WorldWideScience

Sample records for notch based templates

  1. Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, U.

    2007-01-01

    We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

  2. PHENANTHROLINE TEMPLATED SCHIFF BASE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA in intercalative mode and in the development of unique chemotherapeutics where they impact on the ... between base pairs of DNA. .... h, i, j, k belong to fragmentation products of impap. ..... Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA. Bull.

  3. Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast, the active damping does not require any dissipation elements, and thus has become of increasing interest. As a result, a vast of active damping solutions have been reported, among which multi-loop control systems and additional sensors are necessary, leading to increased cost and complexity....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated...... in the z-domain. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed active damping method. Both results have confirmed that the notch filter based active damping can ensure the entire system stability in the case of resonances with a good system performance....

  4. Duocentric® reversed shoulder prosthesis and Personal Fit® templates: innovative strategies to optimize prosthesis positioning and prevent scapular notching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouilloud, P; Gonzalvez, M; Martz, P; Charles, H; Handelberg, F; Nyffeler, R W; Baulot, E

    2014-05-01

    We describe our experience with a new system of patient-specific template called Personal Fit(®), which is unique in shoulder surgery and used in combination with Duocentric(®) prosthesis. The reverse prosthesis's concept is the invention of Paul Grammont, developed with Grammont's team of Dijon University as from 1981, which led to the first reversed total shoulder prosthesis called Trumpet in 1985. The Duocentric(®) prosthesis developed in 2001 is the third-generation prosthesis, coming from the Trumpet and the second-generation prosthesis Delta(®) (DePuy). This prosthesis provides a novel solution to the notching problem with an inferior overhang integrated onto the glenoid baseplate. Personal Fit(®) system is based on reconstructing the shoulder joint bones in three dimensions using CT scan data, placing a landmark on the scapula and locating points on the glenoid and humerus. That will be used as a reference for the patient-specific templates. We study the glenoid position planned with Personal Fit(®) software relative to native glenoid position in 30 cases. On average, the difference between the planned retroversion (or anteversion in one case) and native retroversion was 8.6°.

  5. Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Li, Sheng-Hua; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN and satel......Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN...

  6. Iris Template Protection Based on Local Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics have been widely studied in recent years, and they are increasingly employed in real-world applications. Meanwhile, a number of potential threats to the privacy of biometric data arise. Iris template protection demands that the privacy of iris data should be protected when performing iris recognition. According to the international standard ISO/IEC 24745, iris template protection should satisfy the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. However, existing works about iris template protection demonstrate that it is difficult to satisfy the three privacy requirements simultaneously while supporting effective iris recognition. In this paper, we propose an iris template protection method based on local ranking. Specifically, the iris data are first XORed (Exclusive OR operation with an application-specific string; next, we divide the results into blocks and then partition the blocks into groups. The blocks in each group are ranked according to their decimal values, and original blocks are transformed to their rank values for storage. We also extend the basic method to support the shifting strategy and masking strategy, which are two important strategies for iris recognition. We demonstrate that the proposed method satisfies the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. Experimental results on typical iris datasets (i.e., CASIA-IrisV3-Interval, CASIA-IrisV4-Lamp, UBIRIS-V1-S1, and MMU-V1 show that the proposed method could maintain the recognition performance while protecting the privacy of iris data.

  7. Self-collimation-based photonic crystal notch filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun-Goo; Kim, Seong-Han; Kee, Chul-Sik; Kim, Kap-Joong

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a design concept of an optical notch filter (NF) utilizing two perfectly reflecting mirrors and a beam splitter. Based on the new design concept, a photonic crystal (PC)-NF based on the self-collimation phenomenon in a two-dimensional PC is proposed and studied through finite-difference time-domain simulations and experimental measurements in a microwave region. The transmission properties of the self-collimation-based PC-NF were demonstrated to be controlled by adjusting the values of parameters such as the radius of rods in the line-defect beam splitter, distance between the two perfectly reflecting mirrors, and radius of rods on the outermost surface of the perfectly reflecting mirrors. Our results indicate that the proposed design concept could provide a new approach to manipulate light propagation, and the PC-NF could increase the applicability of the self-collimation phenomenon in a PC. (paper)

  8. Fluid discrimination based on rock physics templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Yin, Xingyao; Li, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir fluid discrimination is an indispensable part of seismic exploration. Reliable fluid discrimination helps to decrease the risk of exploration and to increase the success ratio of drilling. There are many kinds of fluid indicators that are used in fluid discriminations, most of which are single indicators. But single indicators do not always work well under complicated reservoir conditions. Therefore, combined fluid indicators are needed to increase accuracies of discriminations. In this paper, we have proposed an alternative strategy for the combination of fluid indicators. An alternative fluid indicator, the rock physics template-based indicator (RPTI) has been derived to combine the advantages of two single indicators. The RPTI is more sensitive to the contents of fluid than traditional indicators. The combination is implemented based on the characteristic of the fluid trend in the rock physics template, which means few subjective factors are involved. We also propose an inversion method to assure the accuracy of the RPTI input data. The RPTI profile is an intuitionistic interpretation of fluid content. Real data tests demonstrate the applicability and validity. (paper)

  9. Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Li, Sheng-Hua; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN and satel...... and satellite communication signals. Due to planar structures proposed here, it is easy to integrate in the microwave integrated systems, which can play an important role in the microwave communication circuit and system.......Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN...

  10. Probabilistic fatigue life prediction methodology for notched components based on simple smooth fatigue tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z. R.; Li, Z. X. [Dept.of Engineering Mechanics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Engineering Mechanics, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Hu, X. T.; Xin, P. P.; Song, Y. D. [State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China)

    2017-01-15

    The methodology of probabilistic fatigue life prediction for notched components based on smooth specimens is presented. Weakestlink theory incorporating Walker strain model has been utilized in this approach. The effects of stress ratio and stress gradient have been considered. Weibull distribution and median rank estimator are used to describe fatigue statistics. Fatigue tests under different stress ratios were conducted on smooth and notched specimens of titanium alloy TC-1-1. The proposed procedures were checked against the test data of TC-1-1 notched specimens. Prediction results of 50 % survival rate are all within a factor of two scatter band of the test results.

  11. Fast Template-based Shape Analysis using Diffeomorphic Iterative Centroid

    OpenAIRE

    Cury , Claire; Glaunès , Joan Alexis; Chupin , Marie; Colliot , Olivier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A common approach for the analysis of anatomical variability relies on the estimation of a representative template of the population, followed by the study of this population based on the parameters of the deformations going from the template to the population. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping framework is widely used for shape analysis of anatomical structures, but computing a template with such framework is computationally expensive. In this paper w...

  12. iTemplate: A template-based eye movement data analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Lee, Kang

    2018-02-08

    Current eye movement data analysis methods rely on defining areas of interest (AOIs). Due to the fact that AOIs are created and modified manually, variances in their size, shape, and location are unavoidable. These variances affect not only the consistency of the AOI definitions, but also the validity of the eye movement analyses based on the AOIs. To reduce the variances in AOI creation and modification and achieve a procedure to process eye movement data with high precision and efficiency, we propose a template-based eye movement data analysis method. Using a linear transformation algorithm, this method registers the eye movement data from each individual stimulus to a template. Thus, users only need to create one set of AOIs for the template in order to analyze eye movement data, rather than creating a unique set of AOIs for all individual stimuli. This change greatly reduces the error caused by the variance from manually created AOIs and boosts the efficiency of the data analysis. Furthermore, this method can help researchers prepare eye movement data for some advanced analysis approaches, such as iMap. We have developed software (iTemplate) with a graphic user interface to make this analysis method available to researchers.

  13. Effect of Notches on Creep-Fatigue Behavior of a P/M Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Jack; Gabb, Timothy P.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Gayda, John, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to determine and model the effect of high temperature dwells on notched low cycle fatigue (NLCF) and notch stress rupture behavior of a fine grain LSHR powder metallurgy (PM) nickel-based superalloy. It was shown that a 90 second dwell applied at the minimum stress (min dwell) was considerably more detrimental to the NLCF lives than similar dwell applied at the maximum stress (max dwell). The short min dwell NLCF lives were shown to be caused by growth of small oxide blisters which caused preferential cracking when coupled with high concentrated notch root stresses. The cyclic max dwell notch tests failed mostly by a creep accumulation, not by fatigue, with the crack origin shifting internally to a substantial distance away from the notch root. The classical von Mises plastic flow model was unable to match the experimental results while the hydrostatic stress profile generated using the Drucker-Prager plasticity flow model was consistent with the experimental findings. The max dwell NLCF and notch stress rupture tests exhibited substantial creep notch strengthening. The triaxial Bridgman effective stress parameter was able to account for the notch strengthening by collapsing the notched and uniform gage geometry test data into a singular grouping.

  14. Widely tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on slow and fast light effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A continuously tunable microwave photonic notch filter at around 30 GHz is experimentally demonstrated and 100% fractional tuning over 360 range is achieved without changing the shape of the spectral response. The tuning mechanism is based on the use of slow and fast light effects in semiconducto...

  15. Design of Cancelable Palmprint Templates Based on Look Up Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Li, Hengjian; Dong, Jiwen

    2018-03-01

    A novel cancelable palmprint templates generation scheme is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the Gabor filter and chaotic matrix are used to extract palmprint features. It is then arranged into a row vector and divided into equal size blocks. These blocks are converted to corresponding decimals and mapped to look up tables, forming final cancelable palmprint features based on the selected check bits. Finally, collaborative representation based classification with regularized least square is used for classification. Experimental results on the Hong Kong PolyU Palmprint Database verify that the proposed cancelable templates can achieve very high performance and security levels. Meanwhile, it can also satisfy the needs of real-time applications.

  16. From scores to face templates: a model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pranab; Sarkar, Sudeep; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-12-01

    Regeneration of templates from match scores has security and privacy implications related to any biometric authentication system. We propose a novel paradigm to reconstruct face templates from match scores using a linear approach. It proceeds by first modeling the behavior of the given face recognition algorithm by an affine transformation. The goal of the modeling is to approximate the distances computed by a face recognition algorithm between two faces by distances between points, representing these faces, in an affine space. Given this space, templates from an independent image set (break-in) are matched only once with the enrolled template of the targeted subject and match scores are recorded. These scores are then used to embed the targeted subject in the approximating affine (non-orthogonal) space. Given the coordinates of the targeted subject in the affine space, the original template of the targeted subject is reconstructed using the inverse of the affine transformation. We demonstrate our ideas using three, fundamentally different, face recognition algorithms: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Mahalanobis cosine distance measure, Bayesian intra-extrapersonal classifier (BIC), and a feature-based commercial algorithm. To demonstrate the independence of the break-in set with the gallery set, we select face templates from two different databases: Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) and Facial Recognition Technology (FERET) Database (FERET). With an operational point set at 1 percent False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and 99 percent True Acceptance Rate (TAR) for 1,196 enrollments (FERET gallery), we show that at most 600 attempts (score computations) are required to achieve a 73 percent chance of breaking in as a randomly chosen target subject for the commercial face recognition system. With similar operational set up, we achieve a 72 percent and 100 percent chance of breaking in for the Bayesian and PCA based face recognition systems, respectively. With

  17. People counting with stereo cameras : two template-based solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Englebienne, Gwenn; van Oosterhout, Tim; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    People counting is a challenging task with many applications. We propose a method with a fixed stereo camera that is based on projecting a template onto the depth image. The method was tested on a challenging outdoor dataset with good results and runs in real time.

  18. Object-based target templates guide attention during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2018-05-03

    During visual search, attention is believed to be controlled in a strictly feature-based fashion, without any guidance by object-based target representations. To challenge this received view, we measured electrophysiological markers of attentional selection (N2pc component) and working memory (sustained posterior contralateral negativity; SPCN) in search tasks where two possible targets were defined by feature conjunctions (e.g., blue circles and green squares). Critically, some search displays also contained nontargets with two target features (incorrect conjunction objects, e.g., blue squares). Because feature-based guidance cannot distinguish these objects from targets, any selective bias for targets will reflect object-based attentional control. In Experiment 1, where search displays always contained only one object with target-matching features, targets and incorrect conjunction objects elicited identical N2pc and SPCN components, demonstrating that attentional guidance was entirely feature-based. In Experiment 2, where targets and incorrect conjunction objects could appear in the same display, clear evidence for object-based attentional control was found. The target N2pc became larger than the N2pc to incorrect conjunction objects from 250 ms poststimulus, and only targets elicited SPCN components. This demonstrates that after an initial feature-based guidance phase, object-based templates are activated when they are required to distinguish target and nontarget objects. These templates modulate visual processing and control access to working memory, and their activation may coincide with the start of feature integration processes. Results also suggest that while multiple feature templates can be activated concurrently, only a single object-based target template can guide attention at any given time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Julius – a template based supplementary electronic health record system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Gunnar O

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EHR systems are widely used in hospitals and primary care centres but it is usually difficult to share information and to collect patient data for clinical research. This is partly due to the different proprietary information models and inconsistent data quality. Our objective was to provide a more flexible solution enabling the clinicians to define which data to be recorded and shared for both routine documentation and clinical studies. The data should be possible to reuse through a common set of variable definitions providing a consistent nomenclature and validation of data. Another objective was that the templates used for the data entry and presentation should be possible to use in combination with the existing EHR systems. Methods We have designed and developed a template based system (called Julius that was integrated with existing EHR systems. The system is driven by the medical domain knowledge defined by clinicians in the form of templates and variable definitions stored in a common data repository. The system architecture consists of three layers. The presentation layer is purely web-based, which facilitates integration with existing EHR products. The domain layer consists of the template design system, a variable/clinical concept definition system, the transformation and validation logic all implemented in Java. The data source layer utilizes an object relational mapping tool and a relational database. Results The Julius system has been implemented, tested and deployed to three health care units in Stockholm, Sweden. The initial responses from the pilot users were positive. The template system facilitates patient data collection in many ways. The experience of using the template system suggests that enabling the clinicians to be in control of the system, is a good way to add supplementary functionality to the present EHR systems. Conclusion The approach of the template system in combination with various local EHR

  20. Template based rodent brain extraction and atlas mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Huang; Jiaqi Zhang; Zhiping Lin; Su Huang; Yuping Duan; Zhongkang Lu

    2016-08-01

    Accurate rodent brain extraction is the basic step for many translational studies using MR imaging. This paper presents a template based approach with multi-expert refinement to automatic rodent brain extraction. We first build the brain appearance model based on the learning exemplars. Together with the template matching, we encode the rodent brain position into the search space to reliably locate the rodent brain and estimate the rough segmentation. With the initial mask, a level-set segmentation and a mask-based template learning are implemented further to the brain region. The multi-expert fusion is used to generate a new mask. We finally combine the region growing based on the histogram distribution learning to delineate the final brain mask. A high-resolution rodent atlas is used to illustrate that the segmented low resolution anatomic image can be well mapped to the atlas. Tested on a public data set, all brains are located reliably and we achieve the mean Jaccard similarity score at 94.99% for brain segmentation, which is a statistically significant improvement compared to two other rodent brain extraction methods.

  1. Highly tailorable thiol-ene based emulsion-templated monoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, J. P.; Kutter, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The attractive surface properties of thiol-ene polymers combined with their ease of processing make them ideal substrates in many bioanalytical applications. We report the synthesis of highly tailorable emulsion-templated porous polymers and beads in microfluidic devices based on off-stoichiometr......The attractive surface properties of thiol-ene polymers combined with their ease of processing make them ideal substrates in many bioanalytical applications. We report the synthesis of highly tailorable emulsion-templated porous polymers and beads in microfluidic devices based on off......-stoichiometry thiolene chemistry. The method allows monolith synthesis and anchoring inside thiol-ene microchannels in a single step. Variations in the monomer stoichiometric ratios and/or amount of porogen used allow for the creation of extremely varied polymer morphologies, from foam-like materials to dense networks...

  2. A PBOM configuration and management method based on templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Qiao, Lihong; Qie, Yifan

    2018-03-01

    The design of Process Bill of Materials (PBOM) holds a hinge position in the process of product development. The requirements of PBOM configuration design and management for complex products are analysed in this paper, which include the reuse technique of configuration procedure and urgent management need of huge quantity of product family PBOM data. Based on the analysis, the function framework of PBOM configuration and management has been established. Configuration templates and modules are defined in the framework to support the customization and the reuse of configuration process. The configuration process of a detection sensor PBOM is shown as an illustration case in the end. The rapid and agile PBOM configuration and management can be achieved utilizing template-based method, which has a vital significance to improve the development efficiency for complex products.

  3. Broadband infrared metamaterial absorber based on anodic aluminum oxide template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingfan; Qu, Shaobo; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Yang, Shen; Pang, Yongqiang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a broadband infrared metamaterial absorber is proposed based on trapezoid-shaped anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Unlike traditional metamaterial absorber constructed from metal-dielectric-metal sandwich structure, our proposed absorber is composed of trapezoid-shaped AAO template with metallic nanowires inside. The infrared absorption efficiency is numerically calculated and the mechanism analysis is given in the paper. Owing to the superposition of multiple resonances produced by the nanowires with different heights, the infrared metamatrial absorber can keep high absorption efficiency during broad working wavelength band from 3.4 μm to 6.1 μm. In addition, the resonance wavelength is associated with the height of nanowires, which indicates that the resonance wavelength can be modulated flexibly through changing the heights of nanowires. This kind of design can also be adapted to other wavelength regions.

  4. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Inglett, Todd Alan [Rochester, MN

    2009-01-13

    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  5. Chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission of biometric templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Zhang Jiashu; Tian Lei

    2007-01-01

    The large-scale proliferation of biometric verification systems creates a demand for effective and reliable security and privacy of its data. Like passwords and PIN codes, biometric data is also not secret and if it is compromised, the integrity of the whole verification system could be at high risk. To address these issues, this paper presents a novel chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission scheme of biometric data. Encryption and data hiding techniques are used to improve the security and secrecy of the transmitted templates. Secret keys are generated by the biometric image and used as the parameter value and initial condition of the chaotic map, and each transaction session has different secret keys to protect from the attacks. Two chaotic maps are incorporated for the encryption to resolve the finite word length effect and to improve the system's resistance against attacks. Encryption is applied on the biometric templates before hiding into the cover/host images to make them secure, and then templates are hidden into the cover image. Experimental results show that the security, performance, and accuracy of the presented scheme are encouraging comparable with other methods found in the current literature

  6. Chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission of biometric templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)]. E-mail: khurram.khan@scientist.com; Zhang Jiashu [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Tian Lei [Research Group for Biometrics and Security, Sichuan Province Key Lab of Signal and Information Processing, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2007-06-15

    The large-scale proliferation of biometric verification systems creates a demand for effective and reliable security and privacy of its data. Like passwords and PIN codes, biometric data is also not secret and if it is compromised, the integrity of the whole verification system could be at high risk. To address these issues, this paper presents a novel chaotic secure content-based hidden transmission scheme of biometric data. Encryption and data hiding techniques are used to improve the security and secrecy of the transmitted templates. Secret keys are generated by the biometric image and used as the parameter value and initial condition of the chaotic map, and each transaction session has different secret keys to protect from the attacks. Two chaotic maps are incorporated for the encryption to resolve the finite word length effect and to improve the system's resistance against attacks. Encryption is applied on the biometric templates before hiding into the cover/host images to make them secure, and then templates are hidden into the cover image. Experimental results show that the security, performance, and accuracy of the presented scheme are encouraging comparable with other methods found in the current literature.

  7. Fracture Mechanics Assessment for Different Notch Sizes Using Finite Element Analysis Based on Ductile Failure Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Keun Hyung; Jeon, Jun Young; Han, Jae Jun; Nam, Hyun Suk; Lee, Dae Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, notch defects are evaluated using fracture mechanics. To understand the effects of notch defects, FE analysis is conducted to predict the limit load and J-integral for middle-cracked and single-edge cracked plates with various sizes of notch under tension and bending. As the radius of the notch increases, the energy release rate also increases, although the limit load remains constant. The values of fracture toughness(J{sub IC}) of SM490A are determined for various notch radii through FE simulation instead of conducting an experiment. As the radius of the notch increases, the energy release rate also increases, together with a more significant increase in fracture toughness. To conclude, as the notch radius increases, the resistance to crack propagation also increases.

  8. Template-based education toolkit for mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golagani, Santosh Chandana; Esfahanian, Moosa; Akopian, David

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays mobile phones are the most widely used portable devices which evolve very fast adding new features and improving user experiences. The latest generation of hand-held devices called smartphones is equipped with superior memory, cameras and rich multimedia features, empowering people to use their mobile phones not only as a communication tool but also for entertainment purposes. With many young students showing interest in learning mobile application development one should introduce novel learning methods which may adapt to fast technology changes and introduce students to application development. Mobile phones become a common device, and engineering community incorporates phones in various solutions. Overcoming the limitations of conventional undergraduate electrical engineering (EE) education this paper explores the concept of template-based based education in mobile phone programming. The concept is based on developing small exercise templates which students can manipulate and revise for quick hands-on introduction to the application development and integration. Android platform is used as a popular open source environment for application development. The exercises relate to image processing topics typically studied by many students. The goal is to enable conventional course enhancements by incorporating in them short hands-on learning modules.

  9. A color based face detection system using multiple templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 卜佳俊; 陈纯

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting human faces in color images. The algorithm consists of three image processing steps. The first step is human skin color statistics. Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions. After that, it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions. In the first step, 250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors. This chroma chart is used to generate, from the original color image, a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the skin. The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into separate skin regions from non skin regions. Finally, multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not. Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%, which is better than most color-based face detection systems. The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image (400×300 pixels) on a Pentium 3 (800MHz) PC.

  10. A color based face detection system using multiple templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 卜佳酸; 陈纯

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting hu-man faces in color images.The algorithm comsists of three image processing steps.The first step is human skin color statistics.Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions.After that,it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions.In the first step,250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors.This chroma chart is used to generate,from the original color image,a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the shin,The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into sep-arate skin regions from non skin regions.Finally,multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not.Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%,which is better than most colou-based face detection sys-tems.The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image(400×300pixels) on a Pentium 3(800MHz) PC.

  11. Template-based electrophoretic deposition of perovskite PZT nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourmohammadi, A. [Solid Surfaces Analysis and Electron Microscopy Group, Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Semiconductors Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), 31779-83634 Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrevar, M.A. [Semiconductors Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), 31779-83634 Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ma.bahrevar@yahoo.com; Hietschold, M. [Solid Surfaces Analysis and Electron Microscopy Group, Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2009-04-03

    Template-based electrophoretic deposition of perovskite lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanotubes was achieved using anodic alumina (AA) membranes and sols, containing lead, zirconium and titanium precursors. The effect of various anodizing voltages on the size of the channels in the anodic alumina template was investigated. The prepared sol was driven into the channels under the influence of various electric fields and subsequently sintered at about 700 deg. C. The effects of the initial heating rates and the burn-out temperature on the phase evolution of the samples were studied and a modified firing process was employed. The effects of the electrophoretic voltage and the deposition time on the average wall thickness of the tubes were investigated. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) revealed the efficiency of electrophoresis in the growth of lead zirconate titanate nanotubes in a close-packed array. The X-ray diffraction analyses indicated the presence of perovskite as the principal phase after a modified firing schedule.

  12. BPFlexTemplate: A Business Process template generation tool based on similarity and flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Ilahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In large organizations with multiple organizational units, process variants emerge due to many aspects, including local management policies, resources or socio-technical limitations. Organizations then struggle to improve a business process which has no longer a single process model to redesign, implement and adjust. In this paper, we propose an approach to tackle these two challenges: decrease the proliferation of process variants in these organizations, and foresee, at the same time, the need of having flexible business processes that allow for a certain degree of adjustment. To validate our approach, we first conducted case studies where we collected six real-world business process variants from two organizational units of the same healthcare organization. We then proposed an algorithm to derive a template process model from all the variants, which includes common and flexible process elements. We implemented our approach in a software tool called BPFlexTemplate, and tested it with the elicited variants.

  13. Template-Based Estimation of Time-Varying Tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Geoffroy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach to automatic estimation of tempo over time. This method aims at detecting tempo at the tactus level for percussive and nonpercussive audio. The front-end of our system is based on a proposed reassigned spectral energy flux for the detection of musical events. The dominant periodicities of this flux are estimated by a proposed combination of discrete Fourier transform and frequency-mapped autocorrelation function. The most likely meter, beat, and tatum over time are then estimated jointly using proposed meter/beat subdivision templates and a Viterbi decoding algorithm. The performances of our system have been evaluated on four different test sets among which three were used during the ISMIR 2004 tempo induction contest. The performances obtained are close to the best results of this contest.

  14. Template-based automatic breast segmentation on MRI by excluding the chest region

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, M; Chen, JH; Wang, X; Chan, S; Chen, S; Su, MY

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Methods for quantification of breast density on MRI using semiautomatic approaches are commonly used. In this study, the authors report on a fully automatic chest template-based method. Methods: Nonfat-suppressed breast MR images from 31 healthy women were analyzed. Among them, one case was randomly selected and used as th e template, and the remaining 30 cases were used for testing. Unlike most model-based breast segmentation methods that use the breast region as the template, the c...

  15. Template-based procedures for neural network interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J A.; Mozer, M C.

    1999-04-01

    Although neural networks often achieve impressive learning and generalization performance, their internal workings are typically all but impossible to decipher. This characteristic of the networks, their opacity, is one of the disadvantages of connectionism compared to more traditional, rule-oriented approaches to artificial intelligence. Without a thorough understanding of the network behavior, confidence in a system's results is lowered, and the transfer of learned knowledge to other processing systems - including humans - is precluded. Methods that address the opacity problem by casting network weights in symbolic terms are commonly referred to as rule extraction techniques. This work describes a principled approach to symbolic rule extraction from standard multilayer feedforward networks based on the notion of weight templates, parameterized regions of weight space corresponding to specific symbolic expressions. With an appropriate choice of representation, we show how template parameters may be efficiently identified and instantiated to yield the optimal match to the actual weights of a unit. Depending on the requirements of the application domain, the approach can accommodate n-ary disjunctions and conjunctions with O(k) complexity, simple n-of-m expressions with O(k(2)) complexity, or more general classes of recursive n-of-m expressions with O(k(L+2)) complexity, where k is the number of inputs to an unit and L the recursion level of the expression class. Compared to other approaches in the literature, our method of rule extraction offers benefits in simplicity, computational performance, and overall flexibility. Simulation results on a variety of problems demonstrate the application of our procedures as well as the strengths and the weaknesses of our general approach.

  16. Mean template for tensor-based morphometry using deformation tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporé, Natasha; Brun, Caroline; Pennec, Xavier; Chou, Yi-Yu; Lopez, Oscar L; Aizenstein, Howard J; Becker, James T; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) studies anatomical differences between brain images statistically, to identify regions that differ between groups, over time, or correlate with cognitive or clinical measures. Using a nonlinear registration algorithm, all images are mapped to a common space, and statistics are most commonly performed on the Jacobian determinant (local expansion factor) of the deformation fields. In, it was shown that the detection sensitivity of the standard TBM approach could be increased by using the full deformation tensors in a multivariate statistical analysis. Here we set out to improve the common space itself, by choosing the shape that minimizes a natural metric on the deformation tensors from that space to the population of control subjects. This method avoids statistical bias and should ease nonlinear registration of new subjects data to a template that is 'closest' to all subjects' anatomies. As deformation tensors are symmetric positive-definite matrices and do not form a vector space, all computations are performed in the log-Euclidean framework. The control brain B that is already the closest to 'average' is found. A gradient descent algorithm is then used to perform the minimization that iteratively deforms this template and obtains the mean shape. We apply our method to map the profile of anatomical differences in a dataset of 26 HIV/AIDS patients and 14 controls, via a log-Euclidean Hotelling's T2 test on the deformation tensors. These results are compared to the ones found using the 'best' control, B. Statistics on both shapes are evaluated using cumulative distribution functions of the p-values in maps of inter-group differences.

  17. The role of uric acid in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy based on notch pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Yun-Zhi; Zou, Chen; She, Xin-Ping; Zheng, Zhi

    2018-06-19

    Uric acid has been proposed as an independent risk factor of diabetic retinopathy. Although Notch signaling was reported to be affected in the presence of high concentrations of uric acid or glucose, the underlying mechanisms of hyperuricemia through the Notch signaling pathway to promote the development of diabetic retinopathy remain unknown. We incubated human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) with high glucose, high uric acid and high glucose plus high glucose respectively and evaluated the apoptosis rate in different treated cells by Tunel staining. We induced diabetic model by intraperitoneally streptozotocin. Then healthy rats and diabetic rats were given with adenine and oteracil potassium by gavage. Using automatic biochemical analyzer to detect blood glucose, uric acid, urea nitrogen, creatinine levels, to verify the success of modeling. The expression and mRNA levels of ICAM-1, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-a, receptors Notch 1, ligands Dll 1, Dll 4, Jagged 1, Jagged 2 were detected by RT-PCR and Western-Blot. Notch1 siRNA was used to interfere Notch signaling pathway, the expression and mRNA levels of ICAM-1, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. In vitro models, the apoptosis of HRECs cells in high uric acid plus high glucose group was the most significant. In vitro and vivo models, detection of inflammatory cytokines revealed that the expression of inflammatory cytokines increased most significantly in high uric acid plus high glucose group. Notch signaling pathway activity was also increased most significantly in high uric acid plus high glucose group. After Notch 1 siRNA transfection in high glucose and high glucose plus uric acid group, the activity of Notch signaling pathway was successfully down-regulated. We found that the apoptosis of HRECs was significantly decreased in cells transfected with Notch 1 siRNA compared to the blank vector group, and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in cells was also significantly

  18. Research on Remote Sensing Image Template Processing Based on Global Subdivision Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong Delan; Du Genyuan

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the questions of vast data, complex operation, and time consuming processing for remote sensing image, subdivision template was proposed based on global subdivision theory, which can set up high level of abstraction and generalization for remote sensing image. The paper emphatically discussed the model and structure of subdivision template, and put forward some new ideas for remote sensing image template processing, key technology and quickly applied demonstration. The research has ...

  19. Template security analysis of multimodal biometric frameworks based on fingerprint and hand geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are automatic tools used to provide authentication during various applications of modern computing. In this work, three different design frameworks for multimodal biometric systems based on fingerprint and hand geometry modalities are proposed. An analysis is also presented to diagnose various types of template security issues in the proposed system. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is applied with five decision parameters on all the designs and framework 1 is found to be better in terms of template data security, templates fusion and computational efficiency. It is noticed that template data security before storage in database is a challenging task. An important observation is that a template may be secured at feature fusion level and an indexing technique may be used to improve the size of secured templates.

  20. Power Line Interference Removal from Electrocardiogram Using a Simplified Lattice Based Adaptive IIR Notch Filter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhillon, Santpal

    2001-01-01

    ...) notch filter with a simplified adaptation algorithm for removal of power line frequency from ECG signals, The performance of this filter is better as compared to a second order infinite impulse response (IIR...

  1. Iron oxide nanotubes synthesized via template-based electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin-Hee; Min, Seong-Gi; Malkinski, Leszek; Wiley, John B.

    2014-04-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in the development of synthetic methods for the preparation iron oxide nanostructures for applications in nanotechnology. While a variety of structures have been reported, only a few studies have focused on iron oxide nanotubes. Here, we present details on the synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanotubes along with a proposed mechanism for FeOOH tube formation. The FeOOH nanotubes, fabricated via a template-based electrodeposition method, are found to exhibit a unique inner-surface. Heat treatment of these tubes under oxidizing or reducing atmospheres can produce either hematite (α-Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4) structures, respectively. Hematite nanotubes are composed of small nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter and the magnetization curves and FC-ZFC curves show superparamagnetic properties without the Morin transition. In the case of magnetite nanotubes, which consist of slightly larger nanoparticles, magnetization curves show ferromagnetism with weak coercivity at room temperature, while FC-ZFC curves exhibit the Verwey transition at 125 K.Considerable effort has been invested in the development of synthetic methods for the preparation iron oxide nanostructures for applications in nanotechnology. While a variety of structures have been reported, only a few studies have focused on iron oxide nanotubes. Here, we present details on the synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanotubes along with a proposed mechanism for FeOOH tube formation. The FeOOH nanotubes, fabricated via a template-based electrodeposition method, are found to exhibit a unique inner-surface. Heat treatment of these tubes under oxidizing or reducing atmospheres can produce either hematite (α-Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4) structures, respectively. Hematite nanotubes are composed of small nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter and the magnetization curves and FC-ZFC curves show superparamagnetic properties without the Morin transition

  2. Tannin-based monoliths from emulsion-templating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, A.; Martinez de Yuso, A.; Fierro, V.; Pizzi, A.; Celzard, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficient preparation procedures are presented for new and “green” tannin-based organic polyHIPEs. • Highest homogeneity and strength are obtained at an oil fraction near the close-packing value. • Structural and mechanical properties abruptly change above such critical value. - Abstract: Highly porous monoliths prepared by emulsion-templating, frequently called polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (polyHIPEs) in the literature, were prepared from “green” precursors such as Mimosa bark extract, sunflower oil and ethoxylated castor oil. Various oil fractions, ranging from 43 to 80 vol.%, were used and shown to have a dramatic impact on the resultant porous structure. A critical oil fraction around 70 vol.% was found to exist, close to the theoretical values of 64% and 74% for random and compact sphere packing, respectively, at which the properties of both emulsions and derived porous monoliths changed. Such change of behaviour was observed by many different techniques such as viscosity, electron microscopy, mercury intrusion, and mechanical studies. We show and explain why this critical oil fraction is the one leading to the strongest and most homogeneous porous monoliths

  3. A Novel Approach Based on PCNNs Template for Fingerprint Image Thinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dacheng, X.; Bailiang, L.; Nijholt, Antinus; Kacprzyk, J.

    2009-01-01

    A PCNNs-based square-and-triangle-template method for binary fingerprint image thinning is proposed. The algorithm is iterative, in which a combined sequential and parallel processing is employed to accelerate execution. When a neuron satisfies the square template, the pixel corresponding to this

  4. Template-based protein-protein docking exploiting pairwise interfacial residue restraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Li C; Garcia Lopes Maia Rodrigues, João; Dobbs, Drena; Honavar, Vasant; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J

    2016-01-01

    Although many advanced and sophisticatedab initioapproaches for modeling protein-protein complexes have been proposed in past decades, template-based modeling (TBM) remains the most accurate and widely used approach, given a reliable template is available. However, there are many different ways to

  5. A new template matching method based on contour information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiying; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Qingxiao; Li, Sicong

    2014-11-01

    Template matching is a significant approach in machine vision due to its effectiveness and robustness. However, most of the template matching methods are so time consuming that they can't be used to many real time applications. The closed contour matching method is a popular kind of template matching methods. This paper presents a new closed contour template matching method which is suitable for two dimensional objects. Coarse-to-fine searching strategy is used to improve the matching efficiency and a partial computation elimination scheme is proposed to further speed up the searching process. The method consists of offline model construction and online matching. In the process of model construction, triples and distance image are obtained from the template image. A certain number of triples which are composed by three points are created from the contour information that is extracted from the template image. The rule to select the three points is that the template contour is divided equally into three parts by these points. The distance image is obtained here by distance transform. Each point on the distance image represents the nearest distance between current point and the points on the template contour. During the process of matching, triples of the searching image are created with the same rule as the triples of the model. Through the similarity that is invariant to rotation, translation and scaling between triangles, the triples corresponding to the triples of the model are found. Then we can obtain the initial RST (rotation, translation and scaling) parameters mapping the searching contour to the template contour. In order to speed up the searching process, the points on the searching contour are sampled to reduce the number of the triples. To verify the RST parameters, the searching contour is projected into the distance image, and the mean distance can be computed rapidly by simple operations of addition and multiplication. In the fine searching process

  6. Miniaturized and reconfigurable notch antenna based on a BST ferroelectric thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Hung Viet [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Benzerga, Ratiba, E-mail: ratiba.benzerga@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Borderon, Caroline [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France); Delaveaud, Christophe [CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sharaiha, Ala [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Renoud, Raphael [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France); Paven, Claire Le [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Pavy, Sabrina; Nadaud, Kevin; Gundel, Hartmut W. [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A miniature and agile antenna based on a BST MIM capacitor is simulated and made. • Mn{sup 2+} doped BST thin films are synthesized by chemical deposition and spin coating. • Permittivity and losses of the BST thin film are respectively 225 and 0.02 at 1 GHz. • A miniaturization rate of 70% is obtained with a MIM capacitance of 3.7 pF. • A frequency tunability of 14.5% and a tunability performance of 0.04 are measured. - Abstract: This work deals with the design, realization and characterization of a miniature and frequency agile antenna based on a ferroelectric Ba{sub 0,80}Sr{sub 0,20}TiO{sub 3} thin film. The notch antenna is loaded with a variable metal/insulator/metal (MIM) capacitor and is achieved by a monolithic method. The MIM capacitance is 3.7 pF, which results in a resonant frequency of 670 MHz compared to 2.25 GHz for the unloaded simulated antenna; the resulting miniaturization rate is 70%. The characterization of the antenna prototype shows a frequency tunable rate of 14.5% under an electric field of 375 kV/cm, with a tunability performance η = 0.04.

  7. Template measurement for plutonium pit based on neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Changfan; Gong Jian; Liu Suping; Hu Guangchun; Xiang Yongchun

    2012-01-01

    Template measurement for plutonium pit extracts characteristic data from-ray spectrum and the neutron counts emitted by plutonium. The characteristic data of the suspicious object are compared with data of the declared plutonium pit to verify if they are of the same type. In this paper, neural networks are enhanced as the comparison algorithm for template measurement of plutonium pit. Two kinds of neural networks are created, i.e. the BP and LVQ neural networks. They are applied in different aspects for the template measurement and identification. BP neural network is used for classification for different types of plutonium pits, which is often used for management of nuclear materials. LVQ neural network is used for comparison of inspected objects to the declared one, which is usually applied in the field of nuclear disarmament and verification. (authors)

  8. Application of Notched Long-Period Fiber Grating Based Sensor for CO2 Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao-Wei; Chiang, Chia-Chin

    2016-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma etching process to fabricate notched long-period fiber gratings for CO2 gas sensing is proposed in this article. In the gas sensing test, the 15% mixed CO2 gas was used for characterization of CO2 adsorption by the amine-modified nanoporous silica foams of the notched long-period fiber grating sensor. The results shows the spectra were changed with the CO2 gas flow within 13 min. During the absorption process, the transmission of the resonant dip was decreased by 2.884 dB. Therefore, the proposed notched long-period fiber grating gas sensor shows good performance and is suitable as a gas sensor for monitoring the CO2 adsorption process.

  9. Hiding correlation-based Watermark templates using secret modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenauer, J.; Setyawan, I.; Lagendijk, R.

    2004-01-01

    A possible solution to the difficult problem of geometrical distortion of watermarked images in a blind watermarking scenario is to use a template grid in the autocorrelation function. However, the important drawback of this method is that the watermark itself can be estimated and subtracted, or the

  10. Synthesis of copper telluride nanowires using template-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anodized alu- minum oxide foil (AAO) acts as template and electrodeposi- tion is conducted in a ... the nanopores were perpendicular to the AAO membrane sur- face and were uniform in ... Aluminium oxide 0·02–0·2. 13, 21, 47. 60. 105. –.

  11. Multi-template tensor-based morphometry: application to analysis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart; Rueckert, Daniel; Waldemar, Gunhild; Soininen, Hilkka

    2011-06-01

    In this paper methods for using multiple templates in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) are presented and compared to the conventional single-template approach. TBM analysis requires non-rigid registrations which are often subject to registration errors. When using multiple templates and, therefore, multiple registrations, it can be assumed that the registration errors are averaged and eventually compensated. Four different methods are proposed for multi-template TBM. The methods were evaluated using magnetic resonance (MR) images of healthy controls, patients with stable or progressive mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the ADNI database (N=772). The performance of TBM features in classifying images was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Classification results show that the multi-template methods are statistically significantly better than the single-template method. The overall classification accuracy was 86.0% for the classification of control and AD subjects, and 72.1% for the classification of stable and progressive MCI subjects. The statistical group-level difference maps produced using multi-template TBM were smoother, formed larger continuous regions, and had larger t-values than the maps obtained with single-template TBM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient delivery of Notch1 siRNA to SKOV3 cells by cationic cholesterol derivative-based liposome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yun-Chun Zhao,1 Li Zhang,2 Shi-Sen Feng,3 Lu Hong,3 Hai-Li Zheng,3 Li-Li Chen,4 Xiao-Ling Zheng,1 Yi-Qing Ye,1 Meng-Dan Zhao,1 Wen-Xi Wang,3 Cai-Hong Zheng1 1Pharmacy Department, Women’s Hospital, 2Pharmacy Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutic Preparation, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 4Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A novel cationic cholesterol derivative-based small interfering RNA (siRNA interference strategy was suggested to inhibit Notch1 activation in SKOV3 cells for the gene therapy of ovarian cancer. The cationic cholesterol derivative, N-(cholesterylhemisuccinoyl-amino-3-propyl-N, N-dimethylamine (DMAPA-chems liposome, was incubated with siRNA at different nitrogen-to-phosphate ratios to form stabilized, near-spherical siRNA/DMAPA-chems nanoparticles with sizes of 100–200 nm and zeta potentials of 40–50 mV. The siRNA/DMAPA-chems nanoparticles protected siRNA from nuclease degradation in 25% fetal bovine serum. The nanoparticles exhibited high cell uptake and Notch1 gene knockdown efficiency in SKOV3 cells at an nitrogen-to-phosphate ratio of 100 and an siRNA concentration of 50 nM. They also inhibited the growth and promoted the apoptosis of SKOV3 cells. These results may provide the potential for using cationic cholesterol derivatives as efficient nonviral siRNA carriers for the suppression of Notch1 activation in ovarian cancer cells. Keywords: siRNA, cationic cholesterol derivative, Notch1, ovarian cancer cells

  13. Evaluation of template-based models in CASP8 with standard measures

    KAUST Repository

    Cozzetto, Domenico; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Moult, John; Rost, Burkhard; Tramontano, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The strategy for evaluating template-based models submitted to CASP has continuously evolved from CASP1 to CASP5, leading to a standard procedure that has been used in all subsequent editions. The established approach includes methods

  14. Fiber Bragg grating based notch filter for bit-rate-transparent NRZ to PRZ format conversion with two-degree-of-freedom optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hui; Zuo, Jun; Xiong, Bangyun; Cheng, Jianqun; Shu, Xuewen; Shen, Fangcheng; Liu, Xin; Atai, Javid

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel notch-filtering scheme for bit-rate transparent all-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format conversion. The scheme is based on a two-degree-of-freedom optimally designed fiber Bragg grating. It is shown that a notch filter optimized for any specific operating bit rate can be used to realize high-Q-factor format conversion over a wide bit rate range without requiring any tuning. (paper)

  15. Welding template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Venue, R.J. of.

    1976-01-01

    A welding template is described which is used to weld strip material into a cellular grid structure for the accommodation of fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. On a base plate the template carries a multitude of cylindrical pins whose upper half is narrower than the bottom half and only one of which is attached to the base plate. The others are arrested in a hexagonal array by oblong webs clamped together by chuck jaws which can be secured by means of screws. The parts are ground very accurately. The template according to the invention is very easy to make. (UWI) [de

  16. Securing Iris Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Fuzzy Vault

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi, V. S.; Padmavathi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Personal identification and authentication is very crucial in the current scenario. Biometrics plays an important role in this area. Biometric based authentication has proved superior compared to traditional password based authentication. Anyhow biometrics is permanent feature of a person and cannot be reissued when compromised as passwords. To over come this problem, instead of storing the original biometric templates transformed templates can be stored. Whenever the transformation function ...

  17. Cross-catalytic peptide nucleic acid (PNA) replication based on templated ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhal, Abhishek; Nielsen, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    We report the first PNA self-replicating system based on template directed cross-catalytic ligation, a process analogous to biological replication. Using two template PNAs and four pentameric precursor PNAs, all four possible carbodiimide assisted amide ligation products were detected...... precursors. Cross-catalytic product formation followed product inhibited kinetics, but approximately two replication rounds were observed. Analogous but less efficient replication was found for a similar tetrameric system. These results demonstrate that simpler nucleobase replication systems than natural...

  18. Removable polytetrafluoroethylene template based epitaxy of ferroelectric copolymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Chen, Qiusong; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Qian; Jiang, Yulong; Zhu, Guodong

    2018-04-01

    In recent years ferroelectric polymers have shown their great potentials in organic and flexible electronics. To meet the requirements of high-performance and low energy consumption of novel electronic devices and systems, structural and electrical properties of ferroelectric polymer thin films are expected to be further optimized. One possible way is to realize epitaxial growth of ferroelectric thin films via removable high-ordered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) templates. Here two key parameters in epitaxy process, annealing temperature and applied pressure, are systematically studied and thus optimized through structural and electrical measurements of ferroelectric copolymer thin films. Experimental results indicate that controlled epitaxial growth is realized via suitable combination of both parameters. Annealing temperature above the melting point of ferroelectric copolymer films is required, and simultaneously moderate pressure (around 2.0 MPa here) should be applied. Over-low pressure (around 1.0 MPa here) usually results in the failure of epitaxy process, while over-high pressure (around 3.0 MPa here) often results in residual of PTFE templates on ferroelectric thin films.

  19. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  20. Pseudo-template synthesis of gold nanoparticles based on polyhydrosilanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacarescu, Liviu; Simionescu, Mihaela; Sacarescu, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Highly stable colloidal gold nanoparticles are obtained in a pseudo-template system using a specific polyhydrosilane copolymeric structure. This process takes place in situ by microwaves activation of the polymer solution in a non-polar solvent followed by stirring with solid HAuCl 4 in natural light. The experimental procedure is very simple and the resulted colloidal gold solution is indefinitely stable. The specific surface plasmon resonance absorption band of the gold nanoparticles is strongly red shifted and is strictly related to their size. AFM correlated with DLS analysis showed flattened round shaped colloidal polymer-gold nanoparticles with large diameters. SEM-EDX combined analysis reveals that the polysilane-gold nanoparticles show a natural tendency to auto-assemble in close packed structures which form large areas over the polymer film surface.

  1. Template-Based Electrochemically Controlled Growth of Segmented Multimetal Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Rahn Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multisegmented one-dimensional nanostructures composed of gold, copper, and nickel have been fabricated by depositing metals electrochemically in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO templates. The electrodeposition process has been carried out using a direct current in a two-electrode electrochemical cell, where a silver-evaporated AAO membrane and a platinum plate have served as a working electrode and a counter electrode, respectively. The striped multimetal rods with an average diameter of about 300 nm have tunable lengths ranging from a few hundred nanometers to a few micrometers. The lengths and the sequence of metal segments in a striped rod can be tailored readily by controlling the durations of electrodeposition and the order of electroplating solutions, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of template-based models in CASP8 with standard measures

    KAUST Repository

    Cozzetto, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    The strategy for evaluating template-based models submitted to CASP has continuously evolved from CASP1 to CASP5, leading to a standard procedure that has been used in all subsequent editions. The established approach includes methods for calculating the quality of each individual model, for assigning scores based on the distribution of the results for each target and for computing the statistical significance of the differences in scores between prediction methods. These data are made available to the assessor of the template-based modeling category, who uses them as a starting point for further evaluations and analyses. This article describes the detailed workflow of the procedure, provides justifications for a number of choices that are customarily made for CASP data evaluation, and reports the results of the analysis of template-based predictions at CASP8.

  3. Fatigue life evaluation based on welding residual stress relaxation and notch strain approach for cruciform welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeong Woo; Han, Seung Ho; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue strength of welded joint is influenced by the welding residual stress which is relaxed depending on local stress distributed in vicinity of stress raisers, eg. under cut, overlap and blow hole. To evaluate its fatigue life the geometry of the stress raisers and the welding residual stress should be taken into account. The several methods based on notch strain approach have been proposed in order to consider the two factors above mentioned. These methods, however, have shown considerable differences between analytical and experimental results. It is due to the fact that the amount of the relaxed welding residual stress evaluated by the cyclic stress-strain relationship do not correspond with that occurred in reality. In this paper the residual stress relaxation model based on experimental results was used in order to reduce the discrepancy of the estimated amount of the relaxed welding residual stress. Under an assumption of the superimposition of the relaxed welding residual stress and the local stress, a modified notch strain approach was proposed and verified to the cruciform welded joint

  4. [Manufacture method and clinical application of minimally invasive dental implant guide template based on registration technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zeming; He, Bingwei; Chen, Jiang; D u, Zhibin; Zheng, Jingyi; Li, Yanqin

    2012-08-01

    To guide doctors in precisely positioning surgical operation, a new production method of minimally invasive implant guide template was presented. The mandible of patient was scanned by CT scanner, and three-dimensional jaw bone model was constructed based on CT images data The professional dental implant software Simplant was used to simulate the plant based on the three-dimensional CT model to determine the location and depth of implants. In the same time, the dental plaster models were scanned by stereo vision system to build the oral mucosa model. Next, curvature registration technology was used to fuse the oral mucosa model and the CT model, then the designed position of implant in the oral mucosa could be determined. The minimally invasive implant guide template was designed in 3-Matic software according to the design position of implant and the oral mucosa model. Finally, the template was produced by rapid prototyping. The three-dimensional registration technology was useful to fuse the CT data and the dental plaster data, and the template was accurate that could provide the doctors a guidance in the actual planting without cut-off mucosa. The guide template which fabricated by comprehensive utilization of three-dimensional registration, Simplant simulation and rapid prototyping positioning are accurate and can achieve the minimally invasive and accuracy implant surgery, this technique is worthy of clinical use.

  5. Crack initiation life in notched Ti-6Al-4V titanium bars under uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue: synthesis based on the averaged strain energy density approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Meneghetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behaviour of circumferentially notched specimens made of titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, has been analysed. To investigate the notch effect on the fatigue strength, pure bending, pure torsion and multiaxial bending-torsion fatigue tests have been carried out on specimens characterized by two different root radii, namely 0.1 and 4 mm. Crack nucleation and subsequent propagation have been accurately monitored by using the direct current potential drop (DCPD technique. Based on the results obtained from the potential drop technique, the crack initiation life has been defined in correspondence of a relative potential drop increase V/V0 equal to 1%, and it has been used as failure criterion. Doing so, the effect of extrinsic mechanisms operating during crack propagation phase, such as sliding contact, friction and meshing between fracture surfaces, is expected to be reduced. The experimental fatigue test results have been re-analysed by using the local strain energy density (SED averaged over a structural volume having radius R0 and surrounding the notch tip. Finally, the use of the local strain energy density parameter allowed us to properly correlate the crack initiation life of Ti-6Al-4V notched specimens, despite the different notch geometries and loading conditions involved in the tests

  6. Notching on cancer’s door: Notch signaling in brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin eTeodorczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch receptors play an essential role in the regulation of central cellular processes during embryonic and postnatal development. The mammalian genome encodes for four Notch paralogs (Notch 1-4, which are activated by three Delta-like (Dll1/3/4 and two Serrate-like (Jagged1/2 ligands. Further, non-canonical Notch ligands such as EGFL7 have been identified and serve mostly as antagonists of Notch signaling. The Notch pathway prevents neuronal differentiation in the central nervous system by driving neural stem cell maintenance and commitment of neural progenitor cells into the glial lineage. Notch is therefore often implicated in the development of brain tumors, as tumor cells share various characteristics with neural stem and progenitor cells. Notch receptors are overexpressed in gliomas and their oncogenicity has been confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro and in vivo. To this end, special attention is paid to the impact of Notch signaling on stem-like brain tumor-propagating cells as these cells contribute to growth, survival, invasion and recurrence of brain tumors. Based on the outcome of ongoing studies in vivo, Notch-directed therapies such as γ secretase inhibitors and blocking antibodies have entered and completed various clinical trials. This review summarizes the current knowledge on Notch signaling in brain tumor formation and therapy.

  7. Mode-dependent templates and scan order for H.264/AVC-based intra lossless coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhouye; Lin, Weisi; Lee, Bu-Sung; Lau, Chiew Tong; Sun, Ming-Ting

    2012-09-01

    In H.264/advanced video coding (AVC), lossless coding and lossy coding share the same entropy coding module. However, the entropy coders in the H.264/AVC standard were original designed for lossy video coding and do not yield adequate performance for lossless video coding. In this paper, we analyze the problem with the current lossless coding scheme and propose a mode-dependent template (MD-template) based method for intra lossless coding. By exploring the statistical redundancy of the prediction residual in the H.264/AVC intra prediction modes, more zero coefficients are generated. By designing a new scan order for each MD-template, the scanned coefficients sequence fits the H.264/AVC entropy coders better. A fast implementation algorithm is also designed. With little computation increase, experimental results confirm that the proposed fast algorithm achieves about 7.2% bit saving compared with the current H.264/AVC fidelity range extensions high profile.

  8. Nanolithography based contacting method for electrical measurements on single template synthesized nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusil, S.; Piraux, L.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    A reliable method enabling electrical measurements on single nanowires prepared by electrodeposition in an alumina template is described. This technique is based on electrically controlled nanoindentation of a thin insulating resist deposited on the top face of the template filled by the nanowires....... We show that this method is very flexible, allowing us to electrically address single nanowires of controlled length down to 100 nm and of desired composition. Using this approach, current densities as large as 10 A cm were successfully injected through a point contact on a single magnetic...

  9. A LabVIEW based template for user created experiment automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D J; Fisk, Z

    2012-12-01

    We have developed an expandable software template to automate user created experiments. The LabVIEW based template is easily modifiable to add together user created measurements, controls, and data logging with virtually any type of laboratory equipment. We use reentrant sequential selection to implement sequence script making it possible to wrap a long series of the user created experiments and execute them in sequence. Details of software structure and application examples for scanning probe microscope and automated transport experiments using custom built laboratory electronics and a cryostat are described.

  10. Real versus template-based Natural Language Generation: a false opposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, Kees; Krahmer, Emiel; Theune, Mariet

    2005-01-01

    This paper challenges the received wisdom that template-based approaches to the generation of language are necessarily inferior to other approaches as regards their maintainability, linguistic well-foundedness and quality of output. Some recent NLG systems that call themselves `templatebased' will

  11. Analysis and Design of Notch Filter-Based PLLs for Grid-Connected Applications Electric Power Systems Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    Using multiple notch filters (NFs) inside the control loop of a standard PLL is a basic strategy to improve its filtering capability. Often, adaptive NFs (ANFs) are employed for this purpose as they can block the disturbance components even under off-nominal grid frequencies. This advantage...... is at the cost of a rather considerable increase in the PLL implementation complexity and computational effort, particularly when ANFs have their own frequency estimation mechanism. The non-adaptive NFs (NNFs), contrary to ANFs, are easy to implement. They, however, have received a little attention in PLL...... applications. Therefore, their performance characteristics are rather unclear. To gain insight about the advantages and disadvantages of NNF-based PLLs (NNF-PLLs), analysis and design of these PLLs is conducted in this paper. This procedure includes: (1) selecting the appropriate number of NNFs inside the PLL...

  12. Study protocol: Münster tinnitus randomized controlled clinical trial-2013 based on tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantev, Christo; Rudack, Claudia; Stein, Alwina; Wunderlich, Robert; Engell, Alva; Lau, Pia; Wollbrink, Andreas; Shaykevich, Alex

    2014-03-02

    Tinnitus is a result of hyper-activity/hyper-synchrony of auditory neurons coding the tinnitus frequency, which has developed to synchronous mass activity owing the lack of inhibition. We assume that removal of exactly these frequency components from an auditory stimulus will cause the brain to reorganize around tonotopic regions coding the tinnitus frequency. Based on this assumption a novel treatment for tonal tinnitus - tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT) (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:1207-1210, 2010; Ann N Y Acad Sci 1252:253-258, 2012; Frontiers Syst Neurosci 6:50, 2012) has been introduced and will be tested in this clinical trial on a large number of tinnitus patients. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) in parallel group design will be performed in a double-blinded manner. The choice of the intervention we are going to apply is based on two "proof of concept" studies in humans (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:1207-1210, 2010; Ann N Y Acad Sci 1252:253-258, 2012; Frontiers Syst Neurosci 6:50, 2012; PloS One 6(9):e24685, 2011) and on a recent animal study (Front Syst Neurosci 7:21, 2013).The RCT includes 100 participants with chronic, tonal tinnitus who listened to tailor-made notched music (TMNM) for two hours a day for three months. The effect of TMNMT is assessed by the tinnitus handicap questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS) measuring perceived tinnitus loudness, distress and handicap. This is the first randomized controlled trial applying TMNMT on a larger number of patients with tonal tinnitus. Our data will verify more securely and reliably the effectiveness of this kind of completely non-invasive and low-cost treatment approach on tonal tinnitus. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN04840953.

