise: Spatial and Temporal Correlations in Northwest Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, P.; Reisinger, A. S.; Besonen, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    While our understanding of global sea level rise and its budget has made great progress over the past decade, the spatial and temporal variability of relative sea level rise along the coasts still needs to be better understood and quantified. We developed a technique to reduce the confidence intervals associated with relative sea level rise (RSLR) estimates for 15 tide gauges located along the Texas coast for the period 1993-2016. Seasonally detrended monthly mean water levels are highly correlated after removal of station-specific RSLR trends, which allows for the quantification of a common, low frequency oceanic signal. RSLR confidence intervals are reduced from over 1.9 mm/yr, on average 2.3mm, to less than 1.1 mm/yr, on average 0.7 mm/yr after removing this common signal. The resulting RSLR rates range from 3.0 to 8.4 mm/yr. The range is wider than the longer-term rates of 5.3, 3.8 and 1.9 mm/yr measured from north to south by the three National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) stations covering the study area (over different and longer time spans). The results emphasize the importance of the spatial variability of the vertical land motion component of RSLR. The temporal variability of the coherent oceanic signal is not significantly correlated to the ENSO signal for the study period and is only weakly correlated to the AMO and PDO climate indices. The coherence of the signal is further investigated by comparison with other locations along the Gulf of Mexico and along the Northeast Atlantic coast. The results are discussed while considering strong local processes along the Northwest Gulf of Mexico, such as wind forcing and intermittent eddies and the spatially broader influence of the Gulf Stream. The local significance of the RSLR spatial and temporal differences are discussed in terms of the differences in inundation frequency for nuisance type flooding including comparing the time span to reach a probability of at least one nuisance flood event per

  16. Cytogenetic damage related to low levels of methyl mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazon

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    AMORIM MARÚCIA I. M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mercury rejected in the water system, from mining operations and lixiviation of soils after deforestation, is considered to be the main contributors to the contamination of the ecosystem in the Amazon Basin. The objectives of the present study were to examine cytogenetic functions in peripheral lymphocytes within a population living on the banks of the Tapajós River with respect to methylmercury (MeHg contamination, using hair mercury as a biological indicator of exposure. Our investigation shows a clear relation between methylmercury contamination and cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes at levels well below 50 micrograms/gram, the level at which initial clinical signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning occur. The first apparent biological effect with increasing MeHg hair level was the impairment of lymphocyte proliferation measured as mitotic index (MI. The relation between mercury concentration in hair and MI suggests that this parameter, an indicator of changes in lymphocytes and their ability to respond to culture conditions, may be an early marker of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in humans and should be taken into account in the preliminary evaluation of the risks to populations exposed in vivo. This is the first report showing clear cytotoxic effects of long-term exposure to MeHg. Although the results strongly suggest that, under the conditions examined here, MeHg is both a spindle poison and a clastogen, the biological significance of these observations are as yet unknown. A long-term follow-up of these subjects should be undertaken.

  17. Increased levels of BAFF and APRIL related to human active pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Kai Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite great efforts to improve diagnosis and treatment, tuberculosis (TB remains a major health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Lack of concrete immune markers is still the obstacle to properly evaluate active TB. Therefore, identification of more validated biomarkers and phenotypic signatures is imperative. In particular, T cell-related biomarkers are more significant. METHODOLOGY: To understand the nature of CD4(+ T cell-derived signatures involved in infection and disease development, we examined and analyzed whole genome expression profiles of purified CD4(+ T cells from healthy individuals (HD, two distinct populations with latent infection (with low or high IFN-γ levels, LTB(L/LTB(H and untreated TB patients. Following, we validated the expression profiles of genes in the peripheral CD4(+ T cells from each group and examined secretion levels of distinct cytokines in serum and pleural effusion. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our bio-informatic analyses indicate that the two latent populations and clinical TB patients possess distinct CD4(+ T cell gene expression profiles. Furthermore, The mRNA and protein expression levels of B cell activating factor (BAFF, which belongs to the TNF family, and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL were markedly up-regulated at the disease stage. In particular, the dramatic enhancement of BAFF and APRIL in the pleural effusion of patients with tuberculosis pleurisy suggests that these proteins may present disease status. In addition, we found that the BAFF/APRIL system was closely related to the Th1 immune response. Our study delineates previously unreported roles of BAFF and APRIL in the development of tuberculosis, and these findings have implications for the diagnosis of the disease. Our study also identifies a number of transcriptional signatures in CD4(+ T cells that have the potential to be utilized as diagnostic and prognostic tools to combat the tuberculosis epidemic.

  18. Levels of aggressiveness are higher among alcohol-related suicides: results from a psychological autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachamovich, Eduardo; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo

    2012-09-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of deaths worldwide. Several studies have showed that alcohol use disorders (AUD) are associated with suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide completion. The majority of the theoretical conceptualization and the bulk of evidence on suicidal behavior and AUD are based on investigations of nonfatal cases because data on nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more readily available. This study aims to explore demographic, clinical, and behavioral dimensions in a large sample of alcohol-related suicides compared to an age-gender matched sample of non-AUD suicides to identify specific factors associated with AUD suicides. We conducted a psychological autopsy study with 158 pairs of AUD and non-AUD suicides. Findings showed that AUD suicides have lower educational level, more biological children and were more likely to be heavy smokers (OR=3.32). Cases were more likely to have family history of alcohol (OR=1.73) and drug abuse (OR=3.61). Subjects had similar prevalences of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders or psychotic disorders. AUD suicides were more likely to meet criteria for current cocaine abuse/dependence (OR=6.64). With respect to personality disorders, AUD suicides presented higher prevalence of Antisocial Personality Disorder (OR=4.68), and were less likely to meet criteria for Avoidant (OR=0.26) and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders (OR=0.35). Impulsivity scores were higher in AUD suicides (p=0.18), as well as aggression scores (psuicide. After controlling for impulsive-aggressive behaviors, levels of aggression were the only psychopathological feature statistically different between AUD and non-AUD suicides (OR=1.28). In conclusion, higher levels of aggressive behaviors are a specific characteristic of AUD suicides. Apart from substance-related diagnoses, AUD and non-AUD suicides have comparable Axis I psychiatric diagnoses and familial transmission of suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Monitoring Coastal Embankment Subsidence and Relative Sea Level Rise in Coastal Bangladesh Using Satellite Geodetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q.; Shum, C. K.; Jia, Y.; Yi, Y.; Zhu, K.; Kuo, C. Y.; Liibusk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Bangladesh Delta is located at the confluence of the mega Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghan Rivers in the Bay of Bengal. It is home to over 160 million people and is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is prone to seasonal transboundary monsoonal flooding, potentially aggravated by more frequent and intensified cyclones resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Sea level rise, along with tectonic, sediment compaction/load and groundwater extraction induced land uplift/subsidence, have significantly exacerbated these risks and Bangladesh's coastal vulnerability. Bangladesh has built 123 coastal embankments or polders since the 1960's, to protect the coastal regions from cyclone/tidal flooding and to reduce salinity incursions. Since then, many coastal polders have suffered severe erosion and anthropogenic damage, and require repairs or rebuilding. However, the physical and anthropogenic processes governing the historic relative sea level rise and its future projection towards its quantification remain poorly understood or known, and at present not accurate enough or with an adequately fine local spatial scale for practical mitigation of coastal vulnerability or coastal resilience studies. This study reports on our work in progress to use satellite geodetic and remote sensing observations, including satellite radar altimetry/backscatter measurements over land and in coastal oceans, optical/infrared imageries, and SAR backscatter/InSAR data, to study the feasibility of coastal embankment/polder erosion monitoring, quantify seasonal polder water intrusions, observing polder subsidence, and finally, towards the goal of improving the relative sea level rise hazards assessment at the local scale in coastal Bangladesh.

  20. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  1. Relation of elevated levels of plasma myeloperoxidase to impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yunoki, Kei; Naruko, Takahiko; Komatsu, Ryushi; Shirai, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Masashi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Kengo Fukushima; Itoh, Akira; Haze, Kazuo; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Becker, Anton E.; Ueda, Makiko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are related to impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion. Moreover, elevated myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Plasma MPO levels were measured in patients with

  2. Oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds in human milk: Levels and effects of storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junfang; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Domellöf, Magnus; Zivkovic, Angela M; Nording, Malin L

    2016-01-01

    The presence of fatty acid derived oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related compounds in human milk may be of importance to the infant. Presently, clinically relevant protocols for storing and handling human milk that minimize error and variability in oxylipin and endocannabinoid concentrations are lacking. In this study, we compared the individual and combined effects of the following storage conditions on the stability of these fatty acid metabolites in human milk: state (fresh or frozen), storage temperature (4 °C, -20 °C or -80 °C), and duration (1 day, 1 week or 3 months). Thirteen endocannabinoids and related compounds, as well as 37 oxylipins were analyzed simultaneously by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Twelve endocannabinoids and related compounds (2-111 nM) and 31 oxylipins (1.2 pM-1242 nM) were detected, with highest levels being found for 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 17(R)hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The concentrations of most endocannabinoid-related compounds and oxylipins were dependent on storage condition, and especially storage at 4 °C introduced significant variability. Our findings suggest that human milk samples should be analyzed immediately after, or within one day of collection (if stored at 4 °C). Storage at -80 °C is required for long-term preservation, and storage at -20 °C is acceptable for no more than one week. These findings provide a protocol for investigating the oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in human milk, useful for future milk-related clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of olive leaf extract on serum level of Th17 related cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Olive has a protective effect against chronic inflammatory conditions. However, it is not clear weather this effect is due to its immunomodulatory or antioxidant property. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive leaf extract on serum levels of Th-17 related cytokines and its antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: 40 male rats divided into 5 groups, and were treated by placebo (Control group, vitamin C (as a known and potent antioxidant and different doses of olive leaf extract. Four test groups, received vitamin C 10 mg/kg and olive leaf extract which contained 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg Oleuropein. All treatments were applied for 10 consecutive days orally via gavage. After this period, cardiac puncture was performed to retrieve blood from animals in order to determine interleukin 17, 23 and TGFβ levels in their serum by ELISA method. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, as a lipid peroxidation marker were assayed in right brain hemisphere of treated animals. Results: TBARS increased significantly in control group when compared to the other groups (p0.05, TGFβ concentration was significantly lower in animals which treated by 5 and 15 mg/kg of Oleuropein. Conclusion: Olive leaf extract, which contains Oleuropein, had a significant antioxidant effect on the brain of studied animals, while it was not able to change the Th-17 cell-related cytokines (Except TGFβ significantly. Therefore, it could conclude that the protective role of olive against chronic degenerative diseases is related to its antioxidant properties rather than its effects on pathogenic cytokine profile of Th17 cells.

