Bos, Aline; Boselie, Paul; Trappenburg, Margo
Expanding the opportunities for for-profit nursing home care is a central theme in the debate on the sustainable organization of the growing nursing home sector in Western countries. We conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 10 years in order to determine the broad impact of nursing home ownership in the United States. Our review has two main goals: (a) to find out which topics have been studied with regard to financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being in relation to nursing home ownership and (b) to assess the conclusions related to these topics. The review results in two propositions on the interactions between financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being as they relate to nursing home ownership. Five search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 50 studies were included in the review. Relevant findings were categorized as related to financial performance (profit margins, efficiency), employee well-being (staffing levels, turnover rates, job satisfaction, job benefits), or client well-being (care quality, hospitalization rates, lawsuits/complaints) and then analyzed based on common characteristics. For-profit nursing homes tend to have better financial performance, but worse results with regard to employee well-being and client well-being, compared to not-for-profit sector homes. We argue that the better financial performance of for-profit nursing homes seems to be associated with worse employee and client well-being. For policy makers considering the expansion of the for-profit sector in the nursing home industry, our findings suggest the need for a broad perspective, simultaneously weighing the potential benefits and drawbacks for the organization, its employees, and its clients.
Barron, David N; West, Elizabeth
There has been a radical transformation in the provision of adult residential and nursing home care in England over the past four decades. Up to the 1980s, over 80% of adult residential care was provided by the public sector, but today public sector facilities account for only 8% of the available places, with the rest being provided by a mixture of for-profit firms (74%) and non-profit charities (18%). The public sector's role is often now that of purchaser (paying the fees of people unable to afford them) and regulator. While the idea that private companies may play a bigger role in the future provision of health care is highly contentious in the UK, the transformation of the residential and nursing home care has attracted little comment. Concerns about the quality of care do emerge from time to time, often stimulated by high profile media investigations, scandals or criminal prosecutions, but there is little or no evidence about whether or not the transformation of the sector from largely public to private provision has had a beneficial effect on those who need the service. This study asks whether there are differences in the quality of care provided by public, non-profit or for-profit facilities in England. We use data on care quality for over 15,000 homes that are provided by the industry regulator in England: the Care Quality Commission (CQC). These data are the results of inspections carried out between April 2011 and October 2015. Controlling for a range of facility characteristics such as age and size, proportional odds logistic regression showed that for-profit facilities have lower CQC quality ratings than public and non-profit providers over a range of measures, including safety, effectiveness, respect, meeting needs and leadership. We discuss the implications of these results for the ongoing debates about the role of for-profit providers of health and social care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An attempt was made to link organizational structure and strategic management and, in the process, to identify how organizational structure impacts on the strategic management role of Directors of Nursing working in acute care hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. Directors of Nursing are recognized as holding a pivotal role in health care delivery. The need for their involvement in strategic management is acknowledged, yet it is not clear if this role is influenced by organizational structure. It is recognized that strategic involvement increases the likelihood that middle managers' initiatives will be in line with top management's concept of corporate strategy. The principal thesis is that organizational members will exercise a higher level of strategic consensus if they have been initially involved in the development of strategy. The study was undertaken in not-for-profit health service organizations, through a series of 25 semi-structured interviews with Directors of Nursing. The review of the literature was undertaken simultaneously with grounded theory analysis of the interviews. This research suggests that structure does impact on the role, conferring both positive benefits and negative consequences. Structure is identified in this study, in terms of organizational hierarchy, and the locus of control pertaining in each organization. Two predominating structure models are discussed and analysed.
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J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); C. Propper (Propper); S. Smith (Sarah)
textabstractRecent studies have demonstrated the importance of good management for firm performance. Here, we focus on management in not-for-profits (NFPs). We present a model predicting that management quality will be lower in NFPs compared to for-profits (FPs), but that outputs may not be worse if
Vondras, Dean D.; Flittner, Diane; Malcore, Sylvia A.; Pouliot, Gregory
This research explores the workplace stress and ethical challenges reported by healthcare staff in a nursing home. A brief self-report survey was administered to 44 members of the nursing staff in a not-for-profit nursing home. The survey included items that elicited identification of specific workplace stressors and ethical challenges and global…
Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.
Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) website provides consumer and provider information regarding the quality of care in nursing homes. NHQI discusses quality...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Community Nursing Home (CNH) database contains a list of all Community Nursing Home facilities under local contract to Veterans Health Administration (VHA). CNH...
Recent controversies in the hospital sector have questioned whether the levels of charity care, community benefit, and executive compensation provided by not-for-profit hospitals are consistent with mandates of their tax-exempt status and mission statements. This article demonstrates that these recent controversies stem from a combination of historical influences, regulatory inequities, and competitive disadvantages, which are suffocating many not-for-profit hospitals across the nation. Once the current environment is described, the article discusses each threat and offers actionable recommendations to quell current attacks faced by the industry. First, to address the current probe by the Internal Revenue Service, hospitals must begin to link their executive compensation with their organizational mission. Second, to address recent lawsuits, the article presents a standardized definition of community benefit and recommends an alternative model to classify charity care. Finally, to address recent congressional hearings, the article offers a plan for hospitals to gauge their expected benefit to the community they serve.
This paper provides a report on a pilot study that was conducted to inform a DBA research project. It will investigate employee perceptions of their career development in the not-for-profit (NFP) sector. Theoretical and empirically based literature searches were conducted on career development for this study. Some researchers argue that the old career model (which involves an employee working for an organisation and committed to the organisation and in turn, the organisation offers the employ...
Many not-for-profits do not view their organization as a brand. After all, the reason for being lies in the purpose. Branding is something corporate businesses do to justify their existence. But what is an organization's purpose? And what if everyone in the organization does not agree on that purpose over time or across departments? How can an organization formalize a strategy if it isn't sure what the mission is?
Prestia, Mindy; Murphy, Susan; Yoder, Marian
In an effort to address the home care nursing shortage, this pilot study was designed to measure nursing students' attitudes toward home health nursing and to test the Home Health Attitude Questionnaire developed specifically for this study based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Senior undergraduate nursing students and registered nursing to bachelor of science in nursing students completed the questionnaire.
The message being sent by local tax boards, state agencies, and the Internal Revenue Service is clear: Not-for-profit hospitals will have to justify their tax-exempt status. But complying with this demand can be a costly administrative burden. Just ask the executives who have been through the experience. CEO Richard Anderson, of St. Luke's Hospital, Bethlehem, PA, is luckier than some executives who have faced tax-exempt challenges. He won his hospital's case. But he still faces a yearly battle: The hospital must prove its compliance annually to the county board of assessors. Other executives report similar experiences. Our cover story takes an in-depth look at how administrators faced challenges to their hospital's tax status and what they learned about their relationship with their communities, as well as a complete state and federal legislative outlook for future developments.
Pesis-Katz, Irena; Phelps, Charles E; Temkin-Greener, Helena; Spector, William D; Veazie, Peter; Mukamel, Dana B
We investigated how quality of care affects choosing a nursing home. We examined nursing home choice in California, Ohio, New York, and Texas in 2001, a period before the federal Nursing Home Compare report card was published. Thus, consumers were less able to observe clinical quality or clinical quality was masked. We modeled nursing home choice by estimating a conditional multinomial logit model. In all states, consumers were more likely to choose nursing homes of high hotel services quality but not clinical care quality. Nursing home choice was also significantly associated with shorter distance from prior residence, not-for-profit status, and larger facility size. In the absence of quality report cards, consumers choose a nursing home on the basis of the quality dimensions that are easy for them to observe, evaluate, and apply to their situation. Future research should focus on identifying the quality information that offers the most value added to consumers.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The compendium contains figures and tables presenting data on all Medicare- and Medicaid-certified nursing homes in the United States as well as the residents in...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These are the official datasets used on the Medicare.gov Nursing Home Compare Website provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These data allow...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data that is used by the Nursing Home Compare tool can be downloaded for public use. This functionality is primarily used by health policy researchers and the...
Full Text Available The area called motivation in not-for-profit organizations - including public enterprises - has been rather neglected. Most often the opinion prevails that apart from fixed salaries and system of promotion, there are no other ways of motiva ting staff. The aim of this article is to point out that this is not the čase, and that successful and efficient work of the staff which is necessary for the attainment of the goals of the organization, does not depend only on money. Motivating factors can be assessed by means of simple questionnaires.The articlebriefly defines the siginficance of public enterprises, their management and operation, areas which are mainly defined and controlled from outside.Motivation, factors affecting it, Maslow's theory of motivation and Herzberg's bifactorial theory are described. The fourth chapter brings some more on human resources in libraries and on the inquiry carried out on the basis of Herzberg's bifactorial theory; some directions on how we can use ali the different factors at our disposal are added as well.
Harrington, C; Woolhandler, S; Mullan, J; Carrillo, H; Himmelstein, D U
Two thirds of nursing homes are investor owned. This study examined whether investor ownership affects quality. We analyzed 1998 data from state inspections of 13,693 nursing facilities. We used a multivariate model and controlled for case mix, facility characteristics, and location. Investor-owned facilities averaged 5.89 deficiencies per home, 46.5% higher than nonprofit facilities and 43.0% higher than public facilities. In multivariate analysis, investor ownership predicted 0.679 additional deficiencies per home; chain ownership predicted an additional 0.633 deficiencies. Nurse staffing was lower at investor-owned nursing homes. Investor-owned nursing homes provide worse care and less nursing care than do not-for-profit or public homes.
... cases, you can also call the Department of Health. Nursing homes are required to post information on how you ... nursing homes in your area, go to Medicare’s Nursing Home Compare website at ... information is not intended to diagnose health problems or to take the place of medical ...
Although studies have shown the prevalence of depression in nursing homes to be high, under-recognition of depression in these facilities is widespread. Use of screening tests to enhance detection of depressive symptoms has been recommended. This paper aims to provoke discussion about optimal management of depression in nursing homes. The utility of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) is considered. CSDD data relating to residents assessed in 2008-2009 were collected from three Sydney nursing homes. CSDD scores were available from 162 residents, though raters stated they were unable to score participants on at least one item in 47 cases. Scores of 13 or more were recorded for 23% of residents in these facilities, but in most of these cases little was documented in case files to show that the results had been discussed by staff, or that they led to interventions, or that follow-up testing was arranged. Results of CSDD testing should prompt care staff (including doctors) to consider causation of depression in cases where residents are identified as possibly depressed. In particular, there needs to be discussion of how to help residents to cope with disability, losses, and feelings of powerlessness. Research is needed, examining factors that might predict response to antidepressants, and what else helps. Accreditation of nursing homes could be made to depend partly on evidence that staff regularly search for, and (if found) ensure appropriate responses to, depression.
... required, these services can be provided by a separate home health agency as directed by a doctor or ... complaints made by or on behalf of nursing home residents and work to resolve the problems. If they are unable ...
Pierre Delaroche de Clisson hospital uses essential oils as part of its daily organisation for the treatment of pain and the development of palliative care. The setting up of this project, in nursing homes and long-term care units, is the fruit of a complex mission carried out by a multidisciplinary team, which had to take into account the risks involved and overcome a certain amount of reluctance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Libin, Alexander; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska
Traditional pet therapy enhances individual well-being. However, there are situations where a substitute artificial companion (i.e., robotic pet) may serve as a better alternative because of insufficient available resources to care for a real pet, allergic responses to pets, or other difficulties. This pilot study, which compared the benefits of a robotic cat and a plush toy cat as interventions for elderly persons with dementia, was conducted at a special care unit of a large, not-for-profit nursing home. Various aspects of a person's engagement and affect were assessed through direct observations. Though not identical, similar trends were seen for the two cats. Interacting with the cats was linked with decreased agitation and increased pleasure and interest. The study is intended to pave the way for future research on robotherapy with nursing home residents.
Heuer, Christian; Travers, Mary Ann K
Accounting standards for valuing goodwill and intangible assets are becoming more rigorous for not-for-profit organizations: Not-for-profit healthcare organizations need to test for goodwill impairment at least annually. Impairment testing is a two-stage process: initial analysis to determine whether impairment exists and subsequent calculation of the magnitude of impairment. Certain "triggering" events compel all organizations--whether for-profit or not-for-profit--to perform an impairment test for goodwill or intangible assets.
Godby, Tyler; Saldanha, Sarah; Valle, Jazmine; Paul, David P; Coustasse, Alberto
Nursing home residents across the United States rely on quality care and effective services. Nursing homes provide skilled nurses and nursing aides who can provide services 24 hours a day for individuals who could not perform these tasks for themselves. Not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) nursing homes have been examined for utilization and efficacy; however, it has been shown that NFP nursing homes generally offer higher quality care and generate greater profit margins compared with FP nursing homes. The purpose of this research was to determine if NFP nursing homes provide enhanced quality care and a larger profit margin compared with FP nursing homes. Benefits and barriers in regard to financial stability and quality of care exist for both FP and NFP homes. Based on the findings of this review, it is suggested that NFP nursing homes have achieved higher quality of care because of a more effective balance of business aspects, as well as prioritizing resident well-being, and care quality over profit maximization in NFP homes.
Himmelstein, D U; Woolhandler, S; Hellander, I; Wolfe, S M
The proportion of health maintenance organization (HMO) members enrolled in investor-owned plans has increased sharply, yet little is known about the quality of these plans compared with not-for-profit HMOs. To compare quality-of-care measures for investor-owned and not-for-profit HMOs. Analysis of the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) Version 3.0 from the National Committee for Quality Assurance's Quality Compass 1997, which included 1996 quality-of-care data for 329 HMO plans (248 investor-owned and 81 not-for-profit), representing 56% of the total HMO enrollment in the United States. Rates for 14 HEDIS quality-of-care indicators. Compared with not-for-profit HMOs, investor-owned plans had lower rates for all 14 quality-of-care indicators. Among patients discharged from the hospital after myocardial infarction, 59.2% of members in investor-owned HMOs vs 70.6% in not-for-profit plans received a beta-blocker (Pinvestor-owned plans vs 47.9% in not-for-profit plans had annual eye examinations (PInvestor-owned plans had lower rates than not-for-profit plans of immunization (63.9% vs 72.3%; Pinvestor ownership was consistently associated with lower quality after controlling for model type, geographic region, and the method each HMO used to collect data. Investor-owned HMOs deliver lower quality of care than not-for-profit plans.
Clement, Jan P; White, Kenneth R; Valdmanis, Vivian
This study further examines whether not-for-profit hospitals exert pressure on for-profit hospitals to provide charity care and whether for-profit hospitals react differently than not-for-profit hospitals to managed care pressures and hospital competition in providing charity care. A two equation model is estimated using 1996 data from California hospitals. The results indicate that in mixed ownership markets, for-profit hospitals provide significantly less charity care as not-for-profit hospitals in the market provide more. Unexpectedly, study for-profit hospitals were not more influenced by price competition than other hospitals with respect to charity care. Having a unique role in providing charity care may justify continuing tax exemption for not-for-profit hospitals and enhance interest in payment and other policies with regard to conversions to ensure that not-for-profit hospitals continue to be represented in market areas.
Stevenson, David G; Bramson, Jeffrey S; Grabowski, David C
The role of ownership in the provision of nursing home care has long been a challenging issue for policy makers and researchers. Although much of the focus historically has been on differences between for-profit and not-for-profit facilities, this simple distinction has become less useful in recent years as companies have employed more complicated ownership and management structures. Using detailed ownership data from the state of Texas, we describe the evolution of nursing home corporate structures from 2000 to 2007, analyze the effect of these structures on quality of care and staffing in nursing homes, and discuss the policy implications of these changes.
Huang, Sean S; Yang, Jie; Carroll, Nathan
About 60% of the US hospitals are not-for-profit and it is not clear how traditional theories of capital structure should be adapted to understand the borrowing behavior of not-for-profit hospitals. This paper identifies important determinants of capital structure taken from theories describing for-profit firms as well as prior literature on not-for-profit hospitals. We examine the differential effects these factors have on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, we use a difference-in-differences regression framework to study how differences in leverage between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals change in response to key explanatory variables (i.e. tax rates and bankruptcy costs). The sample in this study includes most US short-term general acute hospitals from 2000 to 2012. We find that personal and corporate income taxes and bankruptcy costs have significant and distinct effects on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, relative to not-for-profit hospitals: (1) higher corporate income tax encourages for-profit hospitals to increase their debt usage; (2) higher personal income tax discourages for-profit hospitals to use debt; and (3) higher expected bankruptcy costs lead for-profit hospitals to use less debt. Over the past decade, the capital structure of for-profit hospitals has been more flexible as compared to that of not-for-profit hospitals. This may suggest that not-for-profit hospitals are more constrained by external financing resources. Particularly, our analysis suggests that not-for-profit hospitals operating in states with high corporate taxes but low personal income taxes may face particular challenges of borrowing funds relative to their for-profit competitors.
Harris, Yael; Clauser, Steven B.
CMS has initiated the Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) to improve the quality of nursing home care. Central to the NHQI is the public reporting of nursing home quality measures that serve as the basis for the Initiative's communication and quality improvement program. This article provides an overview of the NHQI, focusing on the role of nursing home quality measures in achieving improvements in nursing home care. We also describe the evolution of quality measurement in nursing homes, a...
Acquisitions may be integral and strategic drivers for successfully executing the business objectives of an entity or fulfilling its mission. The new guidance creates accounting and valuation challenges for not-for-profit entities that for-profit entities have been dealing with for years. Now that not-for-profit entities apply the same principles, the fair value concepts and accounting complexities are more pervasive. By brining to bear the rights complement of accounting, finance, and valuation resources, not-for-profit entities can successfully navigate these challenges and gain an understanding of the full magnitude of acquisition decisions on financial results.
Pradhan, Rohit; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Harman, Jeffrey S; Laberge, Alex; Hyer, Kathryn
Private equity has acquired multiple large nursing home chains within the last few years; by 2009, it owned nearly 1,900 nursing homes. Private equity is said to improve the financial performance of acquired facilities. However, no study has yet examined the financial performance of private equity nursing homes, ergo this study. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the financial performance of private equity nursing homes and how it compares with other investor-owned facilities. It also seeks to understand the approach favored by private equity to improve financial performance-for instance, whether they prefer to cut costs or maximize revenues or follow a mixed approach. Secondary data from Medicare cost reports, the Online Survey, Certification and Reporting, Area Resource File, and Brown University's Long-term Care Focus data set are combined to construct a longitudinal data set for the study period 2000-2007. The final sample is 2,822 observations after eliminating all not-for-profit, independent, and hospital-based facilities. Dependent financial variables consist of operating revenues and costs, operating and total margins, payer mix (census Medicare, census Medicaid, census other), and acuity index. Independent variables primarily reflect private equity ownership. The study was analyzed using ordinary least squares, gamma distribution with log link, logit with binomial family link, and logistic regression. Private equity nursing homes have higher operating margin as well as total margin; they also report higher operating revenues and costs. No significant differences in payer mix are noted. Results suggest that private equity delivers superior financial performance compared with other investor-owned nursing homes. However, causes for concern remain particularly with the long-term financial sustainability of these facilities.
McKague, h L
The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is an independent not-for-profit applied engineering and physical sciences research and development organization. This means that SwRI owes no allegiance to organizations other than its clients. As a not-for-profit organization, SwRI reinvests its net income into the organization to improve, strengthen, and expand facilities and to support internal research and development projects. Located in San Antonio, Texas, on 1200 acres, SwRI employs nearly 2800 staff and occupies nearly 2,000,000 square feet of office space. Its business is about equally divided between commercial and government clients, most of whom have specific scientific and technical problems that need to be solved in a timely, cost-effective manner. Governmental clients include local, state, and federal agencies and foreign governments. Commercial clients include local, national, and international businesses. Earth science disciplines at SwRI include geology, geophysics, hydrology, geochemistry, rock mechanics, mining engineering, and natural hazard assessment. Our overall approach is to systematically examine client problems and develop solutions that may include field work, laboratory work, numerical modeling, or some combination of these approaches. This method of problem solving places a strong emphasis on interdisciplinary teamwork. The work environment at SwRI strikes a balance among the freedom to attack technically important problems, consistent support to professional development, and a strong commitment to meeting client's deadlines and goals. Real problems with real consequences are routinely solved on a tight schedule. The diversity of clients gives exposure to an extraordinarily wide range of problems. Successful employees have sound technical backgrounds, are flexible in accommodating varying clients needs, bring creativity and energy to problem solving and applications of technologies, can work on multiple tasks in parallel, and can communicate
Vega, Diego; Sanchez, Ron
Effective competence-based management (CBM) requires in the first instance an ability to identify an organization’s competences and the sources of those competences. Identifying competences can be especially challenging in the context of not-for-profit organizations, which have often been...... characterized as being “different” from for-profit organizations. In this paper we argue that not-for-profit organizations have fundamentally the same systemic requirements for survival and success as for-profit organizations – and therefore that not-for-profits ought to be amenable to competence identification...... and analysis through use of CBM concepts and theory in essentially the same way as for-profit organizations. We support this basic proposition through a case study of competence identification and analysis in a humanitarian relief organization (HRO), an increasingly important kind of not-for-profit...
Song, Paula H; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Toth, Matthew; Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J
Gender pay equity is a desirable social value and an important strategy to fill every organizational stratum with gender-diverse talent to fulfill an organization's goals and mission. This study used national, large-sample data to examine gender difference in CEO compensation among not-for-profit hospitals. Results showed the average unadjusted annual compensation for female CEOs in 2009 was $425,085 compared with $581,121 for male CEOs. With few exceptions, the difference existed across all types of not-for-profit hospitals. After controlling for hospital- and area-level characteristics, female CEOs of not-for-profit hospitals earned 22.6% less than male CEOs of not-for-profit hospitals. This translates into an earnings differential of $132,652 associated with gender. Explanations and implications of the results are discussed.
Andresen, Mette; Hauge, Johnny
that the number of hospitalization after a fall injury will become an even greater task for the Danish hospitals, The aim of the study was to show if there is a relationship between physically frail elderly nursing home resident’s subjective evaluation of fall-risk and an objective evaluation of their balance....... Further, to suggest tools for fall prevention in nursing home settings on the basis of the results of this study and the literature. A quantitative method inspired by the survey method was used to give an overview of fall patterns, subjective and objective evaluations of fallrisk. Participants were 16...... physically frail elderly nursing home residents from three different nursing homes. Measures: a small staff-questionnaire about incidences and places where the participants had falling-episodes during a 12 month period, The Falls Effi cacy Scale Swedish version (FES(S)) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) Results...
Cretien van Campen; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk
Original title: Gelukkig in een verpleeghuis? Life in Dutch residential nursing and care homes is changing. The number of frail older persons in the Netherlands is increasing. Older people are increasingly living independently for longer, and only the most frail older persons move to a nursing or
Daniel Mwendwa Kitonga
Full Text Available This paper sought to examine the link between strategic leadership practices and organizational performance in not-for-profit organizations. A survey assessing strategic leadership practice and organizational performance was completed by managers representing 328 not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. The study established a significant positive relationship between strategic leadership variables and organizational performance. The results found R value of 0.730 and R2 value of 0.532 that is 53.2 of corresponding change in the Organizational Performance of NFPs for every change explained by predictor variables. The findings demonstrate that if not-for-profit leaders use well the strategic leadership they are likely to improve their organizational performance significantly. This paper examined the practice of strategic leadership in not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. Future research that seeks to replicate these findings is warranted. This paper proposes the study of strategic leadership as a way of enhancing not-for-profit organizational performance.
Gapenski, L C
The health care finance literature on capital investment decisions generally applies conventional market risk concepts without distinguishing between proprietary and not-for-profit forms of organization. Since proprietary firms have shareholder wealth maximization as their primary goal, a project's relevant risk is its contribution to the riskiness of the equity investors' well diversified stock portfolios, or its market risk. However, not-for-profit organizations do not have shareholder wealth maximization as their primary goal, and thus market risk concepts are not applicable. Rather, the relevant risk in a not-for-profit setting is a project's corporate risk; that is, the project's contribution to the riskiness of the organization. The difference in risk definition and measurement between proprietary and not-for-profit firms has two implications for managerial decisions: (1) in making capital investment decisions, a manager must define and measure a project's riskiness on the basis of the firm's organizational form; and (2) although diversification for the sole purpose of risk reduction is not a valid rationale for proprietary firms because stockholders can achieve the same result at less cost, risk-reducing diversification does make sense for not-for-profit firms.
Kramer, Jeffrey; Santerre, Rexford E
This paper uses observations from a panel data set of 35 chief executive officers (CEOs) from 29 not-for-profit hospitals in Connecticut over the period 1998 to 2006 to investigate the relationship between CEO performance and pay. Both economic and charity performance measures are specified in the empirical model. The multiple regression results reveal that not-for-profit hospital CEOs, at least in Connecticut, are driven at the margin to increase the occupancy rate of privately insured patients at the expense of uncompensated care and public-pay patients. This type of behavior on the part of not-for-profit hospital CEOs calls into question the desirability of allowing these hospitals a tax exemption on earned income, property, and purchases.
Joiner Keith A
Full Text Available Abstract Translational research conducted in academic health centers is confounded by the organizational structure in which the work is performed. Investigators must obtain research funding and appropriate recognition as a part of a research team in a not-for-profit environment which has more readily rewarded basic work, and individual accomplishments. What results is a unique form of conflict of interest, best understood by relating the basic principles underlying the not-for-profit form to the conduct of translational research in the AHC setting.
Lewis, Mary Ann; And Others
Former nursing home residents (N=197) were followed for 2 years after discharge. Four subgroups of patients were identified on the basis of different patterns of survival and use of health care resources: those who returned home, died in nursing homes, transferred to hospitals, or transferred to other nursing homes. (NRB)
Grippo, Frank J.; Nassiripour, Sia
The purpose of this case is to help students explore accounting and auditing issues often confronted by auditors of not-for-profit organizations. Given final financial statements, the goal of the case is to require students to prepare the footnotes that would be considered an integral part of the financial statements. The case is intended for…
Once the exclusive domain of the corporate world, now not-for-profit health care organizations are gravitating toward greater financial disclosure. The reason: a growing consensus among boards and executives that accountability boosts investor confidence and may pay off in better bond ratings.
Forrester, Robert T.; Collins, Stephen J.
Information on depreciation concepts, accounting procedures, and reporting formats in not-for-profit institutions is provided. Details are included on the requirements and implications of the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Statement of Financial Accounting Standards no. 93 (FASB 93). Following highlights of FASB 93, an overview looks at…
This article provides a discussion of the book, "Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities" by Martha C. Nussbaum from the perspective of a visiting scholar to the United States from China. It begins by addressing two critical topics discussed by Nussbaum: consequences of focusing only on economic growth and the importance of…
Sanford, A.M.; Orrell, M.; Tolson, D.; Abbatecola, A.M.; Arai, H.; Bauer, J.M.; Cruz-Jentoft, A.J.; Dong, B.; Ga, H.; Goel, A.; Hajjar, R.; Holmerova, I.; Katz, P.R.; Koopmans, R.T.; Rolland, Y.; Visvanathan, R.; Woo, J.; Morley, J.E.; Vellas, B.
There is much ambiguity regarding the term "nursing home" in the international literature. The definition of a nursing home and the type of assistance provided in a nursing home is quite varied by country. The International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics and AMDA foundation developed a
Joost van Hoof
Purpose There is an increasing call in society for improvementof the well-being of nursing home residents and support of health care professionals through a wide array of architectural and technological solutions that are available in modern nursing homes. The design of nursing home facilities calls
Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette
quality in a joint effort between care workers, residents at the nursing home, and researchers. It concludes that the project led to empowerment of the residents and staff and played an important role in the development of democratic knowledge building about better quality and ethics in elder care....
Hauser, R C; Edwards, D E; Edwards, J T
Cash budgeting is generally considered to be an important part of resource management in all businesses. However, respondents to a survey of not-for-profit health care entities revealed that some 40 percent of the participants do not currently prepare cash budgets. Where budgeting occurred, the cash forecasts covered various time frames, and distribution of the document was inconsistent. Most budgets presented cash receipts and disbursements according to operating, investing, and financing activities--a format consistent with the year-end cash flow statement. By routinely preparing monthly cash budgets, the not-for-profit health care entity can project cash inflow/outflow or position with anticipated cash insufficiencies and surpluses. The budget should be compared each month to actual results to evaluate performance. The magnitude and timing of cash flows is much too critical to be left to chance.
Davies, Elin H; Fulton, Emma; Brook, Daniel; Hughes, Dyfrig A
The success of the Regulation on Orphan Medicinal Products in the European Union is evidenced by the 127 orphan drugs that have had market authorization since 2000. However, the incentives aimed at stimulating research and development have had the unintended consequence of increasing drug cost, resulting in many orphan drugs not being cost-effective. Orphan drugs command an increasing share of the pharmaceutical market and account for a disproportionate amount of healthcare expenditure. Orphan drug ownership by socially motivated, not-for-profit organizations may facilitate access to more affordable orphan drugs, for the benefit of patients and healthcare systems alike. This study aims to describe opportunities for such organizations to become orphan drug Market Authorization Holders. We reviewed data on the ownership of EMA designated and approved orphan drugs, identified funding opportunities and business models for not-for-profit organizations, and summarised relevant legal and policy documents concerning intellectual property rights and drug regulation. Using repurposed drugs as a paradigm, this narrative review navigates the regulatory hurdles, describes the legal context and identifies funding opportunities, in a bid to facilitate and encourage not-for-profit organizations to lead on the development of affordable orphan drugs. Although the regulatory steps required to obtain an MA for an orphan drug are numerous and challenging, they are not insurmountable and can be achieved by not-for-profit organizations that are socially motivated to reduce the costs of orphan drugs to the payers of healthcare. Opportunities for orphan drug development resulting in affordable products lie mainly with repurposed drugs. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.
Santoso, Bedjo; Eko Ningtyas, Endah Aryati; Fatmasari, Diyah
Stomatitis often occurs in elderly at nursing home. They need nursing home staff assistance to maintain their dental and oral health. Therefore, nursing home staff need dental health education. Lecture or discussion methods, which are more effective to improve knowledge, attitude and skill of nursing home staff was the purpose of this research. The research design was quasi-experiment research and pretest-posttest with control group. The sample was 42 nursing home staffs and 74 elderlies, div...
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Hujala, Anneli; Rissanen, Sari
The aim of this study was to make visible the material dimensions of nursing management. Management theories have mainly ignored the material dimensions, namely the physical spaces in which management actually takes place as well as the physical bodies of organization members. The perspective of organization aesthetics enhances our understanding of the role of materiality in nursing management. The data were collected in 2009 using observation and interviews in eight nursing homes. Qualitative content analysis with critical interpretations was used. Three main issues of organizational aesthetics related to nursing management were identified: (1) the functionality of working spaces and equipment; (2) the relevance of 'organizational' space; and (3) the emotional-aesthetic dimension of daily work. Materiality is closely related to management topics, such as decision-making, values and identity formation of organizational members. Aesthetic dimensions of care are constructed by management practices which, in their turn, influence the nature of management. Implications for nursing management Nurse managers need to be aware of the unintended and unnoticed consequences of materiality and aesthetics. Space and body issues may have considerable effects, for example, on the identity of care workers and on the attractiveness of the care branch. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
A new version of the FASB accounting standard covering not-for-profit healthcare organizations contains potentially significant changes to the statement of operations and changes in net assets, statement of cash flows, and notes to the financial statements. Healthcare organizations already have tremendous flexibility with disclosures around all aspects of their business. Although auditors prefer to see only information that can be effectively audited, this preference does not prevent organizations from expanding on certain activities or transactions covered by GAAP in their footnotes.
Harrison, Jeffrey P; Sexton, Christopher
By using data-envelopment analysis (DEA), this study evaluates the efficiency of religious not-for-profit hospitals. Hospital executives, healthcare policy makers, taxpayers, and other stakeholders benefit from studies that improve hospital efficiency. Results indicate that overall efficiency in religious hospitals improved from 72% in 1998 to 74% in 2001. What is more important is that the number of religious hospitals operating on the efficiency frontier increased from 40 in 1998 to 47 in 2001. This clearly documents that religious hospitals are becoming more efficient in the management of resources. From a policy perspective, this study highlights the economic importance of encouraging increased efficiency throughout the healthcare industry.
Powers, B A
The concept of everyday ethics was used to emphasize the moral basis of ordinary issues of daily living affecting quality of life for nursing home residents with dementia. To critically examine ethical issues of daily living affecting nursing home residents with dementia and to construct a descriptive taxonomy inductively derived from ethnographic fieldwork data. Combined anthropological methods of participant observation and in-depth interviewing were used in the natural setting of a 147-bed, voluntary, not-for-profit nursing home. Experiences of 30 residents, their family members, and nursing home staff were explored. In addition, the records of 10 ethics committee cases involving residents with dementia further enlarged the database. The taxonomy of everyday ethical issues includes the following four domains: (a) learning the limits of intervention; (b) tempering the culture of surveillance and restraint; (c) preserving the integrity of the individual; and (d) defining community norms and values. Each is representative of constellations of concerns that are grounded in the cultural and moral environment of the nursing home. Results highlight the challenges of recognizing the ethical in the ordinary, and of resolving everyday issues in ways that enhance quality of life for residents with dementia and those (family and staff) who care for them.
Prince, T R; Ramanan, R
Many not-for-profit community hospitals had major shifts in their annual collection performance between 1986 and 1988. The collection performance is measured by excess collection time; this is computed as the difference between the actual average collection time for a hospital and the median for one of the six panels to which the hospital is assigned based on ownership, control code, and financial reporting practices. The sample for this study has 1,246 not-for-profit hospitals comprising over 50 percent of total revenue and expenses of all community hospitals (about 5,500). More than 16 percent of these hospitals had annual changes of ten-plus days in each of the years. Excess collection time within the six panels was examined by state, payer mix (Medicare, Medicaid, and Blue Cross), membership in the Council of Teaching Hospitals, medical school affiliation, case-mix index for Medicare, contractual allowance rate, debt-service coverage, return on assets, new investments, age of property, and urban location. Major findings were that collection patterns are different among some states. The proportions of Medicare, Medicaid, and Blue Cross are negatively associated with excess collection time in three of the panels. Contractual allowance is positively related, and return on assets is negatively associated with excess collection time in two of the panels. The other factors had virtually no effect on the collection performance.
Dyck, Mary J; Kim, Myoung Jin
The purpose of the study was to determine the continuing education needs for nursing home nurses in rural central Illinois and to determine any potential facilitators or barriers to obtaining continuing education. Data were collected using the Educational Needs Assessment questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were computed to examine continuing education preferences, facilitators, and barriers among nursing home nurses. Independent samples t tests were used to compare preferences between administrative and staff nurses. The sample included 317 nurses from 34 facilities. The five top needs were related to clinical problems. Administrative nurses had greater needs for professional issues, managerial skills, and quality improvement than staff nurses. Barriers included rural settings, need for vacation time for programs, and inadequate staffing. Continuing education needs of nursing home nurses in Illinois are similar to previous studies conducted in Arizona and North Carolina. Continuing education barriers were mostly organizational, rather than personal. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2018;49(1):26-33. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Oetjen, Reid M; Zhao, Mei; Liu, Darren; Carretta, Henry J
This study examines the relationship between financial performance and selected safety measures of nursing homes in the State of Florida. We used descriptive analysis on a total sample of 1,197. Safety information was from the Online Survey, Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data of 2003 to 2005, while the financial performance measures were from the Medicare cost reports of 2002 to 2004. Finally, we examined the most frequently cited deficiencies as well as the relationship between financial performance and quality indicators. Nursing homes in the bottom quartile of financial performance perform poorly on most resident-safety measures of care; however, nursing homes in the top two financial categories also experienced a higher number of deficiencies. Nursing homes in the next to lowest quartile of financial performance category best perform on most of these safety measures. The results reinforce the need to monitor nursing home quality and resident safety in US nursing homes, especially among facilities with poor overall financial performance.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Label (point) feature class of Miami-Dade County Nursing Homes Facilities. As of May 2004 the Office of Emergency Management (OEM) will provide updates for Nursing...
Dorr, David A; Horn, Susan D; Smout, Randall J
To examine potential cost savings from decreased adverse resident outcomes versus additional wages of nurses when nursing homes have adequate staffing. A retrospective cost study using differences in adverse outcome rates of pressure ulcers (PUs), urinary tract infections (UTIs), and hospitalizations per resident per day from low staffing and adequate staffing nursing homes. Cost savings from reductions in these events are calculated in dollars and compared with costs of increasing nurse staffing. Eighty-two nursing homes throughout the United States. One thousand three hundred seventy-six frail elderly long-term care residents at risk of PU development. Event rates are from the National Pressure Ulcer Long-Term Care Study. Hospital costs are estimated from Medicare statistics and from charges in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. UTI costs and PU costs are from cost-identification studies. Time horizon is 1 year; perspectives are societal and institutional. Analyses showed an annual net societal benefit of 3,191 dollars per resident per year in a high-risk, long-stay nursing home unit that employs sufficient nurses to achieve 30 to 40 minutes of registered nurse direct care time per resident per day versus nursing homes that have nursing time of less than 10 minutes. Sensitivity analyses revealed a robust set of estimates, with no single or paired elements reaching the cost/benefit equality threshold. Increasing nurse staffing in nursing homes may create significant societal cost savings from reduction in adverse outcomes. Challenges in increasing nurse staffing are discussed.
Leskovic Ljiljana; Vukovič Goran; Leskovar Robert; Goriup Jana
Nursing personnel in nursing homes for elderly citizens are exposed to a number of factors that contribute to possible burnout syndrome. For this reason, the set objective of the research was to measure the degree of burnout, check the correlation between the burnout syndrome and satisfaction at work, and psychosomatic symptoms, as well as to figure out the main characteristics of burnout syndrome among the nursing personnel in nursing homes for the elderly in Slovenia.
Magnus, Stephen A; Smith, Dean G; Wheeler, John R C
Not-for-profit hospitals undertook unprecedented amounts of debt in the mid to late 1990s. Corporate finance theory and the literature on hospital financing suggest that debt may constrain hospitals' capacity to deliver uncompensated care. Using data from audited financial statements for a sample of hospitals, this article explores whether debt financing is associated with hospitals' provision of uncompensated care, an output central to many hospitals' service missions. Contrary to expectations, our analysis finds that higher debt is associated with higher levels of uncompensated care. However, the results may reflect the unusual economic and stock-market conditions prevailing in the mid 1990s, and they are consistent with the views of hospital financial managers and other practitioners whom we interviewed.
Song, Paula H; Reiter, Kristin L
The delivery of health care is a capital-intensive industry, and thus, hospital investment strategy continues to be an important area of interest for both health policy and research. Much attention has been given to hospitals' capital investment policies with relatively little attention to investments in financial assets, which serve an important role in not-for-profit (NFP) hospitals. This study describes and analyzes trends in aggregate asset structure between NFP and investor-owned (IO) hospitals during the post-capital-based prospective payment system implementation period, providing the first documentation of long-term trends in hospital investment. The authors find hospitals' aggregate asset structure differs significantly based on ownership, size, and profitability. For both NFP and IO hospitals, financial securities have remained consistent over time, while fixed asset representation has declined in IO hospitals.
Lohne, Vibeke; Høy, Bente; Wilhelm Rehnsfeldt, Arne
This qualitative study is focusing on dignity in nursing homes from the perspective of family caregivers. Dignity is a complex concept and central to nursing. Dignity in nursing homes is a challenge, according to research. Family caregivers are frequently involved in their family members’ daily...... experiences at the nursing home. This Scandinavian application study has a descriptive and explorative design. Twenty-nine family caregivers were included. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. The interpretations revealed two main themes: “One should......, but still important in nursing homes. It seems therefore important to further investigate experiences of family caregivers in the context of nursing homes....
Williamson, Kathleen M
This exploratory study involved the triangulation of qualitative (interview and observation) and quantitative methods (Psychological Empowerment Instrument). This study examined the individual home care nurses' perception of empowerment and how it influences decisions in the home clinical setting. Fifteen nurses were self-selected to participate. All completed an interview, and were observed and given Likert Instrument to complete. A framework analysis was performed to identify mutually exclusive and exhaustive emergent themes and patterns within the data. Home care nurses described that enpowerment is in the interaction between nurse and patient, and nurse and health care provider. Empowered is defined as being independent, confident, trusting, and comfortable with providing quality care. Home health care nurses believe that having the ability to practice collaboratively and build professional relationships was essential. Nurses in this study perceived empowerment as having meaning, choice, and competence in their job.
Bishop, Christine E; Squillace, Marie R; Meagher, Jennifer; Anderson, Wayne L; Wiener, Joshua M
To estimate the impact of nursing home work practices, specifically compensation and working conditions, on job satisfaction of nursing assistants employed in nursing homes. Data are from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey, responses by the nursing assistants' employers to the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, and county-level data from the Area Resource File. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate effects of compensation and working conditions on nursing assistants' overall job satisfaction, controlling for personal characteristics and local labor market characteristics. Wages, benefits, and job demands, measured by the ratio of nursing assistant hours per resident day, were associated with job satisfaction. Consistent with previous studies, job satisfaction was greater when nursing assistants felt respected and valued by their employers and had good relationships with supervisors. Nursing assistants were more satisfied when they had enough time to complete their work, when their work was challenging, when they were not subject to mandatory overtime, and where food was not delivered to residents on trays. This is the first investigation of nursing assistant job satisfaction using a nationally representative sample of nursing assistants matched to information about their employing nursing homes. The findings corroborate results of previous studies in showing that compensation and working conditions that provide respect, good relationships with supervisors, and better staffing levels are important to nursing assistant job satisfaction.
I exploit a plausibly exogenous change in hospital financial incentives to examine whether the behavior of private not-for-profit hospitals varies with the share of nearby hospitals organized as for-profit firms. My results show that not-for-profit hospitals in for-profit intensive areas are significantly more responsive to an increased incentive to treat low-income patients insured by the Medicaid program than are other not-for-profit providers. The heterogeneity in behavior is not due to di...
The thesis deals with integrated dental care in nursing homes. First, the dental treatment needs were ascertained of 432 residents in three Dutch nursing homes that offer integrated dental care. Dentist researchers intra-orally examined the residents and found that 72% required dental treatment.
Cram, Peter; Bayman, Levent; Popescu, Ioana; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Cai, Xueya; Rosenthal, Gary E
There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP), for-profit (FP) and government owned hospitals. We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID) for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals) hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals) for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals). The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P < .001), CABG (2.6% NFP; 3.3% FP; 7.0% government; P < .001), and childbirth (3.1% NFP; 4.2% FP; 11.8% government; P < .001). In adjusted analyses, the mean percentage of AMI patients classified as uninsured was similar in NFP and FP hospitals (4.4% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.71), and higher for government hospitals (6.0%; P < .001 for NFP vs. government). Likewise, results demonstrated similar proportions of uninsured patients in NFP and FP hospitals and higher levels of uninsured in government hospitals for both CABG and childbirth. For the three conditions studied NFP
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although stroke is recognised as a major factor in admission to nursing home care, data is lacking on the extent and nature of the disabilities and dependency in nursing homes arising from stroke. A national study conducted in nursing homes can quantify the number of residents with stroke in nursing homes, their disability and levels of dependency. Methods A cross-sectional survey research design was used. A total of 572 public and private nursing homes were identified nationally and a stratified random selection of 60 nursing homes with 3,239 residents was made. In half of the nursing homes (n = 30 efforts were made to interview all residents with stroke Survey instruments were used to collect data from residents with stroke and nursing home managers on demography, patient disability, and treatment. Results Across all nursing homes (n = 60, 18% (n = 570 of the residents had previously had a stroke. In homes (n = 30, where interviews with residents with stroke (n = 257, only 7% (n = 18 residents were capable of answering for themselves and were interviewed. Data on the remaining 93% (n = 239 residents were provided by the nursing home manager. Nurse Managers reported that 73% of residents with stroke had a high level of dependency. One in two residents with stroke was prescribed antidepressants or sedative medication. Only 21% of stroke residents were prescribed anticoagulants, 42% antiplatelets, and 36% cholesterol lowering medications. Stroke rehabilitation guidelines were lacking and 68% reported that there was no formal review process in place. Conclusions This study provides seminal findings on stroke and nursing home services in Ireland. We now know that one in six nursing home residents in a national survey are residents with a stroke, and have a wide range of disabilities. There is currently little or no structured care (beyond generic care for stroke survivors who reside in nursing homes in Ireland.
BACKGROUND: Although stroke is recognised as a major factor in admission to nursing home care, data is lacking on the extent and nature of the disabilities and dependency in nursing homes arising from stroke. A national study conducted in nursing homes can quantify the number of residents with stroke in nursing homes, their disability and levels of dependency. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey research design was used. A total of 572 public and private nursing homes were identified nationally and a stratified random selection of 60 nursing homes with 3,239 residents was made. In half of the nursing homes (n = 30) efforts were made to interview all residents with stroke Survey instruments were used to collect data from residents with stroke and nursing home managers on demography, patient disability, and treatment. RESULTS: Across all nursing homes (n = 60), 18% (n = 570) of the residents had previously had a stroke. In homes (n = 30), where interviews with residents with stroke (n = 257), only 7% (n = 18) residents were capable of answering for themselves and were interviewed. Data on the remaining 93% (n = 239) residents were provided by the nursing home manager. Nurse Managers reported that 73% of residents with stroke had a high level of dependency. One in two residents with stroke was prescribed antidepressants or sedative medication. Only 21% of stroke residents were prescribed anticoagulants, 42% antiplatelets, and 36% cholesterol lowering medications. Stroke rehabilitation guidelines were lacking and 68% reported that there was no formal review process in place. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides seminal findings on stroke and nursing home services in Ireland. We now know that one in six nursing home residents in a national survey are residents with a stroke, and have a wide range of disabilities. There is currently little or no structured care (beyond generic care) for stroke survivors who reside in nursing homes in Ireland.
... MEDICAL Use of Community Nursing Home Care Facilities § 17.57 Use of community nursing homes. (a) Nursing home care in a contract public or private nursing home facility may be authorized for the following... currently receiving VA hospital based home health services. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1720; sec. 108, Pub. L. 99...
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify core journals in home health nursing and to determine how well these journals were covered by indexing and abstracting services. The study was part of the project for mapping the nursing literature of the Medical Library Association's Nursing and Allied Health Resource Section.
Madsen, Helle Ostergaard; Hanehøj, Malin; Das, Ashima Rani
OBJECTIVES: To determine health care provider cost and household cost of the treatment of severe pneumonia in infants and young children admitted to secondary and tertiary level health care facilities. METHODS: The study was done in a private, not-for-profit medical college hospital, in Vellore...... comprised travel, accommodation and special food during the period of illness, and indirect costs of productivity loss for family members. Patient specific resource consumption and related charges were recorded from charts, nursing records, pharmacy lists and hospital bills, and the providers view point...