  13. A template-based approach for responsibility management in executable business processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Resinas, Manuel; Ruiz-Cortés, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Process-oriented organisations need to manage the different types of responsibilities their employees may have w.r.t. the activities involved in their business processes. Despite several approaches provide support for responsibility modelling, in current Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) the only responsibility considered at runtime is the one related to performing the work required for activity completion. Others like accountability or consultation must be implemented by manually adding activities in the executable process model, which is time-consuming and error-prone. In this paper, we address this limitation by enabling current BPMS to execute processes in which people with different responsibilities interact to complete the activities. We introduce a metamodel based on Responsibility Assignment Matrices (RAM) to model the responsibility assignment for each activity, and a flexible template-based mechanism that automatically transforms such information into BPMN elements, which can be interpreted and executed by a BPMS. Thus, our approach does not enforce any specific behaviour for the different responsibilities but new templates can be modelled to specify the interaction that best suits the activity requirements. Furthermore, libraries of templates can be created and reused in different processes. We provide a reference implementation and build a library of templates for a well-known set of responsibilities.

  14. Template-based automatic breast segmentation on MRI by excluding the chest region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Muqing; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Wang, Xiaoyong; Su, Min-Ying; Chan, Siwa; Chen, Siping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Methods for quantification of breast density on MRI using semiautomatic approaches are commonly used. In this study, the authors report on a fully automatic chest template-based method. Methods: Nonfat-suppressed breast MR images from 31 healthy women were analyzed. Among them, one case was randomly selected and used as the template, and the remaining 30 cases were used for testing. Unlike most model-based breast segmentation methods that use the breast region as the template, the chest body region on a middle slice was used as the template. Within the chest template, three body landmarks (thoracic spine and bilateral boundary of the pectoral muscle) were identified for performing the initial V-shape cut to determine the posterior lateral boundary of the breast. The chest template was mapped to each subject's image space to obtain a subject-specific chest model for exclusion. On the remaining image, the chest wall muscle was identified and excluded to obtain clean breast segmentation. The chest and muscle boundaries determined on the middle slice were used as the reference for the segmentation of adjacent slices, and the process continued superiorly and inferiorly until all 3D slices were segmented. The segmentation results were evaluated by an experienced radiologist to mark voxels that were wrongly included or excluded for error analysis. Results: The breast volumes measured by the proposed algorithm were very close to the radiologist's corrected volumes, showing a % difference ranging from 0.01% to 3.04% in 30 tested subjects with a mean of 0.86% ± 0.72%. The total error was calculated by adding the inclusion and the exclusion errors (so they did not cancel each other out), which ranged from 0.05% to 6.75% with a mean of 3.05% ± 1.93%. The fibroglandular tissue segmented within the breast region determined by the algorithm and the radiologist were also very close, showing a % difference ranging from 0.02% to 2.52% with a mean of 1.03% ± 1.03%. The

  15. Shape-Controlled Fabrication of the Polymer-Based Micromotor Based on the Polydimethylsiloxane Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Miaoda; Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Sun, Yunyu; Li, Mingtong; Wang, Dalei; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin

    2015-11-03

    We report the utilization of the polydimethylsiloxane template to construct polymer-based autonomous micromotors with various structures. Solid or hollow micromotors, which consist of polycaprolactone and platinum nanoparticles, can be obtained with controllable sizes and shapes. The resulting micromotor can not only be self-propelled in solution based on the bubble propulsion mechanism in the presence of the hydrogen peroxide fuel, but also exhibit structure-dependent motion behavior. In addition, the micromotors can exhibit various functions, ranging from fluorescence, magnetic control to cargo transportation. Since the current method can be extended to a variety of organic and inorganic materials, we thus believe it may have great potential in the fabrication of different functional micromotors for diverse applications.

  16. Object-based target templates guide attention during visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2018-01-01

    During visual search, attention is believed to be controlled in a strictly feature-based fashion, without any guidance by object-based target representations. To challenge this received view, we measured electrophysiological markers of attentional selection (N2pc component) and working memory (SPCN) in search tasks where two possible targets were defined by feature conjunctions (e.g., blue circles and green squares). Critically, some search displays also contained nontargets with two target f...

  17. Immunophenotype Discovery, Hierarchical Organization, and Template-based Classification of Flow Cytometry Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Azad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe algorithms for discovering immunophenotypes from large collections of flow cytometry (FC samples, and using them to organize the samples into a hierarchy based on phenotypic similarity. The hierarchical organization is helpful for effective and robust cytometry data mining, including the creation of collections of cell populations characteristic of different classes of samples, robust classification, and anomaly detection. We summarize a set of samples belonging to a biological class or category with a statistically derived template for the class. Whereas individual samples are represented in terms of their cell populations (clusters, a template consists of generic meta-populations (a group of homogeneous cell populations obtained from the samples in a class that describe key phenotypes shared among all those samples. We organize an FC data collection in a hierarchical data structure that supports the identification of immunophenotypes relevant to clinical diagnosis. A robust template-based classification scheme is also developed, but our primary focus is in the discovery of phenotypic signatures and inter-sample relationships in an FC data collection. This collective analysis approach is more efficient and robust since templates describe phenotypic signatures common to cell populations in several samples, while ignoring noise and small sample-specific variations.We have applied the template-base scheme to analyze several data setsincluding one representing a healthy immune system, and one of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AMLsamples. The last task is challenging due to the phenotypic heterogeneity of the severalsubtypes of AML. However, we identified thirteen immunophenotypes corresponding to subtypes of AML, and were able to distinguish Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia from other subtypes of AML.

  18. Blueprint template support for engineering cloud-based services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D.K.; Lelli, F.; Taher, Y.; Parkin, M.S.; Papazoglou, M.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.M.; Abramowicz, W.; Martín Llorente, I.; Surridge, M.; Zisman, A.; Vayssière, J.

    2011-01-01

    Current cloud-based service offerings are often provided as one-size-fits-all solutions and give little or no room for customization. This limits the ability for application developers to pick and choose offerings from multiple software, platform, infrastructure service providers and configure them

  19. Lattice and strain analysis of atomic resolution Z-contrast images based on template matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Jian-Min, E-mail: jianzuo@uiuc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Shah, Amish B. [Center for Microanalysis of Materials, Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kim, Honggyu; Meng, Yifei; Gao, Wenpei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rouviére, Jean-Luc [CEA-INAC/UJF-Grenoble UMR-E, SP2M, LEMMA, Minatec, Grenoble 38054 (France)

    2014-01-15

    A real space approach is developed based on template matching for quantitative lattice analysis using atomic resolution Z-contrast images. The method, called TeMA, uses the template of an atomic column, or a group of atomic columns, to transform the image into a lattice of correlation peaks. This is helped by using a local intensity adjusted correlation and by the design of templates. Lattice analysis is performed on the correlation peaks. A reference lattice is used to correct for scan noise and scan distortions in the recorded images. Using these methods, we demonstrate that a precision of few picometers is achievable in lattice measurement using aberration corrected Z-contrast images. For application, we apply the methods to strain analysis of a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown LaMnO{sub 3} and SrMnO{sub 3} superlattice. The results show alternating epitaxial strain inside the superlattice and its variations across interfaces at the spatial resolution of a single perovskite unit cell. Our methods are general, model free and provide high spatial resolution for lattice analysis. - Highlights: • A real space approach is developed for strain analysis using atomic resolution Z-contrast images and template matching. • A precision of few picometers is achievable in the measurement of lattice displacements. • The spatial resolution of a single perovskite unit cell is demonstrated for a LaMnO{sub 3} and SrMnO{sub 3} superlattice grown by MBE.

  20. Template-based automatic extraction of the joint space of foot bones from CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunbi; Kim, Taeho; Park, Jinah

    2016-03-01

    Clean bone segmentation is critical in studying the joint anatomy for measuring the spacing between the bones. However, separation of the coupled bones in CT images is sometimes difficult due to ambiguous gray values coming from the noise and the heterogeneity of bone materials as well as narrowing of the joint space. For fine reconstruction of the individual local boundaries, manual operation is a common practice where the segmentation remains to be a bottleneck. In this paper, we present an automatic method for extracting the joint space by applying graph cut on Markov random field model to the region of interest (ROI) which is identified by a template of 3D bone structures. The template includes encoded articular surface which identifies the tight region of the high-intensity bone boundaries together with the fuzzy joint area of interest. The localized shape information from the template model within the ROI effectively separates the bones nearby. By narrowing the ROI down to the region including two types of tissue, the object extraction problem was reduced to binary segmentation and solved via graph cut. Based on the shape of a joint space marked by the template, the hard constraint was set by the initial seeds which were automatically generated from thresholding and morphological operations. The performance and the robustness of the proposed method are evaluated on 12 volumes of ankle CT data, where each volume includes a set of 4 tarsal bones (calcaneus, talus, navicular and cuboid).

  1. Template model inspired leg force feedback based control can assist human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping; Sharbafi, Maziar; Vlutters, Mark; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Seyfarth, Andre

    2017-07-01

    We present a novel control approach for assistive lower-extremity exoskeletons. In particular, we implement a virtual pivot point (VPP) template model inspired leg force feedback based controller on a lower-extremity powered exoskeleton (LOPES II) and demonstrate that it can effectively assist humans during walking. It has been shown that the VPP template model is capable of stabilizing the trunk and reproduce a human-like hip torque during the stance phase of walking. With leg force and joint angle feedback inspired by the VPP template model, our controller provides hip and knee torque assistance during the stance phase. A pilot experiment was conducted with four healthy subjects. Joint kinematics, leg muscle electromyography (EMG), and metabolic cost were measured during walking with and without assistance. Results show that, for 0.6 m/s walking, our controller can reduce leg muscle activations, especially for the medial gastrocnemius (about 16.0%), while hip and knee joint kinematics remain similar to the condition without the controller. Besides, the controller also reduces 10% of the net metabolic cost during walking. This paper demonstrates walking assistance benefits of the VPP template model for the first time. The support of human walking is achieved by a force feedback of leg force applied to the control of hip and knee joints. It can help us to provide a framework for investigating walking assistance control in the future.

  2. Characterization of Notch1 antibodies that inhibit signaling of both normal and mutated Notch1 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aste-Amézaga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Notch receptors normally play a key role in guiding a variety of cell fate decisions during development and differentiation of metazoan organisms. On the other hand, dysregulation of Notch1 signaling is associated with many different types of cancer as well as tumor angiogenesis, making Notch1 a potential therapeutic target.Here we report the in vitro activities of inhibitory Notch1 monoclonal antibodies derived from cell-based and solid-phase screening of a phage display library. Two classes of antibodies were found, one directed against the EGF-repeat region that encompasses the ligand-binding domain (LBD, and the second directed against the activation switch of the receptor, the Notch negative regulatory region (NRR. The antibodies are selective for Notch1, inhibiting Jag2-dependent signaling by Notch1 but not by Notch 2 and 3 in reporter gene assays, with EC(50 values as low as 5+/-3 nM and 0.13+/-0.09 nM for the LBD and NRR antibodies, respectively, and fail to recognize Notch4. While more potent, NRR antibodies are incomplete antagonists of Notch1 signaling. The antagonistic activity of LBD, but not NRR, antibodies is strongly dependent on the activating ligand. Both LBD and NRR antibodies bind to Notch1 on human tumor cell lines and inhibit the expression of sentinel Notch target genes, including HES1, HES5, and DTX1. NRR antibodies also strongly inhibit ligand-independent signaling in heterologous cells transiently expressing Notch1 receptors with diverse NRR "class I" point mutations, the most common type of mutation found in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL. In contrast, NRR antibodies failed to antagonize Notch1 receptors bearing rare "class II" or "class III" mutations, in which amino acid insertions generate a duplicated or constitutively sensitive metalloprotease cleavage site. Signaling in T-ALL cell lines bearing class I mutations is partially refractory to inhibitory antibodies as compared to cell

  3. Automated Threshold Selection for Template-Based Sonar Target Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    features,” OCEANS 2014 - TAIPEI. 4. Groen, J.; Coiras, E .; Del Rio, J.; Evans, Vera B., “Model-based sea mine classification with synthetic aperture...2) 3$*(6 D1$0(2)5(63216,%/(3(5621 D5(3257 E $%675$&7 F7+,63$*( /,0,7$7,212) $%675$&7 6WDQGDUG)RUP 5HY...3UHVFULEHG E \\$16,6WG= 7KHSXEOLFUHSRUWLQJEXUGHQIRUWKLVFROOHFWLRQRI LQIRUPDWLRQLVHVWLPDWHGWRDYHUDJHKRXUSHUUHVSRQVH

  4. Multi-atlas labeling with population-specific template and non-local patch-based label fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    We propose a new method combining a population-specific nonlinear template atlas approach with non-local patch-based structure segmentation for whole brain segmentation into individual structures. This way, we benefit from the efficient intensity-driven segmentation of the non-local means framework...... and from the global shape constraints imposed by the nonlinear template matching....

  5. Object Detection Based on Template Matching through Use of Best-So-Far ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Banharnsakun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Best-so-far ABC is a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm used for optimization tasks. This algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence (SI algorithms proposed in recent literature, in which the results demonstrated that the best-so-far ABC can produce higher quality solutions with faster convergence than either the ordinary ABC or the current state-of-the-art ABC-based algorithm. In this work, we aim to apply the best-so-far ABC-based approach for object detection based on template matching by using the difference between the RGB level histograms corresponding to the target object and the template object as the objective function. Results confirm that the proposed method was successful in both detecting objects and optimizing the time used to reach the solution.

  6. Use of a structured template to facilitate practice-based learning and improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Elizabeth K; Babbott, Stewart F; Tsue, Terance T; Girod, Douglas A; Clements, Debora; Gilmer, Lisa; Persons, Diane; Unruh, Greg

    2012-06-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residency programs to meet and demonstrate outcomes across 6 competencies. Measuring residents' competency in practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) is particularly challenging. We developed an educational tool to meet ACGME requirements for PBLI. The PBLI template helped programs document quality improvement (QI) projects and supported increased scholarly activity surrounding PBLI learning. We reviewed program requirements for 43 residency and fellowship programs and identified specific PBLI requirements for QI activities. We also examined ACGME Program Information Form responses on PBLI core competency questions surrounding QI projects for program sites visited in 2008-2009. Data were integrated by a multidisciplinary committee to develop a peer-protected PBLI template guiding programs through process, documentation, and evaluation of QI projects. All steps were reviewed and approved through our GME Committee structure. An electronic template, companion checklist, and evaluation form were developed using identified project characteristics to guide programs through the PBLI process and facilitate documentation and evaluation of the process. During a 24 month period, 27 programs have completed PBLI projects, and 15 have reviewed the template with their education committees, but have not initiated projects using the template. The development of the tool generated program leaders' support because the tool enhanced the ability to meet program-specific objectives. The peer-protected status of this document for confidentiality and from discovery has been beneficial for program usage. The document aggregates data on PBLI and QI initiatives, offers opportunities to increase scholarship in QI, and meets the ACGME goal of linking measures to outcomes important to meeting accreditation requirements at the program and institutional level.

  7. Refinement of protein termini in template-based modeling using conformational space annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Julian; Seok, Chaok; Lee, Jooyoung

    2011-09-01

    The rapid increase in the number of experimentally determined protein structures in recent years enables us to obtain more reliable protein tertiary structure models than ever by template-based modeling. However, refinement of template-based models beyond the limit available from the best templates is still needed for understanding protein function in atomic detail. In this work, we develop a new method for protein terminus modeling that can be applied to refinement of models with unreliable terminus structures. The energy function for terminus modeling consists of both physics-based and knowledge-based potential terms with carefully optimized relative weights. Effective sampling of both the framework and terminus is performed using the conformational space annealing technique. This method has been tested on a set of termini derived from a nonredundant structure database and two sets of termini from the CASP8 targets. The performance of the terminus modeling method is significantly improved over our previous method that does not employ terminus refinement. It is also comparable or superior to the best server methods tested in CASP8. The success of the current approach suggests that similar strategy may be applied to other types of refinement problems such as loop modeling or secondary structure rearrangement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Speed-up Template Matching through Integral Image based Weak Classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, t.; Toet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Template matching is a widely used pattern recognition method, especially in industrial inspection. However, the computational costs of traditional template matching increase dramatically with both template-and scene imagesize. This makes traditional template matching less useful for many (e.g.

  9. One-pot synthesis of magnetic hybrid materials based on ovoid-like carboxymethyl-cellulose/cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Martínez, Nubia E. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66450 Nuevo León (Mexico); Garza-Navarro, M.A., E-mail: marco.garzanr@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66450 Nuevo León (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología, Apodaca, 66600 Nuevo León (Mexico); Lucio-Porto, Raúl [Université de Nantes, CNRS, Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); and others

    2013-09-16

    A novel one-pot synthetic procedure to obtain magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials (HNM), based on magnetic spinel-metal-oxide (SMO) nanoparticles stabilized in ovoid-like carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)/cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide (CTAB) templates, is reported. The HNM were synthesized from the controlled hydrolysis of inorganic salts of Fe (II) and Fe (III) into aqueous dissolutions of CMC and CTAB. The synthesized HNM were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and static magnetic measurements. The experimental evidence suggests that, due to the competition between CTAB molecules and SMO nanoparticles to occupy CMC intermolecular sites nearby to its carboxylate functional groups, the size of both, SMO nanoparticles and ovoid-like CMC/CTAB templates can be tuned, varying the CTAB:SMO weight ratio. Moreover, it was found that the magnetic response of the HNM depends on the confinement degree of the SMO nanoparticles into the CMC/CTAB template. Hence, their magnetic characteristics can be adjusted controlling the size of the template, the quantity and distribution of the SMO nanoparticles within the template and their size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The synthesis of magnetic hybrid materials is reported. • The hybrid materials were synthesized following a novel one-pot procedure. • The magnetic nanoparticles were stabilized in ovoid-like templates. • The size of the templates was tuned adjusting nanoparticles weight content. • The magnetic properties of hybrid materials depend on the size of the template.

  10. Post test analyses of Revisa benchmark based on a creep test at 1100 Celsius degrees performed on a notched tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Bernard, A.; Bhandari, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the Euratom 4. Framework Program of the European Commission, REVISA Project deals with the Reactor Vessel Integrity under Severe Accidents. One of the tasks consists in the experimental validation of the models developed in the project. To do this, a benchmark was designed where the participants use their models to test the results against an experiment. The experiment called RUPTHER 15 was conducted by the coordinating organisation, CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) in France. It is a 'delayed fracture' test on a notched tube. Thermal loading is an axial gradient with a temperature of about 1130 C in the mid-part. Internal pressure is maintained at 0.8 MPa. This paper presents the results of Finite Element calculations performed by Framatome-ANP using the SYSTUS code. Two types of analyses were made: -) one based on the 'time hardening' Norton-Bailey creep law, -) the other based on the coupled creep/damage Lemaitre-Chaboche model. The purpose of this paper is in particular to show the influence of temperature on the simulation results. At high temperatures of the kind dealt with here, slight errors in the temperature measurements can lead to very large differences in the deformation behaviour. (authors)

  11. Beyond Creation of Mesoporosity: The Advantages of Polymer-Based Dual-Function Templates for Fabricating Hierarchical Zeolites

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Qiwei; Liu, Zhaohui; Zhu, Yihan; Dong, Xinglong; Saih, Youssef; Basset, Jean-Marie; Sun, Miao; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Liangkui; Zhang, Daliang; Huang, Jianfeng; Meng, Xiangju; Xiao, Feng-Shou; Han, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Direct synthesis of hierarchical zeolites currently relies on the use of surfactant-based templates to produce mesoporosity by the random stacking of 2D zeolite sheets or the agglomeration of tiny zeolite grains. The benefits of using nonsurfactant

  12. Facial contour deformity correction with microvascular flaps based on the 3-dimentional template and facial moulage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Facial contour deformities presents with varied aetiology and degrees severity. Accurate assessment, selecting a suitable tissue and sculpturing it to fill the defect is challenging and largely subjective. Objective assessment with imaging and software is not always feasible and preparing a template is complicated. A three-dimensional (3D wax template pre-fabricated over the facial moulage aids surgeons to fulfil these tasks. Severe deformities demand a stable vascular tissue for an acceptable outcome. Materials and Methods: We present review of eight consecutive patients who underwent augmentation of facial contour defects with free flaps between June 2005 and January 2011. De-epithelialised free anterolateral thigh (ALT flap in three, radial artery forearm flap and fibula osteocutaneous flap in two each and groin flap was used in one patient. A 3D wax template was fabricated by augmenting the deformity on facial moulage. It was utilised to select the flap, to determine the exact dimensions and to sculpture intraoperatively. Ancillary procedures such as genioplasty, rhinoplasty and coloboma correction were performed. Results: The average age at the presentation was 25 years and average disease free interval was 5.5 years and all flaps survived. Mean follow-up period was 21.75 months. The correction was aesthetically acceptable and was maintained without any recurrence or atrophy. Conclusion: The 3D wax template on facial moulage is simple, inexpensive and precise objective tool. It provides accurate guide for the planning and execution of the flap reconstruction. The selection of the flap is based on the type and extent of the defect. Superiority of vascularised free tissue is well-known and the ALT flap offers a versatile option for correcting varying degrees of the deformities. Ancillary procedures improve the overall aesthetic outcomes and minor flap touch-up procedures are generally required.

  13. An Agent-Based Modeling Template for a Cohort of Veterans with Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Eugene Day

    Full Text Available Agent-based models are valuable for examining systems where large numbers of discrete individuals interact with each other, or with some environment. Diabetic Veterans seeking eye care at a Veterans Administration hospital represent one such cohort.The objective of this study was to develop an agent-based template to be used as a model for a patient with diabetic retinopathy (DR. This template may be replicated arbitrarily many times in order to generate a large cohort which is representative of a real-world population, upon which in-silico experimentation may be conducted.Agent-based template development was performed in java-based computer simulation suite AnyLogic Professional 6.6. The model was informed by medical data abstracted from 535 patient records representing a retrospective cohort of current patients of the VA St. Louis Healthcare System Eye clinic. Logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors associated with advancing stages of DR. Predicted probabilities obtained from logistic regression were used to generate the stage of DR in the simulated cohort.The simulated cohort of DR patients exhibited no significant deviation from the test population of real-world patients in proportion of stage of DR, duration of diabetes mellitus (DM, or the other abstracted predictors. Simulated patients after 10 years were significantly more likely to exhibit proliferative DR (P<0.001.Agent-based modeling is an emerging platform, capable of simulating large cohorts of individuals based on manageable data abstraction efforts. The modeling method described may be useful in simulating many different conditions where course of disease is described in categorical stages.

  14. Template-based automatic breast segmentation on MRI by excluding the chest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Muqing [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-5020 and National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, 518060 China (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-5020 and Department of Radiology, E-Da Hospital and I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan (China); Wang, Xiaoyong; Su, Min-Ying, E-mail: msu@uci.edu [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-5020 (United States); Chan, Siwa [Department of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40407, Taiwan (China); Chen, Siping [National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, 518060 China (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Methods for quantification of breast density on MRI using semiautomatic approaches are commonly used. In this study, the authors report on a fully automatic chest template-based method. Methods: Nonfat-suppressed breast MR images from 31 healthy women were analyzed. Among them, one case was randomly selected and used as the template, and the remaining 30 cases were used for testing. Unlike most model-based breast segmentation methods that use the breast region as the template, the chest body region on a middle slice was used as the template. Within the chest template, three body landmarks (thoracic spine and bilateral boundary of the pectoral muscle) were identified for performing the initial V-shape cut to determine the posterior lateral boundary of the breast. The chest template was mapped to each subject's image space to obtain a subject-specific chest model for exclusion. On the remaining image, the chest wall muscle was identified and excluded to obtain clean breast segmentation. The chest and muscle boundaries determined on the middle slice were used as the reference for the segmentation of adjacent slices, and the process continued superiorly and inferiorly until all 3D slices were segmented. The segmentation results were evaluated by an experienced radiologist to mark voxels that were wrongly included or excluded for error analysis. Results: The breast volumes measured by the proposed algorithm were very close to the radiologist's corrected volumes, showing a % difference ranging from 0.01% to 3.04% in 30 tested subjects with a mean of 0.86% ± 0.72%. The total error was calculated by adding the inclusion and the exclusion errors (so they did not cancel each other out), which ranged from 0.05% to 6.75% with a mean of 3.05% ± 1.93%. The fibroglandular tissue segmented within the breast region determined by the algorithm and the radiologist were also very close, showing a % difference ranging from 0.02% to 2.52% with a mean of 1.03% ± 1

  15. Ultrafast layer based computer-generated hologram calculation with sparse template holographic fringe pattern for 3-D object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Gu; Man Ro, Yong

    2017-11-27

    In this paper, we propose a new ultrafast layer based CGH calculation that exploits the sparsity of hologram fringe pattern in 3-D object layer. Specifically, we devise a sparse template holographic fringe pattern. The holographic fringe pattern on a depth layer can be rapidly calculated by adding the sparse template holographic fringe patterns at each object point position. Since the size of sparse template holographic fringe pattern is much smaller than that of the CGH plane, the computational load can be significantly reduced. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 10-20 msec for 1024x1024 pixels providing visually plausible results.

  16. Understanding the general packing rearrangements required for successful template based modeling of protein structure from a CASP experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan; Joo, Hyun; Chavan, Archana C; Lennox, Kristin P; Chen, Y Ann; Dahl, David B; Vannucci, Marina; Tsai, Jerry W

    2013-02-01

    As an alternative to the common template based protein structure prediction methods based on main-chain position, a novel side-chain centric approach has been developed. Together with a Bayesian loop modeling procedure and a combination scoring function, the Stone Soup algorithm was applied to the CASP9 set of template based modeling targets. Although the method did not generate as large of perturbations to the template structures as necessary, the analysis of the results gives unique insights into the differences in packing between the target structures and their templates. Considerable variation in packing is found between target and template structures even when the structures are close, and this variation is found due to 2 and 3 body packing interactions. Outside the inherent restrictions in packing representation of the PDB, the first steps in correctly defining those regions of variable packing have been mapped primarily to local interactions, as the packing at the secondary and tertiary structure are largely conserved. Of the scoring functions used, a loop scoring function based on water structure exhibited some promise for discrimination. These results present a clear structural path for further development of a side-chain centered approach to template based modeling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis and Elimination of High Temperature Notch Induced Microcrack Initiation in Inconel 718 Nickel-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Compressor Rear Frame (ClF) which exhibits extensive cract:ing of the forward flange. ThL 1988 Actuarial Function data shows CRF crackiing As the number 2...Creep-Rupture properties of Waspaloy sheet to Sharp-Edged Notches in the Temperature Range of 1O000F-14O0OF. Journal of Basle Engineering, Trans ASME ...Dependence of the Notch Sensitivity of Waspaloy at 10000F-1400F on the Gamma Prime Phase, Journal of Basic Engineering, Trans ASME (in print at time of

  18. Detecting lung cancer symptoms with analogic CNN algorithms based on a constrained diffusion template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshifumi; Ushida, Akio; Ueno, Junji; Kasem, I.; Nishitani, Hiromu; Rekeczky, C.; Roska, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this article, a new type of diffusion template and an analogic CNN algorithm using this diffusion template for detecting some lung cancer symptoms in X-ray films are proposed. The performance of the diffusion template is investigated and our CNN algorithm is verified to detect some key lung cancer symptoms, successfully. (author)

  19. Self-commissioning notch filter for active damping in three phase LCL-filter based grid converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzola, Rafael Pena; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    inductance variations it is proposed to estimate the resonance frequency by means of Fourier analysis. The Goertzel algorithm, instead of the FFT, is used to reduce the calculation and memory requirements. Thus, the proposed self-commissioning notch filter results robust and consumes little computational...

  20. Averaged strain energy density-based synthesis of crack initiation life in notched steel bars under torsional fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Berto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The torsional fatigue behaviour of circumferentially notched specimens made of austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L, and carbon steel, SGV410, characterized by different notch root radii has been recently investigated by Tanaka. In that contribution, it was observed that the total fatigue life of the austenitic stainless steel increases with increasing stress concentration factor for a given applied nominal shear stress amplitude. By using the electrical potential drop method, Tanaka observed that the crack nucleation life was reduced with increasing stress concentration, on the other hand the crack propagation life increased. The experimental fatigue results, originally expressed in terms of nominal shear stress amplitude, have been reanalysed by means of the local strain energy density (SED averaged over a control volume having radius R0 surrounding the notch tip. To exclude all extrinsic effects acting during the fatigue crack propagation phase, such as sliding contact and/or friction between fracture surfaces, crack initiation life has been considered in the present work. In the original paper, initiation life was defined in correspondence of a 0.1÷0.4-mm-deep crack. The control radius R0 for fatigue strength assessment of notched components, thought of as a material property, has been estimated by imposing the constancy of the averaged SED for both smooth and cracked specimens at NA = 2 million loading cycles

  1. Ab initio and template-based prediction of multi-class distance maps by two-dimensional recursive neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Alberto JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of protein structures from their sequences is still one of the open grand challenges of computational biology. Some approaches to protein structure prediction, especially ab initio ones, rely to some extent on the prediction of residue contact maps. Residue contact map predictions have been assessed at the CASP competition for several years now. Although it has been shown that exact contact maps generally yield correct three-dimensional structures, this is true only at a relatively low resolution (3–4 Å from the native structure. Another known weakness of contact maps is that they are generally predicted ab initio, that is not exploiting information about potential homologues of known structure. Results We introduce a new class of distance restraints for protein structures: multi-class distance maps. We show that Cα trace reconstructions based on 4-class native maps are significantly better than those from residue contact maps. We then build two predictors of 4-class maps based on recursive neural networks: one ab initio, or relying on the sequence and on evolutionary information; one template-based, or in which homology information to known structures is provided as a further input. We show that virtually any level of sequence similarity to structural templates (down to less than 10% yields more accurate 4-class maps than the ab initio predictor. We show that template-based predictions by recursive neural networks are consistently better than the best template and than a number of combinations of the best available templates. We also extract binary residue contact maps at an 8 Å threshold (as per CASP assessment from the 4-class predictors and show that the template-based version is also more accurate than the best template and consistently better than the ab initio one, down to very low levels of sequence identity to structural templates. Furthermore, we test both ab-initio and template-based 8

  2. Tyrosine phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage of Notch are required for non-canonical Notch/Abl signaling in Drosophila axon guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Ramakrishnan; Cox, Eric; Wang, Lei; Kuzina, Irina; Gu, Qun; Giniger, Edward

    2018-01-17

    Notch signaling is required for the development and physiology of nearly every tissue in metazoans. Much of Notch signaling is mediated by transcriptional regulation of downstream target genes, but Notch controls axon patterning in Drosophila by local modulation of Abl tyrosine kinase signaling, via direct interactions with the Abl co-factors Disabled and Trio. Here, we show that Notch-Abl axonal signaling requires both of the proteolytic cleavage events that initiate canonical Notch signaling. We further show that some Notch protein is tyrosine phosphorylated in Drosophila , that this form of the protein is selectively associated with Disabled and Trio, and that relevant tyrosines are essential for Notch-dependent axon patterning but not for canonical Notch-dependent regulation of cell fate. Based on these data, we propose a model for the molecular mechanism by which Notch controls Abl signaling in Drosophila axons. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Integration of EEG lead placement templates into traditional technologist-based staffing models reduces costs in continuous video-EEG monitoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolls, Brad J; Lai, Amy H; Srinivas, Anang A; Reid, Robert R

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative cost reductions within different staffing models for continuous video-electroencephalography (cvEEG) service by introducing a template system for 10/20 lead application. We compared six staffing models using decision tree modeling based on historical service line utilization data from the cvEEG service at our center. Templates were integrated into technologist-based service lines in six different ways. The six models studied were templates for all studies, templates for intensive care unit (ICU) studies, templates for on-call studies, templates for studies of ≤ 24-hour duration, technologists for on-call studies, and technologists for all studies. Cost was linearly related to the study volume for all models with the "templates for all" model incurring the lowest cost. The "technologists for all" model carried the greatest cost. Direct cost comparison shows that any introduction of templates results in cost savings, with the templates being used for patients located in the ICU being the second most cost efficient and the most practical of the combined models to implement. Cost difference between the highest and lowest cost models under the base case produced an annual estimated savings of $267,574. Implementation of the ICU template model at our institution under base case conditions would result in a $205,230 savings over our current "technologist for all" model. Any implementation of templates into a technologist-based cvEEG service line results in cost savings, with the most significant annual savings coming from using the templates for all studies, but the most practical implementation approach with the second highest cost reduction being the template used in the ICU. The lowered costs determined in this work suggest that a template-based cvEEG service could be supported at smaller centers with significantly reduced costs and could allow for broader use of cvEEG patient monitoring.

  4. LoopIng: a template-based tool for predicting the structure of protein loops.

    KAUST Repository

    Messih, Mario Abdel

    2015-08-06

    Predicting the structure of protein loops is very challenging, mainly because they are not necessarily subject to strong evolutionary pressure. This implies that, unlike the rest of the protein, standard homology modeling techniques are not very effective in modeling their structure. However, loops are often involved in protein function, hence inferring their structure is important for predicting protein structure as well as function.We describe a method, LoopIng, based on the Random Forest automated learning technique, which, given a target loop, selects a structural template for it from a database of loop candidates. Compared to the most recently available methods, LoopIng is able to achieve similar accuracy for short loops (4-10 residues) and significant enhancements for long loops (11-20 residues). The quality of the predictions is robust to errors that unavoidably affect the stem regions when these are modeled. The method returns a confidence score for the predicted template loops and has the advantage of being very fast (on average: 1 min/loop).www.biocomputing.it/loopinganna.tramontano@uniroma1.itSupplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Template-based combinatorial enumeration of virtual compound libraries for lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Manish; Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2012-09-25

    A variety of software packages are available for the combinatorial enumeration of virtual libraries for small molecules, starting from specifications of core scaffolds with attachments points and lists of R-groups as SMILES or SD files. Although SD files include atomic coordinates for core scaffolds and R-groups, it is not possible to control 2-dimensional (2D) layout of the enumerated structures generated for virtual compound libraries because different packages generate different 2D representations for the same structure. We have developed a software package called LipidMapsTools for the template-based combinatorial enumeration of virtual compound libraries for lipids. Virtual libraries are enumerated for the specified lipid abbreviations using matching lists of pre-defined templates and chain abbreviations, instead of core scaffolds and lists of R-groups provided by the user. 2D structures of the enumerated lipids are drawn in a specific and consistent fashion adhering to the framework for representing lipid structures proposed by the LIPID MAPS consortium. LipidMapsTools is lightweight, relatively fast and contains no external dependencies. It is an open source package and freely available under the terms of the modified BSD license.

  6. Matrix polyelectrolyte capsules based on polysaccharide/MnCO₃ hybrid microparticle templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingrong; Ai, Hua; Gu, Zhongwei

    2011-06-15

    An efficient strategy for biomacromolecule encapsulation based on spontaneous deposition into polysaccharide matrix-containing capsules is introduced in this study. First, hybrid microparticles composed of manganese carbonate and ionic polysaccharides including sodium hyaluronate (HA), sodium alginate (SA) and dextran sulfate sodium (DS) with narrow size distribution were synthesized to provide monodisperse templates. Incorporation of polysaccharide into the hybrid templates was successful as verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Matrix polyelectrolyte microcapsules were fabricated through layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (PEs) onto the hybrid particles, followed by removal of the inorganic part of the cores, leaving polysaccharide matrix inside the capsules. The loading and release properties of the matrix microcapsules were investigated using myoglobin as a model biomacromolecule. Compared to matrix-free capsules, the matrix capsules had a much higher loading capacity up to four times; the driving force is mostly due to electrostatic interactions between myoglobin and the polysaccharide matrix. From our observations, for the same kind of polysaccharide, a higher amount of polysaccharide inside the capsules usually led to better loading capacity. The release behavior of the loaded myoglobin could be readily controlled by altering the environmental pH. These matrix microcapsules may be used as efficient delivery systems for various charged water-soluble macromolecules with applications in biomedical fields. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Unifying Moral Dyad: Liberals and Conservatives Share the Same Harm-Based Moral Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Chelsea; Gray, Kurt

    2015-08-01

    Do moral disagreements regarding specific issues (e.g., patriotism, chastity) reflect deep cognitive differences (i.e., distinct cognitive mechanisms) between liberals and conservatives? Dyadic morality suggests that the answer is "no." Despite moral diversity, we reveal that moral cognition--in both liberals and conservatives--is rooted in a harm-based template. A dyadic template suggests that harm should be central within moral cognition, an idea tested--and confirmed--through six specific hypotheses. Studies suggest that moral judgment occurs via dyadic comparison, in which counter-normative acts are compared with a prototype of harm. Dyadic comparison explains why harm is the most accessible and important of moral content, why harm organizes--and overlaps with--diverse moral content, and why harm best translates across moral content. Dyadic morality suggests that various moral content (e.g., loyalty, purity) are varieties of perceived harm and that past research has substantially exaggerated moral differences between liberals and conservatives. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Supracolloidal Assemblies as Sacrificial Templates for Porous Silk-Based Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hardy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissues in the body are hierarchically structured composite materials with tissue-specific properties. Urea self-assembles via hydrogen bonding interactions into crystalline supracolloidal assemblies that can be used to impart macroscopic pores to polymer-based tissue scaffolds. In this communication, we explain the solvent interactions governing the solubility of urea and thereby the scope of compatible polymers. We also highlight the role of solvent interactions on the morphology of the resulting supracolloidal crystals. We elucidate the role of polymer-urea interactions on the morphology of the pores in the resulting biomaterials. Finally, we demonstrate that it is possible to use our urea templating methodology to prepare Bombyx mori silk protein-based biomaterials with pores that human dermal fibroblasts respond to by aligning with the long axis of the pores. This methodology has potential for application in a variety of different tissue engineering niches in which cell alignment is observed, including skin, bone, muscle and nerve.

  9. A Multifrequency Notch Filter for Millimeter Wave Plasma Diagnostics based on Photonic Bandgaps in Corrugated Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive millimeter wave diagnostics need often to be protected against unwanted radiation like, for example, stray radiation from high power Electron Cyclotron Heating applied in nuclear fusion plasmas. A notch filter based on a waveguide Bragg reflector (photonic band-gap may provide several stop bands of defined width within up to two standard waveguide frequency bands. A Bragg reflector that reflects an incident fundamental TE11 into a TM1n mode close to cutoff is combined with two waveguide tapers to fundamental waveguide diameter. Here the fundamental TE11 mode is the only propagating mode at both ends of the reflector. The incident TE11 mode couples through the taper and is converted to the high order TM1n mode by the Bragg structure at the specific Bragg resonances. The TM1n mode is trapped in the oversized waveguide section by the tapers. Once reflected at the input taper it will be converted back into the TE11 mode which then can pass through the taper. Therefore at higher order Bragg resonances, the filter acts as a reflector for the incoming TE11 mode. Outside of the Bragg resonances the TE11 mode can propagate through the oversized waveguide structure with only very small Ohmic attenuation compared to propagating in a fundamental waveguide. Coupling to other modes is negligible in the non-resonant case due to the small corrugation amplitude (typically 0.05·λ0, where λ0 is the free space wavelength. A Bragg reflector for 105 and 140 GHz was optimized by mode matching (scattering matrix simulations and manufactured by SWISSto12 SA, where the required mechanical accuracy of ± 5 μm could be achieved by stacking stainless steel rings, manufactured by micro-machining, in a high precision guiding pipe. The two smooth-wall tapers were fabricated by electroforming. Several measurements were performed using vector network analyzers from Agilent (E8362B, ABmm (MVNA 8-350 and Rohde&Schwarz (ZVA24 together with frequency multipliers. The

  10. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger P. Pawlowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  11. A Template Based System for Automatic Construction of Online Courseware for Secondary Educational Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotis Lazarinis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Many educational sites are static and rarely updated, diminishing the dynamism of the Web. An online learning system should be adjustable, expandable and regularly updated, preferably by educational staff without the direct intervention of computer experts, reflecting the dynamic character of education. Το achieve this aim, we propose a system based on three roles: Administrator, Educator and Learner. Each role has a different set of responsibilities and permissions to the system. The model is built around a repository of educational material, vital for its expandability and its dynamism. The repository contains a set of customizable templates, dynamically filled with the educational material, assembling the online course. This paper discusses current difficulties in developing online courses and then presents the development progress of such a system and its anticipated advantages to Secondary Educational Institutes.

  12. Fracture toughness evaluation of small notched specimen in consideration of notch effect and loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baik Woo; Kwon, Dong Il; Jang, Jae Il

    2000-01-01

    Notch effect and loading rate dependency on fracture toughness were considered when evaluating fracture toughness of small notched specimens using the instrumented impact test. Notch effect was analyzed into stress redistribution effect and stress relaxation with a viewpoint of stress triaxiality. Stress redistribution effect was corrected by introducing effective crack length, which was the sum of actual crack length and plastic zone size. Stress relaxation effect was also corrected using elastic stress concentration factor, which would decrease if plastic deformation occurred. As a result, corrected fracture toughness of the notched specimen was very consistent with the reference fracture toughness obtained using precracked specimen. In addition, limiting notch root radius, below which fracture toughness was independent of notch radius, was observed and discussed. Loading rate dependency on fracture toughness, which was obtained from the static three point bending test and the instrumented impact test, was also discussed with stress field in plastic zone ahead of a notch and fracture based on stress control mechanism. (author)

  13. Stress concentration at notches

    CERN Document Server

    Savruk, Mykhaylo P

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles solutions of linear theory of elasticity problems for isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches. It contains an overview of established and recent achievements, and presents the authors’ original solutions in the field considered with extensive discussion. The volume demonstrates through numerous, useful examples the effectiveness of singular integral equations for obtaining exact solutions of boundary problems of the theory of elasticity for bodies with cracks and notches. Incorporating analytical and numerical solutions of the problems of stress concentrations in solid bodies with crack-like defects, this volume is ideal for scientists and PhD students dealing with the problems of theory of elasticity and fracture mechanics. Stands as a modern and extensive compendium of solutions to the problems of linear theory of elasticity of isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches; Adopts a highly reader-friendly layout of tables, charts, approximation ...

  14. Report Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    To ensure consistent reporting of life cycle assessment (LCA), we provide a report template. The report includes elements of an LCA study as recommended but the ILCD Handbook. Illustrative case study reported according to this template is presented in Chap. 39 ....

  15. Template-mediated synthesis and bio-functionalization of flexible lignin-based nanotubes and nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Hector M.; Dempere, Luisa A.; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2012-03-01

    Limitations of cylindrical carbon nanotubes based on the buckminsterfullerene structure as delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents include their chemical inertness, sharp edges and toxicological concerns. As an alternative, we have developed lignin-based nanotubes synthesized in a sacrificial template of commercially available alumina membranes. Lignin is a complex phenolic plant cell wall polymer that is generated as a waste product from paper mills and biorefineries that process lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals. We covalently linked isolated lignin to the inner walls of activated alumina membranes and then added layers of dehydrogenation polymer onto this base layer via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. By using phenolic monomers displaying different reactivities, we were able to change the thickness of the polymer layer deposited within the pores, resulting in the synthesis of nanotubes with a wall thickness of approximately 15 nm or nanowires with a nominal diameter of 200 nm. These novel nanotubes are flexible and can be bio-functionalized easily and specifically, as shown by in vitro assays with biotin and Concanavalin A. Together with their intrinsic optical properties, which can also be varied as a function of their chemical composition, these lignin-based nanotubes are expected to enable a variety of new applications including as delivery systems that can be easily localized and imaged after uptake by living cells.

  16. Template-mediated synthesis and bio-functionalization of flexible lignin-based nanotubes and nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, Hector M; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dempere, Luisa A

    2012-01-01

    Limitations of cylindrical carbon nanotubes based on the buckminsterfullerene structure as delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents include their chemical inertness, sharp edges and toxicological concerns. As an alternative, we have developed lignin-based nanotubes synthesized in a sacrificial template of commercially available alumina membranes. Lignin is a complex phenolic plant cell wall polymer that is generated as a waste product from paper mills and biorefineries that process lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals. We covalently linked isolated lignin to the inner walls of activated alumina membranes and then added layers of dehydrogenation polymer onto this base layer via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. By using phenolic monomers displaying different reactivities, we were able to change the thickness of the polymer layer deposited within the pores, resulting in the synthesis of nanotubes with a wall thickness of approximately 15 nm or nanowires with a nominal diameter of 200 nm. These novel nanotubes are flexible and can be bio-functionalized easily and specifically, as shown by in vitro assays with biotin and Concanavalin A. Together with their intrinsic optical properties, which can also be varied as a function of their chemical composition, these lignin-based nanotubes are expected to enable a variety of new applications including as delivery systems that can be easily localized and imaged after uptake by living cells. (paper)

  17. Box-like gel capsules from heterostructures based on a core-shell MOF as a template of crystal crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Takumi; Michibata, Ayano; Kokado, Kenta; Ferlay, Sylvie; Hosseini, Mir Wais; Sada, Kazuki

    2018-02-06

    New polymer capsules (PCs) were obtained using a crystal crosslinking (CC) method on core-shell MOF crystals. The latter are based on the epitaxial growth of two isostructural coordination polymers which are then selectively crosslinked. Decomposition of the non-reticulated phase leads to new PCs, possessing a well-defined hollow cubic shape reflecting the heterostructure of the template.

  18. Interplay of I-TASSER and QUARK for template-based and ab initio protein structure prediction in CASP10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang

    2014-02-01

    We develop and test a new pipeline in CASP10 to predict protein structures based on an interplay of I-TASSER and QUARK for both free-modeling (FM) and template-based modeling (TBM) targets. The most noteworthy observation is that sorting through the threading template pool using the QUARK-based ab initio models as probes allows the detection of distant-homology templates which might be ignored by the traditional sequence profile-based threading alignment algorithms. Further template assembly refinement by I-TASSER resulted in successful folding of two medium-sized FM targets with >150 residues. For TBM, the multiple threading alignments from LOMETS are, for the first time, incorporated into the ab initio QUARK simulations, which were further refined by I-TASSER assembly refinement. Compared with the traditional threading assembly refinement procedures, the inclusion of the threading-constrained ab initio folding models can consistently improve the quality of the full-length models as assessed by the GDT-HA and hydrogen-bonding scores. Despite the success, significant challenges still exist in domain boundary prediction and consistent folding of medium-size proteins (especially beta-proteins) for nonhomologous targets. Further developments of sensitive fold-recognition and ab initio folding methods are critical for solving these problems. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Selection of appropriate template for spatial normalization of brain images: tensor based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-01-01

    Although there have been remarkable advances in spatial normalization techniques, the differences in the shape of the hemispheres and the sulcal pattern of brains relative to age, gender, races, and diseases cannot be fully overcome by the nonlinear spatial normalization techniques. T1 SPGR MR images in 16 elderly male normal volunteers (>55 y. mean age: = 61.8 ± 3.5 y) were spatially normalized onto the age/gender specific Korean templates, and the Caucasian MNI template and the extent of the deformations were compared. These particular subjects were never included in the development of the templates. First , the images were matched into the templates using an affine transformation to eliminate the global difference between the templates and source images. Second the affine registration was followed by an estimation of nonlinear deformation. Determinants of the Jacobian matrices of the nonlinear deformation were then calculated for every voxel to estimate the regional volume change during the nonlinear transformation Jacobian determinant images highlighted the great magnitude of the relative local volume changes obtained when the elderly brains were spatially normalized onto the young/midlife male or female templates. They reflect the enlargement of CSF space in the lateral ventricles, sylvian fissures and cisterna magna, and the shrinkage of the cortex noted mainly in frontal, insular and lateral temporal cortexes, and the cerebellums in the aged brains. In the Jacobian determinant images, a regional shrinkage of the brain in the left middle prefrontal cortex was observed in addition to the regional expansion in the ventricles and sylvian fissures, which may be due to the age differences between the template and source images. The regional anatomical difference between template and source images could impose an extreme deformation of the source images during the spatial normalization and therefore. Individual brains should be placed into the appropriate template

  20. Selection of appropriate template for spatial normalization of brain images: tensor based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Although there have been remarkable advances in spatial normalization techniques, the differences in the shape of the hemispheres and the sulcal pattern of brains relative to age, gender, races, and diseases cannot be fully overcome by the nonlinear spatial normalization techniques. T1 SPGR MR images in 16 elderly male normal volunteers (>55 y. mean age: = 61.8 {+-} 3.5 y) were spatially normalized onto the age/gender specific Korean templates, and the Caucasian MNI template and the extent of the deformations were compared. These particular subjects were never included in the development of the templates. First , the images were matched into the templates using an affine transformation to eliminate the global difference between the templates and source images. Second the affine registration was followed by an estimation of nonlinear deformation. Determinants of the Jacobian matrices of the nonlinear deformation were then calculated for every voxel to estimate the regional volume change during the nonlinear transformation Jacobian determinant images highlighted the great magnitude of the relative local volume changes obtained when the elderly brains were spatially normalized onto the young/midlife male or female templates. They reflect the enlargement of CSF space in the lateral ventricles, sylvian fissures and cisterna magna, and the shrinkage of the cortex noted mainly in frontal, insular and lateral temporal cortexes, and the cerebellums in the aged brains. In the Jacobian determinant images, a regional shrinkage of the brain in the left middle prefrontal cortex was observed in addition to the regional expansion in the ventricles and sylvian fissures, which may be due to the age differences between the template and source images. The regional anatomical difference between template and source images could impose an extreme deformation of the source images during the spatial normalization and therefore. Individual brains should be placed into the appropriate

  1. Template-based self-assembly for silicon chips and 01005 surface-mount components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoo, J H; Park, Kwang Soon; Baskaran, Rajashree; Böhringer, Karl F

    2014-01-01

    We present template-based microscale self-assembly as a technique that promotes the electronics industry's initiative towards functional diversification and function densification, demonstrating that our process can improve existing assembly and packaging techniques, and also enable possibilities restricted by current industry methodologies. We first present foundational work that performs part (370 × 370 × 150 µm 3 ) delivery to receptor sites (20 × 10 array) with a stochastic batch delivery process that completes within tens of seconds. The delivery mechanism is statistically characterized and a chemical kinetics inspired model is developed. Based on this understanding, repeatable and programmable 100% yield assembly is achieved in open-loop and feedback-based configurations. The established methodology is adapted to deliver and assemble standard 01 005 format (0.016″ × 0.008″, 0.4 mm × 0.2 mm) monolithic ceramic capacitors and thin-film resistors onto silicon substrates. This process is CMOS compatible and is competitive with capacitors and resistors fabricated through standard foundry processes. (paper)

  2. Inverse planning for interstitial gynecologic template brachytherapy: truly anatomy-based planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, Etienne; Hsu, I-Chou; Pouliot, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Commercially available optimization schemes generally result in an undesirable dose distribution, because of the particular shapes of tumors extending laterally from the tandem. Dose distribution is therefore manually obtained by adjusting relative dwell time values until an acceptable solution is found. The objective of this work is to present the clinical application of an inverse planning dose optimization tool for the automatic determination of source dwell time values in the treatment of interstitial gynecologic templates. Methods and Materials: In cases where the tumor extends beyond the range of the tandem-ovoid applicator, catheters as well as the tandem are inserted into the paravaginal and parametrial region in an attempt to cover the tumor volume. CT scans of these patients are then used for CT-based dose planning. Dose distribution is obtained manually by varying the relative dwell times until adequate dose coverage is achieved. This manual planning is performed by an experienced physician. In parallel, our in-house inverse planning based on simulated annealing is used to automatically determine which of all possible dwell positions will become active and to calculate the dwell time values needed to fulfill dose constraints applied to the tumor volume and to each organ at risk. To compare the results of these planning methods, dose-volume histograms and isodose distributions were generated for the target and each organ at risk. Results: This procedure has been applied for the dose planning of 12 consecutive interstitial gynecologic templates cases. For all cases, once the anatomy was contoured, the routine of inverse planning based on simulated annealing found the solution to the dose constraints within 1 min of CPU time. In comparison, manual planning took more than 45 min. The inverse planning-generated plans showed improved protection to organs at risk for the same coverage compared to manual planning. Conclusion: This inverse planning tool

  3. Beyond Creation of Mesoporosity: The Advantages of Polymer-Based Dual-Function Templates for Fabricating Hierarchical Zeolites

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Qiwei

    2016-02-05

    Direct synthesis of hierarchical zeolites currently relies on the use of surfactant-based templates to produce mesoporosity by the random stacking of 2D zeolite sheets or the agglomeration of tiny zeolite grains. The benefits of using nonsurfactant polymers as dual-function templates in the fabrication of hierarchical zeolites are demonstrated. First, the minimal intermolecular interactions of nonsurfactant polymers impose little interference on the crystallization of zeolites, favoring the formation of 3D continuous zeolite frameworks with a long-range order. Second, the mutual interpenetration of the polymer and the zeolite networks renders disordered but highly interconnected mesopores in zeolite crystals. These two factors allow for the synthesis of single-crystalline, mesoporous zeolites of varied compositions and framework types. A representative example, hierarchial aluminosilicate (meso-ZSM-5), has been carefully characterized. It has a unique branched fibrous structure, and far outperforms bulk aluminosilicate (ZSM-5) as a catalyst in two model reactions: conversion of methanol to aromatics and catalytic cracking of canola oil. Third, extra functional groups in the polymer template can be utilized to incorporate desired functionalities into hierarchical zeolites. Last and most importantly, polymer-based templates permit heterogeneous nucleation and growth of mesoporous zeolites on existing surfaces, forming a continuous zeolitic layer. In a proof-of-concept experiment, unprecedented core-shell-structured hierarchical zeolites are synthesized by coating mesoporous zeolites on the surfaces of bulk zeolites. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Notch sensitivity of ductile metallic foams : A computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangipudi, K. R.; Onck, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    The role of notches in the fracture strength of metal foams has been studied using a multiscale model based on a two-dimensional Voronoi representation of the cellular architecture. The effect of the crack length to the specimen width ratio on the net section strength of double edge notch (DEN)

  5. Template-assisted fabrication of tin and antimony based nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Kurowska, Elżbieta; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Jaskuła, Marian

    2012-10-01

    Antimony nanowires with diameters ranging from 35 nm to 320 nm were successfully prepared by simple, galvanostatic electrodeposition inside the pores of anodic alumina membranes from a citrate based electrolyte. The use of the potassium antimonyl tartrate electrolyte for electrodeposition results in the formation of Sb/Sb2O3 nanowires. The structural features of the nanowire arrays were investigated by FE-SEM, and the nanowire composition was confirmed by EDS and XRD measurements. A distinct peak at about 27.5° in the XRD pattern recorded for nanowires formed in the tartrate electrolyte was attributed to the presence of co-deposited Sb2O3. Three types of dense arrays of Sn-SnSb nanowires with diameters ranging from 82 nm to 325 nm were also synthesized by DC galvanostatic electrodeposition into the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes for the first time. Only Sn and SnSb peaks appeared in the XRD pattern and both phases seem to have a relatively high degree of crystallinity. The influence of current density applied during electrodeposition on the composition of nanowires was investigated. It was found that the Sb content in fabricated nanowires decreases with increasing current density. The diameters of all synthesized nanowires roughly correspond to the dimensions of the nanochannels of AAO templates used for electrodeposition.

  6. Dual soft-template system based on colloidal chemistry for the synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Tang, Jing; Aldalbahi, Ali; Torad, Nagy L; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-04-20

    A new dual soft-template system comprising the asymmetric triblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) and the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is used to synthesize hollow mesoporous silica (HMS) nanoparticles with a center void of around 17 nm. The stable PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO polymeric micelle serves as a template to form the hollow interior, while the CTAB surfactant serves as a template to form mesopores in the shells. The P2VP blocks on the polymeric micelles can interact with positively charged CTA(+) ions via negatively charged hydrolyzed silica species. Thus, dual soft-templates clearly have different roles for the preparation of the HMS nanoparticles. Interestingly, the thicknesses of the mesoporous shell are tunable by varying the amounts of TEOS and CTAB. This study provides new insight on the preparation of mesoporous materials based on colloidal chemistry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Notched Specimen Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrey, Michael David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Creep behavior of Alloy 617 has been extensively characterized to support the development of a draft Code Case to qualify Alloy 617 in Section III division 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will allow use of Alloy 617 in construction of nuclear reactor components at elevated temperatures and longer periods of time (up to 950°C and 100,000 hours). Prior to actual use, additional concerns not considered in the ASME code need to be addressed. Code Cases are based largely on uniaxial testing of smooth gage specimens. In service conditions, components will generally be under multi axial loading. There is also the concern of the behavior at discontinuities, such as threaded components. To address the concerns of multi axial creep behavior and at geometric discontinuities, notched specimens have been designed to create conditions representative of the states that service components experience. Two general notch geometries have been used for these series of tests: U notch and V notch specimens. The notches produce a tri axial stress state, though not uniform across the specimen. Characterization of the creep behavior of the U notch specimens and the creep rupture behavior of the V notch specimens provides a good approximation of the behavior expected of actual components. Preliminary testing and analysis have been completed and are reported in this document. This includes results from V notch specimens tested at 900°C and 800°C. Failure occurred in the smooth gage section of the specimen rather than at the root of the notch, though some damage was present at the root of the notch, where initial stress was highest. This indicates notch strengthening behavior in this material at these temperatures.

