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Sample records for nosocomial pathogen enterococcus

  1. Pyrosequencing-based comparative genome analysis of the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium and identification of a large transferable pathogenicity island

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    Bonten Marc JM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecium is an important cause of nosocomial infections in immunocompromized patients. Results We present a pyrosequencing-based comparative genome analysis of seven E. faecium strains that were isolated from various sources. In the genomes of clinical isolates several antibiotic resistance genes were identified, including the vanA transposon that confers resistance to vancomycin in two strains. A functional comparison between E. faecium and the related opportunistic pathogen E. faecalis based on differences in the presence of protein families, revealed divergence in plant carbohydrate metabolic pathways and oxidative stress defense mechanisms. The E. faecium pan-genome was estimated to be essentially unlimited in size, indicating that E. faecium can efficiently acquire and incorporate exogenous DNA in its gene pool. One of the most prominent sources of genomic diversity consists of bacteriophages that have integrated in the genome. The CRISPR-Cas system, which contributes to immunity against bacteriophage infection in prokaryotes, is not present in the sequenced strains. Three sequenced isolates carry the esp gene, which is involved in urinary tract infections and biofilm formation. The esp gene is located on a large pathogenicity island (PAI, which is between 64 and 104 kb in size. Conjugation experiments showed that the entire esp PAI can be transferred horizontally and inserts in a site-specific manner. Conclusions Genes involved in environmental persistence, colonization and virulence can easily be aquired by E. faecium. This will make the development of successful treatment strategies targeted against this organism a challenge for years to come.

  2. A functional collagen adhesin gene, acm, in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium correlates with the recent success of this emerging nosocomial pathogen.

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    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium recently evolved from a generally avirulent commensal into a multidrug-resistant health care-associated pathogen causing difficult-to-treat infections, but little is known about the factors responsible for this change. We previously showed that some E. faecium strains express a cell wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm. Here we analyzed 90 E. faecium isolates (99% acm(+)) and found that the Acm protein was detected predominantly in clinically derived isolates, while the acm gene was present as a transposon-interrupted pseudogene in 12 of 47 isolates of nonclinical origin. A highly significant association between clinical (versus fecal or food) origin and collagen adherence (P Acm detected by whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry. Thirty-seven of 41 sera from patients with E. faecium infections showed reactivity with recombinant Acm, while only 4 of 30 community and hospitalized patient control group sera reacted (P Acm were present in all 14 E. faecium endocarditis patient sera. Although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that multiple strains expressed collagen adherence, multilocus sequence typing demonstrated that the majority of collagen-adhering isolates, as well as 16 of 17 endocarditis isolates, are part of the hospital-associated E. faecium genogroup referred to as clonal complex 17 (CC17), which has emerged globally. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that Acm has contributed to the emergence of E. faecium and CC17 in nosocomial infections.

  3. Distribution of potential nosocomial pathogens in a hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... associated/acquired infections) are those infections that develop in a patient during ... nosocomial pathogens that cause infections can come either from ... aeruginosa is a regular cause of nosocomial pneumonia, urinary tract ...

  4. Mobile phones: Reservoirs for the transmission of nosocomial pathogens.

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    Pal, Shekhar; Juyal, Deepak; Adekhandi, Shamanth; Sharma, Munesh; Prakash, Rajat; Sharma, Neelam; Rana, Amit; Parihar, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Global burden of hospital-associated infection (HAI) is on the rise and contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality of the patients. Mobile phones are indispensible part of communication among doctors and other health care workers (HCWs) in hospitals. Hands of HCWs play an important role in transmission of HAI and mobile phones which are seldom cleaned and often touched during or after the examination of patients without hand washing can act as a reservoir for transmission of potent pathogens. This study aimed to investigate the rate of bacterial contamination of mobile phones among HCWs in our tertiary care hospital and to compare it with personal mobile phones of non-HCWs (control group). The mobile phones and dominant hands of 386 participants were sampled from four different groups, hospital doctors and staff (132), college faculty and staff (54), medical students (100) and control group (100). Informed consent and questionnaire was duly signed by all the participants. Samples were processed according to standard guidelines. 316 mobile phones (81.8%) and 309 hand swab samples (80%) showed growth of bacterial pathogens. The most predominant isolates were Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas species and Enterococcus species. Hundred percent contamination was found in mobile phones and hands of HCWs indicating mobile phones can be the potential source of nosocomial pathogens. Our study results suggest that use of mobile phones in health care setup should be restricted only for emergency calls. Strict adherence to infection control policies such as proper hand hygiene practices should be followed.

  5. Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens: Epidemiology and resistance features

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    Saad B. Almasaudi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter is a major cause of nosocomial infections; it is increasingly being associated with various epidemics and has become a widespread concern in a variety of hospitals worldwide. Multi-antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, is now recognized to be of great clinical significance. Numerous reports relay to the spread of A. baumannii in the hospital settings which leads to enhanced nosocomial outbreaks associated with high death rates. However, many other Acinetobacter spp. also can cause nosocomial infections. This review focused on the role of Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens in addition to their persistence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and epidemiology. Keywords: Acinetobacter, Nosocomial infections, Multi-drug resistance, Epidemiology, Characteristics

  6. Neonatal intensive care unit: Reservoirs of Nosocomial pathogens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in the care and treatment of neonates had contributed to their increased survival. Nosocomial infection remains an important problem in intensive care units. Hospital wards had been shown to act as reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms associated with infection. To assess the prevalence of pathogenic ...

  7. In Vitro Assay of Ethanolic Heat Reflux Extract of Nicotiana tabacum L. var Virginia Against Nosocomial Bacteria Pathogen

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    Pramono, Andri; Fauzantoro, Ahmad; Rizki Hidayati, Irma; Hygea, Arina; Puspita, Oktaviani Sandra; Muktamiroh, Hikmah; Simanjuntak, Kristina; Gozan, Misri

    2018-03-01

    Tobacco plays an important role in international trade as one of the export commodities. Indonesia is one of the good quality export contributors of tobacco leaves in the world. Nevertheless, tobacco is used only as a raw material for the cigarette industries, and the rise on anti-cigarette regulations prompted the exploration of alternative product from tobacco plants. The content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids in tobacco leaves were reported in literatures as antibacterial. Therefore, this study proposed in vitro assay of the ethanolic heat reflux extract (EHRE) of Nicotiana tabacum var. Virginia against nosocomial bacteria pathogen ((Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212)). Kirby-bauer diffusion method was used for this assay. The concentration of the EHRE for Kirby-bauer assay were 20; 40; 60; 80; and 100%. The presence of clear zones on Kirby-bauer test, against the growth of each nosocomial bacteria pathogen show that tobacco extract has antibacterial effect. Statistical analysis result showed that each extract concentration had significant difference value (p steroids) of tobacco leaf extracts (N. tabacum) has potential as antibacterial against nosocomial bacteria pathogen. Nevertheless, optimization of tobacco leaf extract to obtain maximum active ingredient still needs to be done. This study is important for further development of the tobacco leaf extract as antibacterial

  8. Exploring 5-nitrofuran derivatives against nosocomial pathogens: synthesis, antimicrobial activity and chemometric analysis.

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    Zorzi, Rodrigo Rocha; Jorge, Salomão Dória; Palace-Berl, Fanny; Pasqualoto, Kerly Fernanda Mesquita; Bortolozzo, Leandro de Sá; de Castro Siqueira, André Murillo; Tavares, Leoberto Costa

    2014-05-15

    The burden of nosocomial or health care-associated infection (HCAI) is increasing worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is several fold higher in low- and middle-income countries. Considering the multidrug-resistant infections, the development of new and more effective drugs is crucial. Herein, two series (I and II) of 5-nitrofuran derivatives were designed, synthesized and assayed against microorganisms, including Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and fungi. The pathogens screened was directly related to either the most currently relevant HCAI, or to multidrug-resistant infection caused by MRSA/VRSA strains, for instance. The sets I and II were composed by substituted-[N'-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)methylene]benzhydrazide and 3-acetyl-5-(substituted-phenyl)-2-(5-nitro-furan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds, respectively. The selection of the substituent groups was based upon physicochemical properties, such as hydrophobicity and electronic effect. The compounds have showed better activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. The findings from S. aureus strain, which was more susceptible, were used to investigate the intersamples and intervariables relationships by applying chemometric methods. It is noteworthy that the compound 4-butyl-[N'-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)methylene]benzhydrazide has showed similar MIC value to vancomycin, which is the reference drug for multidrug-resistant S. aureus infections. Taken the findings together, the 5-nitrofuran derivatives might be indeed considered as promising hits to develop novel antimicrobial drugs to fight against nosocomial infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Enterococcus faecium: from commensal to hospital adapted pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, J.

    2007-01-01

    For many years Enterococcus faecium was considered a commensal of the digestive tract, which only sporadically caused opportunistic infections in severely ill patients. Over the last two decades, vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VREF) has emerged worldwide as an important cause of nosocomial

  10. Lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibition in combination with antibiotics abrogates growth of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium

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    Paganelli, Fernanda L.; van de Kamer, Tim; Brouwer, Ellen C.; Leavis, Helen L.; Woodford, Neil; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity in debilitated patients. New antimicrobials are needed to treat antibiotic-resistant E. faecium infections in hospitalised patients. E. faecium incorporates lipoteichoic acid (LTA)

  11. Investigating the mobilome in clinically important lineages of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikalsen, Theresa; Pedersen, Torunn; Willems, Rob; Coque, Teresa M; Werner, Guido; Sadowy, Ewa; van Schaik, Willem; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Hegstad, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The success of Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis evolving as multi-resistant nosocomial pathogens is associated with their ability to acquire and share adaptive traits, including antimicrobial resistance genes encoded by mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Here, we investigate this

  12. Investigating the mobilome in clinically important lineages of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikalsen, Theresa; Pedersen, Torunn; Willems, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background: The success of Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis evolving as multi-resistant nosocomial pathogens is associated with their ability to acquire and share adaptive traits, including antimicrobial resistance genes encoded by mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Here, we investigate this mob...

  13. THE “CHALLENGING” MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT PATHOGENS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS (A LITERATURE REVIEW

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    T. V. Chernenkaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Changes in the structure of the main causative agents of nosocomial infections and significant spread of multidrug­resistant strains of bacteria are a natural biological response for antibiotics that selectively inhibit pathogens and contribute to selection, survival and growth of drug resistant strains of bacteria. In this literature review we present the change of structure of the major causative microorganisms of nosocomial septic infections and theirs resistance to antibiotics for the last 70 years. 

  14. Cross-sectional point prevalence survey to study the environmental contamination of nosocomial pathogens in intensive care units under real-life conditions.

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    Wille, I; Mayr, A; Kreidl, P; Brühwasser, C; Hinterberger, G; Fritz, A; Posch, W; Fuchs, S; Obwegeser, A; Orth-Höller, D; Lass-Flörl, C

    2018-01-01

    In intensive care units (ICUs), inanimate surfaces and equipment may be contaminated by nosocomial pathogens, including multi-drug-resistant micro-organisms. To assess the degree of environmental contamination close to and distant from patients, and contamination of healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands with nosocomial pathogens under real-life conditions and to investigate potential transmission events. Over the course of three weeks, agar contact samples were taken close to and distant from patient areas and from HCWs' hands in eight ICUs of a tertiary care hospital in Innsbruck, Austria. Each ICU was visited once without announcement. Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed according to standard methods, and corresponding strains from patient, environment and hand samples were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among 523 samples, HCWs' hands were most frequently contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria (15.2%), followed by areas close to patients (10.9%) and areas distant from patients (9.1%). Gram-positive bacteria were identified most often (67.8%), with Enterococcus spp. being the most prevalent species (70% vancomycin sensitive and 30% vancomycin resistant) followed by Staphylococcus aureus, of which 64% were classified as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular typing documented identical strains among patient, environment and hand isolates. This study found widespread contamination of the ICU environment with clinically relevant pathogens, including multi-drug-resistant micro-organisms, despite cleaning and disinfection. The bioburden might not be restricted to areas close to patients. The role of extended environmental disinfection of areas distant from patients in order to improve infection prevention needs further discussion. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AsrR is an oxidative stress sensing regulator modulating Enterococcus faecium opportunistic traits, antimicrobial resistance, and pathogenicity.

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    François Lebreton

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress serves as an important host/environmental signal that triggers a wide range of responses in microorganisms. Here, we identified an oxidative stress sensor and response regulator in the important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium belonging to the MarR family and called AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator. The AsrR regulator used cysteine oxidation to sense the hydrogen peroxide which results in its dissociation to promoter DNA. Transcriptome analysis showed that the AsrR regulon was composed of 181 genes, including representing functionally diverse groups involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide resistance, oxidative stress, and adaptive responses. Consistent with the upregulated expression of the pbp5 gene, encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, the asrR null mutant was found to be more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of asrR markedly decreased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin and vancomycin, which are both commonly used to treat infections due to enterococci, and also led to over-expression of two major adhesins, acm and ecbA, which resulted in enhanced in vitro adhesion to human intestinal cells. Additional pathogenic traits were also reinforced in the asrR null mutant including greater capacity than the parental strain to form biofilm in vitro and greater persistance in Galleria mellonella colonization and mouse systemic infection models. Despite overexpression of oxidative stress-response genes, deletion of asrR was associated with a decreased oxidative stress resistance in vitro, which correlated with a reduced resistance to phagocytic killing by murine macrophages. Interestingly, both strains showed similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Finally, we observed a mutator phenotype and enhanced DNA transfer frequencies in the asrR deleted strain. These data indicate that AsrR plays a major role in antimicrobial

  16. Bacterial size matters: Multiple mechanisms controlling septum cleavage and diplococcus formation are critical for the virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis

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    Salamaga, Bartłomiej; Prajsnar, Tomasz K.; Willemse, Joost; Bewley, Martin A.; Chau, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen frequently isolated in clinical settings. This organism is intrinsically resistant to several clinically relevant antibiotics and can transfer resistance to other pathogens. Although E. faecalis has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen, the mechanisms underlying the virulence of this organism remain elusive. We studied the regulation of daughter cell separation during growth and explored the impact of this process on pathogenesis. We demonstrate that the activity of the AtlA peptidoglycan hydrolase, an enzyme dedicated to septum cleavage, is controlled by several mechanisms, including glycosylation and recognition of the peptidoglycan substrate. We show that the long cell chains of E. faecalis mutants are more susceptible to phagocytosis and are no longer able to cause lethality in the zebrafish model of infection. Altogether, this work indicates that control of cell separation during division underpins the pathogenesis of E. faecalis infections and represents a novel enterococcal virulence factor. We propose that inhibition of septum cleavage during division represents an attractive therapeutic strategy to control infections. PMID:28742152

  17. Bacterial size matters: Multiple mechanisms controlling septum cleavage and diplococcus formation are critical for the virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis.

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    Bartłomiej Salamaga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen frequently isolated in clinical settings. This organism is intrinsically resistant to several clinically relevant antibiotics and can transfer resistance to other pathogens. Although E. faecalis has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen, the mechanisms underlying the virulence of this organism remain elusive. We studied the regulation of daughter cell separation during growth and explored the impact of this process on pathogenesis. We demonstrate that the activity of the AtlA peptidoglycan hydrolase, an enzyme dedicated to septum cleavage, is controlled by several mechanisms, including glycosylation and recognition of the peptidoglycan substrate. We show that the long cell chains of E. faecalis mutants are more susceptible to phagocytosis and are no longer able to cause lethality in the zebrafish model of infection. Altogether, this work indicates that control of cell separation during division underpins the pathogenesis of E. faecalis infections and represents a novel enterococcal virulence factor. We propose that inhibition of septum cleavage during division represents an attractive therapeutic strategy to control infections.

  18. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of Olea africana against pathogenic yeast and nosocomial pathogens.

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    Masoko, Peter; Makgapeetja, David M

    2015-11-17

    Olea africana leaves are used by Bapedi people to treat different ailments. The use of these leaves is not validated, therefore the aim of this study is to validate antimicrobial properties of this plant. The ground leaves were extracted using solvents of varying polarity (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, methanol, butanol and water). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyse the chemical constituents of the extracts. The TLC plates were developed in three different solvent systems, namely, benzene/ethanol/ammonium solution (BEA), chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) and ethyl acetate/methanol/water (EMW). The micro-dilution assay and bioautography method were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the extracts against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and the antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Methanol was the best extractant, yielding a larger amount of plant material whereas hexane yielded the least amount. In phytochemical analyses, more compounds were observed in BEA, followed by EMW and CEF. Qualitative 2, 2- diphenylpacryl-1-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay displayed that all the extracts had antioxidant activity. Antioxidant compounds could not be separated using BEA solvent system while with CEF and EMW enabled antioxidant compounds separation. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values against test bacteria ranged between 0.16 and 2.50 mg/mL whereas against fungi, MIC ranged from 0.16 to 0.63 mg/mL. Bioautography results demonstrated that more than one compound was responsible for antimicrobial activity in the microdilution assay as the compounds were located at different Rf values. The results indicate that leaf extracts of Olea africana contain compounds with antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Therefore, further studies are required to isolate the active compounds and perform

  19. Management of outbreaks of nosocomial pathogens in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

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    B. Ghirardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of nosocomial pathogens are one of the most relevant problems in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. Many factors contribute to the onset of an epidemic, including virulence of the pathogen and vulnerability of the infants hospitalized in NICU. Outbreaks are often caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs. MDROs are defined as microorganisms, predominantly bacteria, that are resistant to one or more classes of antimicrobial agents. MDROs, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE and certain gram-negative bacilli (GNB, have important infection control implications. Once MDROs are introduced into a healthcare setting, transmission and persistence of the resistant strain is determined by the availability of vulnerable patients, selective pressure exerted by antimicrobial use, increased potential for transmission from larger numbers of infected or colonized patients (“colonization pressure”, and the impact of adherence to prevention efforts. Often, routine infection control measures are not enough to contain outbreaks, and additional control measures are needed, including implementation of hand hygiene, cohorting of infected/colonized infants, neonatal surveillance cultures, screening of healthcare workers and decolonization of neonates and/or healthcare workers in selected cases. In this review, we report the practices we developed in our NICU to contain an epidemic. These recommendations reflect the experience of the group, as well as the findings of the current literature.

  20. Meningitis associated with Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus casseliflavus: First report

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    Nilay Sefa Uçar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are present in the gastrointestinal system as normal floral components. In the past two decades membersof the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Enterococci may cause arange of different disorders such as urinary tract, intraabdominal, and wound infections, as well as endocarditis, meningitisand bacteraemia. Nosocomial enterococcal meningitis is most commonly observed following ventriculoperitonealshunt operations. Vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE represents 30% of all enterococci infections.This report presents a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus casseliflavus meningitis case in a 66-year-old patient withventriculoperitoneal shunt, which has not been reported in the literature before. Successful outcomes were obtainedwith daptomycin plus linezolid combined treatment in VRE meningitis. Treatment recommendations in VRE meningitisare also discussed in this article. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1 (3:138-140

  1. The Immune Response against Acinetobacter baumannii, an Emerging Pathogen in Nosocomial Infections

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    García-Patiño, María Guadalupe; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Licona-Limón, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the etiologic agent of a wide range of nosocomial infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and skin infections. Over the last 45 years, an alarming increase in the antibiotic resistance of this opportunistic microorganism has been reported, a situation that hinders effective treatments. In order to develop effective therapies against A. baumannii it is crucial to understand the basis of host–bacterium interactions, especially those concerning the immune response of the host. Different innate immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells have been identified as important effectors in the defense against A. baumannii; among them, neutrophils represent a key immune cell indispensable for the control of the infection. Several immune strategies to combat A. baumannii have been identified such as recognition of the bacteria by immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, specifically toll-like receptors, which trigger bactericidal mechanisms including oxidative burst and cytokine and chemokine production to amplify the immune response against the pathogen. However, a complete picture of the protective immune strategies activated by this bacteria and its potential therapeutic use remains to be determined and explored. PMID:28446911

  2. Code blue: Acinetobacter baumannii, a nosocomial pathogen with a role in the oral cavity

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    Richards, A.M.; Kwaik, Y. Abu; Lamont, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Actinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that can cause a wide range of serious conditions including pneumonia, meningitis, necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis. It is also a major cause of wound infections in military personnel injured during the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, leading to its popular nickname of ‘Iraqibacter’. Contributing to its success in clinical settings is resistance to environmental stresses such as desiccation and disinfectants. Moreover, in recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of A. baumannii strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes. Acinetobacter baumannii is an inhabitant of oral biofilms, which can act as a reservoir for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subgingival colonization by A. baumannii increases the risk of refractory periodontitis. Pathogenesis of the organism involves adherence, biofilm formation and iron acquisition. In addition, A. baumannii can induce apoptotic cell death in epithelial cells and kill hyphal forms of Candida albicans. Virulence factors that have been identified include pili, the outer membrane protein OmpA, phospholipases and extracellular polysaccharide. Acinetobacter baumannii can sense blue light through a blue-light sensing using flavin (BLUF) domain protein, BlsA. The resulting conformational change in BlsA leads to changes in gene expression, including virulence genes. PMID:25052812

  3. Wide distribution of virulence genes among Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates.

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    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasanthakumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci belonging to the lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes, is known to be able to resist a wide range of hostile conditions such as different pH levels, high concentration of NaCl (6.5%), and the extended temperatures between 5(°)C and 65(°)C. Despite being the third most common nosocomial pathogen, our understanding on its virulence factors is still poorly understood. The current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of different virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. For this purpose, 79 clinical isolates of Malaysian enterococci were evaluated for the presence of virulence genes. pilB, fms8, efaAfm, and sgrA genes are prevalent in all clinical isolates. In conclusion, the pathogenicity of E. faecalis and E. faecium could be associated with different virulence factors and these genes are widely distributed among the enterococcal species.

  4. Genome evolution and plasticity of Serratia marcescens, an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen.

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    Iguchi, Atsushi; Nagaya, Yutaka; Pradel, Elizabeth; Ooka, Tadasuke; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Katsura, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Ken; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Parkhill, Julian; Sebaihia, Mohamed; Coulthurst, Sarah J; Gotoh, Naomasa; Thomson, Nicholas R; Ewbank, Jonathan J; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an important nosocomial pathogen that can cause an array of infections, most notably of the urinary tract and bloodstream. Naturally, it is found in many environmental niches, and is capable of infecting plants and animals. The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains producing extended-spectrum or metallo beta-lactamases now pose a threat to public health worldwide. Here we report the complete genome sequences of two carefully selected S. marcescens strains, a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate (strain SM39) and an insect isolate (strain Db11). Our comparative analyses reveal the core genome of S. marcescens and define the potential metabolic capacity, virulence, and multidrug resistance of this species. We show a remarkable intraspecies genetic diversity, both at the sequence level and with regards genome flexibility, which may reflect the diversity of niches inhabited by members of this species. A broader analysis with other Serratia species identifies a set of approximately 3,000 genes that characterize the genus. Within this apparent genetic diversity, we identified many genes implicated in the high virulence potential and antibiotic resistance of SM39, including the metallo beta-lactamase and multiple other drug resistance determinants carried on plasmid pSMC1. We further show that pSMC1 is most closely related to plasmids circulating in Pseudomonas species. Our data will provide a valuable basis for future studies on S. marcescens and new insights into the genetic mechanisms that underlie the emergence of pathogens highly resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Presence of pathogenicity island genes in Enterococcus faecalis isolates from pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shankar, Nathan; Baghdayan, Arto S.; Willems, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis isolates of porcine origin were screened for the presence of a previously identified pathogenicity island (PAI). By using the esp gene as a genetic marker for the presence of this PAI, 9 esp-positive and 10 esp-negative isolates of porcine origin were investigated by use...... of a designed oligonucleotide array. The results indicated the clustering of esp-positive strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), but surprisingly, all strains investigated contained parts of the PAL None of the strains of animal origin investigated belonged to previously identified MLST complex 2, where...... most isolates from patients cluster. Five of the nine esp-positive E. faecalis isolates of animal origin belonged to the same PAI complex as human isolate MMH594 but differed in their sequence types, which strongly indicates the horizontal transfer of the PAI between enterococci of porcine and human...

  6. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for High-resolution Typing of Enterococcus faecium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Been, Mark; Pinholt, Mette; Top, Janetta

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, a common inhabitant of the human gut, has emerged as an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen in the last two decades. Since the start of the 21(st) century, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) has been used to study the molecular epidemiology of E. faecium. However...

  7. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection.

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    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Mustaffa, Muhammed

    2013-09-01

    To investigate different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infection by agar well diffusion method and also antioxidant activities. The four different Musa species leaves were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antibacterial susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum inhibitory bacterial concentration were determined by agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity was determined. All the Musa sp. extracts showed moderate antibacterial activities expect Musa paradisiaca with the inhibition zone ranging from 8.0 to 18.6 mm. Among four species ethyl acetate extracts of Musa paradisiaca showed highest activity against tested pathogens particularly E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Citrobacter sp. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the value of 15.63- 250 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations were ranging from 31.25- 250 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species. The present study concluded that among the different Musa species, Musa paradisiaca displayed efficient antibacterial activity followed by Musa acuminata against multi-drug resistant nosocomial infection causing pathogens. Further, an extensive study is needed to identify the bioactive compounds, mode of action and toxic effect in vivo of Musa sp.

  8. Distinct SagA from hospital-associated clade A1 Enterococcus faecium strains contributes to biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L. Paganelli; M. de Been; J.C. Braat (Johanna); T.A. Hoogenboezem (Thomas); C. Vink (Cornelis); J. Bayjanov; M.R.C. Rogers; J. Huebner; M.J.M. Bonten (Marc); R.J.L. Willems (Rob); H.L. Leavis

    2015-01-01

    textabstractEnterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections. Elucidation of E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to treat these infections. In several bacteria, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins act as

  9. Nosocomial infections after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : time course and causative pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laban, Kamil G.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.

    BackgroundNosocomial infections after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are associated with prolonged length of stay and poor functional outcome. It remains unclear if infections result in prolonged length of stay or, vice versa, if prolonged length of stay results in more infections. Before

  10. Enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Grace J; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-03-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  11. Nosocomial pathogens associated with the mobile phones of healthcare workers in a hospital in Anyigba, Kogi state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E O; Ekwunife, N; Mofolorunsho, K C

    2014-06-01

    Mobile phones of healthcare workers (HCWs) could be colonized by potential bacteria pathogens. The aim of this research is to evaluate the bacterial contamination and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates from mobile phones of HCWs in Grimad hospital. A total of 112 swab samples were collected from the mobile phones of HCWs and students in June 2012 in Anyigba. While 56 samples were from HCWs in Grimad hospital, 56 samples were obtained from non-healthcare workers (NHCWs) who served as the control. The samples were all screened for bacterial pathogens by standard bacteriological procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by the disc diffusion technique. The rate of bacterial contamination of mobile phones of HCWs was 94.6%. Bacteria isolated from mobile phones of HCWs were more resistant to antibiotics than NHCWs phones. Staphylococcus Epidermidis (42.9%) was the most frequently isolated bacteria followed by Bacillus spp. (32.1%), Staphylococcus Aureus (25%), Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (19.6%), Escherichia Coli (14.3%), Streptococcus spp. (14.3%), Proteus spp. (12.5%), Klebsiella spp. (7.1%), and Acinetobacter spp. (5.3%). Cotrimoxazole, ampicillin and tetracycline showed high levels of resistance while gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone exhibited encouraging results. The presence of bacteria pathogens associated with nosocomial infection was identified. Transmission of pathogens can be reduced by hand hygiene and regular cleaning of mobile phones. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis antibiotic treatment in the era of multi-drug resistance pathogens: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Marco; Maraolo, Alberto Enrico; Gentile, Ivan; Borgia, Guglielmo; Leone, Sebastiano; Sansone, Pasquale; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Aurilio, Caterina; Pace, Maria Caterina

    2017-07-07

    To systematically review literature upon aetiology of nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (N-SBP) given the rising importance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases from 2000 to 15 th of November 2016, using the following search strategy: "spontaneous" AND "peritonitis". The initial search through electronic databases retrieved 2556 records. After removing duplicates, 1958 records remained. One thousand seven hundred and thirty-five of them were excluded on the basis of the screening of titles and abstract, and the ensuing number of remaining articles was 223. Of these records, after careful evaluation, only 9 were included in the qualitative analysis. The overall proportion of MDR bacteria turned out to be from 22% to 73% of cases across the studies. N-SBP is caused, in a remarkable proportion, by MDR pathogens. This should prompt a careful re-assessment of guidelines addressing the treatment of this clinical entity.

  13. The N-terminal domain of the thermo-regulated surface protein PrpA of Enterococcus faecium binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin and platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzman Prieto, Ana M.; Urbanus, Rolf T.; Zhang, Xinglin; Bierschenk, Damien; Koekman, C. Arnold; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P.; Pape, Marieke; Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Wobser, Dominique; Huebner, Johannes; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, but is also found in non-enteric environments where it can grow between 10 degrees C and 45 degrees C. E. faecium has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogen. We hypothesized that genes involved in

  14. Combined effect of enterocin and lipase from Enterococcus faecium NCIM5363 against food borne pathogens: mode of action studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Narayan, Bhaskar; Halami, Prakash M

    2012-08-01

    Food borne diseases have a major impact on public health whose epidemiology is rapidly changing. The whole cells of pathogens involved or their toxins/metabolites affect the human health apart from spoiling sensory properties of the food products finally affecting the food industry as well as consumer health. With pathogens developing mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, there has been an increased need to replace antibiotics as well as chemical additives with naturally occurring bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are known to act mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and with little or no effect towards Gram-negative enteric bacteria. In the present study, combination effect of lipase and bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium NCIM5363, a highly lipolytic lactic acid bacterium against various food pathogens was assessed. The lipase in combination with enterocin exhibited a lethal effect against Gram-negative pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy studies carried out to ascertain the constitutive mode of action of lipase and enterocin revealed that the lipase degrades the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and creates a pore through which enterocin enters thereby resulting in cell death. The novelty of this work is the fact that this is the first report revealing the synergistic effect of lipase with enterocin against Gram-negative bacteria.

  15. Investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pathogens causing nosocomial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaman, Akgun; Kibar, Filiz; Buyukcelik, Ozlem; Tasova, Yesim; Inal, A.S.; Saltoglu, Nese; Kurtaran, Behice; Dundal, Ismail H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the resistance patterns of bacteria causing nosocomial infections. The outcome of this resistance was followed for 3 years. This study was carried out during 2000 to 2002 at a university hospital in Turkey. The resistance patterns of 570 bacteria (390 Gram-negative, 180 Gram-positive) against meropenem, imipenem, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin were investigated using the E-test. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was determined using ceftazidime and ceftazidime/clavulanic acid E-test strips. Meropenem was the most effective antibiotic against Gram-negative organisms (89.0%); this was followed by imipenem (87.2%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (66.4%). The most active antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria was imipenem (87.2%) and this was followed by piperacillin/tazobactam (81.7%) and meropenem (77.8%). The rates of production of ESBL by Escherichia coli were 20.9%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 50% and Serratia marcescens were 46.7%. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production increased each year (21.7%, 22.1% and 45.5%). All of the ESBL producing isolates were sensitive to meropenem and 98.5% sensitive to imipenem. AmpC beta-lactamase was produced by 20.9% of the Enterobacter species spp, Citrobacter spp. and Serratia marcescens. All of these were sensitive to meropenem and 77.8% to imipenem and ciprofloxacin. Multi-drug resistance rates in Acinetobacter spp were 45.4% and 37.7% in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. As in the entire world, resistance to antibiotics is a serious problem in our country. Solving of this problem depends primarily on prevention of the development of resistance. (author)

  16. [INHALED ANTIBIOTICS IN TREATMENT OF NOSOCOMIAL PNEUMONIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovlev, A N; Moroz, V V; Golubev, A M

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care units. Currently the problem of resistance of noso-comial pathogens to miost of antibiotics is crucial. Using of inhaled antibiotics in combination with intravenous drugs is eff ective and safe method for treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. The literature review describes current opportunities of ihhaled antibiotic therapy of nosocomial pneumonia, descriptions of drugs, the advantages and disadvantages of this treatment. Special attention is paid for using inhaled aminoglycosides for nosocomial pneumonia.

  17. [Phenotypic and genotypic identification of Candida strains isolated as nosocomial pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Fatih; Ergünay, Koray; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Ardıç, Nurittin; Hoşbul, Tuğrul; Haznedaroğlu, Tunçer

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decade, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections and antifungal agents used to treat these infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections among patients in intensive care units. One of the main goals of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of infectious Candida species isolated in our hospital and accordingly supply data for hospital infection (HI) control. The other aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and practical applicability of traditional and molecular methods used to identify Candida isolates to the species level. A total of 77 Candida strains that were isolated from various clinical specimens of 60 hospitalized patients (29 male, 24 female; 7 were children) were included in the study. Fifty-seven (74%) of those isolates were defined as HI agents according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. The most common Candida species identified as agents of HI were C.albicans (22; 38.6%), followed by C.tropicalis (14; 24.6%), C.parapsilosis (13; 22.8%), C.glabrata (7; 12.3%) and Candida spp. (1; 1.75%). It was determined that bloodstream (26; 45.6%) and urinary tract infections (24; 42.1%) were the most frequently encountered nosocomial infections caused by Candida species. In addition it was detected that the most frequent causative agent of bloodstream infections was C.parapsilosis (10; 38.5%) and of urinary tract infections was C.albicans (12; 50%). The evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of traditional phenotypic methods [germ tube formation, chlamydospore formation in corn meal agar, growth at 45°C, colony characteristics on CHROMagar Candida medium, carbohydrate assimilation properties detected by API ID 32C (BioMerieux, France) system] and some molecular techniques [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using ITS-1, ITS-3 and ITS 4 primers, PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), PCRRFLP

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of pathogenic and probiotic Enterococcus faecalis isolates, and their transcriptional responses to growth in human urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C Vebø

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common infection caused by enterococci, and Enterococcus faecalis accounts for the majority of enterococcal infections. Although a number of virulence related traits have been established, no comprehensive genomic or transcriptomic studies have been conducted to investigate how to distinguish pathogenic from non-pathogenic E. faecalis in their ability to cause UTI. In order to identify potential genetic traits or gene regulatory features that distinguish pathogenic from non-pathogenic E. faecalis with respect to UTI, we have performed comparative genomic analysis, and investigated growth capacity and transcriptome profiling in human urine in vitro. Six strains of different origins were cultivated and all grew readily in human urine. The three strains chosen for transcriptional analysis showed an overall similar response with respect to energy and nitrogen metabolism, stress mechanism, cell envelope modifications, and trace metal acquisition. Our results suggest that citrate and aspartate are significant for growth of E. faecalis in human urine, and manganese appear to be a limiting factor. The majority of virulence factors were either not differentially regulated or down-regulated. Notably, a significant up-regulation of genes involved in biofilm formation was observed. Strains from different origins have similar capacity to grow in human urine. The overall similar transcriptional responses between the two pathogenic and the probiotic strain suggest that the pathogenic potential of a certain E. faecalis strain may to a great extent be determined by presence of fitness and virulence factors, rather than the level of expression of such traits.