Full Text Available Background. Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in advanced age. Prognosis of the disease depends on premorbid condition and immune competence of the patient, severity of the disease and causative microorganism. In our analysis we wanted to establish clinical, x-ray and microbiological characteristics of pneumonia in nursing home residents, estimate suitability of therapeutic measures and find out risk factors for adverse outcome in this group of patients.Material and methods. This retrospective study includes all nursing home residents hospitalised due to CAP in Hospital Golnik in 2000. Clinical data was/were evaluated according to case history. Microbiological data and laboratory results were gathered from the patients files. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results. 30 patients, 17 women were included, aged 82.5 ± 11.7 years. 60% of patients had at least 2 accompanying diseases, most frequently cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. At admittance 83% of patients presented with severe form of the disease. Dispnea (93%, tachypnea, cough (67% and confusion (47% dominate clinical picture. Patients rarely expectorate, are frequently hypoxemic (93%, have leucocytosis (63%, electrolyte disturbances and elevated urea (67%. According to the microbiologic results most frequent causative agents are Enterobacteriae, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and also some multiresistant bacteria. Amoxycillin with clavulanic acid was the most frequently used antibiotic, followed by macrolides and 3rd generation cephalosporines.9 patients died, mortality rate was 30%. Their average age was 83,4 years, 67% of them had more than 2 accompanying diseases, all of them severe form of the disease, 89% severe respiratory insufficiency and 22% positive hemoculture.Conclusions. Patients are characterised with numerous comorbidities and advanced age. Clinical presentation is unspecific. Mortality is high
This study compares quality measures among nursing homes that have adopted different levels of clinical health information technology (HIT) and examines the perceived barriers and benefits of the adoption of electronic health records as reported by Nursing Home Administrators and Directors of Nursing. A cross-sectional survey distributed online to…
Grabowski, David C; Stevenson, David G
To examine the effects of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system data from 1993 to 2004, and the Minimum Data Set (MDS) facility reports from 1998 to 2004. Regression specification incorporating facility fixed effects, with terms to identify trends in the pre- and postconversion periods. The annual rate of nursing home conversions almost tripled between 1994 and 2004. Our regression results indicate converting facilities are generally different throughout the pre/postconversion years, suggesting little causal effect of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Before and after conversion, nursing homes converting from nonprofit to for-profit status generally exhibit deterioration in their performance, while nursing homes converting from for-profit to nonprofit status generally exhibit improvement. Policy makers have expressed concern regarding the implications of ownership conversions for nursing home performance. Our results imply that regulators and policy makers should not only monitor the outcomes of nursing home conversions, but also the targets of these conversions.
Watt, J M; Derzon, R A; Renn, S C; Schramm, C J; Hahn, J S; Pillari, G D
We examined the differences in the economic performance of 80 matched pairs of investor-owned chain and not-for-profit hospitals in eight states during 1978 and 1980, and considered how their operating strategies might affect their relative success in a more price-conscious market. We found that total charges (adjusted for case mix) and net revenues per case were both significantly higher in the investor-owned chain hospitals, mainly because of higher charges for ancillary services; there were no significant differences between the two groups of hospitals in regard to patient-care costs per case (adjusted for case mix), but the investor-owned hospitals had significantly higher administrative overhead costs; investor-owned hospitals were more profitable; investor-owned hospitals had fewer employees per occupied bed but paid more per employee; investor-owned hospitals had funded more of their capital through debt and had significantly higher capital costs in proportion to their operating costs; and the two groups did not differ in patient mix, as measured by their Medicare case-mix indexes or the proportions of their patients covered by Medicare or Medicaid. We conclude that investor-owned chain hospitals generated higher profits through more aggressive pricing practices rather than operating efficiencies - a result not unexpected in view of past cost-based reimbursement policies. Recent changes in these policies are creating new pressures for cost control and moderation in charges, to which both types of hospitals must adapt. Neither type has a clear-cut advantage in the ability to make the necessary changes.
Hernandez, R; Hill, D B
The relative competitive advantages of regional and national systems are summarized in Figure One. As illustrated, each type of system has unique competitive advantages at the corporate level. While it is difficult to state that either system has distinct advantages that place it in a superior position relative to the other, it seems that in the short-run investor-owned systems have operating characteristics that may result in more efficient internal functioning because of more centralized control over resource allocation and performance systems, greater possibilities for economies of scale, and greater access to capital. However, it was previously noted that growing pressures from government and the business community will lead to tighter constraints on the profitability of investments in the health care sector. The possibility of this shift suggests that the access to capital advantage enjoyed by investor-owned systems may not continue. Additionally, regional systems that are part of larger affiliated organizations such as the Sun Alliance and the Voluntary Hospitals of America are developing means to pool their access to debt funds, thus reducing the cost of capital for member institutions. The group purchasing contracts developed by these large systems also have resulted in significant savings. The distinction between regional and national systems on centralized control are becoming less pronounced. Investor-owned systems are seeking to determine how they might best decentralize selected decisions to be more responsive to local markets while not-for-profit regional systems are recognizing that they must centralize selected decisions to obtain more efficient, rational operation. The long-run outlook suggests that the competitive advantages that have been identified will become less pronounced and that both systems will survive in the marketplace.
Clark, Lauren; Fink, Regina; Pennington, Karen; Jones, Katherine
Achieving optimal and safe pain-management practices in the nursing home setting continues to challenge administrators, nurses, physicians, and other health care providers. Several factors in nursing home settings complicate the conduct of clinical process improvement research. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of a sample of Colorado nursing home staff who participated in a study to develop and evaluate a multifaceted pain-management intervention. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 103 staff from treatment and control nursing homes, audiotaped, and content analyzed. Staff identified changes in their knowledge and attitudes about pain and their pain-assessment and management practices. Progressive solutions and suggestions for changing practice include establishing an internal pain team and incorporating nursing assistants into the care planning process. Quality improvement strategies can accommodate the special circumstances of nursing home care and build the capacity of the nursing homes to initiate and monitor their own process-improvement programs using a participatory research approach.
deepened knowledge in how to maintain and promote dignity in nursing home residents. The purpose of this paper is to present results concerning the question: How is nursing home residents’ dignity maintained or deprived from the perspective of close family caregivers? In this presentation we only focus...... on deprivation of dignity. Methodology: The overall design of this study is modified clinical application research. The study took place at six different nursing home residences in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Data collection methods were individual research interviews. All together the sample consisted of 28...
Farrar, Francisca Cisneros
Telehealth technology is an evidence-based delivery model tool that can be integrated into the plan of care for mental health patients. Telehealth technology empowers access to health care, can help decrease or prevent hospital readmissions, assist home health nurses provide shared decision making, and focuses on collaborative care. Telehealth and the recovery model have transformed the role of the home health nurse. Nurses need to be proactive and respond to rapidly emerging technologies that are transforming their role in home care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daniel Mwendwa Kitonga
Full Text Available This paper sought to examine the link between strategic leaders practice of determining strategic direction and organizational performance. An embedded mixed method research assessing the impact of strategic leadership variable determining strategic direction and organizational performance was completed by managers representing 328 not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. The study established a significant positive relationship between determining strategic direction and organizational performance. The results found r value of 0.676 and r2 value of 0.457 that is 45.7 of corresponding change in the organizational performance of not-for-profits for every change is explained by the predictor variables. The findings demonstrate that if not-for-profit leaders clearly determine the organizations strategic direction they are likely to improve their organizational performance significantly. This paper examined how determining strategic direction strategic planning in not-for-profit organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. Future research that seeks to replicate these findings is recommended. This paper proposes the study of determining strategic direction strategic planning as way of improving strategic leadership practices hence enhancing not-for-profit organizational performance.
Choi, JiSun; Flynn, Linda; Aiken, Linda H.
Purpose: Recruiting and retaining registered nurses (RNs) in nursing homes is problematic, and little research is available to guide efforts to make nursing homes a more attractive practice environment for RNs. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between aspects of the nursing practice environment and job satisfaction among RNs…
Kramer, A M; Shaughnessy, P W; Pettigrew, M L
Case-mix differences between 653 home health care patients and 650 nursing home patients, and between 455 Medicare home health patients and 447 Medicare nursing home patients were assessed using random samples selected from 20 home health agencies and 46 nursing homes in 12 states in 1982 and 1983. Home health patients were younger, had shorter lengths of stay, and were less functionally disabled than nursing home patients. Traditional long-term care problems requiring personal care were more...
Kerkstra, A.; Hutten, J.B.F.
The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the organization and financing of home nursing in the 15 member states in the European Union. Home nursing was defined as the nursing care provided at the patients' home by professional home nursing organizations. Data were gathered by means of
Home care nursing (HCN) improves the management of symptoms in breast and colorectal cancer patients who take the oral chemotherapy drug capecitabine, according to a study published online November 16 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Sear, A M
It is often assumed that investor-owned hospitals are more market driven than are not-for-profit hospitals, and that they will maximize output and minimize inputs, to the exclusion of other management strategies. To resolve the conflicting research evidence, this study analyzed efficiency and profitability measures for approximately 50 investor-owned and 60 not-for-profit hospitals in Florida for the period from 1982 through 1988. The results indicate that the investor-owned hospitals used significantly fewer FTE staff per bed, had significantly fewer manhours per adjusted patient day, and paid significantly less in wages and had significantly higher operating margins (profit) than did the not-for-profit institutions.
Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Hofoss, Dag; Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe; Deilkås, Ellen Catharina Tveter
Patient safety culture concerns leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines, awareness and practices that impinge on the risk of patient-adverse events. Due to their complex multiple diseases, nursing home patients are at particularly high risk of adverse events. Studies have found an association between patient safety culture and the risk of adverse events. This study aimed to investigate safety attitudes among healthcare providers in Norwegian nursing homes, using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Ambulatory Version (SAQ-AV). We studied whether variations in safety attitudes were related to professional background, age, work experience and mother tongue. In February 2016, 463 healthcare providers working in five nursing homes in Tønsberg, Norway, were invited to answer the SAQ-AV, translated and adapted to the Norwegian nursing home setting. Previous validation of the Norwegian SAQ-AV for nursing homes identified five patient safety factors: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, working conditions and stress recognition. SPSS v.22 was used for statistical analysis, which included estimations of mean values, standard deviations and multiple linear regressions. P-values safety factors teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions. Not being a Norwegian native speaker was associated with a significantly higher mean score for job satisfaction and a significantly lower mean score for stress recognition. Neither professional background nor work experience were significantly associated with mean scores for any patient safety factor. Patient safety factor scores in nursing homes were poorer than previously found in Norwegian general practices, but similar to findings in out-of-hours primary care clinics. Patient safety culture assessment may help nursing home leaders to initiate targeted quality improvement interventions. Further research should investigate associations between patient safety culture and the occurrence
Hollaar, V.R.Y.; Putten, G.J. van der; Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.
BACKGROUND: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is a common infection among nursing home residents. There is also a high prevalence of dysphagia in nursing home residents and they suffer more often from comorbidity and multimorbidity. This puts nursing home residents at higher risk of (mortality
Halvorsen, Kjell H; Granas, Anne Gerd; Engeland, Anders; Ruths, Sabine
To examine and compare the quality of drug prescribing for older patients in nursing homes and home nursing services. Cross-sectional study comprising 11,254 patients aged ≥ 65 years in nursing homes (n = 2986) and home nursing services (n = 8268). Potentially inappropriate medications were identified by using the Norwegian General Practice criteria and drug-drug interactions through a Norwegian Web-based tool. The impact of care setting on exposure to selected drug groups, potentially inappropriate medications, and drug interactions was calculated, adjusting for patients' age, gender, and number of drugs used. Patients in nursing homes and home nursing services used on average 5.7 (SD = 2.6) multidose dispensed regular drugs. Twenty-six percent used at least one potentially inappropriate medication, 31% in nursing homes and 25% in home nursing services, p nursing homes (18%) and home nursing services (9%), p nursing homes, more patients in home nursing services used cardiovascular drugs and fewer patients used psychotropic drugs. Altogether, 8615 drug-drug interactions were identified in 55% of patients, 48% in nursing homes and 57% in home nursing services, p quality of drug prescribing in nursing homes compared with home nursing services. Explanations as to why these differences exist need to be further explored. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stulginsky, Maryfran McKenzie
Defines home health nursing as meeting the acute and chronic care needs of patients and their families in the home environment. Offers examples of situations in which home health nurses find themselves and their reactions to them. (JOW)
Silva, M; Hopcraft, M; Morgan, M
The poor oral health of nursing home residents is the cause of substantial morbidity and has major implications relating to health care policy. The aim of this study was to measure dental caries experience in Australians living in nursing homes, and investigate associations with resident characteristics. Clinical dental examinations were conducted on 243 residents from 19 nursing homes in Melbourne. Resident characteristics were obtained from nursing home records and interviews with residents, family and nursing home staff. Two dental examiners assessed coronal and root dental caries using standard ICDAS-II criteria. Residents were elderly, medically compromised and functionally impaired. Most required assistance with oral hygiene and professional dental care was rarely utilized. Residents had high rates of coronal and root caries, with a mean 2.8 teeth with untreated coronal caries and 5.0 root surfaces with untreated root caries. Functional impairment and irregular professional dental care were associated with higher rates of untreated tooth decay. There were no significant associations with medical conditions or the number of medications taken. Nursing home residents have high levels of untreated coronal and root caries, particularly those with high needs due to functional impairment but poor access to professional services. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Deutschman, Marian T
The current system of delivery of nursing home care is costly both in dollars and in human terms. Culture change may provide solutions to both issues. Culture change has a different meaning for different organizations depending on where they are in the continuum of change. Detailed observation of staff members "in action" in three long-term care facilities over a period of several months was supplemented by formal and informal interviews of organization members to gain an understanding of the culture of the nursing home organization. Four three-hour observations in each of three facilities, representing privately-held and not-for-profit organizations in urban, suburban, and rural locations yielded insights into the routine, recruitment, training, teamwork, activities, leadership, role-modeling, mentoring, staff and resident satisfaction, weekend staffing and activities, bureaucratic structure, and sharing of best practices. Discussion of each of these issues may provide a starting point for all those facilities that are contemplating significant culture change. If the objective is to have facilities truly embrace a new set of values, then the change begins with the owners and administrators of nursing homes who need to focus on building new relationships with all the stakeholders. In-depth interviews of organization members and six chief executive officers in long-term care in the Western New York area culminated the study with the development of a fifty-question survey for decision makers.
Afendulis, Christopher C; Caudry, Daryl J; O'Malley, A James; Kemper, Peter; Grabowski, David C
To evaluate the impact of the Green House (GH) model on nursing home resident-level quality of care measures. Resident-level minimum data set (MDS) assessments merged with Medicare inpatient claims for the period 2005 through 2010. Using a difference-in-differences framework, we compared changes in care quality and outcomes in 15 nursing homes that adopted the GH model relative to changes over the same time period in 223 matched nursing homes that had not adopted the GH model. For individuals residing in GH homes, adoption of the model lowered readmissions and several MDS measures of poor quality, including bedfast residents, catheter use, and pressure ulcers, but these results were not present across the entire GH organization, suggesting possible offsetting effects for residents of non-GH "legacy" units within the GH organization. GH adoption led to improvement in rehospitalizations and certain nursing home quality measures for individuals residing in a GH home. The absence of evidence of a decline in other clinical quality measures in GH nursing homes should reassure anyone concerned that GH might have sacrificed clinical quality for improved quality of life. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Leider, Jonathon P; Tung, Greg J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Johnson, Emily K; Hardy, Rose; Castrucci, Brian C
Community Benefit spending by not-for-profit hospitals has served as a critical, formalized part of the nation's safety net for almost 50 years. This has occurred mostly through charity care. This article examines how not-for-profit hospitals spent Community Benefit dollars prior to full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Using data from 2009 to 2012 hospital tax and other governmental filings, we constructed national, hospital-referral-region, and facility-level estimates of Community Benefit spending. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2015 and 2016. Data were matched at the facility level for a non-profit hospital's IRS tax filings (Form 990, Schedule H) and CMS Hospital Cost Report Information System and Provider of Service data sets. During 2009, hospitals spent about 8% of total operating expenses on Community Benefit. This increased to between 8.3% and 8.5% in 2012. The majority of spending (>80%) went toward charity care, unreimbursed Medicaid, and subsidized health services, with approximately 6% going toward both community health improvement and health professionals' education. By 2012, national spending on Community Benefit likely exceeded $60 billion. The largest hospital systems spent the vast majority of the nation's Community Benefit; the top 25% of systems spent more than 80 cents of every Community Benefit dollar. Community Benefit spending has remained relatively steady as a proportion of total operating expenses and so has increased over time-although charity care remains the major focus of Community Benefit spending overall. More than $60 billion was spent on Community Benefit prior to implementation of the ACA. New reporting and spending requirements from the IRS, alongside changes by the ACA, are changing incentives for hospitals in how they spend Community Benefit dollars. In the short term, and especially the long term, hospital systems would do well to partner with public health, other social services, and even
Klomstad, Kristin; Pedersen, Reidar; Førde, Reidun; Romøren, Maria
Many of the elderly in nursing homes are very ill and have a reduced quality of life. Life expectancy is often hard to predict. Decisions about life-prolonging treatment should be based on a professional assessment of the patient's best interest, assessment of capacity to consent, and on the patient's own wishes. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare how these types of decisions were made in nursing homes and in hospital wards. Using a questionnaire, we studied the decision-making process for 299 nursing home patients who were treated for dehydration using intravenous fluids, or for bacterial infections using intravenous antibiotics. We compared the 215 (72%) patients treated in nursing homes to the 84 (28%) nursing home patients treated in the hospital. The patients' capacity to consent was considered prior to treatment in 197 (92%) of the patients treated in nursing homes and 56 (67%) of the patients treated in hospitals (p nursing homes than in hospital (90% vs. 52%). Next of kin and other health personnel were also more rarely involved when the nursing home patient was treated in hospital. Whether advance care planning had been carried out, was more often unknown in the hospital (69% vs. 17% in nursing homes). Hospital doctors expressed more doubt about the decision to admit the patient to the hospital than about the treatment itself. This study indicates a potential for improvement in decision-making processes in general, and in particular when nursing home patients are treated in a hospital ward. The findings corroborate that nursing home patients should be treated locally if adequate health care and treatment is available. The communication between the different levels of health care when hospitalization is necessary, must be better. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01023763 (12/1/09) [The registration was delayed one month after study onset due to practical reasons].
Online programming has expanded greatly within higher education and much attention has been spent on public two year colleges (more commonly known as community colleges) and both private and public four year institutions. This research seeks to expand understanding of the small market of private not-for-profit two year colleges within the United…
Chaudhuri, Tanni; Yeatts, Dale E; Cready, Cynthia M
To evaluate factors affecting structural empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. Structural empowerment can be defined as the actual rather than perceived ability to make autonomous decisions within an organisation. Given the paucity of research on the subject, this study helps to close the gap by identifying factors that affect nurse aide empowerment, that is, decision-making among nurse aides. The data for the study come from self-administered questionnaires distributed to direct-care workers (nurse aides) in 11 nursing homes in a southern state in the USA. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to analyse the effects of demographic predictors, personal factors (competency, emotional exhaustion and positive attitude) and structural characteristics (coworker and supervisor support, information availability and shared governance) on nurse aide decision-making. Findings suggest race among demographic predictors, emotional exhaustion among personal characteristics, and supervisor support, and shared governance among structural factors, significantly affect nurse aide decision-making. It is important to explore race as one of the central determinants of structural empowerment among nurse aides. In addition, the nature and type of emotional exhaustion that propels decision-making needs to be further examined. The study shows the importance of shared governance and supervisor support for fostering nurse aide empowerment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Cowan, Florence Kelly
The course outlines presented in this final report comprise a proposed Fort Steilacoom Community College curriculum to be used as a statewide model two-year associate degree curriculum for nursing home administrators. The eight courses described are introduction to nursing, home administration, financial management of nursing homes, nursing home…
Giorgio, L Di; Filippini, M; Masiero, G
Widespread issues regarding quality in nursing homes call for an improved understanding of the relationship with costs. This relationship may differ in European countries, where care is mainly delivered by nonprofit providers. In accordance with the economic theory of production, we estimate a total cost function for nursing home services using data from 45 nursing homes in Switzerland between 2006 and 2010. Quality is measured by means of clinical indicators regarding process and outcome derived from the minimum data set. We consider both composite and single quality indicators. Contrary to most previous studies, we use panel data and control for omitted variables bias. This allows us to capture features specific to nursing homes that may explain differences in structural quality or cost levels. Additional analysis is provided to address simultaneity bias using an instrumental variable approach. We find evidence that poor levels of quality regarding outcome, as measured by the prevalence of severe pain and weight loss, lead to higher costs. This may have important implications for the design of payment schemes for nursing homes.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This paper presents data on the remittances sent by migrant nurses to their families "back home". It gives voice to the experiences of migrant nurses and illustrates the financial obligations they maintain while working overseas. Although the international economic recession has decreased global remittance flows, they remain resilient. Drawing on the experiences of migrant nurses in Ireland, this paper indicates how and why migrants strive to maintain remittance flows, even in an economic downturn. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was employed, and the paper draws on data from qualitative in-depth interviews undertaken with 21 migrant nurses in addition to a quantitative survey of 336 migrant nurses in Ireland. RESULTS: The survey of migrant nurses revealed that 87% (293) of the sample sent remittances on a regular basis. According to respondents, remittances made a huge difference in the lives of their family members back home. Remittances were used to ensure that family members could obtain access to health and education services. They were also used to provide an income source for family members who were unemployed or retired.As remittances played an essential role in supporting family members back home, respondent migrant nurses were reluctant to reduce the level of their remittances, despite the onset of a global recession. Respondents noted that an increased demand for remittances from their families coincided with a reduction in their own net salaries - as a result of increased taxes and reduced availability of overtime - and this was a cause for concern for Ireland\\'s migrant nurses. CONCLUSION: This paper provides insights into the importance of remittances in funding social support for family members in home countries. It also illustrates the sacrifices made by migrant nurses to ensure continuation of the remittances, particularly in the context of an economic recession.
J. van Hoof PhD
Full Text Available Introduction: Losing items is a time-consuming occurrence in nursing homes that is ill described. An explorative study was conducted to investigate which items got lost by nursing home residents, and how this affects the residents and family caregivers. Method: Semi-structured interviews and card sorting tasks were conducted with 12 residents with early-stage dementia and 12 family caregivers. Thematic analysis was applied to the outcomes of the sessions. Results: The participants stated that numerous personal items and assistive devices get lost in the nursing home environment, which had various emotional, practical, and financial implications. Significant amounts of time are spent on trying to find items, varying from 1 hr up to a couple of weeks. Numerous potential solutions were identified by the interviewees. Discussion: Losing items often goes together with limitations to the participation of residents. Many family caregivers are reluctant to replace lost items, as these items may get lost again.
Dumas, Linda G; Ramadurai, Murali
This article is about pain management and some of the best practices to address the problem of pain in nursing home patients who have a serious illness and multiple comorbid conditions. Management of the emotional distress that accompanies chronic or acute pain is of foremost concern. In this article, the topics discussed include general pain management in a nursing home for a long-term care resident who has chronic pain, the relief of symptoms and suffering in a patient who is on palliative care and hospice, and the pain management of a postoperative patient with acute pain for a short transitional period (post-acute illness or surgery).
The purpose of this study was to identify core journals in home health nursing and to determine how well these journals were covered by indexing and abstracting services. The study was part of the project for mapping the nursing literature of the Medical Library Association's Nursing and Allied Health Resource Section. A citation analysis of two core journals was done to determine distribution of references by format types and age of citations and dispersion of the literature, according to Bradford's Law of Scattering. The analysis of indexing coverage for Zone 1 and 2 was also provided. The study showed that 64.2% of citations came from journals, versus 22.9% from books and 12.9% from other publications. PubMed/ MEDLINE rated highest in average indexing coverage of Zone 1 and 2 journals, followed by CINAHL. PsycINFO, SocioAbstracts, and EBSCO Health Business FullTEXT showed practically no coverage for the home health nursing literature. As expected, journal articles were found to be the primary source for referencing and books, the secondary source. In regard to bibliographic control, no databases provided full coverage of the journals in the field of home health nursing. PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL gave better results in combination, because CINAHL tended to cover more nursing journals, while PubMed/MEDLINE did better with medical titles.
Swati Mukerjee; Ann Dryden Witte; Sheila Hollowell
This paper estimates cost functions for day care centers in Massachusetts. The production technology assumed is the generalized homothetic Cobb-Douglas production function. The cost function dual to this production function is estimated separately for profit-making (P1Os) and not-for-profit (NPOs) organizations. The results are discussed in the context of current NPO literature. NPOs are found to be operating at higher average coats than PMOs for most output levels as predicted by the literat...
This article explores the use of action research (2008–2014) based on a case study of the Sustainable Online Community Engagement (SOCE) Project, a service-learning project in which University of South Australia students build websites for not-for-profit (NFP) organisations, to demonstrate that effective teaching, public service and research are interdependent. A significant problem experienced in the SOCE project was that, despite some training and ongoing assistance, the community organisat...
Piven, Mary Lynn; Anderson, Ruth A.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Sandelowski, Margarete
In this study, we explored how Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) understood resident depression. Interviews with 18 CNAs, working in two nursing homes were guided by Kleinman’s Explanatory Models of Illness framework. Interview data were content analyzed and CNAs’ descriptions of depression were compared to the MDS 2.0 Mood Screen and to DSM-IV-TR Depression Criteria. CNAs identified causes, signs, and symptoms of depression, but they were unsure about the duration and normalcy of depressio...
Narayan, Mary; Farris, Cindy; Harris, Marilyn D; Hiong, Fong Yoke
Throughout the world, healthcare is increasingly being provided in home and community-based settings. There is a growing awareness that the most effective, least costly, patient-preferred setting is patients' home. Thus, home healthcare nursing is a growing nursing specialty, requiring a unique set of nursing knowledge and skills. Unlike many other nursing specialties, home healthcare nursing has few professional organizations to develop or support its practice. This article describes how an international network of home healthcare nurses developed international guidelines for home healthcare nurses throughout the world. It outlines how the guidelines for home healthcare nursing practice were developed, how an international panel of reviewers was recruited, and the process they used for reaching a consensus. It also describes the plan for nurses to contribute to future updates to the guidelines.
Castle, Nicholas G; Ferguson-Rome, Jamie C
In this analysis, the association of nurse aide absenteeism with quality is examined. Absenteeism is the failure of nurse aides to report for work when they are scheduled to work. Data used in this investigation came from survey responses from 3,941 nursing homes; Nursing Home Compare; the Online System for Survey, Certification and Administrative Reporting data; and the Area Resource File. Staffing characteristics, quality indicators, facility, and market information from these data sources were all measured in 2008. The specific quality indicators examined are physical restraint use, catheter use, pain management, and pressure sores using negative binomial regression. An average rate of 9.2% for nurse aide absenteeism was reported in the prior week. We find that high levels of absenteeism are associated with poor performance on all four quality indicators examined. The investigation presented, to our knowledge, is one of the first examining the implications of absenteeism in nursing homes. Absenteeism can be a costly staffing issue, one of the potential costs identified in this analysis is an impact on quality of care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Coburn, A F; Fortinsky, R; McGuire, C; McDonald, T P
OBJECTIVE. This study evaluates the effect of Maine's Medicaid nursing home prospective payment system on nursing home costs and access to care for public patients. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. The implementation of a facility-specific prospective payment system for nursing homes provided the opportunity for longitudinal study of the effect of that system. Data sources included audited Medicaid nursing home cost reports, quality-of-care data from state facility survey and licensure files, and ...
Castle, Nicholas G.; Ferguson, Jamie C.
Purpose: In this commentary, we examine nursing home quality and indicators that have been used to measure nursing home quality. Design and Methods: A brief review of the history of nursing home quality is presented that provides some context and insight into currently used quality indicators. Donabedian's structure, process, and outcome (SPO)…
Nursing homes are considered lagging behind in adopting health information technology (HIT). Many studies have highlighted the use of HIT as a means of improving health care quality. However, these studies overwhelmingly do not provide empirical information proving that HIT can actually achieve these improvements. The main research goal of this…
Bartel, Myrna J.; Fornelli, Linda K.
This curriculum guide is designed to aid Kansas instructors in conducting a course for teaching nursing home medication aides. Covered first are various introductory topics such as the role and responsibilities of medication aides, pharmacodynamics, forms in which medication is now available, common medical abbreviations, mathematics and weights…
Nijs, K.A.N.D.; Graaf, de C.; Staveren, van W.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.
Inadequate nutritional intake is the predominant cause of malnutrition in older persons. It is one of the most common and devastating conditions in nursing home residents. It is multifactorial and treatment or nutrition care plans should try to address the main causes. Such plans often include means
Husebo, B.S.; Hylen Randhoff, A.; Sandvik, R.; Omland, G.; Gysels, M.; Francke, A.; Hertogh, C.; Ribbe, M.; Deliens, L.
Research aims: About 17 500 patients die in Norwegian nursing homes (NH) every year, 14-27% of these patients have diagnoses of cancer, 75% heart failure, and 80% dementia. Little is known about their last months and days regarding medical treatment, needs for multi-professional care, advance
Sakauye, Kenneth M.; Camp, Cameron J.
Consultation-liaison psychiatry program in teaching nursing home helped implement six guiding principles, including make patient human to the staff; assume no behavior is random; look for depression or psychosis as source of problems; reduce medications and medication doses; create more homelike environment; and use conditions in which learning…
Full Text Available Objectives: This article intends to present some of the results obtained during the research on the Promotion and Preservation of Dignity in the context of care in nursing homes, carried out in the context of the PhD in Nursing of the University of Lisbon. Methodology: Within the interpretative paradigm, Grounded Theory (GT was adopted as methodology. Data were collected through participant observation and interviews at an Nursing Home (IPSS with about 350 residents distributed through three residential structures in the county of Castelo Branco for 21 months, with residents, nurses and direct acting helpers as participants. The constant comparative analysis of the data occurred simultaneously, using the software NVivo 10® and NVivo 11®. From the data analysis it was possible to construct a middle-range theory - Promotion and Preservation of Dignity in Nursing Homes: Self Conservation. Results: A complex, unforeseen phenomenon, exposed to variability and multiple, constructed, deconstructed and reconstructed in the daily rhythms, in a continuous, systematic and dynamic manner. It follows a two-dimensional route that was called the Self Conservation Trajectory. On the one hand a personal, individual, although accompanied and promoted. On the other hand a profoundly social path. Is the first dimension of this route that will be presented in this article.
De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Moons, Philip
Are home nurses (also known as community nurses) ready for their changing role in primary care? A quantitative study was performed in home nursing in Flanders, Belgium, to explore the activity profile of home nurses and health care assistants, using the 24-hour recall instrument for home nursing. Seven dates were determined, covering each day of the week and the weekend, on which data collection would take place. All the home nurses and health care assistants from the participating organisations across Flanders were invited to participate in the study. All data were measured at nominal level. A total of 2478 home nurses and 277 health care assistants registered 336 128 (47 977 patients) and 36 905 (4558 patients) activities, respectively. Home nurses and health care assistants mainly perform 'self-care facilitation' activities in combination with 'psychosocial care' activities. Health care assistants also support home nurses in the 'selfcare facilitation' of patients who do not have a specific nursing indication.
Halvorsen, Kjell H.; Granås, Anne Gerd; Engeland, Anders; Ruths, Sabine
Tverrsnittstudie, undersøker og sammenligner forskrivningskvaliteten hos eldre som bor i sykehjem og hjemme. Purpose: to examine and compare the quality of drug prescribing for older patients in nursing homes and home nursing services. Methods: Cross-sectional study comprising 11 254 patients aged ≥65 years in nursing homes (n = 2986) and home nursing services (n = 8268). Potentially inappropriate medications were identified by using the Norwegian General Practice criteria and drug–drug in...
Holmberg, John R.; Olds, David L.
Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707
Demarre, L.; Vanderwee, K.; Defloor, T.; Verhaeghe, S.; Schoonhoven, L.; Beeckman, D.
AIMS: To gain insight into the knowledge and attitudes of nurses and nursing assistants and to study the correlation between knowledge, attitudes and the compliance with the pressure ulcer prevention guidelines provided to residents at risk of pressure ulcers in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: There is a
Cadigan, Rebecca Orfaly; Stevenson, David G; Caudry, Daryl J; Grabowski, David C
Objective To explore the impact of nursing home acquisition by private investment firms on nursing home costs, revenue, and overall financial health. Data Sources Merged data from the Medicare Cost Reports and the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system for the period 1998–2010. Study Design Regression specification incorporating facility and time fixed effects. Principal Findings We found little impact on the financial health of nursing homes following purchase by private investment companies. However, our findings did suggest that private investment firms acquired nursing home chains in good financial health, possibly to derive profit from the company’s real estate holdings. Conclusions Private investment acquired facilities are an important feature of today’s nursing home sector. Although we did not observe a negative impact on the financial health of nursing homes, this development raises important issues about ownership oversight and transparency for the entire nursing home sector. PMID:25104476
Orfaly Cadigan, Rebecca; Stevenson, David G; Caudry, Daryl J; Grabowski, David C
To explore the impact of nursing home acquisition by private investment firms on nursing home costs, revenue, and overall financial health. Merged data from the Medicare Cost Reports and the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system for the period 1998-2010. Regression specification incorporating facility and time fixed effects. We found little impact on the financial health of nursing homes following purchase by private investment companies. However, our findings did suggest that private investment firms acquired nursing home chains in good financial health, possibly to derive profit from the company's real estate holdings. Private investment acquired facilities are an important feature of today's nursing home sector. Although we did not observe a negative impact on the financial health of nursing homes, this development raises important issues about ownership oversight and transparency for the entire nursing home sector. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Kiwol Sung, PhD, RN
Purpose: An increasing elderly population reflects a great need for readily accessible, clinically useful methods to identify mortality-related factors in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the deaths of nursing home residents. Methods: Data was collected from a Minimal Data Set of 195 elderly nursing home residents, followed by analysis of demographic factors, disease and nursing condition factors, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), co...
Valdovinos, Erica; Le, Sidney; Hsia, Renee Y
In exchange for sizable tax exemptions, not-for-profit hospitals must engage in activities that meet the Internal Revenue Service's community benefit standard. The provision of charity care-free care to those unable to pay-can help meet that standard. Bad debt, the other form of uncompensated care, cannot be used to meet the standard, although Medicaid shortfalls can. However, the ACA lacks guidelines for providing charity care, and federal law sets no minimum requirements for community benefit activities. Using data from California, we examined whether the levels of charity and uncompensated care provided differed across general acute care hospitals by profit status and other characteristics during 2011-13. The mean proportion of total operating expenses spent on charity care differed significantly between not-for-profit (1.9 percent) and for-profit hospitals (1.4 percent), in contrast to the mean proportion spent on uncompensated care. Both types of spending varied widely across hospitals. Policy makers should consider measures that remove disincentives to meeting the persistent considerable need for charity care-for example, increasing supports to offset rising Medicaid shortfalls resulting from program expansion-and facilitate the tracking of ACA impacts on the distribution of charity care and uncompensated care delivery. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae
To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fox Garrity, Bonnie Kathleen
The author presents the trends in market share of business student enrollment at public, not-for-profit, and for-profit 4-year-and-above institutions from 1996 to 2008. Although each sector of the institutions has experienced growth in overall enrollments, the relative market share of public and not-for-profit institutions has dropped, whereas the…
Bishop, Christine E.
This review of nursing home cost function research shows that certain provider and service characteristics are systematically associated with differences in the average cost of care. This information can be used to group providers for reasonable cost related rate-setting or to adjust their rates or rate ceilings. However, relationships between average cost and such service characteristics as patient mix, service intensity, and quality of care have not been fully delineated. Therefore, econometric cost functions cannot yet provide rate-setters with predictions about the cost of the efficient provision of nursing home care appropriate to patient needs. In any case, the design of reimbursement systems must be founded not only on technical information but also on public policy goals for long-term care. PMID:10309223
Bishop, C E
This review of nursing home cost function research shows that certain provider and service characteristics are systematically associated with differences in the average cost of care. This information can be used to group providers for reasonable cost related rate-setting or to adjust their rates or rate ceilings. However, relationships between average cost and such service characteristics as patient mix, service intensity, and quality of care have not been fully delineated. Therefore, econometric cost functions cannot yet provide rate-setters with predictions about the cost of the efficient provision of nursing home care appropriate to patient needs. In any case, the design of reimbursement systems must be founded not only on technical information but also on public policy goals for long-term care.
Llewellyn-Jones, Robert H; Snowdon, John
Studies have shown a high prevalence of depressive disorders among nursing home residents around the world. Various losses in old age may precipitate depression, and physical illness and disability are major factors that contribute to the development and persistence of depressive disorders. Demoralization (existential distress) is common. Recognition of what a nursing home resident has lost is often a key to developing plans for management. The prognosis for recovery from depression is worse for patients who face an ongoing distressing situation or physical condition. For ongoing loss-related distress, including sadness about loss of health, it is important for patients to ventilate feelings, and to either re-acquire what is lost or to grieve and then adapt to the new situation. For major depression with melancholia, psychotic depression and bipolar disorders, biological treatments are of prime importance. Non-melancholic major depression is best treated with a combination of antidepressants and psychosocial therapies, the latter being particularly indicated when the depression has been precipitated by stressful and depressing events or situations. Psychosocial and environmental interventions are important in all types of depression and may prove more effective than the use of antidepressants for milder disorders. There has been a welcome increase in the recognition of depression in nursing homes and in the prescription of newer antidepressants, but the published evidence to date does not allow definitive recommendations regarding which antidepressants to use in this setting. Outcome research is needed to assess antidepressant efficacy and to better plan multifaceted treatment strategies for depressions of varying types and aetiologies among nursing home residents.
Holmes, J S
This study examines the effects of ownership type and ownership change on nursing home cost structures, differentiating patient care costs from plant costs. Administrative data from the Michigan Department of Social Services, Medical Services Administration (Medicaid), and the Michigan Department of Public Health are used. Cost data are based on audited cost reports for 393 nursing care facilities in Michigan in 1989. Other facility characteristics are based on data from the 1989 annual licensing and certification survey conducted by the Michigan Department of Public Health. A series of ordinary least squares regressions is estimated, in which the dependent variable is either per diem patient costs or per diem plant costs. Ownership types are defined as chain, proprietary non-chain, freestanding non-profit, government-owned, and hospital-based facilities. Pooled estimation techniques, as well as separate regressions by ownership type, are presented to test for interaction effects. Key variables include whether a facility changed ownership in the preceding five years and whether chain facilities are in-state- or out-of-state-owned, in addition to size, payer mix, and case mix. Behavioral differences among nursing home ownership types in respect to patient care costs tended to distinguish government-owned and hospital-based facilities from the freestanding homes rather than the usual distinction between for-profit and not-for-profit classes. Variables traditionally included in nursing home cost studies, such as size, occupancy, payer mix and case mix, were found to have similar effects on per diem patient care costs for freestanding non-profit homes as well as for chain proprietary facilities. With regard to the effects of ownership change on per diem plant and per diem patient costs, however, there are few differences among ownership types. Chain and non-chain for-profit facilities, non-profit homes, and hospital long-term care units that had changed ownership
Laliberte, L; Mor, V; Berg, K; Intrator, O; Calore, K; Hiris, J
The Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (MCCA) of 1988 altered eligibility and coverage for skilled nursing facility (SNF) care and changed Medicaid eligibility rules for nursing-home residents. Detailed data on the residents of a for-profit nursing-home chain and Medicare claims for a 1 percent sample of beneficiaries were used to examine the impact of the MCCA on nursing homes. The case mix of nursing-home admissions was scrutinized, specifically for length of stay, discharge disposition, rate of hospitalization, and changes in payer source. Findings revealed that, although the proportion of Medicare-financed nursing-home care increased, as did the case-mix severity of residents during the MCCA period, there was no corollary reduction in hospital use by nursing-home residents.
Mukamel, Dana B.; Spector, William D.; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent
Background Turnover rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. Objectives To estimate the net costs associated with turnover of direct care staff in nursing homes. Data and sample 902 nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set (MDS), Medicare enrollment files, Census and Area Resource File (ARF). Research Design We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility turnover rate. Instrumental variable (IV) limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of turnover and costs. Results The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and turnover. The IV estimate of turnover costs was negative and significant (p=0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10 percentage point increase in turnover for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. Conclusion The net savings associated with turnover offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between turnover and costs. PMID:19648834
Mukamel, Dana B; Spector, William D; Limcangco, Rhona; Wang, Ying; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent
Turnover rates in nursing homes have been persistently high for decades, ranging upwards of 100%. To estimate the net costs associated with turnover of direct care staff in nursing homes. DATA AND SAMPLE: Nine hundred two nursing homes in California in 2005. Data included Medicaid cost reports, the Minimum Data Set, Medicare enrollment files, Census, and Area Resource File. We estimated total cost functions, which included in addition to exogenous outputs and wages, the facility turnover rate. Instrumental variable limited information maximum likelihood techniques were used for estimation to deal with the endogeneity of turnover and costs. The cost functions exhibited the expected behavior, with initially increasing and then decreasing returns to scale. The ordinary least square estimate did not show a significant association between costs and turnover. The instrumental variable estimate of turnover costs was negative and significant (P = 0.039). The marginal cost savings associated with a 10% point increase in turnover for an average facility was $167,063 or 2.9% of annual total costs. The net savings associated with turnover offer an explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon over the last decades, despite the many policy initiatives to reduce it. Future policy efforts need to recognize the complex relationship between turnover and costs.
Kiwol Sung, PhD, RN
Conclusion: Dyspnea, problematic behaviors, and ADL data were identified as the key factors associated with death among nursing home residents. Future plans for the prediction of death among nursing home residents can be made by nursing staff, factoring in these identified variables, to ensure more comfortable conditions and more responsive care.
Cooper, Emily; Spilsbury, Karen; McCaughan, Dorothy; Thompson, Carl; Butterworth, Tony; Hanratty, Barbara
To establish a consensus on the care and professional development needs of registered nurses (RNs) employed by UK care homes. Two-stage, online modified Delphi study. A panel (n = 352) of individuals with experience, expertise or interest in care home nursing: (i) care home nurses and managers; (ii) community healthcare professionals (including general practitioners, geriatricians, specialist and district nurses); and (iii) nurse educators in higher education. RNs employed by nursing homes require particular skills, knowledge, competence and experience to provide high-quality care for older residents. The most important responsibilities for the nursing home nurse were: promoting dignity, personhood and wellbeing, ensuring resident safety and enhancing quality of life. Continuing professional development priorities included personal care, dementia care and managing long-term conditions. The main barrier to professional development was staff shortages. Nursing degree programmes were perceived as inadequately preparing nurses for a nursing home role. Nursing homes could improve by providing supportive learning opportunities for students and fostering challenging and rewarding careers for newly RNs. If nurses employed by nursing homes are not fit for purpose, the consequences for the wider health and social-care system are significant. Nursing homes, the NHS, educational and local authorities need to work together to provide challenging and rewarding career paths for RNs and evaluate them. Without well-trained, motivated staff, a high-quality care sector will remain merely an aspiration.
Williams, Scott C; Morton, David J; Braun, Barbara I; Longo, Beth Ann; Baker, David W
Compare quality ratings of accredited and nonaccredited nursing homes using the publicly available Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Nursing Home Compare data set. This cross-sectional study compared the performance of 711 Joint Commission-accredited (TJC-accredited) nursing homes (81 of which also had Post-Acute Care Certification) to 14,926 non-Joint Commission-accredited (non-TJC-accredited) facilities using the Nursing Home Compare data set (as downloaded on April 2015). Measures included the overall Five-Star Quality Rating and its 4 components (health inspection, quality measures, staffing, and RN staffing), the 18 Nursing Home Compare quality measures (5 short-stay measures, 13 long-stay measures), as well as inspection deficiencies, fines, and payment denials. t tests were used to assess differences in rates for TJC-accredited nursing homes versus non-TJC-accredited nursing homes for quality measures, ratings, and fine amounts. Analysis of variance models were used to determine differences in rates using Joint Commission accreditation status, nursing home size based on number of beds, and ownership type. An additional model with an interaction term using Joint Commission accreditation status and Joint Commission Post-Acute Care Certification status was used to determine differences in rates for Post-Acute Care Certified nursing homes. Binary variables (eg, deficiency type, fines, and payment denials) were evaluated using a logistic regression model with the same covariates. After controlling for the influences of facility size and ownership type, TJC-accredited nursing homes had significantly higher star ratings than non-TJC-accredited nursing homes on each of the star rating component subscales (P homes with Post-Acute Care Certification performed statistically better on the overall star rating, as well as 3 of the 4 subscales (P homes had statistically fewer deficiencies than non-TJC-accredited nursing homes (P payment denials (P homes
Berntsen, Karin; Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Brynildsen, Grethe
Background: Nursing students hesitate to choose aged care as a career, and the aged care sectors are on an edge regarding nursing positions. Clinical learning environments may influence nursing students’ career choices. Few studies have explored learning environments in nursing homes, although students increasingly have placements there. Objectives: The aim was to produce information for developing nursing students’ learning opportunities in nursing homes. Design: A cross-sectional survey des...
Carlson, Jamie; Kitchens, Brent; Kozary, Ben; Zaki, Mohamed
Using a small-scale descriptive network analysis approach, this study highlights the importance of stakeholder networks for identifying valuable stakeholders and the management of existing stakeholders in the context of mental health not-for-profit services. We extract network data from the social media brand pages of three health service organizations from the U.S., U.K., and Australia, to visually map networks of 579 social media brand pages (represented by nodes), connected by 5,600 edges. This network data is analyzed using a collection of popular graph analysis techniques to assess the differences in the way each of the service organizations manage stakeholder networks. We also compare node meta-information against basic topology measures to emphasize the importance of effectively managing relationships with stakeholders who have large external audiences. Implications and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:27711236
Full Text Available Using a small-scale descriptive network analysis approach, this study highlights the importance of stakeholder networks for identifying valuable stakeholders and the management of existing stakeholders in the context of mental health not-for-profit services. We extract network data from the social media brand pages of three health service organizations from the U.S., U.K., and Australia, to visually map networks of 579 social media brand pages (represented by nodes, connected by 5,600 edges. This network data is analyzed using a collection of popular graph analysis techniques to assess the differences in the way each of the service organizations manage stakeholder networks. We also compare node meta-information against basic topology measures to emphasize the importance of effectively managing relationships with stakeholders who have large external audiences. Implications and future research directions are also discussed.
Zhao, Mei; Haley, D Rob; Oetjen, Reid M; Carretta, Henry J
Florida's nursing home industry has experienced significant financial pressure over the past decade. One of the primary reasons is the dramatic increase in litigation activity for nursing home providers claiming negligent care and abuse. Although anecdotal reports indicate a higher cost because of malpractice in nursing facilities, few studies have examined the extent of malpractice paid losses and their effect on the financial performance of nursing homes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of malpractice paid losses on the financial performance of nursing homes. Medicare Cost Report data and Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting data for Florida skilled nursing facilities over the 6-year period from 2001 to 2006 were used to calculate the malpractice paid losses and the financial performance indicators as well as the nursing home organizational and market factors. Descriptive analysis and multivariate regression analysis were used to examine the effect of paid loss on financial performance. The paid loss for malpractice claims was strongly associated with financial performance. Nursing facilities with malpractice paid losses had consistently lower total margins over the study period. The threat of nursing home litigation may create an incentive for nursing homes to improve quality of care; however, large paid claims can also force nursing homes into a financial situation where the organization no longer has the resources to improve quality. Nursing home managers must assess their malpractice litigation risk and identify tactics to mitigate these risks to better provide a safe and secure environment for the older persons. In addition, this research offers support for local, state, and federal policymakers to revisit the issue of malpractice litigation and the nursing home industry through its insight on the relationship of nursing home margins and litigation.