  8. Static and Fatigue Behavior Investigation of Artificial Notched Steel Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pitting corrosion is one of the most common forms of localized corrosion. Corrosion pit results in a stress concentration and fatigue cracks usually initiate and propagate from these corrosion pits. Aging structures may fracture when the fatigue crack reaches a critical size. This paper experimentally simulates the effects of pitting morphologies on the static and fatigue behavior of steel bars. Four artificial notch shapes are considered: radial ellipse, axial ellipse, triangle and length-variable triangle. Each shape notch includes six sizes to simulate a variety of pitting corrosion morphologies. The stress-strain curves of steel bars with different notch shape and depth are obtained based on static tensile testing, and the stress concentration coefficients for various conditions are determined. It was determined that the triangular notch has the highest stress concentration coefficient, followed by length-variable triangle, radial ellipse and axial ellipse shaped notches. Subsequently, the effects of notch depth and notch aspect ratios on the fatigue life under three stress levels are investigated by fatigue testing, and the equations for stress range-fatigue life-notch depth are obtained. Several conclusions are drawn based on the proposed study. The established relationships provide an experimental reference for evaluating the fatigue life of concrete bridges.

  9. Species-specific audio detection: a comparison of three template-based detection algorithms using random forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Corrada Bravo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed a web-based cloud-hosted system that allow users to archive, listen, visualize, and annotate recordings. The system also provides tools to convert these annotations into datasets that can be used to train a computer to detect the presence or absence of a species. The algorithm used by the system was selected after comparing the accuracy and efficiency of three variants of a template-based detection. The algorithm computes a similarity vector by comparing a template of a species call with time increments across the spectrogram. Statistical features are extracted from this vector and used as input for a Random Forest classifier that predicts presence or absence of the species in the recording. The fastest algorithm variant had the highest average accuracy and specificity; therefore, it was implemented in the ARBIMON web-based system.

  10. Assembly of new polyoxometalate–templated metal–organic frameworks based on flexible ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Na; Mu, Bao; Lv, Lei; Huang, Rudan, E-mail: huangrd@bit.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Four new polyoxometalate(POM)–templated metal–organic frameworks based on flexible ligands, namely, [Cu{sub 6}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 2}(PMo{sup V}Mo{sup VI}{sub 11}O{sub 40}O{sub 2})]·8H{sub 2}O(1), [Cu{sup I}{sub 3}Cu{sup II}{sub 3}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 2}(PMo{sup V}{sub 12}O{sub 34})]·8H{sub 2}O(2), [Ni{sub 6}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40})(PMo{sup VI}{sub 11}Mo{sup V}O{sub 40}){sub 2}]Cl·6H{sub 2}O(3), [Co{sup II}{sub 3}Co{sup III}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}bib){sub 2}(Hbib){sub 2}(PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·6H{sub 2}O(4) (bip=1,3-bis(imidazolyl)propane, bib=1,4-bis(imidazolyl)butane) have been obtained under hydrothermal condition and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. The studies of single crystal X-ray indicate that compounds 1–3 crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3, and compound 4 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1. Compounds 1 and 3 represent 3D frameworks, and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals, while compounds 2 and 4 show 3D frameworks by hydrogen bonds. This compounds provide new examples of host–guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands. In addition, the electrochemical property and the catalytic property of compound 1 have also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four inorganic–organic hybrid compounds based polyoxometalates (POMs) and flexible ligands, namely, have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compounds 1–3 are new examples of host–guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals. - Highlights: • Polyoxometalate–templated

  11. USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES IN COMPARISON WITH TEMPLATE-BASED METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhalevich Y. S.; Tkachenko V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Car license plates recognition problem is one of the typical tasks of computer vision. Video surveillance software usually provides license plates recognition function. Meanwhile, there are many approaches to solve this problem, where template-based methods are the most common. Such methods providing predictable and short enough execution time, and little percent of mistakes. However, such methods are far less effective in case there is a need to recognize car’s license plate, which may be lo...

  12. Kinetic study and growth behavior of template-based electrodeposited platinum nanotubes controlled by overpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O.Box 11155-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dolati, A., E-mail: dolati@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O.Box 11155-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imanieh, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O.Box 11155-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yashiro, H.; Kure-Chu, S.-Z. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate, 020-8551 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    Platinum nanotubes (PtNTs) are fabricated by potentiostatic electrodeposition at various overpotentials (−200 up to −400 mV versus SCE) in polycarbonate templates (PCTs) with pore diameter of 200 nm in a solution containing 5 mM H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} and 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The synthesized PtNTs are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical growth mechanism within nanoscopic pores and the relationship between morphological variations and kinetic parameters are investigated for the first time. It is shown that more porous structure of nanotubes forms at high overpotentials possibly due to preferably nucleation. The kinetics of electrodeposition process is studied by electrochemical techniques such as voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The linear diffusion coefficient at the early stage of the deposition and the radial diffusion coefficients at steady state regime are calculated as D = 8.39 × 10{sup −5} and 2.33–13.26 × 10{sup −8} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The synthesized PtNT electrode is tested as electrocatalyst for hydrogen peroxide oxidation in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and shows a sensitivity as high as 2.89 mA per 1 μM that is an indication to its enlarged electrochemical surface area. - Highlights: • PtNT is electrodeposited in a 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-modified PCT. • The electrochemical growth mechanism within nanoscopic pores is discussed. • The kinetics of PtNT electrodeposition is studied based on models for UME arrays. • Relationship between morphological variations vs. kinetic parameters is studied.

  13. Soft-Templating Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica-Based Materials for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, Chamila Asanka

    Dissertation research is mainly focus on: 1) the development of mesoporous silica materials with organic pendant and bridging groups (isocyanurate, amidoxime, benzene) and incorporated metal (aluminum, zirconium, calcium, and magnesium) species for high temperature carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption, 2) phosphorous-hydroxy functionalized mesoporous silica materials for water treatment, and 3) amidoxime-modified ordered mesoporous silica materials for uranium sorption under seawater conditions. The goal is to design composite materials for environmental applications with desired porosity, surface area, and functionality by selecting proper metal oxide precursors, organosilanes, tetraethylorthosilicate, (TEOS), and block copolymer templates and by adjusting synthesis conditions. The first part of dissertation presents experimental studies on the merge of aluminum, zirconium, calcium, and magnesium oxides with mesoporous silica materials containing organic pendant (amidoxime) and bridging groups (isocyanurate, benzene) to obtain composite sorbents for CO2 sorption at ambient (0-25 °C) and elevated (60-120 °C) temperatures. These studies indicate that the aforementioned composite sorbents are fairly good for CO2 capture at 25 °C via physisorption mechanism and show a remarkably high affinity toward CO2 chemisorption at 60-120 °C. The second part of dissertation is devoted to silica-based materials with organic functionalities for removal of heavy metal ions such as lead from contaminated water and for recovery of metal ions such as uranium from seawater. First, ordered mesoporous organosilica (OMO) materials with diethylphosphatoethyl and hydroxyphosphatoethyl surface groups were examined for Pb2+ adsorption and showed unprecedented adsorption capacities up to 272 mg/g and 202 mg/g, respectively However, the amidoxime-modified OMO materials were explored for uranium extraction under seawater conditions and showed remarkable capacities reaching 57 mg of uranium per gram

  14. A TSR Visual Servoing System Based on a Novel Dynamic Template Matching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Tethered Space Robot (TSR is a novel active space debris removal system. To solve its problem of non-cooperative target recognition during short-distance rendezvous events, this paper presents a framework for a real-time visual servoing system using non-calibrated monocular-CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. When a small template is used for matching with a large scene, it always leads to mismatches, so a novel template matching algorithm to solve the problem is presented. Firstly, the novel matching algorithm uses a hollow annulus structure according to a FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment algorithm and makes the method be rotation-invariant. Furthermore, the accumulative deviation can be decreased by the hollow structure. The matching function is composed of grey and gradient differences between template and object image, which help it reduce the effects of illumination and noises. Then, a dynamic template update strategy is designed to avoid tracking failures brought about by wrong matching or occlusion. Finally, the system synthesizes the least square integrated predictor, realizing tracking online in complex circumstances. The results of ground experiments show that the proposed algorithm can decrease the need for sophisticated computation and improves matching accuracy.

  15. Multi-template tensor-based morphometry: application to analysis of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    impairment (MCI), and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the ADNI database (N=772). The performance of TBM features in classifying images was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Classification results show that the multi-template methods are statistically significantly better than...

  16. Functional porous structures based on the pyrolysis of cured templates of block copolymer and phenolic resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosonen, H; Valkama, S; Nykanen, A; Toivanen, M; ten Brinke, G; Ruokolainen, J; Ikkala, O; Nykänen, Antti

    2006-01-01

    Porous materials with controlled pore size and large surface area (see Figure) have been prepared by crosslinking phenolic resin in the presence of a self-assembled block-copolymer template, followed by pyrolysis. Many phenolic hydroxyl groups remain at the matrix and pore walls, which can be used

  17. Ice-templated hydrogels based on chitosan with tailored porous morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dinu, M. V.; Přádný, Martin; Dragan, E. S.; Michálek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2013), s. 170-178 ISSN 0144-8617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1538 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chitosan * ice-templated hydrogels * morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.916, year: 2013

  18. Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles based on DNA network templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yong; Song Yonghai; Wang Li

    2008-01-01

    CdS nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by using DNA networks as templates. The synthesis was carried out by first dropping a mixture of cadmium acetate and DNA on a mica surface for the formation of the DNA network template and then transferring the sample into a heated thiourea solution. The Cd 2+ reacted with thiourea at high temperature and formed CdS nanoparticles on the DNA network template. UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the CdS nanoparticles in detail. AFM results showed that the resulted CdS nanoparticles were directly aligned on the DNA network templates and that the synthesis and assembly of CdS nanoparticles was realized in one step. CdS nanoparticles fabricated with this method were smaller than those directly synthesized in a thiourea solution and were uniformly aligned on the DNA networks. By adjusting the density of the DNA networks and the concentration of Cd 2+ , the size and density of the CdS nanoparticles could be effectively controlled and CdS nanoparticles could grow along the DNA chains into nanowires. The possible growth mechanism has also been discussed in detail

  19. A Novel Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on Internal-Feedback Strategy for Image Template Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image template matching refers to the technique of locating a given reference image over a source image such that they are the most similar. It is a fundamental mission in the field of visual target recognition. In general, there are two critical aspects of a template matching scheme. One is similarity measurement and the other is best-match location search. In this work, we choose the well-known normalized cross correlation model as a similarity criterion. The searching procedure for the best-match location is carried out through an internal-feedback artificial bee colony (IF-ABC algorithm. IF-ABC algorithm is highlighted by its effort to fight against premature convergence. This purpose is achieved through discarding the conventional roulette selection procedure in the ABC algorithm so as to provide each employed bee an equal chance to be followed by the onlooker bees in the local search phase. Besides that, we also suggest efficiently utilizing the internal convergence states as feedback guidance for searching intensity in the subsequent cycles of iteration. We have investigated four ideal template matching cases as well as four actual cases using different searching algorithms. Our simulation results show that the IF-ABC algorithm is more effective and robust for this template matching mission than the conventional ABC and two state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms do.

  20. LoopIng: a template-based tool for predicting the structure of protein loops.

    KAUST Repository

    Messih, Mario Abdel; Lepore, Rosalba; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ) and significant enhancements for long loops (11-20 residues). The quality of the predictions is robust to errors that unavoidably affect the stem regions when these are modeled. The method returns a confidence score for the predicted template loops and has

  1. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    2018-03-13

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  2. Gauging NOTCH1 Activation in Cancer Using Immunohistochemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Kluk

    Full Text Available Fixed, paraffin-embedded (FPE tissues are a potentially rich resource for studying the role of NOTCH1 in cancer and other pathologies, but tests that reliably detect activated NOTCH1 (NICD1 in FPE samples have been lacking. Here, we bridge this gap by developing an immunohistochemical (IHC stain that detects a neoepitope created by the proteolytic cleavage event that activates NOTCH1. Following validation using xenografted cancers and normal tissues with known patterns of NOTCH1 activation, we applied this test to tumors linked to dysregulated Notch signaling by mutational studies. As expected, frequent NICD1 staining was observed in T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, a tumor in which activating NOTCH1 mutations are common. However, when IHC was used to gauge NOTCH1 activation in other human cancers, several unexpected findings emerged. Among B cell tumors, NICD1 staining was much more frequent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia than would be predicted based on the frequency of NOTCH1 mutations, while mantle cell lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma showed no evidence of NOTCH1 activation. NICD1 was also detected in 38% of peripheral T cell lymphomas. Of interest, NICD1 staining in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and in angioimmunoblastic lymphoma was consistently more pronounced in lymph nodes than in surrounding soft tissues, implicating factors in the nodal microenvironment in NOTCH1 activation in these diseases. Among carcinomas, diffuse strong NICD1 staining was observed in 3.8% of cases of triple negative breast cancer (3 of 78 tumors, but was absent from 151 non-small cell lung carcinomas and 147 ovarian carcinomas. Frequent staining of normal endothelium was also observed; in line with this observation, strong NICD1 staining was also seen in 77% of angiosarcomas. These findings complement insights from genomic sequencing studies and suggest that IHC staining is a valuable experimental tool that may be useful in selection of

  3. A novel dental implant guided surgery based on integration of surgical template and augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Kun; Yau, Hong-Tzong; Wang, I-Chung; Zheng, Cheng; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic visualization concept combined with head-mounted displays may increase the accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery. The aim of this study was to develop an augmented reality-based dental implant placement system and evaluate the accuracy of the virtually planned versus the actual prepared implant site created in vitro. Four fully edentulous mandibular and four partially edentulous maxillary duplicated casts were used. Six implants were planned in the mandibular and four in the maxillary casts. A total of 40 osteotomy sites were prepared in the casts using stereolithographic template integrated with augmented reality-based surgical simulation. During the surgery, the dentist could be guided accurately through a head-mounted display by superimposing the virtual auxiliary line and the drill stop. The deviation between planned and prepared positions of the implants was measured via postoperative computer tomography generated scan images. Mean and standard deviation of the discrepancy between planned and prepared sites at the entry point, apex, angle, depth, and lateral locations were 0.50 ± 0.33 mm, 0.96 ± 0.36 mm, 2.70 ± 1.55°, 0.33 ± 0.27 mm, and 0.86 ± 0.34 mm, respectively, for the fully edentulous mandible, and 0.46 ± 0.20 mm, 1.23 ± 0.42 mm, 3.33 ± 1.42°, 0.48 ± 0.37 mm, and 1.1 ± 0.39 mm, respectively, for the partially edentulous maxilla. There was a statistically significant difference in the apical deviation between maxilla and mandible in this surgical simulation (p augmented reality technology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of notch effects in low cycle fatigue of alloy 718 using critical distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Robert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine disks contain many notch-like features acting as stress raisers. The fatigue life based on the notch root stress may be overly conservative as the steep stress gradient in front of the notch may give rise to so-called notch support. In the current work, the theory of critical distances was applied to the prediction of the total fatigue life of low cycle fatigued, notched specimens made from alloy 718. The fatigue tests were performed at 450 °C and 550 °C. It was found that, for lives shorter than 5000–10000 cycles, the notched specimens had longer lives than would have been expected based on the notch root strain. For lives longer than 5000–10000 cycles, there were no notch support. The life prediction for notched specimens could be significantly improved by basing the prediction on the strain chosen some distance from the notch (the critical distance. An expression for calculating the critical distance based on the notch root strain was suggested.

  5. Study on a digital pulse processing algorithm based on template-matching for high-throughput spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xianfei; Yang, Haori

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in utilizing spectroscopy techniques for nuclear safeguards is to perform high-resolution measurements at an ultra-high throughput rate. Traditionally, piled-up pulses are rejected to ensure good energy resolution. To improve throughput rate, high-pass filters are normally implemented to shorten pulses. However, this reduces signal-to-noise ratio and causes degradation in energy resolution. In this work, a pulse pile-up recovery algorithm based on template-matching was proved to be an effective approach to achieve high-throughput gamma ray spectroscopy. First, a discussion of the algorithm was given in detail. Second, the algorithm was then successfully utilized to process simulated piled-up pulses from a scintillator detector. Third, the algorithm was implemented to analyze high rate data from a NaI detector, a silicon drift detector and a HPGe detector. The promising results demonstrated the capability of this algorithm to achieve high-throughput rate without significant sacrifice in energy resolution. The performance of the template-matching algorithm was also compared with traditional shaping methods. - Highlights: • A detailed discussion on the template-matching algorithm was given. • The algorithm was tested on data from a NaI and a Si detector. • The algorithm was successfully implemented on high rate data from a HPGe detector. • The performance of the algorithm was compared with traditional shaping methods. • The advantage of the algorithm in active interrogation was discussed.

  6. Template-directed synthesis of nets based upon octahemioctahedral cages that encapsulate catalytically active metalloporphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-01-18

    meso-Tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) templates the synthesis of six new metal-organic materials by the reaction of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate with transition metals, five of which exhibit HKUST-1 or tbo topology (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Mg). The resulting materials, porph@MOMs, selectively encapsulate the corresponding metalloporphyrins in octahemioctahedral cages and can serve as size-selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of olefins. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Template-directed synthesis of nets based upon octahemioctahedral cages that encapsulate catalytically active metalloporphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie; Zhang, Linping; Wojtas, Łukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    meso-Tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) templates the synthesis of six new metal-organic materials by the reaction of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate with transition metals, five of which exhibit HKUST-1 or tbo topology (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Mg). The resulting materials, porph@MOMs, selectively encapsulate the corresponding metalloporphyrins in octahemioctahedral cages and can serve as size-selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of olefins. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Development and clinical implementation of a new template for MRI-based intracavitary/interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer: from CT-based MUPIT to the MRI compatible Template Benidorm. Ten years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodríguez Villalba

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study outcome and toxicity in 59 patients with locally advanced cervix carcinoma treated with computed tomography (CT-based Martinez universal perineal interstitial template (MUPIT and the new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-compatible template Benidorm (TB. Material and methods: From December 2005 to October 2015, we retrospectively analyzed 34 patients treated with MUPIT and 25 treated with the TB. Six 4 Gy fractions were prescribed to the clinical target volume (CTV combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. The organs at risk (OARs and the CTV were delineated by CT scan in the MUPIT implants and by MRI in the TB implants. Dosimetry was CT-based for MUPIT and exclusively MRI-based for TB. Dose values were biologically normalized to equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2. Results : Median CTV volumes were 163.5 cm3 for CT-based MUPIT (range 81.8-329.4 cm3 and 91.9 cm3 for MRI-based TB (range 26.2-161 cm3. Median D90 CTV (EBRT + BT was 75.8 Gy for CT-based MUPIT (range 69-82 Gy and 78.6 Gy for MRI-based TB (range 62.5-84.2. Median D2cm3 for the rectum was 75.3 Gy for CT-based MUPIT (range 69.8-132.1 Gy and 69.9 Gy for MRI-based TB (range 58.3-83.7 Gy. Median D2cm3 for the bladder was 79.8 Gy for CT-based MUPIT (range 71.2-121.1 Gy and 77.1 Gy for MRI-based TB (range 60.5-90.8 Gy. Local control (LC was 88%. Overall survival (OS, disease free survival (DFS, and LC were not statistically significant in either group. Patients treated with CT-based MUPIT had a significantly higher percentage of rectal bleeding G3 (p = 0.040 than those treated with MRI-based TB, 13% vs. 2%. Conclusions : Template Benidorm treatment using MRI-based dosimetry provides advantages of MRI volume definition, and allows definition of smaller volumes that result in statistically significant decreased rectal toxicity compared to that seen with CT-based MUPIT treatment.

  9. Broadband notch filter design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Notch filters are integrated in plasma diagnostic systems to protect millimeter-wave receivers from intensive stray radiation. Here we present a design of a notch filter with a center frequency of 140 GHz, a rejection bandwidth of ∼ 900 MHz, and a typical insertion loss below 2 dB in the passband...... of ±9 GHz. The design is based on a fundamental rectangular waveguide with eight cylindrical cavities coupled by T-junction apertures formed as thin slits. Parameters that affect the notch performance such as physical lengths and conductor materials are discussed. The excited resonance mode...

  10. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template” for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff, and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method

  11. Loss of PTB or negative regulation of Notch mRNA reveals distinct zones of Notch and actin protein accumulation in Drosophila embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric S Wesley

    Full Text Available Polypyrimidine Tract Binding (PTB protein is a regulator of mRNA processing and translation. Genetic screens and studies of wing and bristle development during the post-embryonic stages of Drosophila suggest that it is a negative regulator of the Notch pathway. How PTB regulates the Notch pathway is unknown. Our studies of Drosophila embryogenesis indicate that (1 the Notch mRNA is a potential target of PTB, (2 PTB and Notch functions in the dorso-lateral regions of the Drosophila embryo are linked to actin regulation but not their functions in the ventral region, and (3 the actin-related Notch activity in the dorso-lateral regions might require a Notch activity at or near the cell surface that is different from the nuclear Notch activity involved in cell fate specification in the ventral region. These data raise the possibility that the Drosophila embryo is divided into zones of different PTB and Notch activities based on whether or not they are linked to actin regulation. They also provide clues to the almost forgotten role of Notch in cell adhesion and reveal a role for the Notch pathway in cell fusions.

  12. Loss of PTB or Negative Regulation of Notch mRNA Reveals Distinct Zones of Notch and Actin Protein Accumulation in Drosophila Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Cedric S.; Guo, Heng; Chaudhry, Kanita A.; Thali, Markus J.; Yin, Jerry C.; Clason, Todd; Wesley, Umadevi V.

    2011-01-01

    Polypyrimidine Tract Binding (PTB) protein is a regulator of mRNA processing and translation. Genetic screens and studies of wing and bristle development during the post-embryonic stages of Drosophila suggest that it is a negative regulator of the Notch pathway. How PTB regulates the Notch pathway is unknown. Our studies of Drosophila embryogenesis indicate that (1) the Notch mRNA is a potential target of PTB, (2) PTB and Notch functions in the dorso-lateral regions of the Drosophila embryo are linked to actin regulation but not their functions in the ventral region, and (3) the actin-related Notch activity in the dorso-lateral regions might require a Notch activity at or near the cell surface that is different from the nuclear Notch activity involved in cell fate specification in the ventral region. These data raise the possibility that the Drosophila embryo is divided into zones of different PTB and Notch activities based on whether or not they are linked to actin regulation. They also provide clues to the almost forgotten role of Notch in cell adhesion and reveal a role for the Notch pathway in cell fusions. PMID:21750738

  13. A consensus-based template for documenting and reporting in physician-staffed pre-hospital services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Andreas J; Lockey, David; Kurola, Jouni

    2011-01-01

    -staffed pre-hospital services in Europe. METHODS: Using predefined criteria, we recruited sixteen European experts in the field of pre-hospital care. These experts were guided through a four-step modified nominal group technique. The process was carried out using both e-mail-based communication and a plenary...... have established a core data set for documenting and reporting in physician-staffed pre-hospital services. We believe that this template could facilitate future studies within the field and facilitate standardised reporting and future shared research efforts in advanced pre-hospital care....

  14. Template-based fluoroethylenepropylene piezoelectrets with tubular channels for transducer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altafim, Ruy Alberto Pisani; Qiu, Xunlin; Wirges, Werner; Gerhard, Reimund; Altafim, Ruy Alberto Corrêa; Basso, Heitor Cury; Jenninger, Werner; Wagner, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    We describe the concept, the fabrication, and the most relevant properties of a piezoelectric-polymer system: Two fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) films with good electret properties are laminated around a specifically designed and prepared polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) template at 300 °C. After removing the PTFE template, a two-layer FEP film with open tubular channels is obtained. For electric charging, the two-layer FEP system is subjected to a high electric field. The resulting dielectric barrier discharges inside the tubular channels yield a ferroelectret with high piezoelectricity. d33 coefficients of up to 160 pC/N have already been achieved on the ferroelectret films. After charging at suitable elevated temperatures, the piezoelectricity is stable at temperatures of at least 130 °C. Advantages of the transducer films include ease of fabrication at laboratory or industrial scales, a wide range of possible geometrical and processing parameters, straightforward control of the uniformity of the polymer system, flexibility, and versatility of the soft ferroelectrets, and a large potential for device applications e.g., in the areas of biomedicine, communications, production engineering, sensor systems, environmental monitoring, etc.

  15. Notch sensitivity of aliphatic polyketone terpolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderduin, W.C.J.; Huetink, Han; Gaymans, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The notch sensitivity of aliphatic polyketone (PK) terpolymers was investigated in this article. The notch-tip radius was varied between the size of an actual propagating crack tip of 1-2 m and the largest notch tip of 1000 m radius. The larger notch-tip radii (1000-15 m) were milled into the

  16. WO3 Nanofiber-Based Biomarker Detectors Enabled by Protein-Encapsulated Catalyst Self-Assembled on Polystyrene Colloid Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Kim, Sang-Joon; Cho, Hee-Jin; Jang, Ji-Soo; Lin, Yi-Min; Tuller, Harry L; Rutledge, Gregory C; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-02-17

    A novel catalyst functionalization method, based on protein-encapsulated metallic nanoparticles (NPs) and their self-assembly on polystyrene (PS) colloid templates, is used to form catalyst-loaded porous WO3 nanofibers (NFs). The metallic NPs, composed of Au, Pd, or Pt, are encapsulated within a protein cage, i.e., apoferritin, to form unagglomerated monodispersed particles with diameters of less than 5 nm. The catalytic NPs maintain their nanoscale size, even following high-temperature heat-treatment during synthesis, which is attributed to the discrete self-assembly of NPs on PS colloid templates. In addition, the PS templates generate open pores on the electrospun WO3 NFs, facilitating gas molecule transport into the sensing layers and promoting active surface reactions. As a result, the Au and Pd NP-loaded porous WO3 NFs show superior sensitivity toward hydrogen sulfide, as evidenced by responses (R(air)/R(gas)) of 11.1 and 43.5 at 350 °C, respectively. These responses represent 1.8- and 7.1-fold improvements compared to that of dense WO3 NFs (R(air)/R(gas) = 6.1). Moreover, Pt NP-loaded porous WO3 NFs exhibit high acetone sensitivity with response of 28.9. These results demonstrate a novel catalyst loading method, in which small NPs are well-dispersed within the pores of WO3 NFs, that is applicable to high sensitivity breath sensors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Improved performance in CAPRI round 37 using LZerD docking and template-based modeling with combined scoring functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lenna X; Shin, Woong-Hee; Kim, Hyungrae; Kihara, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    We report our group's performance for protein-protein complex structure prediction and scoring in Round 37 of the Critical Assessment of PRediction of Interactions (CAPRI), an objective assessment of protein-protein complex modeling. We demonstrated noticeable improvement in both prediction and scoring compared to previous rounds of CAPRI, with our human predictor group near the top of the rankings and our server scorer group at the top. This is the first time in CAPRI that a server has been the top scorer group. To predict protein-protein complex structures, we used both multi-chain template-based modeling (TBM) and our protein-protein docking program, LZerD. LZerD represents protein surfaces using 3D Zernike descriptors (3DZD), which are based on a mathematical series expansion of a 3D function. Because 3DZD are a soft representation of the protein surface, LZerD is tolerant to small conformational changes, making it well suited to docking unbound and TBM structures. The key to our improved performance in CAPRI Round 37 was to combine multi-chain TBM and docking. As opposed to our previous strategy of performing docking for all target complexes, we used TBM when multi-chain templates were available and docking otherwise. We also describe the combination of multiple scoring functions used by our server scorer group, which achieved the top rank for the scorer phase. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Endosomal sorting of Notch receptors through COMMD9-dependent pathways modulates Notch signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Haiying; Koo, Yeon; Mao, Xicheng; Sifuentes-Dominguez, Luis; Morris, Lindsey L.; Jia, Da; Miyata, Naoteru; Faulkner, Rebecca A.; van Deursen, Jan M.; Vooijs, Marc; Billadeau, Daniel D.; van de Sluis, Bart; Cleaver, Orane; Burstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    Notch family members are transmembrane receptors that mediate essential developmental programs. Upon ligand binding, a proteolytic event releases the intracellular domain of Notch, which translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene transcription. In addition, Notch trafficking across the

  19. Lightweight robotic mobility: template-based modeling for dynamics and controls using ADAMS/car and MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Peter G.; Gorsich, David J.; Hudas, Greg R.; Overholt, James

    2003-09-01

    The U.S. Army is seeking to develop autonomous off-road mobile robots to perform tasks in the field such as supply delivery and reconnaissance in dangerous territory. A key problem to be solved with these robots is off-road mobility, to ensure that the robots can accomplish their tasks without loss or damage. We have developed a computer model of one such concept robot, the small-scale "T-1" omnidirectional vehicle (ODV), to study the effects of different control strategies on the robot's mobility in off-road settings. We built the dynamic model in ADAMS/Car and the control system in Matlab/Simulink. This paper presents the template-based method used to construct the ADAMS model of the T-1 ODV. It discusses the strengths and weaknesses of ADAMS/Car software in such an application, and describes the benefits and challenges of the approach as a whole. The paper also addresses effective linking of ADAMS/Car and Matlab for complete control system development. Finally, this paper includes a section describing the extension of the T-1 templates to other similar ODV concepts for rapid development.

  20. A Self-commissioning Notch Filter for Active Damping in a Three-Phase LCL -Filter-Based Grid-Tie Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Alzola, Rafael; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    LCL-filters are a cost-effective solution to mitigate harmonic current content in grid-tie converters. In order to avoid stability problems, the resonance frequency of LCL-filters can be damped with active techniques that remove dissipative elements but increase control complexity. A notch filter...

  1. Archaeal DNA Polymerase-B as a DNA Template Guardian: Links between Polymerases and Base/Alternative Excision Repair Enzymes in Handling the Deaminated Bases Uracil and Hypoxanthine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Abellón-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Archaea repair of uracil and hypoxanthine, which arise by deamination of cytosine and adenine, respectively, is initiated by three enzymes: Uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG, which recognises uracil; Endonuclease V (EndoV, which recognises hypoxanthine; and Endonuclease Q (EndoQ, (which recognises both uracil and hypoxanthine. Two archaeal DNA polymerases, Pol-B and Pol-D, are inhibited by deaminated bases in template strands, a feature unique to this domain. Thus the three repair enzymes and the two polymerases show overlapping specificity for uracil and hypoxanthine. Here it is demonstrated that binding of Pol-D to primer-templates containing deaminated bases inhibits the activity of UDG, EndoV, and EndoQ. Similarly Pol-B almost completely turns off EndoQ, extending earlier work that demonstrated that Pol-B reduces catalysis by UDG and EndoV. Pol-B was observed to be a more potent inhibitor of the enzymes compared to Pol-D. Although Pol-D is directly inhibited by template strand uracil, the presence of Pol-B further suppresses any residual activity of Pol-D, to near-zero levels. The results are compatible with Pol-D acting as the replicative polymerase and Pol-B functioning primarily as a guardian preventing deaminated base-induced DNA mutations.

  2. Biometric template revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Craig M.

    2004-08-01

    Biometric are a powerful technology for identifying humans both locally and at a distance. In order to perform identification or verification biometric systems capture an image of some biometric of a user or subject. The image is then converted mathematical to representation of the person call a template. Since we know that every human in the world is different each human will have different biometric images (different fingerprints, or faces, etc.). This is what makes biometrics useful for identification. However unlike a credit card number or a password to can be given to a person and later revoked if it is compromised and biometric is with the person for life. The problem then is to develop biometric templates witch can be easily revoked and reissued which are also unique to the user and can be easily used for identification and verification. In this paper we develop and present a method to generate a set of templates which are fully unique to the individual and also revocable. By using bases set compression algorithms in an n-dimensional orthogonal space we can represent a give biometric image in an infinite number of equally valued and unique ways. The verification and biometric matching system would be presented with a given template and revocation code. The code will then representing where in the sequence of n-dimensional vectors to start the recognition.

  3. CaTiO.sub.3 Interfacial template structure on semiconductor-based material and the growth of electroceramic thin-films in the perovskite class

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A structure including a film of a desired perovskite oxide which overlies and is fully commensurate with the material surface of a semiconductor-based substrate and an associated process for constructing the structure involves the build up of an interfacial template film of perovskite between the material surface and the desired perovskite film. The lattice parameters of the material surface and the perovskite of the template film are taken into account so that during the growth of the perovskite template film upon the material surface, the orientation of the perovskite of the template is rotated 45.degree. with respect to the orientation of the underlying material surface and thereby effects a transition in the lattice structure from fcc (of the semiconductor-based material) to the simple cubic lattice structure of perovskite while the fully commensurate periodicity between the perovskite template film and the underlying material surface is maintained. The film-growth techniques of the invention can be used to fabricate solid state electrical components wherein a perovskite film is built up upon a semiconductor-based material and the perovskite film is adapted to exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic or large dielectric properties during use of the component.

  4. Template-based preparation of free-standing semiconducting polymeric nanorod arrays on conductive substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkorn, Niko; Weber, Stefan A L; Berger, Rüdiger; Theato, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of a cross-linkable siloxane-derivatized tetraphenylbenzidine (DTMS-TPD), which was used for the fabrication of semiconducting highly ordered nanorod arrays on conductive indium tin oxide or Pt-coated substrates. The stepwise process allow fabricating of macroscopic areas of well-ordered free-standing nanorod arrays, which feature a high resistance against organic solvents, semiconducting properties and a good adhesion to the substrate. Thin films of the TPD derivate with good hole-conducting properties could be prepared by cross-linking and covalently attaching to hydroxylated substrates utilizing an initiator-free thermal curing at 160 degrees C. The nanorod arrays composed of cross-linked DTMS-TPD were fabricated by an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template approach. Furthermore, the nanorod arrays were investigated by a recently introduced method allowing to probe local conductivity on fragile structures. It revealed that more than 98% of the nanorods exhibit electrical conductance and consequently feature a good electrical contact to the substrate. The prepared nanorod arrays have the potential to find application in the fabrication of multilayered device architectures for building well-ordered bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Craniofacial Reconstruction by a Cost-Efficient Template-Based Process Using 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Msallem, MD, DMD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Craniofacial defects often result in aesthetic and functional deficits, which affect the patient’s psyche and wellbeing. Patient-specific implants remain the optimal solution, but their use is limited or impractical due to their high costs. This article describes a fast and cost-efficient workflow of in-house manufactured patient-specific implants for craniofacial reconstruction and cranioplasty. As a proof of concept, we present a case of reconstruction of a craniofacial defect with involvement of the supraorbital rim. The following hybrid manufacturing process combines additive manufacturing with silicone molding and an intraoperative, manual fabrication process. A computer-aided design template is 3D printed from thermoplastics by a fused deposition modeling 3D printer and then silicone molded manually. After sterilization of the patient-specific mold, it is used intraoperatively to produce an implant from polymethylmethacrylate. Due to the combination of these 2 straightforward processes, the procedure can be kept very simple, and no advanced equipment is needed, resulting in minimal financial expenses. The whole fabrication of the mold is performed within approximately 2 hours depending on the template’s size and volume. This reliable technique is easy to adopt and suitable for every health facility, especially those with limited financial resources in less privileged countries, enabling many more patients to profit from patient-specific treatment.

  6. Design of UWB Filter with WLAN Notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UWB technology- (operating in broad frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz based filter with WLAN notch has shown great achievement for high-speed wireless communications. To satisfy the UWB system requirements, a band pass filter with a broad pass band width, low insertion loss, and high stop-band suppression are needed. UWB filter with wireless local area network (WLAN notch at 5.6 GHz and 3 dB fractional bandwidth of 109.5% using a microstrip structure is presented. Initially a two-transmission-pole UWB band pass filter in the frequency range 3.1–10.6 GHz is achieved by designing a parallel-coupled microstrip line with defective ground plane structure using GML 1000 substrate with specifications: dielectric constant 3.2 and thickness 0.762 mm at centre frequency 6.85 GHz. In this structure a λ/4 open-circuited stub is introduced to achieve the notch at 5.6 GHz to avoid the interference with WLAN frequency which lies in the desired UWB band. The design structure was simulated on electromagnetic circuit simulation software and fabricated by microwave integrated circuit technique. The measured VNA results show the close agreement with simulated results.

  7. Perl Template Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Chamberlain, Darren; Cross, David; Torkington, Nathan; Diaz, tatiana Apandi

    2004-01-01

    Among the many different approaches to "templating" with Perl--such as Embperl, Mason, HTML::Template, and hundreds of other lesser known systems--the Template Toolkit is widely recognized as one of the most versatile. Like other templating systems, the Template Toolkit allows programmers to embed Perl code and custom macros into HTML documents in order to create customized documents on the fly. But unlike the others, the Template Toolkit is as facile at producing HTML as it is at producing XML, PDF, or any other output format. And because it has its own simple templating language, templates

  8. Experience with the Notch Stress Approach for Fatigue Assessment of Welded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, fatigue assessment using the notch stress approach is discussed based on re-analysis of many fatigue test results and experience from practical application. Three topics are treated; evaluation of the fatigue strength for as-welded details (FAT225) in the notch stress system......, problems regarding assessment of mild-SCF details and a novel proposal for extension of the notch stress approach for use with post-weld treated details....

  9. A Novel Reconfigurable Logic Unit Based on the DNA-Templated Potassium-Concentration-Dependent Supramolecular Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunrong; Zou, Dan; Chen, Jianchi; Zhang, Linyan; Miao, Jiarong; Huang, Dan; Du, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shu; Yang, Qianfan; Tang, Yalin

    2018-03-15

    Plenty of molecular circuits with specific functions have been developed; however, logic units with reconfigurability, which could simplify the circuits and speed up the information process, are rarely reported. In this work, we designed a novel reconfigurable logic unit based on a DNA-templated, potassium-concentration-dependent, supramolecular assembly, which could respond to the input stimuli of H + and K + . By inputting different concentrations of K + , the logic unit could implement three significant functions, including a half adder, a half subtractor, and a 2-to-4 decoder. Considering its reconfigurable ability and good performance, the novel prototypes developed here may serve as a promising proof of principle in molecular computers. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Notch size effects on high cycle fatigue limit stress of Udimet 720

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Weiju; Nicholas, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    Notch size effects on the high cycle fatigue (HCF) limit stress of Ni-base superalloy Udimet 720 were investigated on cylindrical specimens with three notch sizes of the same stress concentration factor K t =2.74. The HCF limit stress corresponding to a life of 10 6 cycles was experimentally determined at a stress ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 25 Hz at room temperature. The stresses were calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) and the specimens analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Test results show that at the same K t value, notch size can slightly affect the HCF limit stress of U720 when notch root plasticity occurs. FEA and SEM results reveal that the notch size effects are influenced by a complicated combination of the stress and plastic strain fields at the notch tip, the nominal stress, and the effects of prior plastic deformation on fatigue crack initiation

  11. Rubber stamp templates for improving clinical documentation: A paper-based, m-Health approach for quality improvement in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczka, Bernadette; Musiega, Anita; Rabut, Grace; Wekesa, Phoebe; Mwaniki, Paul; Marx, Michael; Kumar, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal #3.8 targets 'access to quality essential healthcare services'. Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for ensuring quality of clinical care, but many challenges prevent their use in low-resource settings. Monitoring the use of guidelines relies on cumbersome clinical audits of paper records, and electronic systems face financial and other limitations. Here we describe a unique approach to generating digital data from paper using guideline-based templates, rubber stamps and mobile phones. The Guidelines Adherence in Slums Project targeted ten private sector primary healthcare clinics serving informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Each clinic was provided with rubber stamp templates to support documentation and management of commonly encountered outpatient conditions. Participatory design methods were used to customize templates to the workflows and infrastructure of each clinic. Rubber stamps were used to print templates into paper charts, providing clinicians with checklists for use during consultations. Templates used bubble format data entry, which could be digitized from images taken on mobile phones. Besides rubber stamp templates, the intervention included booklets of guideline compilations, one Android phone for digitizing images of templates, and one data feedback/continuing medical education session per clinic each month. In this paper we focus on the effect of the intervention on documentation of three non-communicable diseases in one clinic. Seventy charts of patients enrolled in the chronic disease program (hypertension/diabetes, n=867; chronic respiratory diseases, n=223) at one of the ten intervention clinics were sampled. Documentation of each individual patient encounter in the pre-intervention (January-March 2016) and post-intervention period (May-July) was scored for information in four dimensions - general data, patient assessment, testing, and management. Control criteria included

  12. Role of Notch signaling in cell-fate determination of human mammary stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Jackson, Kyle W; McNicholas, Erin; Kawamura, Mari J; Abdallah, Wissam M; Wicha, Max S

    2004-01-01

    suggest that Notch signaling plays a critical role in normal human mammary development by acting on both stem cells and progenitor cells, affecting self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation. Based on these findings we propose that abnormal Notch signaling may contribute to mammary carcinogenesis by deregulating the self-renewal of normal mammary stem cells

  13. Manufacturing ontology through templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry contains a high volume of knowhow and of high value, much of it being held by key persons in the company. The passing of this know-how is the basis of manufacturing ontology. Among other methods like advanced filtering and algorithm based decision making, one way of handling the manufacturing ontology is via templates. The current paper tackles this approach and highlights the advantages concluding with some recommendations.

  14. Pulmonary nodule registration in serial CT scans based on rib anatomy and nodule template matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, H.-P.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, C.; Cascade, Philip N.; Bogot, Naama; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Wei, J.

    2007-01-01

    An automated method is being developed in order to identify corresponding nodules in serial thoracic CT scans for interval change analysis. The method uses the rib centerlines as the reference for initial nodule registration. A spatially adaptive rib segmentation method first locates the regions where the ribs join the spine, which define the starting locations for rib tracking. Each rib is tracked and locally segmented by expectation-maximization. The ribs are automatically labeled, and the centerlines are estimated using skeletonization. For a given nodule in the source scan, the closest three ribs are identified. A three-dimensional (3D) rigid affine transformation guided by simplex optimization aligns the centerlines of each of the three rib pairs in the source and target CT volumes. Automatically defined control points along the centerlines of the three ribs in the source scan and the registered ribs in the target scan are used to guide an initial registration using a second 3D rigid affine transformation. A search volume of interest (VOI) is then located in the target scan. Nodule candidate locations within the search VOI are identified as regions with high Hessian responses. The initial registration is refined by searching for the maximum cross-correlation between the nodule template from the source scan and the candidate locations. The method was evaluated on 48 CT scans from 20 patients. Experienced radiologists identified 101 pairs of corresponding nodules. Three metrics were used for performance evaluation. The first metric was the Euclidean distance between the nodule centers identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, the second metric was a volume overlap measure between the nodule VOIs identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, and the third metric was the hit rate, which measures the fraction of nodules whose centroid computed by the computer registration in the target scan falls within the VOI identified by the

  15. Notch effects in uniaxial tension specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delph, T.J.

    1979-03-01

    Results of a literature survey on the effect of notches on the time-dependent failure of uniaxial tension specimens at elevated temperatures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the failure of notched specimens containing weldments

  16. Notched audiograms and noise exposure history in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondahl, David M; Shi, Xiaoyu; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Dalton, Dayna S; Tweed, Ted S; Wiley, Terry L; Carmichael, Lakeesha L

    2009-12-01

    Using data from a population-based cohort study, we compared four published algorithms for identifying notched audiograms and compared their resulting classifications with noise exposure history. Four algorithms: (1) , (2) , (3) , and (4) were used to identify notched audiograms. Audiometric evaluations were collected as a part of the 10-yr follow-up examinations of the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, in Beaver Dam, WI (2003-2005, N = 2395). Detailed noise exposure histories were collected by interview at the baseline examination (1993-1995) and updated at subsequent visits. An extensive history of occupational noise exposure, participation in noisy hobbies, and firearm usage was used to evaluate consistency of the notch classifications with the history of noise exposure. The prevalence of notched audiograms varied greatly by definition (31.7, 25.9, 47.2, and 11.7% for methods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). In this cohort, a history of noise exposure was common (56.2% for occupational noise, 71.7% for noisy hobbies, 13.4% for firearms, and 81.2% for any of these three sources). Among participants with a notched audiogram, almost one-third did not have a history of occupational noise exposure (31.4, 33.0, 32.5, and 28.1% for methods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively), and approximately 11% did not have a history of exposure to any of the three sources of noise (11.5, 13.6, 10.3, and 7.6%). Discordance was greater in women than in men. These results suggest that there is a poor agreement across existing algorithms for audiometric notches. In addition, notches can occur in the absence of a positive noise history. In the absence of an objective consensus definition of a notched audiogram and in light of the degree of discordance in women between noise history and notches by each of these algorithms, researchers should be cautious about classifying noise-induced hearing loss by notched audiograms.

  17. Influence of circumferential notch and fatigue crack on the mechanical integrity of biodegradable magnesium-based alloy in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby Kannan, M; Singh Raman, R K; Witte, F; Blawert, C; Dietzel, W

    2011-02-01

    Applications of magnesium alloys as biodegradable orthopaedic implants are critically dependent on the mechanical integrity of the implant during service. In this study, the mechanical integrity of an AZ91 magnesium alloy was studied using a constant extension rate tensile (CERT) method. The samples in two different geometries that is, circumferentially notched (CN), and circumferentially notched and fatigue cracked (CNFC), were tested in air and in simulated body fluid (SBF). The test results show that the mechanical integrity of the AZ91 magnesium alloy decreased substantially (∼50%) in both the CN and CNFC samples exposed to SBF. Fracture surface analysis revealed secondary cracks suggesting stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the alloy in SBF. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The adhesion force of Notch with Delta and the rate of Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahimou, Francois; Mok, Lee-Peng; Bardot, Boris; Wesley, Cedric

    2004-12-20

    Notch signaling is repeatedly used during animal development to specify cell fates. Using atomic force microscopy on live cells, chemical inhibitors, and conventional analyses, we show that the rate of Notch signaling is linked to the adhesion force between cells expressing Notch receptors and Delta ligand. Both the Notch extracellular and intracellular domains are required for the high adhesion force with Delta. This high adhesion force is lost within minutes, primarily due to the action of Presenilin on Notch. Reduced turnover or Delta pulling accelerate this loss. These data suggest that strong adhesion between Notch and Delta might serve as a booster for initiating Notch signaling at a high rate.

  19. Characterizing stroke lesions using digital templates and lesion quantification tools in a web-based imaging informatics system for a large-scale stroke rehabilitation clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximing; Edwardson, Matthew; Dromerick, Alexander; Winstein, Carolee; Wang, Jing; Liu, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we presented an Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) imaging informatics system that supports a large-scale phase III stroke rehabilitation trial. The ePR system is capable of displaying anonymized patient imaging studies and reports, and the system is accessible to multiple clinical trial sites and users across the United States via the web. However, the prior multicenter stroke rehabilitation trials lack any significant neuroimaging analysis infrastructure. In stroke related clinical trials, identification of the stroke lesion characteristics can be meaningful as recent research shows that lesion characteristics are related to stroke scale and functional recovery after stroke. To facilitate the stroke clinical trials, we hope to gain insight into specific lesion characteristics, such as vascular territory, for patients enrolled into large stroke rehabilitation trials. To enhance the system's capability for data analysis and data reporting, we have integrated new features with the system: a digital brain template display, a lesion quantification tool and a digital case report form. The digital brain templates are compiled from published vascular territory templates at each of 5 angles of incidence. These templates were updated to include territories in the brainstem using a vascular territory atlas and the Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV) tool. The digital templates are displayed for side-by-side comparisons and transparent template overlay onto patients' images in the image viewer. The lesion quantification tool quantifies planimetric lesion area from user-defined contour. The digital case report form stores user input into a database, then displays contents in the interface to allow for reviewing, editing, and new inputs. In sum, the newly integrated system features provide the user with readily-accessible web-based tools to identify the vascular territory involved, estimate lesion area

  20. Constructing inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalyst via bio-template approach to enhance the photosynthetic water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Zhou, Han; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Fan; Fan, Tongxiang, E-mail: txfan@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Di

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalyst was synthesized by using cross-linked titanium precursor to duplicate bio-template. - Highlights: • Cross-linked titanium precursor can facilitate an accurate duplication of templates. • In situ deposition of Ag{sup 0} from AgBr can maintain the completeness of surface structure. • Perfect inverse V-type Ag{sup 0}/TiO{sub 2} can achieve efficient water oxidation. - Abstract: Bio-template approach was employed to construct inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalyst with well distributed AgBr in TiO{sub 2} matrix by making dead Troides Helena wings with inverse V-type scales as the template. A cross-linked titanium precursor with homogenous hydrolytic rate, good liquidity, and low viscosity was employed to facilitate a perfect duplication of the template and the dispersion of AgBr based on appropriate pretreatment of the template by alkali and acid. The as-synthesized inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}/AgBr can be turned into inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} from AgBr photolysis during photocatalysis to achieve in situ deposition of Ag{sup 0} in TiO{sub 2} matrix, by this approach, to avoid the deformation of surface microstructure inherited from the template. The result showed that the cooperation of perfect inverse V-type structure and the well distributed TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} microstructures can efficiently boost the photosynthetic water oxidation compared to non-inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} without using template. The anti-reflection function of inverse V-type structure and the plasmatic effect of Ag{sup 0} might be able to account for the enhanced photon capture and efficient photoelectric conversion.

  1. Notch Signaling: Piercing a Harness of Simplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, Christina; Amsen, Derk

    2015-01-01

    The Notch pathway is an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of cancer and T cell-mediated pathology, but Notch inhibition leads to many side effects. Pinnell et al. (2015) demonstrate that oncogenic functions can be separated biochemically from other functions of Notch, opening new options

  2. Notch filters for port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksz, D.A.; Scherpen, J.M.A.; van der Schaft, A.J.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a standard notch filter is modeled in the port-Hamiltonian framework. By having such a port-Hamiltonian description it is proven that the notch filter is a passive system. The notch filter can then be interconnected with another (nonlinear) port-Hamiltonian system, while preserving the

  3. DOL behaviour of end-notched beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, P.J.; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Valentin, G.

    1998-01-01

    The long-term loading strength of end-notched beams made of glulam and LVL was tested. The beams were of various sizes, with and without a moisture sealing at the notch. Tests were conducted in open shelter climates, and at constant and cyclic relative humidity. The short-term strength was tested...... beams with a moisture sealing at the notch...

  4. Facilitating 3D Virtual World Learning Environments Creation by Non-Technical End Users through Template-Based Virtual World Instantiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Zhong, Ying; Ozercan, Sertac; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a template-based solution to overcome technical barriers non-technical computer end users face when developing functional learning environments in three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVW). "iVirtualWorld," a prototype of a platform-independent 3DVW creation tool that implements the proposed solution, facilitates 3DVW…

  5. Limit load and fully plastic stress analysis for circular notched plates and bars using fully plastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Kyun; Myung, Man Sik; Kim, Yun Jae; Park, Jin Moo

    2005-01-01

    For the last four decades, tension test of notched bars has been performed to investigate the effect of stress triaxiality on ductile fracture. To quantify the effect of the notch radius on stress triaxiality, the Bridgman equation is typically used. However, recent works based on detailed finite element analysis have shown that the Bridgman equation is not correct, possibly due to his assumption that strain is constant in the necked ligament. Up to present, no systematic work has been performed on fully plastic stress fields for notched bars in tension. This paper presents fully plastic results for tension of notched bars and plates in plane strain, via finite element limit analysis. The notch radius is systematically varied, covering both un-cracked and cracked cases. Comparison of plastic limit loads with existing solutions shows that existing solutions are accurate for notched plates, but not for notched bars. Accordingly new limit load solutions are given for notched bars. Variations of stress triaxiality with the notch radius and depth are also given, which again indicates that the Bridgman solution for notched bars is not correct and inaccuracy depends on the notch radius and depth

  6. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...

  7. A consensus-based template for uniform reporting of data from pre-hospital advanced airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollid, Stephen J M; Lockey, David; Lossius, Hans Morten

    2009-01-01

    with airway management have recently propagated the need for guidelines and standards in pre-hospital airway management. Following the path of other initiatives to establish templates for uniform data reporting, like the many Utstein-style templates, we initiated and carried out a structured consensus process......, the group defined 19 optional variables for which a consensus could not be achieved or the data were considered as valuable but not essential. CONCLUSION: We successfully developed an Utstein-style template for documenting and reporting pre-hospital airway management. The core dataset for this template......BACKGROUND: Advanced airway management is a critical intervention that can harm the patient if performed poorly. The available literature on this subject is rich, but it is difficult to interpret due to a huge variability and poor definitions. Several initiatives from large organisations concerned...

  8. Proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fuyi; Yao, Yao; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Dengyang; Gao, Fenglei; Wang, Po

    2017-01-01

    Novel hybridization proximity-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly strategy has been proposed for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles as signal label. The DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles were characterized with atomic force microscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The highly efficient electrocatalysis by DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles for NaBH 4 oxidation produced an intense detection signal. The label-free electrochemical method achieved the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with a linear range from 10 −15 to 10 −11  g mL −1 and a detection limit of 0.43 × 10 −15  g mL −1 . Through introducing a supersandwich reaction to increase the DNA length, the electrochemical signal was further amplified, leading to a detection limit of 0.52 × 10 −16  g mL −1 . And it rendered satisfactory analytical performance for the determination of CEA in serum samples. Furthermore, it exhibited good reproducibility and stability; meanwhile, it also showed excellent specificity due to the specific recognition of antigen by antibody. Therefore, the DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles based signal amplification approach has great potential in clinical applications and is also suitable for quantification of biomarkers at ultralow level. - Graphical abstract: A novel label-free and enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay based on proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assemblies for recycling of the CEA. - Highlights: • A novel enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of CEA. • The signal amplification was based on catalytic DNA hairpin assembly and DNA-template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles. • The biosensor could detect CEA down to 0.52 × 10 −16  g mL −1 level with a dynamic range spanning 5 orders of magnitude.

  9. Genetic screens to identify new Notch pathway mutants in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Notch signaling controls a wide range of developmental processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, and cell fate specification during both development and adult tissue homeostasis. The functional versatility of the Notch signaling pathway is tightly linked with the complexity of its regulation in different cellular contexts. To unravel the complexity of Notch signaling, it is important to identify the different components of the Notch signaling pathway. A powerful strategy to accomplish this task is based on genetic screens. Given that the developmental context of signaling is important, these screens should be customized to specific cell populations or tissues. Here, I describe how to perform F1 clonal forward genetic screens in Drosophila to identify novel components of the Notch signaling pathway. These screens combine a classical EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) chemical mutagenesis protocol along with clonal analysis via FRT-mediated mitotic recombination. These F1 clonal screens allow rapid phenotypic screening within clones of mutant cells induced at specific developmental stages and in tissues of interest, bypassing the pleiotropic effects of isolated mutations. More importantly, since EMS mutations have been notoriously difficult to map to specific genes in the past, I briefly discuss mapping methods that allow rapid identification of the causative mutations.

  10. Glioma cell fate decisions mediated by Dll1-Jag1-Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaofei; Wang, Ruiqi

    2017-09-21

    The Notch family of proteins plays a vital role in determining cell fates, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been shown that Notch1 and its ligands, Dll1 and Jag1, are overexpressed in many glioma cell lines and primary human gliomas. The roles of Notch1 in some cancers have been firmly established, and recent data implicate that it plays important roles in glioma cell fate decisions. This paper focuses on devising a specific theoretical framework that incorporates Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway to explore their functional roles of these proteins in glioma cells in the tumorigenesis and progression of human gliomas, and to study how glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells. Based on the bifurcation analysis of the model, we show that how the glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition mediated by the Fringe protein, providing insight into the design and control principles of the Notch signaling system and the gliomas. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells based on intertwined dynamics with cis-inhibition and trans-activation involving the proteins Notch1, Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe. The results show that how the glioma cell fate transitions are performed by the Notch1 signaling. Transition from grade III ∼ IV with significantly high Notch1 to grade I ∼ II with high Notch1, and then to normal cells by repressing the Fringe levels or decreasing the strength of enhancement induced by Fringe.

  11. Design of a Template for Handwriting Based Hindi Text Entry in Handheld Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Diya; Vasal, Ityam; Yammiyavar, Pradeep

    Mobile phones, in the recent times, have become affordable and accessible to a wider range of users including the hitherto technologically and economically under-represented segments. Indian users are a gigantic consumer base for mobile phones. With Hindi being one of the most widely spoken languages in the country and the primary tool of communication for about a third of its population, an effective solution for Hindi text entry in mobile devices is expected to be immensely useful to the non English speaking users. This paper proposes a mobile phone handwriting based text entry solution for Hindi language, which allows for an easy text entry method, while facilitating better recognition accuracy.

  12. Regularized Adaptive Notch Filters for Acoustic Howling Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil-Cacho, Pepe; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a method for the suppression of acoustic howling is developed, based on adaptive notch filters (ANF) with regularization (RANF). The method features three RANFs working in parallel to achieve frequency tracking, howling detection and suppression. The ANF-based approach to howling...