  19. Rational approaches to the therapy of nosocomial infections caused by gram-positive microorganisms in cancer p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Aginova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci (Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis are steadily increasing in almost all clinics around the world. Cancer patients have a higher risk of hospital-acquired infections than non-cancer patients. Cancer patients are immunosuppressed due to increased use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, surgery and use of steroids. This paper presents an analysis of resistance of gram-positive bacterial pathogens to antimicrobial agents to determine treatment strategy for cancer patients.

  20. Review of mobile communication devices as potential reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, R R W; Verran, J; Damani, N N; Gibb, A P

    2009-04-01

    Innovation in mobile communication technology has provided novel approaches to the delivery of healthcare and improvements in the speed and quality of routine medical communication. Bacterial contamination of mobile communication devices (MCDs) could be an important issue affecting the implementation of effective infection control measures and might have an impact on efforts to reduce cross-contamination. This review examines recent studies reporting bacterial contamination of MCDs, most demonstrating that 9-25% of MCDs are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. We examine previously investigated risk factors for MCD contamination in addition to work on surface decontamination of the device. Recommendations to reduce contamination risks include staff education, strict hand hygiene measures, guidelines on device cleaning and consideration of the restrictions regarding use of mobile phone technology in certain high risk areas, for example, operating theatres, intensive care units and burns units. Further work is required to evaluate the benefit of such interventions on MCD contamination and to determine whether a link exists between contamination and subsequent patient infection.

  1. Wide Distribution of Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Clinical Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soheili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci belonging to the lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes, is known to be able to resist a wide range of hostile conditions such as different pH levels, high concentration of NaCl (6.5%, and the extended temperatures between 5°C and 65°C. Despite being the third most common nosocomial pathogen, our understanding on its virulence factors is still poorly understood. The current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of different virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. For this purpose, 79 clinical isolates of Malaysian enterococci were evaluated for the presence of virulence genes. pilB, fms8, efaAfm, and sgrA genes are prevalent in all clinical isolates. In conclusion, the pathogenicity of E. faecalis and E. faecium could be associated with different virulence factors and these genes are widely distributed among the enterococcal species.

  2. The Intraperitoneal Transcriptome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Muller

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive lactic acid intestinal opportunistic bacterium with virulence potential. For a better understanding of the adapation of this bacterium to the host conditions, we performed a transcriptome analysis of bacteria isolated from an infection site (mouse peritonitis by RNA-sequencing. We identified a total of 211 genes with significantly higher transcript levels and 157 repressed genes. Our in vivo gene expression database reflects well the infection process since genes encoding important virulence factors like cytolysin, gelatinase or aggregation substance as well as stress response proteins, are significantly induced. Genes encoding metabolic activities are the second most abundant in vivo induced genes demonstrating that the bacteria are metabolically active and adapt to the special nutrient conditions of the host. α- and β- glucosides seem to be important substrates for E. faecalis inside the host. Compared to laboratory conditions, the flux through the upper part of glycolysis seems to be reduced and more carbon may enter the pentose phosphate pathway. This may reflect the need of the bacteria under infection conditions to produce more reducing power for biosynthesis. Another important substrate is certainly glycerol since both pathways of glycerol catabolism are strongly induced. Strongly in vivo induced genes should be important for the infection process. This assumption has been verified in a virulence test using well characterized mutants affected in glycerol metabolism. This showed indeed that mutants unable to metabolize this sugar alcohol are affected in organ colonisation in a mouse model.

  3. CRISPR-Cas and Restriction-Modification Act Additively against Conjugative Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Transfer in Enterococcus faecalis

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Valerie J.; Huo, Wenwen; Sharifi, Ardalan; Palmer, Kelli L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Conjugative pheromone-responsive plasmids are narrow-host-range mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that are rapid disseminators of antibiotic resistance in the faecalis species. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas and restriction-modification confer acquired and innate immunity, respectively, against MGE acquisition in bacteria. Most multidrug-resistant E.?fa...

  4. CURRENT ASPECTS OF NOSOCOMIAL LEGIONELLOSIS PROFILAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Tartakovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nosocomial or hospital acquired infections is one of the most important medical and social problem. Mo- dern strategy of nosocomial infections prevention include prevention of nosocomial legionellosis. Epidemic outbreaks of nosocomial legionellosis with high mortality rate (20–40% were recognized last years in different countries. The contaminated by Legionella hospital hot water supply system is a source of Legionella infection outbreaks. A risk reduction strategy of waterborne pathogens in hospital water system is important part of mo- dern conception of nosocomial infection prevention, especially among immune compromised patient including transplant patients. In revue discussed different aspects of epidemiology, laboratory diagnostic and prevention of nosocomial legionellosis. 

  5. A second dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (Type A) of the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis: expression, purification, and steady-state kinetic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkeviciene, J; Jiang, W; Locke, G; Kopcho, L M; Rogers, M J; Copeland, R A

    2000-05-01

    We report the identification, expression, and characterization of a second Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODase A) from the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The enzyme consists of a polypeptide chain of 322 amino acids that shares 68% identity with the cognate type A enzyme from the bacterium Lactococcus lactis. E. faecalis DHODase A catalyzed the oxidation of l-dihydroorotate while reducing a number of substrates, including fumarate, coenzyme Q(0), and menadione. The steady-state kinetic mechanism has been determined with menadione as an oxidizing substrate at pH 7.5. Initial velocity and product inhibition data suggest that the enzyme follows a two-site nonclassical ping-pong kinetic mechanism. The absorbance of the active site FMN cofactor is quenched in a concentration-dependent manner by titration with orotate and barbituric acid, two competitive inhibitors with respect to dihydroorotate. In contrast, titration of the enzyme with menadione had no effect on FMN absorbance, consistent with nonoverlapping binding sites for dihyroorotate and menadione, as suggested from the kinetic mechanism. The reductive half-reaction has been shown to be only partially rate limiting, and an attempt to evaluate the slow step in the overall reaction has been made by simulating orotate production under steady-state conditions. Our data indicate that the oxidative half-reaction is a rate-limiting segment, while orotate, most likely, retains significant affinity for the reduced enzyme, as suggested by the product inhibition pattern. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of phyto fabricated silver nanoparticles using Mukia scabrella (Musumusukkai) against drug resistance nosocomial gram negative bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakar, Kandasamy; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Mohamed Rabeek, Siyed Ibrahim; Muthuselvam, Manickam; Devarajan, Naresh; Arjunan, Annavi; Karthick, Rajamanickam; Suresh, Micky Maray; Wembonyama, John Pote

    2013-04-01

    Given the fact in the limitation of the therapeutic options for emerging multidrug resistance gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) of respiratory tract infections, the present study was focused on green synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Mukia scabrella. An obvious color change to brown color and surface plasmon resonance by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) indicated a well observable peak at 440 nm confirming the synthesis of AgNPs. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicates protein as possible capping agents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy results showed major signal for elemental silver. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the formation of metallic silver nanomaterials. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study showed the nanoparticles in the size range of 18-21 nm with spherical shape. Zeta potential analysis showed -21.7 mV characteristic for stable AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against MDR-GNB nosocomial pathogens of Acinetobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from the current study suggested that M. scabrella material could be exploited for the fabrication of AgNPs with potential therapeutic applications in nanomedicine especially for nosocomial bacterial infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhaled Antibiotics in the Treatment of Nosocomial Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Kuzovlev; V. V. Moroz; A. M. Golubev; S. G. Polovnikov

    2013-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia is the most common nosocomial infection in intensive care units. Rational antibiotic therapy is the basis for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. There is currently a challenge of the pathogens of nosocomial pneumonia being resistant to most of the antibiotics recommended for its treatment. Inhaled antibiotics used in combination with systemic drugs are an effective and safe treatment for nosocomial pneumonia. This review of literature characterizes the current possibi...

  8. Phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles as antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm agent against the nosocomial pathogen Serratia marcescens: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, D; Ramanathan, S; Arunachalam, K; Jeyaraj, G P; Shunmugiah, K P; Arumugam, V R

    2018-02-12

    Serratia marcescens is an important multidrug-resistant human pathogen. The pathogenicity of S. marcescens mainly depends on the quorum sensing (QS) mechanism, which regulates the virulence factors production and biofilm formation. Hence, targeting QS mechanism in S. marcescens will ultimately pave the way to combat its pathogenicity. Thus, the present study is intended to evaluate the efficacy of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent anti-QS and antibiofilm agent against S. marcescens. The AgNPs were synthesized using V. zizanioides aqueous root extract and the physiochemical properties of V. zizanioides-based AgNPs (VzAgNPs) were evaluated using analytical techniques such as ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques. VzAgNPs were found to attenuate the QS-dependent virulence factors, namely prodigiosin, protease, lipase, exopolysaccharide productions and biofilm formation of S. marcescens, without inhibiting its growth. Further, the transcriptomic analysis confirmed the down-regulation of QS-dependent genes, which encode for the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation. The current study confirms VzAgNPs as an ideal anti-QS and antibiofilm agent against S. marcescens. This is the first approach that validates the anti-QS and antibiofilm potential of phytosynthesized VzAgNPs against the nosocomial pathogen, S. marcescens. As VzAgNPs exhibits potent antivirulent activities, it could be used to treat hospital-acquired S. marcescens infections. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extracts of Clitoria ternatea and Solanum nigrum and Study of Its Antibacterial Effect against Common Nosocomial Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krithiga, N.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Jayachitra, A.

    2015-01-01

    Bionanotechnology has emerged up as integration between biotechnology and nano technology for developing biosynthetic and environmental friendly technology for synthesis of nano materials. Silver has been known to have effective bactericidal properties for centuries. Nowadays, silver based topical dressings have been widely used as a treatment for infection in burns, open wounds, and chronic ulcer. As the pathogenic organisms are getting evolved day by day due to mutation and gaining antibiotic resistance, an important industrial sector of nano science deals with the preparation and study of nanoparticles in antibacterial clothing, burn ointments, and coating for medical device. The size of nano materials is much smaller than that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nano materials can be useful in both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research application. The purpose of the study is to synthesize and characterize the plant mediated silver nanoparticles using Clitoria ternatea and Solanum nigrum. Further investigation of the shape and size of nanoparticle was done by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies. A silver nanoparticle at different concentration was assessed for its antibacterial effect, against various nosocomial pathogens.

  10. The Environmental Acinetobacter baumannii Isolate DSM30011 Reveals Clues into the Preantibiotic Era Genome Diversity, Virulence Potential, and Niche Range of a Predominant Nosocomial Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, Alejandro M.; Borges, Vítor; Cameranesi, María M.; Taib, Najwa; Espariz, Martín; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gomes, João Paulo; Salcedo, Suzana P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii represents nowadays an important nosocomial opportunistic pathogen whose reservoirs outside the clinical setting are obscure. Here, we traced the origins of the collection strain A. baumannii DSM30011 to an isolate first reported in 1944, obtained from the enriched microbiota responsible of the aerobic decomposition of the resinous desert shrub guayule. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis based on core genes confirmed DSM30011 affiliation to A. baumannii. Comparative studies with 32 complete A. baumannii genomes revealed the presence of 12 unique accessory chromosomal regions in DSM30011 including five encompassing phage-related genes, five containing toxin genes of the type-6 secretion system, and one with an atypical CRISPRs/cas cluster. No antimicrobial resistance islands were identified in DSM30011 agreeing with a general antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype including folate synthesis inhibitors. The marginal ampicillin resistance of DSM30011 most likely derived from chromosomal ADC-type ampC and blaOXA-51-type genes. Searching for catabolic pathways genes revealed several clusters involved in the degradation of plant defenses including woody tissues and a previously unreported atu locus responsible of aliphatic terpenes degradation, thus suggesting that resinous plants may provide an effective niche for this organism. DSM30011 also harbored most genes and regulatory mechanisms linked to persistence and virulence in pathogenic Acinetobacter species. This strain thus revealed important clues into the genomic diversity, virulence potential, and niche ranges of the preantibiotic era A. baumannii population, and may provide an useful tool for our understanding of the processes that led to the recent evolution of this species toward an opportunistic pathogen of humans. PMID:28934377

  11. Quantifying type-specific reproduction numbers for nosocomial pathogens: evidence for heightened transmission of an Asian sequence type 239 MRSA clone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben S Cooper

    Full Text Available An important determinant of a pathogen's success is the rate at which it is transmitted from infected to susceptible hosts. Although there are anecdotal reports that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA clones vary in their transmissibility in hospital settings, attempts to quantify such variation are lacking for common subtypes, as are methods for addressing this question using routinely-collected MRSA screening data in endemic settings. Here we present a method to quantify the time-varying transmissibility of different subtypes of common bacterial nosocomial pathogens using routine surveillance data. The method adapts approaches for estimating reproduction numbers based on the probabilistic reconstruction of epidemic trees, but uses relative hazards rather than serial intervals to assign probabilities to different sources for observed transmission events. The method is applied to data collected as part of a retrospective observational study of a concurrent MRSA outbreak in the United Kingdom with dominant endemic MRSA clones (ST22 and ST36 and an Asian ST239 MRSA strain (ST239-TW in two linked adult intensive care units, and compared with an approach based on a fully parametric transmission model. The results provide support for the hypothesis that the clones responded differently to an infection control measure based on the use of topical antiseptics, which was more effective at reducing transmission of endemic clones. They also suggest that in one of the two ICUs patients colonized or infected with the ST239-TW MRSA clone had consistently higher risks of transmitting MRSA to patients free of MRSA. These findings represent some of the first quantitative evidence of enhanced transmissibility of a pandemic MRSA lineage, and highlight the potential value of tailoring hospital infection control measures to specific pathogen subtypes.

  12. Update on bacterial nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereket, W; Hemalatha, K; Getenet, B; Wondwossen, T; Solomon, A; Zeynudin, A; Kannan, S

    2012-08-01

    With increasing use of antimicrobial agents and advance in lifesaving medical practices which expose the patients for invasive procedures, are associated with the ever increasing of nosocomial infections. Despite an effort in hospital infection control measures, health care associated infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality adding additional health care expenditure which may leads to an economic crisis. The problem is further complicated with the emergence of difficult to treat multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganism in the hospital environment. Virtually every pathogen has the potential to cause infection in hospitalized patients but only limited number of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infection. Among them Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococci takes the leading. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors predispose hospitalized patients for these pathogens. Following simple hospital hygienic practices and strictly following standard medical procedures greatly reduces infection to a significant level although not all nosocomial infections are avoidable. The clinical spectrum caused by nosocomial pathogens depend on body site of infection, the involving pathogen and the patient's underlying condition. Structural and non structural virulence factors associated with the bacteria are responsible for the observed clinical manifestation. Bacteria isolation and characterization from appropriate clinical materials with antimicrobial susceptibility testing is the standard of laboratory diagnosis.

  13. Histopathological changes induced in an animal model by potentially pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains recovered from ready-to-eat food outlets in Osun State, Nigeria

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    Olawale AK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adetunji Kola Olawale,1,2 Oluwole Moses David,2,3 Adekemi Olubukunola Oluyege,2 Richard Temitope Osuntoyinbo,4 Solomon Anjuwon Laleye,5 Oladiran Famurewa,21Department of Applied Sciences, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, 2Department of Microbiology, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria; 3Phytomedicine Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; 4Department of Microbiology, Waterford Regional Hospital, Waterford, Republic of Ireland; 5Department of Microbiology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, NigeriaAbstract: Enterococci have been implicated as an emerging important cause of several diseases and multiple antibiotic resistance. However, there is little information about the prevalence of pathogenic and/or antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in ready-to-eat foods in Nigeria. Here we report the pathogenic potential of three selected antibiotic-resistant E. faecalis strains isolated from food canteens and food outlets with different virulence determinant genes, including EFC 12 (with gel+, esp+, cylA+, and asa1+, EFT 148 (with gel+, ace+, and asa1+, and EFS 18 (with esp+ and cylA+ in an animal model. Enterococcemia, hematological parameters, and histopathological changes in organ tissues were examined in experimental animals. The results showed differences in enterococcemia and hematological parameters between the control group and experimental animal group. Enterococcemia was observed for 7 days, and the animal group infected with EFC 12 showed the highest growth rate, followed by EFT 148, with the lowest growth rate seen in the EFS 18-infected group. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and platelets were significantly reduced (P<0.05 in the experimental animals compared with the controls. White blood cells decreased drastically during the study period in rats challenged with EFC 12 (from 7,800 to 6,120 per mm3 but levels remained higher in the control group (from 9,228 to 9

  14. Histopathological changes induced in an animal model by potentially pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains recovered from ready-to-eat food outlets in Osun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawale, Adetunji Kola; David, Oluwole Moses; Oluyege, Adekemi Olubukunola; Osuntoyinbo, Richard Temitope; Laleye, Solomon Anjuwon; Famurewa, Oladiran

    2015-01-01

    Enterococci have been implicated as an emerging important cause of several diseases and multiple antibiotic resistance. However, there is little information about the prevalence of pathogenic and/or antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in ready-to-eat foods in Nigeria. Here we report the pathogenic potential of three selected antibiotic-resistant E. faecalis strains isolated from food canteens and food outlets with different virulence determinant genes, including EFC 12 (with gel (+), esp (+), cylA (+), and asa1 (+)), EFT 148 (with gel (+), ace (+), and asa1 (+)), and EFS 18 (with esp (+) and cylA (+)) in an animal model. Enterococcemia, hematological parameters, and histopathological changes in organ tissues were examined in experimental animals. The results showed differences in enterococcemia and hematological parameters between the control group and experimental animal group. Enterococcemia was observed for 7 days, and the animal group infected with EFC 12 showed the highest growth rate, followed by EFT 148, with the lowest growth rate seen in the EFS 18-infected group. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and platelets were significantly reduced (Pfood canteens and food outlets; hence, there is a need for strict adherence to good hygiene practices in the study area owing to the epidemiological significance of foods.

  15. Mevalonate 5-diphosphate mediates ATP binding to the mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from the bacterial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis

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    Chen, Chun-Liang; Mermoud, James C.; Paul, Lake N.; Steussy, Calvin Nicklaus; Stauffacher, Cynthia V. (Purdue)

    2017-10-12

    The mevalonate pathway produces isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), a building block for polyisoprenoid synthesis, and is a crucial pathway for growth of the human bacterial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The final enzyme in this pathway, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD), acts on mevalonate diphosphate (MVAPP) to produce IPP while consuming ATP. This essential enzyme has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections. Here, we report functional and structural studies on the mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from E. faecalis (MDDEF). The MDDEF crystal structure in complex with ATP (MDDEF–ATP) revealed that the phosphate-binding loop (amino acids 97–105) is not involved in ATP binding and that the phosphate tail of ATP in this structure is in an outward-facing position pointing away from the active site. This suggested that binding of MDDEF to MVAPP is necessary to guide ATP into a catalytically favorable position. Enzymology experiments show that the MDDEF performs a sequential ordered bi-substrate reaction with MVAPP as the first substrate, consistent with the isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments. On the basis of ITC results, we propose that this initial prerequisite binding of MVAPP enhances ATP binding. In summary, our findings reveal a substrate-induced substrate-binding event that occurs during the MDDEF-catalyzed reaction. The disengagement of the phosphate-binding loop concomitant with the alternative ATP-binding configuration may provide the structural basis for antimicrobial design against these pathogenic enterococci.

  16. Anti-adherence potential of Enterococcus durans cells and its cell-free supernatant on plastic and stainless steel against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, Ait Meddour; Farida, Bendali; Djamila, Sadoun

    2015-07-01

    It is demonstrated that numerous bacteria are able to attach to surfaces of equipment used for food handling or processing. In this study, a strain of Enterococcus durans, originally isolated from a milking machine surface, was firstly studied for its biofilm formation potential on plastic and stainless steel supports. The strain was found to be a biofilm producer either at 25, 30 or 37 °C on polystyrene microtitre plates, with a best adherence level observed at 25 °C. En. durans showed a strong adhesion to stainless steel AISI-304. Antibacterial and anti-adherence activities of En. durans were tested against four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Listeria innocua CLIP 74915) which were shown as biofilm producers on both plastic and stainless steel. En. durans cells and cell-free culture supernatant showed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition potential of the pathogens either on solid media or in broth co-cultures. Characterization of the antibacterial substances indicated their proteinaceous nature which assigned them most probably to bacteriocins group.

  17. Potential probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus strains isolated from traditional dadih fermented milk against pathogen intestinal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, M Carmen; Surono, Ingrid S; Meriluoto, Jussi; Salminen, Seppo

    2007-03-01

    Traditional fermented buffalo milk in Indonesia (dadih) has been believed to have a beneficial impact on human health, which could be related to the properties of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in its fermentation process. In previous studies, it was discovered that strains of dadih lactic isolates possessed some beneficial properties in vitro. In the present study, the adhesion capacity of specific LAB isolates from dadih to intestinal mucus was analyzed. Further, the ability to inhibit model human pathogens and displace them from mucus was assessed. The adhesion of tested LAB strains was strain-dependent and varied from 1.4 to 9.8%. The most adhesive Lactobacillus plantarum strain was IS-10506, with 9.8% adhesion. The competition assay between dadih LAB isolates and pathogens showed that a 2-h preincubation with L. plantarum at 37 degrees C significantly reduced pathogen adhesion to mucus. All tested LAB strains displaced and inhibited pathogen adhesion, but the results were strain-specific and dependent on time and pathogen strains. In general, L. plantarum IS-10506 showed the best ability against pathogen adhesion.

  18. Inhaled Antibiotics in the Treatment of Nosocomial Pneumonia

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    A. N. Kuzovlev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial pneumonia is the most common nosocomial infection in intensive care units. Rational antibiotic therapy is the basis for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. There is currently a challenge of the pathogens of nosocomial pneumonia being resistant to most of the antibiotics recommended for its treatment. Inhaled antibiotics used in combination with systemic drugs are an effective and safe treatment for nosocomial pneumonia. This review of literature characterizes the current possibilities of inhaled antibiotic therapy for nosocomial pneumonia in detail and describes medicaments and the advantages and disadvantages of this treatment option. Despite insufficient evidence in circumstances where the microorganisms are polyresistant and where the design of novel antibiotics shows no promise, the use of inhaled antibiotics is an important alternative in the treatment of severe nosocomial pneumonia caused by polyresistant gram-negative bacteria. Key words: nosocomial pneumonia, antibiotic therapy, inhaled antibiotics, resistance.

  19. Molecular Occurrence of Enterocin A Gene among Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Gastro-Intestinal Tract and Antimicrobial Effect of this Bacteriocin Against Clinical Pathogens

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    Mitra Salehi

    2014-06-01

    Materials and Methods: In this study occurrence of class II enterocin structural gene (enterocin A in a target of 42 Enterococcus faecium strains, isolated from gastrointestinal tract of animal have been surveyed. E. faecium identification and occurrence of enterocin A gene was performed by PCR method. Cell-free neutralized supernatant of gene positive strains was used to test bacteriocin production and antimicrobial spectrum of supernatant was assayed by wall diffusion method on the gram-positive and negative indicators bacteriaResults: Based on our results, 73.8% of isolated strains had enterocin A gene that they inhibited growth of indicator bacteria such as clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteric PTCC1709, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis.Conclusions: Studied enterocins have growth inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria especially against pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, these strains have the potential to explore and use as, alternative antimicrobial compound and bio-preservatives in food or feed or as probiotics.

  20. Rapid Assessment of Resistance to Antibiotic Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis in the Gram-Positive Pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Based on Evaluation of the Lytic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Fátima; Tamayo, María; Santiso, Rebeca; Gosálvez, Jaime; Bou, Germán; Fernández, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    A novel assay for rapid determination of resistance to antibiotic inhibitors of protein synthesis was developed for the gram-positive pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. To this purpose, a lytic response was obtained by a brief incubation with lysozyme or a mixture of lysozyme, Triton X-100, and EDTA for E. faecalis (n = 82) and S. pneumoniae (n = 51), respectively. Lysis was quantified by visualizing the released nucleoids. Antibiotic-susceptible bacteria treated with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint doses of erythromycin, azithromycin, or doxycycline that inhibited protein synthesis demonstrated a large reduction of lysed cells with respect to the control, that is, without antibiotics. However, cell lysis prevention was much lower in nonsusceptible strains, with unsuccessful inhibition of protein synthesis. ROC analysis showed that a reduction value of ≥35.6% and ≥40.4% discriminates susceptible and nonsusceptible strains for erythromycin and for doxycycline, respectively, in E. faecalis, whereas ≥20.0% is adequate for both macrolides and doxycycline in S. pneumoniae. Resistant stains were identified in 90-120 min with sensitivity and specificity between 91.7% and 100%. This is a proof of concept that evaluation of the lytic response may be a rapid and efficient test for determination of resistance to antibiotic inhibitors of protein synthesis.

  1. Direct bacterial loop-mediated isothermal amplification detection on the pathogenic features of the nosocomial pathogen - Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with respiratory origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qun; Xu, Pusheng; Li, Jiaowu; Chen, Yin; Feng, Jieyi

    2017-08-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification based detection assays using bacterial culture or colony for direct detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) had been developed and evaluated, followed by its extensive application on a large scale of clinical MRSA isolated from respiratory origins, including nasal swabs and sputums. Six primers, including outer primers, inner primers and loop primers, were specifically designed for recognizing eight distinct sequences on four targets: 16SrRNA, femA, mecA and orfX. Twenty-seven reference strains were used to develop, evaluate and optimize this assay. Then, a total of 532 clinical MRSA isolates were employed for each detected targets. And the results were determined through both visual observation of the color change by naked eye and electrophoresis. The specific of each primer had been confirmed, and the optimal amplification was obtained under 65 °C for 40 min. The limit of detections (LOD) of bacteria culture LAMP assays were determined to be 10 4  CFU/ml for 16S rRNA, femA, as well as orfX and 10 5  CFU/ml for mecA, respectively. The established novel assays on MRSA detection may provide new strategies for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Epidemiological alteration in pathogens found in ground meat in Iran: unexpected predominance of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis

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    Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the human and animal intestinal tract with potential pathogenic bacteria is correlated with the risk of contamination of food products. The current study analyzed the prevalence of and O157H7 in ground meat in Ilam, Iran. Both index organisms were identified following standard food microbiological methods. For , the susceptibility to vancomycin was tested, and PCR was used to check for the gene. was present in all 24 ground meat samples, with no O157H7 detected in samples. The analysis showed the presence of the gene in 5/24 vancomycin resistant enterococci. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrates the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in ground meat in Iran. This observation warrants further epidemiologic investigation and should be followed up in the future.

  3. Identification, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characterization of Enterococcus spp. isolated in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Eduardo André; de Freitas, Ana Lúcia Peixoto; Reiter, Keli Cristine; Lutz, Larissa; Barth, Afonso Luís

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades the members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characteristics of 203 Enterococcus spp. recovered from different clinical sources from two hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The species were identified by conventional biochemical tests and by an automated system. The genetic diversity of E. faecalis presenting high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA after SmaI digestion. The E. faecalis was the most frequent specie (93.6%), followed by E. faecium (4.4%). The antimicrobial resistance profile was: 2.5% to ampicillin, 0.5% to vancomycin, 0.5% teicoplanin, 33% to chloramphenicol, 2% to nitrofurantoin, 66.1% to erythromycin, 66.5% to tetracycline, 24.6% to rifampicin, 30% to ciprofloxacin and 87.2% to quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 10.3% of the isolates proved to be HLAR to both gentamicin and streptomycin (HLR-ST/GE), with 23.6% resistant only to gentamicin (HLR-GE) and 37.4% only to streptomycin (HLR-ST). One predominant clonal group was found among E. faecalis HLR-GE/ST. The prevalence of resistance among beta-lactam antibiotics and glycopeptides was very low. However, in this study there was an increased number of HLR Enterococcus which may be spreading intra and inter-hospital. PMID:24031416

  4. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

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    Hassan Ahmed Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel's skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium difficile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.

  5. Nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

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    Zaer F

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty four isolates of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were studied in a period of 6 months. Maximum isolates were from burns cases and environmental sampling from burns ward also grew the same organism, indicating their role as nosocomial pathogen. Acinetobacter may initially be mistaken for Neisseria species. As the organisms show multidrug resistance to commonly used antibiotics their correct identification is important.

  6. Nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaer, F; Deodhar, L

    1989-01-01

    Fifty four isolates of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were studied in a period of 6 months. Maximum isolates were from burns cases and environmental sampling from burns ward also grew the same organism, indicating their role as nosocomial pathogen. Acinetobacter may initially be mistaken for Neisseria species. As the organisms show multidrug resistance to commonly used antibiotics their correct identification is important.

  7. Nosocomial imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) (IRAB) has emerged as a challenging nosocomial pathogen particularly in intensive care units (ICUs). Studying the risk factors associated with IRAB infection is of paramount importance for appropriate control of IRAB spread. The aim of this study was to assess ...

  8. Prevention of Nosocomial Respiratory Infections

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    N. A. Karpun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of an extended package of preventive measures on the incidence of nosocomial respiratory infections in surgical patients at an intensive care unit (ICU. Subjects and methods. The study included 809 patients aged 35 to 80 years. A study group comprised 494 patients in whom an extended package of preventive measures was implemented during 7 months (March-September. A control group consisted of 315 patients treated in 2004 in the same period of time (March-September. The groups were stratified by age, gender, underlying diseases, and APACHE-2 and SOFA scores. The extended package of anti-infectious measures involved a high air purification in ICUs («Flow-M» technology, routine use of ventilatory filters, closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter under artificial ventilation for over 2 days. Results. The proposed technologies could reduce the frequency of tracheobronchitis and ventilator-associated pneumonias in the groups of patients at high risk for nosocomial infections substantially (by more than twice. Conclusion. The findings have led to the conclusion that the extended package of preventive measures is effective in preventing respiratory infections in ICU patients. Of special note is the proper prevention of upper airway contamination with pathogenic microorganisms, by employing the closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter. The routine use of high-tech consumables in the intensive care of surgical patients causes a considerable decrease in the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and purulent tracheobronchitis and a reduction in the number of microbiological studies. Key words: ventilator-associated pneumonia, prevention of nosocomial infections, closed aspiration system.

  9. Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern khorasan hospitals

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    Bita Bijari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission.Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patient with nosocomial infections diagnosis in hospitals with more than 100 beds in South Khorasan. This questionnaire conation demographic characteristic of patients, department, duration of admission, kind of pathogen and risk factors that was designed according to standard questionnaire of Iranian Nasocomial infections surveillance system (INIS of Center for communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software. Results and discussion: Number of patients with nosocomial infection was 358. The incidence of nosocomial infection was 0.9%. ICU had the highest incidence rate (17.3%. The most common nosocomial infection was pneumonia (43%, and urinary tract infection (UTI (15.1%. In 33.5% culture result were negative. In other cases, culture results showed klebsiella spp. (12.8% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8% were the most prevalent bacteria. Most factors associated with nosocomial infection in patients were urinary catheters (70.4%, suction (66.8% and tracheal tube (54.2%. 24% of patients expired. The results showed lower ratio of nosocomial infection, that the main reason is failure to detection and reporting of actual cases of nosocomial infection. Promoting detection and reporting system for Prevention and control of nosocomial infection was recommended

  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae as a nosocomial pathogen: epidemiology and drug resistance Klebsiella pneumoniae como patógeno intrahospitalario: epidemiología y resistencia

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    Juan Carlos Cataño Correa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Worldwide, bacterial resistance is an increasingly serious problem, especially in hospital environments. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are the most frequently isolated microorganisms in patients with nosocomial infections. In Medellín, Colombia, however, Klebsiella pneumoniae has become increasingly important in this kind of infection, for which reason this review was carried out.

    It includes the following aspects: microbiology, epidemiology, dissemination, resistance to betalactamic antibiotics and its mechanisms, clinical impact and importance of the problem in this city.