Schuurmans, Lonneke; Enders-Slegers, Marie-Jose; Verheggen, Theo; Schols, Jos
Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) have become more and more popular in nursing homes in the past decade. Various initiatives for using animals in nursing homes have been developed over the years (eg, animal visiting programs, residential companion animals, petting zoos) and, on the whole, the number of nursing homes that refuse animals on their premises has declined. In this survey, we aimed to determine how many Dutch nursing homes offer AAIs, what type of interventions are used, and with what aim. We also focus on the use of underlying health, hygiene, and (animal) safety protocols. Using an online Dutch nursing home database, we invited all listed (457) nursing home organizations in the Netherlands (encompassing a total of 804 nursing home locations) to participate in our digital survey, powered by SurveyMonkey. The survey consisted of a total of 45 questions, divided into general questions about the use of animals in interventions; the targeted client population(s); and specific questions about goals, guidelines, and protocols. The results were analyzed with SPSS Statistics. In the end, 244 surveys, representing 165 organizations, were returned: 125 nursing homes used AAI in one way or another, 40 did not. Nursing homes that did not offer AAI cited allergy and hygiene concerns as the most important reasons. Most nursing homes offering AAI used visiting animals, mostly dogs (108) or rabbits (76). A smaller number of nursing homes had resident animals, either living on the ward or in a meadow outside. Almost all programs involved animal-assisted activities with a recreational purpose; none of the participating nursing homes provided animal assisted therapy with therapeutic goals. Psychogeriatric patients were most frequently invited to participate. A total of 88 nursing homes used alternatives when animals were not an option or not available. The most popular alternative was the use of stuffed animals (83) followed by FurReal Friends robotic toys (14). The
Thompson, Juliana; Cook, Glenda; Duschinsky, Robbie
To explore nursing home nurses' experiences and views of work identity. Nursing home nurses are in a unique position as they work at the interface of health and social care. Little is known about nursing home nurses' perceptions and experiences of working within this context. Evidence suggests that using the concept of work identity can support understanding of how workers make sense of their work. Hermeneutic phenomenological study. The study was carried out in seven nursing homes in North East England. Findings are based upon literary analysis of multiple episodic interviews with 13 nursing home nurses. Participants' responses suggested that nursing "residents" is different to nursing "patients," and nursing home nurses are required to modify their care activities to account for these differences. Participants also proposed that they are isolated and excluded from the rest of the healthcare workforce group. These issues led participants to feel uncertain about work identity. Many participants attempted to strengthen their work identity by aligning their role with what they perceived the "nurse identity" to be. Nurses' work activities and professional group identity influence their work identity. When work activities and professional group identity do not align with role expectations, as can be the case for nursing home nurses, work identity may be compromised. These nurses may attempt to change work practices to strengthen their work identity. Health- and social care providers need to account for work identity factors in the organisation of care, and planning and implementation of integrated health- and social care initiatives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Porell, F; Caro, F G; Silva, A; Monane, M
To investigate resident and facility attributes associated with long-term care health outcomes in nursing homes. Quarterly Management Minutes Questionnaire (MMQ) survey data for Medicaid case-mix reimbursement of nursing homes in Massachusetts from 1991 to 1994, for specification of outcomes and resident attributes. Facility attributes are specified from cost report data. Multivariate logistic and "state-dependence" regression models are estimated for survival, ADL functional status, incontinence status, and mental status outcomes from longitudinal residence histories of Medicaid residents spanning 3 to 36 months in length. Outcomes are specified to be a function of resident demographic and diagnostic attributes and facility-level operating and nurse staffing attributes. The estimated parameters for resident demographic and diagnostic attributes showed a great deal of construct validity with respect to clinical expectations regarding risk factors for adverse outcomes. Few facility attributes were associated with outcomes generally, and none was significantly associated with all four outcomes. The absence of uniform associations between facility attributes and the various long-term care health outcomes studied suggests that strong facility performance on one health outcome may coexist with much weaker performance on other outcomes. This has implications for the aggregation of individual facility performance measures on multiple outcomes and the development of overall outcome performance measures.
Herr, Annika; Hottenrott, Hanna
Objectives: This study investigates the relationship between prices and quality of 7,400 German nursing homes controlling for income, nursing home density, demographics, labour market characteristics, and infrastructure at the regional level. Method: We use a cross section of public quality reports for all German nursing homes, which had been evaluated between 2010 and 2013 by external institutions. Our analysis is based on multivariate regressions in a two stage least squares framework, wher...
Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Gessert, Charles E; Lipsky, Martin S
Advances in medicine and an aging US population suggest that there will be an increasing demand for nursing home services. Although nursing homes are highly regulated and scrutinized, their quality remains a concern and may be a greater issue to those living in rural communities. Despite this, few studies have investigated differences in the quality of nursing home care across the rural-urban continuum. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of rural and nonrural nursing homes by using aggregated rankings on multiple quality measures calculated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and reported on their Nursing Home Compare Web site. Independent-sample t tests were performed to compare the mean ratings on the reported quality measures of rural and nonrural nursing homes. A linear mixed binary logistic regression model controlling for state was performed to determine if the covariates of ownership, number of beds, and geographic locale were associated with a higher overall quality rating. Of the 15,177 nursing homes included in the study sample, 69.2% were located in nonrural areas and 30.8% in rural areas. The t test analysis comparing the overall, health inspection, staffing, and quality measure ratings of rural and nonrural nursing homes yielded statistically significant results for 3 measures, 2 of which (overall ratings and health inspections) favored rural nursing homes. Although a higher percentage of nursing homes (44.8%-42.2%) received a 4-star or higher rating, regression analysis using an overall rating of 4 stars or higher as the dependent variable revealed that when controlling for state and adjusting for size and ownership, rural nursing homes were less likely to have a 4-star or higher rating when compared with nonrural nursing homes (OR = .901, 95% CI 0.824-0.986). Mixed model logistic regression analysis suggested that rural nursing home quality was not comparable to that of nonrural nursing homes. When controlling for
Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Travers, Jasmine L; Castle, Nicholas G; Stone, Patricia W
While electronic health records have emerged as promising tools to help improve quality of care, nursing homes have lagged behind in implementation. This study assessed electronic health records implementation, associated facility characteristics, and potential impact on quality indicators in nursing homes. Using national Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and survey data for nursing homes, a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to identify variations between nursing homes that had and had not implemented electronic health records. A difference-in-differences analysis was used to estimate the longitudinal effect of electronic health records on commonly used quality indicators. Data from 927 nursing homes were examined, 49.1% of which had implemented electronic health records. Nursing homes with electronic health records were more likely to be nonprofit/government owned (P = .04) and had a lower percentage of Medicaid residents (P = .02) and higher certified nursing assistant and registered nurse staffing levels (P = .002 and .02, respectively). Difference-in-differences analysis showed greater quality improvements after implementation for five long-stay and two short-stay quality measures (P = .001 and .01, respectively) compared with those who did not implement electronic health records. Implementation rates in nursing homes are low compared with other settings, and better-resourced facilities are more likely to have implemented electronic health records. Consistent with other settings, electronic health records implementation improves quality in nursing homes, but further research is needed to better understand the mechanism for improvement and how it can best be supported.
Castle, N G
Numerous studies of health service use reveal considerable variation in the degree of services provided. In this article the variation in psychotropic drug use in nursing homes is examined. First, a descriptive analysis of nursing homes with and without high levels of psychotropic drug use is provided. Second, an analysis of the determinants of high levels of psychotropic drug use in nursing homes is provided. Factors such as ownership, staffing levels, having special care units, case-mix intensity, competitiveness of the nursing home market, and the state Medicaid reimbursement rate structure are examined. The results of these analyses are discussed in terms of their policy issues.
The Affordable Care Act gives America's largest group of health care providers--nurses--a unique chance to lead in improving outcomes, increasing patient satisfaction, and lowering costs. Nurses' roles continue to grow in settings from hospitals and long-term care facilities to home health and hospice agencies. Nurses are also key players in private duty home care, where they serve as care coordinators for clients. Working directly with doctors, therapists, in-home caregivers, and families, nurses are critical in delivering quality, seamless in-home care.
Sprakes, Kate; Tyrer, Julie
Wound and pressure ulcer prevention are key quality indicators of nursing care. This article describes a collaborative project between a community skin care service and a nursing home. The aim of the project was to establish whether the implementation of a wound and pressure ulcer management competency framework within a nursing home would improve patient outcomes and reduce the severity and number of wounds and pressure ulcers. Following the project's implementation, there was a reduction in the number of wounds and pressure ulcers, hospital admissions and district nursing visits. Nursing home staff also reported an increase in their knowledge and skills.
Brandeis, Gary H; Oates, Daniel J
Many nursing homes today have a religious heritage. While governmental regulations control how much of the care is delivered, the foundations and goals of many homes predate governmental rules and payment policies. This paper explores the basis of Jewish and Christian thought in providing groundwork for religiously based nursing homes. Although the underlying principles are similar, differences in approach and execution for the formation of these homes exist.
Betge-Brezetz, S; Dupont, M P; Ghorbel, M; Kamga, G B; Piekarec, S
This paper presents an adaptive notification framework which allows to optimally deliver and handle multimedia requests and alerts in a nursing home. This framework is operated with various applications (e.g., health alert, medicine reminder, and activity proposition) and has been evaluated with different real end-users (elderly resident and medical staff) in a pilot site. Results of these evaluations are presented and highlight the added value of the framework technology to enhance the quality of life of elderly people as well as the efficiency of the medical staff.
Madden, Connie; Clayton, Margaret; Canary, Heather E; Towsley, Gail; Cloyes, Kristin; Lund, Dale
This study offers an initial theoretical understanding of nurse-CNA communication processes from the perspectives of nurses and CNAs who are providing direct care to residents in nursing homes. A grounded theory approach provided an understanding of nurse-CNA communication process within the complexities of the nursing home setting. Four themes (maintaining information flow, following procedure, fostering collegiality, and showing respect) describe the "rules of performance" that intertwine in nuanced relationships to guide nurse-CNA communication processes. Understanding how these rules of performance guide nurse-CNA communication processes, and how they are positively and negatively influenced, suggests that nurse-CNA communication during direct care of nursing home residents could be improved through policy and education that is specifically designed to be relevant and applicable to direct care providers in the nursing home environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alexander, Gregory L
There is growing recognition of benefits of sophisticated information technology (IT) in nursing homes (NHs). In this research, we explore strategies nursing assistants (NAs) use to communicate pressure ulcer prevention practices in NHs with variable IT sophistication measures. Primary qualitative data were collected during focus groups with NAs in 16 NHs located across Missouri. NAs (n = 213) participated in 31 focus groups. Three major themes referencing communication strategies for pressure ulcer prevention were identified, including Passing on Information, Keeping Track of Needs and Information Access. NAs use a variety of strategies to prioritize care, and strategies are different based on IT sophistication level. NA work is an important part of patient care. However, little information about their work is included in communication, leaving patient records incomplete. NAs' communication is becoming increasingly important in the care of the millions of chronically ill elders in NHs. © The Author(s) 2014.
Oh, Eui Geum; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yukyung; Sung, Ji Hyun; Park, Young Su; Yoo, Jae Yong; Woo, Soohee
The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of home care nursing services provided by community health nurses and to identify barriers to the services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with three types of community health care nurses. Participants were 257 nurses, 46 of whom were hospital based home care nurses, 176 were community based visiting nurses, and 35 were long term care insurance based visiting nurses. A structured questionnaire on 7 domains of home care nursing services with a 4-point Likert scale was used to measure activities and barriers to care. Data were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0 program. Hospital based home care nurses showed a high level of service performance activity in the domain of clinical laboratory tests, medications and injections, therapeutic nursing, and education. Community based visiting nurses had a high level of service performance in the reference domain. Long term care insurance based visiting nurses showed a high level of performance in the service domains of fundamental nursing and counseling. The results show that although health care service provided by the three types of community health nurse overlapped, the focus of the service is differentiated. Therefore, these results suggest that existing home care services will need to be utilized efficiently in the development of a new nursing care service for patients living in the community after hospital discharge.
Beck, Anne Marie; Gøgsig Christensen, Annette; Stenbæk Hansen, Birthe
Objective To assess the effect of multidisciplinary nutritional support for undernutrition in older adults in nursing home and home-care identified with the validated Eating Validation Scheme (EVS). Methods An 11 wk cluster randomized trial with a home-care (3 clusters) or nursing home (3 clusters.......3] versus 1.3 [0.5], P = 0.021) was observed. There was a almost significant difference in mortality (2% versus 13%, P = 0.079). Conclusions Multidisciplinary nutritional support in older adults in nursing home and home-care could have a positive effect on quality of life, muscle strength, and oral care....... means of EuroQol-5D-3L), physical performance (30-seconds chair stand), nutritional status (weight and hand-grip strength), oral care, fall incidents, hospital admissions, rehabilitation stay, moving to nursing homes (participants from home-care), and mortality. Results Respectively, 55 (46 from 2 home...
Sutherland, Karen Elizabeth
Not-for-profit organisations have looked to social media as a less expensive option to build relationships with those they rely on for survival: donors, supporters and volunteers. While recent research has explored ways not-for-profits have used social media to strengthen brands, engagement and relationships, less attention has focused on stakeholders of charities in relation to habits, attitudes and approaches to social media technology, particularly within Australia. To address this gap, a ...
Roelands, Marc; Van Oost, Paulette; Depoorter, Anne Marie; Buysse, Ann; Stevens, Veerle
This paper reports a study describing home nurses' intention and current practices regarding introducing assistive devices, and investigating whether their practice is related to social cognitive factors (attitudes, subjective norms and self-efficacy). Home nurses not only care for patients in particular medical domains, but also educate and guide them towards more independence. Patients with age-related disabilities in mobility and self-care might benefit from the use of assistive devices. A home nurse might be the first and only person to discuss the disability and use of an assistive device. Therefore, home nurses' beliefs about the introduction of assistive devices could affect their daily practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 64 home nurses chosen from a random sample of home nursing departments. The home nurses completed a self-administered questionnaire. The Theory of Planned Behaviour framework was used to develop the social cognitive measures regarding each of the six steps distinguished in the introduction of assistive devices. Home nurses had positive attitudes and high levels of intention, subjective norm and self-efficacy towards most steps of the decision process to introduce assistive devices. In a multiple linear regression analysis, attitude and self-efficacy predicted intention to introduce assistive devices to older clients with disabilities. Intention was correlated to home nurses' current practices. The findings suggest that conditions are present to involve home nurses more explicitly in the introduction of assistive devices to their patients. Social cognitive factors should be taken into account when developing interventions that aim to support home nurses to do this.
Shumba, Constance Sibongile; Kielmann, Karina; Witter, Sophie
An in-depth understanding of how organizational culture is experienced by health workers (HWs), and influences their decisions to leave their jobs is a fundamental, yet under-examined, basis for forming effective retention strategies. This research examined HWs' working experiences and perceptions of organisational culture within private-not-for-profit, largely mission-based hospitals, and how this influenced retention. Thirty-two HWs, including managers, in 19 health facilities in Uganda were interviewed using a semi-structured topic guide. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Interviews showed that the organizational culture was predominantly hierarchical, with non-participative management styles which emphasized control and efficiency. HWs and managers held different perceptions of the organizational culture. While the managers valued results and performance, HWs valued team work, recognition and participative management. The findings of this study indicate that organizational culture influences retention of HWs in health facilities and provide a useful context to inform health care managers in the PNFP sub-sector in Uganda and similar contexts. To improve retention of HWs, a gradual shift in organizational culture will be necessary, focussing on the values, beliefs and perceptions which have the greatest influence on observable behaviour.
Rotarius, Timothy; Trujillo, Antonio J; Liberman, Aaron; Ramirez, Bernardo
The debate over which health care providers are most capably meeting their responsibilities in serving the public's interest continues unabated, and the comparisons of not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) hospitals remain at the epicenter of the discussion. From the perspective of available factual information, which of the two sides to this debate is correct? This article is part I of a 2-part series on comparing and contrasting the performance records of NFP health care providers with their FP counterparts. Although it is demonstrated that both NFP and FP providers perform virtuous and selfless feats on behalf of America's public, it is also shown that both camps are involved in potentially willful clinical and administrative missteps. Part I contains the background information (eg, legal differences, perspectives on social responsibility, and types of questionable and fraudulent behavior) that is necessary to adequately understand the scope of the comparison issue. Part II offers actual comparisons of the 2 organizational structures using several disparate factors such as specific organizational behaviors, approach to the health care priorities of cost and quality, and business-focused goals of profits, efficiency, and community benefit.
Rotarius, Timothy; Trujillo, Antonio J; Liberman, Aaron; Ramirez, Bernardo
The debate over which health care providers are most capably meeting their responsibilities in serving the public's interest continues unabated, and the comparisons of not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) hospitals remain at the epicenter of the discussion. From the perspective of available factual information, which of the two sides to this debate is correct? This article is part II of a 2-part series on comparing and contrasting the performance records of NFP health care providers with their FP counterparts. Although it is demonstrated that both NFP and FP providers perform virtuous and selfless feats on behalf of America's public, it is also shown that both camps have been accused of being involved in potentially willful clinical and administrative missteps. Part I provided the background information (eg, legal differences, perspectives on social responsibility, and types of questionable and fraudulent behavior) required to adequately understand the scope of the comparison issue. Part II offers actual comparisons of the 2 organizational structures using several disparate factors such as specific organizational behaviors, approach to the health care priorities of cost and quality, and business-focused goals of profits, efficiency, and community benefit.
Koekkoek, Bauke; van Baarsen, Carlijn; Steenbeek, Mirella
To determine the effects of multidisciplinary, nurse-led psychiatric consultation on behavioral problems of nursing home residents. Residents often suffer from psychiatric symptoms, while staff psychiatric expertise varies. A pre-post study was conducted in seven homes using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home version (NPI-NH). In 71 consultations during 18 months, 56-75% of residents suffered from agitation/aggression, depression, anxiety, and disinhibition. Post-intervention (n = 54), frequency, and severity of psychiatric symptoms were significantly and clinically meaningfully reduced. Also, staff suffered from less work stress. Nurse-led psychiatric consultation is valuable to both nursing home residents and staff. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... per diem to State homes providing nursing home and adult day health services care to Veterans. VA... Diem for Nursing Home Care of Veterans in State Homes; Per Diem for Adult Day Care of Veterans in State... information needed to ensure that nursing home and adult day health care facilities are providing high quality...
... State homes providing nursing home and adult day health services care to Veterans. VA requires... Diem for Nursing Home Care of Veterans in State Homes; Per Diem for Adult Day Care of Veterans in State... information needed to ensure that nursing home and adult day health care facilities are providing high quality...
Hirdes John P
Full Text Available Abstract Background This manuscript describes a method for adjustment of nursing home quality indicators (QIs defined using the Center for Medicaid & Medicare Services (CMS nursing home resident assessment system, the Minimum Data Set (MDS. QIs are intended to characterize quality of care delivered in a facility. Threats to the validity of the measurement of presumed quality of care include baseline resident health and functional status, pattern of comorbidities, and facility case mix. The goal of obtaining a valid facility-level estimate of true quality of care should include adjustment for resident- and facility-level sources of variability. Methods We present a practical and efficient method to achieve risk adjustment using restriction and indirect and direct standardization. We present information on validity by comparing QIs estimated with the new algorithm to one currently used by CMS. Results More than half of the new QIs achieved a "Moderate" validation level. Conclusions Given the comprehensive approach and the positive findings to date, research using the new quality indicators is warranted to provide further evidence of their validity and utility and to encourage their use in quality improvement activities.
Brouwer, B.J.M. de; Kaljouw, M.J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Achterberg, T. van
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To develop and psychometrically test the Essentials of Magnetism II in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers and complex needs of older people in nursing homes strain the nursing workforce. Fewer adequately trained staff and increased care complexity raise concerns about
Chang, Jun-Yih; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chang, Chia-Ching
This study assessed current perspectives and expectations for telemedicine by nursing home caregivers and families of nursing home patients in Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 116 interviews were conducted with family members (n=37) and caregivers (n=79) using an original, four-part questionnaire devised to assess the expectations and concerns related to prospective telemedicine opportunities, including consumer attitude, knowledge of and interest in medicine, concerns and worries about telemedicine, and anticipated benefits of telemedicine. Statistical significance between the two groups was observed in sex, age, and educational level (all pexpectations concerning benefits of telemedicine. More than 60% of family members or caregivers expected improved efficiency and quality of hospital and nursing home health care, greater rapport between nursing homes and either staff or patients, reduced overall medical costs of caregiving, and reduced staff/caregiver working hours. The acceptable cost was anything up to $15.30 USD per month. Nursing home caregivers and families of nursing home patients are highly interested in telemedicine; however, they are only willing to pay a slightly higher cost of nursing care for this service. The challenge for the future in this industry is to balance peoples' demands and telemedicine's associated costs. Results of this study suggest that caregivers and families of nursing home residents favour telemedicine implementation to provide enhanced care coordination in nursing homes when economic circumstances are favourable.
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the majority of nursing homes evaluated did not follow the universal design criteria. Therefore, providing the proper guidelines and policies to promote the universal design observance in nursing homes is considered as a major necessity.
Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen
Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…
Arnetz, Judith E.; Zhdanova, Ludmila S.; Elsouhag, Dalia; Lichtenberg, Peter; Luborsky, Mark R.; Arnetz, Bengt B.
Purpose of the Study: In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of safety culture in preventing costly adverse events, such as medication errors and falls, among nursing home residents. However, little is known regarding critical organizational determinants of a positive safety culture in nursing homes. The aim of this study…
Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.
Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics,
Boer, M.E. de; Leemrijse, C.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Ribbe, M.W.; Dekker, J.
Purpose. To determine the availability of allied health care in nursing homes in the Netherlands, and its dependency on characteristics of the nursing home. Methods. Structured surveys by telephone were carried out in a sample of 100 from a country total of 286 somatic (for somatic patients only)
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore home care nurses' experience of learning in a multicultural environment. Design/methodology/approach: The study was based on qualitative research design. Data were collected through repeated interviews with registered home care nurses working in a multicultural area. The data were analyzed through a…
Story, Colleen D.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by older adults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if older adults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…
Sloane, Philip D; Huslage, Kirk; Kistler, Christine E; Zimmerman, Sheryl
Antibiotic stewardship is becoming a requirement for nursing homes. Programs should be interdisciplinary and multifaceted; should have support from nursing home administrators; and should aim to promote antibiotics only when needed, not just in case. Recommended components include use of evidence-based guidelines; ongoing monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions, cultures, and study results; monitoring of health outcomes; use of nursing home-specific antibiograms; regular reporting and feedback to medical providers and nurses; and education of residents and families. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.
Johnson, K A; Valdez, R S; Casper, G R; Kossman, S P; Carayon, P; Or, C K L; Burke, L J; Brennan, P F
The infusion of health care technologies into the home leads to substantial changes in the nature of work for home care nurses and their patients. Nurses and nursing practice must change to capitalize on these innovations. As part of a randomized field experiment evaluating web-based support for home care of patients with chronic heart disease, we engaged nine nurses in a dialogue about their experience integrating this modification of care delivery into their practice. They shared their perceptions of the work they needed to do and their perceptions and expectations for patients and themselves in using technologies to promote and manage self-care. We document three overarching themes that identify preexisting factors that influenced integration or represent the consequences of technology integration into home care: doing tasks differently, making accommodations in the home for devices and computers, and being mindful of existing expectations and skills of both nurses and patients.
Wang, Szu-Yao; Davies, Elizabeth
The literature on the impact of nursing home placement of older parents on family caregivers is still incomplete. Family caregivers experience stress, shock, anxiety, fear, resistance, and guilt in the process of decision making. The literature has demonstrated that family caregivers continue to experience stress and problems after placing older relatives into a long term care facility. Cultural values impact on people's attitudes, values and expectations. Culture will therefore affect the care-giving experience. Relatively little information is available from Asian and multicultural societies. Identifying family caregiver experiences after nursing home placement can alert professionals to the need for family guidance prior to nursing home placement and assist in early identification of potential problems. This article reviews the literature and discusses the impact on family caregivers of making a decision for nursing home placement and dealing with the stress and challenges that persist after nursing home admission.
Swan, J H; Benjamin, A E
Rapid increases in the size and costs of the home health market, unknown impacts of Medicare's DRG hospital reimbursement on the posthospital market, and general lack of knowledge about factors that explain interstate variation in home health utilization all suggest the importance of developing and testing models of Medicare home health use. This article proposes and tests a model of state home health utilization as a function of the nursing home market. This model proposes that home health u...
Sørensen, Lisbeth Uhrskov; Foldspang, A; Gulmann, N C
's Activities of Daily Living (ADL), behavioural problems (Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale), orientation, communication skills and if the resident had any psychiatric disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to select the items that determined the use of psychotropics. Results Fifty-six percent......Purpose To characterise the prescription pattern of psychotropics in Danish nursing homes and to identify diagnostic, behavioural, cognitive and performance characteristics associated with prevalent psychotropic drug use. Methods Prescribed daily medication was recorded from nurses' files. Based...
de Vries, Natalie Jane; Reis, Rodrigo; Moscato, Pablo
Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN) followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score). A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not-for-profit
Natalie Jane de Vries
Full Text Available Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score. A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not-for-profit
Zwijsen, S.A.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Francke, A.L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.
Introduction: Although in most developed countries the use of restraints is regulated and restricted by law, the concept of restraint in nursing home care remains ambiguous. This study aims to explore how care professionals and family members of nursing home residents with dementia in the
Mental illness is common, under detected and often poorly managed in residential aged care facilities. These concerns have achieved greater prominence as the worldwide population ages. Over 80% of people in nursing home care fulfill criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders in an environment that often presents significant difficulties for assessment and treatment. This article aims to provide an overview of the important mental health issues involved in providing medical care for patients with behavioural and psychological problems in residential aged care facilities. Recent developments in education and training, service development and assessment and treatment strategies show some promise of improving the outcome for aged care residents with mental health problems. This is of especial relevance for primary care physicians who continue to provide the bulk of medical care for this population.
Dwyer, Lise-Lotte; Hansebo, Görel; Andershed, Birgitta; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
To reveal nursing home employees' views on dying and death among older people they cared for. Palliative care stakeholders recently included more groups in their definition of palliative care; older people constitute one such group. Consequently, palliative care systems, which will serve a large, aging cohort, will require new skills. The first stage in skills acquisition is to gather current views on dying and death. Qualitative descriptive study that uses focus group discussions for data collection; 20 employees in 4 Swedish nursing homes participated. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The following categories were conceptualised: alleviating suffering and pain; finding meaning in everyday life; revealing thoughts and attitudes about death; taking care of the dead person's body; and coping with the gap between personal ideals and reality. A deeper understanding of the palliative care philosophy is needed to further develop and tailor care for the dying persons in nursing homes. To get public support for palliative care, the silence surrounding dying and death must be broken. Employees must receive education to prepare for all aspects of their work, and management must account for employees' situation when planning the care. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kang, Yu; Meng, Hongdao; Miller, Nancy A
To evaluate the impact of rural geographic location on nursing home quality of care in the United States. The study used cross-sectional observational design. We obtained resident- and facility-level data from 12,507 residents in 1,174 nursing homes from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. We used multilevel regression models to predict risk-adjusted rates of hospitalization, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, and moderate to severe pain while controlling for resident and facility characteristics. Adjusting for covariates, residents in rural facilities were more likely to experience hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-1.94) and moderate to severe pain (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.35-2.09). Significant facility-level predictors of higher quality included higher percentage of Medicaid beneficiaries, accreditation status, and special care programs. Medicare payment findings were mixed. Significant resident-level predictors included dementia diagnosis and being a "long-stay" resident. Rural residents were more likely to reside in facilities without accreditations or special care programs, factors that increased their odds of receiving poorer quality of care. Policy efforts to enhance Medicare payment approaches as well as increase rural facilities' accreditation status and provision of special care programs will likely reduce quality of care disparities in facilities.
Hunt, Selina R; Probst, Janice C; Haddock, Kathlyn S; Moran, Robert; Baker, Samuel L; Anderson, Ruth A; Corazzini, Kirsten
As the American population ages and the proportion of individuals over the age of 65 expands, the demand for high-quality nursing home care will increase. However, nursing workforce instability threatens care quality and sustainability in this sector. Despite increasing attention to nursing home staff turnover, far less is known about registered nurse (RN) retention. In this study, the relationships between retention strategies, employee benefits, features of the practice environment, and RN retention were explored. Further, the utility of Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation as a framework for nursing home retention studies was evaluated. This study was a secondary analysis of the nationally representative 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. The final sample of 1,174 participating nursing homes were either certified by Medicare or Medicaid or licensed by state agencies. We used a weighted multinomial logistic regression using an incremental approach to model the relationships. Although most nursing homes offered some combination of retention programs, the majority of strategies did not have a significant association with the level of RN retention reported by facilities. Director of nursing tenure and other extrinsic factors had the strongest association with RN retention in adjusted analyses. To improve RN retention, organizations may benefit greatly from stabilizing nursing home leadership, especially the director of nursing position. Second, managers of facilities with poor retention may consider adding career ladders for advancement, awarding attendance, and improving employee benefits. As a behavioral outcome of motivation and satisfaction, retention was not explained as expected using Herzberg's two-factor theory.
Boomsma, J; Dingemans, C A; Dassen, T W
Crisis-oriented psychiatric home care is a recent development in the Dutch mental health care system. Because of the difference between psychiatric care in the home and in the hospital, an action research project was initiated. This project was directed at the nursing process and the nurses' role and skills in psychiatric home care. The main goal of the project was to describe and to standardize nursing diagnoses and interventions used in crisis-oriented and long-term psychiatric home care. The development of supporting methods of assessment and intervention were also important aspects of this project. In this article a crisis-oriented psychiatric home care programme and the first developmental research activities within this programme are described. To support the nursing process, the development of a nursing record and an assessment-format, based on Gordon's Functional Health Patterns (FHP), took place. By means of content analysis of 61 nursing records, the most frequently stated nursing diagnoses, based upon the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) taxonomy, were identified. The psychiatric diagnostic categories of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) were also collected. The most common categories found were those of mood disorders and schizophrenia or psychotic disorders. Seventy-five per cent of the nursing diagnoses showed up within four FHP: role-relationship, coping-stress tolerance, self-perception/self-concept and activity-exercise. The nursing diagnosis of 'ineffective individual coping' was stated most frequently. This is not surprising because of the similarities in the definitions of this nursing diagnosis and the concept of 'crisis' to which the psychiatric home care programme is oriented. Further research activities will be focused on standardization of nursing diagnosis and the interventions that nurses undertake in this type of care.
Munyisia, Esther Naliaka; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David
This article is a report of a study to examine how nursing staff spend their time on activities in a nursing home. Few studies have investigated how nursing staff spend their time on activities in a nursing home. Such information is important for nurse managers in deciding on staff deployment, and for evaluating the effects of changes in nursing practice. A work sampling study with an observational component was undertaken in 2009 with nursing staff at a nursing home. A total of 430 activities were recorded for Registered Nurses, 331 for Endorsed Enrolled Nurses, 5276 for Personal Carers, and 501 for Recreational Activity Officers. Registered Nurses spent 48·4% of their time on communication and 18·1% on medication management. Endorsed Enrolled Nurses spent 37·7% on communication and 29·0% on documentation tasks. Communication was the most time-consuming activity for Recreational Activity Officers and Personal Carers, except that Personal Carers in a high care house spent more time on direct care duties. Hygiene duties and resident interaction were more frequently multitasked by the nursing staff in high care than in low care house. Nursing staff value their face-to-face interaction for successful care delivery. There is need, however, to investigate the effects of this form of communication on quality of care given to residents. Differences in multi-tasked activities between high care and low care houses should be considered when deploying staff in a nursing home. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tsai, Hsiu-Hsin; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Weng, Li-Chueh; Chou, Hsueh-Fen
Communication conflicts are inevitable in nursing homes. Understanding communication conflicts experienced by practising nurses could provide insights to guide the development of sound communication education programmes. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurses in nursing homes of communication conflict in encounters with nursing home residents and their families in Taiwan. Data were collected from April 2010 to December 2011 through audiotaped, individual, in-depth interviews with 26 nurses at five nursing homes in Taiwan. Data were analysed according to van Manen's interpretive phenomenological method. Data analysis revealed that nurses' experiences of communication conflicts during encounters with nursing home residents and their families could be categorised under three themes: differences in perspectives of nursing home services; differences in views of nurturing health, and mediation between family members and others. The findings of this study can be considered by clinical educators and policymakers when designing communication education programmes for nurses and other clinicians. These programmes should include ways to increase nurses' independent thinking in settings in which power differences exist, as well as their cultural sensitivity as embodied in Leininger's culture care theory. These programmes should also include education in telephone communication and alternative methods of communication (e.g. videoconferencing). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An increasing elderly population reflects a great need for readily accessible, clinically useful methods to identify mortality-related factors in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the deaths of nursing home residents. Data was collected from a Minimal Data Set of 195 elderly nursing home residents, followed by analysis of demographic factors, disease and nursing condition factors, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), cognitive function, behavioral patterns, and dysfunctional status. Major factors associated with death among nursing home residents were identified as dyspnea (odds ratio [OR] = 4.88), problematic behaviors (OR = 3.95), and ADL (OR = 3.61). These variables accounted for 31.1% of the variance in death. Dyspnea, problematic behaviors, and ADL data were identified as the key factors associated with death among nursing home residents. Future plans for the prediction of death among nursing home residents can be made by nursing staff, factoring in these identified variables, to ensure more comfortable conditions and more responsive care. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available This article explores the use of action research (2008–2014 based on a case study of the Sustainable Online Community Engagement (SOCE Project, a service-learning project in which University of South Australia students build websites for not-for-profit (NFP organisations, to demonstrate that effective teaching, public service and research are interdependent. A significant problem experienced in the SOCE project was that, despite some training and ongoing assistance, the community organisations reported that they found it difficult to make effective use of their websites. One of the proposed solutions was to develop an online community of the participating organisations that would be self-supporting, member-driven and collaborative, and enable the organisations to share information about web-based technology. The research reported here explored the usefulness of developing such an online community for the organisations involved and sought alternative ways to assist the organisations to maintain an effective and sustainable web presence. The research used a three-phase ethnographic action research approach. The first phase was a content analysis and review of the editing records of 135 organisational websites hosted by the SOCE project. The second phase was an online survey sent to 145 community organisation members responsible for the management of these websites, resulting in 48 responses. The third phase consisted of semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 of the website managers from 12 of these organisations. The research revealed the extent to which organisations were unable to manage their websites and found that the proposed solution of an online community would not be useful. More importantly, it suggested other useful strategies which have been implemented. In Furco’s (2010 model of the engaged campus, public engagement can be used to advance the public service, teaching and research components of higher education’s tripartite
Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan
Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.
Hefele, Jennifer Gaudet; Ritter, Grant A; Bishop, Christine E; Acevedo, Andrea; Ramos, Candi; Nsiah-Jefferson, Laurie A; Katz, Gabrielle
Identifying racial/ethnic differences in quality is central to identifying, monitoring, and reducing disparities. Although disparities across all individual nursing home residents and disparities associated with between-nursing home differences have been established, little is known about the degree to which quality of care varies by race//ethnicity within nursing homes. A study was conducted to measure within-facility differences for a range of publicly reported nursing home quality measures. Resident assessment data on approximately 15,000 nursing homes and approximately 3 million residents (2009) were used to assess eight commonly used and publicly reported long-stay quality measures: the proportion of residents with weight loss, with high-risk and low-risk pressure ulcers, with incontinence, with depressive symptoms, in restraints daily, and who experienced a urinary tract infection or functional decline. Each measure was stratified by resident race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic), and within-facility differences were examined. Small but significant differences in care on average were found, often in an unexpected direction; in many cases, white residents were experiencing poorer outcomes than black and Hispanic residents in the same facility. However, a broad range of differences in care by race/ethnicity within nursing homes was also found. The results suggest that care is delivered equally across all racial/ethnic groups in the same nursing home, on average. The results support the call for publicly reporting stratified nursing home quality measures and suggest that nursing home providers should attempt to identify racial/ethnic within-facility differences in care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ceccaldi, J; Thibert, J-B; Haddad, A; Bouësseau, M-C; Pottier, R; Danic, B; Noël, S; Monsellier, M; Tissot, J-D; Sannié, T; Clavier, B; Mamzer, M-F; Cartron, J-P; Vernant, J-P; Hervé, C; Garraud, O
The not-for-profit issue has been debated in November 2016 in Paris; this issue is one of the four canonical pillars of ethical blood donation. It is intimately bound to benevolence though it is distinct, as not-for-profit calls for institutions while benevolence calls for individuals. It is indeed intended that voluntary blood donors do not benefit from their donation and are thus non-remunerated. Not-for-profit is essential since it refers to the public character of blood as a putative public resource aimed at being shared as a tribute of solidarity. A central question however is linked to the capacity- or not -of public sectors to ensure that blood components are universally available, with special mention to plasma derived drugs, without the contribution of the for profit, private sector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Smith, Shannon Bright; Alexander, Judith W
The study's purpose was to determine nurses' opinions of sending patients from the hospital to home with home health services. The study occurred in the Charleston, South Carolina, Tricounty area (Berkeley, Charleston, and Dorchester counties). Home health agencies and hospitals were invited to participate. The study used a survey design to gather information on nursing perceptions of current practices and needed changes to improve transition of patients. The population was nurses (licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and registered nurses (RNs)) employed at inpatient hospitals or home health agencies in the area. Thirty-four RNs responded with no LPNs respondents. Agency administrators/chief nursing officers agreed for their agencies to participate and distributed the survey using a Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) Internet-based survey tool. Using the survey results and information from a literature review, the study developed a list of propositions, which participating administrators reviewed, for improving transitions to home. Both home health and hospital nurses reported a need to improve the process of sending patients from hospital to home with home health services. This study provides hospitals and home health agencies with propositions to facilitate the establishment of a process to communicate effectively patients care needs and streamline the discharging patients from the hospital to home health care; thus, improving patient transition. Case managers and discharge planners will need interagency collaboration along with evidence-based interventions to transition patients from the hospital to home with home health services with various populations. Direct patient care nurses in both hospital and home health settings should share the same accountability as case managers to ensure successful transitions.
Kiljunen, Outi; Välimäki, Tarja; Kankkunen, Päivi; Partanen, Pirjo
People living in care and nursing homes are vulnerable individuals with complex needs; therefore, a wide array of nursing competence is needed to ensure their well-being. When developing the quality of care in these units, it is essential to know what type of competence is required for older people nursing. The aim of this integrative review was to identify the competence needed for older people nursing in licensed practical nurses' and registered nurses' work in care and nursing homes. Integrative literature review. We performed an integrative review using Whittemore and Knafl's method. The CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SocINDEX and Scopus databases were searched for studies published from 2006 to April 2016. We assessed the quality of the studies using Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools and analysed the data by applying qualitative content analysis. Ten articles were included in the review. Most of the studies focused on registered nurses' work. We identified five competence areas that are needed for older people nursing in registered nurses' work in care and nursing homes: attitudinal and ethical, interactional, evidence-based care, pedagogical, and leadership and development competence. Empirical evidence of competence requirements related to licensed practical nurses' work in these facilities was scarce. The competence required for registered nurses and licensed practical nurses should be clearly identified to support competence management in the care and nursing home context. Well-educated nursing staff are needed in care and nursing homes to provide high-quality care because comprehensive and advanced nurse competence is required to meet the needs of older people. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kash, Bita A; Miller, Thomas R
Theoretically, nursing homes should engage in advertising for the following two reasons: (a) to improve awareness of the services offered in a particular market and (b) to signal high-quality services. In this study, we build upon results from prior studies of nursing home advertising activity, market competition, and quality. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between advertising expenses, price, and quality. We focused on answering the question: Do nursing homes use advertising and price to signal superior quality? The Texas Nursing Facilities Medicaid Cost Report, the Texas Quality Reporting System, and the Area Resource File were merged for the year 2003. We used three alternative measures of quality to improve the robustness of this exploratory analysis. Quality measures were examined using Bonferroni correlation coefficient analysis. Associations between advertising expenses and quality were evaluated using three regression models predicting quality. We also examined the association of the price of a private bed per day with quality. Advertising expenses were not associated with better nursing home quality as measured by three quality scales. The average price customers pay for one private bed per day was associated with better quality only in one of the three quality regression models. The price of nursing home care might be a better indicator of quality and necessary to increase as quality of care is improved in the nursing homes sector. Because more advertising expenditures are not necessarily associated with better quality, consumers could be mislead by advertisements and choose poor quality nursing homes. Nursing home administrators should focus on customer relationship management tools instead of expensive advertising. Relationship management tools are proven marketing techniques for the health services sector, usually less expensive than advertising, and help with staff retention and quality outcomes.
Heeke, Sheila; Wood, Felecia; Schuck, Jennifer
A task force at a multihospital health care system partnered with home health agencies to improve gaps during the discharge transition process. A standardized order template for home health nursing and remote telemonitoring was developed to decrease discrepancies in communication between hospital health care providers and home health nurses caring for patients with heart failure. Pilot results showed significantly improved communication with no readmissions, using the order template.
Coburn, A F; Fortinsky, R; McGuire, C; McDonald, T P
This study evaluates the effect of Maine's Medicaid nursing home prospective payment system on nursing home costs and access to care for public patients. The implementation of a facility-specific prospective payment system for nursing homes provided the opportunity for longitudinal study of the effect of that system. Data sources included audited Medicaid nursing home cost reports, quality-of-care data from state facility survey and licensure files, and facility case-mix information from random, stratified samples of homes and residents. Data were obtained for six years (1979-1985) covering the three-year period before and after implementation of the prospective payment system. This study used a pre-post, longitudinal analytical design in which interrupted, time-series regression models were estimated to test the effects of prospective payment and other factors, e.g., facility characteristics, nursing home market factors, facility case mix, and quality of care, on nursing home costs. Prospective payment contributed to an estimated $3.03 decrease in total variable costs in the third year from what would have been expected under the previous retrospective cost-based payment system. Responsiveness to payment system efficiency incentives declined over the study period, however, indicating a growing problem in achieving further cost reductions. Some evidence suggested that cost reductions might have reduced access for public patients. Study findings are consistent with the results of other studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of prospective payment systems in restraining nursing home costs. Potential policy trade-offs among cost containment, access, and quality assurance deserve further consideration, particularly by researchers and policymakers designing the new generation of case mix-based and other nursing home payment systems.
Carlson, Elisabeth; Rämgård, Margareta; Bolmsjö, Ingrid; Bengtsson, Mariette
In Sweden, as well as in most industrialised countries, an increasing older population is expected to create a growing demand for health care staff. Previous studies have pointed to lack of proficient medical and nursing staff specialised in geriatric care, which poses serious threats to the care of a vulnerable population. At the same time, there are studies describing elderly care as a low-status career choice, attracting neither nurses nor student nurses. Judging from previous research it was deemed important to explore how nurses in elderly care perceive their work, thus possibly provide vital knowledge that can guide nurse educators and unit managers as a means to promote a career in elderly care. The aim of the present study was to illuminate how nurses, working in nursing homes and home-based care, perceived their professional work. This was a qualitative study using focus groups. 30 registered nurses in seven focus groups were interviewed. The participants worked in nursing homes and home-based care for the elderly in rural areas and in a larger city in southern Sweden. The interviews were analysed in line with the tradition of naturalistic inquiry. Our findings illustrate how nurses working in elderly care perceived their professional work as holistic and respectful nursing. Three categories of professional work emerged during analysis: (1) establishing long-term relationships, (2) nursing beyond technical skills, and (3) balancing independence and a sense of loneliness. The findings are important as they represent positive alternatives to the somewhat prevailing view on elderly care as depressing and undemanding. Nurse educators might use the key aspects as good examples, thus influencing student nurses' attitudes towards elderly care in a positive way. Elderly care agencies might find them helpful when recruiting and retaining nurses to a much needed area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siegel, Elena O; Bettega, Kristen; Bakerjian, Debra; Sikma, Suzanne
Nursing homes use team nursing, with minimal RN presence, leaving the majority of direct care to licensed practical/vocational nurses (LPNs/LVNs) and unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP), including medication aides. The current article describes challenges faced by nursing home directors of nursing (DONs) leading and managing a team nursing approach, including consideration of scope of practice, delegation and supervision regulations, and related policy implications. A secondary data analysis was performed of qualitative data from a study to develop and test DON guidelines for delegation in nursing home practice. A convenience sample (N = 29) of current or previous DONs and other nursing home leaders with knowledge and expertise in the DON role participated in in-depth, guided interviews. The findings highlight a core concern to nursing licensure policy and regulation: knowledge and practice gaps related to scope of practice and delegation and supervision among DONs, RNs, and LPNs/LVNs, as well as administrators, and the role of nursing leaders in supporting appropriate delegation practices. The findings offer directions for research and practice in addressing challenges in aligning team nursing practices with regulatory standards as well as the related gaps in knowledge among DONs, administrators, and nursing staff. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(6), 10-14.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Closs, S José; Barr, Bridget; Briggs, Michelle
Background: Although it is becoming acknowledged that pain management is generally poor for older people, little is known about pain management for nursing home residents in the United Kingdom, and the specific problems for those with cognitive impairments.
Economic theory suggests that competition and information can both be important for product quality, and yet evidence on how they may interact to affect quality is sparse. This paper estimates the impact of competition between nursing homes on their quality, and how this impact varies when consumers have better access to information. The effect of competition is identified using exogenous variation in the geographical proximity of nursing homes to their potential consumers. The change in information transparency is captured by the launch of the Five-Star Quality Rating System in 2009, which improved access to the quality information of nursing homes. We find that while the effect of competition on nursing home quality is generally rather limited, this effect becomes significantly stronger with increased information transparency. The results suggest that regulations on public quality reporting and on market structure are policy complements, and should be considered jointly to best improve quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Adequate pain management is an important indicator of quality of care and quality of life. Nursing home staff should check patients regularly to see if they are...
Objectives: This study evaluated the sitting room environment of two nursing homes in Ireland, using interactive occupation and social engagement as outcome measures and defining these rooms as occupational spaces.\\r\
Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Dyck, Mary J; Culp, Kennith R; Buckwalter, Kathleen
Under-diagnosis and under-treatment of depression are major problems in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to determine antidepressant use among nursing home residents who were diagnosed with depression using three different methods: (1) the Geriatric Depression Scale, (2) Minimum Data Set, and (3) primary care provider assessments. As one would expect, the odds of being treated with an antidepressant were about eight times higher for those diagnosed as depressed by the primary care provider compared to the Geriatric Depression Scale or the Minimum Data Set. Men were less likely to be diagnosed and treated with antidepressants by their primary care provider than women. Depression detected by nurses through the Minimum Data Set was treated at a lower rate with antidepressants, which generates issues related to interprofessional communication, nursing staff communication, and the need for geropsychiatric role models in nursing homes.
General Unanr . ’, n- ri ...................4" D .. . .. .. ... 1,- . .~ l ’ ’ t ! ! * ’ Executive Summary Pur,,pse One of every four elderly will enter...7 (AO HRD-87-113 Nursing Home Enforeement %% Chapter 1 Introduction One of every four elderly will enter a nursing home during his or her lifetime...during one or more of the five inspections were " treatments to decubitus ulcers that were not done and/or consistently recorded; " essentially bedridden
The life project in a nursing home involves all the players concerned: first of all, the resident, then the caregivers, the families and the institution. This unifying tool, organised around the elderly, helps to develop collective competencies, favours the integration of new residents and reassures families. This article presents a nursing home's experience of setting up a life project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
In the biggest deal of its kind, not-for-profit giant Ascension is going to build ambulatory surgery centers with for-profit United Surgical Partners, which already has a deal with Baylor, left. "Hospitals are realizing that outpatient services are the future. This strategy is sound," one healthcare consultant said.
Yeatts, Dale E.; Cready, Cynthia; Ray, Beth; DeWitt, Amy; Queen, Courtney
Purpose: This article describes the progress of our study to examine the advantages and costs of using self-managed nurse aide teams in nursing homes, steps that are being taken to implement such teams, and management strategies being used to manage the teams. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design is underway where certified nurse aide…
Verkaik, R.; Francke, A.L.; Meijel, B. van; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Bensing, J.M.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of introducing a nursing guideline on depression in residents with dementia of psychogeriatric nursing home wards. METHODS: A multi-center controlled clinical trial with randomization at ward level was used to study the effects of the guideline introduction. Nursing
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.
This document demonstrates the relationships among four Florida nursing education programs (home health aide, nursing assistant, patient care assistant, and practical nursing) by listing student performance standards and indicating which ones are required in each program. The 268 student performance standards are arranged in 23 areas of…
Verkaik, R.; Francke, A.; Berno, M. van; Bensing, J.; Miel, R.