  13. Template-based generation of natural language expressions with Controlled M-Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Leermakers, M.C.J.; Rous, J.H.G.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the generation of related natural-language expressions. The method is based on a formal grammar of the natural language in question, specified in the Controlled M-Grammar (CMG) formalism. In the CMG framework the generation of an utterance is controlled by a derivation

  14. Sacrificial Template-Based Synthesis of Unified Hollow Porous Palladium Nanospheres for Formic Acid Electro-Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Qiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale syntheses of uniform metal nanoparticles with hollow porous structure have attracted much attention owning to their high surface area, abundant active sites and relatively efficient catalytic activity. Herein, we report a general method to synthesize hollow porous Pd nanospheres (Pd HPNSs by templating sacrificial SiO2 nanoparticles with the assistance of polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH through layer-by-layer self-assembly. The chemically inert PAH is acting as an efficient stabilizer and complex agent to control the synthesis of Pd HPNSs, probably accounting for its long aliphatic alkyl chains, excellent coordination capability and good hydrophilic property. The physicochemical properties of Pd HPNSs are thoroughly characterized by various techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The growth mechanism of Pd HPNSs is studied based on the analysis of diverse experimental observations. The as-prepared Pd HPNSs exhibit clearly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and durability for the formic oxidation reaction (FAOR in acid medium compared with commercial Pd black.

  15. An effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering template based on a Ag nanocluster-ZnO nanowire array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, S; Zhang, X; Loh, K P; Fan, H M; Sow, C H; Cheng, C-L; Foo, Y L

    2009-01-01

    An effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) template based on a 3D hybrid Ag nanocluster (NC)-decorated ZnO nanowire array was fabricated through a simple process of depositing Ag NCs on ZnO nanowire arrays. The effects of particle size and excitation energy on the Raman scattering in these hybrid systems have been investigated using rhodamine 6G as a standard analyte. The results indicate that the hybrid nanosystem with 150 nm Ag NCs produces a larger SERS enhancement factor of 3.2 x 10 8 , which is much higher than that of 10 nm Ag NCs (6.0 x 10 6 ) under 532 nm excitation energy. The hybrid nanowire arrays were further applied to obtain SERS spectra of the two-photon absorption (TPA) chromophore T7. Finite-difference time-domain simulations reveal the presence of an enhanced field associated with inter-wire plasmon coupling of the 150 nm Ag NCs on adjacent ZnO nanowires; such a field was absent in the case of the 10 nm Ag NC-coated ZnO nanowire. Such hybrid nanosystems could be used as SERS substrates more effectively than assembled Ag NC film due to the enhanced light-scattering local field and the inter-wire plasmon-enhanced electromagnetic field.

  16. Stable and pH-responsive core-shell nanoparticles based on HEC and PMAA networks via template copolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Jin, Q.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2011-10-01

    Taking advantage of the specific hydrogen bonding interactions, stable and pH-responsive core-shell nanoparticles based on hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) networks, with a size ranging from 190 to 250 nm, can be efficiently prepared via facile one-step co-polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) on HEC template in water. Using dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, fluorescence spectrometry, thermo-gravimetric analysis, TEM, and AFM observations, the influence of crosslinker MBA as well as the reaction parameters were studied. The results show that after the introduction of crosslinker MBA, the nanoparticles became less compact; their size exhibited a smaller pH sensitivity, and their stability against pH value was improved greatly. Furthermore, the size, structure, and pH response of the nanoparticles can be adjusted via varying the reaction parameters: nanoparticles of smaller size, more compact structure, and higher swelling capacity were produced as pH value of the reaction medium increased or the HEC/MAA ratio decreased; while nanoparticles of smaller size, less compact structure and smaller swelling capacity were produced as the total feeding concentration increased.

  17. Droplet digital PCR analysis of NOTCH1 gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Angela; Francesco Minervini, Crescenzio; Anelli, Luisa; Zagaria, Antonella; Casieri, Paola; Coccaro, Nicoletta; Cumbo, Cosimo; Tota, Giuseppina; Impera, Luciana; Orsini, Paola; Brunetti, Claudia; Giordano, Annamaria; Specchia, Giorgina; Albano, Francesco

    2016-12-27

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), NOTCH1 gene mutations (NOTCH1mut) have been associated with adverse prognostic features but the independence of these as a prognostic factor is still controversial. In our study we validated a c.7541-7542delCT NOTCH1 mutation assay based on droplet digital PCR (ddPCR); we also analyzed the NOTCH1mut allelic burden, expressed as fractional abundance (FA), in 88 CLL patients at diagnosis to assess its prognostic role and made a longitudinal ddPCR analysis in 10 cases harboring NOTCH1mut to verify the FA variation over time. Our data revealed that with the ddPCR approach the incidence of NOTCH1mut in CLL was much higher (53.4%) than expected. However, longitudinal ddPCR analysis of CLL cases showed a statistically significant reduction of the NOTCH1mut FA detected at diagnosis after treatment (median FA 11.67 % vs 0.09 %, respectively, p = 0.01); the same difference, in terms of NOTCH1mut FA, was observed in the relapsed cases compared to the NOTCH1mut allelic fraction observed in patients in complete or partial remission (median FA 4.75% vs 0.43%, respectively, p = 0.007). Our study demonstrated a much higher incidence of NOTCH1mut in CLL than has previously been reported, and showed that the NOTCH1mut allelic burden evaluation by ddPCR might identify patients in need of a closer clinical follow-up during the "watch and wait" interval and after standard chemotherapy.

  18. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenkun Wu; Liyi Li; Ziyin Lin; Bo Song; Zhuo Li; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Ching-Ping Wong; Shu-Lin Bai

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The...

  19. Seismocardiography-Based Cardiac Computed Tomography Gating Using Patient-Specific Template Identification and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jingting; Tridandapani, Srini; Wick, Carson A; Bhatti, Pamela T

    2017-01-01

    To more accurately trigger cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) than electrocardiography (ECG) alone, a sub-system is proposed as an intermediate step toward fusing ECG with seismocardiography (SCG). Accurate prediction of quiescent phases is crucial to prospectively gating CTA, which is susceptible to cardiac motion and, thus, can affect the diagnostic quality of images. The key innovation of this sub-system is that it identifies the SCG waveform corresponding to heart sounds and determines their phases within the cardiac cycles. Furthermore, this relationship is modeled as a linear function with respect to heart rate. For this paper, B-mode echocardiography is used as the gold standard for identifying the quiescent phases. We analyzed synchronous ECG, SCG, and echocardiography data acquired from seven healthy subjects (mean age: 31; age range: 22-48; males: 4) and 11 cardiac patients (mean age: 56; age range: 31-78; males: 6). On average, the proposed algorithm was able to successfully identify 79% of the SCG waveforms in systole and 68% in diastole. The simulated results show that SCG-based prediction produced less average phase error than that of ECG. It was found that the accuracy of ECG-based gating is more susceptible to increases in heart rate variability, while SCG-based gating is susceptible to high cycle to cycle variability in morphology. This pilot work of prediction using SCG waveforms enriches the framework of a comprehensive system with multiple modalities that could potentially, in real time, improve the image quality of CTA.

  20. Template Based Design of Anti-Metastatic Drugs from the Active Conformation of Laminin Peptide II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    affords lactam 10 as a 7 X=OH, Y=H Ph2BuSiO HH separable mixture of diastereomers rather 8 x = CI, Y NO2 9 10 than tricycle 11. Treatment of 10 with base...of mimotopes. explain the fact that pre- treatment of laminin with Amongst the phage that mimic the LBP൜ 9 peptide G in solution increases its...of ca6 - Colnagi, M. I. (1994). The simultaneous expression of integrin receptors and of mRNA encoding the puta- c-erbB-2 oncoprotein and laminin

  1. Template-based and free modeling of I-TASSER and QUARK pipelines using predicted contact maps in CASP12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengxin; Mortuza, S M; He, Baoji; Wang, Yanting; Zhang, Yang

    2018-03-01

    We develop two complementary pipelines, "Zhang-Server" and "QUARK", based on I-TASSER and QUARK pipelines for template-based modeling (TBM) and free modeling (FM), and test them in the CASP12 experiment. The combination of I-TASSER and QUARK successfully folds three medium-size FM targets that have more than 150 residues, even though the interplay between the two pipelines still awaits further optimization. Newly developed sequence-based contact prediction by NeBcon plays a critical role to enhance the quality of models, particularly for FM targets, by the new pipelines. The inclusion of NeBcon predicted contacts as restraints in the QUARK simulations results in an average TM-score of 0.41 for the best in top five predicted models, which is 37% higher than that by the QUARK simulations without contacts. In particular, there are seven targets that are converted from non-foldable to foldable (TM-score >0.5) due to the use of contact restraints in the simulations. Another additional feature in the current pipelines is the local structure quality prediction by ResQ, which provides a robust residue-level modeling error estimation. Despite the success, significant challenges still remain in ab initio modeling of multi-domain proteins and folding of β-proteins with complicated topologies bound by long-range strand-strand interactions. Improvements on domain boundary and long-range contact prediction, as well as optimal use of the predicted contacts and multiple threading alignments, are critical to address these issues seen in the CASP12 experiment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Liyi; Lin, Ziyin; Song, Bo; Li, Zhuo; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Wong, Ching-Ping; Bai, Shu-Lin

    2015-06-17

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The as-fabricated device shows a phase angle of -75.4° at 120 Hz with a specific capacitance of 316 µF/cm(2) and a RC time constant of 0.35 ms. In addition, it retains 97.2% of the initial capacitance after 10000 charge/discharge cycles. These outstanding performance characteristics of our device demonstrate its promising to replace the conventional AECs for ac line filtering.

  3. Technical procedures for template-guided surgery for mandibular reconstruction based on digital design and manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-feng; Xu, Liang-wei; Zhu, Hui-yong; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao

    2014-05-23

    The occurrence of mandibular defects caused by tumors has been continuously increasing in China in recent years. Conversely, results of the repair of mandibular defects affect the recovery of oral function and patient appearance, and the requirements for accuracy and high surgical quality must be more stringent. Digital techniques--including model reconstruction based on medical images, computer-aided design, and additive manufacturing--have been widely used in modern medicine to improve the accuracy and quality of diagnosis and surgery. However, some special software platforms and services from international companies are not always available for most of researchers and surgeons because they are expensive and time-consuming. Here, a new technical solution for guided surgery for the repair of mandibular defects is proposed, based on general popular tools in medical image processing, 3D (3 dimension) model reconstruction, digital design, and fabrication via 3D printing. First, CT (computerized tomography) images are processed to reconstruct the 3D model of the mandible and fibular bone. The defect area is then replaced by healthy contralateral bone to create the repair model. With the repair model as reference, the graft shape and cutline are designed on fibular bone, as is the guide for cutting and shaping. The physical model, fabricated via 3D printing, including surgical guide, the original model, and the repair model, can be used to preform a titanium locking plate, as well as to design and verify the surgical plan and guide. In clinics, surgeons can operate with the help of the surgical guide and preformed plate to realize the predesigned surgical plan. With sufficient communication between engineers and surgeons, an optimal surgical plan can be designed via some common software platforms but needs to be translated to the clinic. Based on customized models and tools, including three surgical guides, preformed titanium plate for fixation, and physical models of

  4. Si-doping bone composite based on protein template-mediated assembly for enhancing bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Du, Yingying; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Zhiying; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Zhang, Shengmin

    2017-06-01

    Bio-inspired hybrid materials that contain organic and inorganic networks interpenetration at the molecular level have been a particular focus of interest on designing novel nanoscale composites. Here we firstly synthesized a series of hybrid bone composites, silicon-hydroxyapatites/silk fibroin/collagen, based on a specific molecular assembled strategy. Results of material characterization confirmed that silicate had been successfully doped into nano-hydroxyapatite lattice. In vitro evaluation at the cellular level clearly showed that these Si-doped composites were capable of promoting the adhesion and proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs), extremely enhancing osteoblastic differentiation of rMSCs compared with silicon-free composite. More interestingly, we found there was a critical point of silicon content in the composition on regulating multiple cell behaviors. In vivo animal evaluation further demonstrated that Si-doped composites enabled to significantly improve the repair of cranial bone defect. Consequently, our current work not only suggests fabricating a potential bone repair materials by integrating element-doping and molecular assembled strategy in one system, but also paves a new way for constructing multi-functional composite materials in the future.

  5. Nanoparticle-based immunosensor with apoferritin templated metallic phosphate label for quantification of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Aiqiong; Xie, Yunying; Zhang, Aidong; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-01-01

    A new sandwich-like electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for quantification of organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were anchored on a screen printed electrode (SPE) to preferably capture OP-AChE adducts by metal chelation with phospho-moieties, which was selectively recognized by lead phosphate-apoferritin labeled anti-AChE antibody (LPA-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among ZrO2 NPs, OP-AChE and LPA-anti-AChE to form ZrO2/OP-AChE/LPA-anti-AChE complex and the released lead ions were detected on a disposable SPE. The binding affinity was investigated by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The proposed immunosensor yielded a linear response current over a broad OP-AChE concentrations range from 0.05 nM to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This method avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody as well as amplifies detection signal by using apoferritin encoded metallic phosphate nanoparticle tags. This nanoparticle-based immunosensor offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts for monitoring of OP pesticides and nerve agents exposures.

  6. Nanoparticle-based immunosensor with apoferritin templated metallic phosphate label for quantification of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Aiqiong; Xie, Yunying; Zhang, Aidong; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-15

    A new sandwich-like electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for quantification of organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were anchored on a screen printed electrode (SPE) to preferably capture OP-AChE adducts by metal chelation with phospho-moieties, which was selectively recognized by lead phosphate-apoferritin labeled anti-AChE antibody (LPA-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among ZrO2 NPs, OP-AChE and LPA-anti-AChE to form ZrO2/OP-AChE/LPA-anti-AChE complex and the released lead ions were detected on a disposable SPE. The binding affinity was investigated by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The proposed immunosensor yielded a linear response current over a broad OP-AChE concentrations range from 0.05 nM to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This method avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody as well as amplifies detection signal by using apoferritin encoded metallic phosphate nanoparticle tags. This nanoparticle-based immunosensor offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts for monitoring of OP pesticides and nerve agents exposures.

  7. Si-doping bone composite based on protein template-mediated assembly for enhancing bone regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin YANG; Yingying DU; Yifan WANG; Zhiying WANG; Jun MA; Jianglin WANG; Shengmin ZHANG

    2017-01-01

    Bio-inspired hybrid materials that contain organic and inorganic networks interpenetration at the molecular level have been a particular focus of interest on designing novel nanoscale composites.Here we firstly synthesized a series of hybrid bone composites,silicon-hydroxyapatites/silk fibroin/collagen,based on a specific molecular assembled strategy.Results of material characterization confirmed that silicate had been successfully doped into nano-hydroxyapatite lattice.In vitro evaluation at the cellular level clearly showed that these Si-doped composites were capable of promoting the adhesion and proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs),extremely enhancing osteoblastic differentiation of rMSCs compared with silicon-free composite.More interestingly,we found there was a critical point of silicon content in the composition on regulating multiple cell behaviors.In vivo animal evaluation further demonstrated that Si-doped composites enabled to significantly improve the repair of cranial bone defect.Consequently,our current work not only suggests fabricating a potential bone repair materials by integrating element-doping and molecular assembled strategy in one system,but also paves a new way for constructing multi-functional composite materials in the future.

  8. CerebroMatic: A Versatile Toolbox for Spline-Based MRI Template Creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Marko; Altaye, Mekibib; Holland, Scott K

    2017-01-01

    Brain image spatial normalization and tissue segmentation rely on prior tissue probability maps. Appropriately selecting these tissue maps becomes particularly important when investigating "unusual" populations, such as young children or elderly subjects. When creating such priors, the disadvantage of applying more deformation must be weighed against the benefit of achieving a crisper image. We have previously suggested that statistically modeling demographic variables, instead of simply averaging images, is advantageous. Both aspects (more vs. less deformation and modeling vs. averaging) were explored here. We used imaging data from 1914 subjects, aged 13 months to 75 years, and employed multivariate adaptive regression splines to model the effects of age, field strength, gender, and data quality. Within the spm/cat12 framework, we compared an affine-only with a low- and a high-dimensional warping approach. As expected, more deformation on the individual level results in lower group dissimilarity. Consequently, effects of age in particular are less apparent in the resulting tissue maps when using a more extensive deformation scheme. Using statistically-described parameters, high-quality tissue probability maps could be generated for the whole age range; they are consistently closer to a gold standard than conventionally-generated priors based on 25, 50, or 100 subjects. Distinct effects of field strength, gender, and data quality were seen. We conclude that an extensive matching for generating tissue priors may model much of the variability inherent in the dataset which is then not contained in the resulting priors. Further, the statistical description of relevant parameters (using regression splines) allows for the generation of high-quality tissue probability maps while controlling for known confounds. The resulting CerebroMatic toolbox is available for download at http://irc.cchmc.org/software/cerebromatic.php.

  9. A template-based procedure for determining white matter integrity in the internal capsule early after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Petoe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of descending white matter pathways, measured by fractional anisotropy from DW-MRI, is a key prognostic indicator of motor recovery after stroke. Barriers to translation of fractional anisotropy measures into routine clinical practice include the time required for manually delineating volumes of interest (VOIs, and inter-examiner variability in this process. This study investigated whether registering and then editing template volumes of interest ‘as required’ would improve inter-examiner reliability compared with manual delineation, without compromising validity. MRI was performed with 30 sub-acute stroke patients with motor deficits (mean NIHSS = 11, range 0–17. Four independent examiners manually delineated VOIs for the posterior limbs of the internal capsules on T1 images, or edited template VOIs that had been registered to the T1 images if they encroached on ventricles or basal ganglia. Fractional anisotropy within each VOI and interhemispheric asymmetry were then calculated. We found that 13/30 registered template VOIs required editing. Edited template VOIs were more spatially similar between examiners than the manually delineated VOIs (p = 0.005. Both methods produced similar asymmetry values that correlated with clinical scores with near perfect levels of agreement between examiners. Contralesional fractional anisotropy correlated with age when edited template VOIs were used but not when VOIs were manually delineated. Editing template VOIs as required is reliable, increases the validity of fractional anisotropy measurements in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and is less time-consuming compared to manual delineation. This approach could support the use of FA asymmetry measures in routine clinical practice.

  10. Notch root strain measurement of WE43-T6 magnesium alloy using electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, H.L.; Ahmad, A.; Ramesh, S.; Purbolaksono, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of ESPI for measuring total strains at the notch root of specimens. • Fine meshing in micron scale at the notch root regions. • The maximum elastic strain is shifted to be further away from the notch root tip. - Abstract: The notch root elasto-plastic strains of circumferentially grooved round specimen of cast magnesium WE43-T6 were experimentally measured using the electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and numerically evaluated using the finite element analysis (FEA). The specimens have notch radii of 1.6 mm and 0.8 mm and an opening angle of 60°. The technique of ESPI showed its accuracy in measuring three-dimensional surface deformations on large negatively curved manifolds. The measured nominal stress for rupture is well beyond the ultimate strength, suggesting the existence of significant biaxial stress at the notch root region. The ESPI-based strains on the notch tips were shown to be in agreement with those evaluated by the FEA. The FEA also showed that the maximum elastic strain is shifted away from the notch root surface as the plastic strain is predominant

  11. Fringe proteins modulate Notch-ligand cis and trans interactions to specify signaling states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBon, Lauren; Lee, Tom V; Sprinzak, David; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed; Elowitz, Michael B

    2014-09-25

    The Notch signaling pathway consists of multiple types of receptors and ligands, whose interactions can be tuned by Fringe glycosyltransferases. A major challenge is to determine how these components control the specificity and directionality of Notch signaling in developmental contexts. Here, we analyzed same-cell (cis) Notch-ligand interactions for Notch1, Dll1, and Jag1, and their dependence on Fringe protein expression in mammalian cells. We found that Dll1 and Jag1 can cis-inhibit Notch1, and Fringe proteins modulate these interactions in a way that parallels their effects on trans interactions. Fringe similarly modulated Notch-ligand cis interactions during Drosophila development. Based on these and previously identified interactions, we show how the design of the Notch signaling pathway leads to a restricted repertoire of signaling states that promote heterotypic signaling between distinct cell types, providing insight into the design principles of the Notch signaling system, and the specific developmental process of Drosophila dorsal-ventral boundary formation.

  12. qPCR-based mitochondrial DNA quantification: Influence of template DNA fragmentation on accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Christopher B.; Gallati, Sabina; Schaller, André

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Serial qPCR accurately determines fragmentation state of any given DNA sample. ► Serial qPCR demonstrates different preservation of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. ► Serial qPCR provides a diagnostic tool to validate the integrity of bioptic material. ► Serial qPCR excludes degradation-induced erroneous quantification. -- Abstract: Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by relative comparison of a nuclear to a mitochondrial locus. Quantitative abnormal mtDNA content is indicative of mitochondrial disorders and mostly confines in a tissue-specific manner. Thus handling of degradation-prone bioptic material is inevitable. We established a serial qPCR assay based on increasing amplicon size to measure degradation status of any DNA sample. Using this approach we can exclude erroneous mtDNA quantification due to degraded samples (e.g. long post-exicision time, autolytic processus, freeze–thaw cycles) and ensure abnormal DNA content measurements (e.g. depletion) in non-degraded patient material. By preparation of degraded DNA under controlled conditions using sonification and DNaseI digestion we show that erroneous quantification is due to the different preservation qualities of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. This disparate degradation of the two genomes results in over- or underestimation of mtDNA copy number in degraded samples. Moreover, as analysis of defined archival tissue would allow to precise the molecular pathomechanism of mitochondrial disorders presenting with abnormal mtDNA content, we compared fresh frozen (FF) with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skeletal muscle tissue of the same sample. By extrapolation of measured decay constants for nuclear DNA (λ nDNA ) and mtDNA (λ mtDNA ) we present an approach to possibly correct measurements in degraded samples in the future. To our knowledge this is the first time different degradation impact of the two

  13. qPCR-based mitochondrial DNA quantification: Influence of template DNA fragmentation on accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Christopher B., E-mail: Christopher.jackson@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Gallati, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.gallati@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Schaller, Andre, E-mail: andre.schaller@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR accurately determines fragmentation state of any given DNA sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR demonstrates different preservation of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR provides a diagnostic tool to validate the integrity of bioptic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR excludes degradation-induced erroneous quantification. -- Abstract: Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by relative comparison of a nuclear to a mitochondrial locus. Quantitative abnormal mtDNA content is indicative of mitochondrial disorders and mostly confines in a tissue-specific manner. Thus handling of degradation-prone bioptic material is inevitable. We established a serial qPCR assay based on increasing amplicon size to measure degradation status of any DNA sample. Using this approach we can exclude erroneous mtDNA quantification due to degraded samples (e.g. long post-exicision time, autolytic processus, freeze-thaw cycles) and ensure abnormal DNA content measurements (e.g. depletion) in non-degraded patient material. By preparation of degraded DNA under controlled conditions using sonification and DNaseI digestion we show that erroneous quantification is due to the different preservation qualities of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. This disparate degradation of the two genomes results in over- or underestimation of mtDNA copy number in degraded samples. Moreover, as analysis of defined archival tissue would allow to precise the molecular pathomechanism of mitochondrial disorders presenting with abnormal mtDNA content, we compared fresh frozen (FF) with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skeletal muscle tissue of the same sample. By extrapolation of measured decay constants for nuclear DNA ({lambda}{sub nDNA}) and mtDNA ({lambda}{sub mtDNA}) we present an approach to possibly correct measurements in

  14. 105 GHz Notch Filter Design for Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A millimeter-wave notch filter with 105-GHz center frequency, >20-GHz passband coverage, and 1-GHz rejection bandwidth has been constructed. The design is based on a fundamental rectangular waveguide with cylindrical cavities coupled by narrow iris gaps, i.e., small elongated holes of negligible...

  15. V-notch tip subjected to in-plane mixed mode loading: overview of recent results and possible future outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Berto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available . The fictitious notch rounding concept is applied for the first time to V-notches with root hole subjected to in-plane mixed mode loading. Outof-bisector crack propagation is taken into account. The fictitious notch radius is determined as a function of the real notch radius, the microstructural support length and the notch opening angle. Due to the complexity of the problem, a method based on the simple normal stress failure criterion has been used. It is combined with the maximum tangential stress criterion to determine the crack propagation angle. An analytical method based on Neuber's procedure has been developed. The method provides the values of the microstructural support factor as a function of the mode ratio and the notch opening angle. The support factor is considered to be independent of the microstructural support length. Finally, for comparison, the support factor is determined on a purely numerical basis by iterative analysis of FE models.

  16. Learning templates for artistic portrait lighting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowu; Jin, Xin; Wu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qinping

    2015-02-01

    Lighting is a key factor in creating impressive artistic portraits. In this paper, we propose to analyze portrait lighting by learning templates of lighting styles. Inspired by the experience of artists, we first define several novel features that describe the local contrasts in various face regions. The most informative features are then selected with a stepwise feature pursuit algorithm to derive the templates of various lighting styles. After that, the matching scores that measure the similarity between a testing portrait and those templates are calculated for lighting style classification. Furthermore, we train a regression model by the subjective scores and the feature responses of a template to predict the score of a portrait lighting quality. Based on the templates, a novel face illumination descriptor is defined to measure the difference between two portrait lightings. Experimental results show that the learned templates can well describe the lighting styles, whereas the proposed approach can assess the lighting quality of artistic portraits as human being does.

  17. Notch Inhibits Osteoblast Differentiation and Causes Osteopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Stefano; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna; Stadmeyer, Lisa; Durant, Deena; Radtke, Freddy; Canalis, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    Notch receptors are determinants of cell fate decisions. To define the role of Notch in the adult skeleton, we created transgenic mice overexpressing the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) under the control of the type I collagen promoter. First-generation transgenics were small and osteopenic. Bone histomorphometry revealed that NICD caused a decrease in bone volume, secondary to a reduction in trabecular number; osteoblast and osteoclast number were decreased. Low fertility of founder mice and lethality of young pups did not allow the complete establishment of transgenic lines. To characterize the effect of Notch overexpression in vitro, NICD was induced in osteoblasts and stromal cells from Rosanotch mice, in which a STOP cassette flanked by loxP sites is upstream of NICD, by transduction with an adenoviral vector expressing Cre recombinase (Cre) under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (Ad-CMV-Cre). NICD impaired osteoblastogenesis and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To determine the effects of notch1 deletion in vivo, mice in which notch1 was flanked by loxP sequences (notch1loxP/loxP) were mated with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. Conditional null notch1 mice had no obvious skeletal phenotype, possibly because of rescue by notch2; however, 1-month-old females exhibited a modest increase in osteoclast surface and eroded surface. Osteoblasts from notch1loxP/loxP mice, transduced with Ad-CMV-Cre and transfected with Notch2 small interfering RNA, displayed increased alkaline phosphatase activity. In conclusion, Notch signaling in osteoblasts causes osteopenia and impairs osteo-blastogenesis by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:18420737

  18. SU-E-T-301: Dosimetric Comparison Between Adaptive and Rectilinear Template-Based Prostate Seed Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugar, E Neubauer; Buzurovic, I; O’Farrell, D; Hansen, J; Devlin, P; Cormack, R; Nguyen, P [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetry of a standard rectilinear and an adaptive technique used in I125 prostate seed implants. Methods: To achieve favorable dosimetry in prostate implants we used adaptive needle updates to match actual positions in real-time. The seed locations were optimized based on actual needle locations. The seeds were delivered automatically with a robotic device seedSelectron™ (Elekta Brachytherapy). In this study, we evaluated the former approach against the standard rectilinear technique in which the needles have a parallel distribution. The treatment plans for 10 patients were analyzed. For comparison, the actual treatment plans were revised so each needle was repositioned to its original parallel location through the template. The analysis was performed by comparing the target coverage and dose to the organs at risk. The comparison was done using the following planning goals: the target D90> 90%, V100% > 90%, V50% <70% and V200% <30%; the urethra V125% < 1cm3 and V150%= 0cm3; and the Rectum V100%<1cm3 and V69% < 8cm3. The prescription dose to the target was 145Gy. Results: The average target volume and number of seeds were 44.39cm3(SD=11.14) and 74(SD=12), respectively. The D90 for adaptive and rectilinear plans was 159.9Gy(SD=2.99) and 155.53Gy(SD=4.04) resulting in a 2.74% difference for the average target coverage. A similar difference (1.75%) was noticed in the target V100[%]. No significant difference was noticed in the dose to the urethra and rectum. All planning goals were met with both the adaptive and rectilinear approach for each plan. Conclusion: The study reveals enhanced coverage of the target when using the adaptive needle adjustments as compared to the rectilinear approach for the analyzed cases. However, the differences in dosimetry did not translate to meaningful clinical outcomes.

  19. The adhesion force of Notch with Delta and the rate of Notch signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Ahimou, Francois; Mok, Lee-Peng; Bardot, Boris; Wesley, Cedric

    2004-01-01

    Notch signaling is repeatedly used during animal development to specify cell fates. Using atomic force microscopy on live cells, chemical inhibitors, and conventional analyses, we show that the rate of Notch signaling is linked to the adhesion force between cells expressing Notch receptors and Delta ligand. Both the Notch extracellular and intracellular domains are required for the high adhesion force with Delta. This high adhesion force is lost within minutes, primarily due to the action of ...

  20. Optical and electrical improvements of semipolar (1 1 −2 2) GaN-based light emitting diodes by Si doping of n-GaN template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Hwan; Han, Sang-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ryong; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In semipolar GaN, Si-doping is effective to reduce out-of plane PSFs toward [1−100]. • Interfacial quality of semipolar QWs was improved by increasing SiH4 flow of n-GaN. • Electrical properties of semipolar GaN were improved by increasing Si doping. • Light output power of semipolar LEDs were increased with SiH4 flow rate of n-type GaN. - Abstract: We report that the performance of semipolar (1 1 −2 2) GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was improved by increasing the Si-doping concentration of n-type GaN templates. In-plane and out-of plane high-resolution X-ray diffraction demonstrated that crystal defects such as threading dislocation, partial stacking faults and basal stacking faults, were significantly decreased by increasing the Si-doping concentration. This resulted in the increase of carrier mobility due to reduction of the defect-scattering effect. Furthermore, the quality of InGaN/GaN quantum-well interfaces was improved by increasing the Si-doping concentration of the n-type GaN template. Based on these results, we suggest that the light-output power and operation voltage of semipolar (1 1 −2 2) GaN-based LEDs would be improved by increasing Si doping concentration of n-type GaN templates

  1. Grip-Pattern Verification for Smart Gun Based on Maximum-Pairwise Comparison and Mean-Template Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    In our biometric verification system of a smart gun, the rightful user of a gun is authenticated by grip-pattern recognition. In this work verification will be done using two types of comparison methods, respectively. One is mean-template comparison, where the matching score between a test image and

  2. Nanocrystal conversion chemistry: A unified and materials-general strategy for the template-based synthesis of nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, Yolanda; Henkes, Amanda E.; Chris Bauer, J.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of nanocrystal conversion chemistry, which involves the use of pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, has emerged as a powerful approach for designing the synthesis of complex nanocrystalline solids. The general strategy exploits established synthetic capabilities in simple nanocrystal systems and uses these nanocrystals as templates that help to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals. This article highlights key examples of 'conversion chemistry' approaches to the synthesis of nanocrystalline solids using a variety of techniques, including galvanic replacement, diffusion, oxidation, and ion exchange. The discussion is organized according to classes of solids, highlighting the diverse target systems that are accessible using similar chemical concepts: metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallic compounds, sulfides, and nitrides. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystal conversion chemistry uses pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, helping to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals that have more complex features than their precursor templates. This article highlights the application of this concept to diverse classes of solids, including metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallics, sulfides, and nitrides

  3. Eddy current standards - Cracks versus notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemaier, D. J.; Collingwood, M. R.; Nguyen, K. H.

    1992-10-01

    Eddy current tests aimed at evaluating cracks and electron-discharge machined (EDM) notches in 7075-T6 aluminum specimens are described. A comparison of the shape and amplitude of recordings made from both transverse and longitudinal scans of small EDM notches and fatigue cracks showd almost identical results. The signal amplitude and phase angle increased with an increase of EDM notch and crak size. It is concluded that equivalent eddy current results obtained from similar-size surface cracks and notches in aluminum can be used to establish a desired sensitivity level for inspection.

  4. Low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry for an information barrier based on a multi-criteria template-matching approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Göttsche, Malte; Schirm, Janet; Glaser, Alexander

    2016-12-21

    Gamma-ray spectrometry has been successfully employed to identify unique items containing special nuclear materials. Template information barriers have been developed in the past to confirm items as warheads by comparing their gamma signature to the signature of true warheads. Their development has, however, not been fully transparent, and they may not be sensitive to some relevant evasion scenarios. We develop a fully open template information barrier concept, based on low-resolution measurements, which, by design, reduces the extent of revealed sensitive information. The concept is based on three signatures of an item to be compared to a recorded template. The similarity of the spectrum is assessed by a modification of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test to confirm the isotopic composition. The total gamma count rate must agree with the template as a measure of the projected surface of the object. In order to detect the diversion of fissile material from the interior of an item, a polyethylene mask is placed in front of the detector. Neutrons from spontaneous and induced fission events in the item produce 2.223 MeV gamma rays from neutron capture by hydrogen-1 in the mask. This peak is detected and its intensity scales with the item's fissile mass. The analysis based on MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of various plutonium configurations suggests that this concept can distinguish a valid item from a variety of invalid ones. The concept intentionally avoids any assumptions about specific spectral features, such as looking for specific gamma peaks of specific isotopes, thereby facilitating a fully unclassified discussion. By making all aspects public and allowing interested participants to contribute to the development and benchmarking, we enable a more open and inclusive discourse on this matter.

  5. Comparison between PET template-based method and MRI-based method for cortical quantification of florbetapir (AV-45) uptake in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Aubert, L.; Nemmi, F.; Peran, P. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, E.J. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, France, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France); Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Payoux, P. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Chollet, F.; Pariente, J. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2014-05-15

    Florbetapir (AV-45) has been shown to be a reliable tool for assessing in vivo amyloid load in patients with Alzheimer's disease from the early stages. However, nonspecific white matter binding has been reported in healthy subjects as well as in patients with Alzheimer's disease. To avoid this issue, cortical quantification might increase the reliability of AV-45 PET analyses. In this study, we compared two quantification methods for AV-45 binding, a classical method relying on PET template registration (route 1), and a MRI-based method (route 2) for cortical quantification. We recruited 22 patients at the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease and 17 matched controls. AV-45 binding was assessed using both methods, and target-to-cerebellum mean global standard uptake values (SUVr) were obtained for each of them, together with SUVr in specific regions of interest. Quantification using the two routes was compared between the clinical groups (intragroup comparison), and between groups for each route (intergroup comparison). Discriminant analysis was performed. In the intragroup comparison, differences in uptake values were observed between route 1 and route 2 in both groups. In the intergroup comparison, AV-45 uptake was higher in patients than controls in all regions of interest using both methods, but the effect size of this difference was larger using route 2. In the discriminant analysis, route 2 showed a higher specificity (94.1 % versus 70.6 %), despite a lower sensitivity (77.3 % versus 86.4 %), and D-prime values were higher for route 2. These findings suggest that, although both quantification methods enabled patients at early stages of Alzheimer's disease to be well discriminated from controls, PET template-based quantification seems adequate for clinical use, while the MRI-based cortical quantification method led to greater intergroup differences and may be more suitable for use in current clinical research. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of correlation between knee notch width index and the three-dimensional notch volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, C.F.; Martins, C.A.Q.; Lorenz, S.G.F.; Fu, F.H.; Smolinski, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to determine whether there is a correlation between the notch volume and the notch width index (NWI) as measured on the three most frequently used radiographic views: the Holmblad 45A degrees, Holmblad 70A degrees, and Rosenberg view. The notch volume of 20 cadaveric knees was

  7. Template characterization and correlation algorithm created from segmentation for the iris biometric authentication based on analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L

    2011-01-01

    Among the most used biometric signals to set personal security permissions, taker increasingly importance biometric iris recognition based on their textures and images of blood vessels due to the rich in these two unique characteristics that are unique to each individual. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm characterization and correlation of templates created for biometric authentication based on iris texture analysis programmed on a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), authentication is based on processes like characterization methods based on frequency analysis of the sample, and frequency correlation to obtain the expected results of authentication.

  8. A 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine-imprinted polymer gel surface plasmon resonance sensor based on template-responsive shrinkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chunyan; Gao, Jigang; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Based on template-responsive shrinkage of imprinted gel film, a novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is prepared. •The relevant electrochemical parameters are optimized. •The imprinted gel-SPR system has great capability for providing highly sensitive and selective analysis of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. •The present SPR sensor was successfully employed to detect 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine in tap water and soil samples. -- Abstract: Molecularly imprinted polymer gel film on the gold substrate of a chip was prepared with minute amount of cross-linker for the fabrication of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor sensitive to 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. The molecularly imprinted gel film was anchored on a gold chip by a surface-bound photo-radical initiator. The sensing of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine is based on responsive shrinkage of the imprinted polymer gel film that is triggered by target binding. This change can improve the responsiveness of the imprinted SPR sensor to 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. The molecularly imprinted polymer gel film was characterized with contact angle measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammogram, swelling measurements and atomic force microscopy. The changes of SPR spectroscopy wavenumber shifts revealed that the imprinted gel sensing film can ‘memorize’ the binding of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine compared to non-imprinted one. The imprinted gel-SPR sensor showed a linear response in the range of 9.0 × 10 −12 to 5.0 × 10 −10 mol L −1 (R 2 = 0.9998) for the detection of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine, and it also exhibited high selectivity to 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine compared to its structurally related analogues. We calculated the detection limits to be 0.471 ng L −1 for tap water and 0.772 ng kg −1 for soil based on a signal to noise ratio of 3. The method showed good recoveries and precision for the samples spiked with 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. This suggest

  9. Registration of FA and T1-weighted MRI data of healthy human brain based on template matching and normalized cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milos; Peter, Roman; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Jan, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we propose a new approach for three-dimensional registration of MR fractional anisotropy images with T1-weighted anatomy images of human brain. From the clinical point of view, this accurate coregistration allows precise detection of nerve fibers that is essential in neuroscience. A template matching algorithm combined with normalized cross-correlation was used for this registration task. To show the suitability of the proposed method, it was compared with the normalized mutual information-based B-spline registration provided by the Elastix software library, considered a reference method. We also propose a general framework for the evaluation of robustness and reliability of both registration methods. Both registration methods were tested by four evaluation criteria on a dataset consisting of 74 healthy subjects. The template matching algorithm has shown more reliable results than the reference method in registration of the MR fractional anisotropy and T1 anatomy image data. Significant differences were observed in the regions splenium of corpus callosum and genu of corpus callosum, considered very important areas of brain connectivity. We demonstrate that, in this registration task, the currently used mutual information-based parametric registration can be replaced by more accurate local template matching utilizing the normalized cross-correlation similarity measure.

  10. Illegitimate V(D)J recombination-mediated deletions in Notch1 and Bcl11b are not sufficient for extensive clonal expansion and show minimal age or sex bias in frequency or junctional processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, Devin P., E-mail: devin.champagne@uvm.edu; Shockett, Penny E., E-mail: pshockett@selu.edu

    2014-03-15

    similar for both genes and consistent with results at the TCRβ locus. Non-templated (N) nucleotide insertions appear to increase between fetal and postnatal stages for Notch1, consistent with normal terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) activity; however, neonatal Bcl11b junctions contain elevated levels of N insertions. Finally, contrasting with results at the HPRT1 locus, we find no obvious age or gender bias in junctional processing, and inverted repeats at recessed coding ends (P{sub r} nucleotides) correspond mostly to single-base additions consistent with normal TdT activity.

  11. The common oncogenomic program of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 signaling in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hee Choi

    Full Text Available Notch is a major oncogenic driver in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL, in part because it binds to an enhancer that increases expression of MYC. Here, we exploit the capacity of activated NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 to induce T-ALL, despite substantial divergence in their intracellular regions, as a means to elucidate a broad, common Notch-dependent oncogenomic program through systematic comparison of the transcriptomes and Notch-bound genomic regulatory elements of NOTCH1- and NOTCH3-dependent T-ALL cells. ChIP-seq studies show a high concordance of functional NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 genomic binding sites that are enriched in binding motifs for RBPJ, the transcription factor that recruits activated Notch to DNA. The interchangeability of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 was confirmed by rescue of NOTCH1-dependent T-ALL cells with activated NOTCH3 and vice versa. Despite remarkable overall similarity, there are nuanced differences in chromatin landscapes near critical common Notch target genes, most notably at a Notch-dependent enhancer that regulates MYC, which correlates with responsiveness to Notch pathway inhibitors. Overall, a common oncogenomic program driven by binding of either Notch is sufficient to maintain T-ALL cell growth, whereas cell-context specific differences appear to influence the response of T-ALL cells to Notch inhibition.

  12. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template......Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  13. Proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fuyi [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Yao, Yao; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Dengyang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Gao, Fenglei, E-mail: jsxzgfl@sina.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Wang, Po, E-mail: wangpo@jsnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2017-05-29

    Novel hybridization proximity-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly strategy has been proposed for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles as signal label. The DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles were characterized with atomic force microscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The highly efficient electrocatalysis by DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles for NaBH{sub 4} oxidation produced an intense detection signal. The label-free electrochemical method achieved the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with a linear range from 10{sup −15} to 10{sup −11} g mL{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.43 × 10{sup −15} g mL{sup −1}. Through introducing a supersandwich reaction to increase the DNA length, the electrochemical signal was further amplified, leading to a detection limit of 0.52 × 10{sup −16} g mL{sup −1}. And it rendered satisfactory analytical performance for the determination of CEA in serum samples. Furthermore, it exhibited good reproducibility and stability; meanwhile, it also showed excellent specificity due to the specific recognition of antigen by antibody. Therefore, the DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles based signal amplification approach has great potential in clinical applications and is also suitable for quantification of biomarkers at ultralow level. - Graphical abstract: A novel label-free and enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay based on proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assemblies for recycling of the CEA. - Highlights: • A novel enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of CEA. • The signal amplification was based on catalytic DNA hairpin assembly and DNA-template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles. • The biosensor could detect CEA down to 0.52 × 10{sup −16} g mL{sup −1} level with a dynamic range spanning 5 orders of magnitude.

  14. Programmable imprint lithography template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F [Oakland, CA; Talin, Albert A [Livermore, CA

    2006-10-31

    A template for imprint lithography (IL) that reduces significantly template production costs by allowing the same template to be re-used for several technology generations. The template is composed of an array of spaced-apart moveable and individually addressable rods or plungers. Thus, the template can be configured to provide a desired pattern by programming the array of plungers such that certain of the plungers are in an "up" or actuated configuration. This arrangement of "up" and "down" plungers forms a pattern composed of protruding and recessed features which can then be impressed onto a polymer film coated substrate by applying a pressure to the template impressing the programmed configuration into the polymer film. The pattern impressed into the polymer film will be reproduced on the substrate by subsequent processing.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Notched Composites Under Tension Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidi, Bilel; Case, Scott W.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental quasi-static tests were performed on center notched carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites having different stacking sequences made of G40-600/5245C prepreg. The three-dimensional Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique was used during quasi-static tests conducted on quasi-isotropic notched samples to obtain the distribution of strains as a function of applied stress. A finite element model was built within Abaqus to predict the notched strength and the strain profiles for comparison with measured results. A user-material subroutine using the multi-continuum theory (MCT) as a failure initiation criterion and an energy-based damage evolution law as implemented by Autodesk Simulation Composite Analysis (ASCA) was used to conduct a quantitative comparison of strain components predicted by the analysis and obtained in the experiments. Good agreement between experimental data and numerical analyses results are observed. Modal analysis was carried out to investigate the effect of static damage on the dominant frequencies of the notched structure using the resulted degraded material elements. The first in-plane mode was found to be a good candidate for tracking the level of damage.

  16. Evidence of non-canonical NOTCH signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustadóttir, Gunnhildur Ásta; Jensen, Charlotte H; Thomassen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Dlk1(+/+) and Dlk1(-/-) mouse tissues at E16.5, we demonstrated that several NOTCH signaling pathways indeed are affected by DLK1 during tissue development, and this was supported by a lower activation of NOTCH1 protein in Dlk1(+/+) embryos. Likewise, but using a distinct Dlk1-manipulated (si...

  17. Image-based dose planning of intracavitary brachytherapy: registration of serial-imaging studies using deformable anatomic templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Gary E.; Carlson, Blake; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Yin Pen; Grigsby, Perry W.; Nguyen, Kim; Dempsey, James F; Lerma, Fritz A.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Vannier, Michael W.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2001-01-01

    cancer. These changes cannot be modeled by the conventional rigid landmark transformation method. In the current study, we found that the deformable anatomic template registration method, based on continuum-mechanics models of deformation, successfully described these large anatomic shape changes before and after ICT. These promising modeling results indicate that realistic registration of the cumulative dose distribution to the organs (or targets) of interest for radiation therapy of cervical cancers is achievable

  18. [Characteristics of supramolecular imprinting template on liver meridian tropism of traditional Chinese medicine based on molecular connectivity index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shi-Qi; Li, Sen; Liu, Jin-Ling; Yang, Jiao; Hu, Chao; Zhu, Jun-Ping; Xiao, Xiao-Qin; Liu, Wen-Long; He, Fu-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The molecular connectivity index was adopted to explore the characteristics of supramolecular imprinting template of herbs distributed to liver meridian, in order to provide scientific basis for traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) distributed to liver meridian. In this paper, with "12th five-year plan" national planning textbooks Science of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Chemistry of Traditional Chinese Medicine as the blueprint, literatures and TCMSP sub-databases in TCM pharmacology of northwest science and technology university of agriculture and forestry were retrieved to collect and summarize active constituents of TCM distributed to liver meridian, and calculate the molecular connectivity index. The average molecular connectivity index of ingredients distributed to liver meridian was 9.47, which was close to flavonoid glycosides' (9.17±2.11) and terpenes (9.30±3.62). Therefore, it is inferred that template molecule of liver meridian is similar to physicochemical property of flavonoid glycosides and terpenes, which could be best matched with imprinting template of liver meridian. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. An expanded Notch-Delta model exhibiting long-range patterning and incorporating MicroRNA regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry S Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Notch-Delta signaling is a fundamental cell-cell communication mechanism that governs the differentiation of many cell types. Most existing mathematical models of Notch-Delta signaling are based on a feedback loop between Notch and Delta leading to lateral inhibition of neighboring cells. These models result in a checkerboard spatial pattern whereby adjacent cells express opposing levels of Notch and Delta, leading to alternate cell fates. However, a growing body of biological evidence suggests that Notch-Delta signaling produces other patterns that are not checkerboard, and therefore a new model is needed. Here, we present an expanded Notch-Delta model that builds upon previous models, adding a local Notch activity gradient, which affects long-range patterning, and the activity of a regulatory microRNA. This model is motivated by our experiments in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis showing that the peripheral sensory neurons, whose specification is in part regulated by the coordinate activity of Notch-Delta signaling and the microRNA miR-124, exhibit a sparse spatial pattern whereby consecutive neurons may be spaced over a dozen cells apart. We perform rigorous stability and bifurcation analyses, and demonstrate that our model is able to accurately explain and reproduce the neuronal pattern in Ciona. Using Monte Carlo simulations of our model along with miR-124 transgene over-expression assays, we demonstrate that the activity of miR-124 can be incorporated into the Notch decay rate parameter of our model. Finally, we motivate the general applicability of our model to Notch-Delta signaling in other animals by providing evidence that microRNAs regulate Notch-Delta signaling in analogous cell types in other organisms, and by discussing evidence in other organisms of sparse spatial patterns in tissues where Notch-Delta signaling is active.

  20. UWB Filtering Power Divider with Two Narrow Notch-bands and Wide Stop-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Wang, Xin-Yi; Zou, Xin Tong; Shi, Xiao Wei

    2017-12-01

    A compact filtering ultra-wideband (UWB) microstrip power divider (PD) with two sharply rejected notch-bands and wide stopband is analyzed and designed in this paper. The proposed UWB PD is based on a conventional Wilkinson power divider, while two stub loaded resonators (SLRs) are coupled into two symmetrical output ports to achieve a bandpass filtering response. The simplified composite right/left-handed (SCRLH) resonators are employed to generate the dual notched bands. Defected ground structure (DGS) is introduced to improve the passband performance. Good insertion/return losses, isolation and notch-band rejection are achieved as demonstrated in both simulation and experiment.

  1. Effects of Notch Introduction on 3-Point Bending Cutting Characteristics of Frozen Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    2002-01-01

    We have proposed a freeze cutting method in which a three point bending load is applied on a frozen fish body to cut in round slices. Lowering the three-point bending load can facilitate the freeze cutting processing. Based on the idea that a notch in the fish body may lower the cutting load, the effect of introducing a notch was examined with respect to cutting stress and smoothness of cut surface in model fish meat and in saury. It was found that the introduced notch effectively lowered the...

  2. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  3. Second generation γ-secretase modulators exhibit different modulation of Notch β and Aβ production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanngren, Johanna; Ottervald, Jan; Parpal, Santiago; Portelius, Erik; Strömberg, Kia; Borgegård, Tomas; Klintenberg, Rebecka; Juréus, Anders; Blomqvist, Jenny; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Lundkvist, Johan; Rosqvist, Susanne; Karlström, Helena

    2012-09-21

    The γ-secretase complex is an appealing drug target when the therapeutic strategy is to alter amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregation in Alzheimer disease. γ-Secretase is directly involved in Aβ formation and determines the pathogenic potential of Aβ by generating the aggregation-prone Aβ42 peptide. Because γ-secretase mediates cleavage of many substrates involved in cell signaling, such as the Notch receptor, it is crucial to sustain these pathways while altering the Aβ secretion. A way of avoiding interference with the physiological function of γ-secretase is to use γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) instead of inhibitors of the enzyme. GSMs modify the Aβ formation from producing the amyloid-prone Aβ42 variant to shorter and less amyloidogenic Aβ species. The modes of action of GSMs are not fully understood, and even though the pharmacology of GSMs has been thoroughly studied regarding Aβ generation, knowledge is lacking about their effects on other substrates, such as Notch. Here, using immunoprecipitation followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, we found that two novel, second generation GSMs modulate both Notch β and Aβ production. Moreover, by correlating S3-specific Val-1744 cleavage of Notch intracellular domain (Notch intracellular domain) to total Notch intracellular domain levels using immunocytochemistry, we also demonstrated that Notch intracellular domain is not modulated by the compounds. Interestingly, two well characterized, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), R-flurbiprofen and sulindac sulfide, affect only Aβ and not Notch β formation, indicating that second generation GSMs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-based GSMs have different modes of action regarding Notch processing.

  4. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  5. Optimizing preventive maintenance with maintenance templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, I.J.

    1996-01-01

    Rising operating costs has caused maintenance professionals to rethink their strategy for preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Maintenance Templates are pre-engineered PM task recommendations for a component type based on application of the component. Development of the maintenance template considers the dominant failure cause of the component and the type of preventive maintenance that can predict or prevent the failure from occurring. Maintenance template development also attempts to replace fixed frequency tasks with condition monitoring tasks such as vibration analysis or thermography. For those components that have fixed frequency PM intervals, consideration is given to the maintenance drivers such as criticality, environment and usage. This helps to maximize the PM frequency intervals and maximize the component availability. Maintenance Templates have been used at PECO Energy's Limerick Generating Station during the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Process to optimize their PM program. This paper describes the development and uses of the maintenance templates

  6. Templating mesoporous zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Kustova, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The application of templating methods to produce zeolite materials with hierarchical bi- or trimodal pore size distributions is reviewed with emphasis on mesoporous materials. Hierarchical zeolite materials are categorized into three distinctly different types of materials: hierarchical zeolite...... crystals, nanosized zeolite crystals, and supported zeolite crystals. For the pure zeolite materials in the first two categories, the additional meso- or macroporosity can be classified as being either intracrystalline or intercrystalline, whereas for supported zeolite materials, the additional porosity...... originates almost exclusively from the support material. The methods for introducing mesopores into zeolite materials are discussed and categorized. In general, mesopores can be templated in zeolite materials by use of solid templating, supramolecular templating, or indirect templating...

  7. Mobilities in ambipolar field effect transistors based on single-walled carbon nanotube network and formed on a gold nanoparticle template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsaeng, Chalao [Department of Science, Faculty of Sciences and Agricultural Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna Tak, Tak 63000 (Thailand); Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Singjai, Pisith, E-mail: pisith.s@cmu.ac.th [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-04-07

    Ambipolar field effect transistors based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network formed on a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) template with polyvinyl alcohol as a gate insulator were studied by measuring the current–gate voltage characteristics. It was found that the mobilities of holes and electrons increased with increasing AuNP number density. The disturbances in the flow pattern of the carbon feedstock in the chemical vapor deposition growth that were produced by the AuNP geometry, resulted in the differences in the crystallinity and the diameter, as well as the changes in the degree of the semiconductor behavior of the SWNTs.

  8. Notch and the awesome power of genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Iva

    2012-07-01

    Notch is a receptor that mediates cell-cell interactions in animal development, and aberrations in Notch signal transduction can cause cancer and other human diseases. Here, I describe the major advances in the Notch field from the identification of the first mutant in Drosophila almost a century ago through the elucidation of the unusual mechanism of signal transduction a little over a decade ago. As an essay for the GENETICS Perspectives series, it is my personal and critical commentary as well as an historical account of discovery.

  9. A spline-based regression parameter set for creating customized DARTEL MRI brain templates from infancy to old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Wilke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This dataset contains the regression parameters derived by analyzing segmented brain MRI images (gray matter and white matter from a large population of healthy subjects, using a multivariate adaptive regression splines approach. A total of 1919 MRI datasets ranging in age from 1–75 years from four publicly available datasets (NIH, C-MIND, fCONN, and IXI were segmented using the CAT12 segmentation framework, writing out gray matter and white matter images normalized using an affine-only spatial normalization approach. These images were then subjected to a six-step DARTEL procedure, employing an iterative non-linear registration approach and yielding increasingly crisp intermediate images. The resulting six datasets per tissue class were then analyzed using multivariate adaptive regression splines, using the CerebroMatic toolbox. This approach allows for flexibly modelling smoothly varying trajectories while taking into account demographic (age, gender as well as technical (field strength, data quality predictors. The resulting regression parameters described here can be used to generate matched DARTEL or SHOOT templates for a given population under study, from infancy to old age. The dataset and the algorithm used to generate it are publicly available at https://irc.cchmc.org/software/cerebromatic.php. Keywords: MRI template creation, Multivariate adaptive regression splines, DARTEL, Structural MRI

  10. Three-dimensional vibrations of cylindrical elastic solids with V-notches and sharp radial cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, O. G.; Kim, J. W.

    2010-02-01

    segmented plates and cylinders are also reported herein as interesting special cases. A generalization of the elasticity-based Ritz analysis and findings applicable here is an arbitrarily shaped V-notched cylindrical solid, being a surface traced out by a family of generatrix, which pass through the circumference of an arbitrarily shaped V-notched directrix curve, r( θ), several of which are described for future investigations and close extensions of this work.

  11. Searching for gravitational-wave signals emitted by eccentric compact binaries using a non-eccentric template bank: implications for ground-based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cokelaer, T; Pathak, D, E-mail: Thomas.Cokelaer@astro.cf.ac.u, E-mail: Devanka.Pathak@astro.cf.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-21

    Most of the inspiralling compact binaries are expected to be circularized by the time their gravitational-wave signals enter the frequency band of ground-based detectors such as LIGO or VIRGO. However, it is not excluded that some of these binaries might still possess a significant eccentricity at a few tens of hertz. Despite this possibility, current search pipelines-based on matched filtering techniques-consider only non-eccentric templates. The effect of such an approximation on the loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been investigated by Martel and Poisson (1999 Phys. Rev. D 60 124008) in the context of initial LIGO detector. They ascertained that non-eccentric templates will be successful at detecting eccentric signals. We revisit their work by incorporating current and future ground-based detectors and precisely quantify the exact loss of SNR. In order to be more faithful to an actual search, we maximized the SNR over a template bank, whose minimal match is set to 95%. For initial LIGO detector, we claim that the initial eccentricity does not need to be taken into account in our searches for any system with total mass M element of [2-45]M{sub o-dot} if e{sub 0} approx< 0.05 because the loss of SNR (about 5%) is consistent with the discreteness of the template bank. Similarly, this statement is also true for systems with M element of [6-35]M{sub o-dot} and e{sub 0} approx< 0.10. However, by neglecting the eccentricity in our searches, significant loss of detection (larger than 10%) may arise as soon as e{sub 0} >= 0.05 for neutron-star binaries. We also provide exhaustive results for VIRGO, Advanced LIGO and Einstein Telescope detectors. It is worth noting that for Einstein Telescope, neutron star binaries with e{sub 0} >= 0.02 lead to a 10% loss of detection.