     

    La resistencia bacteriana es un problema serio, de magnitud creciente y presentación universal, que reviste gran importancia, especialmente en los ambientes hospitalarios; los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados de pacientes con infecciones intrahospitalarias son Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli. En Medellín, sin embargo, Klebsiella pneumoniae ha cobrado gran importancia en años recientes debido a su gran incremento como agente causal de ese tipo de infecciones, lo que motiva esta revisión. Se incluyen los siguientes aspectos: microbiología, epidemiología, diseminación, resistencia a los beta-lactámicos y sus mecanismos, impacto clínico e importancia del problema

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Outcompetes Enterococcus faecium via Mucus-Binding Pili

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, Hanne L.P.; Douillard, François P.; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.; Laine, Pia K.; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of

  12. Identification of Enterococcus mundtii as a pathogenic agent involved in the "flacherie" disease in Bombyx mori L. larvae reared on artificial diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellozza, Silvia; Saviane, Alessio; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Squadrin, Marta; Vendramin, Elena; Paolucci, Paolo; Franzetti, Eleonora; Squartini, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Enterococcus mundtii was shown to be directly correlated with flacherie disease of the silkworm larvae reared on artificial diet supplemented with chloramphenicol. Its identification was carried out by means of light and electron microscopy and nucleotide sequencing of 16S gene. The bacterium is capable of rapidly multiplying in the silkworm gut and of invading other body tissues, as demonstrated by deliberate infection of germfree larvae and by subsequent TEM observations. E. mundtii can endure alkaline pH of the silkworm gut and it has been proved to adapt in vitro to commonly applied doses of chloramphenicol, whose use can further contribute to reduce competition by other bacteria in Bombyx mori alimentary canal. The modality of transmission of the infection to the larvae was among the objectives of the present research. Since contamination of the progeny by mother moths can be avoided through routine egg shell disinfection, a trans-ovarian vertical transmission can be ruled out. On the other hand the bacterium was for the first time identified on mulberry leaves, and therefore artificial diet based on leaf powder could be a source of infection. We showed that while microwaved diet could contain live E. mundtii cells, the autoclaved diet is safe in this respect. Being E. mundtii also part of the human-associated microbiota, and since B. mori is totally domestic species, a possible role of man in its epidemiology can be postulated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of antimicrobial effect of azadirachtin plant extract (Soluneem ™ on commonly found root canal pathogenic microorganisms (viz. Enterococcus faecalis in primary teeth: A microbiological study

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    Shanal Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Soluneem ™ when used as an irrigating solution along with other commonly used irrigating solution sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Microorganism used in this study was E. faecalis (Microbial Type Culture Collection 439. Test substance used was Soluneem ™, which was obtained from Vittal Mallya Scientific Research Foundation (VMSRF, Bengaluru. This study was conducted in a microbiology laboratory (Biocare Research India Pvt., Ltd. Laboratory, Ahmedabad, Gujarat to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Soluneem ™ (Azadirachtin on E. faecalis. Antimicrobial activity testing was performed using the macrobroth dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. All determinations were performed thrice. Results: Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was seen as 2.6% for Soluneem ™ while the same was seen at 0.1% for NaOCl. Independent sample t-test was carried out to compare the MBC of Soluneem ™ and NaOCl, which showed that there was no statistically significant difference between them, i.e., 2.6% Soluneem ™ was as effective as 0.1% NaOCl. Conclusion: Soluneem ™ showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis at various concentrations. It was also found that the efficacy of Soluneem ™ at 2.6% concentration and above was relatively similar to that of gold standard irrigating solution (NaOCl on inhibition of E. faecalis.

  14. Evaluation of antimicrobial effect of azadirachtin plant extract (Soluneem (™)) on commonly found root canal pathogenic microorganisms (viz. Enterococcus faecalis) in primary teeth: A microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shanal; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Choudhary, Prashant; Mohammad, Shameer; Trivedi, Krishna; Shah, Shalin G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Soluneem ™ when used as an irrigating solution along with other commonly used irrigating solution sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Microorganism used in this study was E. faecalis (Microbial Type Culture Collection 439). Test substance used was Soluneem ™, which was obtained from Vittal Mallya Scientific Research Foundation (VMSRF), Bengaluru. This study was conducted in a microbiology laboratory (Biocare Research India Pvt., Ltd. Laboratory, Ahmedabad, Gujarat) to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Soluneem ™ (Azadirachtin) on E. faecalis. Antimicrobial activity testing was performed using the macrobroth dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. All determinations were performed thrice. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was seen as 2.6% for Soluneem ™ while the same was seen at 0.1% for NaOCl. Independent sample t-test was carried out to compare the MBC of Soluneem ™ and NaOCl, which showed that there was no statistically significant difference between them, i.e., 2.6% Soluneem ™ was as effective as 0.1% NaOCl. Soluneem ™ showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis at various concentrations. It was also found that the efficacy of Soluneem ™ at 2.6% concentration and above was relatively similar to that of gold standard irrigating solution (NaOCl) on inhibition of E. faecalis.

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles derived from fungi against endo-perio pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus pumilus, and Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkai, Kiran Rahul; Mudda, Jayashree A.; Shivanna, Vasundhara; Rathod, Vandana; Halkai, Rahul S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Even after rapid progress in contemporary dental practice, we encounter the failures due to endodontic, periodontal, or combined lesions. Complex anatomy of tooth and resistant microbes demands the development of new treatment strategies. Aim: The aim of this study is to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fungi and determine the antibacterial efficacy against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus pumilus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Fungi isolated from healthy leaves of Withania somnifera were used to biosynthesize AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by different methods, and antibacterial efficacy was evaluated by agar well diffusion method measuring the zone of inhibition. Test microorganisms were divided as Group 1: B. pumilus 27142 (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC]), Group 2: E. faecalis 29212 (ATCC), and Group 3: P. gingivalis 33277 (ATCC). Agents used for antibacterial efficacy were grouped as: AgNPs: A (20 μl), B (40 μl), C (60 μl), D (80 μl), E (100 μl), F (0.2% chlorhexidine [CHX]), G (2% CHX), H (Ampicillin), and I (sterile distilled water). Results: Characterization studies showed the color change from colorless to reddish brown color; ultraviolet spectrum showed peak at 420 nm, transmission electron microscope revealed the particles spherical in shape and 10–20 nm size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of functional groups. Data collected for antibacterial efficacy were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's multiple shows no significant difference among three groups (P lesions. PMID:29430090

  16. [Invasive nosocomial pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaud, P; Haloun, A

    2001-04-01

    Immunodepressed patients, particularly those with neutropenia or bone marrow or organ grafts, are at risk of developing nosocomial invasive pulmonary aspergilosis. The favoring factors, early diagnostic criteria and curative treatment protocols are well known. Prognosis remains however quite severe with a death rate above 50%. Preventive measures are required for the treatment of these high-risk patients and epidemiology surveillance is needed in case of aspergillosis acquired in the hospital.

  17. Surveillance of nosocomial infections in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta, 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Widodo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection are one of the main problem in hospital which are associated with significant morbidity, mortality and increased economic cost. Surveillance should be attempted regularly to obtain local data of incidence of nosocomial infections, types of infection, pathogen and resistance pattern. We reported the results of nosocomial surveillance in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta, in year 1999 to 2002. The data were obtained from surveillance, conducted by Nosocomial Infection Control Committee. Surveillance were performed to patient in risk of nosocomial infections such as underwent surgical procedure, urinary catheter, peripheral or central venous catheter, ventilator and other invasive procedure. Criteria for nosocomial infection which were used, based on technical guidelines of nosocomial infection in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, year 1999; which referred to CDC definition of nosocomial infections. Incidence rate of nosocomial infections in year 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 were 1.1, 0.9, 0.6 and 0.4 % respectively. Type of nosocomial infection include catheter related, surgical wound, urinary tract and respiratory tract infections, ranged between 0 to 5.6 %. Gram negative bacteria consist of Pseudomonas sp, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis were the most common nosocomial pathogen. Gram positive bacteria consist of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus anhemolyticus. Trend of increasing incidence of Gram positive nosocomial infection also showed in our surveillance. Mostly Gram negative bacteria had been resistant to penicillin, co amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 3rd generation cephalosporin, but still sensitive to 4th generation cephalosporin and aminoglycoside. The Gram positive bacteria were still sensitive to penicillin, co amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 4th generation cephalosporin and aminoglycoside. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 107

  18. Typing of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a nosocomial outbreak setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, B J; Dargis, R; Pedersen, M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) typing as a first-line epidemiological tool in a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). METHODS: Fifty-five VREfm isolates...

  19. The cell wall-targeting antibiotic stimulon of Enterococcus faecalis.

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    Jacqueline Abranches

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that is highly resistant to a variety of environmental insults, including an intrinsic tolerance to antimicrobials that target the cell wall (CW. With the goal of determining the CW-stress stimulon of E. faecalis, the global transcriptional profile of E. faecalis OG1RF exposed to ampicillin, bacitracin, cephalotin or vancomycin was obtained via microarrays. Exposure to the β-lactams ampicillin and cephalotin resulted in the fewest transcriptional changes with 50 and 192 genes differentially expressed 60 min after treatment, respectively. On the other hand, treatment with bacitracin or vancomycin for 60 min affected the expression of, respectively, 377 and 297 genes. Despite the differences in the total number of genes affected, all antibiotics induced a very similar gene expression pattern with an overrepresentation of genes encoding hypothetical proteins, followed by genes encoding proteins associated with cell envelope metabolism as well as transport and binding proteins. In particular, all drug treatments, most notably bacitracin and vancomycin, resulted in an apparent metabolic downshift based on the repression of genes involved in translation, energy metabolism, transport and binding. Only 19 genes were up-regulated by all conditions at both the 30 and 60 min time points. Among those 19 genes, 4 genes encoding hypothetical proteins (EF0026, EF0797, EF1533 and EF3245 were inactivated and the respective mutant strains characterized in relation to antibiotic tolerance and virulence in the Galleria mellonella model. The phenotypes obtained for two of these mutants, ΔEF1533 and ΔEF3245, support further characterization of these genes as potential candidates for the development of novel preventive or therapeutic approaches.

  20. Investigating the mobilome in clinically important lineages of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalsen, Theresa; Pedersen, Torunn; Willems, Rob; Coque, Teresa M; Werner, Guido; Sadowy, Ewa; van Schaik, Willem; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Hegstad, Kristin

    2015-04-10

    The success of Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis evolving as multi-resistant nosocomial pathogens is associated with their ability to acquire and share adaptive traits, including antimicrobial resistance genes encoded by mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Here, we investigate this mobilome in successful hospital associated genetic lineages, E. faecium sequence type (ST)17 (n=10) and ST78 (n=10), E. faecalis ST6 (n=10) and ST40 (n=10) by DNA microarray analyses. The hybridization patterns of 272 representative targets including plasmid backbones (n=85), transposable elements (n=85), resistance determinants (n=67), prophages (n=29) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-cas sequences (n=6) separated the strains according to species, and for E. faecalis also according to STs. RCR-, Rep_3-, RepA_N- and Inc18-family plasmids were highly prevalent and with the exception of Rep_3, evenly distributed between the species. There was a considerable difference in the replicon profile, with rep 17/pRUM , rep 2/pRE25 , rep 14/EFNP1 and rep 20/pLG1 dominating in E. faecium and rep 9/pCF10 , rep 2/pRE25 and rep 7 in E. faecalis strains. We observed an overall high correlation between the presence and absence of genes coding for resistance towards antibiotics, metals, biocides and their corresponding MGEs as well as their phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Although most IS families were represented in both E. faecalis and E. faecium, specific IS elements within these families were distributed in only one species. The prevalence of IS256-, IS3-, ISL3-, IS200/IS605-, IS110-, IS982- and IS4-transposases was significantly higher in E. faecium than E. faecalis, and that of IS110-, IS982- and IS1182-transposases in E. faecalis ST6 compared to ST40. Notably, the transposases of IS981, ISEfm1 and IS1678 that have only been reported in few enterococcal isolates were well represented in the E. faecium strains. E. faecalis ST40 strains harboured

  1. [Nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinosci, A; Doit, C; Koehl, B; Belhacel, K; Mariani Kurkdjian, P; Melki, I; Renaud, A; Lemaitre, C; Ammar Khodja, N; Blachier, A; Bonacorsi, S; Faye, A; Lorrot, M

    2016-11-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children requiring hospitalization. It is a very resistant and contagious virus causing nosocomial gastroenteritis. In France, the vaccine against rotavirus has been available since 2006, but the vaccine is not recommended for infant vaccination. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (NRGE) and to assess its impact on children hospitalized in the General Pediatrics Department of Robert-Debré Hospital (Paris) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. We analyzed the demographic characteristics of children (age, term birth, underlying diseases) and the severity of the NRGE (oral or intravenous hydration), and assessed whether these children could benefit from vaccination against rotavirus. One hundred thirty-six children presented nosocomial rotavirus infection, with an incidence of 2.5 NRGE per 1000 days of hospitalization. The incidence of NRGE was stable between 2009 and 2013 despite the introduction of specific hygiene measures. The average age of the children was 7 months (range: 0.5-111 months). Most often NRGE occurred in children hospitalized for respiratory diseases (65% of cases) and requiring prolonged hospitalization (median: 18 days). One-third of children were born premature (25%). Hydration was oral in 80 patients (59%), by intravenous infusion in 18 patients (13%), and intraosseous in one patient. Half of the patients were aged less than 5 months and could benefit from the protection afforded by vaccination. NRGE are common. Rotavirus mass vaccination should have a positive impact on the incidence of NRGE by reducing the number of children hospitalized for gastroenteritis, therefore indirectly reducing the number of hospital cross-infections of hospitalized children who are too young to be vaccinated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Nosocomial Legionnaires’ Disease: Clinical and Radiographic Patterns

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    Thomas J Marrie

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1981 to 1991, 55 patients (33 males, 22 females, mean age 58.6 years with nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease were studied. The mortality rate was 64%. One-half of the patients developed nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease within three weeks of admission. A surprising clinical feature was the low rate of findings of consolidation on physical examination, despite the fact that 52% of patients had this finding on chest radiograph. More than one-half of patients had pre-existing lung disease, rendering a radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila impossible in 16% of cases despite microbiological confirmation. Nineteen per cent of patients who had blood cultures done had a pathogen other than L pneumophila isolated, suggesting dual infection in at least some of the patients. When the clinical and radiographic findings were combined it was noted that 40% of patients had one of three patterns suggestive of nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease: rapidly progressive pneumonia, lobar opacity and multiple peripheral opacities. However, in 60% of patients there were no distinctive features.

  3. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.

  4. Nosocomial transmission of Cupriavidus pauculus during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, S H; Wisdom, C; McKamie, W; Ware, W; Dedman, H; Fiser, R T

    2010-01-01

    Patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are at increased risk of infection. We present the first known report of nosocomial infection with Cupriavidus pauculus attributable to contamination from ECMO equipment and describe the measures taken to halt subsequent infections. A cluster of infections in ECMO patients should prompt team members to consider contamination of equipment with environmental pathogens as a possible cause.

  5. Presence of virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin

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    Carolina Baldisserotto Comerlato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of Enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. This study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal Enterococcus isolates from inpatients in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fifty Enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gelE, asa1 and esp genes was determined. Gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. The clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The asa1, gelE and esp genes were identified in 38%, 60% and 76% of all isolates, respectively. The first two genes were more prevalent in Enterococcus faecalis than in Enterococcus faecium, as was biofilm formation, which was associated with gelE and asa1 genes, but not with the esp gene. The presence of gelE and the activity of gelatinase were not fully concordant. No relationship was observed among any virulence factors and specific subclones of E. faecalis or E. faecium resistant to vancomycin. In conclusion, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates showed significantly different patterns of virulence determinants. Neither the source of isolation nor the clonal relationship or vancomycin resistance influenced their distribution.

  6. [Enterococcus faecium lung abscess: one case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiang-Qun; Liu, You-Ning

    2010-02-01

    to study the diagnosis and treatment of enterococcus faecium lung abscess. a retrospective analysis of one case of Enterococcus faecium lung abscess and literature review was conducted. this patient suffered from cough and sputum over 6 months and complicated with hemoptysis over 3 months. Pulmonary embolism and lung cancer were suspected initially. After 2 times of CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy the diagnosis of pneumonia was made in other hospitals. However, the consolidation in the lung progressed and cavity appeared although antibiotic therapy was conducted. After admission to our hospital, CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy was made and the lung tissue was sent for bacterial culture. Enterococcus faecium was cultured and it was susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. The disease improved significantly after treatment with these 3 antibiotics in turn. In addition, 13 cases of enterococcus pneumonia or lung abscess were reviewed, including 3 cases of enterococcus faecium lung abscess. enterococcus faecium is rarely a pathogen for lung abscess. The diagnosis of enterococcus faecium lung abscess could be confirmed by lung biopsy and bacterial culture of lung tissue which could also provide the susceptibility of antibiotics and guide the antibiotic therapy.

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Isolates of Enterococcus faecium Sequence Type 117, a Globally Disseminated Multidrug-Resistant Clone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Ana P.; Lanza, Val F.; Manrique, Marina; Pareja, Eduardo; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando; Tobes, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emergence of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant sequence type 117 (ST117) Enterococcus faecium has been reported in several European countries. ST117 has been detected in Spanish hospitals as one of the main causes of bloodstream infections. We analyzed genome variations of ST117 strains isolated in Madrid and describe the first ST117 closed genome sequences. PMID:28360174

  8. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  9. New Insights into the Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Host Interaction Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez-Díaz

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus were classically clustered into the Lancefield Group D streptococci and despite their taxonomic reclassification still share a similar genetic content and environment. Both species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. E. faecium is often associated with nosocomial bacteraemia, and S. gallolyticus is sporadically found in endocarditis of colorectal cancer patients. In both cases, the source of infection is commonly endogenous with a translocation process that launches through the intestinal barrier. To get new insights into the pathological processes preceding infection development of both organisms, we used an in vitro model with Caco-2 cells to study and compare the adhesion, invasion and translocation inherent abilities of 6 E. faecium and 4 S. gallolyticus well-characterized isolates. Additionally, biofilm formation on polystyrene, collagen I and IV was also explored. Overall results showed that E. faecium translocated more efficiently than S. gallolyticus, inducing a destabilization of the intestinal monolayer. Isolates Efm106, Efm121 and Efm113 (p < .001 compared to Ef222 exhibited the higher translocation ability and were able to adhere 2-3 times higher than S. gallolyticus isolates. Both species preferred the collagen IV coated surfaces to form biofilm but the S. gallolyticus structures were more compact (p = .01. These results may support a relationship between biofilm formation and vegetation establishment in S. gallolyticus endocarditis, whereas the high translocation ability of E. faecium high-risk clones might partially explain the increasing number of bacteraemia.

  10. [Prevalence of nosocomial infections in two hospitals in Conakry (Guinea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Alpha Kabinet; Doumbouya, Naman; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Konaté, Bintou; Dabo, Yacouba; Panzo, Daniel Agbo; Keita, Mamady

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections can be prevented by applying simple hygiene rules. However, they have not been sufficiently studied in the Republic of Guinea. For this purpose, we conducted a one-day study in the Conakry University Hospital surgery wards and intensive care units. Fourteen units (12 surgical wards and 2 intensive care units) participated in the study. A total of 310 patients were included. A nosocomial infection was observed in 62 patients, [20%, 95%CI 15.9-24.8%]. Surgical site infections were significantly more frequent with 42/62 cases [67.7%, 95%CI 55.3-78.1%, p = 0.0001] than other types of infections (urinary tract, skin and digestive) with 20/62 cases [32.3% 95%CI 21.9-44.6%]. The average hospital stay of 29.1 ± 23.4 days [95%CI, 23.2 ± 35.04] for patients with nosocomial infection was significantly different (p = 0.0001) from that observed in patients without nosocomial infection: 15.9 ± 16.3 days [95%CI, 13.8 ± 17.9]. Staphylococcus aureus was the pathogen most commonly isolated: 32/62 (51.6%; 95%CI 39.5-63.6%). Escherichia coli infection was identified in the bladder catheters of 13 patients [20.9%, 95%CI 12.7-32.6%]. Finally, five deaths were observed among the 62 patients with nosocomial infection. This study shows that nosocomial infections are common in Conakry University Hospital. Further studies must be conducted to identify the risk factors for nosocomial infections and to propose solutions.

  11. Molecular Analysis of VanA Outbreak of Enterococcus faecium in Two Warsaw Hospitals: The Importance of Mobile Genetic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wardal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium represents a growing threat in hospital-acquired infections. Two outbreaks of this pathogen from neighboring Warsaw hospitals have been analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE of SmaI-digested DNA, multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST revealed a clonal variability of isolates which belonged to three main lineages (17, 18, and 78 of nosocomial E. faecium. All isolates were multidrug resistant and carried several resistance, virulence, and plasmid-specific genes. Almost all isolates shared the same variant of Tn1546 transposon, characterized by the presence of insertion sequence ISEf1 and a point mutation in the vanA gene. In the majority of cases, this transposon was located on 50 kb or 100 kb pRUM-related plasmids, which lacked, however, the axe-txe toxin-antitoxin genes. 100 kb plasmid was easily transferred by conjugation and was found in various clonal backgrounds in both institutions, while 50 kb plasmid was not transferable and occurred solely in MT159/ST78 strains that disseminated clonally in one institution. Although molecular data indicated the spread of VRE between two institutions or a potential common source of this alert pathogen, epidemiological investigations did not reveal the possible route by which outbreak strains disseminated.

  12. Molecular Analysis of VanA Outbreak of Enterococcus faecium in Two Warsaw Hospitals: The Importance of Mobile Genetic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardal, Ewa; Markowska, Katarzyna; Żabicka, Dorota; Wróblewska, Marta; Giemza, Małgorzata; Mik, Ewa; Połowniak-Pracka, Hanna; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Sadowy, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium represents a growing threat in hospital-acquired infections. Two outbreaks of this pathogen from neighboring Warsaw hospitals have been analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SmaI-digested DNA, multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed a clonal variability of isolates which belonged to three main lineages (17, 18, and 78) of nosocomial E. faecium. All isolates were multidrug resistant and carried several resistance, virulence, and plasmid-specific genes. Almost all isolates shared the same variant of Tn1546 transposon, characterized by the presence of insertion sequence ISEf1 and a point mutation in the vanA gene. In the majority of cases, this transposon was located on 50 kb or 100 kb pRUM-related plasmids, which lacked, however, the axe-txe toxin-antitoxin genes. 100 kb plasmid was easily transferred by conjugation and was found in various clonal backgrounds in both institutions, while 50 kb plasmid was not transferable and occurred solely in MT159/ST78 strains that disseminated clonally in one institution. Although molecular data indicated the spread of VRE between two institutions or a potential common source of this alert pathogen, epidemiological investigations did not reveal the possible route by which outbreak strains disseminated. PMID:25003118

  13. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.

  14. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... or ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity...

  15. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Outcompetes Enterococcus faecium via Mucus-Binding Pili: Evidence for a Novel and Heterospecific Probiotic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, Hanne L P; Douillard, François P; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Laine, Pia K; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of beneficial bacteria to weed out opportunistic pathogens. Specifically, the widely studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has been applied successfully in the context of VRE infections. Here, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of this model probiotic on VRE decolonization. Both clinical VRE isolates and L. rhamnosus GG express pili on their cell walls, which are the key modulators of their highly efficient colonization of the intestinal mucosa. We found that one of the VRE pilus clusters shares considerable sequence similarity with the SpaCBA-SrtC1 pilus cluster of L. rhamnosus GG. Remarkable immunological and functional similarities were discovered between the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG and those of the clinical E. faecium strain E1165, which was characterized at the genome level. Moreover, E. faecium strain E1165 bound efficiently to mucus, which may be prevented by the presence of the mucus-binding SpaC protein or antibodies against L. rhamnosus GG or SpaC. These results present experimental support for a novel probiotic mechanism, in which the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG prevent the binding of a potential pathogen to the host. Hence, we provide a molecular basis for the further exploitation of L. rhamnosus GG and its pilins for prophylaxis and treatment of VRE infections. Concern about vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial infections is rising globally. The arsenal of antibiotic strategies to treat these infections is nearly exhausted, and hence, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Here, we provide molecular evidence to underpin reports of the successful clinical application of

  16. Structural studies of the Enterococcus faecalis SufU [Fe-S] cluster protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazzon Jeverson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous and evolutionarily ancient inorganic prosthetic groups, the biosynthesis of which depends on complex protein machineries. Three distinct assembly systems involved in the maturation of cellular Fe-S proteins have been determined, designated the NIF, ISC and SUF systems. Although well described in several organisms, these machineries are poorly understood in Gram-positive bacteria. Within the Firmicutes phylum, the Enterococcus spp. genus have recently assumed importance in clinical microbiology being considered as emerging pathogens for humans, wherein Enterococcus faecalis represents the major species associated with nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to carry out a phylogenetic analysis in Enterococcus faecalis V583 and a structural and conformational characterisation of it SufU protein. Results BLAST searches of the Enterococcus genome revealed a series of genes with sequence similarity to the Escherichia coli SUF machinery of [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis, namely sufB, sufC, sufD and SufS. In addition, the E. coli IscU ortholog SufU was found to be the scaffold protein of Enterococcus spp., containing all features considered essential for its biological activity, including conserved amino acid residues involved in substrate and/or co-factor binding (Cys50,76,138 and Asp52 and, phylogenetic analyses showed a close relationship with orthologues from other Gram-positive bacteria. Molecular dynamics for structural determinations and molecular modeling using E. faecalis SufU primary sequence protein over the PDB:1su0 crystallographic model from Streptococcus pyogenes were carried out with a subsequent 50 ns molecular dynamic trajectory. This presented a stable model, showing secondary structure modifications near the active site and conserved cysteine residues. Molecular modeling using Haemophilus influenzae IscU primary sequence over the PDB:1su0 crystal followed by a MD

  17. [Bacteriologic and clinical analysis of nosocomial infections in patients from the intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodemski, T

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate what pathogens are mainly responsible for infection among all hospitalised at our ITU patients, to define the influence of antibiotic use on the aetiology of nosocomial infection. The research was conducted on a six-bedded surgical ITU in a 700-bed teaching hospital from January 1995 till June 1996. In August 1995 we changed infection control protocols (more stress on: handwashing with antiseptic soaps and routine microbiological culture for early prediction of infection) and antibiotic guidelines on our ITU (third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and Vancomycin were used only as the last option and never in prevention). 1276 samples for microbiological culture were obtained in routine manner. From 60% positive cultures 1216 strains were isolated (Tab. 1) and resistance to antibiotics were defined (Tab. 3). Monthly antibiotic consumption was expressed in defined daily dose (DDD) for 1000 hospitalisation-days. DDD = (X/Y)/Z x x 1000, were: X-cumulative antibiotic consumption during analysed period (g), Y-standard daily dose (g/24 h), Z-number of hospitalisation-days during analysed period (Tab. 2). Values were expressed as the mean +/- standard error (SE). Relationships between variables were analysed using linear correlation. All data were categorised for the frequency table. Statistically significant differences were considered to exist when calculated p values were less than 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of treated patients, length of stay and mortality rate on our ITU in 18 months. 58% of isolated strains were Gram-negative bacteria especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%) and Acinetobacter spp. (16%) and Proteus spp. (9%). The commonly isolated Gram-positive bacteria were Enterococcus faecalis (14%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%)--of which 90% were MRSA. In 8% of cases we have isolated Candida spp. Monthly antibiotic consumption was displayed in table 2. Trend analysis

  18. High-density fecal Enterococcus faecium colonization in hospitalized patients is associated with the presence of the polyclonal subcluster CC17

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Garbajosa, P.; de Regt, M.; Bonten, M.; Baquero, F.; Coque, T. M.; Canton, R.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.

    Enterococcus faecium belonging to the polyclonal subcluster CC17, with a typical ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREfm) phenotype, have become prevalent among nosocomial infections around the world. High-density intestinal AREfm colonization could be one of the factors contributing to the

  19. Genome-wide Screening Identifies Phosphotransferase System Permease BepA to Be Involved in Enterococcus faecium Endocarditis and Biofilm Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Huebner, Johannes; Singh, Kavindra V.; Zhang, Xinglin; Van Schaik, Willem; Wobser, Dominique; Braat, Johanna C.; Murray, Barbara E.; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Leavis, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a common cause of nosocomial infections, of which infective endocarditis is associated with substantial mortality. In this study, we used a microarray-based transposon mapping (M-TraM) approach to evaluate a rat endocarditis model and identified a gene, originally annotated

  20. Healthcare-associated vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium infections in the Mansoura University Hospitals intensive care units, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Moemen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF ia an emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clonal relationships between different VREF isolates in the intensive care units (ICUs of the university hospitals in our geographic location. This prospective study was conducted from July, 2012 until September, 2013 on 781 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of the Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs, and fulfilled the healthcare-associated infection (HAI criteria. Susceptibility testing was determined using the disk diffusion method. The clonal relationships were evaluated with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Out of 52 E. faecium isolates, 12 (23.1% were vancomycin resistant. The significant risk factors for the VREF infections were: transfer to the ICU from a ward, renal failure, an extended ICU stay and use of third-generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, or ciprofloxacin. PFGE with the 12 isolates showed 9 different patterns; 3 belonged to the same pulsotype and another 2 carried a second pulsotypes. The similar pulsotypes isolates were isolated from ICUs of one hospital (EICUs; however, all of the isolates from the other ICUs had different patterns. Infection control policy, in conjunction with antibiotic stewardship, is important to combat VREF transmission in these high-risk patients.

  1. Daily antibiotic cost of nosocomial infections in a Turkish university hospital

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    Yalcin Ata

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies associated nosocomial infections with increased hospital costs due to extra days in hospital, staff time, extra investigations and drug treatment. The cost of antibiotic treatment for these infections represents a significant part of hospital expenditure. This prospective observational study was designed to determine the daily antibiotic cost of nosocomial infections per infected adult patient in Akdeniz University Hospital. Methods All adult patients admitted to the ICUs between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2003 who had only one nosocomial infection during their stay were included in the study. Infection sites and pathogens, antimicrobial treatment of patient and it's cost were recorded. Daily antibiotic costs were calculated per infected patient. Results Among the 8460 study patients, 817 (16.6% developed 1407 episodes of nosocomial infection. Two hundred thirty three (2.7% presented with only one nosocomial infection. Mean daily antibiotic cost was $89.64. Daily antibiotic cost was $99.02 for pneumonia, $94.32 for bloodstream infection, $94.31 for surgical site infection, $52.37 for urinary tract infection, and $162.35 for the other infections per patient. The treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections was the most expensive infection treated. Piperacillin-tazobactam and amikacin were the most prescribed antibiotics, and meropenem was the most expensive drug for treatment of the nosocomial infections in the ICU. Conclusions Daily antibiotic cost of nosocomial infections is an important part of extra costs that should be reduced providing rational antibiotic usage in hospitals.

  2. Nosocomial infections at Clinical Centre in Kragujevac: Prevalence study

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    Ilić Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nosocomial infections (NIs are a serious health problem in hospitals worldwide and are followed by a series of consequences, medical, judicial, ethical and economic. Objective The main aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of NIs at the Clinical Centre in Kragujevac. Methods A prevalence study of nosocomial infections was conducted from 16th till 20th May, 2005, within Second National Prevalence Study of Niš in the Republic of Serbia. Results The study included 866 patients. 40 patients had a NI, thus the prevalence of patients with NIs and prevalence of NIs was the same, 4.6%. Among NIs, the most frequent were urinary infections (45.0% followed by surgical-site infections (17.5%, skin and soft tissue infections (15% and pneumonia (12.5%. The rate of NIs was highest at departments of orthopaedics and traumatological surgery (12.0%, followed by intensive care units (8.0%. Overall, 67.5% (27/40 NIs were culture-proved; the leading pathogens were Escherichia coli (40.0%, followed by gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas species, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacteriaceae with equal frequency of 8.0%. Nosocomial infections were significantly more frequent in patients aged ≥65 years (p<0.05, with longer hospitalization ≥8 days (p<0.00, in intensive care patients (p<0.05, patients with an intravenous catheter (p<0.00, urinary catheter (p<0.00, and those under antibiotic therapy (p<0.00. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of nosocomial infections in our hospital is similar to the prevalence in the developed countries. The study of prevalence provides a prompt insight into basic epidemiological and ethiological characteristics of nosocomial infections, hence identification of hospital priorities and the need to undertake appropriate prevention measures. .

  3. Nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU--year 2000 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowton, D L

    1999-03-01

    Diagnostic and treatment strategies in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain controversial, largely because of the paucity of well-controlled comparison trials using clinically important end points. Recent studies indicating that early appropriate antibiotic therapy significantly lowers mortality underscore the urgent need for well-designed comparative trials. When quantitatively cultured, bronchial specimens obtained by noninvasive techniques may provide clinically useful information and avoid the higher costs and risks of invasive bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques. Previous antibiotic use before onset of nosocomial pneumonia raises the likelihood of infection with highly virulent organisms, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. Thus, the empiric antibiotic regimen should be active against these Gram-negative pathogens as well as other common Gram-negative and Gram-positive causative organisms. Promising preventive modalities for nosocomial VAP include use of a semirecumbent position, endotracheal tubes that allow continuous aspiration of secretions, and heat and moisture exchangers. Rotating their standard empiric antibiotic regimens and restricting the use of third-generation cephalosporins as empiric therapy may help hospitals reduce the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia caused by resistant Gram-negative pathogens.

  4. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp.: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Kristensen, Lise; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged to become a significant nosocomial pathogen. However, detection may be challenging and treatment possibilities are limited. Reports of resistance to linezolide, daptomycin and tigecycline underline the need for reliable susceptibility testing wi...

  5. Nosocomial bloodstream infection in a tertiary care paediatric intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, M.H.; Maqbool, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency, causative organisms and susceptibility pattern of nosocomial bloodstream infections in children. All children admitted to the unit during the study period were daily evaluated for features suggestive of nosocomial infection. In addition to other investigations, blood cultures were done in all suspected cases for the confirmation of nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI). Nosocomial infection was defined according to the criteria set by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Demographic, microbiological and other variables were carefully studied to analyze frequency, incidence rate, spectrum of isolates and susceptibility pattern. Children with and without nosocomial BSI were compared with regard to age, duration of stay in hospital, need and duration of ventilation and the outcome. Of the total 406 admissions, 134 children were suspected to have nosocomial infection on at least 214 occasions (episodes). Blood cultures yielded growth of pathological organisms in 62 of these episodes, giving the frequency of nosocomial BSI as 15.2 per 100 admissions (62/406 episodes). Children with nosocomial bloodstream infection were found to have younger mean age (2.1 vs. 4.1 years), longer average duration of stay (13.1 vs. 6.6 days), more frequent need for ventilation (64% vs. 34%) and longer duration of ventilation (9.7 vs. 4.8 days). Majority of isolates (77%) were gram-negative bacteria; Klebsiella being the most common isolate (n= 23). Aztreonam, Ceftiazidime, Ceforuxime and Ciprofloxacin showed high resistance pattern (33-50%). Isolates showed good sensitivity to Vancomycin (100%), Imipenem (80%), Meropenem (100%) and Co-amoxiclav (88%). The frequency of nosocomial BSI in the observed setting was quite high, having marked impact on the duration of stay and outcome. Emergence of resistant pathogens is alarming. (author)

  6. Emergence of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Camilla H; Sandvang, Dorthe; Olsen, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates are reported in increasing numbers in many European hospitals. The clonal complex 17 (CC17) characterized by ampicillin resistance has been associated with nosocomial E. faecium outbreaks and infections in five continents. The aim...... in the number of infections caused by enterococci was observed from 2002 through 2006. The increase was mainly caused by E. faecium isolates, which tripled, whereas the number of E. faecalis isolates increased by only 23% during the same period. There was also a significant increase in the number of ampicillin......-resistant E. faecium isolates. MLST showed that 98% of the tested ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates belonged to CC17. PFGE showed eight different clusters and we found indications of clonal spread within the hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates have increased in frequency...