Introduction: The prevalence rate of depression in psychogeriatric nursing home residents with dementia is recently estimated at 19%. Comorbid depression in dementia has been associated with decreased quality of life, greater health care utilization and higher mortality rates. The effects of introducing an evidence based nursing guideline on psychogeriatric nursing home wards were studied. Main principles of the guideline were (1) increasing individualized pleasant activities, (2) decreasing ...
Konetzka, R Tamara; Park, Jeongyoung; Ellis, Robert; Abbo, Elmer
Objective. To assess the potential deterrent effect of nursing home litigation threat on nursing home quality. Data Sources/Study Setting. We use a panel dataset of litigation claims and Nursing Home Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data from 1995 to 2005 in six states: Florida, Illinois, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Missouri, and Delaware, for a total of 2,245 facilities. Claims data are from Westlaw's Adverse Filings database, a proprietary legal database, on all malpractice, negligence, and personal injury/wrongful death claims filed against nursing facilities. Study Design. A lagged 2-year moving average of the county-level number of malpractice claims is used to represent the threat of litigation. We use facility fixed-effects models to examine the relationship between the threat of litigation and nursing home quality. Principal Findings. We find significant increases in registered nurse-to-total staffing ratios in response to rising malpractice threat, and a reduction in pressure sores among highly staffed facilities. However, the magnitude of the deterrence effect is small. Conclusions. Deterrence in response to the threat of malpractice litigation is unlikely to lead to widespread improvements in nursing home quality. This should be weighed against other benefits and costs of litigation to assess the net benefit of tort reform. PMID:23741985
Herr, Annika; Hottenrott, Hanna
This study investigates the relationship between prices and quality of 7400 German nursing homes. We use a cross section of public quality reports for all German nursing homes, which had been evaluated between 2010 and 2013 by external institutions. Our analysis is based on multivariate regressions in a two stage least squares framework, where we instrument prices to explain their effect on quality controlling for income, nursing home density, demographics, labour market characteristics, and infrastructure at the regional level. Descriptive analysis shows that prices and quality do not only vary across nursing homes, but also across counties and federal states and that quality and prices correlate positively. Second, the econometric analysis, which accounts for the endogenous relation between negotiated price and reported quality, shows that quality indeed positively depends on prices. In addition, more places in nursing homes per people in need are correlated with both lower prices and higher quality. Finally, unobserved factors at the federal state level capture some of the variation of reported quality across nursing homes. Our results suggest that higher prices increase quality. Furthermore, since reported quality and prices vary substantially across federal states, we conclude that the quality and prices of long-term care facilities may well be compared within federal states but not across. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Brouwer, Brigitte Johanna Maria; Kaljouw, Marian J; Schoonhoven, Lisette; van Achterberg, Theo
To develop and psychometrically test the Essentials of Magnetism II in nursing homes. Increasing numbers and complex needs of older people in nursing homes strain the nursing workforce. Fewer adequately trained staff and increased care complexity raise concerns about declining quality. Nurses' practice environment has been reported to affect quality of care and productivity. The Essentials of Magnetism II © measures processes and relationships of practice environments that contribute to productivity and quality of care and can therefore be useful in identifying processes requiring change to pursue excellent practice environments. However, this instrument was not explicitly evaluated for its use in nursing home settings so far. In a preparatory phase, a cross-sectional survey study focused on face validity of the essentials of magnetism in nursing homes. A second cross-sectional survey design was then used to further test the instrument's validity and reliability. Psychometric testing included evaluation of content and construct validity, and reliability. Nurses (N = 456) working at 44 units of three nursing homes were included. Respondent acceptance, relevance and clarity were adequate. Five of the eight subscales and 54 of the 58 items did meet preset psychometric criteria. All essentials of magnetism are considered relevant for nursing homes. The subscales Adequacy of Staffing, Clinically Competent Peers, Patient Centered Culture, Autonomy and Nurse Manager Support can be used in nursing homes without problems. The other subscales cannot be directly applied to this setting. The valid subscales of the Essentials of Magnetism II instrument can be used to design excellent nursing practice environments that support nurses' delivery of care. Before using the entire instrument, however, the other subscales have to be improved. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In addition to the increasing prevalence of diabetes, our population is growing older and living longer. This survey aimed to determine the care provided to residents with diabetes in Nursing Homes.\\r\
Nilsson, Carina; Skär, Lisa; Söderberg, Siv
The use of information and communication technology has increased in the society, and can be useful in nursing care. The aim of this study was to describe district nurses' attitudes regarding the implementation of information and communication technology in home nursing. The first and third authors performed five focus group discussions with 19 district nurses' from five primary healthcare centres in northern Sweden. During the focus group discussions, the following topics were discussed: the current and future use of information and communication technology in home nursing; expectations, advantages, disadvantages and hindrances in the use of information and communication technology in home nursing; and the use of information and communication technology from an ethical perspective. The transcribed focus group discussions were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that district nurses' attitudes were positive regarding the use of information and communication technology in their work. They also asked for possibilities to influence the design and its introduction. However, the use of information and communication technology in home nursing can be described as a complement to communication that could not replace human physical encounters. Improvements and risks, as well as the importance of physical presence in home nursing were considered vital. The results revealed that the use of information and communication technology requires changes in the district nurses' work situation.
Russell, David; Rosenfeld, Peri; Ames, Sylvia; Rosati, Robert J
There is a growing recognition among health services researchers and policy makers that Health Information Technology (HIT) has the potential to address challenging issues that face patients and providers of healthcare. The Visiting Nurse Service of New York (VNSNY), a large not-for-profit home healthcare agency, has integrated technology applications into the service delivery model of several programs. Case studies, including the development and implementation, of three informatics initiatives at VNSNY are presented on: (1) Quality Scorecards that utilize process, outcomes, cost, and satisfaction measures to assess performance among clinical staff and programs; (2) a tool to identify patients at risk of being hospitalized, and (3) a predictive model that identifies patients who are eligible for physical rehabilitation services. Following a description of these initiatives, we discuss their impact on quality and process indicators, as well as the opportunities and challenges to implementation. © 2010 National Association for Healthcare Quality.
Kofod, Jens Erik
The number of older people from their own home into a nursing home is likely to increase. This study intends to examine important aspects in the transition process by applying ethnographic methods. Ten older people and their relatives were interviewed and observed. It was found that their relatio...
Jarboe, G R; McDaniel, C D
Factor analysis revealed that nursing home characteristics fall roughly into two categories: those relating to the care directly provided by the facility and those which are generally unrelated to the quality of care. Not all influences (doctors, discharge planners, retirement home administrators and responsible parties) respond alike to these characteristics. Therefore, a marketing mix directed uniformly to all segments may be suboptimal.
McCloskey, Rose; Donovan, Cindy; Stewart, Connie; Donovan, Alicia
Calls for improved conditions in nursing homes have pointed to the importance of optimizing the levels and skills of care providers. Understanding the work of care providers will help to determine if staff are being used to their full potential and if opportunities exist for improved efficiencies. To explore the activities of care providers in different nursing homes and to identify if variations exist within and across homes and shifts. A multi-centre cross-sectional observational work flow study was conducted in seven different nursing homes sites in one Canadian province. Data were collected by a research assistant who conducted 368 h of observation. The research assistant collected data by following an identical route in each site and recording observations on staff activities. Findings indicate staff activities vary across roles, sites and shifts. Licensed practical nurses (nursing assistants) have the greatest variation in their role while registered nurses have the least amount of variability. In some sites both registered nurses and licensed practical nurses perform activities that may be safely delegated to others. Care providers spend as much as 53.7% of their time engaged in non-value added activities. There may be opportunities for registered nurses and licensed practical nurses to delegate some of their activities to non-regulated workers. The time care providers spend in non-value activities suggest there may be opportunities to improve efficiencies within the nursing home setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: Survey about the issues and problems related to elderly in order to improve their quality of life of this increasing population has become a universal concern.This study was performed by the purpose of comparing the sleep quality and general health among the Elderly Residing at Home and Old People's Homes. Methods & Materials: This study is descriptive-analytic type. Population of this investigation consisted of elderly men and women (upper than 60 years old living at personal home and at nursing home in Tabriz. Sample group composed of 100 elderly (50 men and 50 women 50 living at home and 50 living at nursing home who were selected through available sampling method. For collecting data, Goldberg General Health Questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used. Data were analyzed by Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results: Findings showed that In terms of general health and its components (Physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression and Sleep quality and its components (Subjective quality of sleep, time for sleep, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, routine, sleep disorders, sleep medications and daily dysfunction there were significant differences between nursing home residents and elderly residents in nursing homes (P=0.001. Conclusion: Findings indicated that elderly residents in nursing home are experiencing more symptoms of anxiety, depression, physical symptoms and social dysfunction Compared with the elderly whom resident at home. Also the results showed that the elderly residents of nursing homes have poor sleep quality than ones whom residents at home. On the other hand Future development of elderly care institution is inevitable. Therefore, more attention to the living conditions of elderly residents of institutions seems necessary.
Background: Provision of health care service at home is one of the advanced forms of care for patients being discharged from hospitalization. Little is known about the experience of nurses providing home care services through a nursing home-care model especially in Indonesian context. Objective: This study aims to explore the experience in order to increase understanding on the form of home care provision, and consequently the nurses may understand the form of home care globally. Metho...
Lovink, M.H.; Persoon, A.; Vught, A.J. van; Schoonhoven, L.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Laurant, M.G.H.
INTRODUCTION: In developed countries, substituting physicians with nurse practitioners, physician assistants and nurses (physician substitution) occurs in nursing homes as an answer to the challenges related to the ageing population and the shortage of staff, as well as to guarantee the quality of
Verkaik, R.; Francke, A.L.; van Meijel, B.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Bensing, J.M.
Background: To improve care for residents with depression in dementia, an evidence based nursing guideline was developed. Using the guideline has already shown positive effects on depression in psychogeriatric nursing home residents. Objective: To study the effects of the introduction of the nursing
Verkaik, R.; Francke, A.L.; Meijel, B. van; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Bensing, J.M.
Background: To improve care for residents with depression in dementia, an evidence based nursing guideline was developed. Using the guideline has already shown positive effects on depression in psychogeriatric nursing home residents. Objective: To study the effects of the introduction of the nursing
Monroe, Todd B; Parish, Abby; Mion, Lorraine C
Nurses caring for older people with various psychiatric illnesses face many obstacles when treating pain. One setting with a high percentage of psychiatric conditions is long-term care where more than half of residents have some form of dementia, and behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSDs) may mimic behavioral displays of pain. Furthermore, two-thirds of nursing home residents have pain. Thus, many nursing home residents with dementia have pain that may be confounded by BSDs. Since many people with dementia are at risk for poor pain management, determining current methods in which nurses assess and manage pain in nursing home residents will aid in recognizing potential barriers to using current pain management guidelines and help develop strategies to enhance nurses' assessment and management of pain in this vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to explore nursing home nurses' cues and practices to identify and alleviate pain in nursing home residents with dementia. Nurses use the constructs of 'comfort' and 'quality of life' as key components in their overall pain assessment strategy in people with dementia. Indeed, the extensive process they use involving frequent reassessment and application of interventions is geared towards "appearance of comfort." Nurses reported difficulty in ascertaining whether a person with dementia was in pain, and they expressed further difficulty determining the intensity associated with resident pain. Nurses further reported that residents with dementia who are not well know by the staff were are greater risk of poor pain management. It was not unusual for nurses to discuss the importance of conflict resolution among family members as well as allowing for open expression of family's concerns. Nurses had to focus not only on the resident's comfort, but also the families' level of comfort with pain management, especially at the end-of-life. Findings support further use and development of discomfort behavior scales to help
Chen, Yuh-Min; Li, Yueh-Ping
The purpose of this study was to explore self-identified motivators for regular physical activity among ambulatory nursing home older residents. A qualitative exploratory design was adopted. Purposive sampling was performed to recruit 18 older residents from two nursing homes in Taiwan. The interview transcripts were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Five motivators of physical activity emerged from the result of analysis: eagerness for returning home, fear of becoming totally dependent, improving mood state, filling empty time, and previously cultivated habit. Research on physical activity from the perspectives of nursing home older residents has been limited. An empirically grounded understanding from this study could provide clues for promoting and supporting lifelong engagement in physical activity among older residents. The motivators reported in this study should be considered when designing physical activity programs. These motivators can be used to encourage, guide, and provide feedback to support older residents in maintaining physical activity.
Loeb, M; Simor, A E; Mandell, L; Krueger, P; McArthur, M; James, M; Walter, S; Richardson, E; Lingley, M; Stout, J; Stronach, D; McGeer, A
To describe outbreaks of infection caused by Legionella sainthelensi occurring in older residents of two nursing homes and to determine risk factors for the development of infection. Descriptive epidemiology and a case-control study. Two nursing homes (140 beds and 254 beds in nursing homes A and B, respectively) located in southern Ontario, Canada, experiencing outbreaks of respiratory tract infection in July and August 1994. Case-residents of the two nursing homes who met clinical and laboratory criteria for Legionella infection. Control-residents were defined as those who were in the homes during the outbreaks and were asymptomatic. Active surveillance was conducted in both nursing homes to identify symptomatic residents. Residents with fever or respiratory tract symptoms had nasopharyngeal swabs taken for viral antigen detection and culture, urine for Legionella antigen detection, and acute and convalescent serology for viruses, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella. Chest X-rays were performed, and an attempt was made to obtain blood and sputum cultures. Water samples from shower heads, faucets, and air conditioning units were collected for Legionella culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. A case-control study was done to assess possible risk factors for legionellosis. Twenty-nine cases -- 17 in nursing home A; 12 in nursing home B - were identified. Four (14%) case-residents had documented pneumonia and four case-residents died. Univariate analysis revealed that a history of stroke (odds ratio (OR) 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-5.3)), eating pureed food (OR 4.6 (95% CI, 1.6-12.7)), and having fluids administered with medication (OR 2.5 (95% CI, 1.0-5.9)) were significant risk factors. Cases were less likely to wear dentures (OR .4 (95% CI, .2-.9)) or to eat solid food (OR .3, (95% CI, .1-.6)). Only eating pureed food remained significant in a multivariable analysis (OR 4.6 (95% CI, 1.6-13.0, P = .01)). This report describes outbreaks of
Kiely, D K; Kiel, D P; Burrows, A B; Lipsitz, L A
To develop a fall risk model that can be used to identify prospectively nursing home residents at risk for falling. The secondary objective was to determine whether the nursing home environment independently influenced the development of falls. A prospective study involving 1 year of follow-up. Two hundred seventy-two nursing homes in the state of Washington. A total of 18,855 residents who had a baseline assessment in 1991 and a follow-up assessment within the subsequent year. Baseline Minimum Data Set items that could be potential risk factors for falling were considered as independent variables. The dependent variable was whether the resident fell as reported at the follow-up assessment. We estimated the extrinsic risk attributable to particular nursing home environments by calculating the annual fall rate in each nursing home and grouping them into tertiles of fall risk according to these rates. Factors associated independently with falling were fall history, wandering behavior, use of a cane or walker, deterioration of activities of daily living performance, age greater than 87 years, unsteady gait, transfer independence, wheelchair independence, and male gender. Nursing home residents with a fall history were more than three times as likely to fall during the follow-up period than residents without a fall history. Residents in homes with the highest tertile of fall rates were more than twice as likely to fall compared with residents of homes in the lowest tertile, independent of resident-specific risk factors. Fall history was identified as the strongest risk factor associated with subsequent falls and accounted for the vast majority of the predictive strength of the model. We recommend that fall history be used as an initial screener for determining eligibility for fall intervention efforts. Studies are needed to determine the facility characteristics that contribute to fall risk, independent of resident-specific risk factors.
Trinkoff, Alison M; Han, Kihye; Storr, Carla L; Lerner, Nancy; Johantgen, Meg; Gartrell, Kyungsook
The authors examined the relationship of staff turnover to selected nursing home quality outcomes, in the context of staffing and skill mix. Staff turnover is a serious concern in nursing homes as it has been found to adversely affect care. When employee turnover is minimized, better care quality is more likely in nursing homes. Data from the National Nursing Home Survey, a nationally representative sample of US nursing homes, were linked to Nursing Home Compare quality outcomes and analyzed using logistic regression. Nursing homes with high certified nursing assistant turnover had significantly higher odds of pressure ulcers, pain, and urinary tract infections even after controlling for staffing, skill mix, bed size, and ownership. Nurse turnover was associated with twice the odds of pressure ulcers, although this was attenuated when staffing was controlled. This study suggests turnover may be more important in explaining nursing home (NH) outcomes than staffing and skill mix and should therefore be given greater emphasis.
S. Sprangers (Suzan); K. Dijkstra (Katinka); A. Romijn-Luijten (Anna)
textabstractEffective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home
Kanda, Katsuya; Mezey, Mathy
Examined changes in resident acuity and registered nurse staffing in all nursing homes in Pennsylvania before and after introduction of Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) in 1983. Found that acuity of nursing home residents increased significantly since introduction of PPS, full-time registered nurse staffing remained unchanged, and…
Verkaik, R.; Francke, A.L.; Meijel, B. van; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Bensing, J.M.
Background: To improve care for residents with depression in dementia, an evidence based nursing guideline was developed. Using the guideline has already shown positive effects on depression in psychogeriatric nursing home residents. Objective: To study the effects of the introduction of the nursing guideline ‘depression in dementia’ on perceived professional autonomy, workload and feelings of powerlessness and confidence in Certified Nurse Assistants. Design: A multi-center controlled interv...
A Senate hearing last week helped boost not-for-profit hospitals' chances of facing a new standard for reporting community benefits. At stake for hospitals are billions in tax breaks. The standard for exemption hasn't been modified since 1969, and "has not kept up with the substantial unfunded health needs of communities," says Nancy Kane, right, a member of MedPAC.
Identify useful concepts related to the emotional context facing family members of nursing home residents. These concepts can be used in future studies to design and test interventions that benefit family caregivers. Secondary data analyses of qualitative ethnographic data. Two nursing homes in a large Midwestern city; 8 months of data collection in each. 44 family members of nursing home residents whose health was considered, "declining." Role theory was used to design and help interpret the findings. Data included transcripts of conversations between family members and researchers and were analyzed using a coding scheme developed for the secondary analysis. Comments about emotions related to the social role of family member were grouped into three categories: relief related to admission, stress, and decision making support/stress. Subcategories of stress include the role strain associated with "competing concerns" and the psychological pressures of 1) witnessing the decline of a loved one in a nursing home, and 2) guilt about placement. Decision-making was discussed as a challenge which family members did not want to face alone; support from the resident, health care professionals, and other family members was appreciated. Family members may benefit from role reinforcement activities provided by nursing home staff and community members. All nursing home staff members (in particular social workers) and physicians are called upon to provide educationa and support regarding nursing home admissions, during the decline of the resident, and especially regarding medical decision-making. Community groups are asked to support the family member by offering assistance with concrete tasks (driving, visiting, etc.) and social support.
Ehlman, Katie; Wilson, Amy; Dugger, Renee; Eggleston, Brandon; Coudret, Nadine; Mathis, Sherri
Urinary incontinence (UI) poses challenges for nursing home personnel. The authors of this study explored differences in attitude and knowledge about UI among registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and certified nursing assistants working in skilled nursing homes before and after study interventions.
Meijers, Judith M M; Halfens, Ruud J G; Wilson, Lisa; Schols, Jos M G A
Malnutrition in western health care involves a tremendous burden of illness. In this study the economic implications of malnutrition in Dutch nursing homes are investigated as part of the Health and Economic Impact of Malnutrition in Europe Study from the European Nutrition for Health Alliance. A questionnaire was developed, focussing on the additional time and resources spent to execute all relevant nutritional activities in nursing home patients with at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. Results were extrapolated on national level, based on the prevalence rates gathered within the national Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems 2009. The normal nutritional costs are 319 million Euro per year. The total additional costs of managing the problem of malnutrition in Dutch nursing homes involve 279 million Euro per year and are related to extra efforts in nutritional screening, monitoring and treatment. The extra costs for managing nursing home residents at risk of malnutrition are 8000 euro per patient and 10000 euro for malnourished patients. The extra costs related to malnutrition are a considerable burden for the nursing home sector and urge for preventive measures. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetanus is a serious but vaccine-preventable disease and fatality rate of the disease is high in the neonates and the elderly. The aim of this study was to detect the tetanus antibody prevalence in the over sixty-year age residents of the nursing homes in Bolu. Methods A voluntary-based study was done in the residents of two nursing homes in Bolu, Turkey. Blood samples were taken from 71 volunteers residing in there nursing homes. Tetanus IgG antibodies were measured by a commercial ELISA kit. Results Among overall subjects, only 11 (15.7 % had the protective tetanus antibody titers at the time of the study. Totally, 10 subjects were examined in emergency rooms due to trauma or accidents within the last ten years and, four (40% of them had protective antibody levels. Of the remaining 61 subjects only 7 (11% had protective antibody levels (p Conclusions Tetanus antibody level is below the protective level in the majority of the over-sixty-year-age subjects residing in the nursing homes. Each over sixty-year age person in our country should be vaccinated. Until this is accomplished, at least, nursing home residents should be vaccinated during registration.
Boorsma, M.; Joling, K.J.; Dussel, M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Frijters, D.H.M.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Nijpels, G.; van Hout, H.P.J.
Objective: Although it is known that depression is highly prevalent in institutionalized older adults, little is known about its incidence and risk factors in nursing homes and residential care homes. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the incidence and associated risk factors for
Molony, Sheila L.; Evans, Lois K.; Jeon, Sangchoon; Rabig, Judith; Straka, Leslie A.
Background: Long-term care providers across the United States are building innovative environments called "Green House" or small-house nursing homes that weave humanistic person-centered philosophies into clinical care, organizational policies, and built environments. Purpose: To compare and contrast trajectories of at-homeness and health over…
Rahman, Momotazur; Galarraga, Omar; Zinn, Jacqueline S; Grabowski, David C; Mor, Vincent
Over the past two decades, nursing homes and home health care agencies have been influenced by several Medicare and Medicaid policy changes including the adoption of prospective payment for Medicare-paid postacute care and Medicaid-paid long-term home and community-based care reforms. This article examines how spending growth in these sectors was affected by state certificate-of-need (CON) laws, which were designed to limit the growth of providers and have remained unchanged for several decades. Compared with states without CON laws, Medicare and Medicaid spending in states with CON laws grew faster for nursing home care and more slowly for home health care. In particular, we observed the slowest growth in community-based care in states with CON for both the nursing home and home health industries. Thus, controlling for other factors, public postacute and long-term care expenditures in CON states have become dominated by nursing homes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Nokes, Kathleen M; Aponte, Judith; Nickitas, Donna M; Mahon, Pamela Y; Rodgers, Betsy; Reyes, Nancy; Chaya, Joan; Dornbaum, Martin
Although there is general consensus that nursing students need knowledge and significant skill to document clinical findings electronically, nursing faculty face many barriers in ensuring that undergraduate students can practice on electronic health record systems (EHRS). External funding supported the development of an educational innovation through a partnership between a home care agency staff and nursing faculty. Modules were developed to teach EHRS skills using a case study of a homebound person requiring wound care and the Medicare-required OASIS documentation system. This article describes the development and implementation of the module for an upper-level baccalaureate nursing program located in New York City. Nursing faculty are being challenged to develop creative and economical solutions to expose nursing students to EHRSs in nonclinical settings.
D' Addario, P.J. [International Fund for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, New York, NY (United States)
This article presents a case study of a project which provides photovoltaic-based rural electrification in the state of Alagoas in northeastern Brazil. The project, the Luz do Sol Programme (LdS), was initiated in mid-1996 by the Golden Genesis Company (Golden) and the Fundacao Teotonio Vilela (FTV). The article emphasizes some noteworthy characteristics of the project: the partnership between US commercial and Brazilian philanthropic interests; the financial aspect, a dedicated line of credit requiring only the equipment itself as security; and the local ownership and management of system operations, collections, and routine maintenance. In 1996, the Golden Genesis Company had developed a central battery charging system to bring the price of electrification within the range of the rural poor; it financed the US content of the systems, with the Bank of the Northeast of Brazil (BN) financing the Brazilian content. The article traces the long and arduous path to establish the programme, including both bureaucratic and technical challenges. These difficulties brought the project to an impasse in August of 1998, and Golden withdrew. FTV then re-negotiated the agreement with BN, changing the technical approach to individual solar home systems. This improved the situation, and the project has since enjoyed 100% loan repayment rates from the entrepreneurs. In June 1999, BP/Solarex became FTV's new commercial partner. The project currently shows promise of becoming the commercially viable programme originally envisaged by Golden, with commercial and technical decision-making at the local level. (author)
Campbell, Lauren J; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue
Nursing home (NH) employee influenza vaccination is associated with reductions in morbidity and mortality among residents. Little is known regarding associations between NH characteristics and employee influenza vaccination rates (EVRs). This study identifies NH characteristics that may be associated with EVRs. Data on employee vaccination rates and programs were gathered from the Office for Oregon Health Policy and Research reports for 3 influenza seasons from 2009 to 2012 and merged with Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting files, from which facility characteristics were obtained. Market controls were obtained from the 2010 Area Health Resource File. Multivariate linear and logistic regression were used to model relationships between facility characteristics and EVR per facility per year, whether formal education for employees was conducted, and whether 2010, 2015, and 2020 Healthy People targets were met. Oregon nursing homes from 2009 to 2012. NHs reporting sufficient data to calculate an EVR were included. Based on information obtained from 2009-2010, 2010-2011, and 2011-2012 surveys, EVRs were calculated for 113/140, 129/141, and 137/140 (81%, 91%, and 98% of) NHs, respectively. Dependent variables were EVR per facility per year, whether formal education for employees was conducted, and whether 2010, 2015, and 2020 Healthy People targets were met. Independent variables included facility characteristics and market controls. On average, chain-affiliated NHs had 9% higher EVRs (P = .01) and 73% higher odds of achieving 60% EVR (2010 target, P = .05) than free-standing NHs. For-profit NHs had, on average, 8% lower EVRs (P = .04) than not-for-profit NHs. Surprisingly, a 10% increase in proportion of Medicaid residents was associated with a 2% increase in EVR (P = .01) and higher odds of achieving 60% (odds ratio = 1.20, P = .004) and 70% (2015 target, odds ratio = 1.14, P = .05) EVR. Given that NHs generally have low employee influenza vaccination
Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna
Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides’ communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides’ (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides’ communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents’ psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff. PMID:25653513
Meesterberends, Esther; Halfens, Ruud J G; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Ambergen, Ton A W; Lohrmann, Christa; Neyens, Jacques C L; Schols, Jos M G A
To investigate whether the incidence of pressure ulcers in nursing homes in the Netherlands and Germany differs and, if so, to identify resident-related risk factors, nursing-related interventions, and structural factors associated with pressure ulcer development in nursing home residents. A prospective multicenter cohort study. Ten nursing homes in the Netherlands and 11 nursing homes in Germany (around Berlin and Brandenburg). A total of 547 newly admitted nursing home residents, of which 240 were Dutch and 307 were German. Residents had an expected length of stay of 12 weeks or longer. Data were collected for each resident over a 12-week period and included resident characteristics (eg, demographics, medical history, Braden scale scores, nutritional factors), pressure ulcer prevention and treatment characteristics, staffing ratios and other structural nursing home characteristics, and outcome (pressure ulcer development during the study). Data were obtained by trained research assistants. A significantly higher pressure ulcer incidence rate was found for the Dutch nursing homes (33.3%) compared with the German nursing homes (14.3%). Six factors that explain the difference in pressure ulcer incidence rates were identified: dementia, analgesics use, the use of transfer aids, repositioning the residents, the availability of a tissue viability nurse on the ward, and regular internal quality controls in the nursing home. The pressure ulcer incidence was significantly higher in Dutch nursing homes than in German nursing homes. Factors related to residents, nursing care and structure explain this difference in incidence rates. Continuous attention to pressure ulcer care is important for all health care settings and countries, but Dutch nursing homes especially should pay more attention to repositioning residents, the necessity and correct use of transfer aids, the necessity of analgesics use, the tasks of the tissue viability nurse, and the performance of regular
Shin, Juh Hyun
The use of dolls as a therapeutic intervention for nursing home residents with dementia is relatively new. The current article describes a research study implemented with nursing home residents in Korea to examine the effects of doll therapy on their mood, behavior, and social interactions. A one-group, pretest-posttest design was used to measure the impact of doll therapy on 51 residents with dementia. Linear regression demonstrated statistically significant differences in aggression, obsessive behaviors, wandering, negative verbalization, negative mood, and negative physical appearance after introduction of the doll therapy intervention. Interactions with other individuals also increased over time. Findings support the benefits of doll therapy for nursing home residents with dementia; however, further research is needed to provide more empirical evidence and explore ethical considerations in the use of doll therapy in this vulnerable population. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Gage, L. Ashley; Washington, Karla T.; Oliver, Debra Parker; Lewis, Alexandra; Kruse, Robin L.; Demiris, George
Research has documented numerous benefits and challenges associated with receipt of hospice care in nursing homes; however, study of this partnership from the perspective of residents’ family members has been limited. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore family members’ experience with hospice services received in the nursing home setting. Researchers conducted a secondary data analysis of 175 family member interviews using a thematic analytic approach. Findings highlighted the critical role of communication in supporting residents and their family members. Care coordination, support and oversight, and role confusion also impacted family members’ experience of hospice care in the nursing home. Efforts directed at enhancing communication and more clearly articulating the roles of members of the health care team are indicated. PMID:25422516
Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Serafin, Stefania; Kofoed, Lise
do, but more studies on content and design of proper custom designs for RVEs is necessary. This paper reviews the background for RVE design, describes four custom RVE designs for recreational VE exploration and presents user preferences among nursing home users concerning content and other pivotal......With increasing age, muscle strength decreases excessively rapidly if physical activity is not maintained. However, physical activity is increasingly difficult with age, due to balance, strength or coordination difficulties, arthritis, etc. Moreover, many nursing home residents become unable...... to experience natural surroundings. Augmenting a conventional biking exercise with a recreational virtual environment (RVE) has shown to serve as an intrinsic motivation contributor to exercise for nursing home residents. RVEs might be able to provide some of the health benefits that regular nature experiences...
Thomas, Kali S; Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent
We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states' efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue.
Murray, Patrick K; Love, Thomas E; Dawson, Neal V; Thomas, Charles L; Cebul, Randall D
The prospective payment system (PPS) for nursing homes was designed to curtail the rapid expansion of Medicare costs for skilled nursing care. This study examines the changes that occurred in nursing home patients and rehabilitation services following the PPS. Free-standing Medicare and/or Medicaid certified nursing homes in Ohio. The percent of new admissions receiving therapy and the amount of rehabilitation therapy provided. A total of 7006 first admissions in 1994-6 (pre-PPS) and 61,569 first admissions in 2000-1 (post-PPS). A logistic model predicting likelihood of rehabilitation was developed and validated in pre-PPS admissions and applied to the post-PPS patients. Rehabilitation services were compared in the pre-PPS and post-PPS cohorts overall, stratified by quintile of predicted score, diagnosis group, and by nursing home profit status. Post-PPS patients had less cognitive impairment, more depression, and more family support. The amount of rehabilitation services declined the most in the higher quintiles of predicted likelihood of rehabilitation and among patients with stroke. The percent of patients receiving rehabilitation services increased the most in the lowest quintile and among patients with medical conditions. These changes were greater in for-profit nursing homes. The implementation of the PPS in nursing homes has been associated with a decrease in the amount of rehabilitation services, targeted at those predicted to receive higher amounts and an increased frequency of providing services targeted at those predicted to be less likely to receive them. The outcomes of the changes deserve further study.
Kandelman, Nadia; Mazars, Thierry; Levy, Antonin
(i) To assess the level of burnout in nursing home caregivers within a unique healthcare network in France and (ii) to evaluate potential risk factors in this population. Burnout syndrome occurs frequently among nursing home caregivers and has strong detrimental effects on the quality of health care for residents. We used an observational survey to study burnout in nursing home caregivers. The survey was used to quantify burnout level (Maslach Burnout Inventory) and potential risk factors and was implemented from October 2013-April 2014. A logistic regression was used to explore the association between burnout and its risk factors. Three hundred and sixty questionnaires were delivered to caregivers in 14 nursing homes within a unique healthcare network. The response rate was 37% (132/360), and 124/132 (94%) surveys were analysed. Caregiver burnout rate was 40% (49/124). Median age was 41 years (range, 20-70) and most caregivers were female. The most common profession (n = 54; 44%) was nurse caregiver and 90% (n = 112) had an antecedent of bullying by a resident. Risk factors identified were as follows: the presence of institutional protocols (death announcement [OR: 3.7] and pain assessment [OR: 2.8]), working in a profit-making establishment (OR: 2.6) and the antecedent of bullying by a resident (OR: 6.2). Factors most negatively associated with burnout included: practising pastimes (OR: 0.4) and working as a nurse (OR: 0.3). The only significant risk factor in the multivariate analysis was the antecedent of bullying by a resident (OR: 5.3). Several specific risk factors for burnout in nursing home caregivers were identified. In high-risk populations of healthcare professionals, screening and management of risk factors is crucial for preventing burnout. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Diehl, Heinz; Graverholt, Birgitte; Espehaug, Birgitte; Lund, Hans
Research on guideline implementation strategies has mostly been conducted in settings which differ significantly from a nursing home setting and its transferability to the nursing home setting is therefore limited. The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of interventions to improve the implementation of guidelines in nursing homes. A systematic literature search was conducted in the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, DARE, HTA, CENTRAL, SveMed + and ISI Web of Science from their inception until August 2015. Reference screening and a citation search were performed. Studies were eligible if they evaluated any type of guideline implementation strategy in a nursing home setting. Eligible study designs were systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted-time-series studies. The EPOC risk of bias tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias in the included studies. The overall quality of the evidence was rated using GRADE. Five cluster-randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, evaluating a total of six different multifaceted implementation strategies. One study reported a small statistically significant effect on professional practice, and two studies demonstrated small to moderate statistically significant effects on patient outcome. The overall quality of the evidence for all comparisons was low or very low using GRADE. Little is known about how to improve the implementation of guidelines in nursing homes, and the evidence to support or discourage particular interventions is inconclusive. More implementation research is needed to ensure high quality of care in nursing homes. PROSPERO 2014: CRD42014007664.
Tsai, Hsiu-Hsin; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Li
To explore the experiences of nursing home nurses when they transfer residents from nursing homes to the emergency department in Taiwan. The transfer of residents between nursing homes and emergency departments challenges continuity of care. Understanding nursing home nurses' experiences during these transfers may help to improve residents' continuity of care. However, few empirical data are available on these nurses' transfer experiences worldwide, and none could be found in Asian countries. Qualitative descriptive study. Data were collected from August 2012-June 2013 in audiotaped, individual, in-depth interviews with 25 nurses at five nursing homes in Taiwan. Interview transcripts were analysed by constant comparative analysis. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed that the core theme of nursing home nurses' transfer experience was discontinuity in nursing home to emergency department transitions. This core theme comprised three themes: discontinuity in family involvement, discontinuity in medical resources and expectations, and discontinuity in nurses' professional role. Nursing home nurses need a working environment that is better connected to residents' family members and more immediate and/or easier access to acute care for residents. Communication between nurses and residents' family could be improved by using text messages or social media by mobile phones, which are widely used in Taiwan and worldwide. To improve access to acute care, we suggest developing a real-time telehealth transfer system tailored to the medical culture and policies of each country. This system should facilitate communication among nursing home staff, family members and hospital staff. Our findings on nurses' experiences during transfer of nursing home residents to the emergency department can be used to design more effective transfer policies such as telemedicine systems in Taiwan and other Asian countries or in those with large populations of Chinese immigrants. © 2016 John
Over the last decade, new healthcare policies are transforming healthcare practices towards independent living and self-care of older people and people with a chronic disease or disability within the community. For professional caregivers in home care, such as nurses, this requires a shift from a caring attitude towards the promotion of patient autonomy. To explore how nurses in home care deal with the transformation towards fostering patient autonomy and self-care. Research design and context: A case study was conducted in a professional development course ('learning circle') for home care nurses, including participant observations and focus groups. The theoretical notion of 'relational agency' and the moral concept of 'practices of responsibility' were used to conduct a narrative analysis on the nurses' stories about autonomy. Eight nurses, two coaches and two university lecturers who participated in the learning circle. Ethical considerations: Informed consent was sought at the start of the course and again, at specific moments during the course of the learning circle. Three main themes were found that expressed the moral demands experienced and negotiated by the nurses: adapting to the person, activating patients' strengths and collaboration with patients and informal caregivers. On a policy and organisational level, the moral discourse on patient autonomy gets intertwined with the instrumental discourse on healthcare budget savings. This is manifested in the ambiguities the nurses face in fostering patient autonomy in their daily home care practice. To support nurses, critical thinking, moral sensitivity and trans-professional working should be part of their professional development. The turn towards autonomy in healthcare raises moral questions about responsibilities for care. Promoting patient autonomy should be a collaborative endeavour and deliberation of patients, professional and informal caregivers together.
Background Leadership and staffing are recognised as important factors for quality of care. This study examines the effects of ward leaders' task- and relationship-oriented leadership styles, staffing levels, ratio of registered nurses and ratio of unlicensed staff on three independent measures of quality of care. Methods A cross-sectional survey of forty nursing home wards throughout Norway was used to collect the data. Five sources of data were utilised: self-report questionnaires to 444 employees, interviews with and questionnaires to 13 nursing home directors and 40 ward managers, telephone interviews with 378 relatives and 900 hours of field observations. Separate multi-level analyses were conducted for quality of care assessed by relatives, staff and field observations respectively. Results Task-oriented leadership style had a significant positive relationship with two of the three quality of care indexes. In contrast, relationship-oriented leadership style was not significantly related to any of the indexes. The lack of significant effect for relationship-oriented leadership style was due to a strong correlation between the two leadership styles (r = 0.78). Staffing levels and ratio of registered nurses were not significantly related to any of the quality of care indexes. The ratio of unlicensed staff, however, showed a significant negative relationship to quality as assessed by relatives and field observations, but not to quality as assessed by staff. Conclusions Leaders in nursing homes should focus on active leadership and particularly task-oriented behaviour like structure, coordination, clarifying of staff roles and monitoring of operations to increase quality of care. Furthermore, nursing homes should minimize use of unlicensed staff and address factors related to high ratios of unlicensed staff, like low staff stability. The study indicates, however, that the relationship between staffing levels, ratio of registered nurses and quality of care is
Full Text Available Abstract Background Leadership and staffing are recognised as important factors for quality of care. This study examines the effects of ward leaders' task- and relationship-oriented leadership styles, staffing levels, ratio of registered nurses and ratio of unlicensed staff on three independent measures of quality of care. Methods A cross-sectional survey of forty nursing home wards throughout Norway was used to collect the data. Five sources of data were utilised: self-report questionnaires to 444 employees, interviews with and questionnaires to 13 nursing home directors and 40 ward managers, telephone interviews with 378 relatives and 900 hours of field observations. Separate multi-level analyses were conducted for quality of care assessed by relatives, staff and field observations respectively. Results Task-oriented leadership style had a significant positive relationship with two of the three quality of care indexes. In contrast, relationship-oriented leadership style was not significantly related to any of the indexes. The lack of significant effect for relationship-oriented leadership style was due to a strong correlation between the two leadership styles (r = 0.78. Staffing levels and ratio of registered nurses were not significantly related to any of the quality of care indexes. The ratio of unlicensed staff, however, showed a significant negative relationship to quality as assessed by relatives and field observations, but not to quality as assessed by staff. Conclusions Leaders in nursing homes should focus on active leadership and particularly task-oriented behaviour like structure, coordination, clarifying of staff roles and monitoring of operations to increase quality of care. Furthermore, nursing homes should minimize use of unlicensed staff and address factors related to high ratios of unlicensed staff, like low staff stability. The study indicates, however, that the relationship between staffing levels, ratio of registered nurses
Caswell, R J; Cleverley, W O
This study was part of a major review of long-term care policy in the state of Ohio. The authors analyzed 1532 cost reports filed by nursing homes in 1975-1976 with the Ohio Medical Assistance (Medicaid) program. The objective was to guide policy on size (economies of scale), ownership, certification status, and reimbursement. Economies of scale were not found important: skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) offered the only evidence of operation below optimal scale, and the savings attributable ...
Taiwan's rapidly aging society is expected to make it a super-aged society in 2026. By 2060, people aged 65 or older will account for 40% of the population, a ratio that will approximate that in Japan. In Japan, the elderly population was 27.3% in 2016. By 2025, when the baby-boomers become 75 years old in Japan, issues of long-term care and end-of-life care will be more important and challenging. Since 1976, more Japanese have died in hospital settings than in home settings. Although the percentage of people dying at home increased slightly to 12.7% in 2016, after the recent introduction and promotion of home healthcare, Japan will face a significant challenge to deal with the healthcare 'tsunami' of high natural death rates, which is expected to impose a heavy death burdened on society by 2040, when the death rate is expected to reach 1,670,000/year. Therefore, the Japanese authorities have begun to promote the Community-based Integrated Care System, in which home healthcare and visiting nursing play crucial roles. This article summarizes the historical trend and current situation of visiting nursing in Japan. Japan uses a hybrid payment system for visiting nursing that is financially supported both through private medical insurance policies and Kaigo insurance (Japanese long-term care insurance). The total of 8613 visiting nursing stations that were active in community settings in 2016 cooperated with 14,000 support clinics for home healthcare and cared for 570,000 patients in home settings. We believe that visiting nursing will play an important role in home healthcare in Taiwan in the future.
Baril, Chantal; Gascon, Viviane; St-Pierre, Liette; Lagacé, Denis
The purpose of this paper is to study a medication distribution technology's (MDT) impact on medication errors reported in public nursing homes in Québec Province. The work was carried out in six nursing homes (800 patients). Medication error data were collected from nursing staff through a voluntary reporting process before and after MDT was implemented. The errors were analysed using: totals errors; medication error type; severity and patient consequences. A statistical analysis verified whether there was a significant difference between the variables before and after introducing MDT. The results show that the MDT detected medication errors. The authors' analysis also indicates that errors are detected more rapidly resulting in less severe consequences for patients. MDT is a step towards safer and more efficient medication processes. Our findings should convince healthcare administrators to implement technology such as electronic prescriber or bar code medication administration systems to improve medication processes and to provide better healthcare to patients. Few studies have been carried out in long-term healthcare facilities such as nursing homes. The authors' study extends what is known about MDT's impact on medication errors in nursing homes.
Rahman, Anna; Straker, Jane K; Manning, Lydia
Consistent assignment, whereby nursing home staff members, particularly certified nurse aides, are assigned to the same residents on most shifts, is increasingly viewed as a cornerstone of culture change in nursing homes. It has been advocated as a best-care model that increases residents' quality of life while contributing to a more stable frontline staff. Given these potential benefits, consistent assignment is now widely viewed as superior to rotating assignment, an alternative staffing model that aims to distribute care burden more fairly among staff and ensure that workers are familiar with most residents. Despite favorable anecdotal reports about the benefits of consistent assignment, the research literature reports mixed and sometimes contradictory findings for this staffing practice. This article reviews the research pertaining to staff assignment practices in nursing homes. Reviewed here are 13 reports on experimental trials (6 reports), evaluation research (4 reports), and nursing home surveys (3 reports). The review reveals broad diversity in staffing practices and raises questions that challenge popular assumptions about consistent assignment. The article closes with a discussion of the research, policy, and practice implications of the research findings.
Full Text Available Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons.
Marigard Guyader, Céline; Richard, Christian
The drawing up of a living will in a nursing home for elderly people is a complex process. Not only must the resident think about the end of life, which is not easy, but the institution must be fully aware of the law. Guaranteeing the resident's expression is essential. A study enabled this subject to be reviewed in a nursing home where different players are present around the resident. It enabled professionals to reflect on their practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Cohen, J; Holahan, J
One of the more controversial issues in reimbursement policy is how to set the capital cost component of facilities rates. In this article we examine in detail the various approaches used by states to reimburse nursing homes for capital costs. We conclude that newer approaches that recognize the increasing value of nursing home assets over time, commonly called fair rental systems, are preferable to the methodologies that have been used historically in both the Medicare and the Medicaid programs to set capital rates. When properly designed, fair rental systems should provide more rational incentives and less encouragement of property manipulation than do more traditional systems, with little or no increase in state costs.
Adams, E. Kathleen; Schlenker, Robert E.
Nursing home reimbursement based on case mix is a matter of growing interest. Several States either use or are considering this reimbursement method. In this article, we present a method for evaluating key outcomes of such a change for Connecticut nursing homes. A simulation model is used to replicate payments under the case-mix systems used in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. The findings indicate that, compared with the system presently used in Connecticut, these systems would better relate dollar payments to measure patient need, and for-profit homes would benefit relative to nonprofit homes. The Ohio methodology would impose the most additional costs, the West Virginia system would actually be somewhat less expensive in terms of direct patient care payments. PMID:10311776
Vasquez, Monica S
To identify strategies to improve patient outcomes and prevent rehospitalizations in home healthcare. PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTINGS(S): Primarily for home healthcare but can also be a tool for all other fields in nursing. Through team collaboration and the proper resources, patient outcomes can improve and be cost-effective for home healthcare agencies despite the changes implemented after the Medicare change in payment for services, the prospective payment system. The main goal for home healthcare is to improve patient outcomes. Nurses experienced in case management can devise creative strategies to ensure patient outcomes are met in a cost-effective manner. With continuous changes in reimbursement and payment incentives, case managers in every level of care must know about, and be responsible for, fiscal initiatives.
Adams, E K; Schlenker, R E
Nursing home reimbursement based on case mix is a matter of growing interest. Several States either use or are considering this reimbursement method. In this article, we present a method for evaluating key outcomes of such a change for Connecticut nursing homes. A simulation model is used to replicate payments under the case-mix systems used in Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. The findings indicate that, compared with the system presently used in Connecticut, these systems would better relate dollar payments to measure patient need, and for-profit homes would benefit relative to nonprofit homes. The Ohio methodology would impose the most additional costs, the West Virginia system would actually be somewhat less expensive in terms of direct patient care payments.
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Internationally, there are concerns about the quality of care in nursing homes. The concept of 'corporate culture' as an internal variable could be seen as the means to improve quality of care and quality of life for the residents. The aim of this article was to describe the nursing home culture from the staff's perspective and to include how the residents describe quality of care. An ethnographic design was employed. A purposive sample of four municipal public nursing homes in Norway with long-term care residents was included in the study. Data were collected by participant observation including informal conversation with the staff, and in-depth interviews with 15 residents using a narrative approach. The main findings were that organizational cultures could be seen as relatively stable corporate cultures described as 'personalities' with characteristics that were common for all nursing homes (conformity) and typical traits that were present in some nursing homes, but that they were also like no other nursing home (distinctiveness). Conformity ('Every nursing home is like all other nursing homes') meant that nursing home organizations formed their services according to a perception of what residents in general need and expect. Trait ('Every nursing home is like some other nursing homes') expressed typologies of nursing homes: residency, medical, safeguard or family orientation. The distinctness of each nursing home ('Every nursing home is like no other nursing home') was expressed in unique features of the nursing home; the characteristics of the nursing home involved certain patterns of structure, cultural assumptions and interactions that were unique in each nursing home. Nursing home residents experienced quality of care as 'The nursing home as my home' and 'Interpersonal care quality'. The resident group in the different types of nursing homes were unique, and the experience of quality of care seemed to depend on whether their unique needs and expectations
Wouters, Hans; Scheper, Jessica; Koning, Hedi; Brouwer, Chris; Twisk, Jos W.; van der Meer, Helene; Boersma, Froukje; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Taxis, Katja
Background: Inappropriate prescribing is a well-known clinical problem in nursing home residents, but few interventions have focused on reducing inappropriate medication use. Objective: To examine successful discontinuation of inappropriate medication use and to improve prescribing in nursing home
Robert L. Rubinstein
Full Text Available This paper explores the role of religious belief in the experiences of dying and death in a Catholic nursing home. The home appeals to residents and their families due to the active religious presence. Thus, religion is a salient element of the “local culture” which exists in this long-term care setting. The preeminence of faith within the organization and the personal religious convictions of staff, residents, and families may drive how death and dying are discussed and experienced in this setting, as well as the meanings that are attached to them. This paper examines the relationship between faith and the experience and meaning of death in this nursing home. We present themes that emerged from open-ended interviews with residents, family members, and staff, gathered between 1996 and 2004. The data indicate that people select the home due to their Catholic faith and the home's religious tone. Themes also show that belief in God and an afterlife helps shape the experience of dying and death for our informants. Our paper does not compare ease of dying with other nursing homes or within other belief systems.