  12. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis ...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  13. EGC: a time-frequency augmented template-based method for gravitational wave burst search in ground-based interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapson, Andre-Claude; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Leroy, Nicolas; Varvella, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The detection of burst-type events in the output of ground gravitational wave detectors is particularly challenging. The potential variety of astrophysical waveforms, as proposed by simulations and analytic studies in general relativity and the discrimination of actual signals from instrumental noise both are critical issues. Robust methods that achieve reasonable detection performances over a wide range of signals are required. We present here a hybrid burst-detection pipeline related to time-frequency transforms while based on matched filtering to provide robustness against noise characteristics. Studies on simulated noise show that the algorithm has a detection efficiency similar to other methods over very different waveforms and particularly good timing even for low amplitude signals: no bias for most tested waveforms and an average accuracy of 1.1 ms (down to 0.1 ms in the best case). Time-frequency-type parameters, useful for event classification, are also derived for noise spectral densities unfavourable to standard time-frequency algorithms

  14. EGC: a time-frequency augmented template-based method for gravitational wave burst search in ground-based interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapson, Andre-Claude; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Leroy, Nicolas; Varvella, Monica [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud 11, BP 34, 91898 Orsay (France)

    2008-02-07

    The detection of burst-type events in the output of ground gravitational wave detectors is particularly challenging. The potential variety of astrophysical waveforms, as proposed by simulations and analytic studies in general relativity and the discrimination of actual signals from instrumental noise both are critical issues. Robust methods that achieve reasonable detection performances over a wide range of signals are required. We present here a hybrid burst-detection pipeline related to time-frequency transforms while based on matched filtering to provide robustness against noise characteristics. Studies on simulated noise show that the algorithm has a detection efficiency similar to other methods over very different waveforms and particularly good timing even for low amplitude signals: no bias for most tested waveforms and an average accuracy of 1.1 ms (down to 0.1 ms in the best case). Time-frequency-type parameters, useful for event classification, are also derived for noise spectral densities unfavourable to standard time-frequency algorithms.

  15. Emergency department documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with physical examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurer William J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency department (ED templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Methods Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. Results The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6% to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%. The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2% when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6% when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Conclusions Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.

  16. Variance in predicted cup size by 2-dimensional vs 3-dimensional computerized tomography-based templating in primary total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, Feroz A; Thakkar, Savyasachi; Ramme, Austin; Elbuluk, Ameer; Wojack, Paul; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M

    2017-12-01

    Preoperative total hip arthroplasty templating can be performed with radiographs using acetate prints, digital viewing software, or with computed tomography (CT) images. Our hypothesis is that 3D templating is more precise and accurate with cup size prediction as compared to 2D templating with acetate prints and digital templating software. Data collected from 45 patients undergoing robotic-assisted total hip arthroplasty compared cup sizes templated on acetate prints and OrthoView software to MAKOplasty software that uses CT scan. Kappa analysis determined strength of agreement between each templating modality and the final size used. t tests compared mean cup-size variance from the final size for each templating technique. Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) determined reliability of digital and acetate planning by comparing predictions of the operating surgeon and a blinded adult reconstructive fellow. The Kappa values for CT-guided, digital, and acetate templating with the final size was 0.974, 0.233, and 0.262, respectively. Both digital and acetate templating significantly overpredicted cup size, compared to CT-guided methods ( P cup size when compared to the significant overpredictions of digital and acetate templating. CT-guided templating may also lead to better outcomes due to bone stock preservation from a smaller and more accurate cup size predicted than that of digital and acetate predictions.

  17. Signal-on electrochemical assay for label-free detection of TdT and BamHI activity based on grown DNA nanowire-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufang; Zhang, Qingqing; Xu, Lihua; Wang, Jiao; Rao, Jiajia; Guo, Zhiyong; Wang, Sui

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical methods allow fast and inexpensive analysis of enzymatic activity. Here, a simple and yet efficient "signal-on" electrochemical assay for sensitive, label-free detection of DNA-related enzyme activity was established on the basis of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated extension strategy. TdT, which is a template-independent DNA polymerase, can catalyze the sequential addition of deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) at the 3'-OH terminus of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA); then, the TdT-yield T-rich DNA nanowires can be employed as the synthetic template of copper nanoclusters (CuNCs). Grown DNA nanowires-templated CuNCs (noted as DNA-CuNCs) were attached onto graphene oxide (GO) surface and exhibited unique electrocatalytic activity to H 2 O 2 reduction. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor was utilized for quantitatively monitoring TdT activity, with the observed LOD of 0.1 U/mL. It also displayed high selectivity to TdT with excellent stability, and offered a facile, convenient electrochemical method for TdT-relevant inhibitors screening. Moreover, the proposed sensor was successfully used for BamHI activity detection, in which a new 3'-OH terminal was exposed by the digestion of a phosphate group. Ultimately, it has good prospects in DNA-related enzyme-based biochemical studies, disease diagnosis, and drug discovery. Graphical Abstract Extraordinary TdT-generated DNA-CuNCs are synthesized and act as a novel electrochemical sensing platform for sensitive detection of TdT and BamHI activity in biological environments.

  18. Nodule Detection in a Lung Region that's Segmented with Using Genetic Cellular Neural Networks and 3D Template Matching with Fuzzy Rule Based Thresholding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozekes, Serhat; Osman, Onur; Ucan, N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for automated lung nodule detection in serial section CT images with using the characteristics of the 3D appearance of the nodules that distinguish themselves from the vessels. Lung nodules were detected in four steps. First, to reduce the number of region of interests (ROIs) and the computation time, the lung regions of the CTs were segmented using Genetic Cellular Neural Networks (G-CNN). Then, for each lung region, ROIs were specified with using the 8 directional search; +1 or -1 values were assigned to each voxel. The 3D ROI image was obtained by combining all the 2-Dimensional (2D) ROI images. A 3D template was created to find the nodule-like structures on the 3D ROI image. Convolution of the 3D ROI image with the proposed template strengthens the shapes that are similar to those of the template and it weakens the other ones. Finally, fuzzy rule based thresholding was applied and the ROI's were found. To test the system's efficiency, we used 16 cases with a total of 425 slices, which were taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset. The computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system achieved 100% sensitivity with 13.375 FPs per case when the nodule thickness was greater than or equal to 5.625 mm. Our results indicate that the detection performance of our algorithm is satisfactory, and this may well improve the performance of computer aided detection of lung nodules

  19. Notch and VEGF Interactions in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawber, Carrie J

    2006-01-01

    The proposal objective is to define Notch and VEGFR-3 in breast cancer. We investigated this relationship in primary endothelial cell cultures, mouse embryos, human breast tumors, and mouse mammary tumor xenografts...

  20. Notch signaling in embryology and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichrath, J; Reichrath, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "The goal of this volume is to comprehensively cover a highly readable overview on our present knowledge of the role of Notch signalling for embryology and cancer, with a focus on new findings in molecular biology...

  1. AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes Fabricated on AlN/sapphire Template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Wen, Sang; Zhi-Xin, Qin; Hao, Fang; Yan-Zhao, Zhang; Tao, Li; Zheng-Yu, Xu; Zhi-Jian, Yang; Bo, Shen; Guo-Yi, Zhang; Shu-Ping, Li; Wei-Huang, Yang; Hang-Yang, Chen; Da-Yi, Liu; Jun-Yong, Kang

    2009-01-01

    We report on the growth and fabrication of deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on an AlN template which was grown on a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer. Threading dislocation densities in the AlN layer are greatly decreased with the introduction of this buffer layer. The crystalline quality of the AlGaN epilayer is further improved by using a low-temperature GaN interlayer between AlGaN and AlN. Electroluminescences of different DUV-LED devices at a wavelength of between 262 and 317 nm are demonstrated. To improve the hole concentration of p-type AlGaN, Mg-doping with trimethylindium assistance approach is performed. It is found that the serial resistance of DUV-LED decreases and the performance of DUV-LED such as EL properties is improved. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. Radiation preparation of drug carriers based polyacrylic acid (PAAc) using poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as a template polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rehim, H. A.; Hegazy, E. A.; Khalil, F. H.; Hamed, N. A.

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with the radiation synthesis of stimuli response hydrophilic polymers from polyacrylic acid (PAAc). To maintain the property of PAAc and control the water swellibility for its application as a drug delivery system, radiation polymerization of AAc in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as a template polymer was carried out. Characterization of the prepared PAA/PVP inter-polymer complex was investigated by determining gel content, swelling property, hydrogel microstructure and the release rate of caffeine as a model drug. The release rate of caffeine from the PAA/PVP inter-polymer complexes showed pH-dependency, and seemed to be mainly controlled by the dissolution rate of the complex above a p Ka of PAAc. The prepared inter-polymer complex could be used for application as drug carriers.

  3. images_template

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website template go here. It will not change their names or locations, but will hopefully help to organize them. Oh, but for a directory structure...

  4. Inhibition of Notch signaling alters the phenotype of orthotopic tumors formed from glioblastoma multiforme neurosphere cells but does not hamper intracranial tumor growth regardless of endogene Notch pathway signature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Karina; Nedergaard, Mette Kjølhede; Villingshøj, Mette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain cancer stem-like cells (bCSC) are cancer cells with neural stem cell (NSC)-like properties found in the devastating brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). bCSC are proposed a central role in tumor initiation, progression, treatment resistance and relapse and as such present...... a promising target in GBM research. The Notch signaling pathway is often deregulated in GBM and we have previously characterized GBM-derived bCSC cultures based on their expression of the Notch-1 receptor and found that it could be used as predictive marker for the effect of Notch inhibition. The aim...... of the present project was therefore to further elucidate the significance of Notch pathway activity for the tumorigenic properties of GBM-derived bCSC. METHODS: Human-derived GBM xenograft cells previously established as NSC-like neurosphere cultures were used. Notch inhibition was accomplished by exposing...

  5. Analysis of the Charpy V-notch test for welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    2000-01-01

    The ductile-brittle transition for a weld is investigated by numerical analyses of Charpy impact specimens. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the resulting thermal...... softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is investigated for a comparison material, and analyses are also carried out based on experimentally determined flow...... strength variations in a weldment in a HY100 steel. The predicted work to fracture shows a strong sensitivity to the location of the notch relative to the weld, with the most brittle behavior for a notch close to the narrow heat affected zone. The analyses illustrate the strong dependence of the transition...

  6. Effect of notch dimension on the fatigue life of V-notched structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Changzheng; Naman, Recho; Niu Zhongrong; Zhou Huanlin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel method is proposed to calculate the SIFs of crack at notch tip. → Effect of notch opening angle on the crack extension and propagation is studied. → Influence of notch depth on the crack extension and propagation is analyzed. → The fatigue life of a welded joint is analyzed by the present method. - Abstract: The stress singularity degree associated to a V-notch has a great influence on the fatigue life of V-notched structure. The growth rate of the crack initiated at the tip of a V-notch depends on the stress singularity of the V-notch. The fatigue life accompanying with this small crack will represent a large amount of the total fatigue life. In this work, boundary element method (BEM) is used to study the propagation of the crack emanating from a V-notch tip under fatigue loading. A comparison of the fatigue life between the crack initiated from V-notch tip and a lateral crack is done by a crack propagation law until these two cracks have the same stress intensity factors (SIFs). The effect of initial crack length, notch opening angle and notch depth on the crack extension and propagation is analyzed. As an example of engineering application, the fatigue life of a welded joint is investigated by the present method. The influence of weld toe angle and initial crack length on the fatigue life of the welded structure is studied. Some suggestions are given as an attempt to improve the fatigue life of welded structures at the end.

  7. Magnetic Particle-Based Immunoassay of Phosphorylated p53 Using Protein-Cage Templated Lead Phosphate and Carbon Nanospheres for Signal Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aiqiong; Bao, Yuanwu; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Shin, Yongsoon; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-11-20

    Phosphorylated p53 at serin 15 (phospho-p53-15) is a potential biomarker of Gamma-radiation exposure. In this paper, we described a new magnetic particles (MPs)-based electrochemical immunoassay of human phospho-p53-15 using carbon nanospheres (CNS) and protein-cage templated lead phosphate nanoparticles for signal amplification. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by three aspects: 1) The protein-cage nanoparticle (PCN) and p53-15 signal antibody (p53-15 Ab2) are linked to CNS (PCNof each apoferritin; 3) MPs capture a large amount of primary antibodies. Using apoferritin templated metallic phosphate instead of enzyme as label has the advantage of eliminating the addition of mediator or immunoreagents and thus makes the immunoassay system simpler. The subsequent stripping voltammetric analysis of the released lead ions were detected on a disposable screen printed electrode. The response current was proportional to the phospho-p53-15 concentration in the range of 0.02 to 20 ng mL-1 with detection limit of 0.01 ng mL-1. This method shows a good stability, reproducibility and recovery.

  8. A highly detailed FEM volume conductor model based on the ICBM152 average head template for EEG source imaging and TCS targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C

    2015-08-01

    In electroencephalographic (EEG) source imaging as well as in transcranial current stimulation (TCS), it is common to model the head using either three-shell boundary element (BEM) or more accurate finite element (FEM) volume conductor models. Since building FEMs is computationally demanding and labor intensive, they are often extensively reused as templates even for subjects with mismatching anatomies. BEMs can in principle be used to efficiently build individual volume conductor models; however, the limiting factor for such individualization are the high acquisition costs of structural magnetic resonance images. Here, we build a highly detailed (0.5mm(3) resolution, 6 tissue type segmentation, 231 electrodes) FEM based on the ICBM152 template, a nonlinear average of 152 adult human heads, which we call ICBM-NY. We show that, through more realistic electrical modeling, our model is similarly accurate as individual BEMs. Moreover, through using an unbiased population average, our model is also more accurate than FEMs built from mismatching individual anatomies. Our model is made available in Matlab format.

  9. The effect of notches and pits on corrosion fatigue strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatner, Ian

    An investigation has been undertaken to examine the fatigue behaviour of two martensitic steels in air and aggressive environments. The steels studied are, 18% Ni marageing steel and FV520B, the later being a stainless steel turbine blade material and the former being a marageing steel that suffers general corrosion in mild environments. Both steels were heat treated to give similar tensile strength.The design and manufacture of an autoclave allowed push-pull fatigue tests to be conducted in aggressive environments at elevated temperatures.Corrosion potential was monitored using a three electrode cell and was controlled during testing. Base-line fatigue tests were conducted with a range of constant corrosion potentials, using both notched and plain FV520B specimens. In addition fatigue tests with pulsed corrosion potential were performed to asses the effect of transient corrosion conditions on the corrosion fatigue strength. The pulsed tests were designed to simulate service transients in the oxygen content and general chemical hostility in the condensing steam environment during start-up and shut down of the steam turbine.Post test examination of fractured samples was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscope techniques. The fractography results were used to quantify microstructural and fracture features of the steels.A model based on the size and geometry of the initial corrosion pitting has been proposed to asses the fatigue life of FV520B in an aggressive environment.The effect of pitting on the corrosion fatigue strength of FV520B has been modelled using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) type approach. The model has shown a good correlation between predicted fatigue lives with experimental results.The results suggest that the fatigue life is governed by the mechanical stress concentrating effect of the pits rather than the electrochemical damage caused by the environment.Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the notch allowed

  10. Template analysis for the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Uta [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are two 17-m-diameter Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes located on the Canary island of La Palma. They record the Cherenkov light from air showers induced by very high energy photons. The current data analysis uses a parametrization of the two shower images (including Hillas parameters) to determine the characteristics of the primary particle. I am implementing an advanced analysis method that compares shower images on a pixel basis with template images based on Monte Carlo simulations. To reduce the simulation effort the templates contain only pure shower images that are convolved with the telescope response later in the analysis. The primary particle parameters are reconstructed by maximizing the likelihood of the template. By using all the information available in the shower images, the performance of MAGIC is expected to improve. In this presentation I will explain the general idea of a template-based analysis and show the first results of the implementation.

  11. PKCζ regulates Notch receptor routing and activity in a Notch signaling-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjöqvist, M.; Antfolk, D.; Ferraris, S.; Rraklli, V.; Haga, C.; Antila, C.; Mutvei, A.; Imanishi, S.Y.; Holmberg, J.; Jin, S.; Eriksson, J.E.; Lendahl, U.; Sahlgren, C.M.

    Activation of Notch signaling requires intracellular routing of the receptor, but the mechanisms controlling the distinct steps in the routing process is poorly understood. We identify PKCζ as a key regulator of Notch receptor intracellular routing. When PKCζ was inhibited in the developing chick

  12. Plastic deformation and failure mechanisms in nano-scale notched metallic glass specimens under tensile loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanmay; Chauniyal, Ashish; Singh, I.; Narasimhan, R.; Thamburaja, P.; Ramamurty, U.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, numerical simulations using molecular dynamics and non-local plasticity based finite element analysis are carried out on tensile loading of nano-scale double edge notched metallic glass specimens. The effect of acuteness of notches as well as the metallic glass chemical composition or internal material length scale on the plastic deformation response of the specimens are studied. Both MD and FE simulations, in spite of the fundamental differences in their nature, indicate near-identical deformation features. Results show two distinct transitions in the notch tip deformation behavior as the acuity is increased, first from single shear band dominant plastic flow localization to ligament necking, and then to double shear banding in notches that are very sharp. Specimens with moderately blunt notches and composition showing wider shear bands or higher material length scale characterizing the interaction stress associated with flow defects display profuse plastic deformation and failure by ligament necking. These results are rationalized from the role of the interaction stress and development of the notch root plastic zones.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study of Chen chaotic system with notch filter feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Zhang Xiao; Jian-Hua, Peng; Ju-Fang, Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since the past two decades, the time delay feedback control method has attracted more and more attention in chaos control studies because of its simplicity and efficiency compared with other chaos control schemes. Recently, it has been proposed to suppress low-dimensional chaos with the notch filter feedback control method, which can be implemented in a laser system. In this work, we have analytically determined the controllable conditions for notch filter feedback controlling of Chen chaotic system in terms of the Hopf bifurcation theory. The conditions for notch filter feedback controlled Chen chaoitc system having a stable limit cycle solution are given. Meanwhile, we also analysed the Hopf bifurcation direction, which is very important for parameter settings in notch filter feedback control applications. Finally, we apply the notch filter feedback control methods to the electronic circuit experiments and numerical simulations based on the theoretical analysis. The controlling results of notch filter feedback control method well prove the feasibility and reliability of the theoretical analysis. (general)

  14. A molecular beacon based on DNA-templated silver nanoclusters for the highly sensitive and selective multiplexed detection of virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dan; Wei, Chunying

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we develop a fluorescent molecular beacon based on the DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-Ag NCs). The skillfully designed molecular beacon can be conveniently used for detection of diverse virulence genes as long as the corresponding recognition sequences are embedded. Importantly, the constructed detection system allows simultaneous detection of multiple nucleic acids, which is attributed to non-overlapping emission spectra of the as-synthesized silver nanoclusters. Based on the target-induced fluorescence enhancement, three infectious disease-related genes HIV, H1N1, and H5N1 are detected, and the corresponding detection limits are 3.53, 0.12 and 3.95nM, respectively. This design allows specific, versatile and simultaneous detection of diverse targets with easy operation and low cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on high-quality AlN template using MOVPE

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Jianchang; Wang, Junxi; Zhang, Yun; Cong, Peipei; Sun, Lili; Tian, Yingdong; Zhao, Chao; Li, Jinmin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report the growth of high-quality AlN film using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Three layers of middle-temperature (MT) AlN were introduced during the high-temperature (HT) AlN growth. During the MT-AlN layer growth, aluminum and nitrogen sources were closed for 6 seconds after every 5-nm MT-AlN, while H2 carrier gas was always on. The threading dislocation density in an AlN epi-layer on a sapphire substrate was reduced by almost half. AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes were further fabricated based on the AlN/sapphire template. At 20 mA driving current, the emitted peak wavelength is 284.5 nm and the light output power exceeds 3 mW.

  16. AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on high-quality AlN template using MOVPE

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Jianchang

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we report the growth of high-quality AlN film using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Three layers of middle-temperature (MT) AlN were introduced during the high-temperature (HT) AlN growth. During the MT-AlN layer growth, aluminum and nitrogen sources were closed for 6 seconds after every 5-nm MT-AlN, while H2 carrier gas was always on. The threading dislocation density in an AlN epi-layer on a sapphire substrate was reduced by almost half. AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes were further fabricated based on the AlN/sapphire template. At 20 mA driving current, the emitted peak wavelength is 284.5 nm and the light output power exceeds 3 mW.

  17. A spline-based regression parameter set for creating customized DARTEL MRI brain templates from infancy to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Marko

    2018-02-01

    This dataset contains the regression parameters derived by analyzing segmented brain MRI images (gray matter and white matter) from a large population of healthy subjects, using a multivariate adaptive regression splines approach. A total of 1919 MRI datasets ranging in age from 1-75 years from four publicly available datasets (NIH, C-MIND, fCONN, and IXI) were segmented using the CAT12 segmentation framework, writing out gray matter and white matter images normalized using an affine-only spatial normalization approach. These images were then subjected to a six-step DARTEL procedure, employing an iterative non-linear registration approach and yielding increasingly crisp intermediate images. The resulting six datasets per tissue class were then analyzed using multivariate adaptive regression splines, using the CerebroMatic toolbox. This approach allows for flexibly modelling smoothly varying trajectories while taking into account demographic (age, gender) as well as technical (field strength, data quality) predictors. The resulting regression parameters described here can be used to generate matched DARTEL or SHOOT templates for a given population under study, from infancy to old age. The dataset and the algorithm used to generate it are publicly available at https://irc.cchmc.org/software/cerebromatic.php.

  18. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  19. Trastuzumab Resistance: Role for Notch Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnari Mehta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (ErbB-2/HER2 is a potent breast oncogene that has been shown to be amplified in 20% of breast cancers. Overexpression of ErbB-2 predicts for aggressive tumor behavior, resistance to some cytotoxic and antihormonal therapies, and poor overall survival. Trastuzumab, the humanized, monoclonal antibody directed against ErbB-2 has shown tremendous efficacy and improved overall survival for women when combined with a taxane-based chemotherapy. However, resistance to trastuzumab remains a major concern, most notably in women with metastatic breast cancer. Numerous mechanisms that include overexpression of alternate receptor tyrosine kinases and/or loss of critical tumor suppressors have been proposed in the last several years to elucidate trastuzumab resistance. Here we review the many possible mechanisms of action that could contribute to resistance, and novel therapies to prevent or reverse the resistant phenotype. Moreover, we provide a critical role for Notch signaling cross-talk with overlapping or new signaling networks in trastuzumab-resistant breast.

  20. Prediction of homoprotein and heteroprotein complexes by protein docking and template-based modeling: A CASP-CAPRI experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Lensink, Marc F.

    2016-04-28

    We present the results for CAPRI Round 30, the first joint CASP-CAPRI experiment, which brought together experts from the protein structure prediction and protein-protein docking communities. The Round comprised 25 targets from amongst those submitted for the CASP11 prediction experiment of 2014. The targets included mostly homodimers, a few homotetramers, and two heterodimers, and comprised protein chains that could readily be modeled using templates from the Protein Data Bank. On average 24 CAPRI groups and 7 CASP groups submitted docking predictions for each target, and 12 CAPRI groups per target participated in the CAPRI scoring experiment. In total more than 9500 models were assessed against the 3D structures of the corresponding target complexes. Results show that the prediction of homodimer assemblies by homology modeling techniques and docking calculations is quite successful for targets featuring large enough subunit interfaces to represent stable associations. Targets with ambiguous or inaccurate oligomeric state assignments, often featuring crystal contact-sized interfaces, represented a confounding factor. For those, a much poorer prediction performance was achieved, while nonetheless often providing helpful clues on the correct oligomeric state of the protein. The prediction performance was very poor for genuine tetrameric targets, where the inaccuracy of the homology-built subunit models and the smaller pair-wise interfaces severely limited the ability to derive the correct assembly mode. Our analysis also shows that docking procedures tend to perform better than standard homology modeling techniques and that highly accurate models of the protein components are not always required to identify their association modes with acceptable accuracy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prediction of homoprotein and heteroprotein complexes by protein docking and template-based modeling: A CASP-CAPRI experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Lensink, Marc F.; Velankar, Sameer; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Huang, Shen-You; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Sali, Andrej; Segura, Joan; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Viswanath, Shruthi; Elber, Ron; Grudinin, Sergei; Popov, Petr; Neveu, Emilie; Lee, Hasup; Baek, Minkyung; Park, Sangwoo; Heo, Lim; Rie Lee, Gyu; Seok, Chaok; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Ritchie, David W.; Maigret, Bernard; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Ghoorah, Anisah; Torchala, Mieczyslaw; Chaleil, Raphaë l A.G.; Bates, Paul A.; Ben-Zeev, Efrat; Eisenstein, Miriam; Negi, Surendra S.; Weng, Zhiping; Vreven, Thom; Pierce, Brian G.; Borrman, Tyler M.; Yu, Jinchao; Ochsenbein, Franç oise; Guerois, Raphaë l; Vangone, Anna; Rodrigues, Joã o P.G.L.M.; van Zundert, Gydo; Nellen, Mehdi; Xue, Li; Karaca, Ezgi; Melquiond, Adrien S.J.; Visscher, Koen; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Xu, Xianjin; Qiu, Liming; Yan, Chengfei; Li, Jilong; Ma, Zhiwei; Cheng, Jianlin; Zou, Xiaoqin; Shen, Yang; Peterson, Lenna X.; Kim, Hyung-Rae; Roy, Amit; Han, Xusi; Esquivel-Rodriguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke; Yu, Xiaofeng; Bruce, Neil J.; Fuller, Jonathan C.; Wade, Rebecca C.; Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.; Imai, Kenichiro; Yamada, Kazunori; Oda, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Tsukasa; Tomii, Kentaro; Pallara, Chiara; Romero-Durana, Miguel; Jimé nez-Garcí a, Brian; Moal, Iain H.; Fé rnandez-Recio, Juan; Joung, Jong Young; Kim, Jong Yun; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jooyoung; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Mottarella, Scott; Hall, David R.; Beglov, Dmitri; Mamonov, Artem; Xia, Bing; Bohnuud, Tanggis; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Ichiishi, Eichiro; Marze, Nicholas; Kuroda, Daisuke; Roy Burman, Shourya S.; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Chermak, Edrisse; Cavallo, Luigi; Oliva, Romina; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results for CAPRI Round 30, the first joint CASP-CAPRI experiment, which brought together experts from the protein structure prediction and protein-protein docking communities. The Round comprised 25 targets from amongst those submitted for the CASP11 prediction experiment of 2014. The targets included mostly homodimers, a few homotetramers, and two heterodimers, and comprised protein chains that could readily be modeled using templates from the Protein Data Bank. On average 24 CAPRI groups and 7 CASP groups submitted docking predictions for each target, and 12 CAPRI groups per target participated in the CAPRI scoring experiment. In total more than 9500 models were assessed against the 3D structures of the corresponding target complexes. Results show that the prediction of homodimer assemblies by homology modeling techniques and docking calculations is quite successful for targets featuring large enough subunit interfaces to represent stable associations. Targets with ambiguous or inaccurate oligomeric state assignments, often featuring crystal contact-sized interfaces, represented a confounding factor. For those, a much poorer prediction performance was achieved, while nonetheless often providing helpful clues on the correct oligomeric state of the protein. The prediction performance was very poor for genuine tetrameric targets, where the inaccuracy of the homology-built subunit models and the smaller pair-wise interfaces severely limited the ability to derive the correct assembly mode. Our analysis also shows that docking procedures tend to perform better than standard homology modeling techniques and that highly accurate models of the protein components are not always required to identify their association modes with acceptable accuracy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Depth sensitivity and source-detector separations for near infrared spectroscopy based on the Colin27 brain template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial and depth sensitivity of non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measurements to brain tissue-i.e., near-infrared neuromonitoring (NIN - is essential for designing experiments as well as interpreting research findings. However, a thorough characterization of such sensitivity in realistic head models has remained unavailable. In this study, we conducted 3,555 Monte Carlo (MC simulations to densely cover the scalp of a well-characterized, adult male template brain (Colin27. We sought to evaluate: (i the spatial sensitivity profile of NIRS to brain tissue as a function of source-detector separation, (ii the NIRS sensitivity to brain tissue as a function of depth in this realistic and complex head model, and (iii the effect of NIRS instrument sensitivity on detecting brain activation. We found that increasing the source-detector (SD separation from 20 to 65 mm provides monotonic increases in sensitivity to brain tissue. For every 10 mm increase in SD separation (up to ~45 mm, sensitivity to gray matter increased an additional 4%. Our analyses also demonstrate that sensitivity in depth (S decreases exponentially, with a "rule-of-thumb" formula S=0.75*0.85(depth. Thus, while the depth sensitivity of NIRS is not strictly limited, NIN signals in adult humans are strongly biased towards the outermost 10-15 mm of intracranial space. These general results, along with the detailed quantitation of sensitivity estimates around the head, can provide detailed guidance for interpreting the likely sources of NIRS signals, as well as help NIRS investigators design and plan better NIRS experiments, head probes and instruments.

  3. An SPM8-based approach for attenuation correction combining segmentation and nonrigid template formation: application to simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Hansen, Adam E; Förster, Stefan; Benoit, Didier; Schachoff, Sylvia; Fürst, Sebastian; Chen, Kevin T; Chonde, Daniel B; Catana, Ciprian

    2014-11-01

    We present an approach for head MR-based attenuation correction (AC) based on the Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8) software, which combines segmentation- and atlas-based features to provide a robust technique to generate attenuation maps (μ maps) from MR data in integrated PET/MR scanners. Coregistered anatomic MR and CT images of 15 glioblastoma subjects were used to generate the templates. The MR images from these subjects were first segmented into 6 tissue classes (gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, bone, soft tissue, and air), which were then nonrigidly coregistered using a diffeomorphic approach. A similar procedure was used to coregister the anatomic MR data for a new subject to the template. Finally, the CT-like images obtained by applying the inverse transformations were converted to linear attenuation coefficients to be used for AC of PET data. The method was validated on 16 new subjects with brain tumors (n = 12) or mild cognitive impairment (n = 4) who underwent CT and PET/MR scans. The μ maps and corresponding reconstructed PET images were compared with those obtained using the gold standard CT-based approach and the Dixon-based method available on the Biograph mMR scanner. Relative change (RC) images were generated in each case, and voxel- and region-of-interest-based analyses were performed. The leave-one-out cross-validation analysis of the data from the 15 atlas-generation subjects showed small errors in brain linear attenuation coefficients (RC, 1.38% ± 4.52%) compared with the gold standard. Similar results (RC, 1.86% ± 4.06%) were obtained from the analysis of the atlas-validation datasets. The voxel- and region-of-interest-based analysis of the corresponding reconstructed PET images revealed quantification errors of 3.87% ± 5.0% and 2.74% ± 2.28%, respectively. The Dixon-based method performed substantially worse (the mean RC values were 13.0% ± 10.25% and 9.38% ± 4.97%, respectively). Areas closer to the skull showed

  4. An SPM8-based Approach for Attenuation Correction Combining Segmentation and Non-rigid Template Formation: Application to Simultaneous PET/MR Brain Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Hansen, Adam E.; Förster, Stefan; Benoit, Didier; Schachoff, Sylvia; Fürst, Sebastian; Chen, Kevin T.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Catana, Ciprian

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach for head MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC) based on the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) software that combines segmentation- and atlas-based features to provide a robust technique to generate attenuation maps (µ-maps) from MR data in integrated PET/MR scanners. Methods Coregistered anatomical MR and CT images acquired in 15 glioblastoma subjects were used to generate the templates. The MR images from these subjects were first segmented into 6 tissue classes (gray and white matter, cerebro-spinal fluid, bone and soft tissue, and air), which were then non-rigidly coregistered using a diffeomorphic approach. A similar procedure was used to coregister the anatomical MR data for a new subject to the template. Finally, the CT-like images obtained by applying the inverse transformations were converted to linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) to be used for AC of PET data. The method was validated on sixteen new subjects with brain tumors (N=12) or mild cognitive impairment (N=4) who underwent CT and PET/MR scans. The µ-maps and corresponding reconstructed PET images were compared to those obtained using the gold standard CT-based approach and the Dixon-based method available on the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner. Relative change (RC) images were generated in each case and voxel- and region of interest (ROI)-based analyses were performed. Results The leave-one-out cross-validation analysis of the data from the 15 atlas-generation subjects showed small errors in brain LACs (RC=1.38%±4.52%) compared to the gold standard. Similar results (RC=1.86±4.06%) were obtained from the analysis of the atlas-validation datasets. The voxel- and ROI-based analysis of the corresponding reconstructed PET images revealed quantification errors of 3.87±5.0% and 2.74±2.28%, respectively. The Dixon-based method performed substantially worse (the mean RC values were 13.0±10.25% and 9.38±4.97%, respectively). Areas closer to skull showed the largest

  5. RPA physically interacts with the human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 to regulate excision of oxidative DNA base damage in primer-template structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Corey A; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Hazra, Tapas K; Mitra, Sankar

    2010-06-04

    The human DNA glycosylase NEIL1, activated during the S-phase, has been shown to excise oxidized base lesions in single-strand DNA substrates. Furthermore, our previous work demonstrating functional interaction of NEIL1 with PCNA and flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) suggested its involvement in replication-associated repair. Here we show interaction of NEIL1 with replication protein A (RPA), the heterotrimeric single-strand DNA binding protein that is essential for replication and other DNA transactions. The NEIL1 immunocomplex isolated from human cells contains RPA, and its abundance in the complex increases after exposure to oxidative stress. NEIL1 directly interacts with the large subunit of RPA (K(d) approximately 20 nM) via the common interacting interface (residues 312-349) in NEIL1's disordered C-terminal region. RPA inhibits the base excision activity of both wild-type NEIL1 (389 residues) and its C-terminal deletion CDelta78 mutant (lacking the interaction domain) for repairing 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) in a primer-template structure mimicking the DNA replication fork. This inhibition is reduced when the damage is located near the primer-template junction. Contrarily, RPA moderately stimulates wild-type NEIL1 but not the CDelta78 mutant when 5-OHU is located within the duplex region. While NEIL1 is inhibited by both RPA and Escherichia coli single-strand DNA binding protein, only inhibition by RPA is relieved by PCNA. These results showing modulation of NEIL1's activity on single-stranded DNA substrate by RPA and PCNA support NEIL1's involvement in repairing the replicating genome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Joomla! 3 template essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Frankowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Using this hands-on, step-by step tutorial filled with practical examples, the readers will be able to create beautiful templates and themes for your websites that will make them stand out from others.This book is written for all of you who wish to create your own unique templates for Joomla! 3.x. This book can be used by Joomla! administrators or visual designers (with no programming experience) or those of you who are used to working with common web developer tools like HTML/CSS editors for coding purposes. You would need basic knowledge of Joomla! and some knowledge of CSS and HTML.

  7. Live Virus Vaccines Based on a Yellow Fever Vaccine Backbone: Standardized Template with Key Considerations for a Risk/Benefit Assessment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P.; Seligman, Stephen J.; Robertson, James S.; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B.; Condit, Richard C.; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called “chimeric virus vaccines”). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were replaced by the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of

  8. Live virus vaccines based on a yellow fever vaccine backbone: standardized template with key considerations for a risk/benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Seligman, Stephen J; Robertson, James S; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B; Condit, Richard C; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus vaccines"). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of

  9. Compact microstrip bandpass filter with tunable notch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Silas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    Two different designs combining a bandpass and a notch filter are developed to operate in the receiving band from 350–470 MHz. The bandpass filter is designed from a simple structure, by use of only four short circuited stubs and a half wavelength transmission line connecting the stubs. The tunable...... notch filter ensures an attenuation level of 19.3 dB to 27.3 dB in the frequency range from 360–480 MHz. The measured passband ripple of the combined filter is less than 0.5 dB, while the insertion loss for the simplest design is less than 1.7 dB only 10 MHz from the notch frequency. Even though...... the wavelength on the selected substrate (εr = 3.55) is approximately 45 cm, the outer dimensions of the final filter only measure 10×10 cm2....

  10. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  11. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Yang, Yongliang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  12. Magnetoresistance effect in permalloy nanowires with various types of notches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Suppressing the stochastic domain wall (DW motion in magnetic nanowires is of great importance for designing DW-related spintronic devices. In this work, we have investigated the pinning/depinning processes of DWs in permalloy nanowires with three different types of notches by using longitudinal magnetoresistance (MR measurement. The averaged MR curves demonstrate that the stochastic DW depinning is suppressed partly or even completely by a transversely asymmetric notch. The single-shot MR curves show that how the resistance changes with the applied field also depends strongly on the notch type while the DW is pinned around the notch. In the case of two depinning fields, larger (smaller change of resistance always corresponds to larger (smaller depinning field, regardless of the notch type. These phenomena can be understood by that the spin structure around the notch changes differently with the notch type when the DW is traveling through the notch.

  13. Magnetoresistance effect in permalloy nanowires with various types of notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; You, B.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.; Wei, L. J.; Tu, H. Q.; Zhang, W.; Du, J.

    2018-05-01

    Suppressing the stochastic domain wall (DW) motion in magnetic nanowires is of great importance for designing DW-related spintronic devices. In this work, we have investigated the pinning/depinning processes of DWs in permalloy nanowires with three different types of notches by using longitudinal magnetoresistance (MR) measurement. The averaged MR curves demonstrate that the stochastic DW depinning is suppressed partly or even completely by a transversely asymmetric notch. The single-shot MR curves show that how the resistance changes with the applied field also depends strongly on the notch type while the DW is pinned around the notch. In the case of two depinning fields, larger (smaller) change of resistance always corresponds to larger (smaller) depinning field, regardless of the notch type. These phenomena can be understood by that the spin structure around the notch changes differently with the notch type when the DW is traveling through the notch.

  14. Engineered Biomaterials Control Differentiation and Proliferation of Human-Embryonic-Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes via Timed Notch Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Tung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For cell-based treatments of myocardial infarction, a better understanding of key developmental signaling pathways and more robust techniques for producing cardiomyocytes are required. Manipulation of Notch signaling has promise as it plays an important role during cardiovascular development, but previous studies presented conflicting results that Notch activation both positively and negatively regulates cardiogenesis. We developed surface- and microparticle-based Notch-signaling biomaterials that function in a time-specific activation-tunable manner, enabling precise investigation of Notch activation at specific developmental stages. Using our technologies, a biphasic effect of Notch activation on cardiac differentiation was found: early activation in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs promotes ectodermal differentiation, activation in specified cardiovascular progenitor cells increases cardiac differentiation. Signaling also induces cardiomyocyte proliferation, and repeated doses of Notch-signaling microparticles further enhance cardiomyocyte population size. These results highlight the diverse effects of Notch activation during cardiac development and provide approaches for generating large quantities of cardiomyocytes.

  15. Light Weight Biomorphous Cellular Ceramics from Cellulose Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Yee, Bo-Moon; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Bimorphous ceramics are a new class of materials that can be fabricated from the cellulose templates derived from natural biopolymers. These biopolymers are abundantly available in nature and are produced by the photosynthesis process. The wood cellulose derived carbon templates have three- dimensional interconnectivity. A wide variety of non-oxide and oxide based ceramics have been fabricated by template conversion using infiltration and reaction-based processes. The cellular anatomy of the cellulose templates plays a key role in determining the processing parameters (pyrolysis, infiltration conditions, etc.) and resulting ceramic materials. The processing approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the biomorphous cellular ceramics (silicon carbide and oxide based) have been discussed.

  16. Biochemical characterization and cellular effects of CADASIL mutants of NOTCH3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Meng

    Full Text Available Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is the best understood cause of dominantly inherited stroke and results from NOTCH3 mutations that lead to NOTCH3 protein accumulation and selective arterial smooth muscle degeneration. Previous studies show that NOTCH3 protein forms multimers. Here, we investigate protein interactions between NOTCH3 and other vascular Notch isoforms and characterize the effects of elevated NOTCH3 on smooth muscle gene regulation. We demonstrate that NOTCH3 forms heterodimers with NOTCH1, NOTCH3, and NOTCH4. R90C and C49Y mutant NOTCH3 form complexes which are more resistant to detergents than wild type NOTCH3 complexes. Using quantitative NOTCH3-luciferase clearance assays, we found significant inhibition of mutant NOTCH3 clearance. In coculture assays of NOTCH function, overexpressed wild type and mutant NOTCH3 significantly repressed NOTCH-regulated smooth muscle transcripts and potently impaired the activity of three independent smooth muscle promoters. Wildtype and R90C recombinant NOTCH3 proteins applied to cell cultures also blocked canonical Notch fuction. We conclude that CADASIL mutants of NOTCH3 complex with NOTCH1, 3, and 4, slow NOTCH3 clearance, and that overexpressed wild type and mutant NOTCH3 protein interfere with key NOTCH-mediated functions in smooth muscle cells.

  17. A facile, sensitive, and highly specific trinitrophenol assay based on target-induced synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer towards DNA-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyin; Chang, Jiafu; Hou, Ting; Ge, Lei; Li, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Reliable, selective and sensitive approaches for trinitrophenol (TNP) detection are highly desirable with respect to national security and environmental protection. Herein, a simple and novel fluorescent strategy for highly sensitive and specific TNP assay has been successfully developed, which is based on the quenching of the fluorescent poly(thymine)-templated copper nanoclusters (DNA-CuNCs), through the synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer. Upon the addition of TNP, donor-acceptor complexes between the electron-deficient nitro-groups in TNP and the electron-donating DNA templates are formed, resulting in the close proximity between TNP and CuNCs. Moreover, the acidity of TNP contributes to the pH decrease of the system. These factors combine to dramatically quench the fluorescence of DNA-CuNCs, providing a "signal-off" strategy for TNP sensing. The as-proposed strategy demonstrates high sensitivity for TNP assay, and a detection limit of 0.03μM is obtained, which is lower than those reported by using organic fluorescent materials. More significantly, this approach shows outstanding selectivity over a number of TNP analogues, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), 3-nitrophenol (NP), nitrobenzene (NB), phenol (BP), and toluene (BT). Compared with previous studies, this method does not need complex DNA sequence design, fluorescent dye labeling, or sophisticated organic reactions, rendering the strategy with additional advantages of simplicity and cost-effectiveness. In addition, the as-proposed strategy has been adopted for the detection of TNP in natural water samples, indicating its great potential to be applied in the fields of public safety and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Based on SBA-15 for Selective Separation and Determination of Panax notoginseng Saponins Simultaneously in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghong Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasible, reliable and selective multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers (MT-MIPs based on SBA-15 (SBA-15@MT-MIPs for the selective separation and determination of the trace level of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 and notoginsenoside R1 (R1 simultaneously from biological samples were developed. The polymers were constructed by SBA-15 as support, Rb1, Rg1, R1 as multi-template, acrylamide (AM as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as cross-linker. The new synthetic SBA-15@MT-MIPs were satisfactorily applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for the separation and determination of trace Rb1, Rg1 and R1 in plasma samples. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs and quantitation (LOQs of the proposed method for Rb1, Rg1 and R1 were in the range of 0.63–0.75 ng·mL−1 and 2.1–2.5 ng·mL−1, respectively. The recoveries of R1, Rb1 and Rg1 were obtained between 93.4% and 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs in the range of 3.3–4.2%. All results show that the obtained SBA-15@MT-MIPs could be a promising prospect for the practical application in the selective separation and enrichment of trace Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS in the biological samples.

  19. Fatigue crack growth from blunt notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of methods have been proposed, by which the formation and early growth of fatigue cracks at blunt notches may be predicted. In this report, four methods are compared - i.e. analysis of the crack tip plastic deformation, the cyclic contour integral, δJ, the strain in a critical volume of material, and the notch root plastic strain range. It is shown that these approaches have fundamental elements in common, and that all are compatable with linear elastic fracture mechanics. Early results from a continuing experimental programme are reported. (orig.) [de

  20. gel template method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO2 nanotubes have been synthesized by sol–gel template method using alumina membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, UV absorption spectrum and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the structure, morphology and optical ...

  1. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  2. A reliable spatially normalized template of the human spinal cord--Applications to automated white matter/gray matter segmentation and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) mapping of gray matter alterations occurring with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taso, Manuel; Le Troter, Arnaud; Sdika, Michaël; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Guye, Maxime; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Callot, Virginie

    2015-08-15

    Recently, a T2*-weighted template and probabilistic atlas of the white and gray matter (WM, GM) of the spinal cord (SC) have been reported. Such template can be used as tissue-priors for automated WM/GM segmentation but can also provide a common reference and normalized space for group studies. Here, a new template has been created (AMU40), and accuracy of automatic template-based WM/GM segmentation was quantified. The feasibility of tensor-based morphometry (TBM) for studying voxel-wise morphological differences of SC between young and elderly healthy volunteers was also investigated. Sixty-five healthy subjects were divided into young (n=40, age50years old, mean age 57±5years old) groups and scanned at 3T using an axial high-resolution T2*-weighted sequence. Inhomogeneity correction and affine intensity normalization of the SC and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal intensities across slices were performed prior to both construction of the AMU40 template and WM/GM template-based segmentation. The segmentation was achieved using non-linear spatial normalization of T2*-w MR images to the AMU40 template. Validation of WM/GM segmentations was performed with a leave-one-out procedure by calculating DICE similarity coefficients between manual and automated WM/GM masks. SC morphological differences between young and elderly healthy volunteers were assessed using the same non-linear spatial normalization of the subjects' MRI to a common template, derivation of the Jacobian determinant maps from the warping fields, and a TBM analysis. Results demonstrated robust WM/GM automated segmentation, with mean DICE values greater than 0.8. Concerning the TBM analysis, an anterior GM atrophy was highlighted in elderly volunteers, demonstrating thereby, for the first time, the feasibility of studying local structural alterations in the SC using tensor-based morphometry. This holds great promise for studies of morphological impairment occurring in several central nervous system

  3. Demonstration of tunable microwave photonic notch filters using slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel scheme based on slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers, to implement a microwave photonic notch filter with ~100% fractional tuning range at a microwave frequency of 30 GHz....

  4. Notch-strengthening in two-dimensional foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.

    Metallic foams show notch-strengthening behavior when analyzing double-edge notched specimen in compression and tension. A discrete microstructural model has been used to simulate the effect of notch depth and specimen size on the net-section-strength. The non-uniform deformation behavior is

  5. Proteolytic regulation of Notch1 receptor activity in cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tetering, Geert

    2011-01-01

    The Notch receptor is part of a highly conserved signaling pathway essential in development and disease in embryos and adults. Notch proteins coordinate cell-cell communication through receptor-ligand interactions between adjacent cells. First Notch is cleaved in the Golgi by furin at Site-1 (S1)

  6. Notch and PKC are involved in formation of the lateral region of the dorso-ventral axis in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, Daniel M; Resad, Sedat; Little, Christopher J; Wesley, Cedric S

    2013-01-01

    The Notch gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved cell surface receptor that generates regulatory signals based on interactions between neighboring cells. In Drosophila embryos it is normally expressed at a low level due to strong negative regulation. When this negative regulation is abrogated neurogenesis in the ventral region is suppressed, the development of lateral epidermis is severely disrupted, and the dorsal aminoserosa is expanded. Of these phenotypes only the anti-neurogenic phenotype could be linked to excess canonical Notch signaling. The other phenotypes were linked to high levels of Notch protein expression at the surface of cells in the lateral regions indicating that a non-canonical Notch signaling activity normally functions in these regions. Results of our studies reported here provide evidence. They show that Notch activities are inextricably linked to that of Pkc98E, the homolog of mammalian PKCδ. Notch and Pkc98E up-regulate the levels of the phosphorylated form of IκBCactus, a negative regulator of Toll signaling, and Mothers against dpp (MAD), an effector of Dpp signaling. Our data suggest that in the lateral regions of the Drosophila embryos Notch activity, in conjunction with Pkc98E activity, is used to form the slopes of the opposing gradients of Toll and Dpp signaling that specify cell fates along the dorso-ventral axis.

  7. Notch and PKC are involved in formation of the lateral region of the dorso-ventral axis in Drosophila embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Tremmel

    Full Text Available The Notch gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved cell surface receptor that generates regulatory signals based on interactions between neighboring cells. In Drosophila embryos it is normally expressed at a low level due to strong negative regulation. When this negative regulation is abrogated neurogenesis in the ventral region is suppressed, the development of lateral epidermis is severely disrupted, and the dorsal aminoserosa is expanded. Of these phenotypes only the anti-neurogenic phenotype could be linked to excess canonical Notch signaling. The other phenotypes were linked to high levels of Notch protein expression at the surface of cells in the lateral regions indicating that a non-canonical Notch signaling activity normally functions in these regions. Results of our studies reported here provide evidence. They show that Notch activities are inextricably linked to that of Pkc98E, the homolog of mammalian PKCδ. Notch and Pkc98E up-regulate the levels of the phosphorylated form of IκBCactus, a negative regulator of Toll signaling, and Mothers against dpp (MAD, an effector of Dpp signaling. Our data suggest that in the lateral regions of the Drosophila embryos Notch activity, in conjunction with Pkc98E activity, is used to form the slopes of the opposing gradients of Toll and Dpp signaling that specify cell fates along the dorso-ventral axis.

  8. Biometric templates selection and update using quality measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    To deal with severe variation in recording conditions, most biometric systems acquire multiple biometric samples, at the enrolment stage, for the same person and then extract their individual biometric feature vectors and store them in the gallery in the form of biometric template(s), labelled with the person's identity. The number of samples/templates and the choice of the most appropriate templates influence the performance of the system. The desired biometric template(s) selection technique must aim to control the run time and storage requirements while improving the recognition accuracy of the biometric system. This paper is devoted to elaborating on and discussing a new two stages approach for biometric templates selection and update. This approach uses a quality-based clustering, followed by a special criterion for the selection of an ultimate set of biometric templates from the various clusters. This approach is developed to select adaptively a specific number of templates for each individual. The number of biometric templates depends mainly on the performance of each individual (i.e. gallery size should be optimised to meet the needs of each target individual). These experiments have been conducted on two face image databases and their results will demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed quality-guided approach.

  9. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign

    OpenAIRE

    Barbato, Alessandro; Benkert, Pascal; Schwede, Torsten; Tramontano, Anna; Kosinski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Summary: MODalign is an interactive web-based tool aimed at helping protein structure modelers to inspect and manually modify the alignment between the sequences of a target protein and of its template(s). It interactively computes, displays and, upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three-di...

  10. Sequestration of latent TGF-β binding protein 1 into CADASIL-related Notch3-ECD deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Jessica; Hanecker, Patrizia; Beaufort, Nathalie; Giese, Armin; Joutel, Anne; Dichgans, Martin; Opherk, Christian; Haffner, Christof

    2014-08-13

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) represents the most common hereditary form of cerebral small vessel disease characterized by early-onset stroke and premature dementia. It is caused by mutations in the transmembrane receptor Notch3, which promote the aggregation and accumulation of the Notch3 extracellular domain (Notch3-ECD) within blood vessel walls. This process is believed to mediate the abnormal recruitment and dysregulation of additional factors including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in brain vessel dysfunction. Based on recent evidence indicating a role for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway in sporadic and familial small vessel disease we studied fibronectin, fibrillin-1 and latent TGF-β binding protein 1 (LTBP-1), three ECM constituents involved in the regulation of TGF-β bioavailability, in post-mortem brain tissue from CADASIL patients and control subjects. Fibronectin and fibrillin-1 were found to be enriched in CADASIL vessels without co-localizing with Notch3-ECD deposits, likely as a result of fibrotic processes secondary to aggregate formation. In contrast, LTBP-1 showed both an accumulation and a striking co-localization with Notch3-ECD deposits suggesting specific recruitment into aggregates. We also detected increased levels of the TGF-β prodomain (also known as latency-associated peptide, LAP) indicating dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway in CADASIL development. In vitro analyses revealed a direct interaction between LTBP-1 and Notch3-ECD and demonstrated a specific co-aggregation of LTBP-1 with mutant Notch3. We propose LTBP-1 as a novel component of Notch3-ECD deposits and suggest its involvement in pathological processes triggered by Notch3-ECD aggregation.

  11. In vivo analysis of the Notch receptor S1 cleavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Lake

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ligand-independent cleavage (S1 in the extracellular domain of the mammalian Notch receptor results in what is considered to be the canonical heterodimeric form of Notch on the cell surface. The in vivo consequences and significance of this cleavage on Drosophila Notch signaling remain unclear and contradictory. We determined the cleavage site in Drosophila and examined its in vivo function by a transgenic analysis of receptors that cannot be cleaved. Our results demonstrate a correlation between loss of cleavage and loss of in vivo function of the Notch receptor, supporting the notion that S1 cleavage is an in vivo mechanism of Notch signal control.

  12. Role of Notch signaling in the mammalian heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.L.; Liu, J.C. [Department of Cardiac Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Donghu District, Nanchang, Jiangxi (China)

    2013-12-12

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily ancient, highly conserved pathway important for deciding cell fate, cellular development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Notch signaling is also critical in mammalian cardiogenesis, as mutations in this signaling pathway are linked to human congenital heart disease. Furthermore, Notch signaling can repair myocardial injury by promoting myocardial regeneration, protecting ischemic myocardium, inducing angiogenesis, and negatively regulating cardiac fibroblast-myofibroblast transformation. This review provides an update on the known roles of Notch signaling in the mammalian heart. The goal is to assist in developing strategies to influence Notch signaling and optimize myocardial injury repair.

  13. The influence of the shape of a saw-cut notch in quasi-brittle 3PB specimens on the critical applied force

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Řoutil, L.; Klusák, Jan; Veselý, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 123-132 ISSN 1802-680X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : three point bending specimens * cement based composites * fracture parameters * notch geometry * notch width Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  14. Computer-Aided Template for Model Reuse, Development and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    A template-based approach for model development is presented in this work. Based on a model decomposition technique, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool , which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps...

  15. Inhibitory role of Notch1 in calcific aortic valve disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Acharya

    Full Text Available Aortic valve calcification is the most common form of valvular heart disease, but the mechanisms of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD are unknown. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with aortic valve malformations and adult-onset calcification in families with inherited disease. The Notch signaling pathway is critical for multiple cell differentiation processes, but its role in the development of CAVD is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that occur with inhibition of Notch signaling in the aortic valve. Notch signaling pathway members are expressed in adult aortic valve cusps, and examination of diseased human aortic valves revealed decreased expression of NOTCH1 in areas of calcium deposition. To identify downstream mediators of Notch1, we examined gene expression changes that occur with chemical inhibition of Notch signaling in rat aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs. We found significant downregulation of Sox9 along with several cartilage-specific genes that were direct targets of the transcription factor, Sox9. Loss of Sox9 expression has been published to be associated with aortic valve calcification. Utilizing an in vitro porcine aortic valve calcification model system, inhibition of Notch activity resulted in accelerated calcification while stimulation of Notch signaling attenuated the calcific process. Finally, the addition of Sox9 was able to prevent the calcification of porcine AVICs that occurs with Notch inhibition. In conclusion, loss of Notch signaling contributes to aortic valve calcification via a Sox9-dependent mechanism.

  16. Critical applied stresses for a crack initiation from a sharp V-notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Náhlík

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate a value of the critical applied stress for a crack initiation from a sharp V-notch tip. The classical approach of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LELM was generalized, because the stress singularity exponent differs from 0.5 in the studied case. The value of the stress singularity exponent depends on the V-notch opening angle. The finite element method was used for a determination of stress distribution in the vicinity of the sharp V-notch tip and for the estimation of the generalized stress intensity factor depending on the V-notch opening angle. Critical value of the generalized stress intensity factor was obtained using stability criteria based on the opening stress component averaged over a critical distance d from the V-notch tip and generalized strain energy density factor. Calculated values of the critical applied stresses were compared with experimental data from the literature and applicability of the LEFM concept is discussed.

  17. Design and Analysis of Robust Active Damping for LCL Filters using Digital Notch Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2017-01-01

    Resonant poles of LCL filters may challenge the entire system stability especially in digital-controlled Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverters. In order to tackle the resonance issues, many active damping solutions have been reported. For instance, a notch filter can be employed to damp the reso......Resonant poles of LCL filters may challenge the entire system stability especially in digital-controlled Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverters. In order to tackle the resonance issues, many active damping solutions have been reported. For instance, a notch filter can be employed to damp...... the resonance, where the notch frequency should be aligned exactly to the resonant frequency of the LCL filter. However, parameter variations of the LCL filter as well as the time delay appearing in digital control systems will induce resonance drifting, and thus break this alignment, possibly deteriorating...... the original damping. In this paper, the effectiveness of the notch filter based active damping is firstly explored, considering the drifts of the resonant frequency. It is revealed that, when the resonant frequency drifts away from its nominal value, the phase lead or lag introduced by the notch filter may...