  4. Acute low-level alcohol consumption reduces phase locking of event-related oscillations in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-07-14

    Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of low levels of voluntary consumption of ethanol, in rats, on phase locking of EROs in order to give further insight into the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol on the brain. To this end, we allow rats to self-administer unsweetened 20% ethanol over 15 intermittent sessions. This method results in a stable low-dose consumption of ethanol. Using an auditory event-related potential "oddball" paradigm, we investigated the effects of alcohol on the phase variability of EROs from electrodes implanted into the frontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala. We found that intermittent ethanol self-administration was sufficient to produce a significant reduction in overall intraregional synchrony across all targeted regions. These data suggest that phase locking of EROs within brain regions known to be impacted by alcohol may represent a sensitive biomarker of low levels of alcohol intoxication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Relative Age Effect on Soccer Players in Formative Stages with Different Sport Expertise Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Práxedes Alba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Relative Age Effect (RAE in sport has been targeted by many research studies. The objective of this study was to analyze, in amateur clubs, the RAE of soccer players, according to the sport expertise level of the team (e.g., A, B, C and subsequent that they belong to within the same game category. 1,098 soccer players in formative stages took part in the study, with ages varying between 6 and 18 years old (U8 to U19 categories. All of them were members of 4 Spanish federated clubs. The birth dates were classified into 4 quartiles (Q1 = Jan-Mar; Q2 = Apr-Jun; Q3 = Jul-Sept; Q4 = Oct-Decaccording to the team they belonged to. The results obtained in the chi-squared test and d value (effect size revealed the existence of RAE in the teams with the highest expertise level, “A” (X2 = 15.342, p = .002, d = 0.4473 and “B” (X2 = 10.905, p = .012, d = 0.3657. However, in the lower level teams, “C and subsequent”, this effect was not observed. Present findings show that players born during the first months of the year tend to be selected to play in teams with a higher sport expertise level of each category, due to their physical maturity. Consequently, this causes differences in terms of the experience they accumulate and the motivation that this creates in these players.

  6. Procalcitonin level as a surrogate for catheter-related blood stream infection among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada Imam, Mahmoud; Gamal, Eman

    2017-11-17

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a frequent complication among hemodialysis patients who usually are presented with nonspecific signs such as fever, rigors, and hypotension. Blood culture will take up to 5 days and antimicrobials will be started. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a valid marker in sepsis. Our goal in this study is to evaluate its usefulness as a diagnostic marker in detecting CRBSI among hemodialysis patients who present with suspected CRBSI. Thirty-one hemodialysis patients with suspected CRBSI were enrolled in this study. PCT level was measured at the time of presentation. Patients were divided into two groups according to blood culture results: positive and negative groups. PCT level and other markers for inflammation: white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of variables was performed using the t-test or Mann-Whitney test together with Spearman correlation test. Thirty-one patients had median age 44.7 ± 2.1 years. They comprised 16 males (52%) and 15 females (48%). Sixteen patients had a positive blood culture result while in 15 it was negative. PCT level was significantly higher in the positive blood culture group (40.0 ± -21.9) (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.4-51.8) while its level was 1.1 ± 1 (95% CI 0.54-1.8) in the negative blood culture group [t(15) = -7, p<0.001). In the positive culture group, there was a correlation between CRP and ferritin (r = -0.58, p = 0.01, n = 16), while no correlation between PCT and other markers of inflammation. PCT is a useful marker for diagnosis of CRBSI among hemodialysis patients.

  7. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  8. Interoperability between biomedical ontologies through relation expansion, upper-level ontologies and automatic reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hoehndorf

    Full Text Available Researchers design ontologies as a means to accurately annotate and integrate experimental data across heterogeneous and disparate data- and knowledge bases. Formal ontologies make the semantics of terms and relations explicit such that automated reasoning can be used to verify the consistency of knowledge. However, many biomedical ontologies do not sufficiently formalize the semantics of their relations and are therefore limited with respect to automated reasoning for large scale data integration and knowledge discovery. We describe a method to improve automated reasoning over biomedical ontologies and identify several thousand contradictory class definitions. Our approach aligns terms in biomedical ontologies with foundational classes in a top-level ontology and formalizes composite relations as class expressions. We describe the semi-automated repair of contradictions and demonstrate expressive queries over interoperable ontologies. Our work forms an important cornerstone for data integration, automatic inference and knowledge discovery based on formal representations of knowledge. Our results and analysis software are available at http://bioonto.de/pmwiki.php/Main/ReasonableOntologies.

  9. Blog Posting After Lung Cancer Notification: Content Analysis of Blogs Written by Patients or Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akira; Aramaki, Eiji; Shimamoto, Yumiko; Tanaka, Shiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-05-18

    The advent and spread of the Internet has changed the way societies communicate. A portion of information on the Internet may constitute an important source of information concerning the experiences and thoughts of patients and their families. Patients and their families use blogs to obtain updated information, search for alternative treatments, facilitate communication with other patients, and receive emotional support. However, much of this information has yet to be actively utilized by health care professionals. We analyzed health-related information in blogs from Japan, focusing on the feelings and satisfaction levels of lung cancer patients or their family members after being notified of their disease. We collected 100 blogs written in Japanese by patients (or their families) who had been diagnosed with lung cancer by a physician. These 100 blogs posts were searchable between June 1 and June 30, 2013. We focused on blog posts that addressed the lung cancer notification event. We analyzed the data using two different approaches (Analysis A and Analysis B). Analysis A was blog content analysis in which we analyzed the content addressing the disease notification event in each blog. Analysis B was patient's dissatisfaction and anxiety analysis. Detailed blog content regarding patient's dissatisfaction and anxiety at the individual sentence level was coded and analyzed. The 100 blog posts were written by 48 men, 46 women, and 6 persons whose sex was undisclosed. The average age of the blog authors was 52.4 years. With regard to cancer staging, there were 5 patients at Stage I, 3 patients at Stage II, 14 patients at Stage III, 21 patients at Stage IV, and 57 patients without a disclosed cancer stage. The results of Analysis A showed that the proportion of patients who were dissatisfied with the level of health care exceeded that of satisfied patients (22% vs 8%). From the 2499 sentences in the 100 blog posts analyzed, we identified expressions of dissatisfaction and

  10. Plasma levels of hypoxia-regulated factors in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanna, Zygoula; Christian, Schori; Christian, Grimm; Daniel, Barthelmes

    2018-02-01

    Various hypoxia-related proteins are differentially expressed in the retina and secreted to the vitreous and/or aqueous humor of patients affected by dry or neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). To determine whether these conditions alter concentrations of cytokines also in the systemic circulation, we measured plasma levels of six hypoxia-related proteins. Plasma was prepared from EDTA blood that was collected from patients affected by dry AMD (n = 5), nAMD (n = 11), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; n = 9), and patients with an epiretinal membrane (ERM; n = 11). ERM samples served as negative controls, PDR samples as positive controls. Protein concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), placental growth factor (PlGF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of PlGF was significantly increased in plasma of patients affected by nAMD. Although no statistically significant differences were found for EPO, ANGPTL4, PlGF, TNF-α, and PEDF, the mean concentration of VEGF was lowest in the nAMD group. Plasma concentrations of the six factors did not correlate with gender or age of patients. nAMD may increase plasma concentrations of PlGF, making it a candidate as a biomarker for the neovascular form of AMD. Other factors, however, were not differentially regulated, suggesting that their systemic concentrations are not generally increased in hypoxia-related retinal diseases.

  11. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract. These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation.

  12. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  13. The relation between salivary sIgA level and caries incidence in Down syndrome children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosdiana Rosdiana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome or Trisomy 21 is a genetic disorder caused by extra chromosome on chromosome 21. Down syndrome child, however, has good resistance against caries, and some of them even are caries-free. It is because the level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children is equal or even higher than that in normal children. Purpose: This review was aimed to review the relation between salivary sIgA level and caries incidence in Down syndrome children. Reviews: Down syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by chromosomal abnormality that has a number of physical and mental disorders. Down syndrome children, nevertheless, have significantly lower incidence of caries than normal children. These conditions are thought to relate to characteristics of oral cavity and the level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children. Caries is a disease of dental hard tissues caused by the fermentation of sucrose into glucans by glucosyltransferase enzymes (GTF of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. One of proteins in saliva that acts as a defense mechanism is imunoglubulin. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA inhibits the activity of S. mutans as bacteria causing caries forming glucan. This immunoglobulin, sIgA, is the most abundant immunoglobulin in saliva. The level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children is significantly higher than that in normal children. Conclusion: Besides factors of tooth eruption delays, wide spaces among teeth, microdontia, pH, and high saliva contents (calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, the low incidence of caries in Down syndrome children is also related with the higher level of salivary sIgA in Down syndrome children than that in normal children.Latar belakang: Sindroma Down atau Trisomi 21 merupakan kelainan genetik yaitu adanya kromosom ekstra pada kromosom 21. Anak sindroma Down memiliki resistensi yang baik terhadap karies dan sebagian dari mereka bebas karies. Kadar sIgA saliva anak sindroma Down sama atau bahkan lebih tingi

  14. Alcohol use and related consequences among students with varying levels of involvement in college athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, J S; Meilman, P W; Presley, C A; Cashin, J R

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol use, binge drinking, and substance abuse-related consequences among students with varying levels of participation in intercollegiate athletics were examined. Between October 1994 and May 1996, 51,483 students at 125 institutions answered questions about their involvement in athletics, ranging from noninvolvement to participant to leadership positions, on the long form of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. In comparisons with nonathletes, both male and female athletes consumed significantly more alcohol per week, engaged in binge drinking more often, and suffered more adverse consequences from their substance use. No support was found for the hypothesis that athletic leaders were more responsible than other team participants in using alcohol. Male team leaders appeared to be at significantly greater risk than female team leaders; they also consumed more alcohol, binged more often, and suffered more consequences than other team members.

  15. Relation among different parameters of damaged starch content, falling number and mechanical damage level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živančev Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents examination of damaged starch content expressed by different parameters, which were obtained by iodometric method presented by the Chopin Company using their SD matic instrument on wheat flour samples. Two wheat samples were similar by protein level (14.6 and 14.2% on dry basis matter and different by Falling number values (409 and 121 s. Wheat flours were gained by single-stage and two-stage extraction in laboratory milling system. Eight independent measurements of every wheat flour sample were statistically analyzed by method of variance. It was found that Chopin iodometric method shows that damaged starch content expressed by different parameters is related to Falling number value and damage caused by the pressure and shear forces generated during roller milling.