Luque Ramos, Andres; Albrecht, Katinka; Zink, Angela; Hoffmann, Falk
The purpose of this study was to investigate health care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before and after admission to nursing homes. Data of a German health insurance fund from persons with diagnostic codes of RA, aged ≥65 years, admitted to a nursing home between 2010 and 2014 and continuously insured 1 year before and after admission were used. The proportion of patients with ≥1 rheumatologist visit and ≥1 prescription of biologic or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs or csDMARDs), glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the year before and after admission were calculated. Predictors of rheumatologic care after admission were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Of 75,697 nursing home residents, 2485 (3.3%) had RA (90.5% female, mean age 83.8). Treatment by rheumatologists and prescription of antirheumatic drugs decreased significantly in the year after admission (rheumatologic visits: 17.6 to 9.1%, bDMARDs: 2.1 to 1.5%, csDMARDs: 22.5 to 16.5%, glucocorticoids: 46.5 to 43.1%, NSAIDs: 47.4 to 38.5%). 60.2% of patients in rheumatologic care received csDMARDs compared with 14.5% without rheumatologic care. Rheumatologic care before admission to a nursing home strongly predicted rheumatologic care thereafter (OR 33.8, 95%-CI 23.2-49.2). Younger age and lower care level (reflecting need of help) were also associated with a higher chance of rheumatologic care. Rheumatologic care is already infrequent in old patients with RA and further decreases after admission to a nursing home. Patients without rheumatologic care are at high risk of insufficient treatment for their RA. Admission to a nursing home further increases this risk.
DePaola, Stephen J.; And Others
Investigated the relationship between death fear, attitudes toward the elderly, and personal anxiety about aging in nursing home employees. Nursing professionals (registered nurses or licensed practical nurses) had lower levels of death concern than nursing assistants, and results also indicated that nursing assistants displayed significantly…
Boorsma, Marijke; Joling, Karlijn; Dussel, Martine; Ribbe, Miel; Frijters, Dinnus; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Nijpels, Giel; van Hout, Hein
Although it is known that depression is highly prevalent in institutionalized older adults, little is known about its incidence and risk factors in nursing homes and residential care homes. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the incidence and associated risk factors for depression in Dutch nursing homes and residential care homes. Data on depression were extracted from the Vrije Universiteit naturalistic cohort on routine care monitoring with the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument. A total of 1,324 residents in six nursing homes and 1,723 residents in 23 residential care homes with an average follow-up of 1.2 years. Depression was defined as a clinical diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria and the use of antidepressants. Residents with prevalent depression at baseline were excluded. The incidence rate was 13.6 per 100 person years in the nursing homes and 10.2 per 100 person years in the residential care homes. The independent risk factors for in-home depression for residents in nursing homes included dementia (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.02-2.95) and a score of 3 or more on the Depression Rating Scale (odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-3.70). A protective effect was seen on the use of a hearing aid (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.12-0.80). In the residential care homes, being male (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.27-3.30), having cancer (OR: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.64-4.95), and a score of 2 or higher on the Cognitive Performance Scale (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.05-2.22) increased the risk to develop depression. Age greater than 85 years (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.31-0.67) and hearing impairment (OR: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.60-1.00) appeared to be protective. The incidence rate for depression in residents of Dutch nursing homes and residential care homes was high and the associated risk factors found may have important implications for staff. 2012 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
Pape, Marianne; Rajan, Shahzleen; Hansen, Steen Møller
BACKGROUND: Survival among nursing home residents who suffers out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is sparsely studied. Deployment of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in nursing home facilities in Denmark is unknown. We examined 30-day survival following OHCA in nursing and private home...... residents. METHODS: This register-based, nationwide, follow-up study identified OHCA-patients ≥18 years of age with a resuscitation attempt in nursing homes and private homes using Danish Cardiac Arrest Register data from June 1, 2001 to December 31, 2014. The primary outcome measure was 30-day survival....... Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors potentially associated with survival among nursing and private home residents separately. RESULTS: Of 26,999 OCHAs, 2516 (9.3%) occurred in nursing homes, and 24,483 (90.7%) in private homes. Nursing home residents were older (median 83 (Q1...
Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; And Others
Examined differences in stressors and well-being for caregivers who care for relative with dementia at home and those with relative in nursing home (n=120). Found no differences in depression or somatic complaints, but nursing home caregivers reported fewer social disruptions and more stressors resulting from activities of daily living assistance,…
Zeller, Adelheid; Dassen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Needham, Ian; Halfens, Ruud J G
Caregivers in nursing homes often experience aggressive behavior of residents. The aim of this study was to explore the caregivers' experiences with aggressive behavior from residents and to identify environmental factors as well as caregiver and resident characteristics related to aggressive behavior in Swiss nursing homes. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2010 and April 2011 with a sample of caregivers working in various nursing homes in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. In total, 814 caregivers (response rate 51.8%) of 21 nursing homes participated in the study. Data were collected using the German version of the Survey of Violence Experienced by Staff (SOVES-G-R). Standard descriptive statistics were used to describe and summarize the date. To identify risk factors related to the experience of aggression by residents, multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied. The prevalence of participants reporting an aggressive incident during the 12-month period prior to data collection was 81.6%. Of these, 76.5% had experienced verbal aggression, 27.6% threats, and 54.0% physical aggression. The predictive variables in the multiple regression model for physical aggression were: staff education level (odds ratio [OR]= 1.82), gender (OR = 1.82), age ( 45 years: OR = 2.13), and confidence in managing physical aggression (OR = 1.49). The predictive variables for threatening behavior were staff education level (registered nurses vs. non-registered nurses: OR = 1.70; nonstudent vs. student: OR = 1.89) and age ( 45 years: OR = 2.04). Caregivers in nursing homes are at high risk for experiencing aggressive behavior. The identified risk factors are in line with earlier investigations, but some contradictory results also were observed. The high risk for registered nurses exposed to aggressive behavior and the increased risk for caregivers who feel confident in managing aggressive behavior cast a critical light on the content and
Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2002, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS launched a Nursing Home Quality Initiative that included publicly reporting a set of Quality Measures for all nursing homes in the country, and providing quality improvement assistance to nursing homes nationwide. A pilot of this initiative occurred in six states for six months prior to the launch. Methods Review and analysis of the lessons learned from the six Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs that led quality improvement efforts in nursing homes from the six pilot states. Results QIOs in the six pilot states found several key outcomes of the Nursing Home Quality Initiative that help to maximize the potential of public reporting to leverage effective improvement in nursing home quality of care. First, public reporting focuses the attention of all stakeholders in the nursing home industry on achieving good quality outcomes on a defined set of measures, and creates an incentive for partnership formation. Second, publicly reported quality measures motivate nursing home providers to improve in certain key clinical areas, and in particular to seek out new ways of changing processes of care, such as engaging physicians and the medical director more directly. Third, the lessons learned by QIOs in the pilot of this Initiative indicate that certain approaches to providing quality improvement assistance are key to guiding nursing home providers' desire and enthusiasm to improve towards a using a systematic approach to quality improvement. Conclusion The Nursing Home Quality Initiative has already demonstrated the potential of public reporting to foster collaboration and coordination among nursing home stakeholders and to heighten interest of nursing homes in quality improvement techniques. The lessons learned from this pilot project have implications for any organizations or individuals planning quality improvement projects in the nursing home setting.
Nordin, Nik Muhammad Faris Bin Nik; Hasbollah, Hasif Rafidee bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery Bin; Marican, Nor Dalila bin; Halim, Muhd Hafzal bin Abdul; Rashid, Ahmad Faezi Bin Ab.; Yasin, Nurul Hafizah Binti Mohd
The numbers of elderly in Malaysia are increased every year. The request towards elderly care services necessitated by the Nursing Home are in demand. However, Nursing Home in Malaysia is lack of standard of facilities in order to cater the care services for the elderly. This paper intends review the minimum standard facilities for the Nursing Homes in globally. The paper also offered insights in developing standard Nursing Home facilities in Malaysia.
Haugan, Gørill; Rannestad, Toril; Hanssen, Brith; Espnes, Geir A
The aim of this study was to test whether nurse-patient interaction affects cognitively intact nursing home patients' interpersonal and intrapersonal self-transcendence, as well as testing the psychometric properties of the Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale (NPIS). Self-transcendence is considered a spiritual developmental process of maturity in adulthood, and a vital resource of well-being at the end of life. The concept of self-transcendence has previously been explored in various populations, yet the nurse-patient interactions' potential influence on self-transcendence in nursing home patients has not been published previously. A cross-sectional design employing the Self-Transcendence Scale and the NPIS was adopted. A sample of 202 cognitively well-functioning nursing home patients in Norway was selected. The statistical analyses were carried out using lisrel 8.8 and structural equation modelling. Structural equation modelling-analysis indicates statistical significant effect of nurse-patient interaction on the patients' self-transcendence. Direct influence on the intrapersonal and indirect influence on the interpersonal self-transcendence aspects was disclosed. Nurse-patient interaction significantly affected both interpersonal and intrapersonal self-transcendence among cognitively intact nursing home patients. Hence, facilitating caring interventions can be significantly beneficial to older patients' self-transcendence and thereby well-being, both emotional and physical. Caring behaviour signifies the vital and ultimate qualitative nursing behaviour, which promotes self-transcendence and thereby well-being. These findings are important for clinical nursing that intends to increase patients' well-being. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Blackburn, Justin; Locher, Julie L; Kilgore, Meredith L
To compare acute care outcomes and costs among nursing home residents with community-dwelling home health recipients. A matched retrospective cohort study of Alabamians aged more than or equal to 65 years admitted to a nursing home or home health between March 31, 2007 and December 31, 2008 (N = 1,291 pairs). Medicare claims were compared up to one year after admission into either setting. Death, emergency department and inpatient visits, inpatient length of stay, and acute care costs were compared using t tests. Medicaid long-term care costs were compared for a subset of matched beneficiaries. After one year, 77.7% of home health beneficiaries were alive compared with 76.2% of nursing home beneficiaries (p Home health beneficiaries averaged 0.2 hospital visits and 0.1 emergency department visits more than nursing home beneficiaries, differences that were statistically significant. Overall acute care costs were not statistically different; home health beneficiaries' costs averaged $31,423, nursing home beneficiaries' $32,239 (p = .5032). Among 426 dual-eligible pairs, Medicaid long-term care costs averaged $4,582 greater for nursing home residents (p nursing home or home health care. Additional research controlling for exogenous factors relating to long-term care decisions is needed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
A dozen or more regulatory frameworks have been proposed for legal cannabis but many of the "not-for-profit" options have yet to be developed in any detail, reducing the likelihood they will be seriously considered by policy makers. New Zealand's innovative "not-for-profit" regulatory regime for gaming machine gambling (i.e. "slot machines") has reversed the previous increase in gambling expenditure, empowered local councils to cap the number of gambling venues, and is unique in requiring the societies operating gaming machines to distribution 40% of the gross expenditure from machines (i.e. $NZ 262 million in 2015) to community purposes (e.g. sports). However, the regime has been criticised for not addressing the concentration of gaming outlets in poorer communities, and not requiring grants to be allocated in the disadvantaged communities where outlets are located. There have also been cases of gaming societies providing community grants in exchange for direct or indirect benefits. In this paper we adapt this regulatory approach to a legal cannabis market. Under the proposed regime, licensed "not-for-profit" cannabis societies will be required to distribute 20% of cannabis sales to drug treatment and 20% to community purposes, including drug prevention. Grants must be allocated in the regions where cannabis sales are made and grant committees must be independent from cannabis societies. A 20% levy will be used to cover the wider health costs of cannabis use. A further 10% levy will be used to fund the regulator and evaluate the new regime. Local councils will have the power to decide how many, and where, cannabis retail outlets are located. Other important elements include a minimum price for cannabis, effective taxation of cannabis products, regulating CBD in cannabis products, higher taxation of traditional smoking products, advertising restricted to place-of-sale, no internet sales, and restrictions on industry involvement in regulation making and research
Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea L; Bowers, Barbara J
Nursing home (NH) residents with dementia continue to receive inadequate pain treatment. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how nurses make decisions to pharmacologically treat pain in NH residents with dementia. Using Grounded Dimensional Analysis, 15 in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 nurses from four skilled nursing facilities in Wisconsin. Nurses experienced varying levels of certainty regarding suspected pain in response to particular resident characteristics and whether pain was perceived as visible/obvious or nonvisible/not obvious. Nurses felt highly uncertain about pain in residents with dementia. Suspected pain in residents with dementia was nearly always conceptualized as a change in behavior to which nurses responded by trialing multiple interventions in attempts to return the resident to baseline, which despite current recommendations, did not include pain relief trials. Residents with dementia were described as being at greatest risk for experiencing underassessment, undertreatment, and delayed treatment for pain Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
The present study compares the performance creation behavior between for-profit institutions and not-for-profit institutions within a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. Based on the stepwise performance creation chain structure of typical R&D logic models, a series of successive binary logistic regression models is newly proposed. Using the models, a sample of n = 2076 completed government-sponsored R&D projects was analyzed. For each institution type, its distinctive behavior is diagnosed, and relevant implications are suggested for improving the R&D performance.
Haugan, Gørill; Innstrand, Siw T; Moksnes, Unni K
To test the effects of nurse-patient interaction on anxiety and depression among cognitively intact nursing home patients. Depression is considered the most frequent mental disorder among the older population. Specifically, the depression rate among nursing home patients is three to four times higher than among community-dwelling older people, and a large overlap of anxiety is found. Therefore, identifying nursing strategies to prevent and decrease anxiety and depression is of great importance for nursing home patients' well-being. Nurse-patient interaction is described as a fundamental resource for meaning in life, dignity and thriving among nursing home patients. The study employed a cross-sectional design. The data were collected in 2008 and 2009 in 44 different nursing homes from 250 nursing home patients who met the inclusion criteria. A sample of 202 cognitively intact nursing home patients responded to the Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A structural equation model of the hypothesised relationships was tested by means of Lisrel 8.8 (Scientific Software International Inc., Lincolnwood, IL, USA). The SEM model tested demonstrated significant direct relationships and total effects of nurse-patient interaction on depression and a mediated influence on anxiety. Nurse-patient interaction influences depression, as well as anxiety, mediated by depression. Hence, nurse-patient interaction might be an important resource in relation to patients' mental health. Nurse-patient interaction is an essential factor of quality of care, perceived by long-term nursing home patients. Facilitating nurses' communicating and interactive skills and competence might prevent and decrease depression and anxiety among cognitively intact nursing home patients. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
... nursing home care beyond six months. 17.60 Section 17.60 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Community Nursing Home Care Facilities § 17.60 Extensions of community nursing home care beyond six months. Directors of health care facilities may authorize, for any...
Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; van Gennip, Isis E.; Willems, Dick L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.
Maintaining dignity is an important element of end-of-life care and also of the care given in nursing homes. Factors influencing personal dignity have been studied from both nursing home residents' and staff's perspective. Little is however known about the way nursing home staff perceive and promote
Lane, Sandi J; McGrady, Elizabeth
Resilience approaches have been successfully applied in crisis management, disaster response, and high reliability organizations and have the potential to enhance existing systems of nursing home disaster preparedness. This study's purpose was to determine how the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) "Emergency Preparedness Checklist Recommended Tool for Effective Health Care Facility Planning" contributes to organizational resilience by identifying the benchmark resilience items addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist and items not addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist, and to recommend tools and processes to improve resilience for nursing homes. The CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist items were compared to the Resilience Benchmark Tool items; similar items were considered matches. Resilience Benchmark Tool items with no CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist item matches were considered breaches in nursing home resilience. The findings suggest that the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist can be used to measure some aspects of resilience, however, there were many resilience factors not addressed. For nursing homes to prepare and respond to crisis situations, organizations need to embrace a culture that promotes individual resilience-related competencies that when aggregated enable the organization to improve its resiliency. Social workers have the skills and experience to facilitate this change.
Van Eeden, K.; Moeke, D.; Bekker, R.
Nursing homes face ever-tightening healthcare budgets and are searching for ways to increase the efficiency of their healthcare processes without losing sight of the needs of their residents. Optimizing the allocation of care workers plays a key role in this search as care workers are responsible
Katz, Paul R; Karuza, Jurgis; Intrator, Orna; Zinn, Jacqueline; Mor, Vincent; Caprio, Thomas; Caprio, Anthony; Dauenhauer, Jason; Lima, Julie
To construct a multidimensional self-report scale to measure nursing home (NH) medical staff organization (NHMSO) dimensions and then pilot the scale using a national survey of medical directors to provide data on its psychometric properties. Instrument development process consisting of the proceedings from the Nursing Home Physician Workforce Conference and focus groups followed by cognitive interviews, which culminated in a survey of a random sample of American Medical Directors Association (AMDA) affiliated medical directors. Analyses were conducted on surveys matched to Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data from freestanding nonpediatric nursing homes. A total of 202 surveys were available for analysis and comprised the final sample. Dimensions were identified that measured the extent of medical staff organization in nursing homes and included staff composition, appointment process, commitment (physiciancohesion; leadership turnover/capability), departmentalization (physician supervision, autonomy and interdisciplinary involvement), documentation, and informal dynamics. The items developed to measure each dimension were reliable (Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.81 to 0.65).Intercorrelations among the scale dimensions provided preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the scale. This report, for the first time ever, defines and validates NH medical staff organization dimensions, a critical first step in determining the relationship between physician practice and the quality of care delivered in the NH.
van Dijk, P.T.; Mehr, D.R.; Ooms, M.E.; Madsen, R.W.; Petroski, G.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Pot, A.M.; Ribbe, M.W.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of chronic diseases and disease combinations on 1-year mortality in nursing home residents. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using electronically submitted Minimum Data Set (MDS) information and Missouri death certificate data. SETTING: Five hundred twenty-two
van Hees, B.C.
The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to analyze some aspects of ciprofloxacin use and clinical and (molecular) epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistance in different settings, both within hospitals (chapter 3,4 and 6), community and nursing homes (chapter 2 and 5). With its broad
de Gendt, C.; Bilsen, J.; van der Stichele, R.; Deliens, L.
Background: The aim of this study is to discover how many nursing homes (NHs) in Flanders (Belgium) have policies on advance care planning (ACP) and their content regarding different medical end-of-life decisions. Methods: A structured mail questionnaire was sent to the NH administrators of all 594
Smalbrugge, M.; Jongenelis, L.; Pot, A.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Eefsting, J.A.
Objectives: To assess the occurrence and risk indicators of depression, anxiety, and comorbid anxiety and depression among nursing home patients and to determine whether depression and anxiety are best described in a dimensional or in a categorical classification system. Methods: DSM and
Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel
Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…
Tak, Sunghee H.; Kedia, Satish; Tongumpun, Tera Marie; Hong, Song Hee
Engagement in social and leisure activities is an indicator of quality of life and well-being in nursing homes. There are few studies in which nursing home residents with dementia self-reported their experiences in activity engagement. This qualitative study describes types of current activity involvement and barriers to activities as perceived by nursing home residents with dementia. Thirty-one residents participated in short, open-ended interviews and six in in-depth interviews. Thematic content analysis showed that participants primarily depended on activities organized by their nursing homes. Few participants engaged in self-directed activities such as walking, visiting other residents and family members, and attending in church services. Many residents felt they had limited opportunities and motivation for activities. They missed past hobbies greatly but could not continue them due to lack of accommodation and limitation in physical function. Environmental factors, along with fixed activity schedule, further prevented them from engaging in activities. Residents with dementia should be invited to participate in activity planning and have necessary assistance and accommodation in order to engage in activities that matter to them. Based on the findings, a checklist for individualizing and evaluating activities for persons with dementia is detailed. PMID:25489122
This study explored how direct care workers in nursing homes conceptualize good care and how their conceptualizations are influenced by external factors surrounding their work environment and the relational dynamics between them and residents. Study participants were drawn from a local service employees' union, and in-depth interviews were…
van der Dam, S.; Abma, T.A.; Molewijk, A.C.; Kardol, M.J.M.; Schols, J.M.G.A.
Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a specific form of clinical ethics, aiming to stimulate ethical reflection in daily practice in order to improve the quality of care. This article focuses on the implementation of MCD in nursing homes and the questions how and where to organize MCD. The purpose of
Full Text Available We aimed at assessing time shift in the severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS in nursing home residents between 2004/2005 and 2010/2011 and associations between NPS and socio-demographic variables, physical health status, dementia severity, and the use of psychotropic drugs. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home Version was used in 2004/2005 (n = 1,163 and 2010/2011 (n = 1,858. Linear mixed model analysis was applied. There was no time shift in the severity of apathy, psychosis, and affective symptoms, but agitation did exhibit a time shift. Agitation was less severe in 2010/2011 than in 2004/2005 in residents with a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR sum of boxes score ≤4, and more severe in residents with a CDR sum of boxes score >16. Higher CDR sum of boxes scores and use of psychotropic medication were associated with more severe apathy, agitation, psychosis, and affective symptoms. Poor physical health was associated with more severe apathy, psychosis, and affective symptoms. Women had more severe agitation and less severe affective symptoms than men. A longer stay in a nursing home was associated with more severe agitation and less severe affective symptoms. In conclusion, agitation was less severe in 2010/2011 than in 2004/2005 among nursing home residents with a milder degree of dementia, and more severe in residents with severe dementia.
Murtaugh, C M; Cooney, L M; DerSimonian, R R; Smits, H L; Fetter, R B
Most public funding methods for long-term care do not adequately match payment rates with patient need for services. Case-mix payment systems are designed to encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of limited health care resources. Even nursing home case-mix payment systems, however, do not currently provide the proper incentives to match rehabilitation therapy resources to a patient's needs. We were able to determine by a review of over 8,500 patients in 65 nursing homes that certain diagnoses, partial dependence in activities of daily living (ADLs), clear mental status, and improving medical status are associated with the provision of rehabilitation services to nursing home residents. These patient characteristics are clinically reasonable predictors of the need for therapy and should be considered for use in nursing home case-mix reimbursement systems. Primary payment source also was associated with the provision of rehabilitation services even after taking into account significant patient characteristics. It is unclear how much of the variation in service use across payers is due to differences in patient need as opposed to differences in the financial incentives associated with current payment methods.
Harris, John Alexander; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas George
The objective of this study is to examine how increasing body mass index (BMI) among nursing home residents affects the amount of staffing assistance needed for activities of daily living (ADL). We analyzed 1,627,141 US nursing home residents reported in the 2013 Minimum Data Set in seven BMI categories, from underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m 2 ) to obesity Class IIIB (≥50 kg/m 2 ). Logistic regression models estimated the odds of nursing home-reported need for extensive (≥2 staff member) assistance needed for ADLs. The adjusted odds increased from 1.07 (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.06-1.08) for Class I, 1.16 (95%CI 1.14-1.17) for Class II, 1.33 (95%CI 1.31-1.35) for Class IIIA, and 1.90 (95%CI 1.86-1.95) for Class IIIB obesity residents compared to residents of normal weight. As a nursing home resident's BMI increases, especially for BMI ≥40 kg/m 2 , the need for extensive staffing assistance with ADLs also increases substantially. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sie, Ingrid; Thorstad, Margrete; Andersen, Bjørg Marit
Nosocomial infections and transmission can be substantially reduced by good infection control. The laws and regulations for infection control in heath care institutions emphasize establishment of infection control programs and improved hand hygiene. Our study reviews some factors that are important for practicing adequate hand hygiene (knowledge about infection control and hand-washing facilities). Health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes in Oslo participated in this study in 2006-2007. A questionnaire was made and SPSS was used to analyse the data . 70.7% of 324 HCW (in 42 nursing homes) answered the questionnaires. Nearly all of the respondents (95.6%) knew about the written procedures for hygiene and infection control; 88.5% knew that an infection control program was in place and about 50% had received information through internal education. Three of four had read the National guidelines for hand hygiene, 77.5% thought that hand disinfection was more effective than hand washing, and 97% reported hand hygiene after contact with a patient having an infection. Dispensers for hand disinfection were situated at central work places. At the same time, 17.9% informed that they worked in more than one place at the same time. This study confirms that most nursing homes in Oslo have an infection control program and training that improves the knowledge and awareness of hand hygiene among HCWs. However, the fact that nursing homes in Oslo have the resources, knowledge and education, is not the same as compliance.
Massages, following the foot reflexology method, were given to patients in a nursing home suffering from Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. A methodical assessment, on a small sample of patients, showed a significant reduction in neuropsychiatric manifestations, opening up new perspectives for non-medication based therapy for the care of elderly dependent people.
Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Swane, Christine E.; Algreen-Petersen, Eva
. In collaboration with the EGV Foundation, the municipality of Copenhagen carry out a research project during three years while the ‘diversity profile’ at the nursing home is developed. The focus is particularly on the everyday life of inhabitants, but their family caregivers and staff are also interviewed...
Full Text Available Background: Provision of health care service at home is one of the advanced forms of care for patients being discharged from hospitalization. Little is known about the experience of nurses providing home care services through a nursing home-care model especially in Indonesian context. Objective: This study aims to explore the experience in order to increase understanding on the form of home care provision, and consequently the nurses may understand the form of home care globally. Methods: This study employed a phenomenological design and performed interview in the process of data collection. Data were analysed by using content analysis. Results: The main contexts of home care nurse experiences were generated. There were definition and role of home care nurses, the involvement of family members in the provision of care, the facilitating and hindering factors contributed to home care provision as well as manual on providing home care nursing. Conclusion: The implication from this study is that nursing care should be given to the patients continuously and consequently the need for family involvement is important. Additionally, in providing the home care, a proper manual is needed by home care nurses as the guidance to give best quality of care to patients.
Hasson, Henna; Arnetz, Judith E
The aims of this study were to: (1) compare older people care nursing staff's perceptions of their competence, work strain and work satisfaction in nursing homes and home-based care; and (2) to examine determinants of work satisfaction in both care settings. The shift in older people care from hospitals to community-based facilities and home care has had implications for nursing practice. Lack of competence development, high levels of work strain and low levels of work satisfaction among nursing staff in both care settings have been associated with high turnover. Few studies have compared staff perceptions of their competence and work in nursing homes as opposed to home-based care. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Nursing staff perceptions of their competence, work strain, stress and satisfaction were measured by questionnaire in 2003 in two older people care organizations in Sweden. Comparisons of all outcome variables were made between care settings both within and between the two organizations. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine predictors of work satisfaction in home care and nursing homes respectively. In general, staff in home-based care reported significantly less sufficient knowledge compared with staff in nursing homes. However, home care staff experienced significantly less physical and emotional strain compared with staff in nursing homes. Ratings of work-related exhaustion, mental energy and overall work satisfaction did not differ significantly between care settings. In both care settings, work-related exhaustion was the strongest (inverse) predictor of work satisfaction. Future interventions should focus on counteracting work-related exhaustion and improving competence development to improve work satisfaction among older people care nursing staff in both care settings. Relevance to clinical practice. Work-related exhaustion and lack of competence development may have significant negative implications for work satisfaction among
Jakobsen, Rita; Sellevold, Gerd Sylvi; Egede-Nissen, Veslemøy; Sørlie, Venke
A total of 71,000 people in Norway suffer from some form of dementia in 2013, of whom approximately 30,000 are in nursing homes. Several studies focus on the experiences of those who have close relatives and who are staying in a nursing home. Results show that a greater focus on cooperation between nursing staff and relatives is a central prerequisite for an increased level of care. Benefits of developing systematic collaboration practices include relief for nursing staff, less stress, and greater mutual understanding. Going through studies focusing on the experiences of nursing home patients' relatives, negative experiences are in the majority. In this study, relatives are invited to share positive experiences regarding the care of their loved ones; a slightly different perspective, in other words. The aim of the study is to investigate relatives of persons with dementia's experiences with quality care in nursing homes. The study is a part of a larger project called Hospice values in the care for persons with dementia and is based on a qualitative design where data are generated through narrative interviews. The chosen method of analysis is the phenomenological-hermeneutical method for the study of lived experiences. Participants and research context: Participants in the project were eight relatives of persons with dementia who were living in nursing homes, long-term residences. The sampling was targeted, enrolment happened through collective invitation. All relatives interested were included. Ethical considerations: The Norwegian Regional Ethics Committee and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services approve the study. Findings show that relatives have certain expectations as to how their loved ones ought to be met and looked after at the nursing home. The results show that in those cases where the expectations were met, the relatives' experiences were associated with engagement, inclusion and a good atmosphere. When the expectations were not met, the relatives
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Rosenthal, Alvin S.
This study investigated factors associated with absenteeism among nursing staff (N=219) at a long-term care facility. Four absenteeism measures were calculated from personnel records for each month of the year: no pay (the sum of unscheduled, unpaid sick, and leave without pay), part day (the sum of arrived late and left early), paid sick, and…
Vandenberg, Ann E.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Overdevest, Vera G.P.; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Johnson II, Theodore M.
Falls remain a major geriatric problem, and the search for new solutions continues. We investigated how existing fall prevention technology was experienced within nursing home nurses' environment and workflow. Our NIH-funded study in an American nursing home was followed by a cultural learning
Stevenson, Robert T.; Courtenay, Bradley C.
Systematic research on attitudes of nursing home staff toward the sexual expression of older residents is sparse and of recent origin. In order to determine the relationship between the degree of religiosity (religious commitment) of nursing home aides and their degree of tolerance concerning sexuality and aging, female nursing assistants (N=101)…
Vandenberg, Ann E.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Overdevest, Vera G.P.; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Johnson II, Theodore M.
Falls remain a major geriatric problem, and the search for new solutions continues. We investigated how existing fall prevention technology was experienced within nursing home nurses' environment and workflow. Our NIH-funded study in an American nursing home was followed by a cultural learning
Mahieu, Lieslot; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Acke, Jolien; Vandermarliere, Hanne; Van Elssen, Kim; Fieuws, Steffen; Gastmans, Chris
Admission to a nursing home does not necessarily diminish an older person's desire for sexual expression and fulfillment. Given that nursing staff directly and indirectly influence the range of acceptable sexual expressions of nursing home residents, their knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality can have far-reaching effects on both the quality of care they provide to residents and the self-image and well-being of these residents. To investigate nursing staff's knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality, to determine whether certain sociodemographic factors of the nursing staff relate to their knowledge and attitudes toward later-life sexuality, and to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes. Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. The administered questionnaire collected sociodemographic data and data from an adapted, Dutch version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. Data were collected from November 2011 through April 2012. A total of 43 geographically dispersed nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium, participated. Out of a potential research sample of 2228 nursing staff respondents, 1166 participated. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of the KU Leuven. Nursing staff appeared to be moderately knowledgeable about aged sexuality and displayed a rather positive attitude toward sexuality in older people. Significant relationships between various variables were found both at univariable and multivariable levels. Knowledge and attitudes proved to be positively related, indicating that a higher level of knowledge of aged sexuality is associated with a more positive attitude toward sexuality in later life. Research findings are discussed within a broader international context. There is room for improvement for both nursing staff's knowledge and attitudes toward aged sexuality. This might be aided by appropriate educational interventions. Our results identified different target groups
Neal, L J
A grounded-theory study of 30 home health nurses conducted in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area used unstructured audiotaped interviews to elicit data as to how home health nurses define their practice. The purpose of the study was to develop a beginning substantive research-based theory of home health nursing practice. The model that emerged consists of three stages by which nurses attain autonomy in their practice. Adaptation was found to be the core category, in that nurses cannot function effectively or successfully in the home health arena unless they are or learn to be adaptable. Data also revealed that home health nurses either knowingly or unknowingly use rehabilitation nursing principles in their practice, thereby lending credence to the supposition that home health nursing practice is congruent with rehabilitation nursing principles.
Nadler, J D; Relkin, N R; Cohen, M S; Hodder, R A; Reingold, J; Plum, F
The clinical utility of selected brief cognitive screening instruments in detecting dementia in an elderly nursing home population was examined. One hundred twenty nursing home residents (mean age 87.9) were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam (3MS). The majority of the subjects (75%) were also administered the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). Both clinically diagnosed demented (n = 57) and non-demented (n = 63) subjects participated in the study. Dementia was diagnosed in accordance with DSM-III-R criteria by physicians specializing in geriatric medicine. Using standard cutoffs for impairment, the 3MS, MMSE, and DRS achieved high sensitivity (82% to 100%) but low specificity (33% to 52%) in the detection of dementia among nursing home residents. Positive predictive values ranged from 52% to 61%, and negative predictive values from 77% to 100%. Higher age, lower education, and history of depression were significantly associated with misclassification of non-demented elderly subjects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses revealed optimal classification of dementia with cutoff values of 74 for the 3MS, 22 for the MMSE, and 110 for the DRS. The results suggest that the 3MS, MMSE, and DRS do not differ significantly with respect to classification accuracy of dementia in a nursing home population. Elderly individuals of advanced age (i.e., the oldest-old) with lower education and a history of depression appear at particular risk for dementia misclassification with these instruments. Revised cutoff values for impairment should be employed when these instruments are applied to elderly residents of nursing homes and the oldest-old.
Singh, Simone Rauscher
For decades, not-for-profit hospitals have been required to provide community benefit in exchange for tax exemption. To fulfill this requirement, hospitals engage in a variety of activities ranging from free and reduced cost care provided to individual patients to services aimed at improving the health of the community at large. Limited financial resources may restrict hospitals' ability to provide the full range of community benefits and force them to engage in trade-offs. We analyzed the composition of not-for-profit hospitals' community benefit expenditures and explored whether hospitals traded off between charity care and spending on other community benefit activities. Data for this study came from Maryland hospitals' state-level community benefit reports for 2006-2010. Bivariate Spearman's rho correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships among various components of hospitals' community benefit activities. We found no evidence of trade-offs between charity care and activities targeted at the health and well-being of the community at large. Consistently, hospitals that provided more charity care did not offset these expenditures by reducing their spending on other community benefit activities, including mission-driven health services, community health services, and health professions education. Hospitals' decisions about how to allocate community benefit dollars are made in the context of broader community health needs and resources. Concerns that hospitals serving a disproportionate number of charity patients might provide fewer benefits to the community at large appear to be unfounded.
Shah, Faraaz; Burack, Orah; Boockvar, Kenneth S
To identify perceived barriers to communication between hospital and nursing home at the time of patient transfer and examine associations between perceived barriers and hospital and nursing home characteristics. Mailed survey. Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing homes in New York State. Nursing home administrators, with input from other nursing home staff. Respondents rated the importance as a barrier to hospital-nursing home communication of (1) hospital providers' attitude, time, effort, training, payment, and familiarity with nursing home patients; (2) unplanned and off-hours transfers; (3) HIPAA privacy regulations; and (4) lost or failed information transmission. Associations were determined between barriers and the following organizational characteristics: (1) hospital-nursing home affiliations, pharmacy or laboratory agreements, cross-site staff visits, and cross-site physician care; (2) hospital size, teaching status, and frequency of geriatrics specialty care; (3) nursing home size, location, type, staffing, and Medicare quality indicators; and (4) hospital-to-nursing home communication, consistency of hospital care with health care goals, and communication quality improvement efforts. Of 647 questionnaires sent, 229 were returned (35.4%). The most frequently reported perceived barriers to communication were sudden or unplanned transfers (44.4%), transfers that occur at night or on the weekend (41.4%), and hospital providers' lack of effort (51.0%), lack of familiarity with patients (45.0%), and lack of time (43.5%). Increased hospital size, teaching hospitals, and urban nursing home location were associated with greater perceived importance of these barriers, and cross-site staff visits and hospital provision of laboratory and pharmacy services to the nursing home were associated with lower perceived importance of these barriers. Hospital and nursing home characteristics and interorganizational relationships were associated with nursing home
Linn, Margaret W.; And Others
Assessed effects of nursing home staff training in care for the dying on quality of life of 306 terminally ill patients in 5 pairs of matched nursing homes assigned randomly to trained and not trained staff groups. Patients in trained homes had less depression and greater satisfaction with care than patients in control homes at 1 and 3 months.…
Hov, Reidun; Athlin, Elsy; Hedelin, Birgitta
Nurses in nursing homes care for patients with complex health problems that need to be followed up by medical treatment. Most patients benefit from the treatment, but for some the treatment seems only to lengthen their death process. Sometimes questions are raised as to whether life-sustaining treatment should be withheld/withdrawn. Decisions related to such questions are difficult to make as some patients are 'on the edge of life', which is understood as a transition between living and dying with an unpredictable outcome, whether the illness will lead to recovery or dying. The aim of this study was to acquire a deeper understanding of what it is to be a nurse in a nursing home for patients on the edge of life. The research design was qualitative, based on hermeneutic phenomenology. Fourteen nurses at two nursing homes were interviewed twice. The result shows that when facing a patient on the edge of life, the nurses were challenged as professionals and as human beings. Two main themes were identified, which included two sub-themes each. The first main theme: 'striving to do right and good for everyone' included the sub-themes 'feeling certain, but accompanied by uncertainty' and 'being caught between too much responsibility and too little formal power'. The second main theme: 'being a vulnerable helper--the prize and the price', contained the sub-themes 'needing emotional protection in professional commitment' and 'feeling undervalued in spite of professional pride'. The essence was: 'being a lonely and enduring struggler between opposite poles'. The findings revealed paradoxes in nurses' work which might threaten nurses' professional identity and put heavy demands on their professional performance. There is a need for formal involvement in end-of-life decisions from nurses, further education and support to nurses related to patients on the edge of life.
Shin, Juh Hyun; Hyun, Ta Kyung
To investigate the relationship between nurse staffing and quality of care in nursing homes in Korea. This study used a cross-sectional design to describe the relationship between nurse staffing and 15 quality-of-care outcomes. Independent variables were hours per resident day (HPRD), skill mix, and turnover of each nursing staff, developed with the definitions of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the American Health Care Association. Dependent variables were prevalence of residents who experienced more than one fall in the recent 3 months, aggressive behaviors, depression, cognitive decline, pressure sores, incontinence, prescribed antibiotics because of urinary tract infection, weight loss, dehydration, tube feeding, bed rest, increased activities of daily living, decreased range of motion, use of antidepressants, and use of restraints. Outcome variables were quality indicators from the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid and 2013 nursing home evaluation manual by the Korean National Health Insurance Service. The effects of registered nurse (RN) HPRD was supported in fall prevention, decreased tube feeding, decreased numbers of residents with deteriorated range of motion, and decreased aggressive behavior. Higher turnover of RNs related to more residents with dehydration, bed rest, and use of antipsychotic medication. Study results supported RNs' unique contribution to resident outcomes in comparison to alternative nurse staffing in fall prevention, decreased use of tube feeding, better range of motion for residents, and decreased aggressive behaviors in nursing homes in Korea. More research is required to confirm the effects of nurse staffing on residents' outcomes in Korea. We found consistency in the effects of RN staffing on resident outcomes acceptable. By assessing nurse staffing levels and compositions of nursing staffs, this study contributes to more effective long-term care insurance by reflecting on appropriate policies, and ultimately
Ziegler, A; Bernet, M; Metzenthin, P; Conca, A; Hahn, S
Due to demographic changes, the demand for care in nursing homes for the elderly and infirmed is growing. At the same time nursing staff shortages are also increasing. Nursing aides are the primary care providers and comprise the largest staff group in Swiss nursing homes. They are exposed to various forms of job stress, which threaten job retention. The aim of this study was to discover which features of the work situation and which personal characteristics of the nursing aides were related to the workload. Data from nursing aides in Swiss nursing homes were investigated through a secondary analysis of a national quantitative cross-sectional study, using descriptive statistics and a nonlinear canonical correlation analysis. A total of 1054 nursing aides were included in the secondary analysis, 94.6 % of whom were women between the ages of 42 and 61 years. The job stress most frequently mentioned in the descriptive analysis, almost 60 % of the participants referred to it, was staff shortage. The nonlinear canonical correlation analysis revealed that many job strains are caused by social and organizational issues. In particular, a lack of support from supervisors was associated with staff not feeling appreciated. These job strains correlated with a high level of responsibility, the feeling of being unable to work independently and a feeling of being exploited. These strains were predominant in the nursing aides between 32 and 51 years old who had part time jobs but workloads of 80-90 %. Middle-aged nursing aides who worked to 80-90 % are particularly at risk to resign from the position prematurely. Measures need to be mainly implemented in the social and organizational areas. It can be assumed that a targeted individual support, recognition and promotion of nursing aides may decrease the level of job strain.
The purpose of this study was to clarify whether skincare products are effective in preventing development of pressure ulcers in bedridden nursing home residents. The study sample consisted of 21 nursing home residents at a nursing home in Osaka, Japan who use diapers. Participants were assigned to 3 groups and compared to a control group. None of the subjects developed a pressure ulcer and had improved skin condition around the anus.
Kissam, Stephanie; Gifford, David; Parks, Peggy; Patry, Gail; Palmer, Laura; Wilkes, Linda; Fitzgerald, Matthew; Petrulis, Alice Stollenwerk; Barnette, Leslie
Abstract Background In November 2002, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) launched a Nursing Home Quality Initiative that included publicly reporting a set of Quality Measures for all nursing homes in the country, and providing quality improvement assistance to nursing homes nationwide. A pilot of this initiative occurred in six states for six months prior to the launch. Methods Review and analysis of the lessons learned from the six Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) tha...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Back pain is one of the most frequent complaints in the nursing profession. Thus, the 12-month prevalence of pain in the lumbar spine in nursing staff is as high as 76%. Only a few representative studies have assessed the prevalence rates of back pain and its risk factors among nursing staff in nursing homes in comparison to staff in home-based care facilities. The present study accordingly investigates the prevalence in the lumbar and cervical spine and determines the physical workload to lifting and caring in geriatric care. Methods 1390 health care workers in nursing homes and home care participated in this cross sectional survey. The nursing staff members were examined by occupational physicians according to the principals of the multistep diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders. Occupational exposure to daily care activities with patient transfers was measured by a standardised questionnaire. The lumbar load was calculated with the Mainz-Dortmund dose model. Information on ergonomic conditions were recorded from the management of the nursing homes. Comparisons of all outcome variables were made between both care settings. Results Complete documentation, including the findings from the occupational physicians and the questionnaire, was available for 41%. Staff in nursing homes had more often positive orthopaedic findings than staff in home care. At the same time the values calculated for lumbar load were found to be significant higher in staff in nursing homes than in home-based care: 45% vs. 6% were above the reference value. Nursing homes were well equipped with technical lifting aids, though their provision with assistive advices is unsatisfactory. Situation in home care seems worse, especially as the staff often has to get by without assistance. Conclusions Future interventions should focus on counteracting work-related lumbar load among staff in nursing homes. Equipment and training in handling of assistive devices
Prentice, Dawn; Black, Margaret
Aim. This paper reports on a qualitative study that explored the reasons why Registered Nurses (RNs) chose to work in nursing homes in Southern Ontario, Canada and what factors attracted them to remain. Background. There is a paucity of information about factors associated with the recruitment and retention of RNs within long-term care (LTC) in Canada. As the population of older people is growing in Canada and elsewhere, it is essential that we better understand what attracts RNs to work and remain in this setting. Design and method. A case study approach was used in this study of nine RNs working in three nursing homes. Data were collected through in-depth interviews. Findings. Six sub-themes were identified: 'Job of Choice', 'Job of Convenience', 'Caring for the Residents', 'A Supportive Environment', 'Heavy Workload' and 'Supervisory Role of the RN'. Conclusion. Nurses chose to work in the nursing home because it was a 'Job of Convenience'. However, characteristics of the organizational environment played a major role in their remaining. Also, the caring relationship with residents played a role in the nurses remaining in this setting. Relevance to clinical practice. Strategies are provided that nurse managers may consider when planning recruitment and retention activities for LTC settings.
Rabiner, D J; Stearns, S C; Mutran, E
OBJECTIVE. This study explored the relationship between participation in a home/community-based long-term care case management intervention (known as the Channeling demonstration), use of formal in-home care, and subsequent nursing home utilization. STUDY DESIGN. Structural analysis of the randomized Channeling intervention was conducted to decompose the total effects of Channeling on nursing home use into direct and indirect effects. DATA COLLECTION METHOD. Secondary data analysis of the Nat...
Fleischmann, Nina; Tetzlaff, Britta; Werle, Jochen; Geister, Christina; Scherer, Martin; Weyerer, Siegfried; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Mueller, Christiane A
Interprofessionalism, considered as collaboration between medical professionals, has gained prominence over recent decades and evidence for its impact has grown. The steadily increasing number of residents in nursing homes will challenge medical care and the interaction across professions, especially nurses and general practitioners (GPs). The nursing home visit, a key element of medical care, has been underrepresented in research. This study explores GP perspectives on interprofessional collaboration with a focus on their visits to nursing homes in order to understand their experiences and expectations. This research represents an aspect of the interprof study, which explores medical care needs as well as the perceived collaboration and communication by nursing home residents, their families, GPs and nurses. This paper focusses on GPs' views, investigating in particular their visits to nursing homes in order to understand their experiences. Open guideline-interviews covering interprofessional collaboration and the visit process were conducted with 30 GPs in three study centers and analyzed with grounded theory methodology. GPs were recruited via postal request and existing networks of the research partners. Four different types of nursing home visits were found: visits on demand, periodical visits, nursing home rounds and ad-hoc-decision based visits. We identified the core category "productive performance" of home visits in nursing homes which stands for the balance of GPs´ individual efforts and rewards. GPs used different strategies to perform a productive home visit: preparing strategies, on-site strategies and investing strategies. We compiled a theory of GPs home visits in nursing homes in Germany. The findings will be useful for research, and scientific and management purposes to generate a deeper understanding of GP perspectives and thereby improve interprofessional collaboration to ensure a high quality of care.
Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non
Hospitals must adapt to the rapidly changing environment of risk by changing the health behavior of their population. There is only one way to do this efficiently and at scale; send a nurse home with every patient at the time of discharge. That nurse can ensure adherence to medication and slowly, over time, transform personal behavior to evidence based levels ... basically taking their medication as prescribed, changing eating habits, increasing exercise, getting people to throw away their cigarettes, teaching them how to cope, improving their sleep and reducing their stress. But, this approach will require a nurse to basically "live" with the patient for prolonged periods of time, as bad health behaviors are quick to start but slow to change or end. The rapid developments in artificial intelligence and natural language understanding paired with cloud based computing and integrated with a variety of data sources has led to a new marketplace comprised of cognitive technologies that can emulate even the most creative, knowledgeable and effective nurse. Termed the Virtual Health Assistant, your patients can literally talk to these agents using normal conversational language. The possibility to send a nurse home with each patient to maintain adherence and prevent readmissions has arrived. The technology is available. Who will step forward to reap the rewards first?