  18. Mutations in TSPEAR, Encoding a Regulator of Notch Signaling, Affect Tooth and Hair Follicle Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Peled

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias (EDs, the molecular basis of many of these disorders remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of a new form of ED featuring facial dysmorphism, scalp hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified 2 frameshift and 2 missense mutations in TSPEAR segregating with the disease phenotype in 3 families. TSPEAR encodes the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and EAR repeats (TSPEAR protein, whose function is poorly understood. TSPEAR knock-down resulted in altered expression of genes known to be regulated by NOTCH and to be involved in murine hair and tooth development. Pathway analysis confirmed that down-regulation of TSPEAR in keratinocytes is likely to affect Notch signaling. Accordingly, using a luciferase-based reporter assay, we showed that TSPEAR knock-down is associated with decreased Notch signaling. In addition, NOTCH1 protein expression was reduced in patient scalp skin. Moreover, TSPEAR silencing in mouse hair follicle organ cultures was found to induce apoptosis in follicular epithelial cells, resulting in decreased hair bulb diameter. Collectively, these observations indicate that TSPEAR plays a critical, previously unrecognized role in human tooth and hair follicle morphogenesis through regulation of the Notch signaling pathway.

  19. The (CTGn polymorphism in the NOTCH4 gene is not associated with schizophrenia in Japanese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okubo Takehito

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human NOTCH4 gene is a candidate gene for schizophrenia due to its chromosomal location and neurobiological roles. In a British linkage study, NOTCH4 gene polymorphisms were highly associated with schizophrenia. In a Japanese case-control association study, however, these polymorphisms did not show significant associations with schizophrenia. We conducted a case-control study with Japanese subjects to explore an association between the triplet repeat polymorphism in the NOTCH4 gene and schizophrenia, including subtypes of schizophrenia, longitudinal disease course characteristics, and a positive family history for psychoses. Methods We examined the (CTGn repeat polymorphism in the NOTCH4 gene among 100 healthy Japanese individuals and 102 patients with schizophrenia (22 paranoid, 38 disorganized, 29 residual, 64 episodic, 31 continuous, 42 with prominent negative symptoms, and 46 with positive family histories using a polymerase chain reaction-based, single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Results Five different alleles consisting of 6, 9, 10, 11, and 13 repeats of CTG (Leu in patients with schizophrenia, and 4 alleles consisting of 6, 9, 10, and 11 repeats in controls were found. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies of repeat numbers were found between controls and patients. In addition, there were no associations between the polymorphism and schizophrenia subtypes, longitudinal disease course characteristics, or positive family history of the patients. Conclusions Our data suggest a lack of association between the NOTCH4 gene triplet repeat polymorphism and schizophrenia in Japanese individuals.

  20. Significance of a notch in the otoacoustic emission stimulus spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenner, J

    2012-09-01

    To explain a clinical observation: a notch in the stimulus spectrum during transient evoked otoacoustic emission measurement in ears with secretory otitis media. The effects of tympanic under-pressure were investigated using a pressure chamber. A model of the ear canal was also studied. Tympanic membrane reflectance increased as a consequence of increased stiffness, causing a notch in the stimulus spectrum. In an adult, the notch could be clearly distinguished at an under-pressure of approximately -185 daPa. The sound frequency of the notch corresponded to a wavelength four times the ear canal length. The ear canal of infants was too short to cause a notch within the displayed frequency range. The notch was demonstrated using both Otodynamics and Madsen equipment. A notch in the otoacoustic emission stimulus spectrum can be caused by increased stiffness of the tympanic membrane, raising suspicion of low middle-ear pressure or secretory otitis media. This finding is not applicable to infants.

  1. Notch3 signalling promotes tumour growth in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Valentina; Persano, Luca; Moserle, Lidia; Esposito, Giovanni; Ghisi, Margherita; Curtarello, Matteo; Bonanno, Laura; Masiero, Massimo; Ribatti, Domenico; Stürzl, Michael; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Croner, Roland S; Jubb, Adrian M; Harris, Adrian L; Koeppen, Hartmut; Amadori, Alberto; Indraccolo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    Increased Notch1 activity has been observed in intestinal tumours, partially accomplished by β-catenin-mediated up-regulation of the Notch ligand Jagged-1. Whether further mechanisms of Notch activation exist and other Notch receptors might be involved is unclear. Microarray data indicated that Notch3 transcript levels are significantly up-regulated in primary and metastatic CRC samples compared to normal mucosa. Moreover, Notch3 protein was expressed at strong/moderate levels by 19.7% of 158 CRC samples analysed, and at weak levels by 51.2% of the samples. Intrigued by these findings, we sought to investigate whether Notch3 modulates oncogenic features of CRC cells. By exploiting xenografts of CRC cells with different tumourigenic properties in mice, we found that the aggressive phenotype was associated with altered expression of components of the Notch pathway, including Notch3, Delta-like 4 (DLL4), and Jagged-1 ligands. Stimulation with immobilized recombinant DLL4 or transduction with DLL4-expressing vectors dramatically increased Notch3 expression in CRC cells, associated with accelerated tumour growth. Forced expression of an active form of Notch3 mirrored the effects of DLL4 stimulation and increased tumour formation. Conversely, attenuation of Notch3 levels by shRNA resulted in perturbation of the cell cycle followed by reduction in cell proliferation, clonogenic capacity, and inhibition of tumour growth. Altogether, these findings indicate that Notch3 can modulate the tumourigenic properties of CRC cells and contributes to sustained Notch activity in DLL4-expressing tumours. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. ADAM10 regulates Notch function in intestinal stem cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Hwai; VanDussen, Kelli L; Sawey, Eric T; Wade, Alex W; Kasper, Chelsea; Rakshit, Sabita; Bhatt, Riha G; Stoeck, Alex; Maillard, Ivan; Crawford, Howard C; Samuelson, Linda C; Dempsey, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) is a cell surface sheddase that regulates physiologic processes, including Notch signaling. ADAM10 is expressed in all intestinal epithelial cell types, but the requirement for ADAM10 signaling in crypt homeostasis is not well defined. We analyzed intestinal tissues from mice with constitutive (Vil-Cre;Adam10(f/f) mice) and conditional (Vil-CreER;Adam10(f/f) and Leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCR5 [Lgr5]-CreER;Adam10(f/f) mice) deletion of ADAM10. We performed cell lineage-tracing experiments in mice that expressed a gain-of-function allele of Notch in the intestine (Rosa26(NICD)), or mice with intestine-specific disruption of Notch (Rosa26(DN-MAML)), to examine the effects of ADAM10 deletion on cell fate specification and intestinal stem cell maintenance. Loss of ADAM10 from developing and adult intestine caused lethality associated with altered intestinal morphology, reduced progenitor cell proliferation, and increased secretory cell differentiation. ADAM10 deletion led to the replacement of intestinal cell progenitors with 2 distinct, post-mitotic, secretory cell lineages: intermediate-like (Paneth/goblet) and enteroendocrine cells. Based on analysis of Rosa26(NICD) and Rosa26(DN-MAML) mice, we determined that ADAM10 controls these cell fate decisions by regulating Notch signaling. Cell lineage-tracing experiments showed that ADAM10 is required for survival of Lgr5(+) crypt-based columnar cells. Our findings indicate that Notch-activated stem cells have a competitive advantage for occupation of the stem cell niche. ADAM10 acts in a cell autonomous manner within the intestinal crypt compartment to regulate Notch signaling. This process is required for progenitor cell lineage specification and crypt-based columnar cell maintenance. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Template-based CTA to x-ray angio rigid registration of coronary arteries in frequency domain with automatic x-ray segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Timur; Unal, Gozde [Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir [Computer Aided Medical Procedures (CAMP), Technical University of Munich, Garching, 85748 (Germany); Degertekin, Muzaffer [Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul 34752 (Turkey)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: A key challenge for image guided coronary interventions is accurate and absolutely robust image registration bringing together preinterventional information extracted from a three-dimensional (3D) patient scan and live interventional image information. In this paper, the authors present a novel scheme for 3D to two-dimensional (2D) rigid registration of coronary arteries extracted from preoperative image scan (3D) and a single segmented intraoperative x-ray angio frame in frequency and spatial domains for real-time angiography interventions by C-arm fluoroscopy.Methods: Most existing rigid registration approaches require a close initialization due to the abundance of local minima and high complexity of search algorithms. The authors' method eliminates this requirement by transforming the projections into translation-invariant Fourier domain for estimating the 3D pose. For 3D rotation recovery, template Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR) as candidate poses of 3D vessels of segmented computed tomography angiography are produced by rotating the camera (image intensifier) around the DICOM angle values with a specific range as in C-arm setup. The authors have compared the 3D poses of template DRRs with the segmented x-ray after equalizing the scales in three domains, namely, Fourier magnitude, Fourier phase, and Fourier polar. The best rotation pose candidate was chosen by one of the highest similarity measures returned by the methods in these domains. It has been noted in literature that frequency domain methods are robust against noise and occlusion which was also validated by the authors' results. 3D translation of the volume was then recovered by distance-map based BFGS optimization well suited to convex structure of the authors' objective function without local minima due to distance maps. A novel automatic x-ray vessel segmentation was also performed in this study.Results: Final results were evaluated in 2D projection space for

  4. Template-based CTA to x-ray angio rigid registration of coronary arteries in frequency domain with automatic x-ray segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksoy, Timur; Unal, Gozde; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir; Degertekin, Muzaffer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A key challenge for image guided coronary interventions is accurate and absolutely robust image registration bringing together preinterventional information extracted from a three-dimensional (3D) patient scan and live interventional image information. In this paper, the authors present a novel scheme for 3D to two-dimensional (2D) rigid registration of coronary arteries extracted from preoperative image scan (3D) and a single segmented intraoperative x-ray angio frame in frequency and spatial domains for real-time angiography interventions by C-arm fluoroscopy.Methods: Most existing rigid registration approaches require a close initialization due to the abundance of local minima and high complexity of search algorithms. The authors' method eliminates this requirement by transforming the projections into translation-invariant Fourier domain for estimating the 3D pose. For 3D rotation recovery, template Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR) as candidate poses of 3D vessels of segmented computed tomography angiography are produced by rotating the camera (image intensifier) around the DICOM angle values with a specific range as in C-arm setup. The authors have compared the 3D poses of template DRRs with the segmented x-ray after equalizing the scales in three domains, namely, Fourier magnitude, Fourier phase, and Fourier polar. The best rotation pose candidate was chosen by one of the highest similarity measures returned by the methods in these domains. It has been noted in literature that frequency domain methods are robust against noise and occlusion which was also validated by the authors' results. 3D translation of the volume was then recovered by distance-map based BFGS optimization well suited to convex structure of the authors' objective function without local minima due to distance maps. A novel automatic x-ray vessel segmentation was also performed in this study.Results: Final results were evaluated in 2D projection space for patient data; and

  5. Development of a Template Lesson Plan Based on 5e Model Enhanced with Computer Supported Applications and Conceptual Change Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Burcu Sezginsoy; Erdem, Aliye

    2017-01-01

    Students learning a defined subject only perform by learning of thinking based on the concepts forming that subjects. Otherwise, students may move away from the scientific meaning of concepts and may fall into conceptual errors. Students' conceptual errors affect their following learning and cause them resist change. It is possible to prevent this…

  6. Highly selective coextraction of rhodamine B and dibenzyl phthalate based on high-density dual-template imprinted shells on silica microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zerong; Xu, Weiwei; Peng, Yumei; Lu, Yi; Luo, Qian; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2017-01-01

    A simple one-pot approach based on molecularly imprinted polymer shells dispersed on the surface of silica for simultaneous determination of rhodamine B and dibenzyl phthalate (DBzP) has been developed. Highly dense molecularly imprinted polymer shells were formed in the mixture of acetonitrile and toluene by the copolymerization of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, as well as two templates, rhodamine B and dibenzyl phthalate, directed by the vinyl end groups functional monolayer at surface silica microspheres after 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane modification. The obtained imprinted polymer shells showed large average pore diameter (102.5 nm) and about 100 nm shell thickness. The imprinted particles also showed high imprinting factor (α RhB = 3.52 and α DBzP = 3.94), rapid binding kinetics, and excellent selective affinity capacity for rhodamine B and dibenzyl phthalate containing another three competitors in mixed solution. Moreover, the imprinted particles coupled with ultra high performance liquid chromatography was successfully applied to simultaneous analysis of rhodamine B and dibenzyl phthalate in two spiked beverage samples with average recoveries in the range of 88.0-93.0% for rhodamine B and 84.0-92.0% for dibenzyl phthalate with the relative standard deviation lower than 5.1%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High-electron-mobility GaN grown on free-standing GaN templates by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Erin C. H., E-mail: erinkyle@umail.ucsb.edu; Kaun, Stephen W.; Burke, Peter G.; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wu, Yuh-Renn [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-21

    The dependence of electron mobility on growth conditions and threading dislocation density (TDD) was studied for n{sup −}-GaN layers grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. Electron mobility was found to strongly depend on TDD, growth temperature, and Si-doping concentration. Temperature-dependent Hall data were fit to established transport and charge-balance equations. Dislocation scattering was analyzed over a wide range of TDDs (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} to ∼2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}) on GaN films grown under similar conditions. A correlation between TDD and fitted acceptor states was observed, corresponding to an acceptor state for almost every c lattice translation along each threading dislocation. Optimized GaN growth on free-standing GaN templates with a low TDD (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}) resulted in electron mobilities of 1265 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 296 K and 3327 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 113 K.

  8. Template-Assisted Wet-Combustion Synthesis of Fibrous Nickel-Based Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Methanation and Methane Steam Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayan, M; Potemkin, D I; Rubio-Marcos, F; Uskov, S I; Snytnikov, P V; Hussainova, I

    2017-12-20

    Efficient capture and recycling of CO 2 enable not only prevention of global warming but also the supply of useful low-carbon fuels. The catalytic conversion of CO 2 into an organic compound is a promising recycling approach which opens new concepts and opportunities for catalytic and industrial development. Here we report about template-assisted wet-combustion synthesis of a one-dimensional nickel-based catalyst for carbon dioxide methanation and methane steam reforming. Because of a high temperature achieved in a short time during reaction and a large amount of evolved gases, the wet-combustion synthesis yields homogeneously precipitated nanoparticles of NiO with average particle size of 4 nm on alumina nanofibers covered with a NiAl 2 O 4 nanolayer. The as-synthesized core-shell structured fibers exhibit outstanding activity in steam reforming of methane and sufficient activity in carbon dioxide methanation with 100% selectivity toward methane formation. The as-synthesized catalyst shows stable operation under the reaction conditions for at least 50 h.

  9. A flexible sensor based on polyaniline hybrid using ZnO as template and sensing properties to triethylamine at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Le [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Sun, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Resource Processing and Process Intensification Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Bai, Shouli, E-mail: baisl@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Luo, Ruixian [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Dianqing, E-mail: lidq@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Aifan [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Liu, Chung Chiun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecule Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Rapid synthesis of PANI has novelty, which is different with that reported before. • Enhancement of gas sensing is attributed to synergistic effect and heterojunction. • PET film is used as substrate to obtain a flexible, wearable and smart sensor. • Room temperature operating of sensor leads to save energy, safety and long life. - Abstract: A network structure of PANI/SnO{sub 2} hybrid was synthesized by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization using cheaper ZnO nanorods as sacrificial template and the hybrid was loaded on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) thin film to construct a flexible smart sensor. The sensor not only exhibits high sensitivity which is 20 times higher than that of pure PANI to 10 ppm triethylamine, good selectivity and linear response at room temperature but also has flexible, structure simple, economical and portable characters compared with recently existing sensors. Room temperature operating of the sensor is also particularly interesting, which leads to low power consumption, environmental safety and long life times. The improvement of sensing properties is attributed to the network structure of hybrid and formation of p-n heterojunction at the interface between the PANI and SnO{sub 2}. The research is expected to open a new window for development of a kind of wearable electronic devices based on the hybrid of conducting polymer and metal oxides.

  10. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acids as combined quality markers in herbal medicines using molecularly imprinted polymers based on a mimic template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingming; Yan, Huijiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Mu, Yan; Guo, Lanping; Wang, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    We describe a solid-phase extraction adsorbent based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), prepared with use of a mimic template. The MIPs were used for the selective extraction and determination of three chlorogenic acids as combined quality markers for Lonicera japonica and Lianhua qingwen granules. The morphologies and surface groups of the MIPs were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and selectivity of the MIPs were systematically compared with those of non-molecularly imprinted polymers. The MIPs showed high selectivity toward three structurally similar chlorogenic acids (chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid). A procedure using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was established for the determination of three chlorogenic acids from Lonicera japonica and Lianhua qingwen granules. The recoveries of the chlorogenic acids ranged from 93.1% to 101.4%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three chlorogenic acids were 0.003 mg g -1 and 0.01 mg g -1 , respectively. The newly developed method is thus a promising technique for the enrichment and determination of chlorogenic acids from herbal medicines. Graphical Abstract Mimic molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective extraction of chlorogenic acids.

  11. Compact electromagnetic bandgap structures for notch band in ultra-wideband applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Mihai; Sykulski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to create notch band filters in the front-end of ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems based on electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures. The concept presented here can be implemented in any structure that has a microstrip in its configuration. The EBG structure is first analyzed using a full wave electromagnetic solver and then optimized to work at WLAN band (5.15-5.825 GHz). Two UWB passband filters are used to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the novel EBG notch band feature. Simulation results are provided for two cases studied.

  12. Discovery of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-based CHK1 inhibitors: A template-based approach-Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labroli, Marc; Paruch, Kamil; Dwyer, Michael P.; Alvarez, Carmen; Keertikar, Kartik; Poker, Cory; Rossman, Randall; Duca, Jose S.; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Madison, Vincent; Parry, David; Davis, Nicole; Seghezzi, Wolfgang; Wiswell, Derek; Guzi, Timothy J. [Merck

    2013-11-20

    Previous efforts by our group have established pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine as a viable core for the development of potent and selective CDK inhibitors. As part of an effort to utilize the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine core as a template for the design and synthesis of potent and selective kinase inhibitors, we focused on a key regulator in the cell cycle progression, CHK1. Continued SAR development of the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine core at the C5 and C6 positions, in conjunction with previously disclosed SAR at the C3 and C7 positions, led to the discovery of potent and selective CHK1 inhibitors.

  13. Frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutvei, Anders Peter; Fredlund, Erik; Lendahl, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling is linked to a variety of tumors and it is therefore important to learn more about the frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in a tumor context. In this report, we use data from the recently developed Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia to assess the frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in a large panel of cancer cell lines in silico. Our results show that the mutation frequency of Notch receptor and ligand genes is at par with that for established oncogenes and higher than for a set of house-keeping genes. Mutations were found across all four Notch receptor genes, but with notable differences between protein domains, mutations were for example more prevalent in the regions encoding the LNR and PEST domains in the Notch intracellular domain. Furthermore, an in silico estimation of functional impact showed that deleterious mutations cluster to the ligand-binding and the intracellular domains of NOTCH1. For most cell line groups, the mutation frequency of Notch genes is higher than in associated primary tumors. Our results shed new light on the spectrum of Notch mutations after in vitro culturing of tumor cells. The higher mutation frequency in tumor cell lines indicates that Notch mutations are associated with a growth advantage in vitro, and thus may be considered to be driver mutations in a tumor cell line context. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1278-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  14. A Hybrid Approach to Protect Palmprint Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithms. However, existing template protection algorithms cannot satisfy all these requirements well. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that combines random projection and fuzzy vault to improve the performances at these three points. Heterogeneous space is designed for combining random projection and fuzzy vault properly in the hybrid scheme. New chaff point generation method is also proposed to enhance the security of the heterogeneous vault. Theoretical analyses of proposed hybrid approach in terms of accuracy, changeability, and security are given in this paper. Palmprint database based experimental results well support the theoretical analyses and demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed hybrid approach.

  15. Formulation in vitro and in vivo evaluation of SRMS-based heterolipid-templated homolipid delivery system for diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumuni, Momoh; Attama, A A; Kunle, O O

    2016-01-01

    The sole objective of this work was to design successful dosage oral forms of diclofenac sodium (DiNa)-loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLM) based on solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS). Hot homogenization technique was employed to prepare DicNa SLM using a mixture goat fat and Phospholipon® 90 G as lipid matrix and Tween®-80 as mobile surfactant. Characterization based on percentage yield, morphology, particle size, zeta potential, percentage encapsulation, pH and stability of SLMs were investigated. Anti-inflammatory, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) sparing effect and pharmacokinetics were carried out in rat model after oral administration. Results showed that the SLMs were spherical and smooth. The optimized formulation (SLM-4) had particle size of 79.40 ± 0.31 µm, polydispersity index of 0.633 ± 0.190, zeta potential of -63.20 ± 0.12 mV and encapsulation efficiency of 91.2 ± 0.1% with good stability after 8 months of storage. The DicNa SLM had sustained release effect with good anti-inflammatory activity. Higher and prolonged plasma DicNa concentration was shown by the SLM-4 compared to pure drug and a conventional sample. These studies demonstrate that DicNa-loaded SLM based on SRMS could be a promising oral formulation for enhanced bioavailability, pharmacologic activity and gastrointestinal sparing effect of the NSAID, DicNa.

  16. ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower based ZnO template synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin, N. D. Md., E-mail: diyana0366@johor.uitm.edu.my; Amalina, M. N., E-mail: amalina0942@johor.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Johor, Kampus Pasir Gudang, 81750 Masai, Johor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad Syakirin, E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com; Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Ahmad, Samsiah, E-mail: samsiah.ahmad@johor.uitm.edu.my; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: mhmamat@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower like structures was grown on a glass substrate deposited with seed layer using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with combining two source materials. The ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower like structures had diameter in the range 70 to 100 nm. The atomic percentage of ZnO nanoparticle , SnO{sub 2} nanorods and ZnO/SnO{sub 2} nanoflower was taken using EDS. Based on the FESEM observations, the growth mechanism is applied to describe the growth for the synthesized nanostructures.

  17. AN ENSEMBLE TEMPLATE MATCHING AND CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL SCHEME TOWARDS EARLY STAGE DETECTION OF MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Kostopoulos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma represents the most dangerous type of skin cancer. In this study we present an ensemble classification scheme, employing the mutual information, the cross-correlation and the clustering based on proximity of image features methods, for early stage assessment of melanomas on plain photography images. The proposed scheme performs two main operations. First, it retrieves the most similar, to the unknown case, image samples from an available image database with verified benign moles and malignant melanoma cases. Second, it provides an automated estimation regarding the nature of the unknown image sample based on the majority of the most similar images retrieved from the available database. Clinical material comprised 75 melanoma and 75 benign plain photography images collected from publicly available dermatological atlases. Results showed that the ensemble scheme outperformed all other methods tested in terms of accuracy with 94.9±1.5%, following an external cross-validation evaluation methodology. The proposed scheme may benefit patients by providing a second opinion consultation during the self-skin examination process and the physician by providing a second opinion estimation regarding the nature of suspicious moles that may assist towards decision making especially for ambiguous cases, safeguarding, in this way from potential diagnostic misinterpretations.

  18. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2S,3S-ketols. 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme– substrate ...

  19. AlGaN-Based Solar-Blind Schottky Photodetectors Fabricated on AlN/Sapphire Template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Wen, Sang; Zhi-Xin, Qin; Long-Bin, Cen; Bo, Shen; Guo-Yi, Zhang; Shu-Ping, Li; Hang-Yang, Chen; Da-Yi, Liu; Jun-Yong, Kang; Cai-Jing, Cheng; Hong-Yan, Zhao; Zheng-Xiong, Lu; Jia-Xin, Ding; Lan, Zhao; Jun-Jie, Si; Wei-Guo, Sun

    2008-01-01

    We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind Schottky-type ultraviolet photodetectors with the cutoff-wavelength from 280nm to 292nm without bias. The devices show low dark current of 2.1 × 10 −6 A/cm 2 at the reverse bias of 5 V. The specific detectivity D* is estimated to be 3.3 × 10 12 cmHz 1/2 W −1 . To guarantee the performance of the photodetectors, the optimization of AlGaN growth and annealing condition for Schottky contacts were performed. The results show that high-temperature annealing method for Ni/Pt Schottky contacts is effective for the reduction of leakage current

  20. The truncate mutation of Notch2 enhances cell proliferation through activating the NF-κB signal pathway in the diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxia Zhang

    Full Text Available The Notch2 is a critical membrane receptor for B-cell functions, and also displays various biological roles in lymphoma pathogenesis. In this article, we reported that 3 of 69 (4.3% diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs exhibited a truncate NOTCH2 mutation at the nucleotide 7605 (G/A in the cDNA sequence, which led to partial deletion of the C-terminal of PEST (proline-, glutamic acid-, serine- and threonine-rich domain. The truncate Notch2 activated both the Notch2 and the NF-κB signals and promoted the proliferation of B-cell lymphoma cell lines, including DLBCL and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. Moreover, the ectopic proliferation was completely inhibited by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor. Simultaneously, PDTC also reduced the expression level of Notch2. Based on these results, we conclude that the Notch2 receptor with PEST domain truncation enhances cell proliferation which may be associated with the activation of the Notch2 and the NF-κB signaling. Our results are expected to provide a possible target for new DLBCL therapies by suppressing the Notch2 and the NF-κB signaling.

  1. Visually directed vs. software-based targeted biopsy compared to transperineal template mapping biopsy in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Massimo; McCartan, Neil; Freeman, Alex; Punwani, Shonit; Emberton, Mark; Ahmed, Hashim U

    2015-10-01

    Targeted biopsy based on cognitive or software magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to transrectal ultrasound registration seems to increase the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer as compared with standard biopsy. However, these strategies have not been directly compared against an accurate test yet. The aim of this study was to obtain pilot data on the diagnostic ability of visually directed targeted biopsy vs. software-based targeted biopsy, considering transperineal template mapping (TPM) biopsy as the reference test. Prospective paired cohort study included 50 consecutive men undergoing TPM with one or more visible targets detected on preoperative multiparametric MRI. Targets were contoured on the Biojet software. Patients initially underwent software-based targeted biopsies, then visually directed targeted biopsies, and finally systematic TPM. The detection rate of clinically significant disease (Gleason score ≥3+4 and/or maximum cancer core length ≥4mm) of one strategy against another was compared by 3×3 contingency tables. Secondary analyses were performed using a less stringent threshold of significance (Gleason score ≥4+3 and/or maximum cancer core length ≥6mm). Median age was 68 (interquartile range: 63-73); median prostate-specific antigen level was 7.9ng/mL (6.4-10.2). A total of 79 targets were detected with a mean of 1.6 targets per patient. Of these, 27 (34%), 28 (35%), and 24 (31%) were scored 3, 4, and 5, respectively. At a patient level, the detection rate was 32 (64%), 34 (68%), and 38 (76%) for visually directed targeted, software-based biopsy, and TPM, respectively. Combining the 2 targeted strategies would have led to detection rate of 39 (78%). At a patient level and at a target level, software-based targeted biopsy found more clinically significant diseases than did visually directed targeted biopsy, although this was not statistically significant (22% vs. 14%, P = 0.48; 51.9% vs. 44.3%, P = 0.24). Secondary

  2. Improved interface growth and enhanced flux pinning in YBCO films deposited on an advanced IBAD-MgO based template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Z.; Zhao, Y.; Wu, X.; Malmivirta, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The growth mechanism is studied from the flux pinning point of view in small-scale YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) thin films deposited on a polycrystalline hastelloy with advanced IBAD-MgO based buffer layer architecture. When compared the situation with YBCO films grown on single crystal substrates, the most critical issues that affect the suitable defect formation and thus the optimal vortex pinning landscape, have been studied as a function of the growth temperature and the film thickness evolution. We can conclude that the best critical current property in a wide applied magnetic field range is observed in films grown at relatively low temperature and having intermediate thickness. These phenomena are linked to the combination of the improved interface growth, to the film thickness related crystalline relaxation and to the formation of linear array of edge dislocations that forms the low-angle grain boundaries through the entire film thickness and thus improve the vortex pinning properties. Hence, the optimized buffer layer structure proved to be particularly suitable for new coated conductor solutions.

  3. General and Facile Route to Isomerically Pure Tricyclic Peptides Based on Templated Tandem CLIPS/CuAAC Cyclizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle, Gaston J J; Ori, Sumeet; Hiemstra, Henk; van Maarseveen, Jan H; Timmerman, Peter

    2018-01-08

    We report a one-pot ligation/cyclization technology for the rapid and clean conversion of linear peptides into tricyclic peptides that is based on using tetravalent scaffolds containing two benzyl bromide and two alkyne moieties. These react via CLIPS/CuAAC reactions with cysteines and azides in the peptide. Flexibility in the scaffolds is key to the formation of isomerically pure products as the flexible scaffolds T4 1 and T4 2 mostly promote the formation of single isomeric tricycles while the rigid scaffolds T4 3 and T4 4 do not yield clean products. There seems to be no limitation to the number and types of amino acids present as 18 canonical amino acids were successfully implemented. We also observed that azides at the peptide termini and cysteine residues in the center gave better results than compounds with the functional groups placed the other way round. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The transcriptional corepressor SMRTER influences both Notch and ecdysone signaling during Drosophila development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Heck

    2011-12-01

    SMRTER (SMRT-related and ecdysone receptor interacting factor is the Drosophila homologue of the vertebrate proteins SMRT and N-CoR, and forms with them a well-conserved family of transcriptional corepressors. Molecular characterization of SMRT-family proteins in cultured cells has implicated them in a wide range of transcriptional regulatory pathways. However, little is currently known about how this conserved class of transcriptional corepressors regulates the development of particular tissues via specific pathways. In this study, through our characterization of multiple Smrter (Smr mutant lines, mosaic analysis of a loss-of-function Smr allele, and studies of two independent Smr RNAi fly lines, we report that SMRTER is required for the development of both ovarian follicle cells and the wing. In these two tissues, SMRTER inhibits not only the ecdysone pathway, but also the Notch pathway. We differentiate SMRTER's influence on these two signaling pathways by showing that SMRTER inhibits the Notch pathway, but not the ecdysone pathway, in a spatiotemporally restricted manner. We further confirm the likely involvement of SMRTER in the Notch pathway by demonstrating a direct interaction between SMRTER and Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H], a DNA-binding transcription factor pivotal in the Notch pathway, and the colocalization of both proteins at many chromosomal regions in salivary glands. Based on our results, we propose that SMRTER regulates the Notch pathway through its association with Su(H, and that overcoming a SMRTER-mediated transcriptional repression barrier may represent a key mechanism used by the Notch pathway to control the precise timing of events and the formation of sharp boundaries between cells in multiple tissues during development.

  5. Multi-template homology based structure prediction and molecular docking studies of protein ‘L’ of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasree Ganugapati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola is one of the most dangerous pathogenic RNA virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and is considered to be a threat to humanity. The RNA genome of EBOV encodes seven proteins viz., glycoprotein (GP, nucleoprotein (NP, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (protein ‘L’, VP35, VP30, VP40 andVP24. The objective of the present study is to find a suitable inhibitor for protein ‘L’. The large structural protein ‘L’, is made up of 2212 amino acid residues. This protein works as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp and a methyl transferase. It is carried by the virus during the infection as the host mechanisms cannot be used to transcribe the –ss RNA genome of the virus. As the protein is crucial for the replication of the viral genome and no other host enzyme can perform the same function, this viral protein ‘L’ was considered as a potential drug target to design inhibitors. The 3D structure of protein ‘L’ is not available to date. This is a limitation in understanding the protein's function. Hence, the present work is aimed at predicting the first homology-based model of protein ‘L’ and elucidating the function by providing insight into the molecular details of the protein. As there is no drug available for the treatment of EBOV infection our findings play a crucial a role to identify an inhibitor of the protein ‘L’ of EBOV. HTS against ZINC database resulted in identification of few possible inhibitors. Molecular docking studies resulted in finding a suitable inhibitor for protein ‘L’.

  6. A model-based telecoupling analysis for the Patagonian shelf: a new suggested template on how to study global seabirds-fisheries interactions for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettmann, F.; Raya Rey, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Southwest Atlantic Ocean, and the extended Patagonian shelf in particular, presents us with a very complex ecosystem of global relevance for food security and global peace. It is a highly productive area and it maintains a great diversity and abundance of seabird species. Fisheries have been identified as a main stressor for the marine ecosystems and as one of the main causes of seabird population declines. Using the framework of telecoupling - a sophisticated description of natural and socioeconomic interactions over large distances - here we present a fresh holistic look at the dynamic fisheries and (endangered) seabird interactions for the Patagonian shelf. While data are sparse, we employ machine learning-based predictions for a more holistic overview. We found that these waters of the Patagonian Shelf are significantly affected by many nations and outside players. We found that the input, output and spill-over of the Patagonian shelf ecosystem are distributed virtually all over the globe. In addition, we also found `losers' (=nations and their citizens that are left out entirely from this global resource and its governance). Our findings are based on best-available public trade and fish harvest analysis for this region, linked with predictive modeling (machine learning and geographic information systems GIS) to generalize for nine seabird species. We conveniently extend this analysis with a perspective from the financial sector and policy that enables the Patagonian fisheries as international investment and development projects. As increasingly recognized elsewhere, we believe that telecoupling can serve as a new but rather sophisticated study template highlighting wider complexities, bottlenecks and sensitivities for a vastly improved conservation research on oceans and global sustainability questions.

  7. Appraisal of gas hydrate resources based on a P- and S-impedance reflectivity template: case study from the deep sea sediments in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini Shoar, Behnam; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Farajkhah, Nasser Keshavarz; Seddigh Arabani, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) in the 2D seismic data from Makran's accretionary prism reveals the presence of gas hydrate and free gas several hundred meters below the seafloor of Iran's deep sea. According to the global distribution of marine hydrates, they are widely present in deep sea sediments, where high operational costs and hazards cause a lack of well log information. Therefore, developing a method to quantify the hydrate resources with seismic data is an ultimate goal for unexplored regions. In this study, the so-called reflectivity templates (RTs) are introduced for quantification of the hydrate and free gas near the BSR. These RTs are intuitive crossplots of P-impedance and S-impedance contrasts across the BSR. They are calculated theoretically based on the effective medium theory for different hydrate distribution modes with some assumptions on porosity and mineralogical composition of unconsolidated sediments. This technique suggests the possibility of using the amplitude variation versus offset (AVO) analysis of the BSR for a quantitative interpretation when well log data are not available. By superimposing the AVO-derived P-impedance and S-impedance contrasts across the BSR on these RTs, the saturations of the hydrate and free gas near the BSR could be estimated. Validation of this approach by synthetic data showed that a reliable quantification could be achieved if the model parameters were rearranged to a form in which the AVO inversion was independent of the S-wave to P-wave velocity-ratio assumption. Based on this approach applied on the 2D marine pre-stack time migrated seismic line in offshore Iran, 4% to 28% of the gas hydrate and 1% to 2% of the free gas are expected to be accumulated near the thrusted-ridge and thrusted-footwall types of BSRs. (paper)

  8. CD38 Structure-Based Inhibitor Design Using the N1-Cyclic Inosine 5'-Diphosphate Ribose Template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Moreau

    Full Text Available Few inhibitors exist for CD38, a multifunctional enzyme catalyzing the formation and metabolism of the Ca(2+-mobilizing second messenger cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR. Synthetic, non-hydrolyzable ligands can facilitate structure-based inhibitor design. Molecular docking was used to reproduce the crystallographic binding mode of cyclic inosine 5'-diphosphoribose (N1-cIDPR with CD38, revealing an exploitable pocket and predicting the potential to introduce an extra hydrogen bond interaction with Asp-155. The purine C-8 position of N1-cIDPR (IC50 276 µM was extended with an amino or diaminobutane group and the 8-modified compounds were evaluated against CD38-catalyzed cADPR hydrolysis. Crystallography of an 8-amino N1-cIDPR:CD38 complex confirmed the predicted interaction with Asp-155, together with a second H-bond from a realigned Glu-146, rationalizing the improved inhibition (IC50 56 µM. Crystallography of a complex of cyclic ADP-carbocyclic ribose (cADPcR, IC50 129 µM with CD38 illustrated that Glu-146 hydrogen bonds with the ligand N6-amino group. Both 8-amino N1-cIDPR and cADPcR bind deep in the active site reaching the catalytic residue Glu-226, and mimicking the likely location of cADPR during catalysis. Substantial overlap of the N1-cIDPR "northern" ribose monophosphate and the cADPcR carbocyclic ribose monophosphate regions suggests that this area is crucial for inhibitor design, leading to a new compound series of N1-inosine 5'-monophosphates (N1-IMPs. These small fragments inhibit hydrolysis of cADPR more efficiently than the parent cyclic compounds, with the best in the series demonstrating potent inhibition (IC50 = 7.6 µM. The lower molecular weight and relative simplicity of these compounds compared to cADPR make them attractive as a starting point for further inhibitor design.

  9. Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT provides protection against acute craniocerebral injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available Notch signaling pathway is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. The γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT inhibits Notch signaling pathway and promotes nerve regeneration after cerebral ischemia. However, neuroprotective effects of DAPT against acute craniocerebral injury remain unclear. In this study, we established rat model of acute craniocerebral injury, and found that with the increase of damage grade, the expression of Notch and downstream protein Hes1 and Hes5 expression gradually increased. After the administration of DAPT, the expression of Notch, Hes1 and Hes5 was inhibited, apoptosis and oxidative stress decreased, neurological function and cognitive function improved. These results suggest that Notch signaling can be used as an indicator to assess the severity of post-traumatic brain injury. Notch inhibitor DAPT can reduce oxidative stress and apoptosis after acute craniocerebral injury, and is a potential drug for the treatment of acute craniocerebral injury.

  10. The Representation of Multiple Intelligences Types in the Top-Notch Series: A Textbook Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Jozaghi, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating Top-Notch series through a checklist devised by the researchers based on the elements of the Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory proposed by Gardner (1998). With the shift from teacher-centered classrooms to learner-centered one, more and more research is needed to be done in the realm of students' need analysis. One…

  11. Strain redistribution around holes and notches in fiber-reinforced cross-woven brittle matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben Krogsdal; Brøndsted, Povl

    1997-01-01

    Mechanics, and an identification procedure based on a uni-axial tensile test and a shear test the strain redistribution around a hole or a notch due to matrix cracking can be predicted. Damage due to fiber breakage is not included in the model. Initial matrix damage in the C-f/SiCm material has...

  12. High-cycle notch sensitivity of alloy steel ASTM A743 CA6NM used in hydrogenator turbine components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexander Araújo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of notches and other stress concentrations in turbine blades and other notch hydraulic components is a current problem in engineering. It causes a reduction of endurance limit of material. In that sense, specimens of the ASTM A743 CA6NM alloy steel using in several hydrogenator turbine components was tested. The specimens were tested under uniaxial fatigue loading with a load ratio equal to -1, and the considered stress concentration factors, Kt, values, calculated with respect to net area, were 1.55, 2.04 and 2.42. In order to determine the fatigue limit for such notch type, a reduction data method by Dixon and Mood, Staircase method was used. This approach is based on the assumed target distribution of the fatigue limit. For such geometry at least 8 specimens were tested. In addition, the Peterson and Neuber’s notch fatigue factor were compared through fatigue notch reduction factor, Kf, obtained from experimental data. According to results obtained it was possible to conclude that the tested material is less sensitive to notches than the prediction of the Peterson and Neuber’s empirical models.

  13. Role of Notch Signaling in Human Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    transform HMLE cells. Similarly, overexpression of ErbB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase upstream of Ras normally found overexpressed in many breast cancers ...Assess Notch-Ras cooperation in breast cancers in vivo: Since the major observation in this project has been the cooperation of Notch and Ras in HMLE ...metastasis. The in vitro cooperation between Notch and Ras in HMLE cells is mimicked in naturally arising breast cancers in vivo. Further dissection of the

  14. The Role of Notch Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    breast cancer cells, I tested whether ErbB2 overexpression will cooperate with Notch in HMLE cells. While overexpression of activated Notch1 failed to...tyrosine kinase upstream of Ras normally found overexpressed in many breast cancers , also failed to transform HMLE cells. These observations suggested...cooperation between Notch1IC and ErbB2 signaling in transforming HMLE cells. Breast cancers typically do not harbor oncogenic Ras mutations; nevertheless

  15. A Deformable Template Model, with Special Reference to Elliptical Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jan; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests a high-level continuous image model for planar star-shaped objects. Under this model, a planar object is a stochastic deformation of a star-shaped template. The residual process, describing the difference between the radius-vector function of the template and the object...

  16. Analysis list: NOTCH1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NOTCH1 Blood + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NOTCH1.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NOTCH1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NOTC...H1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/NOTCH1.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml ...

  17. The functional role of Notch signaling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2010-01-01

    have been referred to as brain cancer stem cells (bCSC), as they share similarities to normal neural stem cells in the brain. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in cell fate decisions throughout normal development and in stem cell proliferation and maintenance. The role of Notch in cancer is now...... firmly established, and recent data implicate a role for Notch signaling also in gliomas and bCSC. In this review, we explore the role of the Notch signaling pathway in gliomas with emphasis on its role in normal brain development and its interplay with pathways and processes that are characteristic...

  18. Automatic garment template sewing technology based on machine identification%基于机器识别的全自动服装模板缝纫技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华玲; 戴斌辉; 原竞杰

    2016-01-01

    In view of the low efficiency of the traditional garment sewing process and dependence on the manual operation and other issues,a kind of automatic sewing technology of intelligent garment templates is put forward based on visual technology.The X/Y/Z direction of the three freedom mo-tion of the mechanical body is designed to complete the cutting and molding of the fabric,PVC,leath-er and other different materials.Then by using the teaching acquisition intelligent vision technology, the sample is automaticly generated to complete intelligent traj ectory planning,and drive sequential action of mechanical body through the embedded platform.The automation of garment sewing clothing is realized,improving the streamlined,standardized and efficient operations,decreasing the depend-ence of garment factory on skilled workers.%针对传统服装缝制工艺效率低且依赖于人工操作等问题,提出一种基于智能视觉技术的全自动服装模板缝纫技术。设计一个可沿 X/Y/Z 3个方向自由运动的机械本体,完成对面料、PVC、皮革等不同材料的裁剪和制模;运用智能视觉技术软件进行视教采集,自动生成样片完成智能轨迹规划并通过嵌入式平台驱动机械本体的顺序动作,实现服装缝制自动化,提高服装作业的流水化、标准化、高效化,降低服装厂对熟练工的依赖性。

  19. Directed Self-Assembly in "Breath Figure" Templating of Melamine-Based Amphiphilic Copolymers: Effect of Hydrophilic End-Chain on Honeycomb Film Formation and Wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongyao; Feng, Yujun; Billon, Laurent

    2018-01-09

    Amphiphilic copolymers are widely used in the fabrication of hierarchically honeycomb-structured films through a "breath figure" (BF) process because the hydrophilic block plays a key role in stabilising water templating. However, the hydrophilic monomers reported are mainly confined to acrylic acid and its derivatives, which largely limits understanding of the formation of BF arrays and the introduction of additional functions on porous films. The relationship between polymer composition, film microstructure and surface properties are also less documented. Herein, a novel melamine-based hydrophilic moiety, N-[3-({3-[(4,6-bis{[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]amino}-1,3,5-triazin-2yl)amino]propyl}(methyl)amino)propyl]methacrylamide (ANME), was incorporated into polystyrene (PS) chains by combining atom-transfer radical polymerisation and post-modification to afford three well-defined end-functionalised PS-PANME derivatives. These polymers were used to fabricate honeycomb films through the BF technique. Both inner and outer microstructures of the films were characterised by optical microscopy, AFM and SEM. Polymer hydrophilicity is enhanced upon increasing the PANME content, which results in variation of the film microstructure and porosity, and provokes a transition from Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel behaviour. Furthermore, the surface wettability of as-prepared honeycomb films and corresponding pillared films is mainly governed by film morphology, rather than by the properties of the polymers. Knowledge of the relationships between polymer composition and film structure, as well as surface wettability, is beneficial to design and prepare hierarchically porous films with desirable structures and properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Facile fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds based on Pickering emulsion templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Ma, Shanshan; Yang, Zhuohong; Zhou, Wuyi; Du, Zhengshan; Huang, Jian; Yi, Huan; Wang, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a facile one-pot approach to the fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate (ALG-Ca)/hydroxyapatite (HAp) porous scaffolds based on HAp nanoparticle-stabilized oil-in-water Pickering emulsion templates, which contain alginate in the aqueous phase and PLLA in the oil phase. The emulsion aqueous phase is solidified by in situ gelation of alginate with Ca(2+) released from HAp by decreasing pH with slow hydrolysis of D-gluconic acid δ-lactone (GDL) to produce emulsion droplet-incorporated gels, followed by freeze-drying to form porous scaffolds containing microspheres. The pore structure of porous scaffolds can be adjusted by varying the HAp or GDL concentration. The compressive tests show that the increase of HAp or GDL concentration is beneficial to improve the compressive property of porous scaffolds, while the excessive HAp can lead to the decrease in compressive property. Moreover, the swelling behavior studies display that the swelling ratios of porous scaffolds reduce with increasing HAp or GDL concentration. Furthermore, hydrophobic drug ibuprofen (IBU) and hydrophilic drug bovine serum albumin (BSA) are loaded into the microspheres and scaffold matrix, respectively. In vitro drug release results indicate that BSA has a rapid release while IBU has a sustained release in the dual drug-loaded scaffolds. In vitro cell culture experiments verify that mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells can proliferate on the porous scaffolds well, indicating the good biocompatibility of porous scaffolds. All these results demonstrate that the PLLA microsphere-incorporated ALG-Ca/HAp porous scaffolds have a promising potential for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An SPM8-Based Approach for Attenuation Correction Combining Segmentation and Nonrigid Template Formation: Application to Simultaneous PET/MR Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Hansen, Adam E; Förster, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    coregistered using a diffeomorphic approach. A similar procedure was used to coregister the anatomic MR data for a new subject to the template. Finally, the CT-like images obtained by applying the inverse transformations were converted to linear attenuation coefficients to be used for AC of PET data...

  2. A facile template method to synthesize significantly improved LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 using corn stalk as a bio-template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guiyang; Kong, Xin; Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Baosen; Yi, Zhongzhou; Wang, Quanbiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to simplify the template method for the synthesis of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, a facile template method using plant stalks as bio-templates has been introduced. Based on this method, LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 spinel with a significantly improved electrochemical performance has been synthesized using corn stalk as a template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared pectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to investigate the phase composition and micro-morphologies of the products. Charge-discharge measurements in lithium cells, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been used to study the electrochemical performance of the products. The results indicate that the templated product exhibits higher crystallinity than that of non-templated product. Both of the templated product and the non-templated product are combination of the ordered space group P4 3 32 and the disordered Fd-3 m. The specific BET surface area of the templated product is about twice larger than that of the non-templated product. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of the templated product including specific capacity, cycling stability and rate capability are significantly improved as compared with the non-templated product, due to its higher crystallinity, larger Li + diffusion coefficient and lower charge transfer resistance

  3. Template Generation and Selection Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Broersma, Haitze J.; Heysters, P.M.; Badaway, W.; Ismail, Y.

    The availability of high-level design entry tooling is crucial for the viability of any reconfigurable SoC architecture. This paper presents a template generation method to extract functional equivalent structures, i.e. templates, from a control data flow graph. By inspecting the graph the algorithm

  4. A light meson translatable template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgower, C.E.; Peaslee, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Recently surveyed (mass)2 values for I = 0, JPC = 2++ light mesons can be assembled into repeating patterns of 4 states, dubbed 'templates'. Within error, both internal and external template spacings approximate simple multiples of Δm2 ≅ 0.35 GeV2. Hopefully, this feature will be useful in predicting the positions of higher isoscalar 2++ states

  5. Correlation of eddy current responses between fatigue cracks and electrical-discharge-machining notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sukho; Choi, Gyudong; Eom, Tae Jhoun; Lee, Bokwon; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2017-07-01

    The eddy current responses of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) notches and fatigue cracks are directly compared to verify the reliability of eddy current inspection. The fatigue crack growth tests using a constant load range control mode were conducted to obtain a variety of edge crack sizes, ranging from 0.9 to 6.6 mm for Al alloy and from 0.1 to 3 mm for Ti alloy. EDM notch specimens of Al and Ti alloys were accordingly prepared in lengths similar to that of the fatigued specimen. The crack length was determined by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The eddy current responses between the EDM and fatigued specimens with varying notch/crack length were examined using probe sensors at (100-500) kHz and (1-2) MHz for Al and Ti alloys, respectively. The results show a significant difference in the eddy current signal between the two specimens, based on the correlation between the eddy current response and notch/crack length. This suggests that eddy current inspection using the EDM reference specimen is inaccurate in determining the precise crack size, unless the eddy current response data base is obtained from a fatigue-cracked specimen.

  6. Graphene Emerges as a Versatile Template for Materials Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjie; Wu, Sida; Lv, Wei; Shao, Jiao-Jing; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are emerging as a class of novel but versatile templates for the controlled preparation and functionalization of materials. In this paper a conceptual review on graphene-based templates is given, highlighting their versatile roles in materials preparation. Graphene is capable of acting as a low-dimensional hard template, where its two-dimensional morphology directs the formation of novel nanostructures. Graphene oxide and other functionalized graphenes are amphiphilic and may be seen as soft templates for formatting the growth or inducing the controlled assembly of nanostructures. In addition, nanospaces in restacked graphene can be used for confining the growth of sheet-like nanostructures, and assemblies of interlinked graphenes can behave either as skeletons for the formation of composite materials or as sacrificial templates for novel materials with a controlled network structure. In summary, flexible graphene and its derivatives together with an increasing number of assembled structures show great potentials as templates for materials production. Many challenges remain, for example precise structural control of such novel templates and the removal of the non-functional remaining templates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Priming and the guidance by visual and categorical templates in visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, A.M.; Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Visual search is thought to be guided by top-down templates that are held in visual working memory. Previous studies have shown that a search-guiding template can be rapidly and strongly implemented from a visual cue, whereas templates are less effective when based on categorical cues. Direct visual

  8. Analytical template protection performance and maximum key size given a Gaussian-modeled biometric source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; Breebaart, Jeroen; Buhan, I.R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K.; Prabhakar, Salil; Ross, Arun A.

    2010-01-01

    Template protection techniques are used within biometric systems in order to protect the stored biometric template against privacy and security threats. A great portion of template protection techniques are based on extracting a key from or binding a key to a biometric sample. The achieved

  9. Notch signaling and progenitor/ductular reaction in steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola M Morell

    Full Text Available Persistent hepatic progenitor cells (HPC activation resulting in ductular reaction (DR is responsible for pathologic liver repair in cholangiopathies. Also, HPC/DR expansion correlates with fibrosis in several chronic liver diseases, including steatohepatitis. Increasing evidence indicates Notch signaling as a key regulator of HPC/DR response in biliary and more in general liver injuries. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of Notch during HPC/DR activation in a mouse model of steatohepatitis.Steatohepatitis was generated using methionine-choline deficient (MCD diet. For hepatocyte lineage tracing, R26R-YFP mice were infected with AAV8-TBG-Cre.MCD diet promoted a strong HPC/DR response that progressively diffused in the lobule, and correlated with increased fibrosis and TGF-β1 expression. Notch signaling was unchanged in laser-capture microdissected HPC/DR, whereas Notch receptors were down regulated in hepatocytes. However, in-vivo lineage tracing experiments identified discrete hepatocytes showing Notch-1 activation and expressing (the Notch-dependent Sox9. Stimulation of AML-12 hepatocyte-cell line with immobilized Jag1 induced Sox9 and down-regulated albumin and BSEP expression. TGF-β1 treatment in primary hepatic stellate cells (HSC induced Jag1 expression. In MCD diet-fed mice, αSMA-positive HSC were localized around Sox9 expressing hepatocytes, suggesting that Notch activation in hepatocytes was promoted by TGF-β1 stimulated HSC. In-vivo Notch inhibition reduced HPC response and fibrosis progression.Our data suggest that Notch signaling is an important regulator of DR and that in steatohepatitis, hepatocytes exposed to Jag1-positive HSC, contribute to pathologic DR by undergoing Notch-mediated differentiation towards an HPC-like phenotype. Given the roles of Notch in fibrosis and liver cancer, these data suggest mesenchymal expression of Jag1 as an alternative therapeutic target.

  10. Quantification of gamma-secretase modulation differentiates inhibitor compound selectivity between two substrates Notch and amyloid precursor protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ting

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deposition of amyloid-β protein (Aβ is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Aβ is generated from γ-secretase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP. In addition to APP, γ-secretase also cleaves other type I integral membrane proteins, including the Notch receptor, a key molecule involved in embryonic development. Results To explore selective γ-secretase inhibitors, a combination of five methods was used to systematically determine these inhibitors' profiles on the γ-secretase cleavage of APP and Notch. When two potent γ-secretase inhibitors, compound E (cpd E and DAPT, were used in a conventional in vitro γ-secretase activity assay, cpd E completely blocked Aβ generation from the cleavage of substrate APP C100, but only had a minor effect on Notch cleavage and NICD generation. Next, cpd E and DAPT were applied to HEK293 cells expressing a truncated Notch substrate NotchΔE. Both cpd E and DAPT were more potent in blocking Aβ generation than NICD generation. Third, a reporter construct was created that carried the NICD targeting promoter with three Su(H binding sequences followed by the luciferase gene. We found that the inhibition of NICD generation by cpd E and DAPT was consistent with the reduced expression of luciferase gene driven by this Notch targeting promoter. Fourth, levels of "Notch-Aβ-like" (Nβ* peptide derived from two previously reported chimeric APP with its transmembrane domain or the juxtamembrane portion replaced by the Notch sequence were quantified. Measurement of Nβ* peptides by ELISA confirmed that EC50's of cpd E were much higher for Nβ* than Aβ. Finally, the expression levels of Notch target gene her6 in cpd E or DAPT-treated zebrafish were correlated with the degree of tail curvature due to defective somitogenesis, a well characterized Notch phenotype in zebrafish. Conclusion Our ELISA-based quantification of Aβ and Nβ* in combination with the test in

  11. Precracking of round notched bars. Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibetta, M.

    1996-02-01

    Precracking round notched bars is the first step before fracture mechanics testing. This report gives an overview of the different techniques described in the literature. Difficulties generally encountered are linked to the crack length determination and the creation of eccentric cracks. As the compliance technique is often used, a detailed study of the stress intensity factor and the compliance of the precracked bar under bending and tension is presented. Comparison with finite element calculations is made to validate the proposed analytical formulation. Finally a practical way for precracking is described

  12. Photon signature analysis using template matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A., E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hashim, S., E-mail: suhairul@utm.my [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saripan, M.I. [Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wells, K. [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Dunn, W.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, 3002 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    We describe an approach to detect improvised explosive devices (IEDs) by using a template matching procedure. This approach relies on the signature due to backstreaming {gamma} photons from various targets. In this work we have simulated cylindrical targets of aluminum, iron, copper, water and ammonium nitrate (nitrogen-rich fertilizer). We simulate 3.5 MeV source photons distributed on a plane inside a shielded area using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP{sup TM}) code version 5 (V5). The 3.5 MeV source gamma rays yield 511 keV peaks due to pair production and scattered gamma rays. In this work, we simulate capture of those photons that backstream, after impinging on the target element, toward a NaI detector. The captured backstreamed photons are expected to produce a unique spectrum that will become part of a simple signal processing recognition system based on the template matching method. Different elements were simulated using different sets of random numbers in the Monte Carlo simulation. To date, the sum of absolute differences (SAD) method has been used to match the template. In the examples investigated, template matching was found to detect all elements correctly.

  13. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregar, Kathleen C.; Winans, Randall E.; Botto, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method for incorporating diverse Varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

  14. A lightweight approach for biometric template protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah

    2009-05-01

    Privacy and security are vital concerns for practical biometric systems. The concept of cancelable or revocable biometrics has been proposed as a solution for biometric template security. Revocable biometric means that biometric templates are no longer fixed over time and could be revoked in the same way as lost or stolen credit cards are. In this paper, we describe a novel and an efficient approach to biometric template protection that meets the revocability property. This scheme can be incorporated into any biometric verification scheme while maintaining, if not improving, the accuracy of the original biometric system. However, we shall demonstrate the result of applying such transforms on face biometric templates and compare the efficiency of our approach with that of the well-known random projection techniques. We shall also present the results of experimental work on recognition accuracy before and after applying the proposed transform on feature vectors that are generated by wavelet transforms. These results are based on experiments conducted on a number of well-known face image databases, e.g. Yale and ORL databases.