  16. Direct relation of acute effects of static stretching on isokinetic torque production with initial flexibility level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, Nicolas; Bazine, Wacef; Deley, Gaëlle; Paizis, Christos; Lattier, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    To examine the acute effect of a single static-stretching session of hamstring muscles on torque production in relation with individual flexibility. Maximal voluntary concentric torque of hamstring muscles was measured before and after a static-stretching session (6 × 30 s). Torque changes were correlated with the flexibility level determined at the onset of the experimental procedure. The hamstring-stretching intervention significantly reduced maximal concentric torque in participants with low and high hamstring flexibility. Hamstring flexibility and torque decrease, determined immediately after the stretching procedure, were negatively correlated. Torque decrease measured after the static-stretching session is dependent on participant flexibility. Participants with low flexibility are much more likely to demonstrate large torque decreases poststretching.

  17. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity - a population-based linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    from various Danish longitudinal registers. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: This study confirms that people living in more urbanized areas are at a higher risk of suicide than their counterparts in less urbanized areas. However, this excess risk is largely eliminated...... when adjusted for personal marital, income, and ethnic differences; it is even reversed when further adjusted for psychiatric status. Moreover, the impact of urbanicity on suicide risk differs significantly by sex and across age. Urban living reduces suicide risk significantly among men, especially......BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...

  18. Understanding the management of electronic test result notifications in the outpatient setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Hardeep

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notifying clinicians about abnormal test results through electronic health record (EHR -based "alert" notifications may not always lead to timely follow-up of patients. We sought to understand barriers, facilitators, and potential interventions for safe and effective management of abnormal test result delivery via electronic alerts. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of six 6-8 member focus groups (N = 44 at two large, geographically dispersed Veterans Affairs facilities. Participants included full-time primary care providers, and personnel representing diagnostic services (radiology, laboratory and information technology. We asked participants to discuss barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving timely management and follow-up of abnormal test result notifications and encouraged them to consider technological issues, as well as broader, human-factor-related aspects of EHR use such as organizational, personnel, and workflow. Results Providers reported receiving a large number of alerts containing information unrelated to abnormal test results, many of which were believed to be unnecessary. Some providers also reported lacking proficiency in use of certain EHR features that would enable them to manage alerts more efficiently. Suggestions for improvement included improving display and tracking processes for critical alerts in the EHR, redesigning clinical workflow, and streamlining policies and procedures related to test result notification. Conclusion Providers perceive several challenges for fail-safe electronic communication and tracking of abnormal test results. A multi-dimensional approach that addresses technology as well as the many non-technological factors we elicited is essential to design interventions to reduce missed test results in EHRs.

  19. Health-related quality of life outcomes and level of evidence in pediatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Daniel; Vedantam, Aditya; Briceño, Valentina; Lam, Sandi K; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The emphasis on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes is increasing, along with an emphasis on evidence-based medicine. However, there is a notable paucity of validated HRQOL instruments for the pediatric population. Furthermore, no standardization or consensus currently exists concerning which HRQOL outcome measures ought to be used in pediatric neurosurgery. The authors wished to identify HRQOL outcomes used in pediatric neurosurgery research over the past 10 years, their frequency, and usage trends. METHODS Three top pediatric neurosurgical journals were reviewed for the decade from 2005 to 2014 for clinical studies of pediatric neurosurgical procedures that report HRQOL outcomes. Similar studies in the peer-reviewed journal Pediatrics were also used as a benchmark. Publication year, level of evidence, and HRQOL outcomes were collected for each article. RESULTS A total of 31 HRQOL studies were published in the pediatric neurosurgical literature over the study period. By comparison, there were 55 such articles in Pediatrics. The number of publications using HRQOL instruments showed a significant positive trend over time for Pediatrics (B = 0.62, p = 0.02) but did not increase significantly over time for the 3 neurosurgical journals (B = 0.12, p = 0.5). The authors identified a total of 46 different HRQOL instruments used across all journals. Within the neurosurgical journals, the Hydrocephalus Outcome Questionnaire (HOQ) (24%) was the most frequently used, followed by the Health Utilities Index (HUI) (16%), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) (12%), and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (12%). Of the 55 articles identified in Pediatrics, 22 (40%) used a version of the PedsQL. No neurosurgical study reached above Level 4 on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) system. However, multiple studies from Pediatrics achieved OCEBM Level 3, several were categorized as Level 2, and one reached Level 1

  20. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0-500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment in old leaves and between 80% and 85% of osmotic adjustment in young leaves was achieved by means of accumulation of inorganic ions (Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)) at these NaCl levels, whilst the contribution of organic osmolytes was very limited. Consistently higher K(+) and lower Na(+) levels were found in young, as compared with old leaves, for all salinity treatments. The shoot sap K(+) progressively increased with increased salinity in old leaves; this is interpreted as evidence for the important role of free K(+) in leaf osmotic adjustment under saline conditions. A 5-fold increase in salinity level (from 100 mM to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na(+) content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na(+) loading or an efficient Na(+) removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K(+) and H(+) fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid NaCl-induced activation of H(+)-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K(+) leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, control of Na(+) and K(+) xylem loading, and their transport to the shoot.

  1. Relative performance analysis of IR FPA technologies from the perspective of system level performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, Terence L.; James, J. Christopher; Cincotta, Tomas E.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of high performance infrared systems today utilize FPAs composed of intrinsic direct bandgap semiconductor photon detectors such as MCT or InSb. Quantum well detector technologies such as QWIPs, QDIPs, and SLS photodetectors are potentially lower cost alternatives to MCT and InSb, but the relative performance of these technologies has not been sufficiently high to allow widespread adoption outside of a handful of applications. While detectors are often evaluated using figures of merit such as NETD or D∗, these metrics, which include many underlying aspects such as spectral quantum efficiency, dark current, well size, MTF, and array response uniformity, may be far removed from the performance metrics used to judge performance of a system in an operationally relevant scenario. True comparisons of performance for various detector technologies from the perspective of end-to-end system performance have rarely been conducted, especially considering the rapid progress of the newer quantum well technologies. System level models such as the US Army's Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) can calculate image contrast and spatial frequency content using data from the target/background, intervening atmosphere, and system components. This paper includes results from a performance parameter sensitivity analysis using NV-IPM to determine the relative importance of various FPA performance parameters to the overall performance of a long range imaging system. Parameters included are: QE, dark current density, quantum well capacity, downstream readout noise, well fill, image frame rate, frame averaging, and residual fixed pattern noise. The state-of-the art for XBn, QWIP, and SLS detector technologies operating in the MWIR and LWIR bands will be surveyed to assess performance of quantum structures compared to MCT and InSb. The intent is to provide a comprehensive assessment of quantum detector performance and to identify areas where increased research

  2. Relative Sea-Level Stability in Natuna Island, Indonesia, since 6400 yr BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J. X. W.; Meltzner, A. J.; Switzer, A.; Horton, B.; Ke, L.; Wang, X.; Bradley, S.; Natawidjaja, D.; Suwargadi, B. W.

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand the regional variability of relative sea level (RSL) due to glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) and other natural influences, high-precision records of Holocene RSL on the Sunda Shelf are required. Accurate estimates of past RSL at a variety of locations allow us to validate geophysical and climate models, and provide context for understanding modern RSL change in the face of global climate change. For the aforementioned purposes, we surveyed and dated coral microatoll colonies, which are precise RSL proxy archives, from Natuna Island in Indonesia. Our analysis of 11 coral microatoll elevations from a total of four sites on Natuna Island is constrained in time by a minimum of one radiocarbon date and one U-Th age on each microatoll. The distribution of ages and elevations indicates that RSL was relatively stable from 6400 to 1400 yr BP at 0.3-0.6 m higher than present, before a more recent fall to current levels. The radiocarbon and U-Th ages are consistent with one another, with preliminary estimates of ΔR ≈ 0 for our entire data set. Our data are roughly compatible with predictions of a recently developed GIA model for the Southeast Asia region (Bradley et al., 2016, Quat. Sci. Rev.). This new dataset is part of larger project with more than 25 sites in Malaysia and Indonesia. Our new constraints on past RSL on the Sunda Shelf will allow for validation and calibration of GIA models in the tropics, where RSL data are presently insufficient.

  3. Paraoxonase and Arylesterase Levels in Behcet's Disease and Their Relations with the Disease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Ayhan; Uzkeser, Hulya; Ozturk, Nurinnisa

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) enzyme activity levels in Behcet's disease (BD) and to investigate whether they are associated with the disease activity. Twenty-six patients (study group) with active BD and 28 healthy controls (control group) were included in this study. While the patients who had at least one of the symptoms related to genital ulcer, skin lesions, active uveitis, arthritis, thrombophlebitis, or central nervous system involvement in addition to oral ulcers were considered as the active group, the patients who did not show clinical symptoms in the last one month due to the medical treatment were considered as the inactive group in the clinical evaluation of patients with BD. The PON and ARE levels were found to be significantly lower in the study group than the control group (p  0.05). The activities of the antioxidant PON and ARE enzymes are reduced in BD. Therefore, it may be useful to add antioxidant therapy to the conventional treatment of the disease.

  4. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted...... or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment......M to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na+ content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na+ loading or an efficient Na+ removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K+ and H+ fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid Na...

  5. Test anxiety levels and related factors: students preparing for university exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ayse Sonay; Balci, Serap; Kose, Dilek

    2014-11-01

    To assess test anxiety levels and related factors among students preparing for university exams. The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Istanbul University, Turkey, and comprised students preparing for exams in two private courses for the 2010-11 academic year. Data was collected via an original questionnaire and the Test Anxiety Inventory. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 1250 students who qualified for the study, the final sample size was 376 (30%). Of them, 210 (55.9%) were females, and 154 (41%) were 18 years old. Students' mean Test Anxiety Inventory scores were 39.44±11.34. Female students' overall test anxiety scores and mean emotionality subscale score were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts. Students whose mothers had an educational attainment between primary school n=170 (45.2%) and a high school diploma n=184 (48.9%), as well as those with four or more siblings n=49 (15%), had significantly higher mean overall Test Anxiety Inventory scores. Among other things, test anxiety is influenced by maternal educational level, type of high school, number of exams, and number of siblings. Preparing a relaxed study environment for students, providing the family monetary or social support, and encouraging participation in social activities are recommendedto decreajb anxiety in students preparing for university exams.