  7. Contribution of the collagen adhesin Acm to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in experimental endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant opportunist causing difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections, including endocarditis, but there are no reports experimentally demonstrating E. faecium virulence determinants. Our previous studies showed that some clinical E. faecium isolates produce a cell wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, and that an isogenic acm deletion mutant of the endocarditis-derived strain TX0082 lost collagen adherence. In this study, we show with a rat endocarditis model that TX0082 Deltaacm::cat is highly attenuated versus wild-type TX0082, both in established (72 h) vegetations (P Acm the first factor shown to be important for E. faecium pathogenesis. In contrast, no mortality differences were observed in a mouse peritonitis model. While 5 of 17 endocarditis isolates were Acm nonproducers and failed to adhere to collagen in vitro, all had an intact, highly conserved acm locus. Highly reduced acm mRNA levels (>or=50-fold reduction relative to an Acm producer) were found in three of these five nonadherent isolates, including the sequenced strain TX0016, by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, indicating that acm transcription is downregulated in vitro in these isolates. However, examination of TX0016 cells obtained directly from infected rat vegetations by flow cytometry showed that Acm was present on 40% of cells grown during infection. Finally, we demonstrated a significant reduction in E. faecium collagen adherence by affinity-purified anti-Acm antibodies from E. faecium endocarditis patient sera, suggesting that Acm may be a potential immunotarget for strategies to control this emerging pathogen.

  8. Physiological characterization of Enterococcus faecalis during azoreductase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Punj, Sumit; John, Gilbert H.

    2011-01-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, paper, and textile industries. Some azo dyes are known to produce carcinogenic compounds upon reductive cleavage of the azo bond (N=N) by intestinal flora. There is not much information available on the effect of these dyes on the physiology of the gut microflora as well as their kinetics of reduction in different environments. The azoreductase activity of Enterococcus faecalis, an important opportunistic intestinal pathogen, was tested us...

  9. Enterococcus faecalis phosphomevalonate kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doun, Stephanie S.; Burgner, John W.; Briggs, Scott D.; Rodwell, Victor W.

    2005-01-01

    The six enzymes of the mevalonate pathway of isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis represent potential for addressing a pressing human health concern, the development of antibiotics against resistant strains of the Gram-positive streptococci. We previously characterized the first four of the mevalonate pathway enzymes of Enterococcus faecalis, and here characterize the fifth, phosphomevalonate kinase (E.C. 2.7.4.2). E. faecalis genomic DNA and the polymerase chain reaction were used to clone DNA thought to encode phosphomevalonate kinase into pET28b(+). Double-stranded DNA sequencing verified the sequence of the recombinant gene. The encoded N-terminal hexahistidine-tagged protein was expressed in Escherichia coli with induction by isopropylthiogalactoside and purified by Ni++ affinity chromatography, yield 20 mg protein per liter. Analysis of the purified protein by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established it as E. faecalis phosphomevalonate kinase. Analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that the kinase exists in solution primarily as a dimer. Assay for phosphomevalonate kinase activity used pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase to couple the formation of ADP to the oxidation of NADH. Optimal activity occurred at pH 8.0 and at 37°C. The activation energy was ~5.6 kcal/mol. Activity with Mn++, the preferred cation, was optimal at about 4 mM. Relative rates using different phosphoryl donors were 100 (ATP), 3.6 (GTP), 1.6 (TTP), and 0.4 (CTP). Km values were 0.17 mM for ATP and 0.19 mM for (R,S)-5-phosphomevalonate. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 3.9 μmol substrate converted per minute per milligram protein. Applications to an immobilized enzyme bioreactor and to drug screening and design are discussed. PMID:15802646

  10. Incidence, risk factors and outcome of nosocomial pneumonia in patients with central nervous system infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajović Olgica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pneumonia is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units. The reported frequency varies with definition, the type of hospital or intensive care units and the population of patients. The incidence ranges from 6.8-27%. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors and mortality of nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care patients. Methods. We analyzed retrospectively and prospectively the collected data of 180 patients with central nervous system infections who needed to stay in the intensive care unit for more than 48 hours. This study was conducted from 2003 to 2009 at the Clinical Centre of Kragujevac. Results. During the study period, 54 (30% patients developed nosocomial pneumonia. The time to develop pneumonia was 10±6 days. We found that the following risk factors for the development of nosocomial pneumonia were statistically significant: age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score <9, mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, presence of nasogastric tube and enteral feeding. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Klebsiella-Enterobacter spp. (33.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24.1%, Acinetobacter spp. (16.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%. Conclusion. Nosocomial pneumonia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients with central nervous system infections. Patients on mechanical ventilation are particularly at a high risk. The mortality rate of patients with nosocomial pneumonia was 54.4% and it was five times higher than in patients without pneumonia.

  11. Emerging Trend of Acinetobacter Nosocomial Infection in Northeast of Iran

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    Samaneh Saed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acinetobacter spp. emerged as an opportunistic pathogen for hospital-acquired infections. Recently, increasing antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter spp. has worsened the problem. The aim of this study was to investigate  the  emerging  trend  of  infection  due  to Acinetobacter  in Ghaem University Hospital, Mashhad during 2006-2012.Methods: The demographic data and information about redisposing factors was collected. Appropriate bacteriological samples were collected and Acinetobacter spp. was isolated. Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of these isolates againstdifferent antimicrobials agents was determined.Results: Results confirmed that Acinetobacter spp. cause 20.9% of nosocomial infection during this period. The trend of Acinetobacter nosocomial infection was increasing and patients with risk factors such as COPD, bronchectasia, diabetes   mellitus   were   more   prone   to   infection.  There   was   significant association   between   these   infections   and   invasive   procedures   such   as catheterization, mechanical ventilation and broad-spectrum antibiotics usage. Conclusion:  Understanding  trends  in  causative  organisms  of  nosocomial infection can help us to better define our infection control policy.

  12. New antimicrobial contact catalyst killing antibiotic resistant clinical and waterborne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guridi, A.; Diederich, A.-K.; Aguila-Arcos, S.; Garcia-Moreno, M.; Blasi, R.; Broszat, M.; Schmieder, W.; Clauss-Lendzian, E.; Sakinc-Gueler, T.; Andrade, R.; Alkorta, I.; Meyer, C.; Landau, U.; Grohmann, E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial growth on medical and technical devices is a big health issue, particularly when microorganisms aggregate to form biofilms. Moreover, the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the clinical environment is dramatically growing, making treatment of bacterial infections very challenging. In search of an alternative, we studied a novel antimicrobial surface coating based on micro galvanic elements formed by silver and ruthenium with surface catalytic properties. The antimicrobial coating efficiently inhibited the growth of the nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium as demonstrated by the growth inhibition on agar surface and in biofilms of antibiotic resistant clinical E. faecalis, E. faecium, and S. aureus isolates. It also strongly reduced the growth of Legionella in a drinking water pipeline and of Escherichia coli in urine. We postulate a mode of action of the antimicrobial material, which is independent of the release of silver ions. Thus, the novel antimicrobial coating could represent an alternative to combat microbial growth avoiding the toxic side effects of high levels of silver ions on eukaryotic cells. - Highlights: • The novel antimicrobial inhibits growth of clinical staphylococci and enterococci. • The novel antimicrobial inhibits growth of Legionella in drinking water. • A putative mode of action of the antimicrobial coating is presented

  13. New antimicrobial contact catalyst killing antibiotic resistant clinical and waterborne pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guridi, A. [Biophysics Unit (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Diederich, A.-K. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Biology II, Microbiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Aguila-Arcos, S.; Garcia-Moreno, M. [Biophysics Unit (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Blasi, R.; Broszat, M. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Biology II, Microbiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schmieder, W.; Clauss-Lendzian, E. [Biology II, Microbiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Sakinc-Gueler, T. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Andrade, R. [Advanced Research Facilities (SGIker), University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Alkorta, I. [Biophysics Unit (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Meyer, C.; Landau, U. [Largentec GmbH, Am Waldhaus 32, 14129 Berlin (Germany); Grohmann, E., E-mail: elisabeth.grohmann@googlemail.com [Biophysics Unit (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa (Spain); University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Biology II, Microbiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Microbial growth on medical and technical devices is a big health issue, particularly when microorganisms aggregate to form biofilms. Moreover, the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the clinical environment is dramatically growing, making treatment of bacterial infections very challenging. In search of an alternative, we studied a novel antimicrobial surface coating based on micro galvanic elements formed by silver and ruthenium with surface catalytic properties. The antimicrobial coating efficiently inhibited the growth of the nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium as demonstrated by the growth inhibition on agar surface and in biofilms of antibiotic resistant clinical E. faecalis, E. faecium, and S. aureus isolates. It also strongly reduced the growth of Legionella in a drinking water pipeline and of Escherichia coli in urine. We postulate a mode of action of the antimicrobial material, which is independent of the release of silver ions. Thus, the novel antimicrobial coating could represent an alternative to combat microbial growth avoiding the toxic side effects of high levels of silver ions on eukaryotic cells. - Highlights: • The novel antimicrobial inhibits growth of clinical staphylococci and enterococci. • The novel antimicrobial inhibits growth of Legionella in drinking water. • A putative mode of action of the antimicrobial coating is presented.

  14. Relationship between climate conditions and nosocomial infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nosocomial infections constitute a global health problem. Objective: To explore the relationship between nosocomial infection rates (NIRs) and climatic factors including temperature and relative humidity in Guangzhou area of China. Methods: 30892 patients in our hospital in 2009 were investigated for ...

  15. Comparative Characterization Of Endemic Lactic Acid Bacteria Of Enterococcus Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Karapetyan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of multidrug-resistance MDR of pathogenic strains to antibiotics most widely used for treatment of human diseases in the Republics of Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh were examined. It was shown that difference of resistance of pathogens to antibiotics depends on their isolation sources. It was shown that bacteriocin containing partially purified preparations obtained from different strains of Enterococcus faecium and durans species isolated from various samples of matsun salted cheese and other acid milk products from milk of different domestic animals from rural households inhibited the growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups with different efficiency.

  16. Enterococcus faecium biofilm formation: identification of major autolysin AtlAEfm, associated Acm surface localization, and AtlAEfm-independent extracellular DNA Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Willems, Rob J L; Jansen, Pamela; Hendrickx, Antoni; Zhang, Xinglin; Bonten, Marc J M; Leavis, Helen L

    2013-04-16

    Enterococcus faecium is an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections in patients with medical devices. Insight into E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat these infections. In several bacteria, a major autolysin is essential for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release in the biofilm matrix, contributing to biofilm attachment and stability. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the major autolysin of E. faecium E1162 by a bioinformatic genome screen followed by insertional gene disruption of six putative autolysin genes. Insertional inactivation of locus tag EfmE1162_2692 resulted in resistance to lysis, reduced eDNA release, deficient cell attachment, decreased biofilm, decreased cell wall hydrolysis, and significant chaining compared to that of the wild type. Therefore, locus tag EfmE1162_2692 was considered the major autolysin in E. faecium and renamed atlAEfm. In addition, AtlAEfm was implicated in cell surface exposure of Acm, a virulence factor in E. faecium, and thereby facilitates binding to collagen types I and IV. This is a novel feature of enterococcal autolysins not described previously. Furthermore, we identified (and localized) autolysin-independent DNA release in E. faecium that contributes to cell-cell interactions in the atlAEfm mutant and is important for cell separation. In conclusion, AtlAEfm is the major autolysin in E. faecium and contributes to biofilm stability and Acm localization, making AtlAEfm a promising target for treatment of E. faecium biofilm-mediated infections. IMPORTANCE Nosocomial infections caused by Enterococcus faecium have rapidly increased, and treatment options have become more limited. This is due not only to increasing resistance to antibiotics but also to biofilm-associated infections. DNA is released in biofilm matrix via cell lysis, caused by autolysin, and acts as a matrix stabilizer. In this study

  17. Identification of Multiple Bacteriocins in Enterococcus spp. Using an Enterococcus-Specific Bacteriocin PCR Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Henning

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus isolates obtained from food and animal sources, and demonstrating activity against Listeria monocytogenes, were screened for bacteriocin-related genes using a bacteriocin PCR array based on known enterococcal bacteriocin gene sequences in the NCBI GenBank database. The 22 bacteriocin-positive (Bac+ enterococci included En. durans (1, En. faecalis (4, En. faecium (12, En. hirae (3, and En. thailandicus (2. Enterocin A (entA, enterocins mr10A and mr10B (mr10AB, and bacteriocin T8 (bacA were the most commonly found structural genes in order of decreasing prevalence. Forty-five bacteriocin genes were identified within the 22 Bac+ isolates, each containing at least one of the screened structural genes. Of the 22 Bac+ isolates, 15 possessed two bacteriocin genes, seven isolates contained three different bacteriocins, and three isolates contained as many as four different bacteriocin genes. These results may explain the high degree of bactericidal activity observed with various Bac+ Enterococcus spp. Antimicrobial activity against wild-type L. monocytogenes and a bacteriocin-resistant variant demonstrated bacteriocins having different modes-of-action. Mixtures of bacteriocins, especially those with different modes-of-action and having activity against foodborne pathogens, such as L. monocytogenes, may play a promising role in the preservation of food.

  18. Microbial Characteristics of Nosocomial Infections and Their Association with the Utilization of Hand Hygiene Products: A Hospital-Wide Analysis of 78,344 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Wang, Meng; Wang, Gefei; Wu, Xiuwen; Guan, Wenxian; Ren, Jianan

    Nosocomial infections are the main adverse events during health care delivery. Hand hygiene is the fundamental strategy for the prevention of nosocomial infections. Microbial characteristics of nosocomial infections in the Asia-Pacific region have not been investigated fully. Correlation between the use of hand hygiene products and the incidence of nosocomial infections is still unknown. This study investigates the microbial characteristics of nosocomial infections in the Asia-Pacific region and analyzes the association between the utilization of hand hygiene products and the incidence of nosocomial infections. A total of 78,344 patients were recruited from a major tertiary hospital in China. Microbial characteristics of major types of nosocomial infections were described. The association between the utilization of hand hygiene products and the incidence of nosocomial infections was analyzed using correlation and regression models. The overall incidence of nosocomial infections was 3.04%, in which the incidence of surgical site infection was 1%. Multi-drug resistance was found in 22.8% of all pathogens, in which multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were 56.6% and 54.9%, respectively. The utilization of hand hygiene products (including hand sanitizer, soap and paper towel) was associated negatively with the incidence of surgical site infection in surgical departments and the incidence of nosocomial infections in non-intensive care unit (ICU) departments (especially in surgical departments). Regression analysis further identified that higher utilization of hand hygiene products correlated with decreased incidence of major types of nosocomial infections. Multi-drug-resistant organisms are emerging in Asia-Pacific health care facilities. Utilization of hand hygiene products is associated with the incidence of nosocomial infections.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from commercial probiotic products used in cattle and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Giok, Felicia; Shi, Xiaorong; Soto, Jose; Narayanan, Sanjeev K; Tokach, Mike D; Apley, Mike D; Nagaraja, T G

    2018-04-03

    Probiotics, an antibiotic alternative, are widely used as feed additives for performance benefits in cattle and swine production systems. Among bacterial species contained in probiotics, Enterococcus faecium is common. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), particularly multidrug resistance, is a common trait among enterococci because of their propensity to acquire resistance and horizontally transfer AMR genes. Also, E. faecium is an opportunistic pathogen, and in the United States, it is the second most common nosocomial pathogen. There has been no published study on AMR and virulence potential in E. faecium contained in probiotic products used in cattle and swine in the United States. Therefore, our objectives were to determine phenotypic susceptibilities or resistance to antimicrobials, virulence genes (asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl) and assess genetic diversity of E. faecium isolated from commercial products. Twenty-two commercially available E. faecium-based probiotic products used in cattle (n = 13) and swine (n = 9) were procured and E. faecium was isolated and species confirmed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations was done by micro-broth dilution method using National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems Gram-positive Sensititre panel plate (CMV3AGPF), and categorization of strains as susceptible or resistant was as per Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute's guidelines. E. faecium strains from 7 products (3 for swine and 4 for cattle) were pan-susceptible to the 16 antimicrobials tested. Strains from 15 products (6 for swine and 9 for cattle) exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial and a high proportion of strains was resistant to lincomycin (10/22), followed by tetracycline (4/22), daptomycin (4/22), ciprofloxacin (4/22), kanamycin (3/22), and penicillin (2/22). Four strains were multidrug resistant, with resistant phenotypes ranging from 3 to 6 antimicrobials or class. None of the E

  20. [Epidemiology of nosocomial infections in neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassinne, E; Letamendia-Richard, E; Gaudelus, J

    2004-03-01

    Epidemiology of nosocomial infections in neonates has to be described according to our definitions (early onset GBS diseases excluded) and according to levels of care. Nosocomial risk exists in maternity departments (3% in postnatal beds), incidence rates are 7.5-12.7% or 1.3-8.5 per 1000 days in neonatal care units and 14.2% or 11.7 per 1000 days in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Gram-positive cocci bloodstream infections are the most common nosocomial infections in NICU but viral gastroenteritis are more frequent in neonatal care units. Risk factors are low birthweight, small gestational age and intravascular catheter in NICU, and for viral nosocomial infections, visits and winter outbreaks.

  1. Postoperative Nosocomial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperative Nosocomial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Bacteria Isolates among Patients Admitted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahirdar, ... Wound swab and venous blood samples were collected and processed for bacterial isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing following standard ...

  2. Pattern of nosocomial infection in two intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital in karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, M.F.; Hassan, Y.; Abdullah, M.; Shakeel, J.; Memon, A.R.; Razvi, M.F.; Saleem, S.; Shakeel, J.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the pattern of nosocomial infections in two ICUs' of a teaching hospital in terms of frequency, common sites of infection, the pathogens involved and the antibiotic sensitivity patterns. It was conducted in two medical ICUs (Neurology and Nephrology) of a public tertiary care hospital. Data was collected prospectively on patients suspected to have developed nosocomial infection after 48 hours of admission to the ICU according to objective. There were 101 cases of suspected nosocomial infection out of a total of 254 patients. The frequency of nosocomial infection was 39.7%. UTI developed in 44.6%, while 27% had blood stream infection, and 21% had pneumonia. Each of the three major sites of infection was strongly associated with the use of invasive devices. Escherichia (E.) coli was the most common organism isolated followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella. E. coli and Klebsiella showed a maximum sensitivity to Imipenem followed by Tazocin (pipericillin + tazobactam). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to Amikacin and Fosfomycin. The high frequency of nosocomial infection suggests that more strict measures regarding invasive devices should be taken in future to control the infection and limit the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. (author)

  3. Molecular Determinants of the Thickened Matrix in a Dual-Species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keehoon; Lee, Kang-Mu; Kim, Donggeun; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2017-11-01

    have reported that microbes in polymicrobial biofilms interact with each other and that the bacterial interactions result in elevated virulence, in terms of factors, such as infectivity and antibiotic resistance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis are frequently isolated pathogens in chronic biofilm infections. Nevertheless, while both bacteria are known to be agents of numerous nosocomial infections and can cause serious diseases, interactions between the bacteria in biofilms have rarely been examined. In this investigation, we aimed to characterize P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis dual-species biofilms and to determine the molecular factors that cause synergistic effects, especially on the matrix thickening of the biofilm. We suspect that our findings will contribute to the development of more efficient methods for eradicating polymicrobial biofilm infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients

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    Dandagi Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The care of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU is a primary component of modern medicine. ICUs create potential for recovery in patients who otherwise may not have survived. However, they may suffer from problems associated with of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are those which manifest in patients 48 hours after admission to hospital. Nosocomial infections are directly related to diagnostic, interventional or therapeutic procedures a patient undergoes in hospital, and are also influenced by the bacteriological flora prevailing within a particular unit or hospital. Urinary tract infections are the most frequent nosocomial infection, accounting for more than 40% of all nosocomial infections. Critical care units increasingly use high technology medicine for patient care, hemodynamic monitoring, ventilator support, hemodialysis, parenteral nutrition, and a large battery of powerful drugs, particularly antibiotics to counter infection. It is indeed a paradox that the use of high-tech medicine has brought in its wake the dangerous and all too frequent complication of nosocomial infections

  5. Characterization of Hospital-Associated Lineages of Ampicillin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium from Clinical Cases in Dogs and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy-Love eTremblay

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE has rapidly emerged worldwide and is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. However, very few reports are available on ARE isolates from canine clinical cases. The objective of this study was to characterize ARE strains of canine clinical origin from a veterinary teaching hospital in Canada and to compare them with human strains. Ten ARE strains from dogs and humans were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm activities, presence of rep-families, CRISPR-cas and putative virulence genes. All ARE strains (n = 10 were resistant to ciprofloxacin and lincomycin. Resistances to tetracycline (n = 6, macrolides (n = 6, and to high concentrations of gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin (n = 5 were also observed. Canine ARE isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin whereas resistance to this antibiotic was observed in human strains. Ampicillin resistance was linked to PBP5 showing mutations at 25 amino acid positions. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to ParC, GyrA, and GyrB mutations. Data demonstrated that all canine ARE were acm (collagen binding protein-positive and that most harbored the efaAfm gene, encoding for a cell wall adhesin. Biofilm formation was observed in two human strains but not in canine strains. Two to five rep-families were observed per strain but no CRISPR sequences were found. A total of six STs (1, 18, 65, 202, 205, and 803 were found with one belonging to a new ST (ST803. These STs were identical or closely related to human hospital-associated lineages. This report describes for the first time the characterization of canine ARE hospital-associated strains in Canada and also supports the importance of prudent antibiotic use in veterinary medicine to avoid zoonotic spread of canine ARE.

  6. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium core genomes and PBP5: evidences of pbp5 horizontal transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Novais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18 and ST78 in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E. faecium isolates of different phylogenomic groups as well as to assess the pbp5 transferability among isolates of disparate clonal lineages. The analyses of 78 selected E. faecium strains as well as published E. faecium genomes, suggested that the diversity of pbp5 mirrors the phylogenomic diversification of E. faecium. The presence of identical PBP5 C-types as well as similar pbp5 genetic environments in different E. faecium lineages and clones from quite different geographical and environmental origin was also documented and would indicate their horizontal gene transfer among E. faecium populations. This was supported by experimental assays showing transfer of large (≈180-280 kb chromosomal genetic platforms containing pbp5 alleles, ponA (transglycosilase and other metabolic and adaptive features, from E. faecium donor isolates to suitable E. faecium recipient strains. Mutation profile analysis of PBP5 from available genomes and strains from this study suggests that the spread of PBP5 C-types might have occurred even in the absence of a significant ampicillin resistance phenotype. In summary, genetic platforms containing pbp5 sequences were stably maintained in particular E. faecium lineages, but were also able to be transferred among E. faecium clones of different origins, emphasizing the growing risk of further spread of ampicillin resistance in this nosocomial pathogen.

  7. Comparing Temperature Effects on E. Coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus Survival in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare dependency of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonel...

  8. A Meta-analysis of the Rates of Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus in Febrile Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leazer, Rianna; Perkins, Amy M; Shomaker, Kyrie; Fine, Bryan

    2016-04-01

    A change in the epidemiology of pathogens causing serious bacterial infection (SBI) has been noted since original recommendations were made for the empirical antibiotic choices for young infants with fever. To assess the prevalence of SBI caused by Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus species. A literature search was conducted on keywords related to SBI, L. monocytogenes, and Enterococcus spp. infections. Eligible studies were those conducted in the United States and published between January 1998 and June 2014 focusing on SBI in infants≤90 days of age. The rates of urinary tract infection, bacteremia, and meningitis for each pathogen were recorded for each study. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the prevalence for each pathogen in a random effects model with 0.5 continuity correction added to studies with zero events. Sixteen studies were included. A total of 20,703 blood cultures were included, with weighted prevalences for L. monocytogenes and Enterococcus spp. bacteremia of 0.03% and 0.09%, respectively. A total of 13,775 cerebrospinal fluid cultures were included with event rates (unweighted prevalences) for L. monocytogenes and Enterococcus spp. meningitis of 0.02% and 0.03%, respectively. A total of 18,283 urine cultures were included, with no cases of L. monocytogenes and a weighted prevalence for Enterococcus spp. urinary tract infection of 0.28%. There may have been reporting bias or incomplete retrieval or inadvertent exclusion of relevant studies. SBI caused by L. monocytogenes and Enterococcus spp. in febrile infants is rare, and therefore clinicians may consider a change in empirical antibiotic choices. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiríart, Marisa; Ponce de León, Sergio; Amieva-Fernández, Rosa I; Agis-Juárez, Raúl A; Huebner, Johannes; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area) and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation), respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species.

  10. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas

    Full Text Available Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation, respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species.

  11. [Nosocomial urinary tract and surgical site infection rates in the Maternity Ward at the General Referral Hospital in Katuba, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukuke, Hendrick Mbutshu; Kasamba, Eric; Mahuridi, Abdulu; Nlandu, Roger Ngatu; Narufumi, Suganuma; Mukengeshayi, Abel Ntambue; Malou, Vicky; Makoutode, Michel; Kaj, Françoise Malonga

    2017-01-01

    In Intertropical Africa hospitalized patients are exposed to a risk of nosocomial infections. The dearth of published data on this subject limits the descriptive analysis of the situation. This study aimed to determine the incidence, the germs responsible for these infections and the risk factors of nosocomial infections in the Maternity Ward at the General Referral Hospital in Katuba, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted a descriptive, longitudinal study from 1 October 2014 to 1 January 2015. Our study population consisted of 207 women who had been hospitalized in the Maternity Ward at the General Referral Hospital in Katuba. We carried out a comprehensive data collection. Nosocomial infection rate accounted for 15.5%. Parturient women who had been hospitalized for more than three days were three times more likely to develop a nosocomial infection (p=0.003), while those who had had a complicated delivery were four times more likely to be at risk of developing nosocomial infection (p = 0.000). Escherichia coli was the most isolated causative agent (38.1%), followed by Citrobacter freundi (23.8%), Acinobacter baumani (.18, 2%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.2%), Enterococcus aureus (14.3%) and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (9.1%). Ampicillin was the most prescribed antibiotic, to which isolated microbes were resistant. It is necessary to improve hospital hygiene and to conduct further study to examine the similarity between germs strains in the environment and those in biological fluids.

  12. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor SigV plays a key role in the original model of lysozyme resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis.

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    André Le Jeune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the leading agents of nosocomial infections. To cause diseases, pathogens or opportunistic bacteria have to adapt and survive to the defense systems encountered in the host. One of the most important compounds of the host innate defense response against invading microorganisms is lysozyme. It is found in a wide variety of body fluids, as well as in cells of the innate immune system. Lysozyme could act either as a muramidase and/or as a cationic antimicrobial peptide. Like Staphylococcus aureus, E. faecalis is one of the few bacteria that are completely lysozyme resistant. RESULTS: This study revealed that oatA (O-acetyl transferase and dlt (D-Alanylation of lipoteicoic acids genes contribute only partly to the lysozyme resistance of E. faecalis and that a specific transcriptional regulator, the extracytoplasmic function SigV sigma factor plays a key role in this event. Indeed, the sigV single mutant is as sensitive as the oatA/dltA double mutant, and the sigV/oatA/dltA triple mutant displays the highest level of lysozyme sensitivity suggesting synergistic effects of these genes. In S. aureus, mutation of both oatA and dlt genes abolishes completely the lysozyme resistance, whereas this is not the case in E. faecalis. Interestingly SigV does not control neither oatA nor dlt genes. Moreover, the sigV mutants clearly showed a reduced capacity to colonize host tissues, as they are significantly less recovered than the parental JH2-2 strain from organs of mice subjected to intravenous or urinary tract infections. CONCLUSIONS: This work led to the discovery of an original model of lysozyme resistance mechanism which is obviously more complex than those described for other Gram positive pathogens. Moreover, our data provide evidences for a direct link between lysozyme resistance and virulence of E. faecalis.

  13. Nosocomial bloodstream infection in a neonatal intensive care unit of a medical center: a three-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ya-Chun; Chiu, Yu-Chiao; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Chih; Su, Bai-Horng; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui

    2002-09-01

    Bloodstream infections are the most frequent nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units. This retrospective study surveyed the epidemiologic characteristics of nosocomial bloodstream infections which occurred in the neonatal intensive care unit from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 1999. The overall infection patient rate was 5.5% in the 3-year period, and the overall infection patient-day rate was 4.4 per 1000 patient-days. Low birth weight was a risk factor for bloodstream infections. The rate of infection for neonates with birth weight below 1000 g ranged from 36.6% to 45.8% (1997: 36.6%; 1998: 45.8% and 1999: 38.9%). The most common pathogens causing nosocomial bloodstream infection were: Staphylococcus aureus (18.5%) (with 92% oxacillin-resistant), Acinectobacter baumannii (16.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.9%), Escherichia coli (9.6%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.1%). The mortality due to nosocomial bloodstream infection was highest among gram-negative bacteria, especially with P. aeruginosa (45.5%). Therefore, surveillance of nosocomial bloodstream infection and successful strategies to decrease nosocomial bloodstream infection, such as infection control and optimal antibiotic use, are warranted.

  14. Host pathogen relations: exploring animal models for fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Catherine G; Rao, Reeta P

    2014-06-30

    Pathogenic fungi cause superficial infections but pose a significant public health risk when infections spread to deeper tissues, such as the lung. Within the last three decades, fungi have been identified as the leading cause of nosocomial infections making them the focus of research. This review outlines the model systems such as the mouse, zebrafish larvae, flies, and nematodes, as well as ex vivo and in vitro systems available to study common fungal pathogens.

  15. Host Pathogen Relations: Exploring Animal Models for Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine G. Harwood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi cause superficial infections but pose a significant public health risk when infections spread to deeper tissues, such as the lung. Within the last three decades, fungi have been identified as the leading cause of nosocomial infections making them the focus of research. This review outlines the model systems such as the mouse, zebrafish larvae, flies, and nematodes, as well as ex vivo and in vitro systems available to study common fungal pathogens.

  16. Epidemiology of nosocomial colonization/infection caused by Acinetobacter spp. in patients of six surgical clinics in war and peacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suljagić, Vesna; Jevtić, Miodrag; Djordjević, Boban; Romić, Predrag; Ilić, Radoje; Stanković, Nebojsa; Milović, Novak; Novaković, Marijan; Kozarski, Jefta; Roganović, Zoran; Popović, Zoran; Jovelić, Aleksandra

    2011-08-01

    Acinetobacter spp. has emerged as nosocomial pathogen during the past few decades in hospitals all over the world, but it has increasingly been implicated as a serious nosocomial pathogen in military hospitals. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the surveillance data on Acinetobacter nosocomial colonization/infection (NCI) collected during the wartime with the data collected in peacetime. We conducted a prospective study of incidence of Acinetobacter spp. colonization/infection. Also, the two nested case-control studies were conducted. The patients with nosocomial infection (cases) were compared with those with nosocomial colonization (controls) during the two different periods, wartime and peacetime. The patients with NCI by Acinetobacter spp. were identified by the case-based surveillance. The surveillance covered all the patients in 6 surgical clinics. During the study periods a total of 166 patients had cultures that grew Acinetobacter spp. and the pooled rates of Acinetobacter spp. colonization and infection were significantly higher in wartime. When patients with NCI in wartime were compared with those with NCI in peacetime significant differences were observed. In the war year, the patients were more significantly males (p war and peace period.

  17. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Species: A Hospital-Based Study in China

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    Wei Jia

    2014-03-01

    exhibited various resistances to the same antimicrobial agent, while reserpine treatment reduced the resistance of Enterococcus species to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin. The β-lactamase gene TEM, aminoglycoside-modifying-enzyme genes aac(6'-aph(2", aph(3'-III, ant(6-I and ant(2"-I, tetracycline resistance gene tetM, erythromycin resistance gene ermB, vancomycin resistance gene vanA and the enterococcal multidrug resistance efflux emeA gene were detected in 77%, 62%, 26%, 13%, 36%, 31%, 66%, 5% and 55% of the 100 multiple-drug resistant enterococcal isolates. Conclusions: similar to previous findings, E. faecium and E. faecalis are predominant conditionally pathogenic bacteria that cause hospital-acquired infections that can cause urinary and respiratory system infections. Multiple and high-level antimicrobial resistance is highly prevalent in the hospital isolates of Enterococcus species. Reserpine treatment inhibits the active efflux of Enterococcus species to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin in vitro and reduces the MIC of Enterococcus species to these three fluoroquinolones. The presence of the enterococcal multidrug resistance efflux emeA gene is associated with the resistance to antibiotics in Enterococcus species. The monitoring of the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species is of great significance to guide the control and prevention of enterococcal infections.

  18. Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcal Infections : New Compounds, Novel Antimicrobial Therapies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Roel M; Willems, Rob J L; Martin, Nathaniel I; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    Over the past two decades infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have escalated world-wide, affecting patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Among these bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis represent opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that cause

  19. Antibiogram of nosocomial urinary tract infections in Felege Hiwot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nosocomial infections increase the cost of medical care, extend hospital stay and reflect on the morbidity and mortality of the admitted patients. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common nosocomial infections in humans. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and antibiogram of nosocomial ...

  20. Major Trends in the Microbial Etiiology of Nosocomial Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Schaberg; D.H. Culver; R.P. Gaynes

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTo determine trends in the microbial etiology of nosocomial infections in the 1980s, surveillance data on the microbiology of documented nosocomial infection reported to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System and from the University of Michigan Hospital were analyzed.