  15. Oncogenic Notch signaling in T-cell and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Mark Y; Radojcic, Vedran; Maillard, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    This article highlights recent discoveries about Notch activation and its oncogenic functions in lymphoid malignancies, and discusses the therapeutic potential of Notch inhibition. NOTCH mutations arise in a broad spectrum of lymphoid malignancies and are increasingly scrutinized as putative therapeutic targets. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), NOTCH1 mutations affect the extracellular negative regulatory region and lead to constitutive Notch activation, although mutated receptors remain sensitive to Notch ligands. Other NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL and NOTCH1/2 mutations in multiple B-cell malignancies truncate the C-terminal proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S), threonine (T)-rich (PEST) domain, leading to decreased Notch degradation after ligand-mediated activation. Thus, targeting Notch ligand-receptor interactions could provide therapeutic benefits. In addition, we discuss recent reports on clinical testing of Notch inhibitors in T-ALL that influenced contemporary thinking on the challenges of targeting Notch in cancer. We review advances in the laboratory to address these challenges in regards to drug targets, the Notch-driven metabolome, and the sophisticated protein-protein interactions at Notch-dependent superenhancers that underlie oncogenic Notch functions. Notch signaling is a recurrent oncogenic pathway in multiple T- and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Understanding the complexity and consequences of Notch activation is critical to define optimal therapeutic strategies targeting the Notch pathway.

  16. Implementation and investigation of circular slot UWB antenna with dual-band-notched characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DadashZadeh Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The design and analysis of an ultra wideband aperture antenna with dual-band-notched characteristics are presented. The proposed antenna consists of a circular ring exciting stub on the front side and a circular slot on the back ground plane. By utilizing a parasitic strip and a T-shaped stub on the antenna structure, two notched bands of 850 MHz (3.5-4.35 GHz and 900 MHz (5.05-5.95 GHz are achieved. The proposed antenna is fabricated and measured. Measured results show that this antenna operates from 2.3 GHz to upper 11 GHz for voltage standing wave ratio less than 2, except two frequency notched bands of 3.5-4.35 and 5.05-5.95 GHz. Moreover, the experimental results show that proposed antenna has stable radiation patterns and constant gain. A conceptual circuit model, which is based on the measured impedance of the proposed antenna, is also shown to investigate the dual-band-notched characteristics.

  17. HES1, a target of Notch signaling, is elevated in canine osteosarcoma, but reduced in the most aggressive tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Deanna D; Anfinsen, Kristin P; Pfaff, Liza E; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, J Brad; Bønsdorff, Tina B; Thamm, Douglas H; Powers, Barbara E; Jonasdottir, Thora J; Duval, Dawn L

    2013-07-01

    Hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1), a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor, is a downstream target of Notch signaling. Notch signaling and HES1 expression have been linked to growth and survival in a variety of human cancer types and have been associated with increased metastasis and invasiveness in human osteosarcoma cell lines. Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive cancer demonstrating both high metastatic rate and chemotherapeutic resistance. The current study examined expression of Notch signaling mediators in primary canine OSA tumors and canine and human osteosarcoma cell lines to assess their role in OSA development and progression. Reverse transcriptase - quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was utilized to quantify HES1, HEY1, NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 gene expression in matched tumor and normal metaphyseal bone samples taken from dogs treated for appendicular OSA at the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Gene expression was also assessed in tumors from dogs with a disease free interval (DFI) of  300 days following treatment with surgical amputation followed by standard chemotherapy. Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm expression of HES1. Data from RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) experiments were analyzed using REST2009 software and survival analysis based on IHC expression employed the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank analysis. Unbiased clustered images were generated from gene array analysis data for Notch/HES1 associated genes. Gene array analysis of Notch/HES1 associated genes suggested alterations in the Notch signaling pathway may contribute to the development of canine OSA. HES1 mRNA expression was elevated in tumor samples relative to normal bone, but decreased in tumor samples from dogs with a DFI 300 days. NOTCH2 and HEY1 mRNA expression was also elevated in tumors relative to normal bone, but was not differentially expressed between the DFI tumor groups. Survival analysis confirmed an association between

  18. Evaluation of Notch and Hypoxia Signaling Pathways in Chemically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common worldwide malignancy. Notch signaling pathway contributes to the genesis of diverse cancers, however, its role in HCC is unclear. Hypoxia is a common feature of HCC. Signal integration between Notch and hypoxia may be involved in HCC. The aim of this study was to ...

  19. Failure of a porous solid from a deep notch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redanz, Pia; Fleck, Norman A.; McMeeking, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    A finite strain finite element method is used to examine the stress state near the tip of a deep notch in an elastic-plastic porous solid. The notch is loaded in mode I plane strain tension and small scale yielding is assumed. Two rate independent strain hardening material models are used...

  20. Common nonmutational NOTCH1 activation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Giulia; Holmes, Antony B; Viganotti, Mara; Scuoppo, Claudio; Belver, Laura; Herranz, Daniel; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Kieso, Yasmine; Rossi, Davide; Gaidano, Gianluca; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

    2017-04-04

    Activating mutations of NOTCH1 (a well-known oncogene in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) are present in ∼4-13% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases, where they are associated with disease progression and chemorefractoriness. However, the specific role of NOTCH1 in leukemogenesis remains to be established. Here, we report that the active intracellular portion of NOTCH1 (ICN1) is detectable in ∼50% of peripheral blood CLL cases lacking gene mutations. We identify a "NOTCH1 gene-expression signature" in CLL cells, and show that this signature is significantly enriched in primary CLL cases expressing ICN1, independent of NOTCH1 mutation. NOTCH1 target genes include key regulators of B-cell proliferation, survival, and signal transduction. In particular, we show that NOTCH1 transactivates MYC via binding to B-cell-specific regulatory elements, thus implicating this oncogene in CLL development. These results significantly extend the role of NOTCH1 in CLL pathogenesis, and have direct implications for specific therapeutic targeting.

  1. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-08-01

    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  2. Anisotropy of the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of the SiC/Si biomorphic composite based on a white-eucalyptus biocarbon template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Mucha, J.; Jezowski, A.; de Arellano-Lopez, A. R.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Varela-Feria, F. M.

    2006-12-01

    The thermal conductivity κ and electrical resistivity ρ of a cellular ecoceramic, namely, the SiC/Si biomorphic composite, are measured in the temperature range 5 300 K. The SiC/Si biomorphic composite is fabricated using a cellular biocarbon template prepared from white eucalyptus wood by pyrolysis in an argon atmosphere with subsequent infiltration of molten silicon into empty through cellular channels of the template. The temperature dependences κ(T) and ρ(T) of the 3C-SiC/Si biomorphic composite at a silicon content of ˜30 vol % are measured for samples cut out parallel and perpendicular to the direction of tree growth. Data on the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity κ are presented. The behavior of the dependences κ(T) and ρ(T) of the SiC/Si biomorphic composite at different silicon contents is discussed in terms of the results obtained and data available in the literature.

  3. SPOT-ligand 2: improving structure-based virtual screening by binding-homology search on an expanded structural template library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litfin, Thomas; Zhou, Yaoqi; Yang, Yuedong

    2017-04-15

    The high cost of drug discovery motivates the development of accurate virtual screening tools. Binding-homology, which takes advantage of known protein-ligand binding pairs, has emerged as a powerful discrimination technique. In order to exploit all available binding data, modelled structures of ligand-binding sequences may be used to create an expanded structural binding template library. SPOT-Ligand 2 has demonstrated significantly improved screening performance over its previous version by expanding the template library 15 times over the previous one. It also performed better than or similar to other binding-homology approaches on the DUD and DUD-E benchmarks. The server is available online at http://sparks-lab.org . yaoqi.zhou@griffith.edu.au or yuedong.yang@griffith.edu.au. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Scalable Notch Antenna System for Multiport Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim Toktas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and compact scalable antenna system is designed for multiport applications. The basic design is built on a square patch with an electrical size of 0.82λ0×0.82λ0 (at 2.4 GHz on a dielectric substrate. The design consists of four symmetrical and orthogonal triangular notches with circular feeding slots at the corners of the common patch. The 4-port antenna can be simply rearranged to 8-port and 12-port systems. The operating band of the system can be tuned by scaling (S the size of the system while fixing the thickness of the substrate. The antenna system with S: 1/1 in size of 103.5×103.5 mm2 operates at the frequency band of 2.3–3.0 GHz. By scaling the antenna with S: 1/2.3, a system of 45×45 mm2 is achieved, and thus the operating band is tuned to 4.7–6.1 GHz with the same scattering characteristic. A parametric study is also conducted to investigate the effects of changing the notch dimensions. The performance of the antenna is verified in terms of the antenna characteristics as well as diversity and multiplexing parameters. The antenna system can be tuned by scaling so that it is applicable to the multiport WLAN, WIMAX, and LTE devices with port upgradability.

  5. Essential Role of Endothelial Notch1 in Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbourg, Florian P.; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Radtke, Freddy; Bronson, Roderick T.; Chin, Michael T.; Liao, James K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Notch signaling influences binary cell fate decisions in a variety of tissues. The Notch1 receptor is widely expressed during embryogenesis and is essential for embryonic development. Loss of global Notch1 function results in early embryonic lethality, but the cell type responsible for this defect is not known. Here, we identify the endothelium as the primary target tissue affected by Notch1 signaling. Methods and Results We generated an endothelium-specific deletion of Notch1 using Tie2Cre and conditional Notch1flox/flox mice. Mutant embryos lacking endothelial Notch1 died at approximately embryonic day 10.5 with profound vascular defects in placenta, yolk sac, and embryo proper, whereas heterozygous deletion had no effect. In yolk sacs of mutant embryos, endothelial cells formed a primary vascular plexus indicative of intact vasculogenesis but failed to induce the secondary vascular remodeling required to form a mature network of well-organized large and small blood vessels, which demonstrates a defect in angiogenesis. These vascular defects were also evident in the placenta, where blood vessels failed to invade the placental labyrinth, and in the embryo proper, where defective blood vessel maturation led to pericardial and intersomitic hemorrhage. Enhanced activation of caspase-3 was detected in endothelial and neural cells of mutant mice, which resulted in enhanced apoptotic degeneration of somites and the neural tube. Conclusions These findings recapitulate the vascular phenotype of global Notch1-/- mutants and indicate an essential cell-autonomous role of Notch1 signaling in the endothelium during vascular development. These results may have important clinical implications with regard to Notch1 signaling in adult angiogenesis. PMID:15809373

  6. Effects of Notch Misalignment and Tip Radius on Displacement Field in V-Notch Rail Shear Test as Determined by Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles S.; Oliveras, Ovidio M.

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the 3D strain field during ASTM-D-7078 v-notch rail shear tests on 8-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy laminates was determined by optical photogrammetry using an ARAMIS system. Specimens having non-optimal geometry and minor discrepancies in dimensional tolerances were shown to display non-symmetry and/or stress concentration in the vicinity of the notch relative to a specimen meeting the requirements of the standard, but resulting shear strength and modulus values remained within acceptable bounds of standard deviation. Based on these results, and reported difficulty machining specimens to the required tolerances using available methods, it is suggested that a parametric study combining analytical methods and experiment may provide rationale to increase the tolerances on some specimen dimensions, reducing machining costs, increasing the proportion of acceptable results, and enabling a wider adoption of the test method.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of corrosion defects on the structural integrity of X52 gas pipelines using the SINTAP procedure and notch theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, H.; Jallouf, S.; Schmitt, C.; Carmasol, A.; Pluvinage, G.

    2007-01-01

    The notch stress intensity factor concept and the structural integrity assessment procedure for European industry (SINTAP) structural integrity procedure are used to assess gas pipeline integrity using deterministic and probabilistic methods. These pipes have external longitudinal semi-elliptical corrosion defects. Stress concentration at a defect tip is investigated via elastic-plastic finite element method analysis. The notch stress intensity concept is implemented into the SINTAP procedure and a notch-based failure assessment diagram is proposed. The safety factor and security factor are calculated through the SINTAP basic level

  8. Evaluation of the effect of corrosion defects on the structural integrity of X52 gas pipelines using the SINTAP procedure and notch theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, H. [ENIM, Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM) Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Jallouf, S. [ENIM, Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM) Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Schmitt, C. [ENIM, Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM) Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France)]. E-mail: schmitt@enim.fr; Carmasol, A. [ENIM, Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM) Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Pluvinage, G. [ENIM, Laboratoire de Fiabilite Mecanique (LFM) Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France)

    2007-03-15

    The notch stress intensity factor concept and the structural integrity assessment procedure for European industry (SINTAP) structural integrity procedure are used to assess gas pipeline integrity using deterministic and probabilistic methods. These pipes have external longitudinal semi-elliptical corrosion defects. Stress concentration at a defect tip is investigated via elastic-plastic finite element method analysis. The notch stress intensity concept is implemented into the SINTAP procedure and a notch-based failure assessment diagram is proposed. The safety factor and security factor are calculated through the SINTAP basic level.

  9. Expedient Protocols for the Installation of Pyrimidine Based Privileged Templates on 2-Position of Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]-benzodiazepine Nucleus Linked Through a p-phenoxyl Spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exceedingly facile single step expedient protocols based on the versatility and reactivity of corresponding intermediates : [2-(dimethylaminomethylene ketone] (5 and chalcone (6, derived from 2-(p-acetyl phenoxyl substituted analogue of pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]-benzodiazepine (4, have been developed to provide an easy installation of the pyrimidine based privileged templates at 2-position of pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]-benzodiazepine through a p-phenoxyl spacer, by utilizing the synthetic strategy depicted in schemes-1 and 2.

  10. Use of Neuber's rule to estimate the fatigue life of notched specimens of ASME SA 106-B steel piping in 2880C air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Fatigue strain-life tests were conducted on notched specimens of ADMESA 106-B piping steel at PWR operating temperatures (288 0 C (550 0 F)), under completely reversed loading. Fatigue limits at 10 7 cycles were estimated for smooth specimens to be 185 M Pa (26.8 ksi) at 24 0 C and 232 MPa (33.7 ksi) at 288 0 C. The higher fatigue strength observed at the PWR temperature is postulated to be caused by dynamic strain aging processes. However, a reduction in fatigue strength in the low cycle fatigue regime was observed in 288 0 C air environment tests, which may indicate that the current ASME Section III design curve for carbon steels is nonconservative in its positioning. Notch strain histories were estimated for the notched specimen tests using various interpretations of Neuber's rule. It was concluded that the use of the fatigue notch concentration factor (K f ) in the Neuber relation in conjunction with the uniaxial cyclic stress-strain curve provided the best correlation of notched specimen fatigue data with results obtained from smooth specimen tests. The notched specimen strain-life results derived from the application of Neuber's rule alone proved to be conservative when compared with smooth specimen test results to such an extent that Neuber-generated notch stresses and strain amplitudes cannot accurately be compared with the mean data curves derived from the ASME Section III fatigue curves for carbon steels which are based on net section stress measurements. (author)

  11. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research...

  12. Tailoring silver nanoparticle construction using dendrimer templated silica networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaojun; Kakkar, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the role of the internal environment of dendrimer templated silica networks in tailoring the construction of silver nanoparticle assemblies. Silica networks from which 3,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol based dendrimer templates have been completely removed, slowly wet with an aqueous solution of silver acetate. The latter then reacts with internal silica silanol groups, leading to chemisorption of silver ions, followed by the growth of silver oxide nanoparticles. Silica network constructed using generation 4 dendrimer contains residual dendrimer template, and mixes with aqueous silver acetate solution easily. Upon chemisorption, silver ions get photolytically reduced to silver metal under a stabilizing dendrimer environment, leading to the formation of silver metal nanoparticles

  13. Characterization of activating mutations of NOTCH3 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and anti-leukemic activity of NOTCH3 inhibitory antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi-Elias, P; Hu, T; Jenkins, D; Firestone, B; Gans, S; Kurth, E; Capodieci, P; Deplazes-Lauber, J; Petropoulos, K; Thiel, P; Ponsel, D; Hee Choi, S; LeMotte, P; London, A; Goetcshkes, M; Nolin, E; Jones, M D; Slocum, K; Kluk, M J; Weinstock, D M; Christodoulou, A; Weinberg, O; Jaehrling, J; Ettenberg, S A; Buckler, A; Blacklow, S C; Aster, J C; Fryer, C J

    2016-11-24

    Notch receptors have been implicated as oncogenic drivers in several cancers, the most notable example being NOTCH1 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). To characterize the role of activated NOTCH3 in cancer, we generated an antibody that detects the neo-epitope created upon gamma-secretase cleavage of NOTCH3 to release its intracellular domain (ICD3), and sequenced the negative regulatory region (NRR) and PEST (proline, glutamate, serine, threonine) domain coding regions of NOTCH3 in a panel of cell lines. We also characterize NOTCH3 tumor-associated mutations that result in activation of signaling and report new inhibitory antibodies. We determined the structural basis for receptor inhibition by obtaining the first co-crystal structure of a NOTCH3 antibody with the NRR protein and defined two distinct epitopes for NRR antibodies. The antibodies exhibit potent anti-leukemic activity in cell lines and tumor xenografts harboring NOTCH3 activating mutations. Screening of primary T-ALL samples reveals that 2 of 40 tumors examined show active NOTCH3 signaling. We also identified evidence of NOTCH3 activation in 12 of 24 patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models, 2 of which exhibit activation of NOTCH3 without activation of NOTCH1. Our studies provide additional insights into NOTCH3 activation and offer a path forward for identification of cancers that are likely to respond to therapy with NOTCH3 selective inhibitory antibodies.

  14. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a major hazard in Greece suffering on average 1,509 wildfires and 36,151 burned hectares of forestlands every year. Since 1998 the Greek Fire Service is responsible for wildfires suppression and response, while prevention and mitigation yearly directives are also being released by the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. The 3013/2002 Act introduced a major transfer of responsibilities from the national to local municipal and regional authorities, which are accompanied by supplementary financial support. Significant new features were established such as the operation of local coordination councils, the foundation of municipality civil protection offices, the establishment of the annually prevention planning for forest fires and the development of local action plans. The University of Athens has developed a Local Action Plan template for municipality administrative levels, integrating scientific techniques and technologies to public government management. The Local Action Plan for Forest Fire Prevention is the main handbook and primary tool of every municipality for reducing the risk of wildfires. Fire prevention and risk analysis are the principal aims of this Plan, which also emphasizes on the important role of the volunteer organizations on forest fire prevention. The 7 chapters of the Action Plan include the legal framework, the risk analysis parameters, the risk analysis using GIS, the prevention planning, the manpower and available equipment of services involved, along with operational planning and evaluation of the previous year's forest fire prevention actions. Multiple information layers, such as vegetation types, road network, power lines and landfills are combined in GIS environment and transformed into qualitative multiparameter as well as quantitative combinational fire hazard maps. These maps are essential in wildfire risk analysis as they display the areas that need the highest attention during the fire season. Moreover, the separate

  15. The effect of shot peening on notched low cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soady, K.A.; Mellor, B.G.; Shackleton, J.; Morris, A.; Reed, P.A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Shot peening improves notched component three point bend low cycle fatigue life. → Notch shape does not affect the efficacy of the peening process. → Strain hardening and residual stress effects need separate consideration. → Loading direction residual stresses do not relax under bend load. - Abstract: The improvement in low cycle fatigue life created by shot peening ferritic heat resistant steel was investigated in components of varying geometries based on those found in conventional power station steam turbine blades. It was found that the shape of the component did not affect the efficacy of the shot peening process, which was found to be beneficial even under the high stress amplitude three point bend loads applied. Furthermore, by varying the shot peening process parameters and considering fatigue life it has been shown that the three surface effects of shot peening; roughening, strain hardening and the generation of a compressive residual stress field must be included in remnant life models as physically separate entities. The compressive residual stress field during plane bending low cycle fatigue has been experimentally determined using X-ray diffraction at varying life fractions and found to be retained in a direction parallel to that of loading and to only relax to 80% of its original magnitude in a direction orthogonal to loading. This result, which contributes to the retention of fatigue life improvement in low cycle fatigue conditions, has been discussed in light of the specific stress distribution applied to the components. The ultimate aim of the research is to apply these results in a life assessment methodology which can be used to justify a reduction in the length of scheduled plant overhauls. This will result in significant cost savings for the generating utility.

  16. Multimodal biometric approach for cancelable face template generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Padma Polash; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Due to the rapid growth of biometric technology, template protection becomes crucial to secure integrity of the biometric security system and prevent unauthorized access. Cancelable biometrics is emerging as one of the best solutions to secure the biometric identification and verification system. We present a novel technique for robust cancelable template generation algorithm that takes advantage of the multimodal biometric using feature level fusion. Feature level fusion of different facial features is applied to generate the cancelable template. A proposed algorithm based on the multi-fold random projection and fuzzy communication scheme is used for this purpose. In cancelable template generation, one of the main difficulties is keeping interclass variance of the feature. We have found that interclass variations of the features that are lost during multi fold random projection can be recovered using fusion of different feature subsets and projecting in a new feature domain. Applying the multimodal technique in feature level, we enhance the interclass variability hence improving the performance of the system. We have tested the system for classifier fusion for different feature subset and different cancelable template fusion. Experiments have shown that cancelable template improves the performance of the biometric system compared with the original template.

  17. Mandibular Ramus Notching As a Tool for Sexual Dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhuti Bhusana Panda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination from a single or a part of bone is always difficult in absence of other bones of the same individual. The current study is an attempt to know the sex of an individual from the study of posterior ramus of mandible. The study was done from December, 2014 to August, 2015 in various Medical Colleges of the state of Odisha, India with the use of morbid anatomical specimen of mandibles and simple measuring instruments. The posterior ramus of adult mandibles were studied for presence or absence of any notching and if present its position in relation to occlusal plane. The study resulted, that there was a role of notch position in sex determination. The presence or absence of the notch though was not a consistent finding of all the mandibles. Males had frequent notching at the level of occlusal plane (P< 0.01 and females had frequent notching above the occlusal plane (P < 0.01. Notch present below the occlusal plane had no relation with sex. Accuracy of sexing mandible from the posterior ramus notch position was 61%, which was more for males (68.57% as compared to females (43.33%. So the posterior ramus of mandible could be considered for determination of sex of mandible but this should not be the sole criteria and should be correlated with the other standard criteria.

  18. On short cracks that depart from elastoplastic notch tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Miquelin Machado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of short cracks that depart from elastoplastic notch tips is modeled to estimate the stresses required to initiate and to propagate cracks in notched structural components, and to evaluate the size of tolerable crack-like defects under general loading conditions. This analysis can model both fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking problems; can evaluate notch sensitivity in both cases; and can as well be used to establish design or acceptance criteria for tolerable non-propagating crack-like defects in such cases. The growth of short cracks is assumed driven by the applied stresses and by the stress gradient ahead the notch tip, and supported by the material resistances to crack initiation and to long crack propagation by fatigue or EAC. In the elastoplastic case, the stress gradient ahead of the notch tip is quantified by a J-field to consider the short crack behavior. The tolerable short crack predictions made by this model are evaluated by suitable fatigue and EAC tests of notched specimens specially designed to start nonpropagating cracks from the notch tips, both under elastic and elastoplastic conditions.

  19. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  20. A template bank to search for gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: II. Phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokelaer, T

    2007-01-01

    Matched filtering is used to search for gravitational waves emitted by inspiralling compact binaries in data from ground-based interferometers. One of the key aspects of the detection process is the deployment of a set of templates, also called a template bank, to cover the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. In a companion paper, we described the template bank algorithm used in the analysis of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) data to search for signals from non-spinning binaries made of neutron star and/or stellar-mass black holes; this template bank is based upon physical template families. In this paper, we describe the phenomenological template bank that was used to search for gravitational waves from non-spinning black hole binaries (from stellar mass formation) in the second, third and fourth LIGO science runs. We briefly explain the design of the bank, whose templates are based on a phenomenological detection template family. We show that this template bank gives matches greater than 95% with the physical template families that are expected to be captured by the phenomenological templates

  1. 640 Gbit/s Optical Packet Switching using a Novel In-Band Optical Notch-Filter Labeling Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    Optical packet switching of 640 Gbit/s data packets is reported using an in-band optical labeling technique based on notch-filtering of the data spectrum and extracting the label using a bandpass filter. BER 10􀀀9 is achieved.......Optical packet switching of 640 Gbit/s data packets is reported using an in-band optical labeling technique based on notch-filtering of the data spectrum and extracting the label using a bandpass filter. BER 10􀀀9 is achieved....

  2. Efficiency of template banks for binary black-hole detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokelaer, Thomas; Babak, Stas; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of matched filtering theory, which is the most promising method for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by coalescing binaries, we report on the ability of a template bank to catch a simulated binary black-hole gravitational wave signal. If we suppose that the incoming signal waveform is known a priori, then both the (simulated) signal and the templates can be based on the same physical model and therefore the template bank can be optimal in the sense of Wiener filtering. This turns out to be true for the case of neutron star binaries but not necessarily for the black-hole case. When the templates and the signal are based on different physical models the detection bank may still remain efficient. Nonetheless, it might be a judicious choice to use a phenomenological template family such as the so-called BCV templates to catch all the different physical models. In the first part of that report, we illustrate in a non-exhaustive study, by using Monte Carlo simulations, the efficiency of a template bank based on the stationary phase approximation and show how it catches simulated signals based on the same physical model but fails to catch signals built using other models (Pade, EOB, ...) especially in the case of high mass binaries. In the second part, we construct a BCV-template bank and test its validity by injecting simulated signals based on different physical models such as the PN-approximants, Pade-approximant and the effective one-body method. We show that it is suitable for a search pipeline since it gives a match higher than 95% for all the different physical models. The range of individual mass which has been used is [3-20]M o-dot

  3. PEG-template for surface modification of zeolite: A convenient material to the design of polypropylene based composite for packaging films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Toommee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite was successfully modified by conventional synthetic route. Polyethylene glycol was employed for surface modification of zeolite. The surface of zeolite exhibited therefore hydrophobic properties. Less than 5 wt% of modified zeolites with uniform size and shape were integrated into polypropylene matrix. Mechanical properties of composite exhibited the similar trend compare to neat polypropylene. Oxygen transmission rate and water vapor transmission rate were evaluated and it exhibited the strong potential to be a good candidate material in active packaging. Keywords: Zeolite, Composite, Polypropylene, Packaging, PEG-template

  4. Regulation of differentiation flux by Notch signalling influences the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niurka Trujillo-Paredes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Notch signalling is a well-established pathway that regulates neurogenesis. However, little is known about the role of Notch signalling in specific neuronal differentiation. Using Dll1 null mice, we found that Notch signalling has no function in the specification of mesencephalic dopaminergic neural precursor cells (NPCs, but plays an important role in regulating their expansion and differentiation into neurons. Premature neuronal differentiation was observed in mesencephalons of Dll1-deficient mice or after treatment with a Notch signalling inhibitor. Coupling between neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation was indicated from the coincident emergence of neuronal and dopaminergic markers. Early in differentiation, decreasing Notch signalling caused a reduction in NPCs and an increase in dopaminergic neurons in association with dynamic changes in the proportion of sequentially-linked dopaminergic NPCs (Msx1/2+, Ngn2+, Nurr1+. These effects in differentiation caused a significant reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons produced. Accordingly, Dll1 haploinsufficient adult mice, in comparison with their wild-type littermates, have a consistent reduction in neuronal density that was particularly evident in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results are in agreement with a mathematical model based on a Dll1-mediated regulatory feedback loop between early progenitors and their dividing precursors that controls the emergence and number of dopaminergic neurons.

  5. High levels of Notch signaling down-regulate Numb and Numblike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, G.; Liu, L.; Sahlgren, C.; Dahlqvist, C.; Lendahl, U.

    2006-01-01

    Inhibition of Notch signaling by Numb is critical for many cell fate decisions. In this study, we demonstrate a more complex relationship between Notch and the two vertebrate Numb homologues Numb and Numblike. Although Numb and Numblike at low levels of Notch signaling negatively regulated Notch,

  6. Applying ligands profiling using multiple extended electron distribution based field templates and feature trees similarity searching in the discovery of new generation of urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M Dokla

    Full Text Available This study provides a comprehensive computational procedure for the discovery of novel urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors while focusing on diversification of both chemotype and selectivity pattern. It presents a systematic structural analysis of the different binding motifs of urea-based kinase inhibitors and the corresponding configurations of the kinase enzymes. The computational model depends on simultaneous application of two protocols. The first protocol applies multiple consecutive validated virtual screening filters including SMARTS, support vector-machine model (ROC = 0.98, Bayesian model (ROC = 0.86 and structure-based pharmacophore filters based on urea-based kinase inhibitors complexes retrieved from literature. This is followed by hits profiling against different extended electron distribution (XED based field templates representing different kinase targets. The second protocol enables cancericidal activity verification by using the algorithm of feature trees (Ftrees similarity searching against NCI database. Being a proof-of-concept study, this combined procedure was experimentally validated by its utilization in developing a novel series of urea-based derivatives of strong anticancer activity. This new series is based on 3-benzylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H-one scaffold which has interesting chemical feasibility and wide diversification capability. Antineoplastic activity of this series was assayed in vitro against NCI 60 tumor-cell lines showing very strong inhibition of GI(50 as low as 0.9 uM. Additionally, its mechanism was unleashed using KINEX™ protein kinase microarray-based small molecule inhibitor profiling platform and cell cycle analysis showing a peculiar selectivity pattern against Zap70, c-src, Mink1, csk and MeKK2 kinases. Interestingly, it showed activity on syk kinase confirming the recent studies finding of the high activity of diphenyl urea containing compounds against this kinase. Allover, the new series

  7. A template for integrated community sustainability planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Christopher; Hanna, Kevin; Dale, Ann

    2009-08-01

    This article describes a template for implementing an integrated community sustainability plan. The template emphasizes community engagement and outlines the components of a basic framework for integrating ecological, social and economic dynamics into a community plan. The framework is a series of steps that support a sustainable community development process. While it reflects the Canadian experience, the tools and techniques have applied value for a range of environmental planning contexts around the world. The research is case study based and draws from a diverse range of communities representing many types of infrastructure, demographics and ecological and geographical contexts. A critical path for moving local governments to sustainable community development is the creation and implementation of integrated planning approaches. To be effective and to be implemented, a requisite shift to sustainability requires active community engagement processes, political will, and a commitment to political and administrative accountability, and measurement.

  8. Notch-1 mediates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Sweeney, Catherine; Connolly, Mary; Kennedy, Aisling; Ng, Chin Teck; McCormick, Jennifer; Veale, Douglas J; Fearon, Ursula

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of hypoxia on Notch-1 signaling pathway components and angiogenesis in inflammatory arthritis. The expression and regulation of Notch-1, its ligand delta-like protein 4 (DLL-4) and downstream signaling components (hairy-related transcription factor 1 [HRT-1], HRT-2), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (1-3%) were assessed in synovial tissue specimens from patients with inflammatory arthritis and controls and in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) by immunohistology, dual immunofluorescence staining (Notch-1/factor VIII), Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. In vivo synovial tissue oxygen levels (tissue PO2) were measured under direct visualization at arthroscopy. HDMEC activation under hypoxic conditions in the presence of Notch-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, or dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) was assessed by Matrigel tube formation assay, migration assay, invasion assay, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2)/MMP-9 zymography. Expression of Notch-1, its ligand DLL-4, and HRT-1 was demonstrated in synovial tissue, with the strongest expression localized to perivascular/vascular regions. Localization of Notch-1 to synovial endothelium was confirmed by dual immunofluorescence staining. Notch-1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression was significantly higher in synovial tissue from patients with tissue PO2 of PO2 of >20 mm Hg (>3% O2). Exposure of HDMECs to 3% hypoxia induced HIF-1α and NICD protein expression and DLL-4, HRT-1, and HRT-2 messenger RNA expression. DMOG directly induced NICD expression, while Notch-1 siRNA inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression, suggesting that Notch-1/HIF-1α signaling is bidirectional. Finally, 3% hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration, endothelial cell invasion, and proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activities were inhibited by Notch-1 siRNA and/or the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Our

  9. A TEMPLATE FOR ONLINE HOMEWORK: FRANKENSTEIN'S MONSTER OR ROBO TA?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgran, Roger A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the programming procedures required to implement online homework and evaluates the application of these procedures based on use in the author's course. The description of the procedures utilizes a template showing two representative applications from the author's introductory econometrics course. In one, the students are to collect and record data and in the other, students are to perform econometric analysis on the data. The web address for the template is arec.arizona.e...

  10. Deep lateral notch sign and double notch sign in complete tears of the anterior cruciate ligament: MR imaging evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimberg, Alexandre [University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Shirazian, Hoda; Torshizy, Hamid; Smitaman, Edward; Resnick, Donald L. [University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Chang, Eric Y. [Veterans Administrations San Diego Healthcare Systems, Osteoradiology Section, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-11-20

    To systematically compare the notches of the lateral femoral condyle (LFC) in patients with and without complete tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in MR studies by (1) evaluating the dimensions of the lateral condylopatellar sulcus; (2) evaluating the presence and appearance of an extra or a double notch and its association with such tears. This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed written patient consent was waived. In 58 cases of complete ACL tears and 37 control cases with intact ACL, the number of notches on the LFC was determined, and the depth and anteroposterior (AP) length of each notch were measured in each third of the LFC. The chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression model were used to analyze demographic data and image findings, as appropriate. Presence of more than one notch demonstrated a sensitivity of 17.2 %, specificity of 100 %, positive predictive value of 100 %, and negative predictive value of 43.5 % for detecting a complete ACL tear. Lateral third depth measurement (p = 0.028) was a significant associated finding with a complete ACL tear. A deep notch in the lateral third of the LFC is a significant associated finding with a complete ACL tear when compared with an ACL-intact control group, and the presence of more than one notch is a specific but insensitive sign of such a tear. (orig.)

  11. A new s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase-linked method for adenosine detection based on DNA-templated fluorescent Cu/Ag nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jun Ki; Kim, Hyo Yong; Baek, Songyi; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2017-07-15

    We herein describe a novel fluorescent method for the rapid and selective detection of adenosine by utilizing DNA-templated Cu/Ag nanoclusters (NCs) and employing s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH). SAHH is allowed to promote hydrolysis reaction of s-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and consequently produces homocysteine, which would quench the fluorescence signal from DNA-templated Cu/Ag nanoclusters employed as a signaling probe in this study. On the other hand, adenosine significantly inhibits the hydrolysis reaction and prevent the formation of homocysteine. Consequently, highly enhanced fluorescence signal from DNA-Cu/Ag NCs is retained, which could be used to identify the presence of adenosine. By employing this design principle, adenosine was sensitively detected down to 19nM with high specificity over other adenosine analogs such as AMP, ADP, ATP, cAMP, guanosine, cytidine, and urine. Finally, the diagnostic capability of this method was successfully verified by reliably detecting adenosine present in a real human serum sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling and design of a two-axis elliptical notch flexure hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianwei; Zhang, Yin; Lu, Yunfeng; Wen, Zhongpu; Bin, Deer; Tan, Jiubin

    2018-04-01

    As an important part of the joule balance system, the two-axis elliptical notch flexure hinge (TENFH) which typically consists of two single-axis elliptical notch flexure hinges was studied. First, a 6 degrees of freedom (6-DOF) compliance model was established based on the coordinate transformation method. In addition, the maximum stress of the TENFH was derived. The compliance and maximum stress model was verified using finite element analysis simulation. To decouple the attitude of the suspended coil system and reduce the offset between the centroid of the suspended coil mechanism and the mass comparator in the joule balance system, a new mechanical structure of TENFH was designed based on the compliance model and stress model proposed in this paper. The maximum rotation range is up to 10°, and the axial load is more than 5 kg, which meets the requirements of the system. The compliance model was also verified by deformation experimentation with the designed TENFH.

  13. Automatic Laser Pointer Detection Algorithm for Environment Control Device Systems Based on Template Matching and Genetic Tuning of Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new approach for laser-based environment device control systems based on the automatic design of a Fuzzy Rule-Based System for laser pointer detection. The idea is to improve the success rate of the previous approaches decreasing as much as possible the false offs and increasing the success rate in images with laser spot, i.e., the detection of a false laser spot (since this could lead to dangerous situations. To this end, we propose to analyze both, the morphology and color of a laser spot image together, thus developing a new robust algorithm. Genetic Fuzzy Systems have also been employed to improve the laser spot system detection by means of a fine tuning of the involved membership functions thus reducing the system false offs, which is the main objective in this problem. The system presented in this paper, makes use of a Fuzzy Rule-Based System adjusted by a Genetic Algorithm, which, based on laser morphology and color analysis, shows a better success rate than previous approaches.

  14. View-Invariant Gait Recognition Through Genetic Template Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Ebenezer R. H. P.; Elias, Susan; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Easwarakumar, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    Template-based model-free approach provides by far the most successful solution to the gait recognition problem in literature. Recent work discusses how isolating the head and leg portion of the template increase the performance of a gait recognition system making it robust against covariates like clothing and carrying conditions. However, most involve a manual definition of the boundaries. The method we propose, the genetic template segmentation (GTS), employs the genetic algorithm to automate the boundary selection process. This method was tested on the GEI, GEnI and AEI templates. GEI seems to exhibit the best result when segmented with our approach. Experimental results depict that our approach significantly outperforms the existing implementations of view-invariant gait recognition.

  15. A Survey On Various Web Template Detection And Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Mary Varghese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In todays digital world reliance on the World Wide Web as a source of information is extensive. Users increasingly rely on web based search engines to provide accurate search results on a wide range of topics that interest them. The search engines in turn parse the vast repository of web pages searching for relevant information. However majority of web portals are designed using web templates which are designed to provide consistent look and feel to end users. The presence of these templates however can influence search results leading to inaccurate results being delivered to the users. Therefore to improve the accuracy and reliability of search results identification and removal of web templates from the actual content is essential. A wide range of approaches are commonly employed to achieve this and this paper focuses on the study of the various approaches of template detection and extraction that can be applied across homogenous as well as heterogeneous web pages.

  16. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign.

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Alessandro

    2012-02-04

    SUMMARY: MODalign is an interactive web-based tool aimed at helping protein structure modelers to inspect and manually modify the alignment between the sequences of a target protein and of its template(s). It interactively computes, displays and, upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three-dimensional model(s). Although it has been designed to simplify the target-template alignment step in modeling, it is suitable for all cases where a sequence alignment needs to be inspected in the context of other biological information. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Freely available on the web at http://modorama.biocomputing.it/modalign. Website implemented in HTML and JavaScript with all major browsers supported. CONTACT: jan.kosinski@uniroma1.it.

  17. Re-analysis of fatigue data for welded joints using the notch stress approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    Experimental fatigue data for welded joints have been collected and subjected to re-analysis using the notch stress approach according to IIW recommendations. This leads to an overview regarding the reliability of the approach, based on a large number of results (767 specimens). Evidently......-welded joints agree quite well with the FAT 225 curve; however a reduction to FAT 200 is suggested in order to achieve approximately the same safety as observed in the nominal stress approach....

  18. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  19. Complete Absence of Suprascapular Notch: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Mohan Pawar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment (SSNE is an acquired neuropathy secondary to compression of suprascapular nerve in the Suprascapular Notch (SSN. Complete ossification of superior transverse scapular ligament may be a cause for suprascapular nerve entrapment. The absence of suprascapular notch is not very common condition, though its prevalence was quoted by Indian authors to be varying from 1.36% to 32.46% in different parts of the country. It is considered to be a predisposing factor for suprascapular nerve entrapment neuropathy. We noticed a male scapula without suprascapular notch in osteology section of Forensic Medicine department. In this case we observed costal and dorsal surfaces of the left scapula of a male without suprascapular notch at its superior border. The details of the said scapula are discussed in this report.

  20. Computer simulation of the Charpy V-notch toughness test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, D.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic Charpy V-notch test was simulated on a computer. The calculational models (for A-533 Grade B class 1 steel) used both a rounded and a flat-tipped striker. The notch stress/strain state was found to be independent of the three-point loading type and was most strongly correlated with notch-opening displacement. The dynamic stress/strain state at the time of fracture initiation was obtained by comparing the calculated deformed shape with that obtained in interrupted Charpy V-notch tests where cracking had started. The calculation was also compared with stress/strain states calculated in other geometries at failure. The distribution and partition of specimen energy was calculated and adiabatic heating and strain rate are discussed

  1. A Compact Printed Quadruple Band-Notched UWB Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compact coplanar waveguide- (CPW- fed ultrawideband (UWB printed planar volcano-smoke antenna (PVSA with four band-notches for various wireless applications is proposed and demonstrated. The low-profile antenna consists of a C-shaped parasitic strip to generate a notched band at 8.01~8.55 GHz for the ITU band, two C-shaped slots, and an inverted U-shaped slot etched in the radiator patch to create three notched bands at 5.15~5.35 GHz, 5.75~5.85 GHz, and 7.25~7.75 GHz for filtering the WLAN and X-band satellite signals. Simulated and measured results both confirm that the proposed antenna has a broad bandwidth of 3.1~12 GHz with VSWR < 2 and good omnidirectional radiation patterns with four notched-bands.

  2. Dangerous Liaisons: Deviant Endothelium NOTCHes toward Tumor Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peipei; Rafii, Shahin

    2017-03-13

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Wieland et al. uncover a feedback loop in which tumor cells, by augmenting Notch signaling, provoke a senescent and pro-inflammatory state in endothelial cells, promoting neutrophil infiltration, tumor cell adhesion, and metastasis. Interfering with this Notch-dependent crosstalk may be a therapeutic approach to block metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A three-dimensional analysis of the sigmoid notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan D. Collins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common injuries of the upper extremity, though treatment has traditionally focused on restoration of the radiocarpal joint and late sequelae may persist. X-ray imaging underestimates sigmoid notch involvement following distal radius fractures. No classification system exists for disruption patterns of the sigmoid notch of the radius associated with distal radius fractures. This study quantifies the anatomy of the sigmoid notch and identifies the landmarks of the articular surface and proximal boundaries of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ capsule. Computed tomography scans of freshly frozen cadaveric hands were used - followed by dissection, and three-dimensional reconstruction of the distal radius and sigmoid notch. The sigmoid notch surface was divided into two surfaces and measured. The Anterior Posterior (AP and Proximal Distal (PD widths of the articulating surface were reviewed, along with the radius of curvature, version angle and depth. The study showed that the sigmoid notch is flatter than previously believed - and only the distal 69% of its surface is covered by cartilage. On average, it has about nine degrees of retroversion, and its average inclination is almost parallel to the anatomical axis of the radius. Clinical implications exist for evaluation of the DRUJ involvement in distal radius fractures or degenerative diseases and for future development and evaluation of hemiarthroplasty replacement of the distal radius.

  4. Notched K-wire for low thermal damage bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yiwen; Tai, Bruce; Holmes, James; Shih, Albert

    2017-07-01

    The Kirschner wire (K-wire) is a common bone drilling tool in orthopedic surgery to affix fractured bone. Significant heat is produced due to both the cutting and the friction between the K-wire and the bone debris during drilling. Such heat can result in high temperatures, leading to osteonecrosis and other secondary injuries. To reduce thermal injury and other high-temperature associated complications, a new K-wire design with three notches along the three-plane trocar tip fabricated using a thin micro-saw tool is studied. These notches evacuate bone debris and reduce the clogging and heat generation during bone drilling. A set of four K-wires, one without notches and three notched, with depths of 0.5, 0.75, and 1mm, are evaluated. Bone drilling experiments conducted on bovine cortical bone show that notched K-wires could effectively decrease the temperature, thrust force, and torque during bone drilling. K-wires with notches 1mm deep reduced the thrust force and torque by approximately 30%, reduced peak temperatures by 43%, and eliminated blackened burn marks in bone. This study demonstrates that a simple modification of the tip of K-wires can effectively reduce bone temperatures during drilling. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of notch and alloying on steel properties during extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinokur, B.B.; Pilyushenko, U.L.; Kasatkin, O.G.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on change of strength and plastic characteristics during extension of notched steel samples of 15 compositions containing often-used alloying elements in various amounts and combinations. The notch causes increase of strength and decrease of plastic properties of structural steels during extension. The most pronounced change of properties takes place for the notched sample with expansion angle close to 180 deg. Reduction of notch expansion angle below 150 deg causes slower decrease of the rate of property change. Nickel alloying and vanadium, titanium microalloying assist the improvement of steel plasticity despite the increase of strength properties. Introduction of these elements in steel compensate partially for the negative notch effect. Alloying by silicon, molybdenum and tungsten results in steel strengthening and chromium alloying causes some loss of strength. Manse, chromium, silicon, molybdenum and tungsten cause decrease of plasticity, which intensifies the negative notch effect. When determining concentration ranges of carbon and alloying elements within the limits of quality composition it is necessary to consider both technology and possibility of sufficient change of properties especially in the case of stress concentrator presence in structures

  6. Weld investigations by 3D analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Allan

    2005-01-01

    The Charpy impact test is a standard procedure for determining the ductile-brittle transition in welds. The predictions of such tests have been investigated by full three dimensional transient analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens. The material response is characterised by an elastic...... parameters in the weld material differ from those in the base material, and the heat a®ected zone (HAZ) tends to be more brittle than the other material regions. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is an important issue. Some specimens, for which the notched surface is rotated relative...... to the surface of the test piece, have so complex geometry that only a full 3D analysis is able to account for the interaction of failure in the three different material regions, whereas ther specimens can be approximated in terms of a planar analysis....

  7. Fatigue assessment of laserbeam welded PM steel components by the notch stress approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterkotte, R. [Schaeffler Technologies GmbH and Co. KG, Herzogenaurach (Germany); Sonsino, C.M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, Darmstadt (Germany); Baumgartner, J.

    2011-10-15

    The local fatigue strength of a laserbeam weld of a complex engine component, which joins a PM with a formed sheet component, was assessed by the notch stress concept with the fictitious reference radius of r{sub ref}= 0.05 mm. First, simplified specimens, following the main geometric dimensions of the parts, were manufactured. On these specimens the fatigue strength was identified by tests and the notch stresses calculated by finite element analysis. Based on these results a design SN-curve was derived to assess the fatigue strength of the engine component. The numerical assessment of the welded joint was verified by proof tests with the component. The assessment could be improved by considering statistical and stress gradient dependent size effects according to the concept of the highly stressed volume. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Void coalescence and fracture behavior of notched and un-notched tensile tested specimens in fine grain dual phase steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidi, N., E-mail: navidsae@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafizadeh, F.; Niroumand, B. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Forouzan, M.R.; Mohseni mofidi, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barlat, F. [Materials Mechanics Laboratory (MML), Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT), Pohang University of Science and Technology POSTECH, San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-17

    Due to growing global concern about the environmental issues, steel developers have been forced by automobile makers to produce more efficient steel grades with high strength to weight ratios along with high crashworthiness performance. In order to find deficiencies of the existing steels and develop superior steel products, detailed understanding of deformation and damage behavior in the existing steels is needed. In the present research, deformation and damage evolution during room temperature uniaxial tensile test of a modern high strength Dual Phase Steel, i.e. DP780, were studied. Detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the microstructures of notched and un-notched tensile fractured specimens revealed that in notched specimen, plastic deformation was concentrated more within the notched region. Therefore, much higher reduction in thickness with a high reduction gradient occurred in this region, In the un-notched specimen, however, plastic deformation was more uniformly distributed in larger parts of the gauge length, and therefore, thickness reduction happened with a lower gradient. Although geometric notch on the specimen did not change the void nucleation and growth mechanisms, the kinetics of these phenomena was influenced. On the other hand, voids linkage mechanism tended to change from void coalescence in the un-notched specimen to void sheeting in the notched specimen. Moreover, three different models developed by Brown & Embury (BM), Thomason and Pardoen were employed to predict the final fracture strain. It was revealed that, BM model showed much more accurate predictions for the studied DP steel in comparison with those of Thomason and Pardoens’ models.

  9. Void coalescence and fracture behavior of notched and un-notched tensile tested specimens in fine grain dual phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeidi, N.; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Niroumand, B.; Forouzan, M.R.; Mohseni mofidi, S.; Barlat, F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to growing global concern about the environmental issues, steel developers have been forced by automobile makers to produce more efficient steel grades with high strength to weight ratios along with high crashworthiness performance. In order to find deficiencies of the existing steels and develop superior steel products, detailed understanding of deformation and damage behavior in the existing steels is needed. In the present research, deformation and damage evolution during room temperature uniaxial tensile test of a modern high strength Dual Phase Steel, i.e. DP780, were studied. Detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the microstructures of notched and un-notched tensile fractured specimens revealed that in notched specimen, plastic deformation was concentrated more within the notched region. Therefore, much higher reduction in thickness with a high reduction gradient occurred in this region, In the un-notched specimen, however, plastic deformation was more uniformly distributed in larger parts of the gauge length, and therefore, thickness reduction happened with a lower gradient. Although geometric notch on the specimen did not change the void nucleation and growth mechanisms, the kinetics of these phenomena was influenced. On the other hand, voids linkage mechanism tended to change from void coalescence in the un-notched specimen to void sheeting in the notched specimen. Moreover, three different models developed by Brown & Embury (BM), Thomason and Pardoen were employed to predict the final fracture strain. It was revealed that, BM model showed much more accurate predictions for the studied DP steel in comparison with those of Thomason and Pardoens’ models

  10. Microporous silica prepared by organic templating: relationship between the molecular template and pore structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Cao, Guozhong; Kale, Rahul P.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Lu, Yunfeng; Prabakar, S.

    1999-01-01

    Microporous silica materials with a controlled pore size and a narrow pore size distribution have been prepared by sol-gel processing using an organic-templating approach. Microporous networks were formed by pyrolytic removal of organic ligands (methacryloxypropyl groups) from organic/inorganic hybrid materials synthesized by copolymerization of 3-methacryloxypropylsilane (MPS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Molecular simulations and experimental measurements were conducted to examine the relationship between the microstructural characteristics of the porous silica (e.g., pore size, total pore volume, and pore connectivity) and the size and amount of organic template ligands added. Adsorption measurements suggest that the final porosity of the microporous silica is due to both primary pores (those present in the hybrid materials prior to pyrolysis) and secondary pores (those created by pyrolytic removal of organic templates). Primary pores were inaccessible to N(sub 2) at 77 K but accessible to CO(sub 2) at 195 K; secondary pores were accessible to both N(sub 2) (at 77 K) and CO(sub 2) (at 195 K) in adsorption measurements. Primary porosity decreases with the amount of organic ligands added because of the enhanced densification of MPS/TEOS hybrid materials as the mole fraction of trifunctional MPS moieties increases. pore volumes measured by nitrogen adsorption experiments at 77 K suggest that the secondary (template-derived) porosity exhibits a percolation behavior as the template concentration is increased. Gas permeation experiments indicate that the secondary pores are approximately 5(angstrom) in diameter, consistent with predictions based on molecular simulations

  11. Iranian Language Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives on Top Notch Series (2nd edition at Intermediate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azadsarv

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As the means of transferring knowledge between teachers and students, coursebooks play a significant role in educational practices all over the world. Evaluation of coursebooks is also of great significance as it manages to a better understanding of the nature of a specific teaching/learning situation. The present study is an attempt to evaluateTop Notch coursebook from both Iranian EFL learners’ and teachers’ perspectives. One hundred students and 20 teachers participated in this study. Sixty four of the students and nine of the teachers were male and 36 of the students and 11 of the teachers were female. The range of teachers' experience of teaching the coursebook was between 2-4 years and the range of students' experience of studying the coursebook was between 1-3 years. The data collection took place in three language institutes of Gilan and Mazandaran provinces. The coursebook, evaluated based on modified version of Cunningsworth's (1995 checklist, was the intermediate level of Top Notch. It was evaluated by both students and teachers based on administering written questionnaires. In order to triangulate the gathered data, 25 percent of the teachers and 10 percent of the students attended an interview session. Data analysis indicated that strengths of Top Notch from teachers' perspective are grammar, visuals, supplementary materials and culture and from students' point of view are content, grammar, phonology and visuals.

  12. Fatigue limit prediction of ferritic-pearlitic ductile cast iron considering stress ratio and notch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T.; Kim, H. J.; Ikeda, T.

    2017-05-01

    The mechanical behavior of ductile cast iron is governed by graphite particles and casting defects in the microstructures, which can significantly decrease the fatigue strength. In our previous study, the fatigue limit of ferritic-pearlitic ductile cast iron specimens with small defects ((\\sqrt{{area}}=80˜ 1500{{μ }}{{m}})) could successfully be predicted based on the \\sqrt{{area}} parameter model by using \\sqrt{{area}} as a geometrical parameter of defect as well as the tensile strength as a material parameter. In addition, the fatigue limit for larger defects could be predicted based on the conventional fracture mechanics approach. In this study, rotating bending and tension-compression fatigue tests with ferritic-pearlitic ductile cast iron containing circumferential sharp notches as well as smooth specimens were performed to investigate quantitatively the effects of defect. The notch depths ranged 10 ˜ 2500 μm and the notch root radii were 5 and 50 μm. The stress ratios were R = -1 and 0.1. The microscopic observation of crack propagation near fatigue limit revealed that the fatigue limit was determined by the threshold condition for propagation of a small crack emanating from graphite particles. The fatigue limit could be successfully predicted as a function of R using a method proposed in this study.

  13. In-plane deeply-etched optical MEMS notch filter with high-speed tunability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, Yasser M; Eltagoury, Yomna M; Shebl, Ahmed; Khalil, Diaa; Soliman, Mostafa; Sadek, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Notch filters are used in spectroscopy, multi-photon microscopy, fluorescence instrumentation, optical sensors and other life science applications. One type of notch filter is based on a fiber-coupled Fabry–Pérot cavity, which is formed by a reflector (external mirror) facing a dielectric-coated end of an optical fiber. Tailoring this kind of optical filter for different applications is possible because the external mirror has fewer mechanical and optical constraints. In this paper we present optical modeling and implementation of a fiber-coupled Fabry–Pérot filter based on dielectric-coated optical fiber inserted into a micromachined fiber groove facing a metallized micromirror, which is driven by a high-speed MEMS actuator. The optical MEMS chip is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology on a silicon on insulator wafer, where the optical axis is parallel to the substrate (in-plane) and the optical/mechanical components are self-aligned by the photolithographic process. The DRIE etching depth is 150 μm, chosen to increase the micromirror optical throughput and improving the out-of-plane stiffness of the MEMS actuator. The MEMS actuator type is closing-gap, while its quality factor is almost doubled by slotting the fixed plate. A low-finesse Fabry–Pérot interferometer is formed by the metallized surface of the micromirror and a cleaved end of a standard single-mode fiber, for characterization of the MEMS actuator stroke and resonance frequency. The actuator achieves a travel distance of 800 nm at a resonance frequency of 89.9 kHz. The notch filter characteristics were measured using an optical spectrum analyzer, and the filter exhibits a free spectral range up to 100 nm and a notch rejection ratio up to 20 dB around a wavelength of 1300 nm. The presented device provides batch processing and low-cost production of the filter. (paper)

  14. Heterogeneity of breast cancer stem cells as evidenced with Notch-dependent and Notch-independent populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Nelson K Y; Fuller, Megan; Sung, Sandy; Wong, Fred; Karsan, Aly

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested the potential importance of Notch signaling to the cancer stem cell population in some tumors, but it is not known whether all cells in the cancer stem cell fraction require Notch activity. To address this issue, we blocked Notch activity in MCF-7 cells by expressing a dominant-negative MAML-GFP (dnMAML) construct, which inhibits signaling through all Notch receptors, and quantified the effect on tumor-initiating activity. Inhibition of Notch signaling reduced primary tumor sphere formation and side population. Functional quantification of tumor-initiating cell numbers in vivo showed a significant decrease, but not a complete abrogation, of these cells in dnMAML-expressing cells. Interestingly, when assessed in secondary assays in vitro or in vivo, there was no difference in tumor-initiating activity between the dnMAML-expressing cells and control cells. The fact that a subpopulation of dnMAML-expressing cells was capable of forming primary and secondary tumors indicates that there are Notch-independent tumor-initiating cells in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Our findings thus provide direct evidence for a heterogeneous cancer stem cell pool, which will require combination therapies against multiple oncogenic pathways to eliminate the tumor-initiating cell population

  15. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  16. Formation of novel morphologies of aragonite induced by inorganic template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Nan, Zhaodong

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Glass-slices were used as a template to induce formation and assembly of aragonite. Different morphologies, such as hemisphere, twinborn hemisphere and flower-shaped particles, were produced by direction of the glass-slices. Highlights: → Glass-slices were used as a template to induce formation and assembly of aragonite. → Hemisphere, twinborn hemisphere and flower-shaped particles were produced by direction of the glass-slices. → Planes were always appeared in these as-synthesized samples. → Thermodynamic theory was applied to explain the production of the aragonite. -- Abstract: A glass-slice was used as a template to induce formation and assembly of aragonite. Thermodynamic theory was applied to explain the production of the aragonite. Transformation of three-dimensional nucleation to template-based two-dimensional surface nucleation caused the production of aragonite. Hemisphere, twinborn hemisphere and flower-shaped particles were produced by direction of the glass-slices. Planes were always appeared in these as-synthesized samples because the nucleation and the growth of these samples were adsorbed at the surfaces of the glass-slices. The formation mechanism of the as-formed sample was proposed. Compared with organic template, the present study provides a facile method to apply inorganic template to prepare functional materials.