Schmidt, Sascha G; Dichter, Martin N; Palm, Rebecca; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin
The aim of this research is to investigate the degree of distress experienced by nurses in response to the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents (residents' challenging behaviour) and their impact on nurses individual resources (general health, burnout and work ability). Because of the increasing and ageing population of nursing home residents, professional nursing care faces several challenges. One highly prevalent issue among nursing home residents is the so-called 'challenging behaviour'. However, to date, 'challenging behaviour' has not yet been recognised as an occupational stressor, and the extent of the impact of 'challenging behaviour' on nurses' well-being and functioning is not well understood. Cross-sectional study. Self-report questionnaire data collected from 731 registered nurses and nursing aides in 56 German nursing homes were used in a secondary data analysis. The level of residents' challenging behaviour-related distress that nurses experienced was assessed using a scale consisting of nine questions. Validated instruments were used for the assessment of individual resources. The mean score for residents' challenging behaviour-related distress was 41·3 (SD 21·2). Twenty-seven per cent of all nurses reported over 50 residents' challenging behaviour. Residents' challenging behaviour had a significant impact on all three measures of individual resources. Specifically, nurses exposed to frequent residents' challenging behaviour reported a significantly lower quality of general health, reduced workability and high burnout levels. Our findings indicate that residents' challenging behaviour-related distress is a significant work place stressor for nurses in nursing homes with a clear impact on general health, the risk of burnout and work ability. Our findings suggest that residents' challenging behaviour is a stressor for nurses in nursing homes. Further scientific and practical attention is necessary from the point of view of working
Bebe, Anna; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Willadsen, Tora Grauers
Background: Many register studies make use of information about permanent nursing home residents. Statistics Denmark (StatD) identifies nursing home residents by two different indirect methods, one based on reports from the municipalities regarding home care in taken place in a nursing home...... Danish Region, we randomly selected one municipality reporting to Stat D (Method 1) and one not reporting where instead an algorithm created by StatD was used to discover nursing home residents (Method 2). Method 1 means that municipalities reported to Stat D whether home care has taken place......, and the other based on an algorithm created by StatD.The aim of the present study was to validate StatD’s nursing home register using dedicated administrative municipality records on individual nursing home residents as gold standard. Methods: In total, ten Danish municipalities were selected. Within each...
Vines, Tim; Donohoo, Angus M; Faunce, Thomas
The relationship between government and the not-for-profit (NFP) sector has important implications for society, especially in relation to the delivery of public health measures and the protection of the environment. In key health-related areas such as provision of medical services, welfare, foreign aid and education, governments have traditionally preferred for the NFP sector to act as service partners, with the relationship mediated through grants or funding agreements. This service delivery arrangement is intended to provide a diversity of voices, and encourage volunteerism and altruism, in conjunction with the purposes and objectives of the relevant NGO. Under the pretence of "accountability", however, governments increasingly are seeking to impose intrusive conditions on grantees, which limit their ability to fulfil their mission and advocate on behalf of their constituents. This column examines the United States Supreme Court decision, Agency for International Development v Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013), and compares it to the removal of gag clauses in Australian federal funding rules. Recent national changes to the health-related NFP sector in Australia are then discussed, such as those found in the Charities Act 2013 (Cth) and the Not-for-Profit Sector Freedom to Advocate Act 2013 (Cth). These respectively include the establishment of the Australian Charities and Not-For-Profit Commission, the modernising of the definition of "charity" and statutory blocks on "gag" clauses. This analysis concludes with a survey of recent moves by Australian States to impose new restrictions on the ability of health-related NFPs to lobby against harmful government policy Among the responses considered is the protection afforded by s 51l(xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution. This constitutional guarantee appears to have been focused historically on preventing medical and dental practitioners and related small businesses being practically coerced
A study on priorities for the professional development of registered nurses (RNs) in nursing homes published in Age and Ageing ( page 6 ) has identified that staff shortages, lack of access to NHS courses and lack of paid study time are the main reasons why RNs do not access continuing professional development (CPD) activities. Specialist gerontological education for care home nurses was, however, seen as a means to ensure that care home nursing attracts the best people.
... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care Contract...
Wanjohi, Nelius; Maringi, Peris
The purpose of this study was to find out the experience of the foreign nurses working in Southern Finland and the factors that influence their job satisfaction. The aim was to provide information that could help improve job satisfaction. The research was carried out in a private nursing home in Southern Finland. The methodology used in this study was qualitative research method. Data was obtained by conducting interviews. A qualitative analysis of the data was applied to identify the fac...
Bliss, Donna Z; Gurvich, Olga V; Eberly, Lynn E; Harms, Susan
There are few studies of nursing home residents that have investigated the development of dual incontinence, perhaps the most severe type of incontinence as both urinary and fecal incontinence occur. To determine the time to and predictors of dual incontinence in older nursing home residents. Using a cohort design, records of older nursing home admissions who were continent or had only urinary or only fecal incontinence (n = 39,181) were followed forward for report of dual incontinence. Four national US datasets containing potential predictors at multiple levels describing characteristics of nursing home residents, nursing homes (n = 445), and socioeconomic and sociodemographic status of the community surrounding nursing homes were analyzed. A Cox proportional hazard regression with nursing home-specific random effect was used. At 6 months after admission, 28% of nursing home residents developed dual incontinence, at 1 year 42% did so, and at 2 years, 61% had dual incontinence. Significant predictors for time to developing dual incontinence were having urinary incontinence, greater functional or cognitive deficits, more comorbidities, older age, and lesser quality of nursing home care. The development of dual incontinence is a major problem among nursing home residents. Predictors in this study offer guidance in developing interventions to prevent and reduce the time to developing this problem which may improve the quality of life of nursing residents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Friedman, B; Shortell, S
This article analyzes determinants of cost and profitability, including the influence of Medicare prospective payment (PPS), between 1983 and 1985 for nearly 300 hospitals belonging to investor-owned (IO) and not-for-profit (NFP) systems. Using approaches that assure comparability of financial data, and including case mix, quality, competition, and regulation measures, the findings indicate that (1) in both years, competitive environment, case mix, age of facility, and scope of diversified services were important determinants of average cost, while a process measure of quality was insignificant and the independent effect of ownership type was insignificant for cost; (2) effects of HMO competition and hospital strategy were stronger in 1985 than in 1983; (3) operating margins for all types of hospitals showed increases, with a somewhat greater improvement for NFP system members; and (4) significantly greater declines in volume of care occurred for IO system members. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:3133323
Carey, Gemma; Riley, Therese
This paper explores the interrelationship between two contemporary policy debates: one focused on the social determinants of health and the other on social (inclusion) policy within contemporary welfare regimes. In both debates, academics and policy makers alike are grappling with the balance between universal and targeted policy initiatives and the role of local 'delivery' organizations in promoting health and social equality. In this paper, we discuss these debates in the context of a recent social policy initiative in Australia: the Social Inclusion Agenda. We examine two proposed models of engagement between the government and the not-for-profit welfare sector for the delivery of social services. We conclude that the two models of engagement currently under consideration by the Australian government have substantially different outcomes for the health of disadvantaged communities and the creation of a more socially inclusive Australia.
Wye, Lesley; Brangan, Emer; Cameron, Ailsa; Gabbay, John; Klein, Jonathan H; Anthwal, Rachel; Pope, Catherine
The use of external consultants from private and not-for-profit providers in the National Health Service (NHS) is intended to improve the quality of commissioning. The aim of this study was to learn about the support offered to healthcare commissioners, how external consultants and their clients work together and the perceived impact on the quality of commissioning. NHS commissioning organisations and private and not-for-profit providers. Mixed methods case study of eight cases. 92 interviews with external consultants (n=36), their clients (n=47) and others (n=9). Observation of 25 training events and meetings. Documentation, for example, meeting minutes and reports. Constant comparison. Data were coded, summarised and analysed by the research team with a coding framework to facilitate cross-case comparison. In the four contracts presented here, external providers offered technical solutions (eg, software tools), outsourcing and expertise including project management, data interpretation and brokering relationships with experts. In assessing perceived impact on quality of commissioning, two contracts had limited value, one had short-term benefits and one provided short and longer term benefits. Contracts with commissioners actively learning, embedding and applying new skills were more valued. Other elements of success were: (1) addressing clearly agreed problems of relevance to managerial and operational staff (2) solutions co-produced at all organisational levels (3) external consultants working directly with clients to interpret data outputs to inform locally contextualised commissioning strategies. Without explicit knowledge exchange strategies, outsourcing commissioning to external providers resulted in the NHS clients becoming dependent. NHS commissioning will be disadvantaged if commissioners both fail to learn in the short term from the knowledge of external providers and in the longer term lose local skills. Knowledge exchange mechanisms are a vital
McKinney, Selina H; Corazzini, Kirsten; Anderson, Ruth A; Sloane, Richard; Castle, Nicholas G
Nursing homes are becoming increasingly complex clinical environments because of rising resident acuity and expansion of postacute services within a context of historically poor quality performance. Discrete quality markers have been linked to director of nursing (DON) leadership behaviors. However, the impact of DON leadership across all measured areas of DON jurisdiction has not been tested using comprehensive domains of quality deficiencies. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of DON leadership style including behaviors that facilitate the exchange of information between diverse people on care quality domains through the lens of complexity science. Three thousand six hundred nine DONs completed leadership and intent-to-quit surveys. Quality markers that were deemed DON sensitive included all facility survey deficiencies in the domains of resident behaviors/facility practices, quality of life, nursing services, and quality of care. Logistic regression procedures estimated associations between variables. The odds of deficiencies for all DON sensitive survey domains were lower in facilities where DONs practiced complexity leadership including more staff input and shared decisional authority. DON quit intentions were aligned with higher odds of facility deficiencies across all domains. Results supported the hypotheses that DONs using complexity leadership approaches by interacting more freely with staff, discussing resident issues, and sharing decision making produced better care outcomes from every DON sensitive metric assessed by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The mechanism linking poor quality with high DON quit intentions is an area for future research. Encouraging DON use of complexity leadership approaches has the potential to improve a broad swath of quality outcomes.
Andresen, Mette; Puggaard, Lis
BACKGROUND: Experiencing autonomy is recognised to promote health and well-being for all age groups. Perceived lack of control has been found to be detrimental to physical and mental health. There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge elucidating how frail older people in nursing home settings...... participants aged 65 years or older were included in the study. All the participants were restricted in performing at least one P-ADL activity unassisted and had a Mini Mental State Examination-score above 16. Perceived autonomy was measured at baseline, after 12 weeks and after 24 weeks by The Autonomy Sub......-dimension in the Measure of Actualisation of Potential test. Programmes were based on participants' individual assessment of their most important daily activities. Staff at all nursing homes who usually organize physical training, social or creative activities carried out individually tailored programmes using their usual...
Nielsen, Karen Tind; Glasdam, Stinne
International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade. A disco......International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade....... A discourse analysis inspired by Foucault was constructed. The material consists of different source documents: research articles, newspaper articles, theses, books, websites – 35 sources in total. There are constructed six positions of speech, five discourses and three themes: (1) ‘the work...
Renata Alessandra Evangelista
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception of the elderly residents of a long-stay nursing home on the process of institutionalization. We interviewed 14 subjects, five women and nine men, aged between 60 and 92 years. Data collection was conducted with a semi-structured sociodemographic interview, which presented the guiding question: “Tell me about how is your life, what do you do and how did you come to live here”. From the analysis, we found topics related to feelings of abandonment, loneliness, anger, ingratitude, living with chronic pain, satisfaction of property in the nursing home, productivity and social relationship. Given the thematic analysis, it was possible to group them into three categories such as: what the elderly feel, what the elderly perceive and what the elderly desire. As a result, we need public policies that addresses to the service provided by institutions regarding elderly expectations.
Chang, Chia-Hsiu; Lu, Ming-Shih; Lin, Tsyr-En; Chen, Chung-Hey
This Taiwan study investigated the effect of a visual art-based friendly environment on nursing home residents' satisfaction with their living environment. A pre-experimental design was used. Thirty-three residents in a nursing home were recruited in a one-group pre- and post-test study. The four-floor living environment was integrated using visual art, reminiscence, and gardening based on the local culture and history. Each floor was given a different theme, one that was familiar to most of the residents on the floor. The Satisfaction with Living Environment at Nursing Home Scale (SLE-NHS) was developed to measure outcomes. Of the 33 participants recruited, 27 (81.8%) were women and 6 (18.2%) were men. Their mean age was 79.24 ± 7.40 years, and 48.5% were severely dependent in activities of daily living. The SLE-NHS showed adequate reliability and validity. Its three domains were generated and defined using factor analysis. After the visual art-based intervention, the score on the "recalling old memories" subscale was significantly higher (t = -13.32, p Visual art in a nursing home is a novel method for representing the local culture and stressing the spiritual value of the elderly residents who helped create it. Older adults' aesthetic activities through visual art, including reminiscence and local culture, may enrich their spirits in later life. Older adults' aesthetic activities through visual art have been shown to improve their satisfaction with their living environment. The SLE-NHS is a useful tool for evaluating their satisfaction. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Yeh, L; Wen, M J
The home health nursing movement is expanding rapidly. Home health nursing agencies (HHNAs) are expected to demonstrate that the care provided does make a difference for the client receiving the services. The purpose of this study was to explore client outcomes from home health nursing. Outcome indicators include: Services utilized (emergency services, re-hospitalization), physiological status (catheter indwelling status, consciousness level, wound severity-number and wound stages) and functional status (reflected by Barthel Index). A prospective research design was used to collect the results. Five hospital-based HHNAs were invited to participate in this research. Clients newly admitted to HHNAs and diagnosed as non-cancer patients were recruited, and the researchers gathered outcome indicators over a six-month period. Data were analyzed using SPSS 8.0 computer software. There were 75 clients in this study. Results showed that most of the clients (64.0%) received service for more than 180 days. The client characteristics were dominated by elderly (66.6% age above 70), female (53.3%) and married (74.7%). The three leading care needs were NG tubing service (84.0%), Foley tubing service (45.3%) and wound care (38.7%). The Kruscal Wallis Test revealed that there was no difference in emergency service frequency and re-hospitalization between clients who received service for more than 180 days and those who received service for less than 180 days. The Wilcoxon Sign rank test showed that within one half-year, catheter indwelling status, functional status, and wound severity were not significantly different, with the exception only of conscious level (p = .001). The results of this study can be viewed as preliminary data to assist in shaping home health nursing services in Taiwan.
Dubé, Catherine E; Mack, Deborah S; Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Lapane, Kate L
The prevalence of pain and its management has been shown to be inversely associated with greater levels of cognitive impairment. To evaluate whether the documentation and management of pain varies by level of cognitive impairment among nursing home residents with cancer. Using a cross-sectional study, we identified all newly admitted U.S. nursing home residents with a cancer diagnosis in 2011-2012 (n = 367,462). Minimum Data Set 3.0 admission assessment was used to evaluate pain/pain management in the past five days and cognitive impairment (assessed via the Brief Interview for Mental Status or the Cognitive Performance Scale for 91.6% and 8.4%, respectively). Adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% CI were estimated from robust Poisson regression models. For those with staff-assessed pain, pain prevalence was 55.5% with no/mild cognitive impairment and 50.5% in those severely impaired. Pain was common in those able to self-report (67.9% no/mild, 55.9% moderate, and 41.8% severe cognitive impairment). Greater cognitive impairment was associated with reduced prevalence of any pain (adjusted prevalence ratio severe vs. no/mild cognitive impairment; self-assessed pain 0.77; 95% CI 0.76-0.78; staff-assessed pain 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.99). Pharmacologic pain management was less prevalent in those with severe cognitive impairment (59.4% vs. 74.9% in those with no/mild cognitive impairment). In nursing home residents with cancer, pain was less frequently documented in those with severe cognitive impairment, which may lead to less frequent use of treatments for pain. Techniques to improve documentation and treatment of pain in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment are needed. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rondeau, K V; Wagar, T H
Management scholars and practitioners alike have become increasingly interested in learning more about the ability of certain 'progressive' or 'high-performance' human resource management (HRM) practices to enhance organizational effectiveness. There is growing evidence to suggest that the contribution of various HRM practices to impact firm performance may be synergistic in effect yet contingent on a number of contextual factors, including workplace climate. A contingency theory perspective suggests that in order to be effective, HMR policies and practices must be consistent with other aspects of the organization, including its environment. This paper reports on empirical findings from research that examines the relationship between HRM practices, workplace climate and perceptions of organizational performance, in a large sample of Canadian nursing homes. Data from 283 nursing homes were collected by means of a mail survey that included questions on HRM practices, programmes, and policies, on human resource aspects of workplace climate, as well as a variety of indicators that include employee, customer/resident and facility measures of organizational performance. Results derived from ordered probit analysis suggest that nursing homes in our sample which had implemented more 'progressive' HRM practices and which reported a workplace climate that strongly values employee participation, empowerment and accountability tended to be perceived to generally perform better on a number of valued organizational outcomes. Nursing homes in our sample that performed best overall were found to be more likely to not only have implemented more of these HRM practices, but also to report having a workplace climate that reflects the seminal value that it places on its human resources. This finding is consistent with the conclusion that simply introducing HRM practices or programmes, in the absence of an appropriately supportive workplace climate, will be insufficient to attain
Godoy, Pere; Domínguez, Angela; Alvarez, Josep; Camps, Neus; Barrabeig, Irene; Bartolomé, Rosa; Sala, María Rosa; Ferre, Dolors; Pañella, Helena; Torres, Joan; Minguell, Sofía; Alsedà, Miquel; Pumares, Analía
The low infectious dose and multiple transmission routes favour the appearance of norovirus outbreaks. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of norovirus outbreaks in hospitals and nursing homes in Catalonia. A descriptive study of norovirus outbreaks between 15/10/2004 and 30/10/2005 was carried out. An epidemiological survey was completed for each outbreak. Norovirus in clinical samples was determined by PCR techniques. The incidence in each centre and the annual incidence of outbreaks by centre were calculated. Differences were calculated using the chi-square test and the Student's t test, taking a p value of > 0.05 as significant. Seventeen outbreaks (6 in hospitals and 11 in nursing homes) were detected. The global attack rate was 33.4% (652/1951) and was slightly higher in nursing homes (35.2%) than in hospitals (31.4%). A total of 94.1% (16/17) of outbreaks were caused by person-to-person transmission and only 5.9% (1/17) by foods. The mean number of days between the first and last case was 11.4 (SD = 6.9). The mean duration of symptoms was 2.39 days (SD=1.6), and was higher hospitals, 2.63 (SD=1.7), than in nursing homes, 1.97 (SD=1.7) (p < 0.0001). Norovirus is responsible for a large number of outbreaks due to person-to-person transmission. Control should be standardized to reduce the number and duration of outbreaks.
The indications for CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) have expanded greatly since the technique was introduced and theoretically it can be attempted on all prior to death. Policy initiatives (such as the British Medical Association\\/Royal College of Nursing guidelines) have attempted to provide a clinical rationale for the withholding of inappropriate CPR. Traditionally a care home was felt to be an inappropriate environment to attempt CPR but increased use of advance directives may bring the issue to the fore in this setting.
Kramer, Dietmar; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Fejtkova, Sabina; Mergl, Roland; Hegerl, Ulrich
Depression is very common in people above 65 years living in long-term care. However, little is known about how well depression is recognized and how adequately it is treated. Therefore, the present study aimed at assessing accuracy of the unaided clinical diagnosis of the attending physicians, and the medical treatment situation in nursing home residents. A random sample of 97 residents of 10 nursing homes in Munich was examined with the Section A "Affective Syndrome" of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for DSM-IV to detect depression. Information concerning clinical diagnosis and medication was obtained from the subjects' medical records. 14.4% suffered acutely from major depression, 14.4% suffered from minor depression, and 18.6% were diagnosed as depressive according to the physician and nursing records. In total, 27.8% received antidepressants. Merely 42.9% of the subjects with acute major depression were diagnosed by their attending physicians as depressive, and only half of them received an antidepressant; 17.5% received antidepressants without a diagnosis of depression in their physician and nursing records. In accordance with the guidelines, 73.3% of the antidepressants prescribed were SSRIs or newer antidepressants. Only 20.0% were tricyclic antidepressants. Findings show that depression is relatively frequent in residents of nursing homes. Moreover, it is insufficiently recognized by physicians and is even more seldom adequately treated. Also, a significant proportion of residents receive antidepressants without a documented associated indication. Therefore, the recognition and guideline-based treatment of depression should be improved in this high-risk group.
Rys, Sam; Deschepper, Reginald; Deliens, Luc; Mortier, Freddy; Bilsen, Johan
Continuous Sedation until Death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, has become a common practice in nursing homes in Flanders (Belgium). Quantitative research has suggested that CSD is not always properly applied. This qualitative study aims to explore and describe the circumstances under which nursing home clinicians consider CSD to be justified. Six focus groups were conducted including 10 physicians, 24 nurses, and 14 care assistants working in either Catholic or non-Catholic nursing homes of varying size. Refractory suffering, limited life expectancy and respecting patient autonomy are considered essential elements in deciding for CSD. However, multiple factors complicate the care of nursing home residents at the end of life, and often hinder clinicians from putting these elements into practice. Nursing home clinicians may benefit from more information and instruction about managing CSD in the complex care situations which typically occur in nursing homes. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Naruse, Takashi; Taguchi, Atsuko; Kuwahara, Yuki; Nagata, Satoko; Sakai, Mahiro; Watai, Izumi; Murashima, Sachiyo
This study evaluated the effect of a skill-mix programme intervention on work engagement in home visiting nurses. A skill-mix programme in which home visiting nurses are assisted by non-nursing workers is assumed to foster home visiting nurses' work engagement. Pre- and post-intervention evaluations of work engagement were conducted using self-administered questionnaires. A skill-mix programme was introduced in the intervention group of home visiting nurses. After 6 months, their pre- and post-intervention work engagement ratings were compared with those of a control group. Baseline questionnaires were returned by 174 home visiting nurses (44 in the intervention group, 130 in the control group). Post-intervention questionnaires were returned by 38 and 97 home visiting nurses from each group. The intervention group's average work engagement scores were 2.2 at baseline and 2.3 at post-intervention; the control group's were 3.3 and 2.6. Generalised linear regression showed significant between-group differences in score changes. The skill-mix programme might foster home visiting nurses' work engagement by improving the quality of care for each client. Future research is needed to explain the exact mechanisms that underlie its effectiveness. In order to improve the efficiency of services provided by home visiting nurses and foster their work engagement, skill-mix programmes might be beneficial. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sengupta, Manisha; Decker, Sandra L; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren; Jones, Adrienne
This article aims to describe potential racial differences in dementia care among nursing home residents with dementia. Using data from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS) in regression models, the authors examine whether non-Whites are less likely than Whites to receive special dementia care--defined as receiving special dementia care services or being in a dementia special care unit (SCU)--and whether this difference derives from differences in resident or facility characteristics. The authors find that non-Whites are 4.3 percentage points less likely than Whites to receive special dementia care. The fact that non-Whites are more likely to rely on Medicaid and less likely to pay out of pocket for nursing home care explains part but not all of the difference. Most of the difference is due to the fact that non-Whites reside in facilities that are less likely to have special dementia care services or dementia care units, particularly for-profit facilities and those in the South.
Paque, Kristel; Goossens, Katrien; Elseviers, Monique; Van Bogaert, Peter; Dilles, Tinne
This paper examines recently admitted nursing home residents' practical autonomy, their remaining social environment and their social functioning. In a cross-sectional design, 391 newly admitted residents of 67 nursing homes participated. All respondents were ≥65 years old, had mini-mental state examination ≥18 and were living in the nursing home for at least 1 month. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and validated measuring tools. The mean age was 84, 64% were female, 23% had a partner, 80% children, 75% grandchildren and 59% siblings. The mean social functioning score was 3/9 (or 33%) and the autonomy and importance of autonomy score 6/9 (or 67%). More autonomy was observed when residents could perform activities of daily living more independently, and cognitive functioning, quality of life and social functioning were high. Residents with depressive feelings scored lower on autonomy and social functioning compared to those without depressive feelings. Having siblings and the frequency of visits positively correlated with social functioning. In turn, social functioning correlated positively with quality of life. Moreover, a higher score on social functioning lowered the probability of depression. Autonomy or self-determination and maintaining remaining social relationships were considered to be important by the new residents. The remaining social environment, social functioning, quality of life, autonomy and depressive feelings influenced each other, but the cause--effect relation was not clear.
Buchanan, Robert J; Rosenthal, Mark; Graber, David R; Wang, Suojin; Kim, Myung Suk
To present racial/ethnic comparisons of comprehensive profiles of nursing home residents at admission, including whites, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. More than 885,000 admission assessments recorded in the national Minimum Data Set (MDS) were analyzed. Racial and ethnic analyses of the MDS admission assessments were conducted using the software package SAS. There were significant racial/ethnic differences in gender and age, with minority residents more likely to be male and younger. African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islanders were significantly more likely than white residents to exhibit total dependence in the self-performance of the ADLs and to have greater cognitive impairments, with Asian/Pacific Islanders the most physically dependent and cognitively impaired. The results illustrate significant and substantive differences among the racial/ethnic groups for many demographic characteristics, as well as health-related indicators and conditions. This analysis suggests that the general perspective that economically disadvantaged minorities enter nursing homes in worse condition than whites is too simplistic. More research, particularly qualitative studies of specific minority groups, will advance our understanding of why members of some racial/ethnic groups require nursing home placement sooner than other groups.
Hollaar, V.; Maarel-Wierink, C. van der; Putten, G.J. van der; Sanden, W. van der; Swart, B.J. de; Baat, C. de
BACKGROUND: In nursing home residents, it is not possible to distinguish pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia clinically. International literature reveals no consensus on which and how many characteristics and risk indicators must be present to diagnose (nursing home-acquired) pneumonia and aspiration
Thorsteinsson, Kristinn; Andreasen, Jan; Mortensen, Rikke N
OBJECTIVES: Data on nursing home admission in patient's ≥80 years after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longevity and subsequent admission to a nursing home stratified by age in a nationwide CABG cohort. METHODS: All patients who...... underwent isolated CABG from 1996 to 2012 in Denmark were identified through nationwide registers. The cumulative incidence of admission to a nursing home after CABG was estimated. A Cox regression model was constructed to identify predictors for living in a nursing home 1 year after CABG. Kaplan.......1% of patients ≥80 years had received home care. The proportion of patients admitted to a nursing home at 1, 5 and 10 years after CABG was 0.1, 0.4 and 1.0% (nursing home 1 year postoperatively were: age ≥80 years...
Harrington, Charlene; Woolhandler, Steffie; Mullan, Joseph; Carrillo, Helen; Himmelstein, David U
Quality problems have long plagued the nursing home industry. While two-thirds of U.S. nursing homes are investor-owned, few studies have examined the impact of investor-ownership on the quality of care. The authors analyzed 1998 data from inspections of 13,693 nursing facilities representing virtually all U.S. nursing homes. They grouped deficiency citations issued by inspectors into three categories ("quality of care," "quality of life," and "other") and compared deficiency rates in investor-owned, nonprofit, and public nursing homes. A multivariate model was used to control for case mix, percentage of residents covered by Medicaid, whether the facility was hospital-based, whether it was a skilled nursing facility for Medicare only, chain ownership, and location by state. The study also assessed nurse staffing. The authors found that investor-owned nursing homes provide worse care and less nursing care than nonprofit or public homes. Investor-owned facilities averaged 5.89 deficiencies per home, 46.5 percent higher than nonprofit and 43.0 percent higher than public facilities, and also had more of each category of deficiency. In the multivariate analysis, investor-ownership predicted 0.679 additional deficiencies per home; chain-ownership predicted an additional 0.633 deficiencies per home. Nurse staffing ratios were markedly lower at investor-owned homes.
Døhl, Øystein; Garåsen, Helge; Kalseth, Jorid; Magnussen, Jon
Within the setting of a public health service we analyse the distribution of resources between individuals in nursing homes funded by global budgets. Three questions are pursued. Firstly, whether there are systematic variations between nursing homes in the level of care given to patients. Secondly, whether such variations can be explained by nursing home characteristics. And thirdly, how individual need-related variables are associated with differences in the level of care given. The study included 1204 residents in 35 nursing homes and extra care sheltered housing facilities. Direct time spent with patients was recorded. In average each patient received 14.8 hours direct care each week. Multilevel regression analysis is used to analyse the relationship between individual characteristics, nursing home characteristics and time spent with patients in nursing homes. The study setting is the city of Trondheim, with a population of approximately 180 000. There are large variations between nursing homes in the total amount of individual care given to patients. As much as 24 percent of the variation of individual care between patients could be explained by variation between nursing homes. Adjusting for structural nursing home characteristics did not substantially reduce the variation between nursing homes. As expected a negative association was found between individual care and case-mix, implying that at nursing home level a more resource demanding case-mix is compensated by lowering the average amount of care. At individual level ADL-disability is the strongest predictor for use of resources in nursing homes. For the average user one point increase in ADL-disability increases the use of resources with 27 percent. In a financial reimbursement model for nursing homes with no adjustment for case-mix, the amount of care patients receive does not solely depend on the patients' own needs, but also on the needs of all the other residents.
Verkaik, R.; Francke, A.; Berno, M. van; Bensing, J.; Miel, R.
Introduction: The prevalence rate of depression in psychogeriatric nursing home residents with dementia is recently estimated at 19%. Comorbid depression in dementia has been associated with decreased quality of life, greater health care utilization and higher mortality rates. The effects of
Full Text Available Gregory Reardon,1 Naushira Pandya,2 Robert A Bailey31Informagenics, LLC and The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Geriatrics, Nova Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ft Lauderdale, FL, USA; 3Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Horsham, PA, USAPurpose: Falls are common among nursing home residents and have potentially severe consequences, including fracture and other trauma. Recent evidence suggests anemia may be independently related to these falls. This study explores the relationship between the use of anemia-related pharmacotherapies and falls among nursing home residents.Methods: Forty nursing homes in the United States provided data for analysis. All incidents of falls over the 6-month post-index follow-up period were used to identify the outcomes of falls (≥1 fall and recurrent falls (>1 fall. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between falls and recurrent falls with each of the anemia pharmacotherapies after adjusting for potential confounders.Results: A total of 632 residents were eligible for analysis. More than half (57% of residents were identified as anemic (hemoglobin < 12 g/dL females, or <13 g/dL males. Of anemic residents, 50% had been treated with one or more therapies (14% used vitamin B12, 10% folic acid, 38% iron, 0.3% darbepoetin alfa [DARB], and 1.3% epoetin alfa [EPO]. Rates of falls/recurrent falls were 33%/18% for those receiving vitamin B12, 40%/16% for folic acid, 27%/14% for iron, 38%/8% for DARB, 18%/2% for EPO, and 22%/11% for those receiving no therapy. In the adjusted models, use of EPO or DARB was associated with significantly lower odds of recurrent falls (odds ratio = 0.06; P = 0.001. Other significant covariates included psychoactive medication use, age 75–84 years, age 85+ years, worsened balance score, and chronic kidney disease (P < 0.05 for all.Conclusion: Only half of the anemic residents were found to be using anemia
Volicer, L.; Kampen, van J.T.; Frijters, D.H.M.
OBJECTIVES: To determine modifiable factors related to abusive behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia. DESIGN: Analysis of Minimum Data Set (MDS) of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) information. SETTING: We used MDS-RAI data from 8 Dutch nursing homes and 10 residential homes that
... Noncompetitive Supplements to Nursing Assistant and Home Health Aide Program Grantees AGENCY: Health Resources... expansion supplements of $100,000 to 10 Nursing Assistant and Home Health Aide (NAHHA) Program grantees to... Management; Care Coordination and Follow Up; and Behavioral Health and Social Support for Home Health Aides...
Groot, K. de; Maurits, E.E.M.; Francke, A.L.
Many western countries are experiencing a substantial shortage of home-care nurses due to the increasing numbers of care-dependent people living at home. In-depth knowledge is needed about what home-care nurses find attractive about their work in order to make recommendations for the recruitment and
Sørensen, Lisbeth Uhrskov; Foldspang, Anders; Gulmann, Nils Christian
Objectives To describe the criterion validity of nursing home staff's assessment of organic disorder compared with ICD-10 criteria, and to identify determinants of staff assessment of organic disorder. Method Two hundred and eighty-eight residents were diagnosed using the GMS-AGECAT. Nursing staff...... members were interviewed about the residents' activities of Daily Living, behavioural problems, orientation in surroundings and communication skills, and asked if the resident had an organic disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to select the items that most strongly determined staff assessment...... as under-labelling of residents, a tendency that will affect communication with medical personnel and may lead to inadequate or wrong medical treatment and to negative performance as well as negative role expectations in everyday life in nursing homes....
Güler, Elem Kocaçal; Eşer, Ismet; Khorshid, Leyla; Yücel, Sebnem Çinar
There are limited studies on nursing diagnoses of the elderly living in nursing homes worldwide. This study aimed to define the most frequent nursing diagnoses in the elderly residents of a nursing home elder care and rehabilitation center. Seventy-four elderly individuals were included in the study. Data were collected using the "Elderly Individual's Introduction Form" between April 2007 to August 2007. The content of the form was based on a guide to gerontologic assessment, and Gordon's Functional Health Patterns. The nursing diagnoses (NANDA-I Taxonomy II) were identified by the 2 researchers separately according to the defining characteristics and the risk factors. The consistency between the nursing diagnoses defined by the 2 researchers was evaluated using Cohen's kappa (κ). There was an 84.7% agreement about nursing diagnoses defined by the 2 researchers separately. The weighted kappa consistency analyses showed there was an adequate level of consistency (κ = 0.710), and the findings were significant (p health maintenance (81.2%), risk for falls (77%), and impaired physical mobility (73%). The diagnosis of ineffective role performance was more frequent in patients with dementia (x(2) =10.993, df = 1, p = 0.001). There was a very significant relationship between dementia and the diagnosis of impaired verbal communication (x(2) = 32.718, df = 1, p = 0.0001). The relationship between mobility disorder and self-care deficit was also significant (x(2) = 19.411, df = 1, p = 0.0001). To improve quality in patient care, nurses should use nursing diagnoses with a systematic assessment and should help the elderly in health promotion or use of the maximum current potential. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jucelia Salgueiro Nascimento
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the domiciliary visit performed by nurses in the Family Health Strategy as an activity to promote health. Methods: Exploratory/descriptive study with qualitative approach. The subjects were nine nurses of the Primary Health Units from Health Districts in Maceió-AL. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews in the months from April to August 2012 and were analyzed using content analysis and in light of the theoretical framework of Health Promotion. Results: The nurses recognize that the domiciliary visit can be a way to promote the health of individuals, families and community, but, in daily life, action maintains focus on disease, with curative actions of individual character, which do not take into account the social context where the user and his family are inserted. Conclusion: It is considered that the use of home visits by nurses in the family health strategy as a health promotion activity is still incipient because, although the nurses recognize the need for change in the model of care, in practice, it is observed that the focus of this action is directed to the biological model. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p513
Dellefield, Mary Ellen; Magnabosco, Jennifer L
Sustaining pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) in nursing homes has been difficult to achieve. Implementation science researchers suggest that identification of individual staff and organizational factors influencing current practices is essential to the development of an effective and customized plan to implement practice changes in a specific setting. A mixed methods approach was used to describe nurses' perceptions of individual and organization-level factors influencing performance of PUP in two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes prior to implementation of a national VHA initiative on Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers (HAPUs). Individual interviews of 16 nursing staff were conducted. Individual factors influencing practice were a personal sense of responsibility to Veterans and belief in the effectiveness and importance of preventive measures. Organizational factors were existence of cooperative practices between nursing assistants and licensed nurses in assessing risk; teamwork, communication, and a commitment to Veterans' well-being. Integration and reinforcement of such factors in the development and maintenance of customized plans of PUP initiatives is recommended. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Temple, April; Dobbs, Debra; Andel, Ross
High turnover of nursing assistants (NAs) has implications for the quality of nursing home care. Greater understanding of correlates of NA turnover is needed to provide insight into possible retention strategies. This study examined nursing home organizational characteristics and specific job characteristics of staff in relation to turnover of NAs. Cross-sectional data on 944 nationally representative nursing homes were derived from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. Using a 3-month turnover rate, 25% of the facilities with the lowest turnover rates were classified as low turnover, 25% of the facilities with the highest turnover were classified as high turnover, and the remaining 50% of the facilities were classified as moderate turnover. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine organizational and job characteristics associated with low and high turnover compared with moderate turnover. One organizational characteristic, staffing levels at or greater than 4.0 hours per patient day, was associated with greater odds of low NA turnover and reduced odds of high NA turnover. Job characteristics including higher wages and union membership were associated with greater odds of low NA turnover, whereas wages, fully paid health insurance, employee assistance benefits, and involvement in resident care planning were associated with reduced odds of high NA turnover. The results of this study suggest that job characteristics of NA staff may be particularly important for turnover. Specifically, the provision of competitive wages and benefits (particularly health insurance) and involvement of NAs in resident care planning could potentially reduce NA turnover, as could maintaining high levels of nurse staffing.
Mathur, G P; Pandey, P K; Mathur, S; Mishra, V K; Singh, K; Bhatt, O P; Loomba, R K; Luthra, C; Taneja, S; Kapoor, R
In January 1993 in Kanpur, India, a survey of 7 private nursing homes revealed that infant formula was given to most newborns (52.4%). The most common brands included Lactogen-I, Milk Care, Raptakos, Dexolac Special Care, and Lactodex. Staff at 5 nursing homes gave prelacteal feeds (water, glucose water, and infant formula) to newborns when they were separated from their mothers. Staff at only 2 nursing homes gave the newborn to the mother immediately after delivery. The longest period between delivery and giving the newborn to the mother was 24 hours. All but one of the nursing homes did not know about the government policy and the recent bill that bars free or low-cost infant formula supplies to hospitals. The administration of the nursing homes did not inform the procurement department, in writing, of the government policy. 4 nursing homes bought low-cost supplies of infant formula from the companies. The companies sold the infant formula to the nursing homes at a price 48.3% to 86.7% lower than the market price. Medical stores inside or outside the nursing homes sold the infant formula to parents at the other 3 homes. The nursing homes used, on average, 2-50 kg/month. Nestle (Lactogen-I) and Dalmia Industries (Milk Care) had a monopoly in infant formula in 4 and 3 nursing homes, respectively. Infant formula was in stock in 5 nursing homes. None of the nursing homes gave mothers free or low-cost infant formula at discharge. Lower than market price and increased number of calls to the hospitals and physicians by company personnel were marketing techniques used by the manufacturers to maintain market share. These results show that, despite government policy and the bill, hospitals continue to use infant formula. The government should use the mass media to increase awareness about its policy on infant foods and the concept of the Baby Friendly Hospital.
Rubin, Gerald; Balaji, Rengarajan V; Barcikowski, Robert
The aims of this study were: (1) to identify barriers to nurse/nursing aide communication and to discuss and provide solutions to some of these problems through a focus group; and (2) to determine the effectiveness of this focus group on job satisfaction-related outcomes. Numerous studies have attributed problems with nurse staffing and turnover to faulty communication between nursing supervisors and nursing aides. Registered nurses (RNs) (n = 2), licensed practical nurses (LPNs) (n = 10) and nursing aides (n = 19) were interviewed; narrative themes from the interviews were then used to guide focus group discussions. A job satisfaction survey in a pre-test/post-test fashion was used to test the efficacy of the focus group. Qualitative data from the interviews highlighted: (1) anger and condescension in communication; and (2) lack of mentoring, empathy and respect. The job satisfaction survey data showed that the attitudes decreased significantly among participants in the focus group but not in the control group (P communication and collegiality, thereby reducing job turnover in nursing homes.
Zeltzer, Barry B; Kohn, Robert
This study examined the practices of home care agencies and home health nursing agencies in the management and treatment of homebound clients with behavioral problems, dementia, and undiagnosed mental illnesses. A survey was mailed to all 54 directors of agencies in Rhode Island in 2003; 53 responded, either by mail or telephone. Data indicated a lack of psychiatric services, a reluctance to address behavioral problems, and a failure to identify undiagnosed disorders. There was also a bias against accepting individuals with primary psychiatric disorders. Although the population of homebound elders with mental illness is increasing, their needs are not being met by these agencies.
Harrington, Charlene; Schnelle, John F.; McGregor, Margaret; Simmons, Sandra F.
Many U.S. nursing homes have serious quality problems, in part, because of inadequate levels of nurse staffing. This commentary focuses on two issues. First, there is a need for higher minimum nurse staffing standards for U.S. nursing homes based on multiple research studies showing a positive relationship between nursing home quality and staffing and the benefits of implementing higher minimum staffing standards. Studies have identified the minimum staffing levels necessary to provide care consistent with the federal regulations, but many U.S. facilities have dangerously low staffing. Second, the barriers to staffing reform are discussed. These include economic concerns about costs and a focus on financial incentives. The enforcement of existing staffing standards has been weak, and strong nursing home industry political opposition has limited efforts to establish higher standards. Researchers should study the ways to improve staffing standards and new payment, regulatory, and political strategies to improve nursing home staffing and quality. PMID:27103819
Dumyati, Ghinwa; Stone, Nimalie D; Nace, David A; Crnich, Christopher J; Jump, Robin L P
Nursing home residents are at high risk for colonization and infection with bacterial pathogens that are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We discuss challenges and potential solutions to support implementing effective infection prevention and control practices in nursing homes. Challenges include a paucity of evidence that addresses MDRO transmission during the care of nursing home residents, limited staff resources in nursing homes, insufficient infection prevention education in nursing homes, and perceptions by nursing home staff that isolation and contact precautions negatively influence the well being of their residents. A small number of studies provide evidence that specifically address these challenges. Their outcomes support a paradigm shift that moves infection prevention and control practices away from a pathogen-specific approach and toward one that focuses on resident risk factors.
Fain, Kevin M; Rosenberg, Paul B; Pirard, Sandrine; Bogunovic, Olivera; Spira, Adam P
Many nursing home residents have cognitive impairment that affects their decision making. In order to identify potential markers of impaired decision making, we investigated the association between a range of nursing home resident characteristics and impaired decision making in a population-based sample. Participants were 13,013 residents in the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. We used logistic regression to determine the association between resident characteristics (ie, gender, age, race, mood, recent pain, falls, fractures, or hospitalizations, length of stay, number of activities of daily living (ADL) requiring help, and diagnoses of dementia, anxiety disorders, and depression) and impaired (vs independent) decision making. After controlling for depression and anxiety diagnoses, as well as gender, age, race, and recent hospitalization or pain, characteristics associated with impaired decision making included depressed, sad, or anxious mood ["mild" odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-1.58; "severe" OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27-3.20); diagnosed dementia or living on a dementia hall (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 4.52-5.67); number of ADL requiring assistance (with 5 ADL, OR = 10.69, 95% CI = 6.82-16.75); length of nursing home stay [101-365 days (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.36-1.89); 366 days-2 years (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34-1.90); >2 years (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.92-2.63)]; and history of falls or fractures in the last 6 months (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.07-1.32)]. Residents reporting pain in the last week were less likely to have impaired decision making (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.52-0.66). We found several independent markers of impaired decision making in nursing home residents, including depressed, sad, or anxious mood (independent of depression or anxiety diagnosis); dementia; and greater need for ADL assistance. Some of these factors, in particular mood, are modifiable and addressing them may help improve decision making. These markers should be explored
Albrecht, Martina; Kupfer, Ramona; Reissmann, Daniel R; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Köpke, Sascha
Associations between nursing home residents' oral health status and quality of life, respiratory tract infections, and nutritional status have been reported. Educational interventions for nurses or residents, or both, focusing on knowledge and skills related to oral health management may have the potential to improve residents' oral health. To assess the effects of oral health educational interventions for nursing home staff or residents, or both, to maintain or improve the oral health of nursing home residents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Trials Register (to 18 January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 18 January 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 18 January 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 18 January 2016), and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 18 January 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 18 January 2016. In addition, we searched reference lists of identified articles and contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs comparing oral health educational programmes for nursing staff or residents, or both with usual care or any other oral healthcare intervention. Two review authors independently screened articles retrieved from the searches for relevance, extracted data from included studies, assessed risk of bias for each included study, and evaluated the overall quality of the evidence. We retrieved data about the development and evaluation processes of complex interventions on the basis of the Criteria for Reporting the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in healthcare: revised guideline (CReDECI 2). We contacted authors of relevant studies for additional information. We included nine RCTs involving
Carlson, Elisabeth; Bengtsson, Mariette
The expected shortage of registered nurses with an advanced degree as specialists in geriatric care or gerontology is imminent. Previous studies report that clinical practice where student nurses are supervised by registered nurses has a direct impact on how students perceive nursing as a profession and future career choice. Considering the anticipated need for well-educated and specialised nurses it is therefore, relevant as well as necessary to describe clinical learning with a focus on preceptorship in geriatric nursing care. This paper is a report of a study describing registered nurses' experience of precepting undergraduate student nurses during clinical practice in nursing homes and home-based care. A qualitative design, based on seven focus group interviews, was employed with 30 registered nurses with preceptor experience from nursing homes and home-based care for the elderly. Our findings present three precepting strategies that are unique to elderly care: preparing students for end of life care, facilitating a respectful approach to the older person and promoting creativity and independent work. The findings are discussed using a socio-cultural perspective and illustrate how communities of elderly practice can be valuable learning environments. © 2013.