  1. Enterococcus faecalis Sex Pheromone cCF10 Enhances Conjugative Plasmid Transfer In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Helmut; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Karau, Melissa J; Till, Lisa M; Kashyap, Purna C; Patel, Robin; Dunny, Gary M

    2018-02-13

    Cell-cell communication mediated by peptide pheromones (cCF10 [CF]) is essential for high-frequency plasmid transfer in vitro in Enterococcus faecalis To examine the role of pheromone signaling in vivo , we established either a CF-producing (CF+) recipient or a recipient producing a biologically inactive variant of CF (CF- recipient) in a germfree mouse model 3 days before donor inoculation and determined transfer frequencies of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10. Plasmid transfer was detected in the upper and middle sections of the intestinal tract 5 h after donor inoculation and was highly efficient in the absence of antibiotic selection. The transconjugant/donor ratio reached a maximum level approaching 1 on day 4 in the upper intestinal tract. Plasmid transfer was significantly lower with the CF- recipient. While rescue of the CF- mating defect by coculture with CF+ recipients is easily accomplished in vitro , no extracellular complementation occurred in vivo This suggests that most pheromone signaling in the gut occurs between recipient and donor cells in very close proximity. Plasmid-bearing cells (donors plus transconjugants) steadily increased in the population from 0.1% after donor inoculation to about 10% at the conclusion of the experiments. This suggests a selective advantage of pCF10 carriage distinct from antibiotic resistance or bacteriocin production. Our results demonstrate that pheromone signaling is required for efficient pCF10 transfer in vivo In the absence of CF+ recipients, a low level of transfer to CF- recipients occurred in the gut. This may result from low-level host-mediated induction of the donors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, similar to that previously observed in serum. IMPORTANCE Horizontal gene transfer is a major factor in the biology of Enterococcus faecalis , an important nosocomial pathogen. Previous studies showing efficient conjugative plasmid transfer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of experimental animals did

  2. [Stethoscope or staphyloscope?: Potential vector in nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúniga, Andrés; Mañalich, Jaime; Cortés, Rosario

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are a problem worldwide. In our country, the estimated incidence of HCAI is 70,000 per year. This results in an increase in the average length of hospital stay by 10 days per patient, an estimated annual cost of US $ 70 million and an overstay of 700 thousand bed days a year. For over 30 years stethoscopes have been considered as potential HCAI vectors, since pathogens like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains adhere and colonize them. These organisms can be transmitted between patients if the instruments are not sanitized. Several studies conclude that disinfecting the stethoscope with isopropyl alcohol eliminates up to 99% of bacteria. Simple, economic measures such as implementation of guidelines for stethoscope disinfection are a clear opportunity for preventing infections.

  3. Comparative analysis of the biological and physical properties of Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage vB_EfaS_GEC-EfS_3 and Streptococcus mitis bacteriophage vB_SmM_GEC-SmitisM_2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigvava, Sophio; Tchgkonia, Irina; Jgenti, Darejan; Dvalidze, Teona; Carpino, James; Goderdzishvili, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mitis are common commensal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. However, both species can be opportunistic pathogens and cause disease in nosocomial settings. These infections can be difficult to treat because of the frequency of antibiotic resistance among these strains. Bacteriophages are often suggested as an alternative therapeutic agent against these infections. In this study, E. faecalis and S. mitis strains were isolated from female patients with urinary tract infections. Bacteriophages active against these strains were isolated from sewage water from the Mtkvari River. Two phages, designated vB_EfaS_GEC-EfS_3 (Syphoviridae) and vB_SmM_GEC-SmitisM_2 (Myoviridae), were specific for E. faecalis and S. mitis, respectively. Each phage's growth patterns and adsorption rates were quantified. Sensitivity to ultraviolet light and temperature was determined, as was host range and serology. The S. mitis bacteriophage was found to be more resistant to ultraviolet light and exposure to high temperatures than the E. faecalis bacteriophage, despite having a much greater rate of replication. While each phage was able to infect a broad range of strains of the same species as the host species from which they were isolated, they were unable to infect other host species tested.

  4. [Hospital hygiene - outbreak management of nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2012-04-01

    According to §6, section 3 of the German Protection against Infections Act [Infektionsschutzgesetz (IfSG)] an outbreak is defined as the occurrence in large numbers of nosocomial infections for which an epidemiological relationship is probable or can be assumed. About 2-10% of nosocomial infections in hospitals (about 5% in intensive care wards) occur within the framework of an outbreak. The heaped occurrence of nosocomial infections can be declared according to the prescribed surveillance of nosocomial infections (§23 IfSG) when, in the course of this assessment, a statistically significant increase in the rate of infections becomes apparent. On the other hand, the occurrence of an outbreak can also be recognized through the vigilance of all involved personnel and a general sensibilization towards this subject. The names of patients involved in outbreaks need not be reported to the responsible health authorities. As a consequence of the report the health authorities become involved in the investigation to determine the cause and its elimination, and to provide support and advice. The outbreak management should be oriented on the respective recommendations of the Robert Koch Institute. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  5. A Descriptive Study of Nosocomial Infections in an Adult Intensive Care Unit in Fiji: 2011-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshni Naidu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections in an intensive care unit (ICU are common and associated with a high mortality but there are no published data from the Oceania region. A retrospective study in Fiji’s largest ICU (2011-12 reported that 114 of a total 663 adult ICU admissions had bacteriological culture-confirmed nosocomial infection. The commonest sites of infection were respiratory and bloodstream. Gram negative bacteria were the commonest pathogens isolated, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae (extended-spectrum β-Lactamase-producing, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas species. Mortality for those with a known outcome was 33%. Improved surveillance and implementation of effective preventive interventions are needed.

  6. An Investigation of the Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Enterococcus Species Isolated from Delivery Room of University Hospital of Qom City, 2015, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Kabiri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci that are found in abundance in the environment. The ability of these bacteria for long-term survival in hospital environment, increases the chance of patients for infections caused by this bacterium. Therefore, identification of possible sources and reservoirs is helpful in identifying the potential sources in sudden outbreaks. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate and antibiotic resistance pattern in environmental Enterococcus isolates collected from delivery room environment of Alzahra and Izadi university hospitals in Qom. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, over a period of 3 month, sampling was performed using swabbing method from delivery rooms of alzahra and izadi hospitals in Qom, and were examined for the presence of Enterococci. After isolation, Enterococcus species were examined using different biochemical tests, and the antibiotic resistance pattern in the environmental was assessed according to disk-diffusion test according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standards. The data were described by frequency tables. Results: In this study, out of 216 obtained isolates, 7(3.2% belonged to Enterococcus genus. 4(57% out of 7 Enterococcus strains isolated from surfaces of delivery room, had multiple resistances based on antibiotic sensitivity test using antiobiogram test. Conclusion: According to increasing growth of nosocomial infection caused by resistant strains of Enterococcus spp. and their spread in hospital environment, use of infection control measures are necessary to eliminate the potential sources and prevent the infection.  

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of akacid plus® fogging in eradicating causative microorganism in nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Nevzat; Yanik, Keramettin; Karadag, Adil; Odabaşı, Hakan; Esen, Saban; Günaydin, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The novel polymeric guanidine Akacid Plus® is a member of the cationic family of disinfectants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of Akacid Plus® against bacteria which cause nosocomial infections and remain viable after contaminating the environment and determine the effects of organic materials to the activity. Closed room and control room were created for experimental disinfection. Bacterial suspensions of 0.5 McFarland were prepared from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter baumannii and vancomycine-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) strains. A 0.1 mL of each suspension was applied on the chipboard (25 cm(2)) and tile (25 cm(2)) test surfaces without albumin and with 2% albumin to simulate organic dirt, and the test surfaces were placed in the test and control rooms after drying. Before testing, cotton swab premoistened with serum physiologic was used to obtain samples from various surfaces in the environment and the samples were transferred onto 5% sheep blood agar for incubation at 37°C. Akacid Plus® solution at a concentration of 0.5% was nebulized with an aerosol applicator (Prowi-06, Germany) for 45 minutes. After a 2-hour waiting period, 1 mL neutralizing broth (Dey-Engley Neutralizing Broth, Fluka) was transferred on the test surfaces, and samples were collected with a swab from the test surfaces and various surfaces in the testing room and inoculated on 5% sheep blood agar for incubation at 37oC for 24 hours. At the end of the incubation period, number of colonies were evaluated on the control and test plates. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., and fungi were grown in cultured samples obtained from the environment of experimental laboratory, no growth was observed in the test plates after room disinfection with Akacid Plus®. After room disinfection, MRSA and A. baumannii were not detectable in the cultured media prepared from the test surfaces with or without albumin. The

  8. Antimicrobial resistance among nosocomial isolates in a teaching hospital in Goa

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    Kamat U

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence of polyantimicrobial resistant strains of hospital pathogens has presented a challenge in the provision of good quality in-patient care. Inappropriate use of antibiotics in the hospital is largely responsible for this catastrophe. Bacteriological surveillance of the cases of nosocomial infections is crucial for framing an evidence-based antimicrobial policy for a hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was undertaken among 498 patients from medicine and surgery wards in a tertiary teaching hospital in Goa. The patients were followed up clinico-bacteriologically for the occurrence of nosocomial infections (NI. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The overall infection rate was 33.93 ± 4.16 infections per 100 patients. Urinary tract infection was the most common NI (26.63%, followed by surgical site infection (23.67%, wound infection (23% and nosocomial pneumonia (18.34%. Ninety-seven percent of the isolates were bacterial, while the others were fungal. More than 80% of the NIs were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Aceinetobacter baumanii . Almost 70% of the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics for which susceptibility was tested; the rest were sensitive to amikacin, cefoperazone-sulbactam and other antibiotics including methicillin, co-trimoxazole, teicoplenin, vancomycin and rifampicin, either singly or in combination. The proportion of MRSA was 71.4%. Resistance to a particular antibiotic was found to be directly proportional to the antibiotic usage in the study setting. Conclusion: Surveillance of nosocomial infections with emphasis on the microbiologic surveillance and frequent antimicrobial audit are critical towards curbing the evil of polyantimicrobial resistant nosocomial infections in a hospital.

  9. Nosocomial infection in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU, South Korea

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    Jeong Jae

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the occurrence of nosocomial infections (NIs, including infection rates, main infection sites, and common microorganisms. Patients included in the study were taken from a newborn intensive care unit (NICU, in a hospital in South Korea. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed by reviewing chart. The subjects were 489 neonates who were admitted to the NICU, survived longer than 72 hours, and not transferred to another unit, between Jan. 1. 1995 to Sep. 30, 1999. NIs were identified according to the NNIS definition. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results Cumulative incidence rate for NIs was 30.3 neonates out of 100 admissions, with a total of 44.6 infections. The incidence density was average 10.2 neonates and 15.1 infections per 1000 patient days. The most common infections were pneumonia (28%, bloodstream infection (26%, and conjunctivitis (22%. Major pathogens were Gram-positives such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. The factors associated with NI was less than 1500 g of birth weight, less than 32 weeks of gestational age, and less than 8 of apgar score. There's no statistical difference in discharge status between two groups, but hospital stay was longer in subjects with nosocomial infection than those without infection. Conclusion Although the distribution of pathogens was similar to previous reports, a high rate of nosocomial infection and in particular conjunctivitis was observed in this study that merits further evaluation.

  10. Relentless spread and adaptation of non-typeable vanA vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: a genome-wide investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hal, Sebastiaan J; Beukers, Alicia G; Timms, Verlaine J; Ellem, Justin A; Taylor, Peter; Maley, Michael W; Newton, Peter J; Ferguson, John K; Lee, Andie; Chen, Sharon C-A; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2018-03-16

    VRE are prevalent among patients in ICUs. Non-typeable vanA VRE, due to loss of one of the genes used for MLST (pstS), have increased in Australia, suggestive of a new, hospital-acquired lineage. To understand the significance of this lineage and its transmission using WGS of strains isolated from patients in ICUs across New South Wales, Australia. A total of 240 Enterococcus faecium isolates collected between February and May 2016, and identified by conventional PCR as vanA positive, were sequenced. Isolates originated from 12 ICUs in New South Wales, grouped according to six local health districts, and represented both rectal screening swab (n = 229) and clinical (n = 11) isolates. ST analysis revealed the absence of the pstS gene in 84.2% (202 of 240) of vanA isolates. Two different non-typeable STs were present based on different allelic backbone patterns. Loss of the pstS gene appeared to be the result of multiple recombination events across this region. Evidence for pstS-negative lineage spread across all six local health districts was observed suggestive of inter-hospital transmission. In addition, multiple outbreaks were detected, some of which were protracted and lasted for the duration of the study. These findings confirmed the evolution, emergence and dissemination of non-typeable vanA E. faecium. This study has highlighted the utility of WGS when attempting to describe accurately the hospital-based pathogen epidemiology, which in turn will continue to inform optimal infection control measures necessary to halt the spread of this important nosocomial organism.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico: First detection of VanB phenotype-vanA genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Flores-Treviño, Samantha; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Martínez-Landeros, Erik Alan; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Calzada-Güereca, Andrés; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Garza-González, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen involved in outbreaks worldwide. Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm production, and clonal relatedness of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico. Consecutive clinical isolates (n=56) were collected in two tertiary care hospitals in Mexico from 2011 to 2014. VREF isolates were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). VREF isolates were highly resistant to vancomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, high-level streptomycin, and teicoplanin, and showed lower resistance to tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. None of the isolates were resistant to linezolid. The vanA gene was detected in all isolates. Two VanB phenotype-vanA genotype isolates, highly resistant to vancomycin and susceptible to teicoplanin, were detected. Furthermore, 17.9% of the isolates were classified as biofilm producers, and the espfm gene was found in 98.2% of the isolates. A total of 37 distinct PFGE patterns and 6 clones (25% of the isolates as clone A, 5.4% as clone B, and 3.6% each as clone C, D, E, and F) were detected. Clone A was detected in 5 different wards of the same hospital during 14 months of surveillance. The high resistance to most antimicrobial agents and the moderate cross-transmission of VREF detected accentuates the need for continuous surveillance of E. faecium in the hospital setting. This is also the first reported incidence of the E. faecium VanB phenotype-vanA genotype in the Americas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Controlling nosocomial infection based on structure of hospital social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taro; Masuda, Naoki

    2008-10-07

    Nosocomial infection (i.e. infection in healthcare facilities) raises a serious public health problem, as implied by the existence of pathogens characteristic to healthcare facilities such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and hospital-mediated outbreaks of influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome. For general communities, epidemic modeling based on social networks is being recognized as a useful tool. However, disease propagation may occur in a healthcare facility in a manner different from that in a urban community setting due to different network architecture. We simulate stochastic susceptible-infected-recovered dynamics on social networks, which are based on observations in a hospital in Tokyo, to explore effective containment strategies against nosocomial infection. The observed social networks in the hospital have hierarchical and modular structure in which dense substructure such as departments, wards, and rooms, are globally but only loosely connected, and do not reveal extremely right-skewed distributions of the number of contacts per individual. We show that healthcare workers, particularly medical doctors, are main vectors (i.e. transmitters) of diseases on these networks. Intervention methods that restrict interaction between medical doctors and their visits to different wards shrink the final epidemic size more than intervention methods that directly protect patients, such as isolating patients in single rooms. By the same token, vaccinating doctors with priority rather than patients or nurses is more effective. Finally, vaccinating individuals with large betweenness centrality (frequency of mediating connection between pairs of individuals along the shortest paths) is superior to vaccinating ones with large connectedness to others or randomly chosen individuals, which was suggested by previous model studies.

  13. Reducing nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Eileen; Alderdice, Fiona; McCall, Emma; Jenkins, John; Craig, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    Nosocomial infection is a common problem in neonatal intensive care. A pilot quality improvement initiative focussing on hand hygiene and aimed at reducing nosocomial infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants was introduced in five Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Line associated laboratory confirmed bloodstream infection (LCBSI) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) were chosen as main outcome measures. In VLBW infants, the rate of line associated LCBSI per 1000 central venous catheter days fell by 24%. The rate of VAP per 1000 ventilator days in VLBW infants fell by 38%. Pre- and post-intervention questionnaires showed a statistically significant increase in use of alcohol-based gels and increased knowledge of hand hygiene.

  14. Nosocomial outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, I; Valencia, R; Torres, M J; Cantos, A; Conde, M; Aznar, J

    2006-11-01

    We describe an outbreak of nosocomial endophthalmitis due to a common source, which was determined to be trypan blue solution prepared in the hospital's pharmacy service. We assume that viable bacteria probably gained access to the trypan blue stock solution during cooling after autoclaving. The temporal cluster of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis was readily perceived on the basis of clinical and microbiological findings, and an exogenous source of contamination was unequivocally identified by means of DNA fingerprinting.

  15. [Use of antagonistic Bacillus subtilis bacteria for treatment of nosocomial urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, A M; Tuĭgunova, V G; Zaĭnullin, R R; Kuznetsova, T N; Gabidullin, Iu Z

    2007-01-01

    Effect of Bactisporin--a probiotic, containing spores of aerobic Bacillus subtilis 3H bacterium--for complex treatment of patients with nosocomial urinary tract infections was studied. 68 Cultures of different species of conditionally pathogenic bacteria were isolated from urine of the patients. Susceptibility of the isolated cultures to antibiotics before and after application of B. subtilis 3H metabolites was determined. The metabolites were accumulated on potato-glucose agar (PGA) while bacterium was cultivated on kapron membranes placed on surface of the medium. Influence of obtained metabolites on isolated strains was assessed by cultivation of each strain in metabolites-rich PGA during 24 h. Metabolites of B. subtilis led to decrease in resistance of isolated uropathogenic microflora to antibiotics. Use of Bactisporin in complex treatment of nosocomial urinary tract infections resulted in accelerated elimination of causative microorganism.

  16. [Antibibiotic resistance by nosocomial infections' causal agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Holguín, Héctor Daniel; Cisneros-Robledo, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    The antibibiotic resistance by nosocomial infections (NI) causal agents constitutes a seriously global problematic that involves the Mexican Institute of Social Security's Regional General Hospital 1 in Chihuahua, Mexico; although with special features that required to be specified and evaluated, in order to concrete an effective therapy. Observational, descriptive and prospective study; by means of active vigilance all along 2014 in order to detect the nosocomial infections, for epidemiologic study, culture and antibiogram to identify its causal agents and antibiotics resistance and sensitivity. Among 13527 hospital discharges, 1079 displayed NI (8 %), standed out: the related on vascular lines, of surgical site, pneumonia and urinal track; they added up two thirds of the total. We carried out culture and antibiogram about 300 of them (27.8 %); identifying 31 bacterian species, mainly seven of those (77.9 %): Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae; showing multiresistance to 34 tested antibiotics, except in seven with low or without resistance at all: vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, piperacilin-tazobactam, amikacin and carbapenems. When we contrasted those results with the recommendations in the clinical practice guides, it aroused several contradictions; so they must be taken with reserves and has to be tested in each hospital, by means of cultures and antibiograms in practically every case of nosocomial infection.

  17. Methicillin-resistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in der Veterinärmedizin : ein "New Emerging Pathogen"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walther, Birgit; Friedrich, Alexander W; Brunnberg, Leo; Wieler, Lothar H; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2006-01-01

    The problem of nosocomial infections is of increasing importance in veterinary medicine. As an example, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a typical example, as these pathogens are the most important agents of nosocomial

  18. A rare case of Enterococcus faecalis-induced orbital cellulitis and myositis

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    Piyush Kohli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital cellulitis is an infection of soft tissue behind the orbital septum. Common pathogens isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a straightforward diagnosis and usually responds to empirical treatment without any sequela. We report a case of orbital cellulitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis, which was complicated by myositis of levator palpebrae superioris. To the best of our knowledge, only one case report exists dating way back to 1986.

  19. Emergence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia nosocomial isolates in a Saudi children's hospital. Risk factors and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Jobran M

    2017-05-01

      To describe the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients colonized or infected by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) at a Saudi children's hospital, to identify risk factors associated with infection, and to investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns of this emerging pathogen.  Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 64 non-duplicating S. maltophilia strains were isolated  in Najran Maternity and Children's Hospital, Najran,  Saudi Arabia between January 2015 to February 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the reference broth microdilution method.  Results: In this study, 48 (75%) isolates were identified in true infections and 16 (25%) isolates were considered colonization. The main types of S. maltophilia infection were pneumonia in 22 (45.8%) patients and bloodstream infection in 14 (29.2%) patients. The significant risk factors included exposure to invasive procedure (p=0.02), and presence of acute leukemia as an underlying disease (p=0.02). The most active antimicrobials were trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (100% sensitivity) and tigecycline (93.7% sensitivity). Conclusions: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen among pediatric patients. Accurate identification and susceptibility testing of this emerging pathogen are crucial for the management of infected patients and prevention of spread of this nosocomial pathogen.

  20. Nosocomial Infections Transmitted Via Computers : A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Atanda, Angela Achieng; Nwaoha, Nkechi Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to discuss how current literature described nosocomial infections transmitted via computers in hospitals. It also described the various methods used to disinfect computers. The research questions in this study were; What are nosocomial infections? How do contaminated computer devices transmit nosocomial infections? and What infection control methods are applied to decontaminate computers within hospitals? The aim of conducting this study was to create an aw...

  1. Genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from environmental, animal and clinical sources in Malaysia

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    Diane S. Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis ranks as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A strong epidemiological link has been reported between E. faecalis inhabiting animals and environmental sources. This study investigates the genetic diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in E. faecalis from three sources in Malaysia. A total of 250 E. faecalis isolates were obtained consisting of 120 isolates from farm animals, 100 isolates from water sources and 30 isolates from hospitalized patients. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis-typing yielded 63 pulsotypes, with high diversity observed in all sources (D = ≥0.901. No pulsotype was common to all the three sources. Each patient room had its own unique PFGE pattern which persisted after six months. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of Vancomycin, Gentamicin, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Nitrofurantoin, Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Fosfomycin were evaluated. Resistance to Tetracycline was most prevalent in isolates from farm animals (62% and water sources (49%. Water isolates (86% had a higher prevalence of the asa1 gene, which encodes for aggregation substance, whereas clinical (78% and farm animal isolates (87% had a higher prevalence of the esp gene, encoding a surface exposed protein. This study generates knowledge on the genetic diversity of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence characteristics from various sources in Malaysia. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Enterococcus faecalis, Genetic diversity, Molecular typing, Virulence markers

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Poultry Flocks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasjost, J; Mühldorfer, K; Cortez de Jäckel S; Hafez, H M

    2015-03-01

    Between 2010 and 2011, 145 Enterococcus isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, n = 127; Enterococcus faecium, n = 18) were collected during routine bacteriologic diagnostics from broilers, layers, and fattening turkeys in Germany showing various clinical signs. The susceptibility to 24 antimicrobial agents was investigated by broth microdilution test to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All E. faecalis isolates (n = 127) were susceptible to the beta-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and penicillin. Corresponding MIC with 50% inhibition (MIC50) and MIC with 90% inhibition (MIC90) values of these antimicrobial agents were at the lower end of the test range (≤ 4 μg/ml). In addition, no vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were found. High resistance rates were identified in both Enterococcus species for lincomycin (72%-99%) and tetracycline (67%-82%). Half or more than half of Enterococcus isolates were resistant to gentamicin (54%-72%) and the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin (44%-61%) and tylosin-tartate (44%-56%). Enterococcus faecalis isolated from fattening turkeys showed the highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance compared to other poultry production systems. Eighty-nine out of 145 Enterococcus isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Again, turkeys stood out with 42 (8 1%) multiresistant isolates. The most-frequent resistance patterns of E. faecalis were gentamicin, lincomycin, and tetracycline in all poultry production systems.

  3. Identification and phenotypic characterization of a second collagen adhesin, Scm, and genome-based identification and analysis of 13 other predicted MSCRAMMs, including four distinct pilus loci, in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Prakash, Vittal P; Qin, Xiang; Höök, Magnus; Weinstock, George M; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-10-01

    Attention has recently been drawn to Enterococcus faecium because of an increasing number of nosocomial infections caused by this species and its resistance to multiple antibacterial agents. However, relatively little is known about the pathogenic determinants of this organism. We have previously identified a cell-wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, produced by some isolates of E. faecium, and a secreted antigen, SagA, exhibiting broad-spectrum binding to extracellular matrix proteins. Here, we analysed the draft genome of strain TX0016 for potential microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs). Genome-based bioinformatics identified 22 predicted cell-wall-anchored E. faecium surface proteins (Fms), of which 15 (including Acm) had characteristics typical of MSCRAMMs, including predicted folding into a modular architecture with multiple immunoglobulin-like domains. Functional characterization of one [Fms10; redesignated second collagen adhesin of E. faecium (Scm)] revealed that recombinant Scm(65) (A- and B-domains) and Scm(36) (A-domain) bound to collagen type V efficiently in a concentration-dependent manner, bound considerably less to collagen type I and fibrinogen, and differed from Acm in their binding specificities to collagen types IV and V. Results from far-UV circular dichroism measurements of recombinant Scm(36) and of Acm(37) indicated that these proteins were rich in beta-sheets, supporting our folding predictions. Whole-cell ELISA and FACS analyses unambiguously demonstrated surface expression of Scm in most E. faecium isolates. Strikingly, 11 of the 15 predicted MSCRAMMs clustered in four loci, each with a class C sortase gene; nine of these showed similarity to Enterococcus faecalis Ebp pilus subunits and also contained motifs essential for pilus assembly. Antibodies against one of the predicted major pilus proteins, Fms9 (redesignated EbpC(fm)), detected a 'ladder' pattern of high-molecular-mass protein bands in a

  4. Dental hygiene intervention to prevent nosocomial pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caren M

    2014-06-01

    Nosocomial and ventilator associated pneumonias that plague critically ill, elderly and long-term care residents could be reduced with effective oral hygiene practices facilitated collaboratively between nurses and dental hygienists. Nosocomial pneumonias, specifically aspiration pneumonias and ventilator-associated pneumonias in the elderly and infirm have become a major health care issue, The provision of oral care in hospital and hospital-like facilities presents challenges that can prevent patients from receiving optimal oral care One sequela can be aspiration pneumonia which ranks first in mortality and second in morbidity among all nosocomial infections. Since aspiration pneumonia is linked to the colonization of oral bacteria in dental plaque and biofilm, it is time to look for creative solutions to integrating the expertise of dental hygienists into health care teams in these institutional settings. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted regarding the etiology and prevalence of health care related pneumonias. Evidence describing the challenges and barriers that the nurses, nursing staff, and dental hygienists face in the provision of oral care in hospitals and long-term care facilities is provided. Intercollaborative solutions to providing optimal oral care in hospitals and long-term care facilities are suggested. Dental hygienists have the expertise and practice experience to provide oral care in hospitals, long-term care and residential facilities. They can contribute to solving oral care challenges through intercollaboration with other health care team members. Yet, there are long-standing systemic barriers that must be addressed in order to provide this optimal care. Dental hygienists becoming better assimilated within the total health care team in hospital and residential facilities can positively impact the suffering, morbidity and mortality associated with aspiration pneumonias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain ICIS 96 Demonstrating Intermicrobial Antagonism Associated with Bacteriocin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkova, Tatiana M; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Khlopko, Yuriy A; Kochkina, Elena E; Kartashova, Olga L; Sycheva, Maria V

    2018-03-08

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium strain ICIS 96, which was isolated from the feces of a horse. Bacteriological characterization of strain ICIS 96 revealed the absence of pathogenicity factors, while its spectrum of antagonistic activity was found to be broad, having activities associated with both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the E. faecium ICIS 96 genome revealed five genes associated with antimicrobial activity (enterocin [ent] A, ent B, lactobin A/cerein 7b, and ent L50 A/B). No genes that correlate with human pathogenicity were identified. Copyright © 2018 Pashkova et al.

  6. Antibacterial properties of Chinese herbal medicines against nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Shen; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well-recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, which exhibits inherent drug resistance. In this study, the antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of 58 Chinese herbal medicines used in Taiwan were tested against 89 nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results gathered by the disc diffusion method showed that 26 out of the 58 herbal extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the 26 herbal extracts, 10 extracts showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and were selected for further antibacterial property assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active partition fractions ranged from 0.25 to 11.0 mg/L. The presence of flavonoid compounds in the active fractions of test herbal extracts was observed by the TLC-bioautography. The results from the time-kill assay revealed that most of the herbal extracts completely killed the test organisms within 4 hours. Exposure of the test strains to a sub-MIC level of the herbal extracts for 10 consecutive subcultures did not induce resistance to the active components. A combination of the active herbal fractions with antibiotics showed that one of the herbal medicines, the hexane fraction of Ramulus Cinnamomi, possessed a synergistic effect with tetracycline, gentamycin, and streptomycin. In conclusion, the tested Chinese medical herbs have the potential to be developed into natural antibiotics. This is the first evaluation for screening large amounts of medical plants against nosocomial antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan.

  7. Antibacterial Therapy for Nosocomial Pneumonias Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Microorganisms in Critical 1ll Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of using the fourth-generation cephalosporin maxicef in the treatment of 20 patients with nosocomial pneumonia and severe concomitant injury. A control group comprised 20 patients receiving a combination of ceftazidime and amikacin. The total efficiency of the antibacterial therapy was 68.5% in the maxicef group and 40.9% in the control group (р<0.05. The therapy had to be modified in 42% of the maxicef group and in 72.7% in the control group (р<0.05. The average treatment cost was US $518 (429—606 and US $482 (368—596 in the maxicef and control groups, respectively. Nephrotoxicity was observed in 9% of the patients receiving a combination of the antibiotics. The activity of maxicef was also analyzed in vitro. Results. Maxicef was demonstrated to be highly active against the majority of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in vitro. Its efficacy against the most common bacteria (P.aeruginosa, S.aureus, E.coli, K.pneumonia causing infections in severe injury was in vitro significantly higher than that of ceftazidime. The comparative study indicates that the fourth-generation cephalosporin maxicef may be used as an alternative to the standard combined therapy. Key words: concomitant injury, maxicef, nosocomial pneumonia, a combination of ceftazidime and aminoglycoside, nosocomial infection pathogens.

  8. CRISPR-Cas and Restriction-Modification Act Additively against Conjugative Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Transfer in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Valerie J; Huo, Wenwen; Sharifi, Ardalan; Palmer, Kelli L

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Conjugative pheromone-responsive plasmids are narrow-host-range mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that are rapid disseminators of antibiotic resistance in the faecalis species. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas and restriction-modification confer acquired and innate immunity, respectively, against MGE acquisition in bacteria. Most multidrug-resistant E. faecalis isolates lack CRISPR-Cas and possess an orphan locus lacking cas genes, CRISPR2, that is of unknown function. Little is known about restriction-modification defense in E. faecalis. Here, we explore the hypothesis that multidrug-resistant E. faecalis strains are immunocompromised. We assessed MGE acquisition by E. faecalis T11, a strain closely related to the multidrug-resistant hospital isolate V583 but which lacks the ~620 kb of horizontally acquired genome content that characterizes V583. T11 possesses the E. faecalis CRISPR3-cas locus and a predicted restriction-modification system, neither of which occurs in V583. We demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas and restriction-modification together confer a 4-log reduction in acquisition of the pheromone-responsive plasmid pAM714 in biofilm matings. Additionally, we show that the orphan CRISPR2 locus is functional for genome defense against another pheromone-responsive plasmid, pCF10, only in the presence of cas9 derived from the E. faecalis CRISPR1-cas locus, which most multidrug-resistant E. faecalis isolates lack. Overall, our work demonstrated that the loss of only two loci led to a dramatic reduction in genome defense against a clinically relevant MGE, highlighting the critical importance of the E. faecalis accessory genome in modulating horizontal gene transfer. Our results rationalize the development of antimicrobial strategies that capitalize upon the immunocompromised status of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis. IMPORTANCE

  9. The Incidence of Nosocomial Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea in Tehran Tertiary Medical Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norakhoda Sadeghifard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nClostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. It is usually a consequence of antibiotic treatment, But sporadic cases can occur. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of the nosocomial Clostridium difficile (C. difficile associated diarrhea in Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals and study of antibacterial susceptibility of isolates. In this study a total of 942 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea that were hospitalized in Imam Khomeini hospital, Shariati hospital and Children clinical center were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37°C for 5 days. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests. Bacterial cytotoxicity was assayed on tissue culture (vero. Antimicrobial sensitivity of isolated toxigenic C. difficile were investigated by kirby Beuer method (disk diffusion. Our findings show that, of the total patients, 57 toxigenic C. difficile (6.1% were isolated. Results of statistical analysis show significant differences between the rate of isolated toxigenic C. difficile and age group of patients (P<0.05. Among the wards of selected hospitals, in gastroenterology of Children clinical center, Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated from patients most frequently. The sensitivity of isolates to vancomycin, Chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone were higher than other antibiotics. Toxigenic C. difficile is a common hospital-acquired infection. The organism was found in 6.1% hospitalized patients. Further studies to evaluate the rate and role of toxigenic C. difficile in nosocomial diarrheal processes, ecological and pathogenic terms are suggested.

  10. Serological diagnosis of experimental Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerulf, A; Espersen, F; Gutschik, E

    1998-01-01

    A modified rat model of endocarditis with catheterization for 2 days was established in female Lewis rats using different inocula of Enterococcus faecalis (strain no. EF 19) in order to measure IgG antibodies in serum during the course of infection. Increasing the inocula intravenously resulted...

  11. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  12. Enterococcus phages as potential tool for identifying sewage inputs in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavel, K.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Ebdon, J.; Taylor, H.; Kashian, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses living in bacteria that can be used as a tool to detect fecal contamination in surface waters around the world. However, the lack of a universal host strain makes them unsuitable for tracking fecal sources. We evaluated the suitability of two newly isolated Enterococcus host strains (ENT-49 and ENT-55) capable for identifying sewage contamination in impacted waters by targeting phages specific to these hosts. Both host strains were isolated from wastewater samples and identified as E. faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Occurrence of Enterococcus phages was evaluated in sewage samples (n = 15) from five wastewater treatment plants and in fecal samples from twenty-two species of wild and domesticated animals (individual samples; n = 22). Levels of Enterococcus phages, F + coliphages, Escherichia coli and enterococci were examined from four rivers, four beaches, and three harbors. Enterococcus phages enumeration was at similar levels (Mean = 6.72 Log PFU/100 mL) to F + coliphages in all wastewater samples, but were absent from all non-human fecal sources tested. The phages infecting Enterococcus spp. and F + coliphages were not detected in the river samples (detection threshold < 10 PFU/100 mL), but were present in the beach and harbor samples (range = 1.83 to 2.86 Log PFU/100 mL). Slightly higher concentrations (range = 3.22 to 3.69 Log MPN/100 mL) of E. coli and enterococci when compared to F + coliphages and Enterococcus phages, were observed in the river, beach and harbor samples. Our findings suggest that the bacteriophages associated with these particular Enterococcus host strains offer potentially sensitive and human-source specific indicators of enteric pathogen risk.