  6. Delirium and High Creatine Kinase and Myoglobin Levels Related to Synthetic Cannabinoid Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bulent Yazici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs are included in a group of drugs called new psychoactive substances. Effects of SCs on the central nervous system are similar to other cannabinoids, but 2–100 times more potent than marijuana. Thus, addiction and withdrawal symptoms are more severe than natural cannabinoids. Withdrawal symptoms of SCs were reported in the literature previously. But there is no report about SC withdrawal delirium and its treatment. Several studies reported that agonists of CB1 receptors play a role in GABA and glutamatergic neurotransmission, which is similar to the effects of alcohol on GABA and glutamatergic receptors. Previous studies on alcohol delirium cases suggested that elevated creatine kinase (CK can be a marker of progress. This study reports delirium and high serum CK levels related to SC withdrawal and offers a treatment with benzodiazepine for them. We described two cases treated in our inpatient clinic about SC withdrawal with increase of serum CK level and other laboratory parameters. One of them demonstrated delirium symptoms and the other did not with early rapid treatment.

  7. Health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning on high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The potential health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning for high-level waste disposal were evaluated. Actinide burning, also called waste partitioning-transmutation, is an advanced method for radioactive waste management based on the idea of destroying the most toxic components in the waste. It consists of two steps: (1) selective removal of the most toxic radionuclides from high-level/spent fuel waste and (2) conversion of those radionuclides into less toxic radioactive materials and/or stable elements. Risk, as used in this report, is defined as the probability of a failure times its consequence. Actinide burning has two potential health and environmental impacts on waste management. Risks and the magnitude of high-consequence repository failure scenarios are decreased by inventory reduction of the long-term radioactivity in the repository. (What does not exist cannot create risk or uncertainty.) Risk may also be reduced by the changes in the waste characteristics, resulting from selection of waste forms after processing, that are superior to spent fuel and which lower the potential of transport of radionuclides from waste form to accessible environment. There are no negative health or environmental impacts to the repository from actinide burning; however, there may be such impacts elsewhere in the fuel cycle

  8. Mapping Relative Sea Level Influences of the Cape Fear Arch in southern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, A.; Kemp, A.; Capar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term relative sea-level (RSL) records are a necessary benchmark by which to gauge present accelerated rates of sea-level rise, future sea-level predictions, and their implications to the coastal zone. The east coast of the United States functions as a significant region of latitudinal RSL variability due to the continuous recovery of land from the deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum. Differential glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) along the coastline has caused higher rates of subsidence in areas around the former forbulge maxima near New Jersey and Delaware and lower rates to the north and south of this maxima. However, the coast between southern North Carolina and northern South Carolina is experiencing a slower rate of RSL rise then is seen in reconstructed GIA latitudinal trends along the U.S. east coast. It was thought that this could have been attributed to non-isostatic, long-term tectonic processes causing less GIA subsidence of the lithosphere within the region impacted by uplift from the Cape Fear Arch (CFA), an underlying crystalline basement high. A recent study suggests that RSL rise is slower around the CFA than areas to the north and south due to suggested CFA uplift rates of 0.24+0.15mm a-1. An absence of RSL records for 200km north of the CFA make mapping of its influence difficult. Additional RSL records to the north of the CFA allow for a better understanding of the asymmetrical distribution in the rate of RSL rise in this region. Because the distribution in the rate of RSLR between records is not linear it is important for these low-lying coastal communities to better understand their risk to future RSLR.

  9. Automatic Conflict Monitoring by Event-Related Potentials Could be used to Estimate Visual Acuity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenwen; Liu, Sinan; Luo, Bin; Meng, Huanhuan; Ji, Mengmeng; Li, Maojuan; Chen, Xiping; Tao, Luyang

    2018-03-15

    Numerous studies have explored the physical attribute features or face perceptions in conflict processing, while complicate gradient conflicts were rarely discussed. The aim of the study was to discuss the relationship between the event-related potential (ERP) component features and different visual acuity levels by using the modified S1-S2 task under non-attention status. Three visual acuity levels were applied, each with four orientations of "E" optotype stimuli randomly presented in the center of the visual field while participants were required to concentrate on listening to stories. The results showed that the amplitudes of P1 and P3 as well as difference P3 were larger in supra-threshold condition. In threshold condition, larger amplitudes for both N2 and difference N2 exhibited in frontal and central areas. In sub-threshold condition, there was no endogenous component elicited by mismatch stimuli except smaller anterior N1. Meanwhile, the specific distributions of N1 and N2 were presented and compared with previous face processing. The findings showed that visual conflict processing took place not only at an early stage but also at the late period, which might be as the consequences of interaction between conflict strength and involuntary attention. We concluded that automatic conflict detecting of visual icons by the serial ERP components could distinguish different visual acuity levels. The involvement of endogenous components could reveal the specific mechanism of more precise and fine conflict identification of complex physical attributes under non-attention status, furthermore could be used as valid markers to estimate the magnitude of visual acuity objectively. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes...... were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had...

  11. Low-level visual attention and its relation to joint attention in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Jessica L Bean; Eigsti, Inge-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Visual attention is integral to social interaction and is a critical building block for development in other domains (e.g., language). Furthermore, atypical attention (especially joint attention) is one of the earliest markers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study assesses low-level visual attention and its relation to social attentional processing in youth with ASD and typically developing (TD) youth, aged 7 to 18 years. The findings indicate difficulty overriding incorrect attentional cues in ASD, particularly with non-social (arrow) cues relative to social (face) cues. The findings also show reduced competition in ASD from cues that remain on-screen. Furthermore, social attention, autism severity, and age were all predictors of competing cue processing. The results suggest that individuals with ASD may be biased towards speeded rather than accurate responding, and further, that reduced engagement with visual information may impede responses to visual attentional cues. Once attention is engaged, individuals with ASD appear to interpret directional cues as meaningful. These findings from a controlled, experimental paradigm were mirrored in results from an ecologically valid measure of social attention. Attentional difficulties may be exacerbated during the complex and dynamic experience of actual social interaction. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  12. The levels of disclosure relating to mine closure obligations by platinum mining companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joline Sturdy

    2017-06-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to establish the extent to which platinum mines listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE comply with a recommended disclosure framework. Setting: South Africa is the largest producer of platinum in the world. The study covers all platinum mines listed on the JSE. Methods: Using a framework, a census of the annual financial statements, integrated annual reports and sustainability reports or websites was conducted to determine the level of compliance of disclosure relating to mine closure obligations to the recommended disclosure framework. Results: The results show disclosure relating to mine closure obligations of platinum mines listed on the JSE is inconsistent and not sufficient for stakeholders to understand the scope, key assumptions, parameters or reliability of the assessment and calculation of mine closure obligations. Conclusion: The assumptions used to determine mine closure obligations are specialised and multi-disciplinary. The accuracy and reliability of mine closure obligations will improve dramatically through greater transparency and access to information. It is recommended that the JSE listings for mining companies should require a competent person’s report to provide disclosure on assumptions, key values and processes applied to determine the mine closure obligations. Furthermore, it is recommended that the Department of Mineral Resources implements a mechanism of independent assessment of mine closure obligations by experts on an ongoing basis.

  13. Relative Association of Multi-Level Supportive Environments on Poor Health among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G; Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-04-06

    Background : The aging of the United States population poses significant challenges to American healthcare and informal caregiving systems. Additional research is needed to understand how health promotion programs and policies based on a socio-ecological perspective impact the health and well-being of older persons. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal characteristics and supportive environments associated with poor health among older individuals aged 65 and over. Methods : This study used a cross-sectional design and was guided by a conceptual framework developed by the authors to depict the relationship between personal characteristics and environments associated with poor health status. Environment types included in this study were family, home, financial, neighborhood, and healthcare. The sample was comprised of 1319 adults aged 65 years and older residing in Central Texas. From a random selection of households, participants were administered a mail-based survey created by a community collaborative effort. Descriptive statistics and three binary logistic regression models were fitted to examine associations with poor health status (i.e., physical, mental, and combined physical/mental). Results : Two personal characteristics (number of chronic conditions and educational level) were consistently related ( p environments are related to health status among older individuals. The unique roles of each environment can help inform public health interventions to create and enhance support for older adults to engage in healthful activities and improve their physical and mental health.

  14. Stress-related alterations of acyl and desacyl ghrelin circulating levels: mechanisms and functional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally produced and centrally acting peptide hormone that stimulates food intake and digestive functions. Ghrelin circulates as acylated and desacylated forms and recently the acylating enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and the de-acylating enzyme, thioesterase 1/lysophospholipase 1 have been identified adding new layers of complexity to the regulation of ghrelin. Stress is known to alter gastrointestinal motility and food intake and was recently shown to modify circulating ghrelin and GOAT levels with differential responses related to the type of stressors including a reduction induced by physical stressors (abdominal surgery and immunological/endotoxin injection, exercise) and elevation by metabolic (cold exposure, fasting and caloric restriction) and psychological stressors. However, the pathways underlying the alterations of ghrelin under these various stress conditions are still largely to be defined and may relate to stress-associated autonomic changes. There is evidence that alterations of circulating ghrelin may contribute to the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses along with sustaining the energetic requirement needed upon repeated exposure to stressors. A better understanding of these mechanisms will allow targeting components of ghrelin signaling that may improve food intake and gastric motility alterations induced by stress. PMID:21782868

  15. Brain function during probabilistic learning in relation to IQ and level of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2012-02-15

    Knowing how to adapt your behavior based on feedback lies at the core of successful learning. We investigated the relation between brain function, grey matter volume, educational level and IQ in a Dutch adolescent sample. In total 45 healthy volunteers between ages 13 and 16 were recruited from schools for pre-vocational and pre-university education. For each individual, IQ was estimated using two subtests from the WISC-III-R (similarities and block design). While in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, participants performed a probabilistic learning task. Behavioral comparisons showed that participants with higher IQ used a more adaptive learning strategy after receiving positive feedback. Analysis of neural activation revealed that higher IQ was associated with increased activation in DLPFC and dACC when receiving positive feedback, specifically for rules with low reward probability (i.e., unexpected positive feedback). Furthermore, VBM analyses revealed that IQ correlated positively with grey matter volume within these regions. These results provide support for IQ-related individual differences in the developmental time courses of neural circuitry supporting feedback-based learning. Current findings are interpreted in terms of a prolonged window of flexibility and opportunity for adolescents with higher IQ scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  17. Temporal and Spatial Variability in Relative Sea Level from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavik, B. T.; Engelhart, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Geological reconstructions of past relative sea level (RSL) provide observations to compare to instrumental measurements of land-level changes (e.g., GPS) and to provide constraints on Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models. Given the importance of the east coast of the United States to our understanding of GIA (due to its proximity and orientation to the collapsing forebulge of the Laurentide ice sheet), we set out to reconstruct the first compaction-free late Holocene RSL record for Rhode Island, USA. We sought to quantify and compare RSL changes at multiple sites within Rhode Island's Narragansett Bay. Previous work suggests Narragansett Bay may span a gradient in GIA. The small tidal range (0.9-1.4m) in Narragansett Bay permits the development of high-resolution sea-level index points that have the potential to identify small differences in RSL between sites. To address our research goals we collected a south to north transect of salt marsh basal peats from four Rhode Island salt marshes at Fox Hill, Nag Creek, Touisset, and Osamequin. We reconstructed paleomarsh elevations utilizing a multi-proxy approach using salt-marsh foraminifera and bulk sediment δ13C. Sample age was determined using accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon of identifiable in-situ plant macrofossils. Basal peats in Rhode Island typically form within the tidal frame as indicated by foraminifera within close proximity (marshes developed later in this region with RSL rising from -1.65 ± 0.22 m at 1,246 ± 56 cal yrs BP. An additional 12 sea-level index points have been reconstructed from Osamequin and Nag Pond. A preliminary comparison of RSL records from Fox Hill, Nag Cove and Touisset demonstrates that, within error, they record similar RSL histories with late Holocene rates of rise of 1 mm/yr; significantly less than the 2.73 ± 0.16 mm/yr recorded by the Newport tide gauge (1930-2016). We compare our RSL reconstructions with a suite of GIA models for the region.