Vogelsmeier, Amy A; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill R; Pepper, Ginette A
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe medication reconciliation practices in nursing homes with a specific focus on nursing staff involvement in the process. The study was conducted in eight Midwestern nursing homes and included 46 onsite observations of resident transfers to the nursing home. Informal interviews of nursing staff performing medication reconciliation were conducted during each observation. Findings suggest nursing home nursing staff, including both RN and licensed practical nurse (LPN) staff, were primarily responsible for performing medication reconciliation; however, these staff often varied in how they processed resident transfer information to identify medication order discrepancies. Patterns of differences were found related to their perceptions about medication reconciliation, as well as their actions when performing the process. RN staff were more often focused on resident safety and putting the "big picture" together, whereas LPN staff were more often focused on the administrative assignment and "completing the task." Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Corazzini, Kirsten; Twersky, Jack; White, Heidi K; Buhr, Gwendolen T; McConnell, Eleanor S; Weiner, Madeline; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S
To describe key adaptive challenges and leadership behaviors to implement culture change for person-directed care. The study design was a qualitative, observational study of nursing home staff perceptions of the implementation of culture change in each of 3 nursing homes. We conducted 7 focus groups of licensed and unlicensed nursing staff, medical care providers, and administrators. Questions explored perceptions of facilitators and barriers to culture change. Using a template organizing style of analysis with immersion/crystallization, themes of barriers and facilitators were coded for adaptive challenges and leadership. Six key themes emerged, including relationships, standards and expectations, motivation and vision, workload, respect of personhood, and physical environment. Within each theme, participants identified barriers that were adaptive challenges and facilitators that were examples of adaptive leadership. Commonly identified challenges were how to provide person-directed care in the context of extant rules or policies or how to develop staff motivated to provide person-directed care. Implementing culture change requires the recognition of adaptive challenges for which there are no technical solutions, but which require reframing of norms and expectations, and the development of novel and flexible solutions. Managers and administrators seeking to implement person-directed care will need to consider the role of adaptive leadership to address these adaptive challenges. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pimentel, Camilla B; Donovan, Jennifer L; Field, Terry S; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Harrold, Leslie R; Kanaan, Abir O; Lemay, Celeste A; Mazor, Kathleen M; Tjia, Jennifer; Briesacher, Becky A
To describe the current extent and type of pharmaceutical marketing in nursing homes (NHs) in one state and to provide preliminary evidence for the potential influence of pharmaceutical marketing on the use of atypical antipsychotics in NHs. Nested mixed-methods, cross-sectional study of NHs in a cluster randomized trial. Forty-one NHs in Connecticut. NH administrators, directors of nursing, and medical directors (n = 93, response rate 75.6%). Quantitative data, including prescription drug dispensing data (September 2009-August 2010) linked with Nursing Home Compare data (April 2011), were used to determine facility-level prevalence of atypical antipsychotic use, facility-level characteristics, NH staffing, and NH quality. Qualitative data, including semistructured interviews and surveys of NH leaders conducted in the first quarter of 2011, were used to determine encounters with pharmaceutical marketing. Leadership at 46.3% of NHs (n = 19) reported pharmaceutical marketing encounters, consisting of educational training, written and Internet-based materials, and sponsored training. No association was detected between level of atypical antipsychotic prescribing and reports of any pharmaceutical marketing by at least one NH leader. NH leaders frequently encounter pharmaceutical marketing through a variety of ways, although the impact on atypical antipsychotic prescribing is unclear. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
To assess pressure ulcers and the associated risk factors, among the individuals who stayed at Yozgat Rehabilitation Care Center in Turkey. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Yozgat Rehabilitation Care Center, Turkey, from August to September 2011. Methodology: One hundred and seventy five individuals participated in the study who received care at the above nursing home and agreed to participate in the study. The data were collected with an information form of descriptive characteristics (the form included a total of 15 questions asked to get information about socio-demographic characteristics) and Braden risk assessment scale. For the data evaluation, Mann-Whitney U-test, Krushall-Wallis Variance analysis, Logistic Regression analysis were used. Statistical significance was defined by a probability level of p < 0.05. Results: The mean score of Braden risk assessment scale of the individuals was 15.0 +- 3.3 and 16.0% were under very high risk. Nine (5.1%) had pressure ulcers. The average duration of stay was 2.17 +- 0.80 years. Participants who were underweight, had lived at the rehabilitation center for a longer time, and were fed on regime 1, had a higher risk of developing pressure ulcers (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Individuals who stayed in nursing home were under very high risk of pressure ulcer. Pressure ulcers are preventable by the elimination of some risk factors and good nursing care. Such individuals should be periodically assessed in terms of risk. (author)
Kuru, Nilgun; Kublay, Gulumser
To evaluate the effect of Laughter therapy on the quality of life of nursing home residents. By improving the quality of life of residents living in nursing homes and allowing them to have a healthier existence, their lives can be extended. Therefore, interventions impacting the quality of life of older adults are of critical importance. Quasi-experimental design. The study was conducted between 2 March - 25 May 2015. The experimental group was composed of 32 nursing home residents from one nursing home, while the control group consisted of 33 nursing home residents from another nursing home in the capital city of Turkey. Laughter therapy was applied with nursing home residents of the experimental group two days per week (21 sessions in total). A socio-demographic form and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were used for data collection. After the laughter therapy intervention, general and subscales (physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional and spiritual health) quality-of-life scores of residents in the experimental group significantly increased in comparison with the pretest. Laughter therapy improved the quality of life of nursing home residents. Therefore, nursing home management should integrate laughter therapy into health care and laughter therapy should be provided as a routine nursing intervention. The results indicated that the laughter therapy programme had a positive effect on the quality of life of nursing home residents. Nurses can use laughter therapy as an intervention to improve quality of life of nursing home residents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Porter, Jessie; Ntouva, Antiopi; Read, Andrew; Murdoch, Mandy; Ola, Dennis; Tsakos, Georgios
Background Good oral health in older residents of nursing homes is important for general health and quality of life. Very few studies have assessed how oral symptoms affect residents? quality of life. Objective To assess the clinical and subjective oral health, including oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL), and the association of oral symptoms with OHRQoL in older people residing in nursing homes in Islington, London. Method Overall, 325 residents from nine nursing homes were clinica...
Yu, Wei; Bradford, Garnett L.
Rural-urban differences in the supply of nursing home services as hypothesized to be jointly affected by competitive and regulatory forces, government policies, and the cost structure. Study findings indicate that rural services are slightly less accessible and lower in quality. A translog cost share function reveals no difference in the operating cost structure of rural and urban homes. Cost shares for nursing care are directly related to the degree of skilled nursing provided by homes. Sign...
Background Internationally, there are concerns about the quality of care in nursing homes. The concept of ?corporate culture? as an internal variable could be seen as the means to improve quality of care and quality of life for the residents. The aim of this article was to describe the nursing home culture from the staff?s perspective and to include how the residents describe quality of care. Methods An ethnographic design was employed. A purposive sample of four municipal public nursing home...
De Groot, Kim; Maurits, Erica E M; Francke, Anneke L
Many western countries are experiencing a substantial shortage of home-care nurses due to the increasing numbers of care-dependent people living at home. In-depth knowledge is needed about what home-care nurses find attractive about their work in order to make recommendations for the recruitment and retention of home-care nursing staff. The aims of this explorative, qualitative study were to gain in-depth knowledge about which aspects home-care nurses find attractive about their work and to explore whether these aspects vary for home-care nurses with different levels of education. Discussions were conducted with six online focus groups in 2016 with a total of 38 Dutch home-care nurses. The transcripts were analysed using the principles of thematic analysis. The findings showed that home-care nurses find it attractive that they are a "linchpin", in the sense of being the leading professional and with the patient as the centre of care. Home-care nurses also find having autonomy attractive: autonomy over decision-making about care, freedom in work scheduling and working in a self-directed team. Variety in patient situations and activities also makes their work attractive. Home-care nurses with a bachelor's degree did not differ much in what they found attractive aspects from those with an associate degree (a nursing qualification after completing senior secondary vocational education). It is concluded that autonomy, variety and being a "linchpin" are the attractive aspects of working in home care. To help recruit and retain home-care nursing staff, these attractive aspects should be emphasised in nursing education and practice, in recruitment programmes and in publicity material. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lev, Sagit; Ayalon, Liat
We examined the ways in which the social worker is coping with obligation dilemma in an Israeli nursing home. The research was conducted using semi-structured, in-depth interviews carried out with fifteen social workers employed in nursing homes. The interviews were analysed thematically, using constant comparisons. The three themes were concerned with the social worker's place in the nursing home, her relationship with the management and staff, and her coping with the obligation dilemma. The...
Maurits, Erica E M; de Veer, Anke J E; Groenewegen, Peter P; Francke, Anneke L
The World Health Organization is calling for a fundamental change in healthcare services delivery, towards people-centred and integrated health services. This includes providing integrated care around people's needs that is effectively co-ordinated across providers and co-produced by professionals, the patient, the family and the community. At the same time, healthcare policies aim to scale back hospital and residential care in favour of home care. This is one reason for the home-care nursing staff shortages in Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to examine whether people-centred, integrated home care appeals to nurses with different levels of education in home care and hospitals. A questionnaire survey was held among registered nurses in Dutch home-care organisations and hospitals in 2015. The questionnaire addressed the perceived attractiveness of different aspects of people-centred, integrated home care. In total 328 nurses filled in the questionnaire (54% response rate). The findings showed that most home-care nurses (70% to 97%) and 36% to 76% of the hospital nurses regard the different aspects of people-centred, integrated home care as attractive. Specific aspects that home-care nurses find attractive are promoting the patient's self-reliance and having a network in the community. Hospital nurses are mainly attracted to health-related prevention and taking control in complex situations. No clear differences between the educational levels were found. It is concluded that most home-care nurses and a minority of hospital nurses feel attracted to people-centred, integrated home care, irrespective of their educational level. The findings are relevant to policy makers and home-care organisations who aim to expand the home-care nursing workforce. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gudex, Claire; Horsted, Charlotte; Jensen, Anders Møller
Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care.......Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care....
Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Larsson, Lise-Lotte Franklin; Norberg, Astrid
Caring for people with dementia and working in dementia care is described as having both rewarding and unpleasant aspects and has been studied to a minor extent. This study aims to explore care providers' narrated experiences of caring for people with dementia disease (DD) and working in a private not-for-profit residential care facility for people with DD. Nine care providers were interviewed about their experiences, the interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that participants were struggling to perform person-centred care, which meant trying to see the person behind the disease, dealing with troublesome situations in the daily care, a two-edged interaction with relatives, feelings of shortcomings and troubled conscience, and the need for improvements in dementia care. The analysis also revealed an ambiguous work situation, which meant a challenging value base, the differently judged work environment, feelings of job satisfaction and the need for a functional leadership and management. The results illuminate participants' positive as well as negative experiences and have identified areas requiring improvements. It seems of great importance to strive for a supportive and attendant leadership, a leadership which aims to empower care providers in their difficult work. Using conscience as a driving force together in the work group may benefit care providers' health. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Byrd, Mary E
The purpose of this paper was to develop a nursing-focused use of social exchange theory within the context of maternal-child home visiting. The nature of social exchange theory, its application to client-nurse interaction, and its fit with an existing data set from a field research investigation were examined. Resources exchanged between the nurse and clients were categorized and compared across the patterns of home visiting, nursing strategies based on exchange notions were identified, and variations in exchange were linked with client outcomes. The nurse provided resources within the categories of information, status, service, and goods. Clients provided time, access to the home, space within the home to conduct the visit, opportunities to observe maternal-child interaction, access to the infant, and information. The ease and breadth of resource exchange varied across the patterns of home visiting. The social exchange perspective was useful in categorizing resources, specifying and uncovering new resource categories, understanding nursing strategies to initiate and maintain the client-nurse relationship, and linking client-nurse interactive phenomena with client outcomes. Social exchange theory is potentially useful for understanding client-nurse interaction in the context of maternal-child home visits.
Bahrmann, A; Wörz, E; Specht-Leible, N; Oster, P; Bahrmann, P
The goal of this study was to perform a structured analysis of the treatment quality and acute complications of geriatric patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) cared for by nursing services and nursing home facilities. Secondly, structural problems and potentials for improvement in the care of multimorbid older people with DM treated by nursing homes and nursing services were analysed from the viewpoint of geriatric nurses, managers of nursing homes and general practitioners. In all, 77 older persons with DM from 13 nursing homes and 3 nursing services were included in the analysis (76.6% female, HbA1c 6.9 ± 1.4%, age 81.6 ± 9.9 years). Structural problems and potentials for improvement were collected from 95 geriatric nurses, 9 managers of nursing homes and 6 general practitioners using semistandardized questionnaires. Metabolic control was too strict in care-dependent older people with DM (mean HbA1c value: 6.9 ± 1.4 %; recommended by guidelines: 7-8%). The measurement of HbA1c was performed in 16 of 77 people (20.8%) within the last year despite a high visitation frequency of the general practitioners (12.7 ± 7.7 within the last 6 months). The incidence of severe hypoglycemia was 7.8%/patient/year. Regarding the management in case of diabetes-related acute complications 33 geriatric nurses (34.7%) stated not having any written standard (nursing home 39%, geriatric services 16.7%). Complex insulin therapies are still used in older people with DM with the consequence of a high incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Concrete management standards in the case of diabetes-related acute complications for geriatric nurses are lacking for more than one third of the nursing services.
Karsh, B; Booske, B C; Sainfort, F
The purpose of this study was to examine whether job characteristics, the work environment, participation in quality improvement activities and facility quality improvement environment predicted employee commitment and job satisfaction in nursing homes, and whether those same predictors and commitment and satisfaction predicted turnover intention. A total of 6,584 nursing home employees from 76 nursing homes in a midwestern state participated. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The results supported the hypotheses that job and organizational factors predicted commitment and satisfaction while commitment and satisfaction predicted turnover intentions. The implications for retaining nursing home employees are discussed.
Grabowski, David C; Town, Robert J
We evaluate the effects of the Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI), which introduced quality measures to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Nursing Home Compare website, on facility performance and consumer demand for services. The nursing home Minimum Data Set facility reports from 1999 to 2005 merged with facility-level data from the On-Line Survey, Certification, and Reporting System. We rely on the staggered rollout of the report cards across pilot and nonpilot states to examine the effect of report cards on market share and quality of care. We also exploit differences in nursing home market competition at baseline to identify the impacts of the new information on nursing home quality. The introduction of the NHQI was generally unrelated to facility quality and consumer demand. However, nursing homes facing greater competition improved their quality more than facilities in less competitive markets. The lack of competition in many nursing home markets may help to explain why the NHQI report card effort had a minimal effect on nursing home quality. With the introduction of market-based reforms such as report cards, this result suggests policy makers must also consider market structure in efforts to improve nursing home performance. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Aaronson, W E; Zinn, J S; Rosko, M D
This study applies Porter's model of competitive advantage to the nursing home industry. Discriminant analysis is used to identify organizational and environmental characteristics associated with nursing homes which have demonstrated valued strategic outcomes, and to distinguish the more successful nursing homes from their rivals. The results of the discriminant analysis suggest that nursing homes with superior payer mix outcomes are distinguishable from their less successful rivals in areas associated with a focused generic strategy. The study suggests that nursing homes which are better staffed, of smaller size and lower price are more likely to achieve high levels of self-pay utilization. Independent living units, continuing care retirement communities in particular, are likely to act synergistically with nursing home organizational characteristics to enhance competitive advantage by linking the value chain of the nursing home to that of retirement housing. Nursing homes with higher proportions of Medicare were found to provide a unique product when compared to their rivals. Profit status does not discriminate better self-pay strategic utilization, but for-profit facilities are more likely to pursue a Medicare strategy. Concern was raised that, as nursing homes become more strategically oriented, Medicaid access may become more problematic.
Mendelson, Dan; Ramchand, Rajeev; Abramson, Richard; Tumlinson, Anne
This brief provides a description of prescription drug use in nursing homes and a summary of current policy issues in this area. The brief first profiles the nursing home pharmaceutical market, outlining the major trends in demographics and drug utilization, the supply chain by which drugs go from manufacturers to pharmacies to nursing home residents, and the alternative arrangements by which prescription drugs in nursing homes are financed. The brief then provides a synopsis of current policy issues, focusing in turn on cost containment and quality improvement initiatives.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction is important for nursing home staff and nursing home management, as it is associated with absenteeism, turnover, and quality of care. However, we know little about factors associated with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction for nursing home workers. Methods In this investigation, we use data from 251 caregivers (i.e., Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses, and Nurse Aides to examine: job satisfaction scores of these caregivers and what characteristics of these caregivers are associated with job satisfaction. The data were collected from two nursing homes over a two and a half year period with five waves of data collection at six-month intervals. The Job Description Index was used to collect job satisfaction data. Results We find that, overall nursing home caregivers are satisfied with the work and coworkers, but are less satisfied with promotional opportunities, superiors, and compensation. From exploratory factor analysis three domains represented the data, pay, management, and work. Nurse aides appear particularly sensitive to the work domain. Of significance, we also find that caregivers who perceived the quality of care to be high have higher job satisfaction on all three domains than those who do not. Conclusion These results may be important in guiding caregiver retention initiatives in nursing homes. The finding for quality may be especially important, and indicates that nursing homes that improve their quality may have a positive impact on job satisfaction of staff, and thereby reduce their turnover rates.
Lovink, Marleen Hermien; Persoon, Anke; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Laurant, Miranda G H
In developed countries, substituting physicians with nurse practitioners, physician assistants and nurses (physician substitution) occurs in nursing homes as an answer to the challenges related to the ageing population and the shortage of staff, as well as to guarantee the quality of nursing home care. However, there is great diversity in how physician substitution in nursing homes is modelled and it is unknown how it can best contribute to the quality of healthcare. This study aims to gain insight into how physician substitution is modelled and whether it contributes to perceived quality of healthcare. Second, this study aims to provide insight into the elements of physician substitution that contribute to quality of healthcare. This study will use a multiple-case study design that draws upon realist evaluation principles. The realist evaluation is based on four concepts for explaining and understanding interventions: context, mechanism, outcome and context-mechanism-outcome configuration. The following steps will be taken: (1) developing a theory, (2) conducting seven case studies, (3) analysing outcome patterns after each case and a cross-case analysis at the end and (4) revising the initial theory. The research ethics committee of the region Arnhem Nijmegen in the Netherlands concluded that this study does not fall within the scope of the Dutch Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) (registration number 2015/1914). Before the start of the study, the Board of Directors of the nursing home organisations will be informed verbally and by letter and will also be asked for informed consent. In addition, all participants will be informed verbally and by letter and will be asked for informed consent. Findings will be disseminated by publication in a peer-reviewed journal, international and national conferences, national professional associations and policy partners in national government. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated
Van Waeyenberg, Thomas; Decramer, Adelien; Anseel, Frederik
To examine how home nurses' turnover intentions are affected by the quality and frequency of supervisory feedback and by their own self-efficacy. Little is known about effective retention strategies for the growing home healthcare sector that struggles to retain an adequate workforce. While the work environment and supervisors have been found to play a key-role in nurses' turnover intentions, home nurses mostly work autonomously and apart from their supervisors. These circumstances require a customized approach and need to be understood to ensure high-quality home health care. We used a correlational, cross-sectional survey design. A convenience sample of 312 home nurses was selected from a division of a large home health care organization in Flanders, Belgium. Data were collected in 2013 using structured questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics, structural equation modelling and relative weight analysis. The quality of feedback was related to lower levels of turnover intentions. This relationship was fully mediated by home nurses' self-efficacy. Frequent favourable feedback was directly related to lower turnover intentions while the relationship between frequent unfavourable feedback and turnover intentions was conditional on home nurses' level of self-efficacy. This study contributes to our understanding of home nurses' turnover intentions and the role of informal supervisory feedback and home nurses' self-efficacy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
body image; feeling recognised and valued as a person of worth; Abilities and opportunities for changing of lifevalues; to exert control; to form and maintain meaningful relationships and to participation in meaningful activity. Conclusion. Although there is no one way to maintain dignity, the themes...... dignity is maintained. Background. Elderly living in nursing homes are vulnerable which appeal to nursing care ethics and emphasise the importance of care for human dignity. There have been several attempts to define dignity as a theoretical concept, but few studies on how dignity is maintained from...... was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Findings. The residents’ experiences revealed one main theme and seven sub-themes contributing to maintain dignity. The overall theme was: Coping with vulnerability and the subthemes were: Attention and care for basic needs; preserving a positive...
Mariani, Elena; Chattat, Rabih; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Koopmans, Raymond; Engels, Yvonne
Care planning nowadays is a key activity in the provision of services to nursing home residents. A care plan describes the residents' needs and the actions to address them, providing both individualized and standardized interventions and should be updated as changes in the residents' conditions occur. The aim of this review was to identify the core elements of the implementation of changes in nursing homes' care plans, by providing an overview of the type of stakeholders involved, describing the implementation strategies used, and exploring how care plans changed. An integrative literature review was used to evaluate intervention studies taking place in nursing homes. Data were collected from PubMed, CINHAL-EBSCO, and PsycINFO. English language articles published between 1995 and April 2015 were included. Data analysis followed the strategy of Knafl and Whittemore. Twenty-six articles were included. The stakeholders involved were professionals, family caregivers, and patients. Only a few studies directly involved residents and family caregivers in the quality improvement process. The implementation strategies used were technology implementation, audit, training, feedback, and supervision. The majority of interventions changed the residents' care plans in terms of developing a more standardized care documentation that primarily focuses on its quality. Only some interventions developed more tailored care plans that focus on individualized needs. Care plans generally failed in providing both standardized and personalized interventions. Efforts should be made to directly involve residents in care planning and provide professionals with efficient tools to report care goals and actions in care plans.
McSweeney, K; O'Connor, D W
This research concerns the prevalence and course of depression in newly admitted nursing home residents. We attempted to recruit consecutive admissions into the study, irrespective of cognitive status, enabling a comparison of the prevalence and course of depression experienced by cognitively intact residents and those exhibiting all levels of cognitive impairment. Depression was assessed at one month, three months and six months post-admission. The assessment of mood in this study entailed the conduct of a semi-structured clinical interview, which encompassed DSM-IV criteria and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) items. Recruitment difficulties resulted in a sample of 51 newly admitted residents, drawn from six nursing homes located in Victoria, Australia. Of particular interest, throughout the duration of the study, only the cognitively impaired were diagnosed with major depression (MD). One month post-admission, 24% of the sample were diagnosed with MD, and a further 20% evidenced a non-major depressive disorder. At the second and third assessments, MD was observed in 14% and 15% of residents, respectively. For residents who completed all three assessments, there was no appreciable change in the proportion diagnosed with a depressive disorder, nor was there a change in the levels of depressive symptomatology. Although subject to limitations, the current study indicated that clinical depression in nursing home facilities most often occurs in residents who also exhibit pronounced cognitive impairment. These depressions are unlikely to remit spontaneously. Accordingly, care staff and general practitioners must be trained in the identification of depression in dementia, and any interventions implemented in these facilities should be tailored to meet the unique needs of this group.
Kellogg, Caitlyn; Zhu, Yujun; Cardenas, Valeria; Vazquez, Katalina; Johari, Kayla; Rahman, Anna; Enguidanos, Susan
Although patient-centered care is an expressed value of our healthcare system, no studies have examined what consumers say in online reviews about nursing homes (NHs). Insight into themes addressed in these reviews could inform improvement efforts that promote patient-centered NH care. We analyzed nursing home (NH) Yelp reviews. From a list of all NHs in California, we drew a purposeful sample of 51 NHs, selecting facilities representing a range of geographical areas and occupancy rates. Two research teams analyzed the reviews using grounded theory to identify codes and tracked how frequently each code was mentioned. We evaluated 264 reviews, identifying 24 codes, grouped under five categories: quality of staff care and staffing; physical facility and setting; resident safety and security; clinical care quality; and financial issues. More than half (53.41%) of Yelp reviewers posted comments related to staff attitude and caring and nearly a third (29.2%) posted comments related to staff responsiveness. Yelp reviewers also often posted about NHs' physical environment. Infrequently mentioned were the quality of health care provided and concerns about resident safety and security. Our results are consistent with those from related studies. Yelp reviewers focus on NH aspects that are not evaluated in most other NH rating systems. The federal Nursing Home Compare website, for instance, does not report measures of staff attitudes or the NH's physical setting. Rather, it reports measures of staffing levels and clinical processes and outcomes. We recommend that NH consumers consult both types of rating systems because they provide complementary information.
Calhoun, Judith G; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Hearld, Larry R
Marketing is widely recognized as an essential business function across all industries, including healthcare. While many long-term care facilities adopted basic healthcare marketing practices and hired marketing staff by the early 1990s, a paucity of research on nursing home marketing exists in the literature. This study examines the extent to which nursing homes have developed more formulated marketing and related communication and promotional strategies as market competition has increased in this sector during the past two decades. In addition, we explored managers' perceptions of their control over marketing decision making, the impact of competition on the use of marketing practices, and areas for enhanced competitive positioning. Administrators from 230 nursing homes in 18 Southeastern Michigan counties were surveyed regarding (1) the adoption level of approximately 40 literature-based, best-practice marketing strategies; (2) the types of staff involved with the marketing function; and (3) their perception of their level of control over marketing functions and of local competition. Results from 101 (44 percent) survey participants revealed that although respondents viewed their markets as highly competitive, their marketing practices remained focused on traditional and relatively constrained practices. In relation to the importance of customer relationship management, the majority of the administrators reported intensive efforts being focused on residents and their families, referrers, and staff, with minimal efforts being extended to insurers and other types of payers. A significant positive relation was found between the intensity of marketing initiatives and the size of the facility (number of beds), whereas significant negative correlations were revealed in relation to occupancy and the perceived level of control over the function.
Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M; Christensen, Janelle J; Thomas, Kali S
This article documents the experience of 291 Florida nursing homes during the 2004 hurricane season. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, the authors described and compared the challenges nurses encountered when evacuating residents with their experiences assisting residents of facilities that sheltered in place. The primary concerns for evacuating facilities were accessing appropriate evacuation sites for residents and having ambulance transportation contracts honored. The main issue for facilities that sheltered in place was the length of time it took for power to be restored. Barriers to maintaining resident health during disasters for those who evacuated or sheltered in place are identified.
Naruse, Takashi; Sakai, Mahiro; Watai, Izumi; Taguchi, Atsuko; Kuwahara, Yuki; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo
The increasing number of elderly people has caused increased demand for home-visiting nurses. Nursing managers should develop healthy workplaces in order to grow their workforce. This study investigated the work engagement of home-visiting nurses as an index of workplace health. The aim of the present study was to reveal factors contributing to work engagement among Japanese home-visiting nurses. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was sent to 208 home-visiting nurses from 28 nursing agencies in three districts; 177 (85.1%) returned the questionnaires. The Job Demands-Resources model, which explains the relationship between work environment and employee well-being, was used as a conceptual guide. The authors employed three survey instruments: (i) questions on individual variables; (ii) questions on organizational variables; and (iii) the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Japanese version). Multiple regression analyses were performed in order to examine the relationships between individual variables, organizational variables, and work engagement. Nurse managers and nurses who felt that there was a positive relationship between work and family had significantly higher work engagement levels than others. The support of a supervisor was significantly associated with work engagement. Nurses in middle-sized but not large agencies had significantly higher work engagement than nurses in small agencies. Supervisor support and an appropriate number of people reporting to each supervisor are important factors in fostering work engagement among home-visiting nurses. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Guerre, Graziella; Aho-Glele, Ludwig-Serge; Astruc, Karine
Hand hygiene is often considered as the attribute of caregivers. However, it is the patient who is increasingly targeted by improved communication around hygiene in care notably in the framework of the "Clean Hands Mission". In this sense, the French regional centres for the fight against nosocomial infections in Burgundy has proved itself innovative on two levels by organising a photo competition in nursing homes. The aim was to show residents how to prevent care-related infections through the simple act of handwashing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Armando Carlos Roca Socarrás
Full Text Available Dementia is a long and debilitating illness characterized by gradual loss of autonomy and abilities, reaching a point of marked cognitive impairment and dependence. In different stages of its progression, a considerable number of elderlies with dementia are admitted in Nursing Homes. The objective of this article is to highlight some elements in relation to the epidemiology, institutionalization predictors, diagnostic, comorbidity and specific aspects of the care and treatment that allow personalizing its management in these residences. Thus, knowledge levels on this disease will be increased and the treatment and life quality of aged population with dementia will be improved.
Costa, Vania; Earle, Craig C; Esplen, Mary Jane; Fowler, Robert; Goldman, Russell; Grossman, Daphna; Levin, Leslie; Manuel, Douglas G; Sharkey, Shirlee; Tanuseputro, Peter; You, John J
Most Canadians die in hospital, and yet, many express a preference to die at home. Place of death is the result of the interaction among sociodemographic, illness- and healthcare-related factors. Although home death is sometimes considered a potential indicator of end-of-life/palliative care quality, some determinants of place of death are more modifiable than others. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the determinants of home and nursing home death in adult patients diagnosed with an advanced, life-limiting illness. A systematic literature search was performed for studies in English published from January 1, 2004 to September 24, 2013 that evaluated the determinants of home or nursing home death compared to hospital death in adult patients with an advanced, life-limiting condition. The adjusted odds ratios, relative risks, and 95% confidence intervals of each determinant were extracted from the studies. Meta-analyses were performed if appropriate. The quality of individual studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and the body of evidence was assessed according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. Of the 5,900 citations identified, 26 retrospective cohort studies were eligible. The risk of bias in the studies identified was considered low. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of home versus hospital death included multidisciplinary home palliative care, preference for home death, cancer as opposed to other diagnoses, early referral to palliative care, not living alone, having a caregiver, and the caregiver's coping skills. Knowledge about the determinants of place of death can be used to inform care planning between healthcare providers, patients and family members regarding the feasibility of dying in the preferred location and may help explain the incongruence between preferred and actual place of death. Modifiable factors such as early referral to palliative care, presence of a multidisciplinary home palliative care
Brown, Lisa M; Hyer, Kathryn; Schinka, John A; Mando, Ahed; Frazier, Darvis; Polivka-West, Lumarie
A growing body of research supports the value of mental health intervention to treat people affected by disasters. This study used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate pre- and posthurricane mental health service use in Florida nursing homes. A questionnaire was administered to 258 directors of nursing, administrators, and owners of nursing homes, representing two-thirds of Florida's counties, to identify residents' mental health needs and service use. In four subsequent focus group meetings with 22 nursing home administrators, underlying factors influencing residents' use of services were evaluated. Although most nursing homes provided some type of mental health care during normal operations, disaster-related mental health services were not routinely provided to residents. Receiving facilities were more likely than evacuating facilities to provide treatment to evacuated residents. Nursing home staff should be trained to deliver disaster-related mental health intervention and in procedures for making referrals for follow-up evaluation and formal intervention.
Shugarman, L R; Fries, B E; James, M
Admission cohorts from the Michigan Medicaid Home and Community-Based Waiver program and Ohio nursing homes were compared on measures of resource utilization including a modified Resource Utilization Groups (RUG-III) system, Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), and overall case mix. We found that, contrary to previous research, the two samples were remarkably similar across RUG-III categories. However, the nursing home sample was more functionally impaired on measures of ADL functioning and overall case mix. Results of this study may inform policymakers and providers of the potential for maintaining the appropriate population in the home with government-funded home care.
Amar, D F
Data and case examples from two major metropolitan hospice programs are examined in order to arrive at a definition of the hospice social worker's role in the nursing home, and how it differs from that of the hospice social worker in home care. The nursing home population tends to be older, frailer, and with poorer mental status, making them less available to "talk therapies". The nursing home environment itself needs to be assessed as a significant part of the patient/family system. Social work interventions may focus on the patient, the family, the nursing home staff, or any combination of these elements. The hospice social worker on a nursing home team may do less counseling with patients, but the role draws on diverse other skills such as groupwork, negotiation, education, and advocacy.
Chiou, Chii-Jun; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chang, Hsing-Yi
To develop a home nursing quality scale and to evaluate its psychometric properties. This was a 3-year study. In the first year, 19 focus group interviews with caregivers of people using home nursing services were carried out in northern, central and southern Taiwan. Content analysis was carried out and a pool of questionnaire items compiled. In the second year (2007), study was carried out on a stratified random sample selected from home nursing organizations covered by the national health insurance scheme in southern Taiwan. The study population was the co-resident primary caregivers of home care nursing service users. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were carried out on data from 365 self-administered questionnaires collected from 13 selected home care organizations. In the third year (2008), a random sample of participants was selected from 206 hospital-based home care nursing organizations throughout Taiwan, resulting in completion of 294 questionnaires from 27 organizations. Confirmatory factor analysis was then carried out on the scale, and the validity and reliability of the scale assessed. The present study developed a reliable and valid home nursing quality scale from the perspective of users of home nursing services. The scale comprised three factors: dependability, communication skills and service usefulness. This scale is of practical value for the promotion of long-term community care aging in local policies. The scale is ready to be used to assess the quality of services provided by home care nursing organizations. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Eines, Trude Fløystad; Vatne, Solfrid
The aim of this study was to evaluate nurses' and nurse assistants' experiences with a design thinking approach to innovation used in a nursing home in Norway. A design thinking approach to innovation that focuses on users' needs can be employed to address many of the challenges facing health care providers in a field facing a growing ageing population, complex diseases and financial shortfalls. This study is based on a thematic analysis of four focus group interviews with nurses and nurse assistants (n = 23). In the initial phase of developing the new service model, which included defining staff roles and responsibilities, participating nurses and nurse assistants felt engaged and motivated by the designers' inclusive and creative methods. However, during the new model's testing phase, they were critical of management's lack of involvement in the model`s implementation and therefore became less motivated about the project. The findings of the study highlight the importance of the designers cooperating with management and staff for the duration of the innovation process. Challenging innovation processes require strong managers who engage with designers, patients, staff and volunteers throughout all phases of an innovation process using a design thinking approach. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rauscher, Simone; Wheeler, John R C
Increased financial pressures on hospitals have elevated the importance of working capital management, that is, the management of current assets and current liabilities, for hospitals' profitability. Efficient working capital management allows hospitals to reduce their holdings of current assets, such as inventory and accounts receivable, which earn no interest income and require financing with short-term debt. The resulting cash inflows can be reinvested in interest-bearing financial instruments or used to reduce short-term borrowing, thus improving the profitability of the organization. This study examines the relationship between hospitals' profitability and their performance at managing two components of working capital: accounts receivable, measured in terms of hospitals' average collection periods, and accounts payable, measured in terms of hospitals' average payment periods. Panel data derived from audited financial statements for 1,397 bond-issuing, not-for-profit U.S. hospitals for 2000-2007 were analyzed using hospital-level fixed-effects regression analysis. The results show a negative relationship between hospitals' average collection period and profitability. That is, hospitals that collected on their patient revenue faster reported higher profit margins than did hospitals that have larger balances of accounts receivable outstanding. We also found a negative relationship between hospitals' average payment period and their profitability. Hospital managers did not appear to delay paying their vendors. Rather, the findings indicated that more profitable hospitals paid their suppliers faster, possibly to avoid high effective interest rates on outstanding accounts payable, whereas less profitable hospitals waited longer to pay their bills. The findings of this study suggest that working capital management indeed matters for hospitals' profitability. Efforts aimed at reducing large balances in both accounts receivable and accounts payable may frequently be
Langland-Orban, Barbara; Large, John T; Sear, Alan M; Zhang, Hanze; Zhang, Nanhua
Medicare Advantage was implemented in 2004 and the Recovery Audit Contractor (RAC) program was implemented in Florida during 2005. Both increase surveillance of medical necessity and deny payments for improper admissions. The purpose of the present study was to determine their potential impact on for-profit (FP) and not-for-profit (NFP) hospital operating margins in Florida. FP hospitals were expected to be more adversely affected as admissions growth has been one strategy to improve stock performance, which is not a consideration at NFPs. This study analyzed Florida community hospitals from 2000 through 2010, assessing changes in pre-tax operating margin (PTOM). Florida Agency for Health Care Administration data were analyzed for 104 community hospitals (62 FPs and 42 NFPs). Academic, public, and small hospitals were excluded. A mixed-effects model was used to assess the association of RAC implementation, organizational and payer type variables, and ownership interaction effects on PTOM. FP hospitals began the period with a higher average PTOM, but converged with NFPs during the study period. The average Medicare Advantage effect was not significant for either ownership type. The magnitude of the RAC variable was significantly negative for average PTOM at FPs (-4.68) and positive at NFPs (0.08), meaning RAC was associated with decreasing PTOM at FP hospitals only. RAC complements other Medicare surveillance systems that detect medically unnecessary admissions, coding errors, fraud, and abuse. Since its implementation in Florida, average FP and NFP operating margins have been similar, such that the higher margins reported for FP hospitals in the 1990s are no longer evident. © The Author(s) 2015.
Singh, Simone Rauscher; Wheeler, John
Effective revenue cycle management--from appointment scheduling and patient registration at the front end of the revenue cycle to billing and cash collections at the back end--plays a crucial role in hospitals' efforts to improve their financial performance. Using data for 1,397 bond-issuing, not-for-profit US hospitals for 2000 to 2007, this study analyzed the relationship between hospitals' performance at managing the revenue cycle and their profitability and ability to build equity capital. Hospital-level fixed effects regression analysis was used to model four different measures of profitability and equity capital as functions of two key financial indicators of revenue cycle management--amount of patient revenue and speed of revenue collection. The results indicated that higher amounts of patient revenue in relation to a hospital's assets were associated with statistically significant increases in operating and total profit margins, free cash flow, and equity capital (p < 0.01 for all four models); that is, hospitals that generated more patient revenue per dollar of assets invested reported improved financial performance. Likewise, a statistically significant link existed between lower revenue collection periods and all four indicators of hospital financial performance (p < 0.01 for three models; p < 0.05 for one model). Hospitals that collected faster on their patient revenue reported higher profit margins and larger equity values. For revenue cycle managers, these findings represent good news: Streamlining a hospital's management of the patient revenue cycle can advance the organization's financial viability by improving profitability and enabling equity growth.
Song, Paula H; Smith, Dean G; Wheeler, John R C
Not-for-profit (NFP) hospitals' accumulations of financial assets have been growing steadily over the past 10 years. Surprisingly, little is known about how much investment reserves represent and how they are handled among NFP hospitals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate investment strategies in financial assets among NFP hospitals. Specifically, this article seeks to explore how NFP hospitals allocate and manage financial assets, how much risk hospitals employ in their investment strategies, and the risk and return trade-off under contrasting market conditions. Using two years of survey data from the Common fund Benchmarks Study for Health Care Institutions for fiscal years 2002 and 2003, we analyze NFP hospitals' investment strategies by comparing asset size, investment management characteristics, board characteristics, asset allocation, levels of risk, and annual returns. Univariate regression analysis is used to evaluate the relationship between risk and return. NFP hospitals have sizeable long-term financial assets, averaging over $558 million in 2002 and $634 million in 2003. Two thirds of these funds are invested in long-term operating funds followed by defined benefit pension funds and insurance reserves; management of these funds is primarily outsourced. NFP hospitals allocate, on average, 50% of their operating fund assets to equities. During the stock market downturn in 2002, each 1% investment in equities was significantly associated with a -0.18% decrease in annual returns. In contrast, the relationship is almost exactly opposite--consistent with the relationship typically associated with risk and return--in 2003. NFP hospitals with heavy reliance on investment income to boost total profit margins may have difficulty adjusting to periods of low performance. Evaluation of the performance and financial condition of the hospital must account for the size and composition of financial assets.
Unroe, Kathleen T; Bernard, Brittany; Stump, Timothy E; Tu, Wanzhu; Callahan, Christopher M
To describe differences in hospice services for patients living at home, in nursing homes or in assisted living facilities, including the overall number and duration of visits by different hospice care providers across varying lengths of stay. Retrospective cohort study using hospice patient electronic medical record data. Large, national hospice provider. Data from 32,605 hospice patients who received routine hospice care from 2009 to 2014 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were calculated for utilization measures for each type of provider and by location of care. Frequency and duration of service contacts were standardized to a 1 week period and pairwise comparisons were used to detect differences in care provided between the three settings. Minimal differences were found in overall intensity of service contacts across settings, however, the mix of services were different for patients living at home versus nursing home versus assisted living facility. Overall, more nurse care was provided at the beginning and end of the hospice episode; intensity of aide care services was higher in the middle portion of the hospice episode. Nearly 43% of the sample had hospice stays less than 2 weeks and up to 20% had stays greater than 6 months. There are significant differences between characteristics of hospice patients in different settings, as well as the mix of services they receive. Medicare hospice payment methodology was revised starting in 2016. While the new payment structure is in greater alignment with the U shape distribution of services, it will be important to evaluate the impact of the new payment methodology on length of stay and mix of services by different providers across settings of care. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Nyborg, Mads; Bashir, Khurram; Maknickaite, Asta
This paper presents SmartNursing system and discusses how increasing capabilities of smartphone could benefit employees in working environment. A SmartNursing system is developed for home nurses working environment to fulfil their needs. The solution helps to improve communication among nurses......, provide customized information and increase work efficiency. Developed system consists of mobile application, web based server and database. This article discusses the solution SmartNursing from design to implementation....
Bowblis, John R; Hyer, Kathryn
To study the effect of minimum nurse staffing requirements on the subsequent employment of nursing home support staff. Nursing home data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) System merged with state nurse staffing requirements. Facility-level housekeeping, food service, and activities staff levels are regressed on nurse staffing requirements and other controls using fixed effect panel regression. OSCAR surveys from 1999 to 2004. Increases in state direct care and licensed nurse staffing requirements are associated with decreases in the staffing levels of all types of support staff. Increased nursing home nurse staffing requirements lead to input substitution in the form of reduced support staffing levels. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Full Text Available Asangaedem Akpan1,2,3, Margot A Gosney2, James Barrett3,4, 1Directorate of Medicine and Elderly Care, Warrington Hospital, Warrington, Cheshire, UK; 2School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, UK; 3Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK; 4Directorate of Elderly Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clatterbridge Hospital, Merseyside, UKObjective: Fecal loading, cognitive impairment, loose stools, functional disability, comorbidity and anorectal incontinence are recognized as factors contributing to loss of fecal continence in older adults. The objective of this project was to assess the relative distribution of these factors in a variety of settings along with the outcome of usual management. Methods: One hundred and twenty adults aged 65 years and over with fecal incontinence recruited by convenience sampling from four different settings were studied. They were either living at home or in a nursing home or receiving care on an acute or rehabilitation elderly care ward. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit which factors associated with fecal incontinence were present from subjects who had given written informed consent or for whom assent for inclusion in the study had been obtained.Results: Fecal loading (Homes 6 [20%]; Acute care wards 17 [57%]; Rehabilitation wards 19 [63%]; Nursing homes 21 [70%] and functional disability (Homes 5 [17%]; Acute care wards 25 [83%]; Rehabilitation wards 25 [83%]; Nursing homes 20 [67%] were significantly more prevalent in the hospital and nursing home settings than in those living at home (P < 0.01. Loose stools were more prevalent in the hospital setting than in the other settings (Homes 11 [37%]; Acute care wards 20 [67%]; Rehabilitation wards 17 [57%]; Nursing homes 6 [20%] (P < 0.01. Cognitive impairment was significantly more common in the nursing home than in the other settings (Nursing homes 26 [87%], Homes 5 [17%], Acute care wards 13 [43%], Rehabilitation
Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Nannini, Angela
Work-family conflict is challenging for workers and may lead to depression, anxiety, and overall poor health. Sleep plays an important role in the maintenance of mental health; however, the role of sleep in the association between work-family conflict and mental health is not well-studied. Questionnaires were collected from 650 nursing assistants in 15 nursing homes. Multivariate linear regression modeling demonstrated that increased work-family conflict was associated with lower mental health scores (β = -2.56, p work-family conflict was correlated with more job demands, less job control, less social support, and longer work hours. Poor sleep quality, but not short sleep duration, mediated the association between work-family conflict and mental health. Workplace interventions to improve nursing assistants' mental health should increase their control over work schedules and responsibilities, provide support to meet their work and family needs, and address healthy sleep practices.
Full Text Available This article draws on findings of an ethnographic nursing home study that explores the role of communication in maintaining residents’ sense of self. These findings suggest that the nursing home can be a site for recovery for the aging self, despite loss and bereavement and the negative effects on self-esteem of pain, illness and loss of function. However, where care privileges the body over social and emotional needs, residents have inadequate opportunities for communication essential to make sense of being old and in care. The key to sustaining the aging self is empathetic communication that recognizes the individuality and value of each older person, no matter how reduced by present illness or incapacity, and at the same time respects residents’ rights of choice and personal control. Harried staff, often well-intentioned but unsupported by management, carry an unfair burden. Frequently called upon to do more with less, they find themselves faced with the competing pressures of work routines and residents’ emotional needs. In trying to balance these competing needs and provide opportunities for residents to exert personal control over their lives, they must protect both the residents and themselves from the results of “wrong” choices.
Against the background of aging and the increasing number of persons in need of care on one hand and the decreasing potential of family support on the other hand, in-patient facilities both in rural areas as well as urban areas of Austria receive importance as final residence. The decision on a facility is challenging. That is why the Austrian Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection edits a brochure in three volumes that provides interested persons with information on each residential and nursing home for elderly people. Basing on data from the year 2014, this contribution aims at analysing relevant spatial related information on 885 residential and nursing homes in urban and rural contexts in order to demonstrate how spatial related aspects are considered in the facilities’ presentations and how they illustrate the level of community integration of these in-patient offers, to understand facility-specific future plans as well as to reveal important questions and define urgent research demand and to stimulate the interdisciplinary and cross-cutting dialogue.
Næss, Anders; Fjær, Eivind Grip; Vabø, Mia
In this paper, based on ethnographic data from five nursing homes, we introduce the concept of assisted self-presentation as an analytical tool for exploring how different care practices affect nursing home residents' dignity and sense of self. Practices of assisted self-presentation are geared at recognizing and preserving the individuality and autonomy of residents in situations where it may otherwise come under threat or be misrecognized. Sufficient or appropriate forms of attentiveness to residents' selves and sense of dignity is thus a matter of finding the right balance between intervening too much or too little in residents' production of their physical or social appearance. Here, staff-members' knowledge and recognition of the individuality of residents is essential. Whereas intervening too much in residents' appearance or performance of self might be perceived and experienced as pacifying, infantilizing, or as paternalistic overbearingness, intervening too little might be seen as neglectfulness or inhumane. Since practices of assisted self-presentation refer to a kind of social action, which will always be contingent upon the specific capacities and conditions of performing actors, it allows for the simultaneous recognition of failed or perverted work practices as well as promising practices through which residents' selves are successfully recognized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available While the research on spiritual needs of patients with chronic and life-threatening diseases increases, there is limited knowledge about psychosocial and spiritual needs of elderly living in residential/nursing homes. We were interested in which needs were of relevance at all, and how these needs are related to life satisfaction and mood states. For that purpose we enrolled 100 elderly living in residential/nursing homes (mean age years, 82% women and provided standardized questionnaires, that is, Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ, Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale (BMLSS, Quality of Life in Elders with Multimorbidity (FLQM questionnaire, and a mood states scale (ASTS. Religious needs and Existential needs were of low relevance, while inner peace needs were of some and needs for giving/generativity of highest relevance. Regression analyses revealed that the specific needs were predicted best by religious trust and mood states, particularly tiredness. However, life satisfaction and quality of life were not among the significant predictors. Most had the intention to connect with those who will remember them, although they fear that there is limited interest in their concerns. It remains an open issue how these unmet needs can be adequately supported.
Redding, Sarah E; Liu, Sophia; Hung, William W; Boockvar, Kenneth S
Interruptions in opioid use have the potential to cause pain relapse and withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this study were to observe patterns of opioid interruption during acute illness in nursing home residents and examine associations between interruptions and pain and withdrawal symptoms. Patients from 3 nursing homes in a metropolitan area who were prescribed opioids were assessed for symptoms of pain and withdrawal by researchers blinded to opioid dosage received, using the Brief Pain Inventory Scale and the Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale, respectively, during prespecified time periods. The prespecified time periods were 2 weeks after onset of acute illness (eg, urinary tract infection), and 2 weeks after hospital admission and nursing home readmission, if they occurred. Opioid dosing was recorded and a significant interruption was defined as a complete discontinuation or a reduction in dose of >50% for ≥1 day. The covariates age, sex, race, comorbid conditions, initial opioid dose, and initial pain level were recorded. Symptoms pre- and post-opioid interruptions were compared and contrasted with those in a group without opioid interruptions. Sixty-six patients receiving opioids were followed for a mean of 10.9 months and experienced a total of 104 acute illnesses. During 64 (62%) illnesses, patients experienced any reduction in opioid dosing, with a mean (SD) dose reduction of 63.9% (29.9%). During 39 (38%) illnesses, patients experienced a significant opioid interruption. In a multivariable model, residence at 1 of the 3 nursing homes was associated with a lower risk of interruption (odds ratio = 0.073; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.597; P pain score (difference -0.50 [2.66]; 95% CI, -3.16 to 2.16) and withdrawal score (difference -0.91 [3.12]; 95% CI, -4.03 to 2.21) after the interruption as compared with before interruption. However, when compared with patients without interruptions, patients with interruptions experienced larger increases in pain scores
Ellenbecker, Carol Hall; Cushman, Margaret
This paper discusses additions to an empirically tested model of home healthcare nurse retention. An argument is made that the variables of shared decision-making and organizational commitment be added to the model based on the authors' previous research and additional evidence from the literature. Previous research testing the home healthcare nurse retention model established empirical relationships between nurse, agency, and area characteristics to nurse job satisfaction, intent to stay, and retention. Unexplained model variance prompted a new literature search to augment understanding of nurse retention and patient and agency outcomes. Data come from the authors' previous research, and a literature search from 1990 to 2011 on the topics organizational commitment, shared decision-making, nurse retention, patient outcomes and agency performance. The literature provides a rationale for the additional variables of shared decision-making and affective and continuous organizational commitment, linking these variables to nurse job satisfaction, nurse intent to stay, nurse retention and patient outcomes and agency performance. Implications for nursing. The new variables in the model suggest that all agencies, even those not struggling to retain nurses, should develop interventions to enhance nurse job satisfaction to assure quality patient outcomes. The new nurse retention and patient outcome model increases our understanding of nurse retention. An understanding of the relationship among these variables will guide future research and the development of interventions to create and maintain nursing work environments that contribute to nurse affective agency commitment, nurse retention and quality of patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Preshaw, Deborah Hl; McLaughlin, Dorry; Brazil, Kevin
To develop and psychometrically assess a survey instrument identifying ethical issues during palliative care provision in nursing homes. Registered nurses and healthcare assistants have reported ethical issues in everyday palliative care provision. Identifying these issues provides evidence to inform practice development to support healthcare workers. Cross-sectional survey of Registered nurses and healthcare assistants in nursing homes in one region of the UK. A survey instrument, "Ethical issues in Palliative Care for Nursing homes", was developed through the findings of qualitative interviews with Registered nurses and healthcare assistants in nursing homes and a literature review. It was reviewed by an expert panel and piloted prior to implementation in a survey in 2015 with a convenience sample of 596 Registered nurses and healthcare assistants. Descriptive and exploratory factor analyses were used to assess the underlying structure of the Frequency and Distress Scales within the instrument. Analysis of 201 responses (response rate = 33.7%) revealed four factors for the Frequency Scale and five factors for the Distress Scale that comprise the Ethical issues in Palliative Care for Nursing homes. Factors common to both scales included "Processes of care," "Resident autonomy" and "Burdensome treatment." Additionally, the Frequency Scale included "Competency," and the Distress Scale included "Quality of care" and "Communication." The Ethical issues in Palliative Care for Nursing homes instrument has added to the palliative care knowledge base by considering the ethical issues experienced specifically by Registered nurses and healthcare assistants within the nursing home. This research offers preliminary evidence of the psychometric properties of the Ethical issues in Palliative Care for Nursing homes survey instrument. The two largest factors highlight the need to address the organisational aspects of caring and provide training in negotiating conflicting
Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Qaseem, Amir; Mkanta, William
We examined the impact of environmental factors on USA nursing homes' participation in the subacute care market. Findings suggest that the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 did not have a significant impact in the participation of nursing homes in the subacute care market from 1998 to 2000. However, there was a declining trend in the participation of nursing homes in the subacute care market after the implementation of Medicare prospective payment system (PPS). Furthermore, nursing homes with a higher proportion of Medicare residents were more likely to exit the subacute care market after PPS. Results also suggest that nursing homes have responded strategically to the environmental demand for subacute care services. Nursing homes located in markets with higher Medicare managed care penetration were more likely to offer subacute care services. Environmental munificence was also an important predictor of nursing home innovation into subacute care. Nursing homes in states with higher Medicaid reimbursement and those in less competitive markets were more likely to participate in the subacute care market.