  13. [Prevalence and features of pathogenic bacteria in the department of hematology without bone marrow transplantation in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2010 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnag, Lu; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Qian; Han, Bing; Zhuang, Jun-jing; Chen, Miao; Zou, Nong; Li, Jian; Duan, Ming-hui; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Tie-nan; Xu, Ying; Wang, Shu-jie; Zhou, Dao-bin; Zhao, Yong-qiang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Peng; Xu, Ying-chun

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the incidence, pathogens, and clinical features of infection in consecutive cases from 2010 to 2012 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The incidence, pathogen, treatment, and outcomes of patients with hematological diseases who had positive findings of bacterium in their samples from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 449 positive samples (5.8%) from 4 890 patients during this period, among which 388 were proved to be with pathogenic bacteria. Samples separated from patients with community-aquired infections accounted for 8.4% of all positive samples. Most community-aquired infections were caused by Gram-negative bacteria (75%), although no multidrug-resistant bacteria was observed. Samples separated from patients with nosocomial infections accounted for 91.6% of all positive samples. Respiratory tract (49.4%) and peripheral blood (32.6%) were the most common samples with positive results. Skin soft tissues (10.4%), and urine (3.7%) were less common samples. Most of the pathogenic bacteria of the nosocomial infections were Gram-negative (66.9%). The most common Gram-negative bacteria included Escherichia coli (13.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.1%), and Klebsiella pneumonia (12.1%), while Staphylococcus aureus (10.4%), Enterococcus faecium (7.0%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.1%) were the most common Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria consisted of most of sputum samples and peripheral blood samples. Samples from the surface of skin wound and anal swab were composed largely by Gram-positive bacteria (63.8%). The detection rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia/Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis were 24.0%, 87.9% and 38.4%, respectively. The resistance to Acinetobacter baumannii was serious. Multidrug-resistant, extensive drug resistant and pan drug resistant A. baumannii acountted for 74% of all A. Baumannii infections. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

  14. Application of protein typing in molecular epidemiological investigation of nosocomial infection outbreak of aminoglycoside-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Tang, Min; Ding, Yinghuan; Wu, Zecai; Xiang, Chengyu; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Zhang; Li, Baolin; Deng, Zhenghua; Liu, Jinbo

    2017-12-16

    Pseudomonas aeruginosan has emerged as an important pathogen elated to serious infections and nosocomial outbreaks worldwide. This study was conducted to understand the prevalence of aminoglycoside (AMG)-resistant P. aeruginosa in our hospital and to provide a scientific basis for control measures against nosocomial infections. Eighty-two strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical departments and divided into AMG-resistant strains and AMG-sensitive strains based on susceptibility test results. AMG-resistant strains were typed by drug resistance gene typing (DRGT) and protein typing. Five kinds of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes were detected in the AMG-resistant group. AMG-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were classified into three types and six subtypes by DRGT. Four protein peaks, namely, 9900.02, 7600.04, 9101.25 and 10,372.87 Da, were significantly and differentially expressed between the two groups. AMG-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were also categorised into three types and six subtypes at the distance level of 10 by protein typing. AMG-resistant P. aeruginosa was cloned spread in our hospital; the timely implementation of nosocomial infection prevention and control strategies were needed in preventing outbreaks and epidemic of AMG-resistant P. aeruginosa. SELDI-TOF MS technology can be used for bacterial typing, which provides a new method of clinical epidemiological survey and nosocomial infection control.

  15. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Kjaeldgaard, P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects...... admitted as inpatients during the transmission period of the outbreak (20 June-14 August), of whom 18 (17 with AIDS, one with AIDS related complex), developed cryptosporidiosis. Two further HIV negative subjects (one departmental secretary, one visiting relative) developed cryptosporidiosis. MAIN OUTCOME...... out ice for cold drinks. The mean incubation time was at least 13 days-that is, twice that in HIV-negative patients. Of the 18 patients with AIDS who developed cryptosporidiosis, five recovered, two were symptomless carriers, three died of unrelated causes, and eight died after prolonged diarrhoea...

  16. Nosocomial infections by respiratory syncytial virus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Karina Machado Echeverría

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute lower respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality in children. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most prevalent agent. Some viruses cause serious nosocomial infections. In Uruguay, there is no knowledge about the morbidity and mortality of nosocomial infections by RSV. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of RSV nosocomial infections. Methodology: A descriptive study of acute lower respiratory infections caused by RSV in patients younger than two years, between 1/1/2005 and 31/12/2008 at the Hospital Pediátrico del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, was made. Results: Were identified 59 patients who represented an annual rate lower than 2/1000 discharges. The monthly distribution of cases was similar to the respiratory infections. No outbreaks were reported. The age of the patients had an average of 8.9 months, 39 were younger than one year, 23 had one or more risk factors for severe disease. Six patients required admission to intensive care unit, all required invasive ventilation, 3 died, none had chronic respiratory failure following the RSV nosocomial infection. Conclusions: During the study period, the RSV nosocomial infections showed a low prevalence, despite it highly contagiousness. They mainly affected young children, carriers of risk factors for severe ALRI. Their evolution was similar to that reported for RSV respiratory infections community acquired. It is important to maintain standards for the control of nosocomial infections, to prevent nosocomial transmission of RSV and prevent the onset of severe disease in hospitalized patients.

  17. Legionella pneumophila: risk assessment and strategy for the prevention and control of nosocomial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvo Torrisi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “Legionellosis” includes all forms of disease caused by microorganisms of the genus Legionella; it may manifest as a flu-like shape (Pontiac fever, or with severe pneumonia with high mortality (Legionnaires Disease. The causative agent was Legionella pneumophila in the literature although other strains of the genus Legionella are classified as pathogens, mode of transmission is through inhalation of aerosol particles produced by hot water or air conditioning systems: for this reason in community settings and nosocomial L. pneumophila represents a serious public health problem. In the light of epidemiological data since the year 2000 the Italian State has issued a series of provisions laws concerning the prevention and control of nosocomial Legionellosis environment and community.The present work aims to evaluate the presence of Legionella species and L. pneumophila comparing the different approaches proposed by the Guidelines of the regions of Lombardy and Piedmont in terms of assessment and prevention of risk “Legionellosis” in the field of nosocomial infection. The analytical methods used are those provided by the Regional Guidelines: the official method in the second CSR April 4 Method 2000 and UNI EN ISO 11731-1: 2008. Checks have been performed on equipment for the comparison of cold water, hot water and air conditioning in nursing homes, retirement homes and hospitals.The results obtained show that the method CSR April 4, 2000 restricts the search to L. pneumophila permitting, than the method EN ISO 11731-1: 2008, to carry out a risk assessment well targeted to the actual pathogen.The culture method for the detection of L. pneumophila allows you to not only prevention, but also to implement a series of targeted interventions following the directions of the legislation.

  18. Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in Brazilian Pediatric Patients: Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Clinical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos Alberto Pires; Marra, Alexandre R.; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Pignatari, Antônio Carlos Campos; Sukiennik, Teresa; Behar, Paulo Renato Petersen; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo; Ribeiro, Julival; Girão, Evelyne; Correa, Luci; Guerra, Carla; Carneiro, Irna; Brites, Carlos; Reis, Marise; de Souza, Marta Antunes; Tranchesi, Regina; Barata, Cristina U.; Edmond, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Nosocomial bloodstream infections (nBSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and are the most frequent type of nosocomial infection in pediatric patients. Methods We identified the predominant pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibilities of nosocomial bloodstream isolates in pediatric patients (≤16 years of age) in the Brazilian Prospective Surveillance for nBSIs at 16 hospitals from 12 June 2007 to 31 March 2010 (Br SCOPE project). Results In our study a total of 2,563 cases of nBSI were reported by hospitals participating in the Br SCOPE project. Among these, 342 clinically significant episodes of BSI were identified in pediatric patients (≤16 years of age). Ninety-six percent of BSIs were monomicrobial. Gram-negative organisms caused 49.0% of these BSIs, Gram-positive organisms caused 42.6%, and fungi caused 8.4%. The most common pathogens were Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (21.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.6%), and Acinetobacter spp. (9.2%). The crude mortality was 21.6% (74 of 342). Forty-five percent of nBSIs occurred in a pediatric or neonatal intensive-care unit (ICU). The most frequent underlying conditions were malignancy, in 95 patients (27.8%). Among the potential factors predisposing patients to BSI, central venous catheters were the most frequent (66.4%). Methicillin resistance was detected in 37 S. aureus isolates (27.1%). Of the Klebsiella spp. isolates, 43.2% were resistant to ceftriaxone. Of the Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 42.9% and 21.4%, respectively, were resistant to imipenem. Conclusions In our multicenter study, we found a high mortality and a large proportion of gram-negative bacilli with elevated levels of resistance in pediatric patients. PMID:23861860

  19. The effect of antibiotic use on prevalence of nosocomial vancomycin-resistant enterococci- an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Remschmidt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE are among the most common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Although antibiotic use has been identified as a risk factor for VRE, it remains unclear which antimicrobial agents particularly facilitate VRE selection. Here, we assessed whether use of specific antimicrobial agents is independently associated with healthcare-associated (HA VRE rates in a university hospital setting in Berlin, Germany. Methods We conducted the study between January 2014 and December 2015 at the Charité-university hospital of Berlin, Germany. From the hospital pharmacy, we extracted data for all antibacterials for systemic use (anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC-classification J01 and calculated ward specific antibiotic consumption in defined daily doses (DDDs per 100 patient-days (PD. We used the microbiology laboratory database to identify all patients with isolation of invasive or non-invasive VRE and calculated HA-VRE incidence as nosocomial VRE-cases per 100 patients and HA-VRE incidence density as nosocomial VRE-cases per 1000 PD. We defined VRE isolates as hospital-acquired if they were identified three days or later after hospital admission and otherwise as community-acquired (CA-VRE. We performed univariable and multivariable regression analyses to estimate the association of the frequency of HA-VRE per month with antibiotic use and other parameters such as length of stay, type of ward or presence of at least one CA-VRE on ward. In a second analysis, we considered only patients with VRE infections. Results We included data from 204,054 patients with 948,380 PD from 61 wards. Overall, 1430 VRE-cases were identified of which 409 (28.6% were considered hospital-acquired (HA. We found that carbapenem use in the current month and prior-month use of glycopeptides increased the risk for HA-VRE by 1% per 1 DDD/100 PD and 3% per 1 DDD/100 PD, respectively. However, when only VRE

  20. Human Salivary Protein Histatin 5 Has Potent Bactericidal Activity against ESKAPE Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Han; Puri, Sumant; McCall, Andrew; Norris, Hannah L; Russo, Thomas; Edgerton, Mira

    2017-01-01

    ESKAPE ( Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Acinetobacter baumanni , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species) pathogens have characteristic multiple-drug resistance and cause an increasing number of nosocomial infections worldwide. Peptide-based therapeutics to treat ESKAPE infections might be an alternative to conventional antibiotics. Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary cationic histidine-rich peptide produced only in humans and higher primates. It has high antifungal activity against Candida albicans through an energy-dependent, non-lytic process; but its bactericidal effects are less known. We found Hst 5 has bactericidal activity against S. aureus (60-70% killing) and A. baumannii (85-90% killing) in 10 and 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB), while killing of >99% of P. aeruginosa , 60-80% E. cloacae and 20-60% of E. faecium was found in 10 mM NaPB. Hst 5 killed 60% of biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa , but had reduced activity against biofilms of S. aureus and A. baumannii . Hst 5 killed 20% of K. pneumonia biofilm cells but not planktonic cells. Binding and uptake studies using FITC-labeled Hst 5 showed E. faecium and E. cloacae killing required Hst 5 internalization and was energy dependent, while bactericidal activity was rapid against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii suggesting membrane disruption. Hst 5-mediated killing of S. aureus was both non-lytic and energy independent. Additionally, we found that spermidine conjugated Hst 5 (Hst5-Spd) had improved killing activity against E. faecium, E. cloacae , and A. baumannii . Hst 5 or its derivative has antibacterial activity against five out of six ESKAPE pathogens and may be an alternative treatment for these infections.

  1. The effectiveness of alcohol gel and other hand-cleansing agents against important nosocomial pathogens Eficácia do álcool gel e outros agentes degermantes na remoção de importantes patógenos hospitalares aplicados artificialmente nas mãos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Evandro Daniel Hernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of alcohol gel with that of the traditional hand-cleansing agents in removing clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans from artificially contaminated hands. The fingertips of 6 volunteers were contaminated with approximately 10(6 of microbial cells, and then were washed with: plain liquid soap, alcohol gel, 70% ethyl alcohol (by weight, 10% povidone-iodine liquid soap (PVP-I, and 4% chlorhexidine gluconate detergent. The experiments were performed using a Latin square statistical design, with six 6 x 5 randomized blocks, and the results were estimated by ANOVA. The products reduced from 93.83% (plain liquid soap to 100% (PVP-I of the microbial population applied to the hands. In 4 of 6 test microorganisms analyzed, 10% PVP-I, alcohol gel, 70% ethyl alcohol, and 4% chlorhexidine had significantly higher removal rates than plain liquid soap (P Nós comparamos a eficácia do álcool gel com a dos tradicionais agentes degermantes preconizados para a lavagem das mãos na remoção de amostras clínicas de Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans das mãos artificialmente contaminadas. As pontas dos dedos dos voluntários (n=6 foram contaminadas com aproximadamente 10(6 de células/microrganismo teste. A seguir, as mãos foram lavadas com sabonete líquido não medicamentoso, álcool gel, álcool etílico 70% (concentração por peso e soluções anti-sépticas detergentes de polivinilpirrolidona-iodo a 10% (PVP-I e de gluconato de clorhexidina 4%. Os experimentos foram realizados segundo um quadrado latino com seis blocos aleatorizados 6 x 5. Os resultados foram estimados por ANOVA. Os produtos reduziram de 93,83% (sabão líquido a 100% (PVP-I 10% a população microbiana

  2. 102 nosocomial infections and the challenges of control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY MAY 2010 .... international organizations including accreditation and governmental agencies, national associations and organizations, World ... coupled with research to keep nosocomial ..... medical/dental students, student nurses and other.

  3. Modelling the contact propagation of nosocomial infection in emergency departments

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Cecilia; Taboada, Manel; Epelde, Francisco; Rexachs, Dolores; Luque Amat, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The nosocomial infection is a special kind of infection that is caused by microorganisms acquired inside a hospital. In the daily care process of an emergency department, the interactions between patients and sanitary staff create the environment for the transmission of such microorganisms. Rates of morbility and mortality due to nosocomial infections areimportant indicators of the quality of hospital work. In this research, we use Agent Based Modeling and Simulation tech...

  4. Experimental reproduction of an Enterococcus cecorum infection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Arne; Metzner, Martin; Köhler-Repp, Dagmar; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-12-01

    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) was thus far only known as a pathogen for broilers and broiler breeders. Recently there was evidence of EC field outbreaks in Pekin duck flocks in Germany. In this study we experimentally reproduced an EC infection in Pekin ducks. At 12 days post hatch, groups of Pekin ducks were infected orally, via the thoracic air sac or intravenously with 1.5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of EC per bird or via the air sac with 8.5 × 10(5) or 8.5 × 10(7) CFU per bird. Ducks of the intravenously infected group showed 100% mortality after 2 days post infection. The air sac inoculated high-dose group exhibited a mortality rate of 67%. Birds that were infected with 8.5 × 10(5) and 8.5 × 10(7) CFU showed 6.7% mortality after 7 days post infection. Dead birds displayed pneumonia, airsacculitis, pericarditis and splenitis and EC was re-isolated from these organs. Surviving birds of all groups apart from the orally infected ducks demonstrated clinical signs such as huddling, reduced mobility and diarrhoea. Furthermore, they showed gross pathological lesions including airsacculitis and splenitis and lower bodyweights than the control group at necropsy on days 7, 14 and 21 post infection. The present study clearly confirms that EC is pathogenic for Pekin ducks after experimental infection via the intravenous route or the respiratory tract. EC therefore has to be considered as an emerging avian pathogen not only in broilers but also in Pekin ducks.

  5. Pneumonia nosocomial: Actualização terapêutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Falcão Baptista

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A pneumonia nosocomial é uma doença frequente, potencialmente fatal, e que apresenta elevada mortalidade. Neste artigo, após revisão crítica dos consensos e protocolos actuais para o tratamento da pneumonia nosocomial, são actualizadas as bases racionais da antibioterapia, revendo os aspectos epidemiológicos, microbiológicos e farmacológicos. No final faz-se referência ao posicionamento dos mais recentes antibióticos disponíveis para o seu tratamento. Abstract: Nosocomial pneumonia is a common disease with high mortality rate. In this article we review the antibiotic therapy fundamentals highlighting epidemiological, microbiological and pharmacological aspects, based on the actual consensus and protocols for the management of nosocomial pneumonia. In the end we make a short review of the current antibiotherapy practiced in this clinical situation. Palavras-chave: Pneumonia nosocomial, pneumonia associada ao ventilador, tratamento empírico, descalonamento terapêutico, antibioterapia, farmacodinâmica, farmacocinética, Key words: Nosocomial pneumonia, ventilator associated pneumonia, empirical therapy, de-escalation, antibiotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics

  6. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH UROLITHIASIS IN THE POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD

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    F. S. Sadulloev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Objective: To determine the most frequent causative agents of nosocomial infection in patients with urolithiasis in the postoperative period.Material and Methods. The study is based on the results of comprehensive studies conducted in 122 patients with nosocomial urinary tract infection, detected in 823 patients with urolithiasis treated by various methods. A cohort of 823 patients is isolated from 2688 patients treated without at admission signs of infections in the urinary tract for the period 2011–2014. All patients were treated at the Urological department of Avicenna Tajik State Medical University in the Republican Clinical Center of Urology. Main results. By the method of randomly selected 823 medical records of patients with urolithiasis various operations we carried out with 122 patients revealed cases of nosocomial infections. The diagnosis of nosocomial infections on the basis of established symptomatic urinary tract infection, asymptomatic bacteriuria or the presence of wound infection, use during the hospital stay for treatment of antibiotics, antiseptics, physiotherapy and other therapies. The incidence of nosocomial infections was studied in dependence with the severity of the underlying disease, the volume of surgical, invasive, endoscopic and other urological procedures, the timing and frequency of tests, the proportion of individual clinical manifestations in the overall structure of urinary tract infections, sex and age of patients.Conclusions. The leading microflora causing nosocomial infection in patients with urolithiasis in all treatments are gram-negative microorganisms, including prevailing E.coli (24,0%.

  7. Original Paper Detecting Nosocomial Intrinsic Infections through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-20

    Apr 20, 2011 ... surgical procedures as precursory to intrinsic infections and that bacterial pathogens found on wounds and endogenous ... University Teaching Hospital, Idi Araba, Lagos, ..... confirm reason for selective decontamination of the.

  8. Surveillance of multidrug resistance of two Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria in a teaching hospital and in vitro efficacy of 30 ethnomedicinal plants used by an aborigine of India

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    Debasmita Dubey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To record hospital- and community-acquired accounts of multidrug resistance (MDR of two Gram-positive pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis, by surveillance, and to evaluate antibacterial potencies of 30 plants with information on ethnomedicinal uses for infectious ailments by the aborigine Kandha tribe of Kalahandi district, Odisha (India, against both pathogens. Methods: Over a period of 6 months bacteria/ strains of S. aureus and E. faecalis were isolated from clinical samples in a teaching hospital and their antibiograms were ascertained using 17 antibiotics of 9 different groups. S. aureus strains were further tested for confirmation if they were methicillin and vancomycin resistant, similarly, E. faecalis strains for vancomycin resistance. Concentrated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves/ barks of 30 plants were used for monitoring their antimicrobial potencies, by the agar-well diffusion method, along with qualitative phytochemical analyses. Results: From the surveillance, both pathogens were found MDR and it was evident that the distribution of MDR strains was more in hospital-acquired than community-acquired samples. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Diospyrous melanoxylon, Woodfordia fruticosa (W. fruticosa, Oroxylum indicum (O. indicum, Dalbergia paniculata and Lantana camara had the most significant in vitro controlling capacity against MDR strains of both bacteria. Further, extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica, Aspidopterys tomentosa and Argyreia speciosa had moderate antibacterial activities. Ethanolic extracts of L. camara, O. indicum and W. fruticosa contained all the phytochemicals, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids, which could be attributed to the recorded significant antibacterial activity. Conclusions: S. aureus strains have been found as the most widely prevailing pathogens in nosocomial

  9. Emergence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia nosocomial isolates in a Saudi children’s hospital. Risk factors and clinical characteristics

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    Jobran M. Alqahtani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients colonized or infected by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia at a Saudi children’s hospital, to identify risk factors associated with infection, and to investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns of this emerging pathogen. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 64 non-duplicating S. maltophilia strains were isolated in Najran Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Najran, Saudi Arabia between January 2015 to February 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the reference broth microdilution method. Results: In this study, 48 (75% isolates were identified in true infections and 16 (25% isolates were considered colonization. The main types of S. maltophilia infection were pneumonia in 22 (45.8% patients and bloodstream infection in 14 (29.2% patients. The significant risk factors included exposure to invasive procedure (p=0.02, and presence of acute leukemia as an underlying disease (p=0.02. The most active antimicrobials were trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (100% sensitivity and tigecycline (93.7% sensitivity. Conclusions: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen among pediatric patients. Accurate identification and susceptibility testing of this emerging pathogen are crucial for the management of infected patients and prevention of spread of this nosocomial pathogen.

  10. National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System–based study in north eastern of Iran

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    Maliheh Ziaee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available among about 10% of hospitalized patients. HAIs increase mortality and morbidity and prolonged hospital stay not to mention considerable costs they impose on the health care system. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the prevalence of HAIs based on National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System in hospitals of Mashhad, Iran.  Methods: The current prevalence study of HAI was carried out in 26 hospitals using a protocol updated yearly in Mashhad, Iran. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance were used to define four HAIs. All patients admitted to the hospitals during a one-year period (March 1, 2015-February 30, 2016 were recruited in the study. Data was extracted using Iranian nosocomial infection surveillance software.  Results: The overall prevalence rate of HAI in our study was 0.8% among the hospitals with the most frequent HAIs found to be pneumonia (25%, followed by urinary tract infections (20%, and blood stream infections (19%. The highest prevalence rate was observed in 15- to 65-year old patients with more than 50% related to surgical site infection. Also, the most frequently isolated micro-organism was acinetobacter. In addition, the highest seasonal prevalence was seen in winter with pneumonia as the most frequent infection. A total of 4988 pathogens were isolated with 30.33% of clinical confirmation and 69.66% of positive culture.  Conclusion: These findings emphasize the need for appropriate measures for prevention, screening, labeling, and isolation precautions for infected patients.

  11. Enterococcus spp. Resistant to Multiple Antimicrobial Drugs and Determination of Fecal Contamination Levels in Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae

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    Cynthia Annes Rubião

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine and compare the Most Probable Number (MPN of Total Coliforms (TC, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolated from oysters collected in the Barra de Guaratiba Mangrove, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The enumeration of E. coli has been used to indicate fecal contamination and hygienic-sanitary conditions of bivalve molluscs. Enterococci are capable to transfer several antimicrobial resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria, including those from Gram-negative group. The oysters were bought from local fishermen and a total of 123 individuals were analyzed. The TC, E. coli and Enterococcus spp. MPN mean were 26,300/100 g, 3,260/100 g and 2,820/100 g, respectively. The only correlation found was between TC and E. coli. Two strains of Enterococcus spp. were resistant to three different antimicrobial categories, including a high level resistance to streptomycin. One strain presented intermediate resistance to vancomycin. The E. coli levels exceeded the limits established by international legislation. This microbiological contamination in oysters reflects the water pollution and indicates a probable contamination of other seafood species from this mangrove, which can represent a risk for consumers and a threat to the environment and public health.

  12. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail cheese, ready-to-eat salads, ham, and raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, G; Calonico, C; Ducci, B; Magnanini, A; Lo Nostro, A

    2014-08-01

    Food specimens were analyzed in order to research Enterococcus spp.: 636 samples of raw meat (227 beef, 238 poultry, and 171 pork), 278 samples of cheese (110 fresh soft cheese and 168 mozzarella cheese), 214 samples of ready-to-eat salads, and 187 samples of ham. 312 strains of Enterococcus spp samples were isolated, then identified and submitted to susceptibility tests against 11 antimicrobial agents. The predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis in raw meat and Enterococcus faecium in retail products. Low percentages of microorganisms were resistant to vancomycin (3.53%), teicoplanin (2.24%), linezolid (0.32%), and amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid (0.32%). A high percentage of resistance was noted in E. faecalis at high level gentamicin (21.9%) and tetracycline (60.6%). In general, strains of E. faecalis were more resistant than E. faecium. Enterococci should be considered not only potential pathogens, but also a reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance which can be transferred to other microorganisms. Continuous monitoring of their incidence and emerging resistance is important in order to identify foods which potentially represent a real risk to the population, and to ensure effective treatment of human enterococcal infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and faecium bacteria isolated from the human and the livestock sources

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    Yaser Sharifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococci have emerged as a major cause of nosocomial infections and within this group, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause the majority of human and livestock enterococcal infections. In this article, we tried to determine antibiotics and metals resistance patterns of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. Methods: One hundred sixty different strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium were collected from livestock sewage and the human fecal waste during 15 months. Then bacterial antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the Agar disc diffusion method. Results: Generally, 100% of E. faecalis strains separated from human and livestock sources (i.e. sheep showed penicillin (P/ kanamycin (K/ nitrofurantoin (N/ loracarbef (L/ Ciprofloxacin (Cc/ ampicillin (AN/ nalidixic acid (NA/ sulfamethoxazole (S antibiotics resistance patterns. In addition, 55% of isolated E. faecium showed P/S/AN/NA antibiotics resistance patterns. Each strain showed a resistance to at least two aminoglycoside antibiotics. However, E. faecalis strains from human and the livestock sources showed 94% and 100% of resistance to nitrofurantoin, respectively. The effects of different metal concentrations was evaluated in both strains. The agar dilution method was applied in this stage. Hg at 0.05 mmol/L of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed toxicity to both the human and livestock Enterococcus strains. Cadmium at 1 mmol/L and 0.5 mmol/L concentrations had the most toxicity to E. faecalis and E. faecium strains, respectively. Obviously, toxicity to bacteria is less than other metals. As a result, Zn/Ni/Cu/Co resistance pattern is suggested for both strains. Finally, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns were monitored simultaneously. Conclusion: Almost all E. faecalis strains isolated from humans and livestock showed antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of P/K/L/Cc/S/AN/NA/Zn/Cu/Co simultaneously. Moreover, 55% of E

  14. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

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    Leron Khalifa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages. Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals.

  15. Identification of surface proteins in Enterococcus faecalis V583

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    Eijsink Vincent GH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surface proteins are a key to a deeper understanding of the behaviour of Gram-positive bacteria interacting with the human gastro-intestinal tract. Such proteins contribute to cell wall synthesis and maintenance and are important for interactions between the bacterial cell and the human host. Since they are exposed and may play roles in pathogenicity, surface proteins are interesting targets for drug design. Results Using methods based on proteolytic "shaving" of bacterial cells and subsequent mass spectrometry-based protein identification, we have identified surface-located proteins in Enterococcus faecalis V583. In total 69 unique proteins were identified, few of which have been identified and characterized previously. 33 of these proteins are predicted to be cytoplasmic, whereas the other 36 are predicted to have surface locations (31 or to be secreted (5. Lipid-anchored proteins were the most dominant among the identified surface proteins. The seemingly most abundant surface proteins included a membrane protein with a potentially shedded extracellular sulfatase domain that could act on the sulfate groups in mucin and a lipid-anchored fumarate reductase that could contribute to generation of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions The present proteome analysis gives an experimental impression of the protein landscape on the cell surface of the pathogenic bacterium E. faecalis. The 36 identified secreted (5 and surface (31 proteins included several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis, pheromone-regulated processes, and transport of solutes, as well as proteins with unknown function. These proteins stand out as interesting targets for further investigation of the interaction between E. faecalis and its environment.

  16. Pediatric mortality due to nosocomial infection: a critical approach

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    Julia Marcia Maluf Lopes

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection is a frequent event with potentially lethal consequences. We reviewed the literature on the predictive factors for mortality related to nosocomial infection in pediatric medicine. Electronic searches in English, Spanish and Portuguese of the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Collaboration Databases was performed, focusing on studies that had been published from 1996 to 2006. The key words were: nosocomial infection and mortality and pediatrics/neonate/ newborn/child/infant/adolescent. The risk factors found to be associated with mortality were: nosocomial infection itself, leukemia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, corticosteroid therapy, multiple organ failure, previous antimicrobial therapy, catheter use duration, candidemia, cancer, bacteremia, age over 60, invasive procedures, mechanical ventilation, transport out of the pediatric intensive care unit, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cepacia infections, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II scores over 15. Among these factors, the only one that can be minimized is inadequate antimicrobial treatment, which has proven to be an important contributor to hospital mortality in critically-ill patients. There is room for further prognosis research on this matter to determine local differences. Such research requires appropriate epidemiological design and statistical analysis so that pediatric death due to nosocomial infection can be reduced and health care quality improved in pediatric hospitals.

  17. Frequency of nosocomial pneumonia in ICU Qazvin Razi hospital (2013

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    S. Makhlogi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial pneumonia is the most prevalent cause of hospital-acquired infection in intensive care units (ICU. The aim of this research was to detect the frequency and predisposing factors of nosocomial Ventilator Associated Pneumonia, by cross sectional study on 188 patients that were hospitalized in ICU Qazvin Razi Hospital. Using questionnaire based on the national nosocomial infection surveillance system (NNIS data collected and analyzed. The average age of patients was 51±24 years old, 37 hospitalized patients (19/6% in the fourth day of admission were affected Ventilator Associated Pneumonia. The most common pathogenesis of causing nosocomial pneumonia were klebsiella in 13 patients (35/1%, staph in 8 patients (21/6%, sodomona in 8 patients (21/6%, ecoli in 3 patients (8/1%, cetrobacter in 2 patients (5/4%, antrococus and Proteus each of them in 1 patient (each 2/7%. Considering (19/6% frequency of nosocomial pneumonia in this study, it’s necessary to act standard protocols in nursing care and medication process.

  18. Nosocomial Infections in Nuclear Medicine Departments: some considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metello, L.F.; Cunha, L.; Martins, M.; Isabel, O.; Ribeiro, G.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Surveillance for Nosocomial Infection has become an integral part of hospital practice. Studies conducted more than 30 years ago by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) documented the efficacy of these surveillance activities in reducing Nosocomial Infection occurrence. It is clear that surveillance for Nosocomial Infection involves more than just documenting infection rates. However, many times the professionals involved have tended to stop at the point where rates are reported and fail to complete the task of implementing changes based on the analysis of rates or disseminating information. Moreover specific documentation regarding Nuclear Medicine Departments is not available. We therefore decided to produce this work based in the recognition of this specific need. Methods and Conclusions: Having previously defined the 'state-of-the-art' from science and technology concerning Nosocomial Infection Control and after particular study regarding technical/clinical reality of Nuclear Medicine Departments, namely introducing the radioactivity as a factor that must be taken into account with all its implications and interactions, we have obtained a group of considerations and/or recommendations to be considered in order to accomplish the maximum Quality and Efficiency regarding the Control of Nosocomial Infection in Nuclear Medicine Departments

  19. Integration of microbiological, epidemiological and next generation sequencing technologies data for the managing of nosocomial infections

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    Matteo Brilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At its core, the work of clinical microbiologists consists in the retrieving of a few bytes of information (species identification; metabolic capacities; staining and antigenic properties; antibiotic resistance profiles, etc. from pathogenic agents. The development of next generation sequencing technologies (NGS, and the possibility to determine the entire genome for bacterial pathogens, fungi and protozoans will likely introduce a breakthrough in the amount of information generated by clinical microbiology laboratories: from bytes to Megabytes of information, for a single isolate. In parallel, the development of novel informatics tools, designed for the management and analysis of the so-called Big Data, offers the possibility to search for patterns in databases collecting genomic and microbiological information on the pathogens, as well as epidemiological data and information on the clinical parameters of the patients. Nosocomial infections and antibiotic resistance will likely represent major challenges for clinical microbiologists, in the next decades. In this paper, we describe how bacterial genomics based on NGS, integrated with novel informatic tools, could contribute to the control of hospital infections and multi-drug resistant pathogens.