  18. Levels of oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related lipids in plasma before and after low-level exposure to acrolein in healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Häggström, Jenny; Fowler, Christopher J; Nording, Malin L

    2017-06-01

    Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin. Participants were exposed twice (60min) to heptane and a mixture of heptane and acrolein. Blood samples were collected before exposure, after and 24h post-exposure. There were no overt effects of acrolein exposure on the oxylipin lipidome or endocannibinoids detectable in the bloodstream at the time points investigated. No relationship between basal levels or levels after exposure to acrolein and CI could be identified. This implicates a minor role of inflammatory mediators on the systemic level in CI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV and STD status among MSM and attitudes about Internet partner notification for STD exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Tetu, Ashley M; Gortmaker, Steven; Koenen, Karestan C; Fair, Andrew D; Novak, David S; Vanderwarker, Rodney; Bertrand, Thomas; Adelson, Stephan; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the acceptability and perceived utility of Internet-based partner notification (PN) of sexually transmitted disease (STD) exposure for men who have sex with men (MSM) by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus. We recruited 1848 US MSM via a banner advertisement posted on an MSM website for meeting sexual partners between October and November 2005. Even though there was broad acceptance of a PN e-mail across HIV serostatus groups, HIV-infected men rated the importance of each component (e.g., information about where to get tested/treated, additional education regarding the STD exposed to, a mechanism for verifying the authenticity of the PN e-mail) lower than HIV-uninfected or status-unknown participants (all P's STD exposure in the future), and were less likely to inform their partners of possible STD exposure via an Internet notification system in the future (all P's STD compared with those who did. Men who reported no previous STD found Internet PN more acceptable. Overall, this study documents broad acceptance of Internet PN by at-risk MSM, regardless of HIV serostatus, including a willingness to receive or initiate PN-related e-mail. If public health officials consider using Internet notification services, they may need to anticipate and address concerns of HIV-infected MSM, and will need to use a culturally-sensitive, social marketing campaign to ensure that those who may benefit from these services are willing to use this modality for PN. Internet PN should be considered as a tool to decrease rising STD and HIV rates among MSM who use the Internet to meet sexual partners.

  20. Plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin levels in relation to bone mineral density in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parm, Anna-Liisa; Jürimäe, Jaak; Saar, Meeli; Pärna, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Maasalu, Katre; Neissaar, Inga; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin levels and body composition parameters in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and untrained controls (UC), and to examine the relationships of bone mineral density (BMD) with hormonal status in prepubertal children with different physical activity patterns. Eighty-nine 7- to 9-year-old girls participated in the study (RG, n = 46; UC, n = 43). Body composition and BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone maturity was estimated by using a radiograph of the nondominant hand. The measured whole-body, lumbar spine (LS), and femoral neck (FN) BMD values were significantly higher (P gymnasts than in controls. In addition, RG presented significantly lower and higher values (P < 0.05) for leptin and ghrelin concentrations, respectively, in comparison with UC. No differences were observed for adiponectin levels between the studied groups. No relationships between measured BMD values with leptin and ghrelin were observed even after adjustment for age and fat mass (FM) in RG. Whole-body and LS BMD values were significantly correlated with leptin after controlling for age and FM (r = 0.32, P < 0.05) in UC. Femoral neck BMD remained significantly correlated with ghrelin after adjusting for age and FM (r = -0.4, P < 0.05) in UC. No relationships were found between measured BMD values and adiponectin even after controlling for age and FM values in both groups. In conclusion, although all measured BMD values were significantly higher in RG, plasma adipocytokine and ghrelin concentrations were not directly related to bone mineralization in prepubertal RG in contrast to UC. © The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer 2011

  1. Phthalate levels in Norwegian indoor air related to particle size fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkestad, Kirsten Eline; Dye, Christian Jarle; Yttri, Karl Espen; Holme, Jørn Andreas; Hongslo, Jan Kenneth; Schwarze, Per Everhard; Becher, Rune

    2007-12-01

    Phthalates are found in numerous consumer products, including interior materials like polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Several studies have identified phthalates in indoor air. A recent case-control study demonstrated associations between allergic symptoms in children and the concentration of phthalates in dust collected from their homes. Here we have analyzed the content of selected phthalates in particulate matter (PM): PM(10) and PM(2.5) filter samples collected in 14 different indoor environments. The results showed the presence of the phthalates di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) in the samples. The dominating phthalate in both PM(10) and PM(2.5) samples from all locations was DBP. More than a 10-fold variation in the mean concentration of total phthalates between sampling sites was observed. The highest levels of total phthalates were detected in one children's room, one kindergarten, in two primary schools, and in a computer room. The relative contribution of total phthalates in PM(10) and PM(2.5) was 1.1 +/- 0.3% for both size fractions. The contribution of total phthalates in PM(2.5) to total phthalates in PM(10) ranged from 23-81%, suggesting different sources. Of the phthalates that were analyzed in the PM material, DBP was found to be the major phthalate in rubber from car tyres. However, our analyses indicate that tyre wear was of minor importance for indoor levels of both DBP as well as total phthalates. Overall, these results support the notion that inhalation of indoor PM contributes to the total phthalate exposure.

  2. The effect of presenteeism-related health conditions on employee work engagement levels: A comparison between groups

    OpenAIRE

    Leon T. de Beer

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: Awareness of presenteeism-related health conditions is important as the prevalence of these conditions unknowingly influences performance and productivity in organisations. Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the differences in work engagement levels based on groups of presenteeism-related conditions in employees. Motivation for the study: Awareness of the impact of presenteeism-related conditions on work engagement levels can aid in the ...

  3. Offshore evidence of postglacial relative sea-level change from eastern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, S. Louise; Long, Antony J.; Plets, Ruth M.; Cooper, J. Andrew; Belknap, Daniel F.; Edwards, Robin J.; Jackson, Derek W. T.; Kelley, Joseph T.; Long, David; Milne, Glenn A.; Monteys, Xavier; Quinn, Rory

    2014-05-01

    Field evidence and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models help constrain the extent of the British Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) during and since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Because of differential ice loading histories, relative sea-level (RSL) changes at sites from around the Irish Sea basin are complex. Existing GIA models are constrained using sea-level observations and some poorly dated and unevenly distributed ice margin data, but there is a paucity of RSL observations below -10 m OD that spans the Late Glacial, a period of abrupt RSL change that includes at least one meltwater pulse. Addressing this interval of time requires the collection of new field data from offshore regions around Ireland, taking advantage of recent advances in remote sensing techniques. This paper presents results from offshore eastern Ireland, one of seven areas targeted as part of a larger NERC funded project 'Late Glacial sea-level minima in the Irish Sea'. Previous research in this region has focused on dating raised marine sediments from exposed onshore coastal sections that represent periods of RSL highstands during the early deglaciation. However, the significance of these data for RSL reconstruction and hence their constraints on GIA models is debated. Here we use a combination of marine geophysics (multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, pinger sub-bottom profiler) vibro-coring and laboratory analyses to reconstruct Late Glacial RSL change from this region. The area's bathymetry demonstrate a strong glacial imprint on the northern side of the study area, with a large arcuate fan extending from Dundalk Bay to -18m, perhaps formed during a period of ice readvance, most likely during the Killard Point Stadial (c. 16.5 k cal a BP). Pinger seismic data allow the identification of six seismo-stratigraphic units, of which the most notable is a chaotic unit sitting on a prominent reflector that can be traced between -22 m to -50 m. The unit is interpreted as a gravel lag overlying

  4. NEA Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruegger, B.; Templeton, W.L.; Gurbutt, P.

    1983-05-01

    Sea dumping operations of certain types of packaged low and medium-level radioactive wastes have been carried out since 1967 in the North-East Atlantic under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. On the occasion of the 1980 review of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site used for the disposal of radioactive waste, it was recommended that an effort should be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dumping area. In particular, it was suggested that a site specific model of the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment be developed, which would permit a better assessment of the potential radiation doses to man from the dumping of radioactive waste. To fulfill these objectives a research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was set up in 1981 with the participation of thirteen Member countries and the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity of the IAEA in Monaco. The research program is focused on five research areas which are directly relevant to the preparation of more site-specific assessments in the future. They are: model development; physical oceanography; geochemistry; biology; and radiological surveillance. Promising results have already been obtained and more are anticipated in the not too distant future. An interim description of the NEA dumping site has been prepared which provides an excellent data base for this area (NEA 1983).It includes data in bathymetry, isopycnal topography, local and larger scale currents, sediment distribution and sedimentary processes, hydrochemistry, deep ocean biology and results of radiochemical analyses of sea water, sediments and biological materials. The modelling work is also well advanced allowing comparison of results obtained from different codes. After integration of the models, sensitivity analyses will provide indications for future research needs

  5. Emergency notification and assistance technical operations manual. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full parties. Since 1989, the arrangements between the IAEA, States which are IAEA Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations, and other States for facilitating the implementation of the Conventions - specifically of those of their articles which are operational in nature have been documented in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). Recent events, for example, the launch of the Cassini satellite (USA, 1997), the Acerinox accident (Spain, 1998), the JCO criticality accident (Japan, 1999), the Istanbul accident (Turkey, 1999) and the Samut Prakarn accident (Thailand, 2000), have raised new issues and highlighted the expectation of States that the IAEA will use the framework of the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions to obtain and provide real-time emergency related information on such events. While the Early Notification Convention requires States Parties to report only accidents that may have significant transboundary radiological consequences, States may under the Assistance Convention legitimately request the assistance of the IAEA or an Accident State in obtaining information concerning a

  6. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  7. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important subgroup to focus on during

  8. Variations in avoidable mortality in relation to health care resources and urbanization level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis Gonzalez, A; Tejerizo Perez, M L

    1996-01-01

    "Avoidable" mortality may be defined as causes of death whose occurrence is closely related to medical intervention. Areas with particular health care delivery problems can be identified through a geographical comparison of these "avoidable deaths." Mortality data for Valencia from 1982 to 1990 were examined to determine whether or not the availability of medical care resources in the area influenced the occurrence of avoidable deaths. We identified variations in mortality from avoidable causes, grouped according to the differences in levels of urbanization and health care resources, in the 537 municipalities of the Valencian community. (In Spain, the municipality is the lowest administrative division.) Linear regression analysis was performed to predict or estimate this relationship. Only in a small number of avoidable causes did the mortality trend for males differ significantly from 0 (p urbanization and health care resources. A direct association between these two variables was observed in males with regards to pneumonia, tuberculosis, chronic rheumatic heart disease, and bacterial infection. In females, a relationship between "avoidable" mortality rates and the differences in urbanization and health care resources was found in cervical cancer, pneumonia, abdominal hernias, and cholecystitis. Mortality from asthma and cardiovascular disease (in both males and females) declined faster in urbanized, high income areas than in rural areas. The results clearly demonstrate the considerable mortality risk associated with living in urban areas. On the contrary, we found very little correlation between health service access and mortality.