  17. A Novel Surgical Template Design in Staged Dental Implant Rehabilitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Patras

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The philosophy of a gradual transition to an implant retained prosthesis in cases of full-mouth or extensive rehabilitation usually involves a staged treatment concept. In this therapeutic approach, the placement of implants may sometimes be divided into phases. During a subsequent surgical phase of treatment, the pre-existing implants can serve as anchors for the surgical template. Those modified surgical templates help in the precise transferring of restorative information into the surgical field and guide the optimal three-dimensional implant positioning. Methods: This article highlights the rationale of implant-retained surgical templates and illustrates them through the presentation of two clinical cases. The templates are duplicates of the provisional restorations and are secured to the existing implants through the utilization of implant mounts. Results: This template design in such staged procedures provided stability in the surgical field and enhanced the accuracy in implant positioning based upon the planned restoration, thus ensuring predictable treatment outcomes.Conclusions: Successful rehabilitation lies in the correct sequence of surgical and prosthetic procedures. Whenever a staged approach of implant placement is planned, the clinician can effectively use the initially placed implants as anchors for the surgical template during the second phase of implant surgery.

  18. Structure-function analysis of RBP-J-interacting and tubulin-associated (RITA) reveals regions critical for repression of Notch target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaja, Nassif; Yuan, Zhenyu; Oswald, Franz; Kovall, Rhett A

    2017-06-23

    The Notch pathway is a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism that is essential for tissue development and maintenance, and aberrant Notch signaling has been implicated in various cancers, congenital defects, and cardiovascular diseases. Notch signaling activates the expression of target genes, which are regulated by the transcription factor CSL (CBF1/RBP-J, Su(H), Lag-1). CSL interacts with both transcriptional corepressor and coactivator proteins, functioning as both a repressor and activator, respectively. Although Notch activation complexes are relatively well understood at the structural level, less is known about how CSL interacts with corepressors. Recently, a new RBP-J (mammalian CSL ortholog)-interacting protein termed RITA has been identified and shown to export RBP-J out of the nucleus, thereby leading to the down-regulation of Notch target gene expression. However, the molecular details of RBP-J/RITA interactions are unclear. Here, using a combination of biochemical/cellular, structural, and biophysical techniques, we demonstrate that endogenous RBP-J and RITA proteins interact in cells, map the binding regions necessary for RBP-J·RITA complex formation, and determine the X-ray structure of the RBP-J·RITA complex bound to DNA. To validate the structure and glean more insights into function, we tested structure-based RBP-J and RITA mutants with biochemical/cellular assays and isothermal titration calorimetry. Whereas our structural and biophysical studies demonstrate that RITA binds RBP-J similarly to the RAM (RBP-J-associated molecule) domain of Notch, our biochemical and cellular assays suggest that RITA interacts with additional regions in RBP-J. Taken together, these results provide molecular insights into the mechanism of RITA-mediated regulation of Notch signaling, contributing to our understanding of how CSL functions as a transcriptional repressor of Notch target genes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  20. NOTCH2 signaling confers immature morphology and aggressiveness in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Osanai, Makoto; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2015-10-01

    The NOTCH family of membranous receptors plays key roles during development and carcinogenesis. Since NOTCH2, yet not NOTCH1 has been shown essential for murine hepatogenesis, NOTCH2 rather than NOTCH1 may be more relevant to human hepatocarcinogenesis; however, no previous studies have supported this hypothesis. We therefore assessed the role of NOTCH2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by immunohistochemistry and cell culture. Immunohistochemically, 19% of primary HCCs showed nuclear staining for NOTCH2, indicating activated NOTCH2 signaling. NOTCH2-positive HCCs were on average in more advanced clinical stages, and exhibited more immature cellular morphology, i.e. higher nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios and nuclear densities. Such features were not evident in NOTCH1‑positive HCCs. In human HCC cell lines, abundant NOTCH2 expression was associated with anaplasia, represented by loss of E-cadherin. When NOTCH2 signaling was stably downregulated in HLF cells, an anaplastic HCC cell line, the cells were attenuated in potential for in vitro invasiveness and migration, as well as in vivo tumorigenicity accompanied by histological maturation. Generally, inverse results were obtained for a differentiated HCC cell line, Huh7, manipulated to overexpress activated NOTCH2. These findings suggested that the NOTCH2 signaling may confer aggressive behavior and immature morphology in human HCC cells.

  1. A Template for Open Inquiry: Using Questions to Encourage and Support Inquiry in Earth and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…

  2. Hydrazine-based synergistic Ti(III)/N doping of surfactant-templated TiO{sub 2} thin films for enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Syed Z.; Rankin, Stephen E., E-mail: srankin@engr.uky.edu

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the preparation of titanium (Ti{sup 3+}) and nitrogen co-doped cubic ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films using N{sub 2}H{sub 4} treatment. The resulting co-doped TiO{sub 2} (Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2}) thin films show significant enhancements in visible light absorption and photocatalytic activity. Cubic ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared via a sol-gel method with Pluronic F127 as the pore template. After brief calcination, the TiO{sub 2} films were dipped into hydrazine hydrate which acts both as a nitrogen source and as a reducing agent, followed by heating at low temperature (90 °C). The hydrazine treatment period was varied from 5 to 20 h to obtain different degrees of reduction and nitrogen doping. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses and UV–vis absorbance spectra of Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films indicate that the incorporated N atoms and Ti{sup 3+} reduce the band gap of TiO{sub 2} and thus enhance the absorption of visible light. The corresponding visible light photocatalytic activity of Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films was determined from the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light illumination (at 455 nm). The Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films prepared with 10 h of treatment show the optimum photocatalytic activity, with a pseudo-first order rate coefficient of 0.12 h{sup −1}, which is 3 times greater than that of undoped TiO{sub 2} films. Calcination temperature and time were varied prior to hydrazine treatment to confirm that a brief calcination at low temperature (10 min at 350 °C) gave the best photochemical activity. In photoelectrochemical water oxidation using a 455 nm LED, the Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films prepared with 10 h of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} treatment show about 4 times the photocurrent compared to undoped TiO{sub 2} films. The present study suggests that hydrazine induced doping is a promising approach to enable synergistic incorporation of N and Ti{sup 3+} into the

  3. Cell-Cell Contact Area Affects Notch Signaling and Notch-Dependent Patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Oren; Binshtok, Udi; Hersch, Micha; Rivkin, Dmitri; Weinreb, Sheila; Amir-Zilberstein, Liat; Khamaisi, Bassma; Oppenheim, Olya; Desai, Ravi A; Goodyear, Richard J; Richardson, Guy P; Chen, Christopher S; Sprinzak, David

    2017-03-13

    During development, cells undergo dramatic changes in their morphology. By affecting contact geometry, these morphological changes could influence cellular communication. However, it has remained unclear whether and how signaling depends on contact geometry. This question is particularly relevant for Notch signaling, which coordinates neighboring cell fates through direct cell-cell signaling. Using micropatterning with a receptor trans-endocytosis assay, we show that signaling between pairs of cells correlates with their contact area. This relationship extends across contact diameters ranging from micrometers to tens of micrometers. Mathematical modeling predicts that dependence of signaling on contact area can bias cellular differentiation in Notch-mediated lateral inhibition processes, such that smaller cells are more likely to differentiate into signal-producing cells. Consistent with this prediction, analysis of developing chick inner ear revealed that ligand-producing hair cell precursors have smaller apical footprints than non-hair cells. Together, these results highlight the influence of cell morphology on fate determination processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elucidating the 3D structures of Al(iii)-Aβ complexes: a template free strategy based on the pre-organization hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Jon I; Rodríguez-Guerra Pedregal, Jaime; Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M; Rodríguez-Santiago, Luis; Sodupe, Mariona; Maréchal, Jean-Didier

    2017-07-01

    Senile plaques are extracellular deposits found in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and are mainly formed by insoluble fibrils of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. The mechanistic details about how AD develops are not fully understood yet, but metals such as Cu, Zn, or Fe are proposed to have a non-innocent role. Many studies have also linked the non biological metal aluminum with AD, a species whose concentration in the environment and food has been constantly increasing since the industrial revolution. Gaining a molecular picture of how Al(iii) interacts with an Aβ peptide is of fundamental interest to improve understanding of the many variables in the evolution of AD. So far, no consensus has been reached on how this metal interacts with Aβ, partially due to the experimental complexity of detecting and quantifying the resulting Al(iii)-Aβ complexes. Computational chemistry arises as a powerful alternative to investigate how Al(iii) can interact with Aβ peptides, as suitable strategies could shed light on the metal-peptide description at the molecular level. However, the absence of any reliable template that could be used for the modeling of the metallopeptide structure makes computational insight extremely difficult. Here, we present a novel strategy to generate accurate 3D models of the Al(iii)-Aβ complexes, which still circumvents first principles simulations of metal binding to peptides of Aβ. The key to this approach lies in the identification of experimental structures of the isolated peptide that are favourably pre-organized for the binding of a given metal in configurations of the first coordination sphere that were previously identified as the most stable with amino acid models. This approach solves the problem of the absence of clear structural templates for novel metallopeptide constructs. The posterior refinement of the structures via QM/MM and MD calculations allows us to provide, for the first time, physically sound models for Al

  5. Reciprocal upregulation of Notch signaling molecules in hematopoietic progenitor and mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Y

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs play pivotal supportive roles in hematopoiesis, how they interact with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs is not well understood. We investigated the interaction between HSCs and surrogate MSCs (C3H10T1/2 stromal cells, focusing on the molecular events induced by cell contact of these bipartite populations. C3H10T1/2 is a mesenchymal stromal cell line that can be induced to differentiate into preadipocytes (A54 and myoblasts (M1601. The stromal cell derivatives were cocultured with murine HSCs (Lineage-Sca1+, and gene expression profiles in stromal cells and HSCs were compared before and after the coculture. HSCs gave rise to cobblestone areas only on A54 cells, with ninefold more progenitors than on M1601 or undifferentiated C3H10T1/2 cells. Microarray-based screening and a quantitative reverse transcriptase directed-polymerase chain reaction showed that the levels of Notch ligands (Jagged1 and Delta-like 3 were increased in A54 cells upon interaction with HSCs. On the other hand, the expression of Notch1 and Hes1 was upregulated in the HSCs cocultured with A54 cells. A transwell assay revealed that the reciprocal upregulation was dependent on cell-to-cell contact. The result suggested that in the hematopoietic niche, HSCs help MSCs to produce Notch ligands, and in turn, MSCs help HSCs to express Notch receptor. Such a reciprocal upregulation would reinforce the downstream signaling to determine the fate of hematopoietic cell lineage. Clarification of the initiating events on cell contact should lead to the identification of specific molecular targets to facilitate HSC engraftment in transplantation therapy.

  6. First Results in the Use of Bovine Ear Notch Tag for Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Detection and Genetic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Quinet

    Full Text Available Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth. An antigen-capture ELISA test based on the detection of BVDV Erns protein is used. Ear notch sample may also be used to characterize the genotype of the calf when appropriate elution/dilution buffer is added. Both BVDV antigen-ELISA analysis and animal traceability could be performed.With regards to the reference protocol used in the preparation of ear notch samples, alternative procedures were tested in terms of BVDV analytic sensitivity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, as well as quality and purity of animal DNA.The Allflex DNA Buffer D showed promising results in BVDV diagnosis and genome analyses, opening new perspectives for the livestock industry by the exploitation of the animal genome. Due to the high number of cattle involved in the Belgian official BVDV eradication programme based on ear notch tags sample, a large database on both BVDV status of newborn calves and cattle genome could be created for subsequent different uses (e.g. traceability, determination of parentage, genetic signatures throughout the genome associated with particular traits evolving through a more integrated animal health.

  7. Notch fatigue crack propagation - A consistent concept for calculating flawed service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dankert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The research report presents a consistent concept of elastic-plastic fatigue fracture mechanics, to be used for numerical description of crack initiation and propagation behaviour within and out of notched areas of circular notched specimens for Woehler tests, two-phase fatigue tests and tests under service conditions. It is shown that a fracture-mechanics approach yields results capable of describing the load history over the whole service life of a structural member. A J-integral-related crack propagation model is derived that takes into account the crack opening and closure behaviour. The model is based on specially developed formulas, algorithms and approximation formulas required for description of crack opening and closure behaviour as well as calculation of the stress intensity factor K and the J-integral of cracks at notches. The values relating to crack opening were compared with experimental data, and those describing the stress intensity factor K and the J-integrals with 2D and 3D elastic-plastic FE calculations. Good and very good agreement of results was achieved. (orig./CB) [de

  8. ENRM Working Paper Template

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    evidence based policy making. Canada's ... not subject to peer review, nor reviewed or edited for style and content. The views ... This paper develops a simple model to disentangle the effect of education on incomes by .... with prior belief, returns to education were low in agriculture, and resulted from lacking learning ...

  9. The effect of residual stresses induced by prestraining on fatigue life of notched specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeler, R.; Ozel, A.; Kaymaz, I.; Totik, Y.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of tensile prestraining-induced residual stress on the fatigue life of notched steel parts was investigated. The study was performed on AISI 4140 steel. Rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out on semicircular notched specimens with different notch radii in the as-quenched and tempered conditions. Metallography of the specimens was performed by means of light optical microscopy. The finite-element method was used to evaluate the residual stress distribution near the notch region. Fatigue tests revealed fatigue life improvement for notched specimens, which changes depending on the notch radii and applied stress. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the fracture surfaces of the specimens.

  10. The Contextualization of Archetypes: Clinical Template Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune; Ulriksen, Gro-Hilde; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a status report from a large-scale openEHR-based EPR project from the North Norway Regional Health Authority. It concerns the standardization of a regional ICT portfolio and the ongoing development of a new process oriented EPR systems encouraged by the unfolding of a national repository for openEHR archetypes. Subject of interest; the contextualization of clinical templates is governed over multiple national boundaries which is complex due to the dependency of clinical resources. From the outset of this, we are interested in how local, regional, and national organizers maneuver to standardize while applying OpenEHR technology.

  11. Assembly of crosslinked oxo-cyanoruthenate and zirconium oxide bilayers: Application in electrocatalytic films based on organically modified silica with templated pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Sek, Jakub P.; Mehdi, B. Layla; Kulesza, Pawel J.; Cox, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of crosslinked oxo-cyanoruthenate, Ru-O/CN-O, from a mixture of RuCl 3 and K 4 Ru(CN) 6 is known to yield a film on glassy carbon that promotes oxidations by a combination of electron and oxygen transfer. Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of this species at a film formed by cycling of the electrode potential in a ZrO 2 solution systematically increases the number of catalytically active sites of the Ru-O/CN-O on the electrode. The evaluation of the electrocatalytic activity was by cyclic voltammetric oxidation of cysteine at pH 2. Plots of the anodic peak current vs. the square root of scan rate were indicative of linear diffusion control of this oxidation, even in the absence of ZrO 2 , but the slopes of these linear plots increased with bilayer number, n, of (ZrO 2 | Ru-O/CN-O) n . The latter observation is hypothesized to be due to an increased number of active sites for a given geometric electrode area, but proof requires further study. To optimize utilization of the catalyst and to provide a size-exclusion characteristic to the electrode, the study was extended to LbL deposition of the composite in 50-nm pores of an organically modified silica film deposited by electrochemically assisted sol-gel processing using surface-bound poly(styrene sulfonate) nanospheres as a templating agent

  12. Laser-ignited frontal polymerization of shape-controllable poly(VI-co-AM) hydrogels based on 3D templates toward adsorption of heavy metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Suzhen; Liu, Sisi; Wang, Xiao-Qiao; Wang, Cai-Feng; Chen, Su

    2016-06-01

    Given the increasing heavy metal pollution issue, fast preparation of polymeric hydrogels with excellent adsorption property toward heavy metal ions is very attractive. In this work, a series of poly( N-vinylimidazole-co-acrylamide) (poly(VI-co-AM)) hydrogels were synthesized via laser-ignited frontal polymerization (LIFP) for the first time. The dependence of frontal velocity and temperature on two factors monomer ratios and initiator concentrations was systematically investigated. Poly(VI-co-AM) hydrogels with any self-supporting shapes can be synthesized by a one-step LIFP in seconds through the application of 3D templates. These shape-persistent hydrogels are pH-responsive and exhibit excellent adsorption/desorption characteristics toward Mn(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) ions, and the adsorption conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The reusability of the hydrogels toward mental ions adsorption was further researched, which suggested that the hydrogels can be reused without serious decrease in adsorption capacity. This work might open a promising strategy to facilely prepare shape-controllable hydrogels and expand the application of LIFP.

  13. Generating cancelable fingerprint templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratha, Nalini K; Chikkerur, Sharat; Connell, Jonathan H; Bolle, Ruud M

    2007-04-01

    Biometrics-based authentication systems offer obvious usability advantages over traditional password and token-based authentication schemes. However, biometrics raises several privacy concerns. A biometric is permanently associated with a user and cannot be changed. Hence, if a biometric identifier is compromised, it is lost forever and possibly for every application where the biometric is used. Moreover, if the same biometric is used in multiple applications, a user can potentially be tracked from one application to the next by cross-matching biometric databases. In this paper, we demonstrate several methods to generate multiple cancelable identifiers from fingerprint images to overcome these problems. In essence, a user can be given as many biometric identifiers as needed by issuing a new transformation "key." The identifiers can be cancelled and replaced when compromised. We empirically compare the performance of several algorithms such as Cartesian, polar, and surface folding transformations of the minutiae positions. It is demonstrated through multiple experiments that we can achieve revocability and prevent cross-matching of biometric databases. It is also shown that the transforms are noninvertible by demonstrating that it is computationally as hard to recover the original biometric identifier from a transformed version as by randomly guessing. Based on these empirical results and a theoretical analysis we conclude that feature-level cancelable biometric construction is practicable in large biometric deployments.

  14. Coastal dune dynamics in response to excavated foredune notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruessink, B. G.; Arens, S. M.; Kuipers, M.; Donker, J. J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Dune management along developed coasts has traditionally focussed on the suppression of the geomorphic dynamics of the foredune to improve its role in sea defence. Because a stabilized foredune acts as an almost total barrier to aeolian transport from the beach, the habitat diversity in the more landward dunes has degraded. With the overarching objective to mitigate this undesirable loss in biodiversity, dune management projects nowadays increasingly intend to restore aeolian dynamics by reconnecting the beach-dune system with notches excavated through the foredune. Here, we use repeat topographic survey data to examine the geomorphic response of a coastal dune system in the Dutch National Park Zuid-Kennemerland to five notches excavated in 2012-2013 within an 850-m stretch of the 20-m high established foredune. The notches were dug in a V-shape (viewed onshore), with a width between approximately 50 and 100 m at the top, a (cross-dune) length between 100 and 200 m, and excavation depths between 9 and 12.5 m. The 1 × 1 m digital terrain models, acquired with airborne Lidar and UAV photogrammetry, illustrate that during the 3-year survey period the notches developed into a U-shape because of wall deflation, and that up to 8-m thick and 150-m long depositional lobes formed landward of the notches. Sand budget computations showed that the sand volume of the entire study area increased by about 22,750 m3/year, which, given the 850-m width of the study area, corresponds to an aeolian input from the beach of approximately 26.5 m3/m/year. Between 2006 and 2012 all wind-blown beach sand deposited on the seaward side of the foredune; since 2013, the notches have caused 75% of the sand to be deposited landward of the foredune. This highlights that the notches are highly effective conduits for aeolian transport into the back dunes. Future monitoring is required to determine for how long the notches will stimulate aeolian dynamics and if (and when) vegetation eventually

  15. Breast Cancer Stem Cell Therapeutics, Multiple Strategies Versus Using Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cells With Notch Inhibitory Properties: Possibilities and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bipasha; Sen, Utsav; Shenoy P, Sudheer

    2018-01-01

    Relapse cases of cancers are more vigorous and difficult to control due to the preponderance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Such CSCs that had been otherwise dormant during the first incidence of cancer gradually appear as radiochemoresistant cancer cells. Hence, cancer therapeutics aimed at CSCs would be an effective strategy for mitigating the cancers during relapse. Alternatively, CSC therapy can also be proposed as an adjuvant therapy, along-with the conventional therapies. As regenerative stem cells (RSCs) are known for their trophic effects, anti-tumorogenicity, and better migration toward an injury site, this review aims to address the use of adult stem cells such as dental pulp derived; cord blood derived pure populations of regenerative stem cells for targeting CSCs. Indeed, pro-tumorogenicity of RSCs is of concern and hence has also been dealt with in relation to breast CSC therapeutics. Furthermore, as notch signaling pathways are upregulated in breast cancers, and anti-notch antibody based and sh-RNA based therapies are already in the market, this review focuses the possibilities of engineering RSCs to express notch inhibitory proteins for breast CSC therapeutics. Also, we have drawn a comparison among various possibilities of breast CSC therapeutics, about, notch1 inhibition. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 141-149, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Why does necking ignore notches in dynamic tension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotbaum Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work has revealed that necking of tensile specimens, subjected to dynamic loading, is a deterministic phenomenon, governed by the applied boundary conditions. Furthermore it was shown that the potential sited, dictated by the boundary conditions, may prevail even in the presence of a notch, thus necking may occur away of the notched region. The present paper combines experimental and numerical work to address this issue. Specifically, it is shown that the dynamic tensile failure locus is dictated by both the applied velocity boundary condition and the material mechanical properties, specifically strain-rate sensitivity and strain-rate hardening. It is shown that at sufficiently high impact velocities, the flows stress in the notch vicinity becomes quite higher than in the rest of the specimen, so that while the former resists deformation, it transfers the load to the latter, resulting in the formation of a local neck and failure away from the notch. Small local perturbations in the material properties are shown to be sufficient to stabilize the structure under local failure until a neck forms elsewhere. While the physical observations are quite counterintuitive with respect to the engineering views of stress concentrator's effect, the present work rationalizes those observations and also provides information for the designers of dynamically tensioned structures that may contain notches or similar flaws.

  17. Notch pathway signaling in the skin antagonizes Merkel cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gregory J; Wright, Margaret C; Kubicki, Adam C; Maricich, Stephen M

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells derived from the epidermal lineage whose development requires expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. The genes and pathways involved in regulating Merkel cell development during embryogenesis are poorly understood. Notch pathway signaling antagonizes Atoh1 expression in many developing body regions, so we hypothesized that Notch signaling might inhibit Merkel cell development. We found that conditional, constitutive overexpression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in mouse epidermis significantly decreased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles and touch domes of hairy skin. Conversely, conditional deletion of the obligate NICD binding partner RBPj in the epidermis significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles, led to the development of ectopic Merkel cells outside of touch domes in hairy skin epidermis, and altered the distribution of Merkel cells in touch domes. Deletion of the downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 also significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles. Together, these data demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates Merkel cell production and patterning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oncogenic programmes and Notch activity: an 'organized crime'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The inappropriate Notch signalling can influence virtually all aspect of cancer, including tumour-cell growth, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, although it does not do this alone. Hence, elucidating the partners of Notch that are active in cancer is now the focus of much intense research activity. The genetic toolkits available, coupled to the small size and short life of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, makes this an inexpensive and effective animal model, suited to large-scale cancer gene discovery studies. The fly eye is not only a non-vital organ but its stereotyped size and disposition also means it is easy to screen for mutations that cause tumours and metastases and provides ample opportunities to test cancer theories and to unravel unanticipated nexus between Notch and other cancer genes, or to discover unforeseen Notch's partners in cancer. These studies suggest that Notch's oncogenic capacity is brought about not simply by increasing signal strength but through partnerships, whereby oncogenes gain more by cooperating than acting individually, as in a ring 'organized crime'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of epidermal Pdx1 expression discloses different roles of Notch1 and Notch2 in murine Kras(G12D-induced skin carcinogenesis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel K Mazur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ras and Notch signaling pathways are frequently activated during development to control many diverse cellular processes and are often dysregulated during tumorigenesis. To study the role of Notch and oncogenic Kras signaling in a progenitor cell population, Pdx1-Cre mice were utilized to generate conditional oncogenic Kras(G12D mice with ablation of Notch1 and/or Notch2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surprisingly, mice with activated Kras(G12D and Notch1 but not Notch2 ablation developed skin papillomas progressing to squamous cell carcinoma providing evidence for Pdx1 expression in the skin. Immunostaining and lineage tracing experiments indicate that PDX1 is present predominantly in the suprabasal layers of the epidermis and rarely in the basal layer. Further analysis of keratinocytes in vitro revealed differentiation-dependent expression of PDX1 in terminally differentiated keratinocytes. PDX1 expression was also increased during wound healing. Further analysis revealed that loss of Notch1 but not Notch2 is critical for skin tumor development. Reasons for this include distinct Notch expression with Notch1 in all layers and Notch2 in the suprabasal layer as well as distinctive p21 and β-catenin signaling inhibition capabilities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide strong evidence for epidermal expression of Pdx1 as of yet not identified function. In addition, this finding may be relevant for research using Pdx1-Cre transgenic strains. Additionally, our study confirms distinctive expression and functions of Notch1 and Notch2 in the skin supporting the importance of careful dissection of the contribution of individual Notch receptors.

  20. Acoustic emission during tensile deformation and fracture of nuclear grade AISI type 304 stainless steel specimens with notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    Acoustic emission generated during tensile deformation and fracture of nuclear grade AISI type 304 stainless steel specimens with notches has been studied. The extent of acoustic activity generated depends on notch tip severity, notch tip blunting and tearing of the notches. The equation N=AK m applied to the acoustic emission data of the notched specimens has shown good correlation. Acoustic emission technique can be used to estimate the size of an unknown notch. (author)

  1. Design reflowable digital book template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Didik Dwi; Widiyaningtyas, Triyanna; Arifin, M. Zainal; Wahyu Sakti G., I.

    2017-09-01

    Electronic books (e-books or digital books) increasingly in demand and continue to grow in the form of future books. One of the standard format electronic books that potential is EPUB (electronic publication) published by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). This digital book has major advantages are able to provide interactive and reflowable content, which are not found in another book format, such as PDF. Reflowable content allows the book can be accessed through a variety of reader device, like desktop and mobile with a fit and comfort view. However, because the generating process of an EPUB digital book is not as easy a PDF, so this format is less popular. Therefore, in order to help overcome the existing problems, this paper develops digital reflowable text book templates to support electronic learning, especially in Indonesia. This template can be used by anyone to produce a standard digital book quickly and easily without requiring additional specialized knowledge.

  2. Hollow colloidal particles by emulsion templating, from synthesis to self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoldesi, C.I.

    2006-01-01

    This research was focused on developing a new method to prepare hollow colloidal particles in the micrometer range, based on emulsion templating, characterization of both the templates and the resulting particles from physical and chemical viewpoint, and fabrication of materials based on such

  3. Application of the Generic Modeling Template Approach to Unsaturated Fatty Acid Oxidation and Crystallization Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Papadakis, Emmanouil; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a couple of applications of the template-based approach for model development are presented. The computer-aided template concept has been developed based on a model decomposition technique and has been implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface...

  4. An automatic algorithm for blink-artifact suppression based on iterative template matching: application to single channel recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Joaquin T.; de la Torre, Angel; Van Dun, Bram

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Artifact reduction in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is usually necessary to carry out data analysis appropriately. Despite the large amount of denoising techniques available with a multichannel setup, there is a lack of efficient algorithms that remove (not only detect) blink-artifacts from a single channel EEG, which is of interest in many clinical and research applications. This paper describes and evaluates the iterative template matching and suppression (ITMS), a new method proposed for detecting and suppressing the artifact associated with the blink activity from a single channel EEG. Approach. The approach of ITMS consists of (a) an iterative process in which blink-events are detected and the blink-artifact waveform of the analyzed subject is estimated, (b) generation of a signal modeling the blink-artifact, and (c) suppression of this signal from the raw EEG. The performance of ITMS is compared with the multi-window summation of derivatives within a window (MSDW) technique using both synthesized and real EEG data. Main results. Results suggest that ITMS presents an adequate performance in detecting and suppressing blink-artifacts from a single channel EEG. When applied to the analysis of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs), ITMS provides a significant quality improvement in the resulting responses, i.e. in a cohort of 30 adults, the mean correlation coefficient improved from 0.37 to 0.65 when the blink-artifacts were detected and suppressed by ITMS. Significance. ITMS is an efficient solution to the problem of denoising blink-artifacts in single-channel EEG applications, both in clinical and research fields. The proposed ITMS algorithm is stable; automatic, since it does not require human intervention; low-invasive, because the EEG segments not contaminated by blink-artifacts remain unaltered; and easy to implement, as can be observed in the Matlab script implemeting the algorithm provided as supporting material.

  5. Titanium template for scaphoid reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, M; Schaefer, D J; Schumacher, R; Müller-Gerbl, M; Honigmann, P

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of a non-united scaphoid with a humpback deformity involves resection of the non-union followed by bone grafting and fixation of the fragments. Intraoperative control of the reconstruction is difficult owing to the complex three-dimensional shape of the scaphoid and the other carpal bones overlying the scaphoid on lateral radiographs. We developed a titanium template that fits exactly to the surfaces of the proximal and distal scaphoid poles to define their position relative to each other after resection of the non-union. The templates were designed on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions and manufactured using selective laser melting technology. Ten conserved human wrists were used to simulate the reconstruction. The achieved precision measured as the deviation of the surface of the reconstructed scaphoid from its virtual counterpart was good in five cases (maximal difference 1.5 mm), moderate in one case (maximal difference 3 mm) and inadequate in four cases (difference more than 3 mm). The main problems were attributed to the template design and can be avoided by improved pre-operative planning, as shown in a clinical case. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Computer-aided modelling template: Concept and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    decomposition technique which identifies generic steps and workflow involved, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps and guidance through the steps providing additional......Modelling is an important enabling technology in modern chemical engineering applications. A template-based approach is presented in this work to facilitate the construction and documentation of the models and enable their maintenance for reuse in a wider application range. Based on a model...

  7. Passive notch circuit for pulsed-off compression fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.

    1976-06-01

    The operation and simulated results of a passive notch circuit used to pulse off the field in a multiturn, fusion-power system, compression coil are presented. The notch circuit permits initial plasma preparation at field zero, adiabatic compression as the field returns to its initial value, and long field decay time for plasma confinement. The major advantages and disadvantages of the notch circuit are compared with those of a standard capacitor power supply system. The major advantages are that: (1) slow-rising fields can be used for adiabatic compression, (2) solid-state switches can be used because of the inherent current and voltage waveforms, and (3) long field decay times are easier to attain than with single-turn coils

  8. Planar Ultrawideband Antenna with Photonically Controlled Notched Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drasko Draskovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of a planar microstrip-fed ultrawideband (UWB printed circular monopole antenna with optically controlled notched bands is presented. The proposed antenna is composed of a circular ultrawideband patch, with an etched T-shaped slot controlled by an integrated silicon switch. The slot modifies the frequency response of the antenna suppressing 3.5–5 GHz band when the switch is in open state. The optical switch is controlled by a low-power near-infrared (808 nm laser diode, which causes the change in the frequency response of the antenna generating a frequency notch. This solution could be expanded to include several notches in the antenna frequency response achieving a fully reconfigurable UWB antenna. The antenna could be remotely controlled at large distances using optical fiber. The prototype antenna has been fully characterized to verify these design concepts.

  9. NOTCH1 Is Aberrantly Activated in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Di Ianni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL-initiating cells, we assessed NOTCH1 mutation/expression in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. In NOTCH1-mutated CLL, we detected subclonal mutations in 57% CD34+/CD38− HSCs. NOTCH1 mutation was present in 66% CD34+/CD38+ progenitor cells displaying an increased mutational burden compared to HSCs. Flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly higher NOTCH1 activation in CD34+/CD38− and CD34+/CD38+ cells from CLL patients, regardless NOTCH1 mutation compared to healthy donors. Activated NOTCH1 resulted in overexpression of the NOTCH1 target c-MYC. We conclude that activated NOTCH1 is an early event in CLL that may contribute to aberrant HSCs in this disease.

  10. NOTCH1 Is Aberrantly Activated in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Mauro; Baldoni, Stefano; Del Papa, Beatrice; Aureli, Patrizia; Dorillo, Erica; De Falco, Filomena; Albi, Elisa; Varasano, Emanuela; Di Tommaso, Ambra; Giancola, Raffaella; Accorsi, Patrizia; Rotta, Gianluca; Rompietti, Chiara; Silva Barcelos, Estevão Carlos; Campese, Antonio Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Screpanti, Isabella; Rosati, Emanuela; Falzetti, Franca; Sportoletti, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    To investigate chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-initiating cells, we assessed NOTCH1 mutation/expression in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In NOTCH1- mutated CLL, we detected subclonal mutations in 57% CD34+/CD38- HSCs. NOTCH1 mutation was present in 66% CD34+/CD38+ progenitor cells displaying an increased mutational burden compared to HSCs. Flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly higher NOTCH1 activation in CD34+/CD38- and CD34+/CD38+ cells from CLL patients, regardless NOTCH1 mutation compared to healthy donors. Activated NOTCH1 resulted in overexpression of the NOTCH1 target c-MYC. We conclude that activated NOTCH1 is an early event in CLL that may contribute to aberrant HSCs in this disease.

  11. Damage Study in Notched Particulate Composie Specimens Under Nonuniform Strain Loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Y

    1999-01-01

    .... The numerical specimen considered had a semi-circular notch with a linearly varying length. The initial crack size occurring at the notch tip was modeled and predicted using a micro/macro-approach along with a damage model...

  12. Notch signalling in primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders: a new therapeutic approach?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, M R; Biskup, E; Gniadecki, R

    2010-01-01

    The oncogenic potential of deregulated Notch signalling has been described in several haematopoietic malignancies. We have previously reported an increased expression of Notch1 in primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders, lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large...

  13. Role of Notch signalling pathway in cancer and its association with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Notch signalling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved cell signalling pathway involved in the development of organ- ... Abnormal Notch signalling is seen in many cancers like T-cell acute ...... Morgan T. H. 1917 The theory of the gene.

  14. Notch3 is dispensable for thymocyte β-selection and Notch1-induced T cell leukemogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Suliman

    Full Text Available Notch1 (N1 signaling induced by intrathymic Delta-like (DL ligands is required for T cell lineage commitment as well as self-renewal during "β-selection" of TCRβ⁺CD4⁻CD8⁻ double negative 3 (DN3 T cell progenitors. However, over-expression of the N1 intracellular domain (ICN1 renders N1 activation ligand-independent and drives leukemic transformation during β-selection. DN3 progenitors also express Notch3 (N3 mRNA, and over-expression of ligand-independent mutant N3 (ICN3 influences β-selection and drives T cell leukemogenesis. However, the importance of ligand-activated N3 in promoting β-selection and ICN1-induced T cell leukemogenesis has not been examined. To address these questions we generated mice lacking functional N3. We confirmed that DN3 progenitors express N3 protein using a N3-specific antibody. Surprisingly however, N3-deficient DN3 thymocytes were not defective in generating DP thymocytes under steady state conditions or in more stringent competition assays. To determine if N3 co-operates with N1 to regulate β-selection, we generated N1;N3 compound mutants. However, N3 deficiency did not exacerbate the competitive defect of N1⁺/⁻ DN3 progenitors, demonstrating that N3 does not compensate for limiting N1 during T cell development. Finally, N3 deficiency did not attenuate T cell leukemogenesis induced by conditional expression of ICN1 in DN3 thymocytes. Importantly, we showed that in contrast to N1, N3 has a low binding affinity for DL4, the most abundant intrathymic DL ligand. Thus, despite the profound effects of ectopic ligand-independent N3 activation on T cell development and leukemogenesis, physiologically activated N3 is dispensable for both processes, likely because N3 interacts poorly with intrathymic DL4.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Notch1 Positive Progenitor Cells in the Developing Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Dvoriantchikova

    Full Text Available The oscillatory expression of Notch signaling in neural progenitors suggests that both repressors and activators of neural fate specification are expressed in the same progenitors. Since Notch1 regulates photoreceptor differentiation and contributes (together with Notch3 to ganglion cell fate specification, we hypothesized that genes encoding photoreceptor and ganglion cell fate activators would be highly expressed in Notch1 receptor-bearing (Notch1+ progenitors, directing these cells to differentiate into photoreceptors or into ganglion cells when Notch1 activity is diminished. To identify these genes, we used microarray analysis to study expression profiles of whole retinas and isolated from them Notch1+ cells at embryonic day 14 (E14 and postnatal day 0 (P0. To isolate Notch1+ cells, we utilized immunomagnetic cell separation. We also used Notch3 knockout (Notch3KO animals to evaluate the contribution of Notch3 signaling in ganglion cell differentiation. Hierarchical clustering of 6,301 differentially expressed genes showed that Notch1+ cells grouped near the same developmental stage retina cluster. At E14, we found higher expression of repressors (Notch1, Hes5 and activators (Dll3, Atoh7, Otx2 of neuronal differentiation in Notch1+ cells compared to whole retinal cell populations. At P0, Notch1, Hes5, and Dll1 expression was significantly higher in Notch1+ cells than in whole retinas. Otx2 expression was more than thirty times higher than Atoh7 expression in Notch1+ cells at P0. We also observed that retinas of wild type animals had only 14% (P < 0.05 more ganglion cells compared to Notch3KO mice. Since this number is relatively small and Notch1 has been shown to contribute to ganglion cell fate specification, we suggested that Notch1 signaling may play a more significant role in RGC development than the Notch3 signaling cascade. Finally, our findings suggest that Notch1+ progenitors--since they heavily express both pro-ganglion cell (Atoh7

  16. Reducing Individual Variation for fMRI Studies in Children by Minimizing Template Related Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Weng

    Full Text Available Spatial normalization is an essential process for group comparisons in functional MRI studies. In practice, there is a risk of normalization errors particularly in studies involving children, seniors or diseased populations and in regions with high individual variation. One way to minimize normalization errors is to create a study-specific template based on a large sample size. However, studies with a large sample size are not always feasible, particularly for children studies. The performance of templates with a small sample size has not been evaluated in fMRI studies in children. In the current study, this issue was encountered in a working memory task with 29 children in two groups. We compared the performance of different templates: a study-specific template created by the experimental population, a Chinese children template and the widely used adult MNI template. We observed distinct differences in the right orbitofrontal region among the three templates in between-group comparisons. The study-specific template and the Chinese children template were more sensitive for the detection of between-group differences in the orbitofrontal cortex than the MNI template. Proper templates could effectively reduce individual variation. Further analysis revealed a correlation between the BOLD contrast size and the norm index of the affine transformation matrix, i.e., the SFN, which characterizes the difference between a template and a native image and differs significantly across subjects. Thereby, we proposed and tested another method to reduce individual variation that included the SFN as a covariate in group-wise statistics. This correction exhibits outstanding performance in enhancing detection power in group-level tests. A training effect of abacus-based mental calculation was also demonstrated, with significantly elevated activation in the right orbitofrontal region that correlated with behavioral response time across subjects in the trained group.

  17. Use of notched beams to establish fracture criteria for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayville, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The fracture of an improved form of pure beryllium was studied under triaxial tensile stresses. This state of stress was produced by testing notched beams, which were thick enough to be in a state of plane strain at the center. A plane strain, elastic-incremental plasticity finite element program was then used to determine the stress and strain distributions at fracture. A four-point bend fixture was used to load the specimens. It was carefully designed and manufactured to eliminate virtually all of the shear stresses at the reduced section of the notched beams. The unixial properties were obtained

  18. Peripheral Osteoma of the Mandibular Notch: Report of a Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Toshinori; Izumi, Toshiharu; Baba, Junichi; Maegawa, Jiro; Mitsudo, Kenji; Tohnai, Iwai

    2013-01-01

    Osteoma is a benign, slow-growing osteogenic tumor that sometimes arises from the craniomaxillofacial region, such as the sinus, temporal or jaw bones. Osteoma consists of compact or cancellous bone that may be peripheral, central or extraskeletal type. Peripheral osteoma arises from the periosteum and is commonly a unilateral, pedunculated mushroom-like mass. Peripheral osteoma of the mandible is relatively uncommon, and peripheral osteoma of the mandibular notch is extremely rare, although many cases arise from the mandibular body, angle, condyle, or coronoid process. We report here an unusual peripheral osteoma of the mandibular notch in a 78-year-old nonsyndromic female

  19. Ultra-Wideband Notched Characteristic Fed by Coplanar Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastanto Hadinegoro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel Ultra-Wide Band (UWB notch patch antenna with co-planar waveguide (CPW fed is presented. This antenna only used one layer and the patch antenna is constructed on the first layer and back to back with CPW fed and bottom part is ground plane. The width notch is used to achieve the UWB characteristic. The results shown that the impedance bandwidth is 1130 MHz (1.662–2.792 GHz or about 50.7% for VSWR <2.

  20. Mechano sorptive behaviour of notched beams in bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Kamp; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    Short term bending tests with end-notched beams at constant or varying moisture content have shown an apparent contradictory dependency between moisture content and strength. The higher the moisture content the higher the strength. Varying moisture results in particularly significant differences...... and by neglecting deformation due to shear. Compression stresses perpendicular to grain in excess of 6 MPa were found in the vicinity of the notch following a period of adsorption. Similarly, small tension stresses of the order 1 MPa were registered in this area when the specimens were at their most dry condition...

  1. Study of the ultrasonic technique of elapsed time of notch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.C.F.L.; Rebello, J.M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the ultrasonic technique of elapsed time in the dimensionment of notch inclined of 15 and 30 degree and of depth of 5 and 10 mm using the superficial Rayleigh wave and the mode conversion, with a headstock transmitter and other receiver. The dimensionment of notch and of the binding of the piece were made with headstock in different positions. Between the various results obtained can be mentioned the increase of the dimensionment, by two techniques, with the increase of the angle and/or of the depth. (V.R.B.)

  2. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  3. Hyper-activation of Notch3 amplifies the proliferative potential of rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Salvo

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is a pediatric myogenic-derived soft tissue sarcoma that includes two major histopathological subtypes: embryonal and alveolar. The majority of alveolar RMS expresses PAX3-FOXO1 fusion oncoprotein, associated with the worst prognosis. RMS cells show myogenic markers expression but are unable to terminally differentiate. The Notch signaling pathway is a master player during myogenesis, with Notch1 activation sustaining myoblast expansion and Notch3 activation inhibiting myoblast fusion and differentiation. Accordingly, Notch1 signaling is up-regulated and activated in embryonal RMS samples and supports the proliferation of tumor cells. However, it is unable to control their differentiation properties. We previously reported that Notch3 is activated in RMS cell lines, of both alveolar and embryonal subtype, and acts by inhibiting differentiation. Moreover, Notch3 depletion reduces PAX3-FOXO1 alveolar RMS tumor growth in vivo. However, whether Notch3 activation also sustains the proliferation of RMS cells remained unclear. To address this question, we forced the expression of the activated form of Notch3, Notch3IC, in the RH30 and RH41 PAX3-FOXO1-positive alveolar and in the RD embryonal RMS cell lines and studied the proliferation of these cells. We show that, in all three cell lines tested, Notch3IC over-expression stimulates in vitro cell proliferation and prevents the effects of pharmacological Notch inhibition. Furthermore, Notch3IC further increases RH30 cell growth in vivo. Interestingly, knockdown of Notch canonical ligands JAG1 or DLL1 in RMS cell lines decreases Notch3 activity and reduces cell proliferation. Finally, the expression of Notch3IC and its target gene HES1 correlates with that of the proliferative marker Ki67 in a small cohort of primary PAX-FOXO1 alveolar RMS samples. These results strongly suggest that high levels of Notch3 activation increase the proliferative potential of RMS cells.

  4. Simultaneous Detection of Human C-Terminal p53 Isoforms by Single Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) Coupled with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-Based Targeted Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenting; Liu, Liang; Chen, Yun

    2018-03-06

    Abnormal expression of C-terminal p53 isoforms α, β, and γ can cause the development of cancers including breast cancer. To date, much evidence has demonstrated that these isoforms can differentially regulate target genes and modulate their expression. Thus, quantification of individual isoforms may help to link clinical outcome to p53 status and to improve cancer patient treatment. However, there are few studies on accurate determination of p53 isoforms, probably due to sequence homology of these isoforms and also their low abundance. In this study, a targeted proteomics assay combining molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous quantification of C-terminal p53 isoforms. Isoform-specific surrogate peptides (i.e., KPLDGEYFTLQIR (peptide-α) for isoform α, KPLDGEYFTLQDQTSFQK (peptide-β) for isoform β, and KPLDGEYFTLQMLLDLR (peptide-γ) for isoform γ) were first selected and used in both MIPs enrichment and mass spectrometric detection. The common sequence KPLDGEYFTLQ of these three surrogate peptides was used as single template in MIPs. In addition to optimization of imprinting conditions and characterization of the prepared MIPs, binding affinity and cross-reactivity of the MIPs for each surrogate peptide were also evaluated. As a result, a LOQ of 5 nM was achieved, which was >15-fold more sensitive than that without MIPs. Finally, the assay was validated and applied to simultaneous quantitative analysis of C-terminal p53 isoforms α, β, and γ in several human breast cell lines (i.e., MCF-10A normal cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, and drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cancer cells). This study is among the first to employ single template MIPs and cross-reactivity phenomenon to select isoform-specific surrogate peptides and enable simultaneous quantification of protein isoforms in LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics.

  5. 3-Dimensional printing guide template assisted percutaneous vertebroplasty: Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lin, JiSheng; Yang, Yong; Xu, JunChuan; Fei, Qi

    2018-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is currently considered as an effective treatment for pain caused by acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. Recently, puncture-related complications are increasingly reported. It's important to find a precise technique to reduce the puncture-related complications. We report a case and discussed the novel surgical technique with step-by-step operating procedures, to introduce the precise PVP assisted by a 3-dimensional printing guide template. Based on the preoperative CT scan and infrared scan data, a well-designed individual guide template could be established in a 3-dimensional reconstruction software and printed out by a 3-dimensional printer. In real operation, by matching the guide template to patient's back skin, cement needles' insertion orientation and depth were easily established. Only 14 times C-arm fluoroscopy with HDF mode (total exposure dose was 4.5 mSv) were required during the procedure. The operation took only 17 min. Cement distribution in the vertebral body was very good without any puncture-related complications. Pain was significantly relieved after surgery. In conclusion, the novel precise 3-dimensional printing guide template system may allow (1) comprehensive visualization of the fractured vertebral body and the individual surgical planning, (2) the perfect fitting between skin and guide template to ensure the puncture stability and accuracy, and (3) increased puncture precision and decreased puncture-related complications, surgical time and radiation exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Notch-dependent molecular circuitry initiates pancreatic endocrine and ductal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shih, Hung Ping; Kopp, Janel L; Sandhu, Manbir

    2012-01-01

    necessitates subsequent Sox9 downregulation and evasion from Notch activity via cell-autonomous repression of Sox9 by Ngn3. If high Notch levels are maintained, endocrine progenitors retain Sox9 and undergo ductal fate conversion. Taken together, our findings establish a novel role for Notch in initiating both...

  7. Experimental analysis of compressive notch strengthening in closed-cell aluminum alloy foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, A; Onck, PR; Bastawros, Ashraf F.

    2004-01-01

    The notch strengthening effect is studied experimentally in closed cell aluminum foams. The limit loads, net section strength were found for a set of double-edge-notched (DEN) and single-edge-notched (SEN) specimens loaded in compression. In addition, the evolution of the deformation is monitored

  8. Epidermal Notch1 recruits RORγ + group 3 innate lymphoid cells to orchestrate normal skin repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Li (Zhi); T. Hodgkinson (Tom); E.J. Gothard (Elizabeth J.); S. Boroumand (Soulmaz); R. Lamb (Rebecca); I. Cummins (Ian); P. Narang (Priyanka); A. Sawtell (Amy); J. Coles (Jenny); G. Leonov (German); A. Reboldi (Andrea); C.D. Buckley; T. Cupedo (Tom); C. Siebel (Christian); A. Bayat (Ardeshir); M. Coles (Mark); C.A. Ambler (Carrie A.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNotch has a well-defined role in controlling cell fate decisions in the embryo and the adult epidermis and immune systems, yet emerging evidence suggests Notch also directs non-cell-autonomous signalling in adult tissues. Here, we show that Notch1 works as a damage response signal.

  9. Down-regulation of Notch-1 by γ-secretase inhibitor suppress the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notch-1 signaling is crucial for stem cell maintenance and in a variety of tissues. Previous research has demonstrated that Notch-1 activity plays a key role in prostate tumorigenesis. However, the function of Notch-1 signaling in tumorigenesis can be either oncogene or suppressor gene. In our paper, γ- secretase inhibitor ...

  10. Femoral intercondylar notch shape and dimensions in ACL-injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, Carola F.; Martins, Cesar A. Q.; Vyas, Shail M.; Celentano, Umberto; van Dijk, C. Niek; Fu, Freddie H.

    2010-01-01

    The femoral intercondylar notch has been an anatomic site of interest as it houses the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The objective of this study was to arthroscopically evaluate the femoral notch in patients with known ACL injury. This evaluation included establishing a classification for notch

  11. The pathological significance of Notch1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryoji; Nagata, Masashi; Nakayama, Hideki; Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Hassan, Wael; Tanaka, Takuji; Shinohara, Masanori; Ito, Takaaki

    2013-10-01

    Notch signaling has been reported to be involved in several types of malignant tumors; however, the role and activation mechanism of Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathological significance of Notch signaling and its activation mechanism in the development and progression of OSCC. In this study, we showed that the expression of Notch1 and intracellular Notch domain (NICD) are upregulated in OSCCs. In addition, Notch1 and NICD were found to be characteristically localized at the invasive tumor front. TNF-α, a major inflammatory cytokine, significantly activated Notch signaling in vitro. In a clinicopathological analysis, Notch1 expression correlated with both the T-stage and the clinical stage. Furthermore, loss of Notch1 expression correlated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and TNF-α-dependent invasiveness in an OSCC cell line. In addition, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) prevented cell proliferation and TNF-α-dependent invasion of OSCC cells in vitro. These results indicate that altered expression of Notch1 is associated with increased cancer progression and that Notch1 regulates the steps involved in cell metastasis in OSCC. Moreover, inactivating Notch signaling with GSI could therefore be a useful approach for treating patients with OSCC.

  12. High NOTCH activity induces radiation resistance in non small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theys, Jan; Yahyanejad, Sanaz; Habets, Roger; Span, Paul; Dubois, Ludwig; Paesmans, Kim; Kattenbeld, Bo; Cleutjens, Jack; Groot, Arjan J.; Schuurbiers, Olga C.J.; Lambin, Philippe; Bussink, Jan; Vooijs, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with advanced NSCLC have survival rates <15%. The NOTCH pathway plays an important role during lung development and physiology but is often deregulated in lung cancer, making it a potential therapeutic target. We investigated NOTCH signaling in NSCLC and hypothesized that high NOTCH activity contributes to radiation resistance. Materials and methods: NOTCH signaling in NSCLC patient samples was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. H460 NSCLC cells with either high or blocked NOTCH activity were generated and their radiation sensitivity monitored using clonogenic assays. In vivo, xenograft tumors were irradiated and response assessed using growth delay. Microenvironmental parameters were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Patients with high NOTCH activity in tumors showed significantly worse disease-free survival. In vitro, NOTCH activity did not affect the proliferation or intrinsic radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells. In contrast, xenografts with blocked NOTCH activity grew slower than wild type tumors. Tumors with high NOTCH activity grew significantly faster, were more hypoxic and showed a radioresistant phenotype. Conclusions: We demonstrate an important role for NOTCH in tumor growth and correlate high NOTCH activity with poor prognosis and radioresistance. Blocking NOTCH activity in NSCLC might be a promising intervention to improve outcome after radiotherapy

  13. Impact of Spectral Notch Width on Neurophysiological Plasticity and Clinical Effectiveness of the Tailor-Made Notched Music Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wunderlich

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the ringing in the ears that is unrelated to any external source, causes a significant loss in quality of life, involving sleep disturbance and depression for 1 to 3% of the general population. While in the first place tinnitus may be triggered by damage to the inner ear cells, the neural generators of subjective tinnitus are located in central regions of the nervous system. A loss of lateral inhibition, tonotopical reorganization and a gain-increase in response to the sensory deprivation result in hypersensitivity and hyperactivity in certain regions of the auditory cortex. In the tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT patients listen to music from which the frequency spectrum of the tinnitus has been removed. This evokes strong lateral inhibition from neurons tuned to adjacent frequencies onto the neurons involved in the tinnitus percept. A reduction of tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related neural activity was achieved with TMNMT in previous studies. As the effect of lateral inhibition depends on the bandwidth of the notch, in the current study we altered the notch width to find the most effective notch width for TMNMT. We compared 1-octave notch width with ½-octave and ¼-octave. Participants chose their favorite music for the training that included three month of two hours daily listening. The outcome was measured by means of standardized questionnaires and magnetoencephalography. We found a general reduction of tinnitus distress in all administered tinnitus questionnaires after the training. Additionally, tinnitus-related neural activity was reduced after the training. Nevertheless, notch width did not have an influence on the behavioral or neural effects of TMNMT. This could be due to a non-linear resolution of lateral inhibition in high frequencies.

  14. Functional Programming with C++ Template Metaprograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkoláb, Zoltán

    Template metaprogramming is an emerging new direction of generative programming. With the clever definitions of templates we can force the C++ compiler to execute algorithms at compilation time. Among the application areas of template metaprograms are the expression templates, static interface checking, code optimization with adaption, language embedding and active libraries. However, as template metaprogramming was not an original design goal, the C++ language is not capable of elegant expression of metaprograms. The complicated syntax leads to the creation of code that is hard to write, understand and maintain. Although template metaprogramming has a strong relationship with functional programming, this is not reflected in the language syntax and existing libraries. In this paper we give a short and incomplete introduction to C++ templates and the basics of template metaprogramming. We will enlight the role of template metaprograms, and some important and widely used idioms. We give an overview of the possible application areas as well as debugging and profiling techniques. We suggest a pure functional style programming interface for C++ template metaprograms in the form of embedded Haskell code which is transformed to standard compliant C++ source.

  15. Morphometric study of suprascapular notch in Indian dry scapulae with specific reference to the incidence of completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Usha; Kannan, N S; Anbalagan, J; Rao, Sudha

    2014-03-01

    The suprascapular notch, a depression on the lateral part of the superior border of the scapula, medial to the coracoid process, is bridged by the superior transverse scapular ligament, which is sometimes ossified and the foramen which is thus completed, transmits the suprascapular nerve to the supraspinatus fossa. Variations in the morphology of suprascapular notch have been identified as one of the causes of suprascapular nerve entrapment. Rengachary et al. classified this notch into six types, based on its shape. To study morphological variations of suprascapular notch in Indian dry scapulae and to analyze the incidence of completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligament with other ethnic populations which have been cited earlier. A total of 400 human dry scapulae which were obtained from the Department of Anatomy of selected eight medical colleges were analyzed. The type of suprascapular notch was noted and it was recorded as per the description given by Rengachary et al. The results of the present study were compared with the results of previous authors in different populations. In our study, out of 400 scapulae, 40 (10%), were identified to have completely ossified superior transverse scapular ligaments. The frequencies of various types of suprascapular notches were: Type I -20%, Type II -10%, Type III -52%, Type IV -4%, Type V -4%, Type VI -10%. Since the suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome might be caused by complete ossification of superior transverse scapular ligament with formation of suprascapular foramen and other morphometric variations of suprascapular notch, the knowledge on such variations is essential for clinicians, for making a proper diagnosis and for planning the most suitable surgical intervention.

  16. Electroless Fabrication of Cobalt Alloys Nanowires within Alumina Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Dadvand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of nanowire fabrication based on electroless deposition process is described. The method is novel compared to the current electroless procedure used in making nanowires as it involves growing nanowires from the bottom up. The length of the nanowires was controlled at will simply by adjusting the deposition time. The nanowires were fabricated within the nanopores of an alumina template. It was accomplished by coating one side of the template by a thin layer of palladium in order to activate the electroless deposition within the nanopores from bottom up. However, prior to electroless deposition process, the template was pretreated with a suitable wetting agent in order to facilitate the penetration of the plating solution through the pores. As well, the electroless deposition process combined with oblique metal evaporation process within a prestructured silicon wafer was used in order to fabricate long nanowires along one side of the grooves within the wafer.

  17. Self-organized template formation for quantum dot ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzel, Richard; Mano, Takaaki; Wolter, Joachim H.

    2004-01-01

    Ordered arrays of quantum dots (QDs) are created by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering of (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum wire (QWR) superlattice (SL) templates on exactly oriented GaAs (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The well-defined one-dimensional arrays of (In,Ga)As QDs formed on top of these templates due to local strain recognition are of excellent structural and optical quality up to room temperature. The QD arrays thus allow for fundamental studies and device operation principles based on single- and multiple carrier- and photon-, and coherent quantum interference effects

  18. An Empirical Ultraviolet Iron Spectrum Template Applicable to Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Iron emission is often a severe contaminant in optical-ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies. Its presence complicates emission line studies. A viable solution, already successfully applied at optical wavelengths, is to use an empirical iron emission template. We have generated FeII and Fe......III templates for ultraviolet active galaxy spectra based on HST archival 1100 - 3100 A spectra of IZw1. Their application allows fitting and subtraction of the iron emission in active galaxy spectra. This work has shown that in particular CIII] lambda 1909 can be heavily contaminated by other line emission...

  19. I - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  20. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.