  20. Enterococcus hirae biofilm formation on hospital material surfaces and effect of new biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lodovico, Silvia; Cataldi, Valentina; Di Campli, Emanuela; Ancarani, Elisabetta; Cellini, Luigina; Di Giulio, Mara

    2017-08-02

    Nowadays, the bacterial contamination in the hospital environment is of particular concern because the hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), also known as nosocomial infections, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. This work evaluated the capability of Enterococcus hirae to form biofilm on different surfaces and the action of two biocides on the produced biofilms. The biofilm formation of E. hirae ATCC 10541 was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces through the biomass quantification and the cell viability at 20 and 37 °C. The effect of LH IDROXI FAST and LH ENZYCLEAN SPRAY biocides on biomasses was expressed as percentage of biofilm reduction. E. hirae at 20 and 37 °C produced more biofilm on the stainless steel in respect to the polystyrene surface. The amount of viable cells was greater at 20 °C than with 37 °C on the two analyzed surfaces. Biocides revealed a good anti-biofilm activity with the most effect for LH ENZYCLEAN SPRAY on polystyrene and stainless steel at 37 °C with a maximum biofilm reduction of 85.72 and 86.37%, respectively. E. hirae is a moderate biofilm producer depending on surface material and temperature, and the analyzed biocides express a remarkable antibiofilm action. The capability of E. hirae to form biofilm can be associated with its increasing incidence in hospital-acquired infections, and the adoption of suitable disinfectants is strongly recommended.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  2. Prevention of nosocomial infections in developing countries, a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murni, Indah; Duke, Trevor; Triasih, Rina; Kinney, Sharon; Daley, Andrew J; Soenarto, Yati

    2013-05-01

    Prevention of nosocomial infection is key to providing good quality, safe healthcare. Infection control programmes (hand-hygiene campaigns and antibiotic stewardship) are effective in reducing nosocomial infections in developed countries. However, the effectiveness of these programmes in developing countries is uncertain. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing nosocomial infections in developing countries. A systematic search for studies which evaluated interventions to prevent nosocomial infection in both adults and children in developing countries was undertaken using PubMed. Only intervention trials with a randomized controlled, quasi-experimental or sequential design were included. Where there was adequate homogeneity, a meta-analysis of specific interventions was performed using the Mantel-Haenzel fixed effects method to estimate the pooled risk difference. Thirty-four studies were found. Most studies were from South America and Asia. Most were before-and-after intervention studies from tertiary urban hospitals. Hand-hygiene campaigns that were a major component of multifaceted interventions (18 studies) showed the strongest effectiveness for reducing nosocomial infection rates (median effect 49%, effect range 12.7-100%). Hand-hygiene campaigns alone and studies of antibiotic stewardship to improve rational antibiotic use reduced nosocomial infection rates in three studies [risk difference (RD) of -0.09 (95%CI -0.12 to -0.07) and RD of -0.02 (95% CI -0.02 to -0.01), respectively]. Multifaceted interventions including hand-hygiene campaigns, antibiotic stewardship and other elementary infection control practices are effective in developing countries. The modest effect size of hand-hygiene campaigns alone and negligible effect size of antibiotic stewardship reflect the limited number of studies with sufficient homogeneity to conduct meta-analyses.

  3. Mupirocin prophylaxis against nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infections in nonsurgical patients: a randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Vos (Margreet); A. Ott (Alewijn); A. Voss (Andreas); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls (Christina); M.H.M. Meester (Marlene); P.H.J. van Keulen (Peter); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a major risk factor for nosocomial S. aureus infection. Studies show that intranasal mupirocin can prevent nosocomial surgical site infections. No data are available on the efficacy of mupirocin in nonsurgical

  4. [Listeria monocytogenes nosocomial infection in the maternity ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, D; Croize, J; Hirtz, P; Legeais, C; Pelloux, I; Favier, M; Mallaret, M R; Le Noc, P; Rambaud, P

    1991-01-01

    Nosocomial infection with Listeria monocytogenes 4b occurred in January 1990 in a maternity hospital in Grenoble. The 3 patients involved were born within a 24 hour-interval. The premature newborn responsible for contamination was asymptomatic. Two other newborns without any perinatal infectious risk presented with meningitis, one on the 5th day of life in the maternity hospital, the other one on the 11th day while already at home. The 3 strains of Listeria had the same serovar and lysovar. Epidemiologic investigations led to suspect a contamination in the delivery room and during the care of the children. Strict respect of hygiene orders is imperative to avoid nosocomial infections.

  5. Proteomic characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus recovered from Seagulls at the Berlengas Natural Reserve, W Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhouani, Hajer; Poeta, Patrícia; Pinto, Luís; Miranda, Júlio; Coelho, Céline; Carvalho, Carlos; Rodrigues, Jorge; López, María; Torres, Carmen; Vitorino, Rui; Domingues, Pedro; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2010-09-21

    Enterococci have emerged as the third most common cause of nosocomial infections, requiring bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin resistance is a major problem in clinics and has emerged in an important extend in farm animals, few studies have examined it in wild animals. To determine the prevalence of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains among faecal samples of Seagulls (Larus cachinnans) of Berlengas Natural Reserve of Portugal, we developed a proteomic approach integrated with genomic data. The purpose was to detect the maximum number of proteins that vary in different enterococci species which are thought to be connected in some, as yet unknown, way to antibiotic resistance. From the 57 seagull samples, 54 faecal samples showed the presence of Enterococcus isolates (94.7%). For the enterococci, E. faecium was the most prevalent species in seagulls (50%), followed by E. faecalis and E. durans (10.4%), and E. hirae (6.3%). VanA-containing enterococcal strains were detected in 10.5% of the 57 seagull faecal samples studied. Four of the vanA-containing enterococci were identified as E. faecium and two as E. durans. The tet(M) gene was found in all five tetracycline-resistant vanA strains. The erm(B) gene was demonstrated in all six erythromycin-resistant vanA strains. The hyl virulence gene was detected in all four vanA-containing E. faecium isolates in this study, and two of them harboured the purK1 allele. In addition these strains also showed ampicillin and ciprofoxacin resistance. The whole-cell proteomic profile of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains was applied to evaluate the discriminatory power of this technique for their identification. The major differences among species-specific profiles were found in the positions corresponding to 97-45 kDa. Sixty individualized protein spots for each vanA isolate was identified and suitable for peptide mass fingerprinting measures by spectrometry measuring (MALDI/TOF MS) and their identification

  6. Proteomic characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus recovered from Seagulls at the Berlengas Natural Reserve, W Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Céline

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococci have emerged as the third most common cause of nosocomial infections, requiring bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin resistance is a major problem in clinics and has emerged in an important extend in farm animals, few studies have examined it in wild animals. To determine the prevalence of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains among faecal samples of Seagulls (Larus cachinnans of Berlengas Natural Reserve of Portugal, we developed a proteomic approach integrated with genomic data. The purpose was to detect the maximum number of proteins that vary in different enterococci species which are thought to be connected in some, as yet unknown, way to antibiotic resistance. Results From the 57 seagull samples, 54 faecal samples showed the presence of Enterococcus isolates (94.7%. For the enterococci, E. faecium was the most prevalent species in seagulls (50%, followed by E. faecalis and E. durans (10.4%, and E. hirae (6.3%. VanA-containing enterococcal strains were detected in 10.5% of the 57 seagull faecal samples studied. Four of the vanA-containing enterococci were identified as E. faecium and two as E. durans. The tet(M gene was found in all five tetracycline-resistant vanA strains. The erm(B gene was demonstrated in all six erythromycin-resistant vanA strains. The hyl virulence gene was detected in all four vanA-containing E. faecium isolates in this study, and two of them harboured the purK1 allele. In addition these strains also showed ampicillin and ciprofoxacin resistance. The whole-cell proteomic profile of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains was applied to evaluate the discriminatory power of this technique for their identification. The major differences among species-specific profiles were found in the positions corresponding to 97-45 kDa. Sixty individualized protein spots for each vanA isolate was identified and suitable for peptide mass fingerprinting measures by spectrometry measuring

  7. Comparison of two nosocomial infection surveillance in a neonatal ward

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    Masomeh Abedini

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It seems that a large part of this considerable differences between the results of this study compared to NNIS based study, is this fact that, for nosocomial infection surveillance in the neonatal field, the presence of a specialist as a performer and leader of the team, is necessary.

  8. Drug-resistant post-neurosurgical nosocomial Acinetobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug-resistant post-neurosurgical nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis in two Iranian hospitals. ... Vol 11, No 17 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Acinetobacter baumannii may cause meningitis and ventriculitis, particularly after head trauma and/or neurosurgery. The rate of ...

  9. Risk factors for postoperative nosocomial infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify possible risk factors for post operative nosocomial infections among operated patients at Felege Hiwot Referral ... Bacterial culture confirmation was done for all patients who developed clinical signs and symptoms of surgical site and/or bloodstream infection starting from the ...

  10. Monitoring of nosocomial infections as an element of prevention

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    Izabela Gąska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hospital infections are one of the most serious threats to the hospitalised patient and their monitoring is recognised as one of the most important criteria of care quality for modern hospitals. The aim of the work was to present the problem of nosocomial infections and desired behaviours and activities in the field of infection prophylaxis. Material and method. The analysis of the current scientific literature was carried out with particular attention to the prevention of infections in treatment wards and the need to monitor the patient's condition and the environment in the case of an infection. Results. The lack of developed and implemented programmes for the control of nosocomial infections is a fundamental element that increases the risk of nosocomial infections. This disrupts the proper functioning of the hospital and causes additional health problems for the patient and the ward staff. In addition, the hospital suffers losses instead of savings, which is a priority aim in the current funding system. Conclusions. The basis for eliminating or minimising the incidence of nosocomial infections is a well-developed and implemented programme of hospital infection control based on the education of medical personnel in the field of infection prevention. Constant, comprehensive assessment of the procedures used and the standards of conduct, epidemiological data as well as microbiological data can ensure quick identification and elimination of the threat.

  11. Growth of Enterococcus durans E204 producing bacteriocin-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    El Ouardy

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... inhibition of Enterococcus faecium 410 CECT in 6 h of incubation. The highest ... as natural food additives for the elimination of spoilage and pathogeinic ..... autohydrolysed fish viscera for nisin and pediocin production. J.

  12. Enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient

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    S. Hernández Egido

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small colony variants (SCV are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E. faecium in an immunocompetent patient.

  13. Typing of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a nosocomial outbreak setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzknecht, B J; Dargis, R; Pedersen, M; Pinholt, M; Christensen, J J

    2018-03-23

    To investigate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) typing as a first-line epidemiological tool in a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). Fifty-five VREfm isolates, previously characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), were included and analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. To take peak reproducibility into account, ethanol/formic acid extraction and other steps of the protocol were conducted in triplicate. Twenty-seven spectra were generated per isolate, and spectra were visually inspected to determine discriminatory peaks. The presence or absence of these was recorded in a peak scheme. Nine discriminatory peaks were identified. A characteristic pattern of these could distinguish between the three major WGS groups: WGS I, WGS II and WGS III. Only one of 38 isolates belonging to WGS I, WGS II or WGS III was misclassified. However, ten of the 17 isolates not belonging to WGS I, II or III displayed peak patterns indistinguishable from those of the outbreak strain. Using visual inspection of spectra, MALDI-TOF MS typing proved to be useful in differentiating three VREfm outbreak clones from each other. However, as non-outbreak isolates could not be reliably differentiated from outbreak clones, the practical value of this typing method for VREfm outbreak management was limited in our setting. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae against bacterial multiresistant strains isolated from nosocomial patients

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    Adalberto Coelho da Costa

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are considered the main therapeutic option to treat bacterial infections; however, there is the disadvantage of increasing bacterial resistance. Thus, the research of antimicrobials of plant origin has been an important alternative. This work aimed at determining the in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae on multiresistant bacteria isolated from biological materials. 24 strains of nosocomial bacteria were used and divided into six different species that were inhibited by the essential oil in the preliminary "screening" which was accomplished by the diffusion technique in agar. MIC was determined by the microdilution method, beginning with solutions with the final concentrations: 8 up to 0.125% with the following results: The four samples (100% of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and MRSA were inhibited by the essential oil at the concentration of 0.125%. Three samples (75% of Acinetobacter baumannii at 0.125% and a sample (25% at 0.5%; Klebsiella pneumoniae (75% at 0.125% and 25% at 0.25%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (75% at 0.5% and 25% at 0.25%. MIC varied from 78 to 83%. It was concluded through the obtained data that there was not difference in the minimum bactericidal concentration (0.5% of the referred oil for Gram positive as well for Gram negative microorganisms.

  15. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro en aislamientos de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium obtenidos de pacientes hospitalizados

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    Manuel Medell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Actualmente se considera a Enterococcus spp. como uno de los agentes de infección hospitalaria más importantes, siendo su resistencia a los antibióticos un problema importante en los centros de salud. Objetivos. Caracterizar la resistencia antimicrobiana en 50 cepas de Enterococcus spp. aisladas de muestras clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de tipo descriptivo observacional de corte transversal en 50 aislamientos clínicos de estas especies microbianas. Se trabajó un aislamiento por paciente. La identificación y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos se realizaron por métodos automatizados y convencionales. El análisis fenotípico de los mecanismos de resistencia a glucopéptidos se hizo según las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. Resultados. De 50 aislamientos, 30 (60,0 % y 20 (40,0 % pertenecían a las especies de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium, respectivamente. La resistencia global expresada por este género fue de 38/50 (76,0 % para ampicilina; 33/50 (66,0 % para gentamicina de alto nivel; 34/50 (68,0 % para estreptomicina de alto nivel; 26/50 (52,0 % para ciprofloxacina; 4/50 (8,0 % para linezolid; 17/50 (34,0 % para teicoplanina; 25/50 (50,0 % para vancomicina; 31/50 (62,0 % para minociclina; 34/50 (68,0 % para tetraciclina y 9/50 (18,0 % para nitrofurantoina. Frente a los glucopéptidos, 25/50 (50,0 % y 10/50 (20,0 % de los aislamientos presentaron los mecanismos Van A y Van B, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Podemos concluir que la mayoría de las veces, las cepas aisladas en el Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras mostraron porcentajes de resistencia por encima de lo reportado en la literatura científica consultada. El alto porcentaje de cepas con resistencia a la vancomicina podría influir en la aparición de otros gérmenes Gram positivos con resistencia a este fármaco. Se reporta por

  16. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

  17. Enterococcus faecalis Endogenous Endophthalmitis from Valvular Endocarditis

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    Sidnei Barge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 74-year-old female, with a mitral heart valve, who presented with pain and blurred vision in the right eye for 2 days. Her visual acuity was light perception (LP in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Slit lamp examination showed corneal edema and hypopyon, and a view of the right fundus was impossible. Echography showed vitreous condensation. One day after presentation, the patient developed acute lung edema requiring hospitalization, so she was not submitted to vitreous tap and intravitreal treatment. The cardiac and systemic evaluations revealed a mitral endocarditis secondary to Enterococcus faecalis. The patient improved systemically with treatment with gentamicin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Her visual acuity remained as no LP, and her intraocular pressure (IOP has been controlled with brimonidine bid despite developing a total cataract with 360° posterior synechia. A cardiac source for endogenous endophthalmitis should be considered in the presence of a prosthetic cardiac valve. The treatment and followup must be made in cooperation with a cardiologist specialist, but the ophthalmologist can play a key role in the diagnosis.

  18. Molecular mechanisms associated with nosocomial carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántar-Curiel, María Dolores; García-Torres, Luis Francisco; González-Chávez, María Inés; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Gayosso-Vázquez, Catalina; Jarillo-Quijada, Ma Dolores; Fernández-Vázquez, José Luis; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2014-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging pathogen worldwide that is most commonly associated with nosocomial infections and multi-drug resistance. In the present study we determined the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance and clonal diversity of A. baumannii nosocomial isolates in Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, Mexico. A total of 303 clinical isolates of A. baumannii identified during a period expanding from 2004-2011 were analyzed for carbapenem resistance using several microbiological and molecular methods. Clonal relatedness of these isolates was determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of the 303 isolates, 84% were resistant to meropenem, 71.3% to imipenem and 78.3% the resistant isolates were positive for metallo-β-lactamases as determined by the phenotypic assay. In addition, 49.6% of carbapenem-intermediate or -resistant isolates carried the blaOXA-72 gene and 1.2% carried the blaVIM-1 gene. Efflux pump phenotype was responsible for reduced susceptibility to meropenem in 14.5% and to imipenem in 31.6% of the resistant isolates, respectively in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone. Strains representing different carbapenem-resistant patterns exhibited reduced expression of 22, 29, 33, and 43 kDa OMPs. Among the bacterial collection studied, 48 different clones were identified, two of which were predominant and persistently transmitted. Carbapenemase production in combination with efflux pump expression, reduction in OMPs expression and the cross-transmission of clones appear to be major contributors to the high frequency of carbapenem-resistance observed in A. baumannii. To our knowledge, this is the first study to define the molecular mechanisms associated with carbapenem-resistance in A. baumannii in Mexico. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ventilator-associated nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care units in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal Katherason, Supaletchimi; Naing, Lin; Jaalam, Kamarudin; Imran Musa, Kamarul; Nik Mohamad, Nik Abdullah; Aiyar, Subramaniar; Bhojani, Kavita; Harussani, Najah; Abdul Rahman, Aisai; Ismail, Asma

    2009-10-22

    The outcome indicator of nosocomial infection (NI) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is used to benchmark the quality of patient care in Malaysia. We conducted a three-year prospective study on the incidences of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), risk factors, and patterns of the microorganisms isolated in three ICUs. A follow-up in prospective cohort surveillance was conducted on patients admitted to an adult medical-surgical ICU of a university hospital and two governmental hospitals in Malaysia from October 2003 to December 2006. VAP was detected using CDC criteria which included clinical manifestation and confirmed endotracheal secretion culture results. In total, 215 patients (2,306 patient-days) were enrolled into the study. The incidence of ICU-acquired device-related NI was 29.3 % (n = 63). The device-related VAP infection rate was 27.0 % (n = 58), with a mechanical ventilator utilization rate of 88.7%. The death rate due to all ICU-acquired NI including sepsis was 6.5%. The most common causative pathogen was Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 27). Multivariate analysis using Cox regression showed that the risk factors identified were aspiration pneumonia (HR = 4.09; 95% CI = 1.24, 13.51; P = 0.021), cancer (HR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.27, 4.97; P = 0.008), leucocytosis (HR=3.43; 95% CI= 1.60, 7.37; P=0.002) and duration of mechanical ventilation (HR=1.04; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.08; P = 0.030). Age, gender and race were not identified as risk factors in the multivariable analysis performed. The incidence of VAP was comparable to that found in the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) System report of June 1998. The incidence of VAP was considered high for the three hospitals studied.

  20. Hand hygiene for the prevention of nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald; Gastmeier, Petra

    2009-10-01

    The WHO regards hand hygiene as an essential tool for the prevention of nosocomial infection, but compliance in clinical practice is often low. The relevant scientific literature and national and international evidence-based recommendations (Robert Koch Institute [Germany], WHO) were evaluated. Hygienic hand disinfection has better antimicrobial efficacy than hand-washing and is the procedure of choice to be performed before and after manual contact with patients. The hands should be washed, rather than disinfected, only when they are visibly soiled. Skin irritation is quite common among healthcare workers and is mainly caused by water, soap, and prolonged wearing of gloves. Compliance can be improved by training, by placing hand-rub dispensers at the sites where they are needed, and by physicians setting a good example for others. Improved compliance in hand hygiene, with proper use of alcohol-based hand rubs, can reduce the nosocomial infection rate by as much as 40%.

  1. Asymptomatic carriers contribute to nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixt, Thomas; Gradel, Kim Oren; Homann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nosocomial infection with Clostridium difficile pose a considerable problem despite numerous attempts by health care workers to reduce risk of transmission. Asymptomatic carriers of C difficile might spread their infection to other patients. We investigated the effects...... of of asymptomatic carriers on nosocomial C difficile infections. METHODS: We performed a population-based prospective cohort study at 2 university hospitals in Denmark, screening all patients for toxigenic C difficile in the intestine upon admittance, from October 1, 2012, to January 31, 2013. Screening results...... were blinded to patients, staff, and researchers. Patients were followed during their hospital stay by daily registration of wards and patient rooms. The primary outcomes were rate of C difficile infection in exposed and unexposed patients and factors associated with transmission. RESULTS: C difficile...

  2. Resistência antimicrobiana em Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium isolados de carcaças de frango

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    Ana Claudia F. Borges de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o isolamento e analisar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana de Enterococcus de carcaças de frango resfriadas e congeladas comercializadas no Distrito Federal, detectando genes de resistência antimicrobiana e identificando as espécies Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium por reação polimerase em cadeia. Foram analisadas 100 carcaças de frangos, das quais foram isoladas 50 cepas de Enterococcus spp., sendo 42% de E. faecalis e 2% de E. faecium. O teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana demonstrou que todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um antimicrobiano, dos quais 90,47% das cepas de E. faecalis, 100% das cepas de E. Faecium e 82,14% dos Enterococcus spp. apresentaram resistência à Tetraciclina; 80,95% das cepas de E. faecalis e 35,71% das cepas de Enterococcus spp. foram resistentes à Eritromicina; 39,28% dos Enterococcus spp. e 23,80% dos E. faecalis à Ciprofloxacina e 28,57% dos E. faecalis apresentaram resistência ao Cloranfenicol. Foram detectados os genes de resistência antimicrobiana erm(B, vanC-1, aph(3'-llla, ant(6-la, vanB, vanA, aac(6'-le-aph(2''-la, erm(A e tet(M - este último mais frequente. Estes resultados sugerem sérios problemas para a Saúde Pública, uma vez que esses microrganismos podem possuir a capacidade de transmitir genes de resistência antimicrobiana para outros microrganismos presentes na microbiota intestinal de humanos e animais, podendo inviabilizar o uso destas drogas para tratamentos clínicos.

  3. Decontamination Efficacy of Ultraviolet Radiation against Biofilms of Common Nosocomial Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingpej, Pholawat; Tiengtip, Rattana; Kondo, Sumalee

    2015-06-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is commonly used to destroy microorganisms in the health-care environment. However, the efficacy of UV radiation against bacteria growing within biofilms has never been studied. To measure the sterilization effectiveness of UV radiation against common healthcare associated pathogens growing within biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, ESBL-producing E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were cultivated in the Calgary Biofilm Device. Their biofilms were placed 50 cm from the UV lamp within the Biosafety Cabinet. Viability test, crystal violet assay and a scanning electron microscope were used to evaluate the germicidal efficacy. Within 5 minutes, UV radiation could kill S. aureus, MRSA, S. epidermidis, A. baumannii and ESBL-producing E. coli completely while it required 20 minutes and 30 minutes respectively to kill E. coli and P. aeruginosa. However, the amounts of biomass and the ultrastructure between UV-exposed biofilms and controls were not significantly different. UV radiation is effective in inactivating nosocomial pathogens grown within biofilms, but not removing biofilms and EPS. The biofilm of P. aeruginosa was the most durable.

  4. [Spectrum and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in children with nephrotic syndrome complicated by urinary tract infection: an analysis of 97 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shao-Na; Zhang, Bi-Li; Wang, Wen-Hong; Zhang, Xuan

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the spectrum and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) complicated by urinary tract infection (UTI). A retrospective analysis was performed on the spectrum and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in 97 children with NS complicated by UTI, who hospitalized from January to December, 2011. The incidence of UTI in children with NS was 36.5%. It was significantly more common in children with recurrent NS than in those with primary NS (44.0% vs 31.9%; Ppathogenic bacteria (50.5%), including Enterococcus faecium (29.4%) and Enterococcus faecalis (21.1%), followed by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (15.6%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.7%). Enterococcus was highly sensitive to nitrofurantoin, vacomycin and linezolid, but was highly resistant to tetracycline and moxifloxacin. More multi-resistant strains were detected in Enterococcus faecium than in Enterococcus faecalis (72% vs 17%; Pbacteria, 25% produced extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). ESBLs-producing bacteria had 100% sensitivity to imipenem, amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam but were highly resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin and ceftriaxone. Children with recurrent NS are more susceptible to UTI than those with primary NS. Enterococcus is becoming major pathogenic bacteria for UTI in children with NS and has relatively high drug resistance, and most strains of Enterococcus faecium are multi-resistant.

  5. [Influence of staphylococcin T on Enterococcus sp. growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białucha, Agata; Kozuszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Bugalski, Roman Marian; Gierlotka, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised, extracellular bacterial products. Generally, spectrum of inhibition is limited to the same or closely related species to bacteriocin producer. Staphylococcin T is produced by Staphylococcus cohnii strain. The present study concerns influence of StT to 267 Enterococcus sp. strains growth isolated between 2003 and 2006 in Department of Microbiology University Hospital of dr. A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz. S. cohnii T antagonistic ability evaluated towards bacteries on Mueller-Hinton Agar (bio Mérieux) in aerobic conditions. After 24 and 48 hours tested enterococci suspensions were plated perpendiculary. Susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed by disc diffusion method according to the guideless of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and National Reference Centre for Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Among Enterococcus sp. strains tested 7.1% were sensitive to StT. The highest percentage of sensitive enterococci isolated from wound swabs, urine, blood and pus. Enterococcus faecium strains dominated (63.2%) among enterococci sensitive to StT. Moderate inhibition degree on S. cohnii T bacteriocin action was observed in majority sensitive enterococci strains. Enterococcus sp. sensitive to StT strains were frequently multidrug resistant (68.4%). According to the study results and increasing resistance to antibiotics, StT could be an alternative agent used to treat infections caused by Enterococcus sp.

  6. Comparative study of bacteremias caused by Enterococcus spp. with and without high-level resistance to gentamicin. The Grupo Andaluz para el estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Granado, F J; Cisneros, J M; Luque, R; Torres-Tortosa, M; Gamboa, F; Díez, F; Villanueva, J L; Pérez-Cano, R; Pasquau, J; Merino, D; Menchero, A; Mora, D; López-Ruz, M A; Vergara, A

    1998-02-01

    A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of these cases were caused by HLRG (33%). The multivariate analysis selected chronic renal failure, intensive care unit stay, previous use of antimicrobial agents, and Enterococcus faecalis species as the independent risk factors that influenced the development of HLRG. The strains with HLRG showed lower levels of susceptibility to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Clinical features (except for chronic renal failure) were similar in both groups of patients. HLRG did not influence the prognosis for patients with enterococcal bacteremia in terms of either the crude mortality rate (29% for patients with bacteremia caused by enterococci with HLRG and 28% for patients not infected with strains with HLRG) or the hospital stay after the acquisition of enterococcal bacteremia. Hemodynamic compromise, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, and mechanical ventilation were revealed in the multivariate analysis to be the independent risk factors for mortality. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with the nosocomial acquisition of bacteremia and polymicrobial infections.

  7. [Orion (Outbreak Reports and Intervention studies of Nosocomial Infection) used for evaluating interventions and investigations of nosocomial infection outbreaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Cronenberger, S; Nicolle, M-C; Voirin, N; Giard, M; Luxemburger, C; Vanhems, P

    2009-04-01

    British colleagues have developed the Outbreak Reports and Intervention studies of Nosocomial Infection (Orion) guidelines with the aim to promote transparency of publications in the field of health-care associated infections and particularly for reports of outbreak investigation or intervention studies. The aim of this study was to translate the Orion criteria and to promote their use in France. The Orion guidelines include a checklist of 22 commented items related to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of a scientific article. Specific points for each item are developed to enhance its relevance. The use of Orion guidelines by authors and editors should be encouraged and should improve the quality of standards in research, intervention studies, and publications on nosocomial infections and health-care associated infections.

  8. A survey of veterinary hospitals in Nigeria for the presence of some bacterial organisms of nosocomial and zoonotic potential

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    Mohammed Lawal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the type and estimate the prevalence of bacterial organisms on contact surfaces of five close-to-patient facilities in three veterinary health care settings within the Sokoto metropolis of north-western Nigeria. A total of 30 samples (10 from each setting were collected and analysed using culture, microscopy and biochemical testing. Bacterial species isolated from samples in this study included the following: Bacillus sp. (27.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (15.9%, Listeria sp. (13.6%, Streptococcus sp. (11.4%, Salmonella sp. (6.8%, Escherichia coli (4.5%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.5%, Citrobacter sp. (2.3%, Klebsiella sp. (2.3%, Lactobacillus sp. (2.3%, Micrococcus sp. (2.3%, Pasteurella sp. (2.3%, Proteus sp. (2.3%, and Yersinia sp. (2.3%. A higher percentage (64.3% of the total bacterial isolates were zoonotic in nature and hence of public health significance. Some pathogens have the potential of nosocomial spread. In this study, we seek to establish the first evidence of bacterial presence in the major veterinary health care settings in the Sokoto region of north-western Nigeria. Of particular interest is the hypothesis, which has not previously been formally tested, that nosocomial infections are especially likely to be implicated in both animals and occupational diseases in Nigeria. It was suggested that some of these isolates were associated with the risk of nosocomial and zoonotic infections and hence draws attention to the need to rigorously employ standard veterinary precautions as part of the hospital’s infection control programme in an attempt to protect both patients and staff from infections.

  9. [In vitro antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) against nosocomial bacteria in Montería, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Álvarez, Nelson; Angulo Ortíz, Alberto; Contreras Martínez, Orfa

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial resistance is a growing health problem worldwide that has serious economic and social impacts, compromising public health, and the therapeutic action of current antibiotics. Therefore, the search for new compounds with antimicrobial properties is relevant in modern studies, particularly against bacteria of clinical interest. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract and essential oil of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) was evaluated against nosocomial bacteria, using the microdilution method. Escherichia coli strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus sp. were used, Salmonella sp. and Bacillus sp., isolated from nosocomial infections in a hospital in the city of Monteria and reference strains of S. aureus ATCC 43300, S. aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 25923, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, E. coli ATCC 25922 and K. pneumonia ATCC 700603. The ethanol extract antibacterial profile was more efficient at higher concentrations (1 000 ppm), obtaining significant percentages of reduction of more than 50 % against K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603 and a clinical isolate of E. coli; while compared to Bacillus clinical isolate, was more active than the essential oil. For the rest of microorganisms, the reduction percentages obtained at a concentration of 1 000 ppm varied between 17 and 42 % with ethanolic extract, and 8 to 43 % with essential oil. At concentrations of 100 and 500 ppm antibacterial activity of the extracts was lower. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract and essential oil of C. longa rhizomes have active compounds with antibacterial properties that could be used in future research as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of infections caused by nosocomial pathogens.

  10. Prevalence and Antibiogram of Microbial Agents Causing Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infection in Surgical Ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital

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    Tashmin Afroz Binte Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections pose substantial risk to patients receiving care in hospitals. In Bangladesh, this problem is aggravated by inadequate infection control due to poor hygiene, resource and structural constraints and lack of awareness regarding nosocomial infections. Objective: We carried out this study to determine the prevalence of different microorganisms from urine in surgery ward and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern against various antibiotics. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in Department of Microbiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka over a period of 12 months from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 urine specimens were collected from catheterized patients admitted in general surgery ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH and incubated in blood agar, MacConkey agar media and the isolates were identified by different biochemical tests – oxidase test and reaction in MIU (motility indole urease and Simmon’s citrate and TSI (triple sugar iron media. ESBL producers were detected by double-disk synergy test (DDST. Results: Bacteria were isolated from 35 specimens and Escherichia coli was the commonest isolate (23, 65.71% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 (17.14%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 3 (8.57%, Acinetobacter baumannii 2 (5.72% and Proteus vulgaris 1 (2.86% respectively. Among the isolates, 10 (28.57% ESBL producers were detected and the highest ESBL production was observed in Escherichia coli (8, 22.85% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (2.86% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 (2.86%. The isolates were resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria poses a difficult task for physicians who have limited therapeutic options. However, the high rate of nosocomial infections and multi-resistant pathogens necessitate urgent comprehensive interventions of infection control.

  11. Construction of improved temperature-sensitive and mobilizable vectors and their use for constructing mutations in the adhesin-encoding acm gene of poorly transformable clinical Enterococcus faecium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2006-01-01

    Inactivation by allelic exchange in clinical isolates of the emerging nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium has been hindered by lack of efficient tools, and, in this study, transformation of clinical isolates was found to be particularly problematic. For this reason, a vector for allelic replacement (pTEX5500ts) was constructed that includes (i) the pWV01-based gram-positive repAts replication region, which is known to confer a high degree of temperature intolerance, (ii) Escherichia coli oriR from pUC18, (iii) two extended multiple-cloning sites located upstream and downstream of one of the marker genes for efficient cloning of flanking regions for double-crossover mutagenesis, (iv) transcriptional terminator sites to terminate undesired readthrough, and (v) a synthetic extended promoter region containing the cat gene for allelic exchange and a high-level gentamicin resistance gene, aph(2'')-Id, to distinguish double-crossover recombination, both of which are functional in gram-positive and gram-negative backgrounds. To demonstrate the functionality of this vector, the vector was used to construct an acm (encoding an adhesin to collagen from E. faecium) deletion mutant of a poorly transformable multidrug-resistant E. faecium endocarditis isolate, TX0082. The acm-deleted strain, TX6051 (TX0082Deltaacm), was shown to lack Acm on its surface, which resulted in the abolishment of the collagen adherence phenotype observed in TX0082. A mobilizable derivative (pTEX5501ts) that contains oriT of Tn916 to facilitate conjugative transfer from the transformable E. faecalis strain JH2Sm::Tn916 to E. faecium was also constructed. Using this vector, the acm gene of a nonelectroporable E. faecium wound isolate was successfully interrupted. Thus, pTEX5500ts and its mobilizable derivative demonstrated their roles as important tools by helping to create the first reported allelic replacement in E. faecium; the constructed this acm deletion mutant will be useful for assessing the

  12. Antibiotic resistance and virulence traits in clinical and environmental Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, I U; Hargreaves, M; Huygens, F

    2012-07-01

    This study compared virulence and antibiotic resistance traits in clinical and environmental Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. E. faecalis isolates harboured a broader spectrum of virulence determinants compared to E. faecium isolates. The virulence traits Cyl-A, Cyl-B, Cyl-M, gel-E, esp and acm were tested and environmental isolates predominantly harboured gel-E (80% of E. faecalis and 31.9% of E. faecium) whereas esp was more prevalent in clinical isolates (67.8% of E. faecalis and 70.4% of E. faecium). E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from water had different antibiotic resistance patterns compared to those isolated from clinical samples. Linezolid resistance was not observed in any isolates tested and vancomycin resistance was observed only in clinical isolates. Resistance to other antibiotics (tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin) was detected in both clinical and water isolates. Clinical isolates were more resistant to all the antibiotics tested compared to water isolates. Multi-drug resistance was more prevalent in clinical isolates (71.2% of E. faecalis and 70.3% of E. faecium) compared to water isolates (only 5.7% E. faecium). tet L and tet M genes were predominantly identified in tetracycline-resistant isolates. All water and clinical isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin contained mutations in the gyrA, parC and pbp5 genes. A significant correlation was found between the presence of virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance in all the isolates tested in this study (pantibiotic resistant enterococci, together with associated virulence traits, in surface recreational water could be a public health risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic & virulence profiling of ESBL-positive E. coli from nosocomial & veterinary sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, J M; Wootton, M; Toleman, M A; Howe, R A; Woodward, M; Walsh, T R

    2016-04-15

    CTX-M genes are the most prevalent ESBL globally, infiltrating nosocomial, community and environmental settings. Wild and domesticated animals may act as effective vectors for the dissemination of CTX-producing Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to contextualise blaCTX-M-14-positive, cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae human infections and compared resistance and pathogenicity markers with veterinary isolates. Epidemiologically related human (n=18) and veterinary (n=4) blaCTX-M-14-positive E. coli were fully characterised. All were typed by XbaI pulsed field gel electrophoresis and ST. Chromosomal/plasmidic locations of blaCTX-M-14 were deduced by S1-nuclease digestion, and association with ISEcp1 was investigated by sequencing. Conjugation experiments assessed transmissibility of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-14. Presence of virulence determinants was screened by PCR assay and pathogenicity potential was determined by in vitro Galleria mellonella infection models. 84% of clinical E. coli originated from community patients. blaCTX-M-14 was found ubiquitously downstream of ISEcp1 upon conjugative plasmids (25-150 kb). blaCTX-M-14 was also found upon the chromosome of eight E. coli isolates. CTX-M-14-producing E. coli were found at multiple hospital sites. Clonal commonality between patient, hospitals and livestock microbial populations was found. In vivo model survival rates from clinical isolates (30%) and veterinary isolates (0%) were significantly different (pE. coli involving community patients and farm livestock. blaCTX-M-14 positive human clinical isolates carry a lower intrinsic pathogenic potential than veterinary E. coli highlighting the need for greater veterinary practices in preventing dissemination of MDR E. coli among livestock. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. New Insight into Biofilm Formation Ability, the Presence of Virulence Genes and Probiotic Potential of Enterococcus sp. Dairy Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Popović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci have controversial status due to their emerging role in nosocomial infections and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes, while some enterococci strains are used as probiotics for humans and animals and starter cultures in dairy industry. In order to improve our understanding of factors involved in the safe use of enterococci as potential probiotics, the antibiotic susceptibility, virulence and probiotic traits of 75 dairy enterococci isolates belonging to Enterococcus durans (50, En. faecium (15, En. faecalis (6, En. italicus (3, and En. hirae (1 were evaluated. The results revealed that ciprofloxacin resistance and biofilm formation are correlated with isolates originated from Golija mountain (Serbia, while gelatinase activity was more common in isolates from Prigorje region (Croatia, pointing to uncontrolled use of antibiotics and anthropogenic impact on dairy products' microbiota in these regions. The virulence genes were sporadically present in 13 selected dairy enterococci isolates. Interestingly, biofilm formation was correlated with higher ability of strains to reduce the adhesion of E. coli and Salmonella Enteritidis to HT29-MTX cells. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting the presence of the esp gene (previously correlated with pathogenesis in dairy enterococci isolates, mostly associated with the genes involved in adhesion property. Hence, the results of this study revealed that the virulence genes are sporadically present in dairy isolates and more correlated to adhesion properties and biofilm formation, implicating their role in gut colonization rather than to the virulence traits.