  9. Studies Related to Chemical Mechanisms of Gas Formation in Hanford High-Level Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barefield, E. Kent; Liotta, Charles L.; Neumann, Henry M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the thermal reactions that lead to gas production in certain high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford, Washington site. Prediction of the combustion hazard for these wastes and engineering parameters for waste processing depend upon both a knowledge of the composition of stored wastes and the changes that they undergo as a result of thermal and radiolytic decomposition. Since 1980 when Delagard first demonstrated that gas production (H2and N2O initially, later N2 and NH3)in the affected tanks was related to oxidative degradation of metal complexants present in the waste, periodic attempts have been made to develop detailed mechanisms by which the gases were formed. These studies have resulted in the postulation of a series of reactions that account for many of the observed products, but which involve several reactions for which there is limited, or no, precedent. For example, Al(OH)4 has been postulated to function as a Lewis acid to catalyze the reaction of nitrite ion with the metal complexants, NO is proposed as an intermediate, and the ratios of gaseous products may be a result of the partitioning of NO between two or more reactions. These reactions and intermediates have been the focus of this project since its inception in 1996

  10. Virioplankton dynamics are related to eutrophication levels in a tropical urbanized bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson S Cabral

    Full Text Available Virioplankton are an important and abundant biological component of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Often overlooked, aquatic viruses play an important role in biogeochemical cycles on a global scale, infecting both autotrophic and heterotrophic microbes. Viral diversity, abundance, and viral interactions at different trophic levels in aqueous environments are not well understood. Tropical ecosystems are less frequently studied than temperate ecosystems, but could provide new insights into how physical and chemical variability can shape or force microbial community changes. In this study, we found high viral abundance values in Guanabara Bay relative to other estuaries around the world. Viral abundance was positively correlated with bacterioplankton abundance and chlorophyll a concentrations. Moreover, prokaryotic and viral abundance were positively correlated with eutrophication, especially in surface waters. These results provide novel baseline data on the quantitative distribution of aquatic viruses in tropical estuaries. They also provide new information on a complex and dynamic relationship in which environmental factors influence the abundance of bacterial hosts and consequently their viruses. Guanabara Bay is characterized by spatial and seasonal variations, and the eutrophication process is the most important factor explaining the structuring of virioplankton abundance and distribution in this tropical urbanized bay.

  11. [Costs of appendicitis treatment by diagnosis-related groups in a third-level pediatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto; Hernández-Hernández, Araceli; Venegas-Dávalos, Martha; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Guevara-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; Ambriz-González, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are widely used in Europe. They allow performing comparisons in hospitals and incurrent hospital payment systems, defining the payment categories. We undertook this study to classify children who underwent appendectomy according to DRGs. Cross-sectional study. Comorbidities, length of hospitalization, histopathologic classification, and DRG classifications were analyzed. We included 313 patients, 62% males, with an average age of 8 ± 3 years; 91% were referred by another hospital and 67% were treated at night. Average length of hospitalization was 4 ± 3 days. There were comorbidities in 8% and surgical complications in 11%. According to histopathology, appendicitis was edematous (11%), suppurative (36%), gangrenous (22%), perforated (29%), and abscessed (2%). At discharge, 97% of the patients were healthy. Total cost for DRG 343 was $10,470,173.00 (Mexican pesos), DRG 342 was $1,227,592.00 and DRG 340 was $511,521.00. The global amount was $12,209,286.00 (Mexican pesos). The unitary cost for treatment of appendectomy for DRG 343 was $37,935.00, for DRG 342 was $49,103.00 and for DRG 340 was $42,626.00 (Mexican pesos). Because 88% of the cases of appendicitis were uncomplicated, this amount of money could be spent to treat these patients in a second-level hospital, using reimbursement 343 without generating additional expenses.

  12. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P conversion rates (FCR). The pH 24h value tended to decrease (P goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Institutional Levels of Analysis and the Evolution of Russia-EU Relations: Some Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Romanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of analysis concept is an excellent tool for studying the evolution of international relations. This article focuses on the institutional approach of three levels of interaction: the intergovernmental level (IGL describes traditional contacts among heads of states or governments as well as among ministers; the transgovernmental level (TGL consists of relations among civil servants of middle and low rank; and the transnational level (TNL includes the dialogue of non-governmental participants such as business, non-governmental organizations (NGOs and epistemic communities. Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye identified TGL and TNL, but the studies of these levels has intensified as a result of burgeoning links among civil servants, business, NGOs and experts from different countries. Transgovernmental and transnational interactions stabilize relations among various actors. This article clarifies the stabilizing potential of TGL and TNL interactions. First, the degree of autonomy of civil servants from the political level of government has to be taken into account. Second, the state regulates the level of independence of both business and NGOs. TGL and TNL interactions can stabilize relations only if civil servants are independent from the political level in what concerns technical issues and where both business and civil society are strong. Third, real economic interdependence matters because it forms an agenda of cooperation in a particular field. The intensification of trade and investment flows does not automatically lead to real interdependence. In this case, contacts at the transgovernmental and transnational levels acquire a formal character and no cooperation emerges, which does not allow for stabilized relations in crisis situations at the IGL. The empirical section of the article demonstrates how widening and deepening relations between the European Union and Russia, especially since 2000, led to thickening transgovernmental and

  14. 40 CFR 172.45 - Requirement for a notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for Certain Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides § 172.45... containment and inactivation controls shall be approved by an authorized official of the organization that is... containment/inactivation controls selected under paragraph (e)(1) of this section, changes to the controls...

  15. 45 CFR 605.32 - Location and notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.32 Location and notification. A recipient that operates a public elementary or secondary education program shall annually: (a) Undertake to identify and... public education; and (b) Take appropriate steps to notify handicapped persons and their parents or...

  16. Notification of occupational diseases by general practitioners in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty GPs were randoinly selected from a provincial sampling frame of 1 000 GPs. Main outcome measures. Knowledge of notification procedures for occupational diseases, and problems encountered with the reporting system. Results. Of a total of 109 GPs interviewed, 75% had diagnosed more than one ...

  17. 40 CFR 172.48 - Data requirements for a notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Biological features of the parental strain that would have an impact on the microbial pesticide (e.g.... 172.48 Section 172.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for Certain Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides § 172...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 202 - Sample Notification Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sufficient length to qualify. ___ could not be verified. Your Credit History: ___ of making payments on time... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. C Appendix C to Part 202—Sample Notification Forms 1... connection with applications for business credit under § 202.9(a)(3). Form C-9 is designed for use in...

  19. 78 FR 62600 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The.... (viii) Date Report Delivered to Congress: 26 September 2013 * as defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms... development of a system with similar advanced capabilities. [FR Doc. 2013-24573 Filed 10-21-13; 8:45 am...

  20. 78 FR 703 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Value: Major Defense Equipment $110 million Other $30 million Total $140 million * as defined in Section... effectiveness or be used in the development of a system with similar or advanced capabilities. [FR Doc. 2012...

  1. 78 FR 701 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... million Total $125 million * as defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii) Description.... This proposed sale will continue U.S. support to the development of Iraqi Defense Network (IDN) VSAT...

  2. 77 FR 32598 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii) Description and Quantity or Quantities of... development of a system with similar or advanced capabilities. [FR Doc. 2012-13291 Filed 5-31-12; 8:45 am...

  3. 78 FR 76822 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The.... (viii) Date Report Delivered to Congress: 5 December 2013 * as defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms... technical data will be released during program development without prior approval from the Office of the...

  4. 77 FR 31588 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The.... Other .400 billion. Total 1.000 billion. * as defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act... might reduce weapons systems effectiveness or be used in the development of a system with similar or...

  5. 78 FR 76825 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Delivered to Congress: 5 December 2013 * as defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. Policy... technical data will be released during program development without prior approval from the Office of the...

  6. Knowledge and Practice of Disease Surveillance and Notification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and Practice of Disease Surveillance and Notification among Resident Doctors in a Tertiary Health Institution in Benin City: Implications for Health ... Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) should be included in the orientation programme for doctors coming into the residency programme, as they ...

  7. Notification and Consultation of Projects in Transboundary Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abiy Chelkeba

    Notification and Consultation of Projects in. Transboundary Water Resources: Confidence Building rather than Legal Obligation in the Context of GERD. Abiy Chelkeba ♧. Abstract. Tension and confrontation between riparian states over planned measures are likely to occur in the absence of an inclusive legal framework ...

  8. 12 CFR 404.28 - Notification of General Counsel required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....28 Section 404.28 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Demands for Testimony of Current and Former Ex-Im Bank Personnel and for Production of Ex-Im Bank Records § 404.28 Notification of General Counsel required. Ex-Im Bank personnel receiving a demand for testimony...

  9. 78 FR 79460 - Notification of GSA Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    .... Postal Service to: ATTN: Mr. Harold Hendrick, Strategic Planning and Performance Management Division... CONTACT: Mr. Harold Hendrick, Strategic Planning and Performance Management Division, Office of the Chief...] Notification of GSA Strategic Plan AGENCY: Office of the Chief Financial Officer, U.S. General Services...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6655 - Notification of significant developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Reports Required Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6655 Notification... have significant impact upon the Cooperative Agreement-supported activity. In such cases, the recipient...

  11. 76 FR 53533 - Notification of New Pricing Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Notification of New Pricing Methodology ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is implementing a new pricing methodology for its commemorative... products. The new pricing methodology is based primarily on the London Fix weekly average (average of the...