Bos, A.; Harrington, Charlene
We analyzed what happens to a nursing home chain when private equity takes over, with regard to strategy, financial performance, and resident well-being. We conducted a longitudinal (2000-2012) case study of a large nursing home chain that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data from 5
Volicer, L.; van der Steen, J.T.; Frijters, D.H.M.
Objectives: Analysis of a relationship between wandering and involvement in meaningful activities in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional analysis of the Minimum Data Set information. SETTING:: The analyses were conducted on 8 nursing homes in the Netherlands.
Maaden, T. van der; Steen, J.T. van der; Vet, H.C. de; Hertogh, C.M.; Koopmans, R.T.
OBJECTIVES: To describe observations of suffering in patients with dementia from the diagnosis of pneumonia until cure or death. DESIGN: Prospective observational study between January 2012 and May 2014. SETTING: Dutch nursing homes (32). PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home patients with dementia and
Adamakidou, T; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A
The purpose of this review was to describe public home healthcare nursing services in Greece. The effectiveness and the efficiency of home healthcare nursing are well documented in the international literature. In Greece, during the current financial crisis, the development of home healthcare nursing services is the focus and interest of policymakers and academics because of its contribution to the viability of the healthcare system. A review was conducted of the existing legislation, the printed and electronic bibliography related to the legal framework, the structures that provide home health care, the funding of the services, the human resources and the services provided. The review of the literature revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the existing system of home health care and its opportunities and threats, which are summarized in a SWOT analysis. There is no Greek nursing literature on this topic. The development of home health nursing care requires multidimensional concurrent and combined changes and adjustments that would support and strengthen healthcare professionals in their practices. Academic and nursing professionals should provide guidelines and regulations and develop special competencies for the best nursing practice in home health care. At present, in Greece, which is in an economic crisis and undergoing reforms in public administration, there is an undeniable effort being made to give primary health care the position it deserves within the health system. There is an urgent need at central and academic levels to develop home healthcare services to improve the quality and efficiency of the services provided. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Yeatts, Dale E.; Cready, Cynthia M.
Purpose: Recent studies have concluded that there is a lack of "patient-centered" care in nursing homes and subsequently a need for nursing home culture change. As a result, a variety of new, promising initiatives have been introduced, with most of these incorporating the use of "empowered" employees. The purpose of this study…
Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric
Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…
In this study, the author evaluated a project in The Netherlands that aimed to promote family members' participation in care plan meetings at a psychogeriatric nursing home. The small-scale pilot project, which was conducted in four wards of the nursing home, was designed to involve families in
This study assessed the relationships of assertiveness, depression, and social support among nursing home residents. The sample included 50 older nursing home residents (mean age=75 years; 75% female; 92% Caucasian). There was a significant correlation between assertiveness and depression (r=-.33), but the correlations between social support and…
Veenvliet, C.; Eide, H.; Lange, M.A. de; Dulmen, S. van
Background. Living at home with a physical condition that requires assistance places high emotional burden on older persons that needs to be attended to by nurses. However, nurses in home health care have previously been found to communicate primarily in an instrumental way. This increases the risk
Cassie, Kimberly M.; Cassie, William E.
Purpose: To examine the effect of organizational culture and climate on depressive symptoms among nursing home residents. Design and Methods: Using a pooled cross-sectional design, this study examines a sample of 23 nursing homes, 1,114 employees, and 5,497 residents. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Minimum Data Set, Depression Rating…
Rahman, Anna N.; Schnelle, John F.
This article uses a retrospective approach to critique the research base underlying the nursing home culture-change movement--an effort to radically transform the nation's nursing homes by delivering resident-directed care and empowering staff. The article traces the development of the movement from its inception 10 years ago to 2005, when the…
Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW
Background: Depression is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder in later life. Particular frail nursing home patients seem to be at increased risk. Nursing home-based studies on risk indicators of depression are scarce. Methods: Prevalence and risk indicators of depression were assessed in 333
Chapman, Dennis G.; Toseland, Ronald W.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of advanced illness care teams (AICTs) for nursing home residents with advanced dementia. The AICTs used a holistic approach that focused on four domains: (1) medical, (2) meaningful activities, (3) psychological, and (4) behavioral. The authors recruited 118 residents in two nursing homes for this study and…
... Services of Residents § 415.204 Services of residents in skilled nursing facilities and home health... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services of residents in skilled nursing facilities and home health agencies. 415.204 Section 415.204 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...
Frahm, Kathryn; Gammonley, Denise; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Paek, Seung Chun
Using 2003 nursing home data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) database, this study investigated the role of family support among nursing homes serving residents with a mental health history. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create and test a conceptual model of family support using indicators located within the MDS database. Families were…
Cadet, Tamara J.; Berrett-Abebe, Julie; Burke, Shanna L.; Bakk, Louanne; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Maramaldi, Peter
Nursing home residents over the age of 65 years are at high risk for poor oral health and related complications such as pneumonia and adverse diabetes outcomes. A preliminary study found that Massachusetts' nursing homes generally lack the training and resources needed to provide adequate oral health care to residents. In this study, an…
Sengupta, Manisha; Ejaz, Farida K.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.
Training and satisfaction with training were examined using data from nationally representative samples of 2,897 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) from the National Nursing Assistant Survey and 3,377 home health aides (HHAs) from the National Home Health Aide Survey conducted in 2004 and 2007, respectively. This article focuses on the…
Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; van Gennip, Isis E.; Muller, Martien T.; Willems, Dick L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.
To gain insight in the way nursing home residents experience personal dignity and the factors that preserve or undermine it. Nursing home residents are exposed to diverse factors which may be associated with the loss of personal dignity. To help them maintain their dignity, it is important to
Oosterveld-Vlug, M.G.; Pasman, H.R.W.; van Gennip, I.E.; Willems, D.L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.
Background:Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable.Aim:To
Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; van Gennip, Isis E.; Willems, Dick L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.
Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable. To investigate if and how
Sinoo, M.M.; Kort, H.S.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Schols, J.M.G.A.
In the Netherlands, over 40% of nursing home residents are estimated to have visual impairments. This results in the loss of basic visual abilities. The nursing home environment fits more or less to residents’ activities and social participation. This is referred to as environmental fit. To raise
Marcel G.L.C. Loomans; Dr. H.S.M. Kort; Marianne M. Sinoo; Jos M.G.A Schols
In the Netherlands, over 40% of nursing home residents are estimated to have visual impairments. This results in the loss of basic visual abilities. The nursing home environment fits more or less to residents’ activities and social participation. This is referred to as environmental fit. To raise
Liu, Xiaodi; Burns, Debra S; Hilliard, Russell E; Stump, Timothy E; Unroe, Kathleen T
Hospice music therapy is delivered in both homes and nursing homes (NH). No studies to date have explored differences in music therapy delivery between home and NH hospice patients. To compare music therapy referral reasons and delivery for hospice patients living in NH versus home. A retrospective, electronic medical record review was conducted from a large U.S. hospice of patients receiving music therapy between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010. Among the 4,804 patients, 2,930 lived in an NH and 1,847 patients lived at home. Compared to home, NH hospice patients were more likely to be female, older, unmarried, and Caucasian. For home hospice patients, the top referral reasons were patient/family emotional and spiritual support, quality of life, and isolation. The most frequent referral reasons for NH hospice patients were isolation, quality of life, and patient/family emotional and spiritual support. Differences in music therapy delivery depended mainly on patients' primary diagnosis and location of care. Results suggest differences in referral reasons and delivery based on an interaction between location of care and patient characteristics. Delivery differences are likely a result of individualized assessment and care plans developed by the music therapist and other interdisciplinary team members to address the unique needs of the patient. Thus, it is important to have professionally trained music therapists assess and provide tailored music-based interventions for patients with different referral reasons and personal characteristics. This study also supports staffing decisions based on patient need rather than average daily census. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Leff, E W; Hagenbach, G L; Marn, K K
Franklin County Home Health Agency (St Albans, Vermont) undertook a performance improvement project in 1996 to reduce employee injuries. A review of recent injuries led to the prevention of licensed nursing assistants' (LNAs') back and shoulder injuries as the first priority. Root causes of injuries were agency communication, employee training, patient home environment, nursing assistant body mechanics, and failure to use safety measures. Given that injury causality is complex and multifactorial, a variety of improvement strategies were implemented over the following two to three years. IMPLEMENTATION OF POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS: Short-term (a few months), mid-term (six months), and long-term (one year) potential solutions to the LNA back and shoulder injury problem were charted. Safety and health training was the major focus of the team's short-term plan. Risk management forms were to be used to identify and follow up on hazardous situations. Project plans that were successfully implemented included revision of LNA plans of care, standardization of the return-to-work process after injury, development of guidelines for identifying unsafe patient lifts and transfers, improved follow-up of employee reports of injury-risk situations in patient homes, improved body mechanics screening of new employees, and a stronger injury-prevention training program for current employees. A less successful initiative was aimed at collecting more data about injuries and causal factors. Employee injuries were gradually reduced from 4-10 per quarter to 0-3 per quarter. Injury prevention requires commitment, persistence, and patience--but not expensive improvements. Multiple interventions increase the chances of success when there are many root causes and lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of various approaches.
Washington, Karla; Kruse, Robin L.; Albright, David L; Lewis, Alexandria; Demiris, George
Objective Despite the fact that more than 25% of Americans die in nursing homes, end-of-life care has consistently been found to be less than adequate in this setting. Even for those residents on hospice, end-of-life care has been found to be problematic. This study had two research questions; 1) How do family members of hospice nursing home residents differ in their anxiety, depression, quality of life, social networks, perceptions of pain medication, and health compared to family members of community dwelling hospice patients? 2) What are family members’ perceptions of and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home setting? Methods This study is a secondary mixed methods analysis of interviews with family members of hospice nursing home residents and a comparative statistical analysis of standard outcome measures between family members of hospice patients in the nursing home and family member of hospice patients residing in the community. Results Outcome measures for family members of nursing home residents were compared (n=176) with family members of community dwelling hospice patients (n=267). The family members of nursing home residents reported higher quality of life however, levels of anxiety, depression, perceptions of pain medicine, and health were similar for hospice family members in the nursing home and in the community. Lending an understanding to the stress for hospice family members of nursing home residents concerns were found with collaboration between the nursing home and the hospice, nursing home care that did not meet family expectations, communication problems, and resident care concerns including pain management. Some family members reported positive end-of-life care experiences in the nursing home setting. Conclusion These interviews identify a multitude of barriers to quality end-of-life care in the nursing home setting, and demonstrate that support for family members is an essential part of quality end-of-life care for
Tsai, Hsiu-Hsin; Tsai, Yun-Fang
To develop and test the feasibility of an instrument to support patients' nursing home to emergency room transfer. Transfers from a nursing home care facility to an acute care facility such as a hospital emergency room are common. However, the prevalence of an information gap for transferring residents' health data to acute care facility is high. An evidence-based transfer instrument, which could fill this gap, is lacking. Development of a nursing home to emergency room transfer checklist, validation of items using the Delphi method and testing the feasibility and benefits of using the nursing home to emergency room transfer checklist. Items were developed based on qualitative data from previous research. Delphi validation, retrospective chart review (baseline data) and a 6-month prospective study design were applied to test the feasibility of using the checklist. Variables for testing the feasibility of the checklist included residents' 30-day readmission rate and length of hospital stay. Development of the nursing home to emergency room transfer checklist resulted in four main parts: (i) demographic data of the nursing home resident; (ii) critical data for nursing home to emergency room transfer; (iii) contact information and (iv) critical data for emergency room to nursing home transfer. Two rounds of Delphi validation resulted in a mean score (standard deviation) ranging from 4.39 (1.13)-4.98 (.15). Time required to complete the checklist was 3-5 min. Use of the nursing home to emergency room transfer checklist resulted in a 30-day readmission rate of 13.4%, which was lower than the baseline rate of 15.9%. The nursing home to emergency room transfer checklist was developed for transferring nursing home residents to an emergency room. The instrument was found to be an effective tool for this process. Use of the nursing home to emergency room transfer checklist for nursing home transfers could fill the information gap that exists when transferring older adults
Tse, Mimi M Y; Ho, Suki S K
Because the prevalence of chronic pain among the elderly in nursing homes is high and decreases their quality of life, effective nonpharmacologic pain management should be promoted. The purpose of this quasiexperimental pretest and posttest control design was to enhance pain management in nursing homes via an integrated pain management program (IPMP) for staff and residents. Nursing staff and residents from the experimental nursing home were invited to join the 8-week IPMP, whereas staff and residents from the control nursing home did not receive the IPMP. Baseline data were collected from nursing staff and residents in both groups before and after the IPMP. The IPMP consisted of eight lectures on pain assessment, drug knowledge,and nondrug strategies for the nursing staff, and 8 weeks of activities, including gardening therapy and physiotherapy exercise, for the residents. There were 48 and 42 older people in the experimental and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found in their educational level, sleep quality, bowel habits, past and present health conditions, pain conditions and psychologic well-being parameters (p > .05) at baseline. After the IPMP, the experimental nursing staff showed a significant improvement in their knowledge of and attitudes to pain management (p pain scores and used more nondrug strategies for pain relief compared with the control group (p nursing staff, as well as reducing pain conditions and enhancing psychologic well-being for older persons in nursing homes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home performance measurement systems are practically ubiquitous. The vast majority of these systems aspire to rank order all nursing homes based on quantitative measures of quality. However, the ability of such systems to identify homes differing in quality is hampered by the multidimensional nature of nursing homes and their residents. As a result, the authors doubt the ability of many nursing home performance systems to truly help consumers differentiate among homes providing different levels of quality. We also argue that, for consumers, performance measurement models are better at identifying problem facilities than potentially good homes. Discussion In response to these concerns we present a proposal for a less ambitious approach to nursing home performance measurement than previously used. We believe consumers can make better informed choice using a simpler system designed to pinpoint poor-quality nursing homes, rather than one designed to rank hundreds of facilities based on differences in quality-of-care indicators that are of questionable importance. The suggested performance model is based on five principles used in the development of the Consumers Union 2006 Nursing Home Quality Monitor. Summary We can best serve policy-makers and consumers by eschewing nursing home reporting systems that present information about all the facilities in a city, a state, or the nation on a website or in a report. We argue for greater modesty in our efforts and a focus on identifying only the potentially poorest or best homes. In the end, however, it is important to remember that information from any performance measurement website or report is no substitute for multiple visits to a home at different times of the day to personally assess quality.
This study was done to develop a web-based education program for nurses working in nursing homes. The focus was on the rights of older adults. The program was designed based on the Network-Based Instructional System Design (NBISD) model and was operated and evaluated between July 2007 and June 2008. Out of nursing records of 40 residents from a nursing home, the final 7 cases were deducted through classification using the Resource Utilization Group (RUG)-III. The data on needs for education was collected from 28 nurses working in 15 nursing homes located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, who agreed to complete a self-report questionnaire. A comprehensive review of the literature and two focus groups interviews were used to search for risk factors and guidelines for protection of human rights. The education program was developed based on Kolb's experiential learning model and composed of 5 units, which included content on types of human rights and rights to death with dignity, elder abuse, physical liberty, and self-determination. The program was positively evaluated showing a score of 3.35 (SD=0.37) out of 4. The educational program developed in this study should promote nurses' sensitivity to the rights of elders and improve nurses' behaviors in protecting the rights of elders residing in nursing homes.
Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Lee, Sharon Narae; Armour, Marilyn
In response to the growing attention to integrated health care and the cultural change movement in nursing homes, this study examines the lived experiences of nursing home social workers to better understand their role perceptions, job satisfaction, and relationship with other staff members. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used in order to understand the lived experience of being a nursing home social worker. Ten nursing home social workers were recruited from a southern state and individual interviews were conducted. From the interviews, four themes emerged: challenge, coping, mattering, and rewarding. Guided by identity negotiation theory and social identity theory, these findings are discussed. Also, implications for social work education, nursing home administration, and policy is discussed.
Avery, Chris; Humphrey, Charles; Balany, Jo Anne
Health inspections are performed at nursing homes to identify and reduce risk and to help maintain a safe environment for nursing home residents. The study described in this article aimed to identify the most frequent violations, types of violations (hygiene or structural), and repeat violations in nursing home facilities during health inspections; and to determine if the age of the facility influenced inspection scores. Nursing home health inspection forms (N = 131) completed between 2005 and 2011 in Pitt County, North Carolina, were analyzed. Results indicated that 60% of all violations were hygiene-related and could possibly be corrected without significant financial investments by management. Significant correlations occurred between the total number of violations and the facility age (p = .003) and between the number of repeat violations and total violations (p < .001). The average inspection score for nursing homes could be increased by more than three points if sanitation practices were improved.
Slettebø, Åshild; Saeteren, Berit; Caspari, Synnøve
BACKGROUND: Living in a nursing home may be challenging to the residents' experience of dignity. Residents' perception of how their dignity is respected in everyday care is important. AIM: To examine how nursing home residents experience dignity through the provision of activities that foster...... meaning and joy in their daily life. METHOD: A qualitative design was used and 28 individual semistructured interviews conducted with nursing home residents from six nursing homes in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Independent ethical committees in all...... participating countries granted their approval for the study. FINDINGS: The participants highlight two dimensions of the activities that foster experiences of dignity in nursing homes in Scandinavia. These two categories were (i) fostering dignity through meaningful participation and (ii) fostering dignity...
Beck, Anne Marie
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between underweight status and weight loss events on the need for health care assistance among a sample of Danish nursing home residents over 12-months. Design: Longitudinal, repeated measures design with three data collection...... points at baseline (2004) and six and 12 months post baseline. Setting: 11 Danish nursing home facilities. Participants: 441 Danish nursing home residents over the age of 65. Measurements: Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI-NH) data were abstracted for each participant at each of three data collection...... of this study suggest that elderly nursing home residents with a low BMI or weight loss may add to the substantial and costly burden of nursing home care due to the associated need for higher levels of ADL assistance....
Tyler, Denise A; Lepore, Michael; Shield, Renee R; Looze, Jessica; Miller, Susan C
Nursing home culture change is becoming more prevalent, and research has demonstrated its benefits for nursing home residents and staff-but little is known about the role of nursing home administrators in culture change implementation. The purpose of this study was to determine what barriers nursing home administrators face in implementing culture change practices, and to identify the strategies used to overcome them. The authors conducted in-depth individual interviews with 64 administrators identified through a nationally representative survey. Results showed that a key barrier to culture change implementation reported by administrators was staff, resident, and family member resistance to change. Most nursing home administrators stressed the importance of using communication, education and training to overcome this resistance. Themes emerging around the concepts of communication and education indicate that these efforts should be ongoing, communication should be reciprocal, and that all stakeholders should be included.
Lueckel, Stephanie N; Kosar, Cyrus M; Teno, Joan M; Monaghan, Sean F; Heffernan, Daithi S; Cioffi, William G; Thomas, Kali S
Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. In survivors, traumatic brain injury remains a leading contributor to long-term disability and results in many patients being admitted to skilled nursing facilities for postacute care. Despite this very large population of traumatic brain injury patients, very little is known about the long-term outcomes of traumatic brain injury survivors, including rates of discharge to home or risk of death in long-term nursing facilities. We hypothesized that patient demographics and functional status influence outcomes of patients with traumatic brain injury admitted to skilled nursing facilities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 and older discharged alive and directly from hospital to a skilled nursing facility between 2011 and 2014 using the prospectively maintained Federal Minimum Data Set combined with Medicare claims data and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Vital Status files. Records were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics at admission to the skilled nursing facility, including age, sex, cognitive function, ability to communicate, and motor function. Activities of daily living were reassessed at discharge to calculate functional improvement. We used robust Poisson regression with skilled nursing facility fixed effects to calculate relative risks and 99% confidence intervals for mortality and functional improvement associated with the demographic and clinical characteristics present at admission. Linear regression was used to calculate adjusted mean duration of stay. Overall, 87,292 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with traumatic brain injury were admitted to skilled nursing facilities. The mean age was 84 years, with 74% of patients older than age 80. Generally, older age, male sex, and poor cognitive or functional status at admission to a skilled nursing facility were associated with
Haugstvedt, Anne; Aarflot, Morten; Igland, Jannicke; Landbakk, Tilla; Graue, Marit
Providing high-quality diabetes care in nursing homes and home-based care facilities requires suitable instruments to evaluate the level of diabetes knowledge among the health-care providers. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test adapted for use among nursing personnel. The study included 127 nursing personnel (32 registered nurses, 69 nursing aides and 26 nursing assistants) at three nursing homes and one home-based care facility in Norway. We examined the reliability and content and construct validity of the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test. The items in both the general diabetes subscale and the insulin-use subscale were considered relevant and appropriate. The instrument showed satisfactory properties for distinguishing between groups. Item response theory-based measurements and item information curves indicate maximum information at average or lower knowledge scores. Internal consistency and the item-total correlations were quite weak, indicating that the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test measures a set of items related to various relevant knowledge topics but not necessarily related to each other. The Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test measures a broad range of topics relevant to diabetes care. It is an appropriate instrument for identifying individual and distinct needs for diabetes education among nursing personnel. The knowledge gaps identified by the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test could also provide useful input for the content of educational activities. However, some revision of the test should be considered.
Namakula, Justine; Witter, Sophie; Ssengooba, Freddie
Northern Uganda suffered 20 years of conflict which devastated lives and the health system. Since 2006, there has been investment in reconstruction, which includes efforts to rebuild the health workforce. This article has two objectives: first, to understand health workers' experiences of working in public and private not-for-profit (PNFP) sectors during and after the conflict in Northern Uganda, and second, to understand the factors that influenced health workers' movement between public and PNFP sectors during and after the conflict. A life history approach was used with 26 health staff purposively selected from public and PNFP facilities in four districts of Northern Uganda. Staff with at least 10 years' experience were selected, which resulted in a sample which was largely female and mid-level. Two thirds were currently employed in the public sector and just over a third in the PNFP sector. A thematic data analysis was guided by the framework analysis approach, analysis framework stages and ATLAS.ti software version 7.0. Analysis reveals that most of the current staff were trained in the PNFP sector, which appears to offer higher quality training experiences. During the conflict period, the PNFP sector also functioned more effectively and was relatively better able to support its staff. However, since the end of the conflict, the public sector has been reconstructed and is now viewed as offering a better overall package for staff. Most reported movement has been in that direction, and many in the PNFP sector state intention to move to the public sector. While there is sectoral loyalty on both sides and some bonds created through training, the PNFP sector needs to become more competitive to retain staff so as to continue delivering services to deprived communities in Northern Uganda. There has been limited previous longitudinal analysis of how health staff perceive different sectors and why they move between them, particularly in conflict-affected contexts
M.D. Rijnaard; Joost van Hoof; H. Verbeek; H.C. Beerens; S.L. Molony; W. Pocornie; Eveline Wouters; B.M. Janssen; A. Eijkelenboom
Purpose. To provide an overview of factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. Inclusion criteria were (1) original and peer-reviewed research, (2) qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research, (3) research
J. van Hoof; B.M Janssen; MD E.J.M. Wouters; C.J.M.L. van Dijck-Heinen
C.J.M.L. van Dijck-Heinen, E.J.M. Wouters, B.M. Janssen, J. van Hoof (2014) The environmental design of residential care facilities: A sense of home through the eyes of nursing home residents. International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology 1(4): 57-69
Kerkstra, A.; Castelein, E.; Philipsen, H.
This study aims at a description of the current position of preventive home visits to the elderly by community nurses in The Netherlands. Over a period of 8 weeks, a representative sample of 108 community nurses and 49 community nursing auxiliaries at 47 different locations paid a total number of
Tourangeau, Ann E; Patterson, Erin; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; Cranley, Lisa
Health care is shifting out of hospitals into community settings. In Ontario, Canada, home care organizations continue to experience challenges recruiting and retaining nurses. However, factors influencing home care nurse retention that can be modified remain largely unexplored. Several groups of factors have been identified as influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed including job characteristics, work structures, relationships and communication, work environment, responses to work, and conditions of employment. The aim of this study was to test and refine a model that identifies which factors are related to home care nurse intentions to remain employed for the next 5 years with their current home care employer organization. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented to test and refine a hypothesized model of home care nurse intent to remain employed. Logistic regression was used to determine which factors influence home care nurse intent to remain employed. Home care nurse intent to remain employed for the next 5 years was associated with increasing age, higher nurse-evaluated quality of care, having greater variety of patients, experiencing greater meaningfulness of work, having greater income stability, having greater continuity of client care, experiencing more positive relationships with supervisors, experiencing higher work-life balance, and being more satisfied with salary and benefits. Home care organizations can promote home care nurse intent to remain employed by (a) ensuring nurses have adequate training and resources to provide quality client care, (b) improving employment conditions to increase income stability and satisfaction with pay and benefits, (c) ensuring manageable workloads to facilitate improved work-life balance, and (d) ensuring leaders are accessible and competent.
Mariska G Oosterveld-Vlug
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable. AIM: To investigate if and how nursing home residents' personal dignity changes over the course of time, and what contributes to this. DESIGN: A longitudinal qualitative study. METHODS: Multiple in-depth interviews, with an interval of six months, were carried out with 22 purposively sampled nursing home residents of the general medical wards of four nursing homes in The Netherlands. Transcripts were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: From admission onwards, some residents experienced an improved sense of dignity, while others experienced a downward trend, a fluctuating one or no change at all. Two mechanisms were especially important for a nursing home resident to maintain or regain personal dignity: the feeling that one is in control of his life and the feeling that one is regarded as a worthwhile person. The acquirement of both feelings could be supported by 1 finding a way to cope with one's situation; 2 getting acquainted with the new living structures in the nursing home and therefore feeling more at ease; 3 physical improvement (with or without an electric wheelchair; 4 being socially involved with nursing home staff, other residents and relatives; and 5 being amongst disabled others and therefore less prone to exposures of disrespect from the outer world. CONCLUSION: Although the direction in which a resident's personal dignity develops is also dependent on one's character and coping capacities, nursing home staff can contribute to dignity by creating optimal conditions to help a nursing home resident recover feelings of control and of being regarded as a worthwhile person.
Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G; Pasman, H Roeline W; van Gennip, Isis E; Willems, Dick L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D
Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable. To investigate if and how nursing home residents' personal dignity changes over the course of time, and what contributes to this. A longitudinal qualitative study. Multiple in-depth interviews, with an interval of six months, were carried out with 22 purposively sampled nursing home residents of the general medical wards of four nursing homes in The Netherlands. Transcripts were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. From admission onwards, some residents experienced an improved sense of dignity, while others experienced a downward trend, a fluctuating one or no change at all. Two mechanisms were especially important for a nursing home resident to maintain or regain personal dignity: the feeling that one is in control of his life and the feeling that one is regarded as a worthwhile person. The acquirement of both feelings could be supported by 1) finding a way to cope with one's situation; 2) getting acquainted with the new living structures in the nursing home and therefore feeling more at ease; 3) physical improvement (with or without an electric wheelchair); 4) being socially involved with nursing home staff, other residents and relatives; and 5) being amongst disabled others and therefore less prone to exposures of disrespect from the outer world. Although the direction in which a resident's personal dignity develops is also dependent on one's character and coping capacities, nursing home staff can contribute to dignity by creating optimal conditions to help a nursing home resident recover feelings of control and of being regarded as a worthwhile person.
Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David
To explore the association between nursing home managers' leadership, job strain and social support as perceived by direct care staff in nursing homes. It is well known that aged care staff experience high levels of job strain, and that aged care staff experiencing job strain are exposed to increased risk for adverse health effects. Leadership styles have been associated with job strain in the literature; however, the impact of perceived leadership on staff job strain and social support has not been clarified within nursing home contexts. This study had a cross-sectional design. Participating staff (n = 3,605) completed surveys which included questions about staff characteristics, valid and reliable measures of nursing home managers' leadership, perceived job strain and social support. Statistical analyses of correlations and multiple regression analysis with interaction terms were conducted. Nursing home managers' leadership were significantly associated with lower level of job strain and higher level of social support among direct care staff. A multiple regression analysis including an interaction term indicated individual and joint effects of nursing home managers' leadership and social support on job strain. Nursing home managers' leadership and social support were both individually and in combination associated with staff perception of lesser job strain. Thus, nursing home managers' leadership are beneficial for the working situation and strain of staff. Promoting a supporting work environment through leadership is an important implication for nursing home managers as it can influence staff perception of job strain and social support within the unit. By providing leadership, offering support and strategies towards a healthy work environment, nursing home managers can buffer adverse health effects among staff. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moth, Grete; Andersen, Ane Birgitte Telén
In Denmark, management of care at hospitals is characterized by efficient medical treatment and short hospital stay. This results in a heavier and more complex workload on the primary health care sector. However, very little research has so far shed light on the area of home care performed by nur...... by nurses. The aim of the study was to examine the experience of home care from a nurse as well as a citizen perspective....
Vinsnes, Anne G; Nakrem, Sigrid; Harkless, Gene E; Seim, Arnfinn
This study aimed to elucidate the understandings and beliefs about quality held by family members of residents of Norwegian nursing homes. The objective reported in the study considers how family member judge factors that enhance or hamper high care quality. The percentage of those who will require care in a nursing home some time before the end of their lives will increase dramatically in the next 20 years. Therefore, anticipating this pressure to expand nursing home availability, it is urgent that these services are developed from a keen understanding of what creates the best value. Care quality from the family's perspective is just one piece of the nursing home experience that must be understood for optimal value in care to be realised. Qualitative methodology. Three focus group interviews; purposive sampling was used to recruit the 16 family members of residents in nursing homes. Three domains emerged that served as anchors for a typology of family perceptions of the quality care continuum: resident contentment, suitability of staff and environmental context. Each domain was developed with categories describing high- to low-quality markers, which were then clarified by enhancing and hindering factors. This typology provides a family perspective framework that may be useful to nursing leadership at all levels of the nursing home organisation to identify important quality of care strengths as well as markers of poor care. Overall, the typology is offered to expand nurses' understanding of quality, both practically and conceptually, to provide the best value in nursing care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
..., domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service... Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.46 Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service. (a) In furnishing...
C.S. Sterke (Carolyn)
textabstractFalls are a major health problem in nursing home residents with dementia. In nursing homes one-third of all falls results in an injury. In order to take tailor-made preventive measures in time, the fall risk profile of each individual nursing home resident should be periodically
Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia; Chung, Haejoo; Eaton, William W
This study simultaneously tests the effect of county, organizational, workplace, and individual level variables on depressive disorders among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. A total of 482 observations are used from two waves of survey data collection, with an average two-year interval between initial and follow-up surveys. The overall response rate was 62 percent. The hierarchically structured data was analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for cross-classifications across levels of data. Nursing assistants working in nursing homes covered by a single union in three states were asked about aspects of their working conditions, job stress, physical and mental health status, individual and family health-care needs, household economics and household strain. The 241 nursing assistants who participated in this study were employed in 34 nursing homes and lived in 49 counties of West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky. The study finds that emotional strain, related to providing direct care to elderly and disabled clients, is associated with depressive disorder, as is nursing home ownership type (for-profit versus not-for-profit). However, when controlling for county level socioeconomic variables (Gini index and proportion of African Americans living in the county), neither workplace nor organizational level variables were found to be statistically significant associated with depressive disorder. This study supports previous findings that emotional demand in health-care environments is an important correlate of mental health. It also adds empirical evidence to support a link between financial strain and depression in US women. While this study does not find that lack of a seniority wage benefits--a factor that can conceivably exacerbate financial strain over time--is associated with depressive disorder among low-income health-care workers, it does find county level measures of poverty to be statistically significant predictors of depressive
Mor, Vincent; Volandes, Angelo E; Gutman, Roee; Gatsonis, Constantine; Mitchell, Susan L
Background/Aims Nursing homes are complex healthcare systems serving an increasingly sick population. Nursing homes must engage patients in advance care planning, but do so inconsistently. Video decision support tools improved advance care planning in small randomized controlled trials. Pragmatic trials are increasingly employed in health services research, although not commonly in the nursing home setting to which they are well-suited. This report presents the design and rationale for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial that evaluated the "real world" application of an Advance Care Planning Video Program in two large US nursing home healthcare systems. Methods PRagmatic trial Of Video Education in Nursing homes was conducted in 360 nursing homes (N = 119 intervention/N = 241 control) owned by two healthcare systems. Over an 18-month implementation period, intervention facilities were instructed to offer the Advance Care Planning Video Program to all patients. Control facilities employed usual advance care planning practices. Patient characteristics and outcomes were ascertained from Medicare Claims, Minimum Data Set assessments, and facility electronic medical record data. Intervention adherence was measured using a Video Status Report embedded into electronic medical record systems. The primary outcome was the number of hospitalizations/person-day alive among long-stay patients with advanced dementia or cardiopulmonary disease. The rationale for the approaches to facility randomization and recruitment, intervention implementation, population selection, data acquisition, regulatory issues, and statistical analyses are discussed. Results The large number of well-characterized candidate facilities enabled several unique design features including stratification on historical hospitalization rates, randomization prior to recruitment, and 2:1 control to intervention facilities ratio. Strong endorsement from corporate leadership made randomization
M. D. Rijnaard
Full Text Available Purpose. To provide an overview of factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. Inclusion criteria were (1 original and peer-reviewed research, (2 qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research, (3 research about nursing home residents (or similar type of housing, and (4 research on the sense of home, meaning of home, at-homeness, or homelikeness. Results. Seventeen mainly qualitative articles were included. The sense of home of nursing home residents is influenced by 15 factors, divided into three themes: (1 psychological factors (sense of acknowledgement, preservation of one’s habits and values, autonomy and control, and coping; (2 social factors (interaction and relationship with staff, residents, family and friends, and pets and activities; and (3 the built environment (private space and (quasi-public space, personal belongings, technology, look and feel, and the outdoors and location. Conclusions. The sense of home is influenced by numerous factors related to the psychology of the residents and the social and built environmental contexts. Further research is needed to determine if and how the identified factors are interrelated, if perspectives of various stakeholders involved differ, and how the factors can be improved in practice.
Bishop, Christine E.; Weinberg, Dana Beth; Leutz, Walter; Dossa, Almas; Pfefferle, Susan G.; Zincavage, Rebekah M.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) whether certified nursing assistants (CNAs) are more committed to nursing home jobs when they perceive their jobs as enhanced (greater autonomy, use of knowledge, teamwork), and (b) whether CNA job commitment affects resident satisfaction. Design and Methods: A qualitative exploration of…
Clement, Jan P; Khushalani, Jaya
Assisted living facilities (ALFs) have grown over the past few decades. If they attract residents with lower care needs away from nursing homes (NHs), NHs may be left with higher case mix residents. We study the relationship between ALF bed market capacity and NH case mix in a state (Virginia) where ALF bed capacity stabilized after a period of growth. Similarly, NH capacity and use had been stable. While it is interesting to study markets in flux, for planning purposes, it is also important to examine what happens after periods of turbulence and adaptation. Our findings show some substitution of ALF for NH care, but the relationship is not linear with ALF market capacity. Communities need to consider the interplay of ALFs and NHs in planning for long-term care services and supports. Policies supporting ALFs may enable care needs to be met in a lower cost setting than the NH.
Jan P. Clement PhD
Full Text Available Assisted living facilities (ALFs have grown over the past few decades. If they attract residents with lower care needs away from nursing homes (NHs, NHs may be left with higher case mix residents. We study the relationship between ALF bed market capacity and NH case mix in a state (Virginia where ALF bed capacity stabilized after a period of growth. Similarly, NH capacity and use had been stable. While it is interesting to study markets in flux, for planning purposes, it is also important to examine what happens after periods of turbulence and adaptation. Our findings show some substitution of ALF for NH care, but the relationship is not linear with ALF market capacity. Communities need to consider the interplay of ALFs and NHs in planning for long-term care services and supports. Policies supporting ALFs may enable care needs to be met in a lower cost setting than the NH.
Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Topaz, Maxim; Masterson Creber, Ruth
Nurses provide most of home health services for patients with heart failure, and yet there are no evidence-based practice guidelines developed for home health nurses. The purpose of this article was to review the challenges and solutions for adapting generally available HF clinical practice guidelines to home health nursing. Appropriate HF guidelines were identified and home health nursing-relevant guidelines were extracted by the research team. In addition, a team of nursing academic and practice experts evaluated the extracted guidelines and reached consensus through Delphi rounds. We identified 172 recommendations relevant to home health nursing from the American Heart Association and Heart Failure Society of America guidelines. The recommendations were divided into 5 groups (generic, minority populations, normal ejection fraction, reduced ejection fraction, and comorbidities) and further subgroups. Experts agreed that 87% of the recommendations selected by the research team were relevant to home health nursing and rejected 6% of the selected recommendations. Experts' opinions were split on 7% of guideline recommendations. Experts mostly disagreed on recommendations related to HF medication and laboratory prescription as well as HF patient assessment. These disagreements were due to lack of patient information available to home health nurses as well as unclear understanding of scope of practice regulations for home health nursing. After 2 Delphi rounds over 8 months, we achieved 100% agreement on the recommendations. The finalized guideline included 153 recommendations. Guideline adaptation projects should include a broad scope of nursing practice recommendations from which home health agencies can customize relevant recommendations in accordance with available information and state and agency regulations.
Hill, Michelle; Kirby, Judy
Diabetes education for the home care population requires expert knowledge to be available at the point-of-care, the patient's home. This poster displays a model for Web-based diabetes education and decision support for the home care nurse. The system utilizes the line of reasoning (LOR) model to organize and represent expert decision-making thought processes.
Adams, Joost; Verbeek, Hilde; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G
The shift in nursing home care for patients with dementia from traditional task-driven environments towards patient-centered small-scale environments has implications for nursing practice. Information about its implications for nursing staff is lacking, and only a few studies have addressed staff perceptions. We sought to explore staff perceptions of required skills and to determine differences in job satisfaction, motivation, and job characteristics of staff working in both care settings. A secondary data analysis was conducted. The data source used was drawn from a larger study testing the effects of small-scale living (Verbeek et al., 2009). Nursing staff working on a permanent basis and who were directly involved in care were eligible to participate in the study. Data on job satisfaction, motivation, and job characteristics of nursing staff working in typical small-scale and traditional care environments were derived using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Differences between nursing staff job satisfaction, motivation, and job characteristics were tested using multilinear regression analysis. In total, 138 staff members were included (81 staff members working in traditional nursing home wards and 57 staff members working in small-scale nursing home wards). The findings showed that in typical small-scale nursing homes, job satisfaction and job motivation were significantly higher compared to those in typical traditional nursing homes. Job autonomy and social support were also significantly higher, while job demands were significantly lower in these small-scale nursing homes. Social support was found to be the most significant predictor of job motivation and job satisfaction in both types of typical nursing homes. Nursing staff working in traditional care environments more often expressed the intention to switch to small-scale environments. Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that nursing homes environments
Clément, Evelyne; Vivicorsi, Bruno; Altintas, Emin; Guerrien, Alain
Despite a widespread concern with self-determined motivation (behavior is engaged in "out of pleasure" or "out of choice and valued as being important") and psychological adjustment in later life (well-being, satisfaction in life, meaning of life, or self-esteem), very little is known about the existence and nature of the links between self-determined motivation and cognitive efficiency. The aim of the present study was to investigate theses links in nursing home residents in the framework of the Self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 2002), in which motivational profile of a person is determined by the combination of different kinds of motivation. We hypothesized that self-determined motivation would lead to higher cognitive efficiency. Participants. 39 (32 women and 7 men) elderly nursing home residents (m= 83.6 ± 9.3 year old) without any neurological or psychiatric disorders (DSM IV) or depression or anxiety (Hamilton depression rating scales) were included in the study. Methods. Cognitive efficiency was evaluated by two brief neuropsychological tests, the Mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Frontal assessment battery (FAB). The motivational profile was assessed by the Elderly motivation scale (Vallerand & 0'Connor, 1991) which includes four subscales assessing self- and non-self determined motivation to engage oneself in different domains of daily life activity. Results. The neuropsychological scores were positively and significantly correlated to self-determined extrinsic motivation (behavior is engaged in "out of choice" and valued as being important), and the global self-determination index (self-determined motivational profile) was the best predictor of the cognitive efficiency. Conclusion. The results support the SDT interest for a qualitative assessment of the motivation of the elderly people and suggest that a motivational approach of cognitive efficiency could help to interpret cognitive performances exhibited during neuropsychological
Bangerter, Lauren R; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Heid, Allison R; Abbott, Katherine
Assessing and honoring older adults' preferences is a fundamental step in providing person-centered care in long-term care facilities. Researchers and practitioners have begun to develop measures to assess nursing home (NH) residents' everyday preferences. However, little is known about how residents interpret and conceptualize their preferences and what specific clinical response may be needed to balance health and safety concerns with preferences. We used content analysis to examine interview responses on a subset of eight open-ended items from the Preferences of Every-day Living Inventory for Nursing Home (PELI-NH) residents with 337 NH residents (mean age 81). We considered how residents self-define various preferences of care and the associated importance of these preferences. Residents identified preferences for interpersonal interactions (greetings, staff showing care, and staff showing respect), coping strategies, personal care (bathroom needs, setting up bedding), and healthcare discussions. Respondents highlighted specific qualities and characteristics about care interactions that are necessary to fully meeting their everyday preferences. Results contribute to an emergent body of research that utilizes patient preferences to achieve the goals of person-centered care. The complexity of these responses substantiates the use of qualitative inquiry to thoroughly assess and integrate NH resident preferences into the delivery of person-centered care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Irani, Elliane; Hirschman, Karen B; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Bowles, Kathryn H
To describe how home health nurses plan their daily work schedules and what challenges they face during the planning process. Home health nurses are viewed as independent providers and value the nature of their work because of the flexibility and autonomy they hold in developing their work schedules. However, there is limited empirical evidence about how home health nurses plan their work schedules, including the factors they consider during the process and the challenges they face within the dynamic home health setting. Qualitative descriptive design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 registered nurses who had greater than 2 years of experience in home health and were employed by one of the three participating home health agencies in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Four themes emerged about planning work schedules and daily itineraries: identifying patient needs to prioritize visits accordingly, partnering with patients to accommodate their preferences, coordinating visit timing with other providers to avoid overwhelming patients, and working within agency standards to meet productivity requirements. Scheduling challenges included readjusting the schedule based on patient needs and staffing availability, anticipating longer visits, and maintaining continuity of care with patients. Home health nurses make autonomous decisions regarding their work schedules while considering specific patient and agency factors, and overcome challenges related to the unpredictable nature of providing care in a home health setting. Future research is needed to further explore nurse productivity in home health and improve home health work environments. Home health nurses plan their work schedules to provide high quality care that is patient-centered and timely. The findings also highlight organizational priorities to facilitate continuity of care and support nurses while alleviating the burnout
Smith, Marianne; Stolder, Mary Ellen; Jaggers, Benjamin; Liu, Megan; Haedke, Chris
Late-life depression is common among nursing home residents, but often is not addressed by nurses. Using a self-directed, CD-based depression training program, this pilot study used mixed methods to assess feasibility issues, determine nurse perceptions of training, and evaluate depression-related outcomes among residents in usual care and training conditions. Of 58 nurses enrolled, 24 completed the training and gave it high ratings. Outcomes for 50 residents include statistically significant...
Sandvoll, Anne Marie; Grov, Ellen Karine; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Hauge, Solveig
Caring practice in nursing homes is a complex topic, especially the challenges of meeting the basic needs of residents when their behaviour evokes difficult emotions. Cognitive and physical changes related to aging and disability can contribute to behaviours considered to be unacceptable. For example, resident behaviours such as spitting, making a mess with food or grinding teeth are behaviours that most people do not want to see, hear or experience. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how nursing home staff members deal with such behaviours in care situations. This article draws on ethnographic data to describe how nursing home staff members manage unpleasant resident behaviours. The study was based on two long-term units in two Norwegian public nursing homes. The Region's Medical Ethics Committee and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services granted approval. In total, 45 participants (37 nursing aides and eight nurses) agreed to participate in this study. Ten of the participants were interviewed at the end of the field study. This study indicates that nursing home staff members experience difficult emotions related to some residents' behaviours. However, they found these feelings difficult to express and rarely verbalized them openly. In addition, they were characterized by a strong obligation to help all residents, despite their own feelings. Therefore, it appears that an inner struggle occurs as a part of everyday practice. Despite these difficult emotions, nursing staff members believed that they needed to manage their responses and continued to offer good care to all residents. These findings extend our understanding of this unarticulated part of nursing home practice.
Lorenzo Maria Donini
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition is a clinical condition due to the imbalance among needs, intake and use of nutrients, leading to the increase of morbidity and mortality, and to the impairment of quality of life. Even in industrialized countries undernutrition is becoming an alarming phenomenon, especially involving elderly institutionalized subjects. A multicentric study called PIMAI (Project Iatrogenic MAlnutrition in Italy, was carried out in Italy over 2005. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in hospitals and in nursing care homes (NH, to assess the level of nutritional attention and to measure the perceived quality in food and nutritional care. This paper represents a preliminary analysis of data collected in a NH included in the PIMAI project. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 subjects (29 males and 71 females, aged 80.2±10 years, were recruited from January to June 2005 at the Clinical Rehabilitation Institute "Villa delle Querce" in Nemi (Rome, among patients in the NH facility. All the participants underwent a multidimensional geriatric evaluation (considering nutritional, clinical, functional and cognitive parameters, and a survey on "perceived quality" of nutritional care. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: According to nutritional status defined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment®, data analysis showed a high prevalence of malnutrition (36% especially related to advanced age, chewing, cognitive and functional impairments. Patients seemed to consider nutrition to be important for their health; on the other hand, they were not thoroughly satisfied with the quality of food. Particularly, it was observed scarce attention to nutritional status from medical and nursing staff. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the need to pay greater attention to nutritional status in elderly institutionalized subjects. Medical and nursing teams need to be aware of the importance to perform an evaluation of nutritional status in