  12. 40 CFR 85.1407 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1407... certifier that use of its certified equipment will not cause a substantial increase to urban bus engine... § 85.1403(b) for all affected urban bus operators as specified in § 85.1401, the notification shall...

  13. 47 CFR 64.4003 - Notification obligations of IXCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification obligations of IXCs. 64.4003 Section 64.4003 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... interexchange service on a presubscribed basis, the IXC must confirm that it is the customer's desire to have no...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1210 - What are the notification requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance. 63.1206(c)(8)(iv) Notification of excessive bag leak detection system exceedances. 63.1206(c)(9... other techniques to prevent fugitive emissions without use of instantaneous pressure limits. 63.1207(c... use data compression techniques to record data on a less frequent basis than required by § 63.1209. (b...

  15. Impact of recent regulatory notifications on an institutional ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Shruti S; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila V; Katkar, Janhavi V; Shetty, Yashashri C; Tripathi, Raakhi K; Marathe, Padmaja A; Thatte, Urmila M

    2016-01-01

    The Government of India came out with a slew of notifications to streamline clinical research in the beginning of 2013 in response to the Supreme Court's orders and a Parliamentary Standing Committee's report. The notifications greatly influenced the structure, review process, outcomes and administration of ethics committees across India. In this study, we attempted to objectively evaluate the impact of these notifications on our institutional ethics committee's (IEC) structure, review process, outcomes and administration. The results revealed that though the number of regulatory studies reviewed by our IEC remained the same, the number of studies actually approved decreased with an increase in the turnover time. The number of serious adverse events (SAEs) reported also fell, although the number of meetings held to discuss these SAEs increased significantly. The administrative workload rose with increased documentation. Though the annual income of the IEC fell marginally, the expenses shot up. We believe that the notifications definitely had an impact on the structure, review process, outcomes and administration of our IEC, although it remains to be seen whether they had a real impact on the research participants' safety and well-being.

  16. 33 CFR 135.219 - Notification of changes affecting certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.219 Notification of changes affecting... Fund Administrator in writing when any changes occur which prevent the owner, operator, or guarantor...

  17. Notification ofpesticide poisoning in the western Cape, 1987 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    notification of pesticide poisoning so as to facili- tate control of an iInportant potential public health probleIn. ... Poisoning caused by paraquat and organophosphate insecticides have been reported to be an important rea- .... were white, the majority (78%) being coloured. The circumstances of poisonings are summarised in.

  18. recommendations for completing death notification forms in hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-14

    Oct 14, 2008 ... This article addresses common misconceptions regarding practical, legal, and ethical aspects of death notification form (BI-1663) completion in order to improve reporting and, ultimately, national statistics and policy-making. WHAT DO OUR CAUSE OF DEATH STATISTICS SAY. ABOUT HIV? PRACTICAL ...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4310 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63.4310 Section 63.4310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Printing, Coating, and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles...

  20. Health status of hostel dwellers: Part V. Tuberculosis notifications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Town tuberculosis notification rates for the hostel dwellers of Langa and Guguletu emphasise the severity of the problem among the poor in the city. But the enormity of the problem for the broader dependent migrant population can only be surmised from these figures. It is not possible to compile a comprehensive ...

  1. 7 CFR 1463.8 - Notification of assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... domestic commerce. (7) For that quarter, the adjusted market share of the domestic manufacturer or importer... assessment, CCC will collect that amount on a quarterly basis from all domestic manufacturers and importers... quarter domestic manufacturers and importers of tobacco products will receive notification of: (1) The...

  2. Towards a wide area alerting and notification system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McFerren, G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available for notifying users about phenomena or events occurring at geographical scales. Furthermore, events that could trigger alerts or notifications may be fast-moving or slow to unfold – even over a period of hours or days. This paper describes the functional and non...

  3. 76 FR 68432 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... participant in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and in early 1995 assumed the co... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by improving the security of a...

  4. The Relation between Finnish University Students' Perceived Level of Study-Related Burnout, Perceptions of the Teaching-Learning Environment and Perceived Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Kuittinen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between university students' perceived level of study-related burnout (SRB) and their perceptions of the teaching-learning environment (TLE), as well as their perceived achievement motivation (AM). The data are based on a survey of nine Finnish universities in the spring of 2009. Altogether, 3035 university…

  5. Perceptions of Gifted and Non-Gifted Students Related to Their Levels of Self-Actualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur Erdogan, Duygu; Yurtkulu, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Self-actualization is understood as an effort to develop a level to which one aspires. Gifted individuals are expected especially to be more likely to reach this level than normal individuals of the same age. The purpose of this study is to determine the self-actualization perception levels of students at BILSEM, which is within the…

  6. ISO 9001 aspects related to performance and their level of implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Castello Dalmau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the last three decades, thousands of companies around the world have embraced the ISO 9001 standard in their quest to improve company performance and customer satisfaction. In recent literature, a number of authors have identified different “levels” of ISO 9001 implementation. This study aims to analyse these implementation levels in companies from the point of view of the customer, and provide guidelines for future improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Research was conducted based on the results of the second-party audits (SPAs of 90 suppliers, (including component suppliers, assemblers, and wind farm operation and maintenance services, to one of the wind power industry’s largest wind turbine manufacturers. The audits were carried out within the ISO 9001:2008 framework and conducted by one of this study’s authors in his role as the wind turbine company’s Director of Global Quality. Findings: Auditing suppliers plays a unique role in helping to isolate system weaknesses, identify opportunities and suggest areas for improvement. This study shows that, in terms of management commitment and culture and the good practices of an organization, ISO 9001 certified companies implement differing degrees of the standard. From the results of this research, a "road map" towards improvement can be established; one that allows companies in the sector to go beyond simply being accredited with the standard and instead to take advantage of ISO 9001 certification as a catalyst for change. Research limitations/implications: This article focuses only on the wind power sector, although its findings could be extrapolated to similar sectors of high technology and high levels of customization. Originality/value: While quality audits are a customary topic for academics and researchers, few contributions are related to SPAs and their impact on the quality control process of company suppliers. Primary data from the SPAs of suppliers (objective

  7. ISO 9001 aspects related to performance and their level of implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello Dalmau, J.; Gimenez, G.; Castro, R. de

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: In the last three decades, thousands of companies around the world have embraced the ISO 9001 standard in their quest to improve company performance and customer satisfaction. In recent literature, a number of authors have identified different “levels” of ISO 9001 implementation. This study aims to analyse these implementation levels in companies from the point of view of the customer, and provide guidelines for future improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Research was conducted based on the results of the second-party audits (SPAs) of 90 suppliers, (including component suppliers, assemblers, and wind farm operation and maintenance services), to one of the wind power industry’s largest wind turbine manufacturers. The audits were carried out within the ISO 9001:2008 framework and conducted by one of this study’s authors in his role as the wind turbine company’s Director of Global Quality. Findings: Auditing suppliers plays a unique role in helping to isolate system weaknesses, identify opportunities and suggest areas for improvement. This study shows that, in terms of management commitment and culture and the good practices of an organization, ISO 9001 certified companies implement differing degrees of the standard. From the results of this research, a road map towards improvement can be established; one that allows companies in the sector to go beyond simply being accredited with the standard and instead to take advantage of ISO 9001 certification as a catalyst for change. Research limitations/implications: This article focuses only on the wind power sector, although its findings could be extrapolated to similar sectors of high technology and high levels of customization. Originality/value: While quality audits are a customary topic for academics and researchers, few contributions are related to SPAs and their impact on the quality control process of company suppliers. Primary data from the SPAs of suppliers (objective data collected by one

  8. ISO 9001 aspects related to performance and their level of implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castello Dalmau, J.; Gimenez, G.; Castro, R. de

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the last three decades, thousands of companies around the world have embraced the ISO 9001 standard in their quest to improve company performance and customer satisfaction. In recent literature, a number of authors have identified different “levels” of ISO 9001 implementation. This study aims to analyse these implementation levels in companies from the point of view of the customer, and provide guidelines for future improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Research was conducted based on the results of the second-party audits (SPAs) of 90 suppliers, (including component suppliers, assemblers, and wind farm operation and maintenance services), to one of the wind power industry’s largest wind turbine manufacturers. The audits were carried out within the ISO 9001:2008 framework and conducted by one of this study’s authors in his role as the wind turbine company’s Director of Global Quality. Findings: Auditing suppliers plays a unique role in helping to isolate system weaknesses, identify opportunities and suggest areas for improvement. This study shows that, in terms of management commitment and culture and the good practices of an organization, ISO 9001 certified companies implement differing degrees of the standard. From the results of this research, a road map towards improvement can be established; one that allows companies in the sector to go beyond simply being accredited with the standard and instead to take advantage of ISO 9001 certification as a catalyst for change. Research limitations/implications: This article focuses only on the wind power sector, although its findings could be extrapolated to similar sectors of high technology and high levels of customization. Originality/value: While quality audits are a customary topic for academics and researchers, few contributions are related to SPAs and their impact on the quality control process of company suppliers. Primary data from the SPAs of suppliers (objective data collected by one

  9. Paleo sea-level changes and relative sea-level indicators: Precise measurements, indicative meaning and glacial isostatic adjustment perspectives from Mallorca (Western Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorscheid, T; Stocchi, P.; Casella, E.; Gómez-Pujolf, L.; Vacchi, M.; Mann, T.; Rovere, A.

    2017-01-01

    Paleo relative sea-level (RSL) indicators formed during the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e have been reported bya large number of studies worldwide. Despite this, three main aspects are seldom reported: (1) use of high-precisionsurvey techniques applied to MIS 5e RSL indicators; (2) application of

  10. Notifications of violence against children and teens by health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakelline Miranda Alves

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describing the notifications of violence against children and adolescents at the 19th Health Region of Brejo Santo, Ceará, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study. All reports of violence against children and adolescents contained in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN between 2010 and 2014 were used. The following variables were considered: gender, age, race, place of occurrence, recurrence, relationship to the victim and type of violence. Data were extracted and presented in tables in the form of absolute and percentage frequency. Results: During the study period, 40 reports of violence against children and adolescents were recorded in the municipalities of the 19th Health Region of Brejo Santo, representing 53.3% of the total 75 calls. There was an increase in reports of almost 1050%, from 3 notifications in 2010 to 23 reports in 2014. The psychological and moral violence had the highest number of notifications. Regarding gender, moral/psychological (59% and sexual (100% violence prevailed in females; physical violence (46.1% and negligence (100% prevailed in males. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the number of notifications, which gave visibility to the issue. This shows a need for constant qualification of the professionals who participate in the process of care for people who have suffered or who live in situations of violence; and the importance of effective and standardized filling of the notifications files; as information obtained by its filling, besides giving visibility to the issue, are essential for the development of consistent service policies, committed to the reality of victimized children.

  11. Climate related sea-level variations over the past two millennia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew C; Horton, Benjamin P; Donnelly, Jeffrey P; Mann, Michael E; Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2011-07-05

    We present new sea-level reconstructions for the past 2100 y based on salt-marsh sedimentary sequences from the US Atlantic coast. The data from North Carolina reveal four phases of persistent sea-level change after correction for glacial isostatic adjustment. Sea level was stable from at least BC 100 until AD 950. Sea level then increased for 400 y at a rate of 0.6 mm/y, followed by a further period of stable, or slightly falling, sea level that persisted until the late 19th century. Since then, sea level has risen at an average rate of 2.1 mm/y, representing the steepest century-scale increase of the past two millennia. This rate was initiated between AD 1865 and 1892. Using an extended semiempirical modeling approach, we show that these sea-level changes are consistent with global temperature for at least the past millennium.

  12. Holocene relative sea level variations at the spit system Feddet (Denmark) resolved by ground-penetrating radar and geomorphological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B

    Estimates of Holocene sea-level variations have been presented in a range of studies based on different approaches, including interpretation of internal beach ridge characteristics from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and geomorphological data. We present GPR data and geomorphological observations...... microtidal beach ridge systems can also constitute markers of past relative sea level at the time of deposition. Comparison of these relative sea-level curves from different localities can be used to infer the pattern of isostatic rebound and local tectonic movements....... collected across beach ridge deposits from Feddet, eastern Denmark, and resolve past relative sea level with a relatively high precision. Feddet is a spit located in Faxe Bay (western part of the Baltic Sea) close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound and is considered a key locality for studies...... that downlap points of deposits formed under both relatively high and low water levels are preserved and are identified in GPR reflection data. Thus, records of these sea-level markers constrain the local relative sea level history during the Holocene. Downlap points identified in GPR data across other...

  13. Landscape-level variation in disease susceptibility related to shallow-water hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L Breitburg

    Full Text Available Diel-cycling hypoxia is widespread in shallow portions of estuaries and lagoons, especially in systems with high nutrient loads resulting from human activities. Far less is known about the effects of this form of hypoxia than deeper-water seasonal or persistent low dissolved oxygen. We examined field patterns of diel-cycling hypoxia and used field and laboratory experiments to test its effects on acquisition and progression of Perkinsus marinus infections in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, as well as on oyster growth and filtration. P. marinus infections cause the disease known as Dermo, have been responsible for declines in oyster populations, and have limited success of oyster restoration efforts. The severity of diel-cycling hypoxia varied among shallow monitored sites in Chesapeake Bay, and average daily minimum dissolved oxygen was positively correlated with average daily minimum pH. In both field and laboratory experiments, diel-cycling hypoxia increased acquisition and progression of infections, with stronger results found for younger (1-year-old than older (2-3-year-old oysters, and more pronounced effects on both infections and growth found in the field than in the laboratory. Filtration by oysters was reduced during brief periods of exposure to severe hypoxia. This should have reduced exposure to waterborne P. marinus, and contributed to the negative relationship found between hypoxia frequency and oyster growth. Negative effects of hypoxia on the host immune response is, therefore, the likely mechanism leading to elevated infections in oysters exposed to hypoxia relative to control treatments. Because there is considerable spatial variation in the frequency and severity of hypoxia, diel-cycling hypoxia may contribute to landscape-level spatial variation in disease dynamics within and among estuarine systems.

  14. Serum osteoprotegerin levels are related to height loss: The Tromsø Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jørgensen, Lone; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brox, Jan; Mathiesen, Ellisiv; Vik, Anders; Jacobsen, Bjarne K.

    2011-01-01

    Severe loss of body height is often a consequence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) are cytokines essential for the regulation of bone resorption. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the OPG/RANKL system and height loss. A total of 4,435 inhabitants from the municipality of Tromsø, Norway (2,169 men and 2,266 women) were followed for 6 years. Baseline measurements included height, weight, bone mineral density, OPG, RANKL, serum parathyroid hormone and information about lifestyle, prevalent diseases and use of medication. Height was measured again at follow-up, and the loss of height was categorized into 4 groups: ≤1, 1.1–2, 2.1–3, >3 cm. We found increasing height loss with increasing baseline OPG levels in both men and women (P trend = 0.02 and 0.001, respectively), after adjustments for age and other confounders. However, when the women were stratified according to menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), a significant relationship was present only among postmenopausal women not using HRT (P trend = 0.02). No relations between OPG and height loss were found in post-menopausal HRT-users and premenopausal women (P trend ≥0.39). We conclude that height loss is positively associated with OPG in men and in postmenopausal women not using HRT. No relationship was found between RANKL and height loss.

  15. FAST TRACK PAPER: Inference of mantle viscosity from GRACE and relative sea level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Archie; Zhong, Shijie; Wahr, John

    2007-11-01

    Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations of secular changes in gravity near Hudson Bay, and geological measurements of relative sea level (RSL) changes over the last 10000 yr in the same region, are used in a Monte Carlo inversion to infer-mantle viscosity structure. The GRACE secular change in gravity shows a significant positive anomaly over a broad region (>3000 km) near Hudson Bay with a maximum of ~2.5 μGalyr-1 slightly west of Hudson Bay. The pattern of this anomaly is remarkably consistent with that predicted for postglacial rebound using the ICE-5G deglaciation history, strongly suggesting a postglacial rebound origin for the gravity change. We find that the GRACE and RSL data are insensitive to mantle viscosity below 1800 km depth, a conclusion similar to that from previous studies that used only RSL data. For a mantle with homogeneous viscosity, the GRACE and RSL data require a viscosity between 1.4 × 1021 and 2.3 × 1021 Pas. An inversion for two mantle viscosity layers separated at a depth of 670km, shows an ensemble of viscosity structures compatible with the data. While the lowest misfit occurs for upper- and lower-mantle viscosities of 5.3 × 1020 and 2.3 × 1021 Pas, respectively, a weaker upper mantle may be compensated by a stronger lower mantle, such that there exist other models that also provide a reasonable fit to the data. We find that the GRACE and RSL data used in this study cannot resolve more than two layers in the upper 1800 km of the mantle.

  16. Assessment of leptin and resistin levels in non-obese multiple myeloma patients and their relation with Ig level and disease stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esheba, N.E.; Shahba, A.; El Shora, O.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for approximately 0.8% of all cancer diagnoses and 0.9% of cancer deaths. Leptin receptors were expressed on CD34 + cells. Resistin receptors were expressed on inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines increase the expression of resistin on monocytes. Aim of work: To assess the level of leptin and resistin in non-obese multiple myeloma patients and to study their relation with Ig level and disease stage. Subjects and methods: 32 subjects were included; 16 patients diagnosed with MM and 16 healthy individuals served as control. All were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, routine laboratory investigations and leptin and resistin blood level. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis and staging for MM patients. Results: Leptin was significantly higher in MM patients compared with the control group, unlike resistin which showed no significant difference between the two groups. A significant positive relation was found between IgG level and leptin. Similarly, a significant difference in leptin level has been observed between stage I and stage II (higher in II). Conclusions: Leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of MM and its level may be changed in different stages.

  17. Effective notification of important non-urgent radiology results: a qualitative study of challenges and potential solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Horden, Antonia; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I.; Dimigen, Marion; Zogovic, Branimir; Schlaphoff, Glen

    2014-01-01

    We report on the implementation of a Radiology Notification System (RNS), set up by the medical imaging department of a major Sydney teaching hospital in March 2010. This study aimed to investigate the views of the medical imaging department staff about: (i) the results follow-up problem encountered by the medical imaging department prior to the implementation of the RNS; (ii) what changes occurred following implementation of the RNS; and (iii) suggestions for improving the RNS. This is a cross-sectional qualitative study incorporating semi-structured interviews with 16 staff (15 radiologists and 1 clerk) after the implementation of the RNS. Interviews were conducted in August/September 2011. The reasons behind the development of the RNS were related to: (i) major existing problems with the communication of results between the imaging department and hospital wards; (ii) cumbersome and inefficient paper-based notification systems; and (iii) the absence of standardised guidelines and procedures for radiology test notification and follow-up. The RNS managed to free up a significant proportion of radiologist time, resulting in greater efficiencies. Study participants also highlighted a number of areas for improvement, including the need for a 24-h service, feedback and acknowledgement of test results by clinicians and the standardisation of test management definitions and procedures. Test management systems can play an important part in enhancing safe and effective communications between wards and hospital departments. However, their uptake and sustainability will require the establishment of a multidisciplinary and hospital-wide collaboration that includes clinicians.

  18. Poliomyelitis eradication – the review of notifications from the years 2010-2016 sent to National IHR Focal Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewski, Franciszek; Janiec, Janusz; Henszel, Łukasz; Izdebski, Radosław; Polański, Piotr

    Polio eradication programme was launched after World Health Assembly in 1988. Despite considerable decrease in reported cases it still constitutes a significant public health threat. All WHO member state is bound to appoint National IHR Focal Point, which operates based on International Health Regulations (2005), which were enacted during the World Health Assembly in 2005. In Poland National IHR Focal Point (IHR NFP in Poland) operates since 2007, and is located in the Department of Epidemiology, in National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Its aim is to acquire, assess and to transfer information on events which may constitute an international threat for the public health. IHR NFP in Poland has an access to WHO’s Event Information Site (EIS) as well as Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) with reading-only credentials. Both platforms are of limited access (1). Among recipients of IHR NFP notifications and information are experts from many fields such as epidemiology, virology, bacteriology and others- related to specific type of notification, as well as specific and appointed members of state’s administration and authorities in the field of public health. In this paper a review of notifications on the subject of poliomyelitis, sent to IHR NFP in Poland in the years 2010-2016 is presented, as well as references to poliomyelitis epidemiological situation were made based on the date from Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

  19. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  20. Sandy berm and beach-ridge formation in relation to extreme sea-levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B; Kroon, Aart

    2013-01-01

    The formation of berms and their transformation into beach ridges in a micro-tidal environment is coupled to wave run-up and overtopping during extreme sea levels. A straight-forward comparison between extreme sea levels due to storm-surges and active berm levels is impossible in the semi...... of extreme sea level events is identified using thirty-three well described extreme events throughout a period of 15 years. Analysis of the meteorological conditions during these events revealed that berm formation only occurred during 20% of all extreme events when onshore winds, high-energy wave action......-enclosed bays along the Baltic Sea. Quite often, the maximum water levels do not coincide with the maximum intensity of the wave driven processes because of seiches in the Baltic. In this paper, we look into the joined distribution of extreme water levels and high-energetic wave conditions at Feddet, a sandy...