  15. Assessing the nosocomial infections' rate and the antibiotic resistance pattern among the patient hospitalized in beheshti hospital during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Kadkhodaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Nosocomial infection is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and length of stay. Detection of infection, identify the etiology of bacterial antibiotic resistance pattern, is necessary given the widespread use of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant organisms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 288 patients admitted to the Beheshti Hospitals in Kashan based on NNIS definitions according to the state of Health and Medical education. In this study infections and antibiotic resistance symptoms were found. Data analyses were performed with Chi-square test. Results: Among the 288 patients studied, with mean out of hospital infection was 0.80%. Most cases of infection associated were pneumonia. The highest rates of infection were in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU with 51.7%. Nosocomial infection in ICU wards was associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The most common types were ventilator-associated pneumonia. Among the microorganisms, negative Gram was seen more. The common pathogens were including Acinetobacter, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella. Antimicrobial resistance was generally increasing and had emerged from selective pressure from antibiotic use and transmission through health staff. Conclusion: This study showed a correlation between antibiotic use and resistance of microorganisms is significant. Hence, it seems that reducing aggressive acts and conduct hygiene education and monitoring act of antibiotics is necessary to prevent antibiotic resistance.

  16. Influence of Streptococcus mutans on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Dong Mei; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Exterkate, Rob A. M.; Jiang, Lei Meng; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; Crielaard, Wim

    Introduction: An important virulence factor of Enterococcus faecalis is its ability to form biofilms. Most studies on biofilm formation have been carried out by using E. faecalis monocultures. Given the polymicrobial nature of root canal infections, it is important to understand biofilm formation of

  17. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Marek, Agnieszka; Banach, Tomasz; Adaszek, Łukasz; Pyzik, Ewelina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found.

  18. Growth of Enterococcus durans E204 producing bacteriocin-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriocin-like substance E204 is an antimicrobial compound produced by Enterococcus durans E204 isolated from camel milk of Morocco that shows a broad spectrum of inhibitory activity against taxonomically related microorganisms. It is sensitive to digestive proteases. In the first study, de Man, Regosa and Sharpe ...

  19. Prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility profile of Enterococcus spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolated from patients and some selected hospital environment in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples included clinical and environmental. The clinical samples included stool, urine and wound swabs while the environmental samples ...

  20. Risk Factors of Endocarditis in Patients with Enterococcus faecalis Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Lauridsen, Trine K; Arpi, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  The NOVA score is a recently developed diagnostic tool to identify patients with increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients with Enterococcus faecalis (EF) bacteremia. We aim to validate an adapted version of the NOVA score and to identify risk factors for IE...

  1. Antimicrobial activity and high thermostability of a novel BLIS secreted by Enterococcus Mundtii isolated from Lebanese cow’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad AL Kassaa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AL Kassaa, I., Safourim, N., Mostafa, N. and Hamze, M. Antimicrobial activity and high thermostability of a novel BLIS secreted by Enterococcus Mundtii isolated from lebanese cow’s milk. 2016. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(2: 166-176. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are used in many fields such as fermentation agents, increasing nutritional value and improving organoleptic quality of food. Also they are used as probiotics and preservatives against pathogens and spoilage microbes by producing antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins. Fifty cow’s milk samples were collected and 175 LAB isolates were isolated and identified by using biochemical method. Fifteen isolates showed an antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC® 19115™. One strain, BL4 which showed the strongest activity, was chosen to extract and characterize its antimicrobial substance in order to evaluate its potential use as a new food protective agent. This strain was identified as Enterococcus mundtii by pyrosequencing method. The active substance was extracted using solvent method. This Bacteriocin like Inhibitory Substances “BLIS” can support a high temperature (121 ˚C for a long time and resist pH variation. The BLIS BL4 can be considered as a peptide active against many food pathogen and food-spoilage microbes, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Penicillium spp. BLIS BL4 can be used in food application as bio-preservative to reduce food-spoilage and food-borne diseases in food products.

  2. Studies on incidence and prevention of nosocomial infection of urinary tract endoscopies by different antimicrobial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanien, Y.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial infections occur world wide and affect both developed and resource-poor countries. Infections acquired in health care settings are among the major causes of death and increased morbidity among hospitalized patients. They are a significant burden both for the patient and for public health. A prevalence survey conducted under the auspices of WHO in 55 hospitals of 14 countries representing 4 WHO Regions (Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia and Western Pacific) showed an average of 8.7% of hospital patients had nosocomial infections. At any time, over 1.4 million people worldwide suffer from infectious complications acquired in hospital (Tikhomirov , 1987 ) . In medical practice, an object should be disinfected or sterilized depending on its intended use. Items that come in direct contact with mucous membranes, such as endoscopes, require a high level of disinfection (Ayliffe et al., 2000) . The major problems leading to inadequate decontamination are inappropriate or incomplete decontamination methods, for example, choice of disinfectant and duration of contact, as well as use of water or other fluids of poor microbiological quality for decontamination (Fallis , 1994 ). Endoscopes had been used widely for the diagnosis and therapy of medical disorders and were used increasingly for performing laparoscopic surgery. Currently, greater than 10,000,000 gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures were performed each year. Endoscopes were contaminated routinely by microorganisms during clinical use. Failure to employ appropriate cleaning, disinfection, or sterilization of endoscopes have been responsible for multiple nosocomial outbreaks and serious, sometimes life-threatening infections (Spach et al ., 1993 ). Because the endoscope comes into intimate contact with mucous membranes, high-level disinfection was the current reprocessing standard after each patient use. High level disinfection refered to the use of a chemical sterilant at shorter exposure

  3. Candida auris: An emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sears

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida aurisis an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen that can be difficult to identify using traditional biochemical methods. C. auris is capable of causing invasive fungal infections, particularly among hospitalized patients with significant medical comorbidities. Echinocandins are the empiric drugs of choice for C. auris, although not all isolates are susceptible and resistance may develop on therapy. Nosocomial C. auris outbreaks have been reported in a number of countries and aggressive infection control measures are paramount to stopping transmission.

  4. Correlation between the genetic diversity of nosocomial pathogens and their survival time in intensive care units.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastmeier, P; Schwab, F; Bärwolff, S; Rüden, H; Grundmann, Hajo

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria differ in their ability to survive in the hospital environment outside the human host. Species remaining viable and infectious have a higher chance of being transmitted, giving them a fitness advantage in hospitals. This differential fitness could be expected to alter the genetic population

  5. Elizabethkingia meningosepticum: an emerging nosocomial pathogen in a critical patient with septicaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panetta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of sepsis due to the non-fermenter Gram-negative bacillus Elizabethkingia meningosepticum in a patient (M, 23 y.o. hospitalized at the Intensive Care and Critical Care Medicine suffering of a severe neurological disease and acute surgical abdomen, caused by suppurative peritonitis secondary to PEG removal. Two sets of blood cultures were collected at the time of persistent fever. The culture on chocolate and blood agar showed the presence of colonies with characteristic grey-shiny appearance and 1-2 mm in diameter. No growth was instead evident on Mac-Conkey agar. The Gram stain was performed, but the final identification of the isolate as E. meningosepticum was obtained by Vitek2 System, on the basis of growth characteristics, biochemical reaction results, and the peculiar antibiotic susceptibility profile. The identification was also confirmed by Vitek MS MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry instrument (bioMérieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France. Results of susceptibility testing highlighted the resistance to most antibiotics useful against Gram-negative bacteria and a paradoxical susceptibility to those targeting mainly Gram-positives. The vancomycin and ciprofloxacin combined therapy improved the patient’s conditions, with a complete resolution of the E. meningosepticum bacteraemia. Unfortunately, due to the onset of important clinical and surgical complications, the patient died as a result of a septic shock caused by a MDR Acinetobacter baummannii. The present work underline the importance of correct species identification in the case of E. meningosepticum, a rare bacterium whose unique antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, require an ad hoc therapeutic approach.

  6. Predicting nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections by a risk index based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yong; Shan, Xue; Zhao, Jingya; Han, Xuelin; Tian, Shuguang; Chen, Fangyan; Su, Xueting; Sun, Yansong; Huang, Liuyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Wang, Hongyuan; Han, Li

    2017-01-01

    Although belonging to one of the most common type of nosocomial infection, there was currently no simple prediction model for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). This study aims to develop a risk index based system for predicting nosocomial LRTIs based on data from a large point-prevalence

  7. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Prevention and control of nosocomial and health-care facilities associated infections caused by species of Candida and other yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemán, Javier; Zaragoza, Rafael; Salavert, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the epidemiology of invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts (Candida spp., especially) in health care settings allows the establishment of the levels necessary for its prevention. A first step is to identify groups of patients at high risk of nosocomial invasive fungal infections, establish accurate risk factors, observing the periods of greatest risk, and analyze the epidemiological profile in genera and species as well as the patterns of antifungal resistance. Secondly, mechanisms to avoid persistent exposure to potential fungal pathogens must be programed, protecting areas and recommending measures such as the control of the quality of the air and water, inside and outside the hospital, and other products or substances able to cause outbreaks. Finally, apart from the correct implementation of these measures, in selected patients at very high risk, the use of antifungal prophylaxis should be considered following the guidelines published.

  9. [Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in medical students: importance in nosocomial transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aguilera, Sara; Goñi-Yeste, María Del Mar; Barrado, Laura; González-Rodríguez-Salinas, M Carmen; Otero, Joaquín R; Chaves, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen causing nosocomial infections. Health professionals, including medical students, could be a source of transmission. The aims of the study were to determine the rate of nasal carriage of S.aureus susceptible and resistant to methicillin (MRSA) and evaluate the knowledge and adherence that students had about hand hygiene. The study included medical students attached to the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Madrid, Spain). We collected samples from both nasal vestibules, and the antimicrobial susceptibility was determined on all isolates. Data collection was performed using a self-administered questionnaire that included risk factors for colonization, hygiene habits and knowledge of hand hygiene protocols. Of the 140 students included, 55 (39.3%) were colonized by S.aureus, and 3 (2,1%) by MRSA. The exposure to antibiotics in the last 3 months was lower in colonized students (12.3% vs. 25.9%, P=.03). Self-assessment showed that 56.4% of students almost never washed their hands before to attending to the first patient, and only 38.6% always washed after examining patients. More than a third (35.7%) ignored the hand hygiene protocol, and 38.6% had not received specific formation. Medical students should be included in hospital infection control programs. Hand hygiene training should be given to students before they begin their practices in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Lack of direct effects of agrochemicals on zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Senkbeil, Jacob K; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-11-01

    Agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and pathogens frequently contaminate water simultaneously. No significant direct effects of fertilizer, atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil on the survival of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica, human polyomaviruses, and adenovirus were detected, supporting the assertion that previously observed effects of agrochemicals on FIB were indirect.

  11. Antibacterial and Synergistic Activity Against β-Lactamase-Producing Nosocomial Bacteria by Bacteriocin of LAB Isolated From Lesser Known Traditionally Fermented Products of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Biswas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever-growing need to control antibiotic-resistance owing to alarming resistance to commonly available antimicrobial agents for which contemporary and alternative approaches are being explored. The present study assessed the antibacterial activity of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB from lesser known traditionally fermented products of India for their synergistic potential with common antibiotics against clinical β-lactamases producing pathogens. A total of 84 isolates of LAB were screened for their antibacterial efficacy against Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus as well as against clinical pathogens harbouring β-lactamase genes such as blaCTX-M, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSHV and blaNDM. Synergistic activity of bacteriocins were determined in combination with antibiotics namely, cefotaxime, polymyxin B, imipenem and tigecycline. Purified bacteriocins from Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus inhibited the growth of β-lactamase harbouring clinical pathogens which significantly higher inhibitions when compared with antibiotics alone. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts ranged from 6.66 to 26.66 mg/ml and 10 to 33.33 mg/ml for Pediococcus pentosaceus LU11 and Lactobacillus plantarum LS6. The bacteriocinogenic activity of LAB opens scope for bioprospection of antibacterial components in the current struggle against increasing pandrug resistance and slowing down the expansion of multi-drug resistance.

  12. Ultraviolet (UV)-reflective paint with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) improves decontamination of nosocomial bacteria on hospital room surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelden, Katelyn C; Gibbs, Shawn G; Smith, Philip W; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Schmid, Kendra K; Lowe, John J

    2017-06-01

    An ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator (the TORCH, ClorDiSys Solutions, Inc.) was used to compare the disinfection of surface coupons (plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, and chrome-plated light switch cover) in a hospital room with walls coated with ultraviolet (UV)-reflective paint (Lumacept) or standard paint. Each surface coupon was inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room coated with UV-reflective paint or standard paint, and treated by 10 min UVC exposure (UVC dose of 0-688 mJ/cm 2 between sites with standard paint and 0-553 mJ/cm 2 with UV-reflective paint) in 8 total trials. Aggregated MRSA concentrations on plastic bedrail surface coupons were reduced on average by 3.0 log 10 (1.8 log 10 Geometric Standard Deviation [GSD]) with standard paint and 4.3 log 10 (1.3 log 10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p = 0.0005) with no significant reduction differences between paints on stainless steel and chrome. Average VRE concentrations were reduced by ≥4.9 log 10 (surface types with UV-reflective paint and ≤4.1 log 10 (hospital bed from the UVGI generator, MRSA concentrations on average were reduced by 1.3 log 10 (1.7 log 10 GSD) with standard paint and 4.7 log 10 (1.3 log 10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p hospital room walls with UV-reflective paint enhanced UVGI disinfection of nosocomial bacteria on various surfaces compared to standard paint, particularly at a surface placement site indirectly exposed to UVC light.

  13. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Lyons

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6% and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%. Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems.

  14. Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Iwasa, Masahiro; Han, Kwon-Il; Kim, Wan-Jae; Tang, Yujiao; Hwang, Young Joung; Chae, Jeong Ryong; Han, Weon Cheol; Shin, Yu-Su; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown the immunomodulatory effect of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic skin disease, caused by immune dysregulation among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 (EF-2001) on AD. We established an in vivo AD model by repeated local exposure of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears of mice. After oral administration of EF-2001 for four weeks, the epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured. In addition, the gene expression levels of pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes were assayed. EF-2001 attenuated AD symptoms based on the ear thickness, histopathological analysis, and serum immunoglobulin levels. Moreover, EF-2001 decreased the DFE/DNCB-induced expression of various pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes. These results suggest that EF-2001 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD owing to its immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26959058

  15. Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Ju Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have shown the immunomodulatory effect of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria. Atopic dermatitis (AD is an allergic skin disease, caused by immune dysregulation among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 (EF-2001 on AD. We established an in vivo AD model by repeated local exposure of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB to the ears of mice. After oral administration of EF-2001 for four weeks, the epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured. In addition, the gene expression levels of pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes were assayed. EF-2001 attenuated AD symptoms based on the ear thickness, histopathological analysis, and serum immunoglobulin levels. Moreover, EF-2001 decreased the DFE/DNCB-induced expression of various pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes. These results suggest that EF-2001 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD owing to its immunomodulatory effects.

  16. Adaptation of Enterococcus faecalis to daptomycin reveals an ordered progression to resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Corwin; Kong, Jiayi; Tran, Truc T; Arias, Cesar A; Saxer, Gerda; Shamoo, Yousif

    2013-11-01

    With increasing numbers of hospital-acquired antibiotic resistant infections each year and staggering health care costs, there is a clear need for new antimicrobial agents, as well as novel strategies to extend their clinical efficacy. While genomic studies have provided a wealth of information about the alleles associated with adaptation to antibiotics, they do not provide essential information about the relative importance of genomic changes, their order of appearance, or potential epistatic relationships between adaptive changes. Here we used quantitative experimental evolution of a single polymorphic population in continuous culture with whole-genome sequencing and allelic frequency measurements to study daptomycin (DAP) resistance in the vancomycin-resistant clinical pathogen Enterococcus faecalis S613. Importantly, we sustained both planktonic and nonplanktonic (i.e., biofilm) populations in coculture as the concentration of antibiotic was raised, facilitating the development of more ecological complexity than is typically observed in laboratory evolution. Quantitative experimental evolution revealed a clear order and hierarchy of genetic changes leading to resistance, the signaling and metabolic pathways responsible, and the relative importance of these mutations to the evolution of DAP resistance. Despite the relative simplicity of this ex vivo approach compared to the ecological complexity of the human body, we showed that experimental evolution allows for rapid identification of clinically relevant adaptive molecular pathways and new targets for drug design in pathogens.

  17. Purification and characterization of enterocin FH 99 produced by a faecal isolate Enterococcus faecium FH 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H; Malik, R K; Bhardwaj, A; Kaur, G; De, S; Kaushik, J K

    2010-06-01

    Enterococcus faecium FH 99 was isolated from human faeces and selected because of its broad spectrum of inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive foodborne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Ent. faecium FH 99 accumulates enterocin in large number in early stationary phase of the growth. The enterocin FH 99 was stable over a wide pH range (2-10) and recovered activity even after treatment at high temperatures (10 min at 100°C). The enterocin was subjected to different purification techniques viz., gel filteration, cation exchange chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity was eluted as one individual active fraction. SDSPAGE revealed a molecular weight of less than 6.5 kDa. Studies carried out to identify the genetic determinants for bacteriocin production showed that this trait may be plasmid encoded as loss in both of the plasmids (size>chromosomal DNA) led to loss in bacteriocin production by Ent. faecium FH 99. Ent. faecium strain FH 99 is a newly discovered high bacteriocin producer with Activity Units 1.8 × 10(5) AU ml(-1) and its characteristics indicate that it may have strong potential for application as a protective agent against pathogens and spoilage bacteria in foods.

  18. Daptomycin-Vancomycin–Resistant Enterococcus faecium Native Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Hussain MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant enterococcal nosocomial invasive infections are a rising concern faced by the medical community. Not many options are available to treat these highly virulent organisms. Risk factors for developing these highly resistant organisms include prolonged hospital stay, previous antibiotic use, and immunosuppression. In this article, we report a case of daptomycin-resistant enterococcal native infective endocarditis treated with off-label use of quinupristin-dalfopristin.

  19. Nursing Care Model Based on Knowledge Management in Preventing Nosocomial Infection After Caesarean Section in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Ahsan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nosocomial infection is one indicator of the quality of health services in the community, which also determines the image of health care institutions becauseit was a major cause of morbidityand death rate (mortality in hospital. Nursing care based on knowledge management is established from identification knowledge which is required, prevention performance of nosocomial infections post section caesarea. Nosocomial infections component consists of wound culture result. Method: This study was an observational study with a quasi experimental design. The population was all of nursing staff who working in obstetrics installation in hospitals A and B as much as 46 people. Sample was the total population. Data was collected through questionnaire, observation sheets and examination of the wound culture. Data was analyzed using t test B 1.274 dan p=0.028 Result: The result showed that 1 there was difference in knowledge management implementation before and after training; 2 there was difference in nurse’s performance in preventing nosocomial infection before and after training; 3 there is significant relationship between nurse’s performance in preventing nosocomial infection and infection incidence; 4 there is no significant difference of nursing care impementation on nosocomial incidence. Discussion: In conclusion, the development of nursing care based on knowledge management as a synthesis or induction of findings directed at 1 nurses’ knowledge does not affect the performance of the prevention of nosocomial infections; 2 knowledge management has a positive effect on the performance of the prevention of nosocomial infections; 3 implementation of infection prevention is integrated capabilities between knowledge, skills and attitudes of nurses in implementing performance in care. Keywords: model prevention, nosocomial infections, nursing care, knowledge management, sectio Caesarea

  20. Transfer of antibiotic resistance from Enterococcus faecium of fermented meat origin to Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M; Holley, R A

    2016-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause infection in children, pregnant women, the immunocompromised and the elderly. Antibiotic resistance in this species would represent a significant public health problem since the organism has a high fatality/case ratio and resistance may contribute to failure of therapeutic treatment. This study was designed to explore whether the in vitro transferability of antibiotic resistance from enterococci to Listeria spp. could occur. It was found that 2/8 Listeria strains were able to acquire tetracycline resistance from Enterococcus faecium. Listeria monocytogenes GLM-2 acquired the resistance determinant tet(M) and additional streptomycin resistance through in vitro mating with Ent. faecium S27 isolated from commercial fermented dry sausage. Similarly, Listeria innocua became more resistant to tetracycline, but the genetic basis for this change was not confirmed. It has been suggested that enterococci may transfer antibiotic resistance genes via transposons to Listeria spp., and this may explain, in part, the origin of their antibiotic resistance. Thus, the presence of enterococci in food should not be ignored since they may actively contribute to enhanced antibiotic resistance of L. monocytogenes and other pathogens. Acquisition of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria in the absence of antibiotic pressure represents an unquantified threat to human health. In the present work resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin were transferred by nonplasmid-based conjugation from Enterococcus faecium isolated from fermented sausage to Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. Thus, natural transfer of antibiotic resistance to Listeria strains may occur in the future which reinforces the concern about the safety of enterococcal strains present in foods. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Incidence of virulence determinants in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates collected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Strateva

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Most E. faecalis attaches to abiotic surfaces in hospital environment, which correlates with higher prevalence of gene encoding for virulence factors involved in biofilm formation, such as enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substance, and gelatinase. The intestinal tract is an important reservoir for opportunistic enterococcal pathogens and allows them to access infectious sites through different virulence factors, demonstrated in outpatient isolates in this study.

  2. RelA Mutant Enterococcus faecium with Multiantibiotic Tolerance Arising in an Immunocompromised Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsa, Erin S; Cooper, Vaughn S; Mhaissen, Mohammed N; Frank, Matthew; Shaker, Jessica; Iverson, Amy; Rubnitz, Jeffrey; Hayden, Randall T; Lee, Richard E; Rock, Charles O; Tuomanen, Elaine I; Wolf, Joshua; Rosch, Jason W

    2017-01-03

    Serious bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients require highly effective antibacterial therapy for cure, and thus, this setting may reveal novel mechanisms by which bacteria circumvent antibiotics in the absence of immune pressure. Here, an infant with leukemia developed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) bacteremia that persisted for 26 days despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 22 consecutive VRE isolates identified the emergence of a single missense mutation (L152F) in relA, which constitutively activated the stringent response, resulting in elevated baseline levels of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). Although the mutant remained susceptible to both linezolid and daptomycin in clinical MIC testing and during planktonic growth, it demonstrated tolerance to high doses of both antibiotics when growing in a biofilm. This biofilm-specific gain in resistance was reflected in the broad shift in transcript levels caused by the mutation. Only an experimental biofilm-targeting ClpP-activating antibiotic was able to kill the mutant strain in an established biofilm. The relA mutation was associated with a fitness trade-off, forming smaller and less-well-populated biofilms on biological surfaces. We conclude that clinically relevant relA mutations can emerge during prolonged VRE infection, causing baseline activation of the stringent response, subsequent antibiotic tolerance, and delayed eradication in an immunocompromised state. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is a major challenge currently facing the medical community. Such pathogens are of particular importance in immunocompromised patients as these individuals may favor emergence of novel resistance determinants due to lack of innate immune defenses and intensive antibiotic exposure. During the course of chemotherapy, a patient developed prolonged bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium that failed to clear

  3. Does vancomycin prescribing intervention affect vancomycin-resistant enterococcus infection and colonization in hospitals? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Lee W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE is a major cause of nosocomial infections in the United States and may be associated with greater morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs than vancomycin-susceptible enterococcus. Current guidelines for the control of VRE include prudent use of vancomycin. While vancomycin exposure appears to be a risk factor for VRE acquisition in individual patients, the effect of vancomycin usage at the population level is not known. We conducted a systematic review to determine the impact of reducing vancomycin use through prescribing interventions on the prevalence and incidence of VRE colonization and infection in hospitals within the United States. Methods To identify relevant studies, we searched three electronic databases, and hand searched selected journals. Thirteen studies from 12 articles met our inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and summarized for study setting, design, patient characteristics, types of intervention(s, and outcome measures. The relative risk, 95% confidence interval, and p-value associated with change in VRE acquisition pre- and post-vancomycin prescription interventions were calculated and compared. Heterogeneity in study results was formally explored by stratified analysis. Results No randomized clinical trials on this topic were found. Each of the 13 included studies used a quasi-experimental design of low hierarchy. Seven of the 13 studies reported statistically significant reductions in VRE acquisition following interventions, three studies reported no significant change, and three studies reported increases in VRE acquisition, one of which reported statistical significance. Results ranged from a reduction of 82.5% to an increase of 475%. Studies of specific wards, which included sicker patients, were more likely to report positive results than studies of an entire hospital including general inpatients (Fisher's exact test 0.029. The type of intervention

  4. Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 Modulates Epithelial Integrity, Heat Shock Protein, and Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in Intestinal Cells

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    Shanti Klingspor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have shown positive effects on gastrointestinal diseases; they have barrier-modulating effects and change the inflammatory response towards pathogens in studies in vitro. The aim of this investigation has been to examine the response of intestinal epithelial cells to Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium, a probiotic positively affecting diarrhea incidence in piglets, and two pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli strains, with specific focus on the probiotic modulation of the response to the pathogenic challenge. Porcine (IPEC-J2 and human (Caco-2 intestinal cells were incubated without bacteria (control, with E. faecium, with enteropathogenic (EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC each alone or in combination with E. faecium. The ETEC strain decreased transepithelial resistance (TER and increased IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in both cell lines compared with control cells, an effect that could be prevented by pre- and coincubation with E. faecium. Similar effects were observed for the increased expression of heat shock protein 70 in Caco-2 cells. When the cells were challenged by the EPEC strain, no such pattern of changes could be observed. The reduced decrease in TER and the reduction of the proinflammatory and stress response of enterocytes following pathogenic challenge indicate the protective effect of the probiotic.

  5. Hand rub consumption and hand hygiene compliance are not indicators of pathogen transmission in intensive care units.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckmanns, T; Schwab, F; Bessert, J; Wettstein, R; Behnke, M; Grundmann, Hajo; Rüden, H; Gastmeier, P

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether nosocomial infection (NI) rates, hand hygiene compliance rates and the amount of alcohol-based hand rub used for hand disinfection are useful indicators of pathogen transmission in intensive care units (ICUs), and whether they could be helpful

  6. [Changing medical practices and nosocomial infection rates in French maternity units from 1997 to 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Boulétreau, A; Caillat-Vallet, E; Dumas, A M; Ayzac, L; Chapuis, C; Emery, M N; Girard, R; Haond, C; Lafarge-Leboucher, J; Tissot-Guerraz, F; Fabry, J

    2005-04-01

    In this study we describe the changes in medical practices and nosocomial infection rates in obstetrics observed through a surveillance network in the South East of France. The maternity units which belong to this network participated in voluntary surveillance using the network's methodology. The criteria for the diagnosis of nosocomial infections were in accordance with the methods described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 101240 pregnancies including 18503 caesareans (18.3%) were included in the network from 1997 to 2000. During the study period, nosocomial infection rates following caesarean section and vaginal delivery decreased respectively from 7.8% to 4.3% (p infection control programs in maternity units has been confirmed by the results of this surveillance network. During the study period, both obstetrics-related risk factors for nosocomial infection and observed hospital-acquired infection rates were dramatically reduced, what prove an improvement of quality of care in maternity units.

  7. Clinical and antimicrobial profile of Acinetobacter spp.: An emerging nosocomial superbug

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    Purti C Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Acinetobacter nosocomial infections resistant to most antimicrobials have emerged, especially in ICU. Early identification and continued surveillance of prevalent organism will help prevent the spread of Acinetobacter in hospital environment.

  8. [Role of donor human milk feeding in preventing nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hong-Juan; Xu, Jing; Wei, Qiu-Fen

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of donor human milk in the prevention of nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. MeETHODS: A total of 105 hospitalized preterm infants with a very low birth weight were enrolled. They were classified into mother's own milk feeding group, donor human milk feeding group, and preterm formula feeding group, with 35 infants in each group. The three groups were compared in terms of incidence rates of nosocomial infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, and feeding intolerance, time to full enteral feeding, and early growth indices. Compared with the preterm formula feeding group, the donor human milk feeding group and the mother's own milk feeding group had significantly lower incidence rates of nosocomial infection and necrotizing enterocolitis and shorter time to full enteral feeding (Pmilk can be used in case of a lack of mother's own milk and may help to reduce nosocomial infection.

  9. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial infection trends in Hospital universiti sains Malasia during 2002-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Talib, Hasnain I.; Yean, Chan Y

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality in many hospitals worldwide.The aim of the present study was to assess the burden of MRSA nosocomial infection,its association with factors of interest, and its antimicrobial susceptibility.This was a retrospective analysis of a database of all s aureus that were cultured from patients admitted to the defferent wards of hospital universiti sains malasia(HUSM) over a aperiod of 6 years.The MRSA infections rate was 10.0 Per 1000 hospital admissions.The incidence density rate of MRSA infections during the study period was 1.8 per 1000 patient-days,with annual rates ranging from 0.95 to 3.47 per 1000 patients-days.Duration of hospitalization,previous antibiotic use,and bedside invasive proceures of MRSa infections were found in orthopedic wards (25.3%) followed by surgical wards (18.2%) amd omtensive care units(ICU) (16.4%).All MRSA isolates were resistant to erythromycin (98.0%),co-trimoxazole (94.0%)and gentamicin (92.0%)clindamycin was the best antibiotic with only 6% resistance.All MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin.The rate of the noscomial MRSA infection per 1000 admissions was higher than that in other studies.The three factors associated most signaficantly with acquired MRSA infections included duration of hospitalization,antibiotic use,and bedside invasive procedures.This study confirmed that vancomycin-resistant s aureus has not yet been established in HUSM (Author).

  10. Low Compliance to Handwashing Program and High Nosocomial Infection in a Brazilian Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Lizandra Ferreira de Almeida e; Rocha, Lilian Alves; Nunes, Maria José; Gontijo Filho, Paulo Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Background. It is a fact that hand hygiene prevents nosocomial infection, but compliance with recommended instructions is commonly poor. The purpose of this study was to implement a hand hygiene program for increase compliance with hand hygiene and its relationship with nosocomial infection (NI) and MRSA infection/colonization rates. Methods. Compliance to hand hygiene was evaluated in a hospital by direct observation and measured of health care-associated infections, including methicillin re...

  11. Bacterial Clearance and Cytokine Profiles in a Murine Model of Postsurgical Nosocomial Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Manderscheid, Patricia A.; Bodkin, Ryan P.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Jensen, Erik; Russo, Thomas A.; Knight, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a nosocomial pneumonia is facilitated by alterations in host innate pulmonary antibacterial defenses following surgical trauma, which can result in decreased pulmonary bacterial clearance and increased morbidity and mortality. In a murine model of postoperative nosocomial infection, surgical stress (laparotomy) decreased Escherichia coli clearance from the lungs of animals that underwent surgery. Consistent with previous studies, (i) pulmonary levels of tumor necrosis facto...

  12. Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Nosocomial Pneumonia

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    A. N. Kuzovlev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the informative value of the parameters of gas exchange, lung volumetry, and central hemodynamics in the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in nosocomial pneumonia (NP. Subjects and methods. The study included 38 patients with cancer and severe injury who were divided into 3 groups in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of ARDS and NP: 1 patients with ARDS + NP; 2 those with NP; 3 those with non-ARDS, non-PN. ARDS was diagnosed in 2 steps. At Step 1, the investigators took into account risk factors for ARDS and used the lung injury scale developed by J. Murray et al. and the ARDS diagnostic criteria defined by the American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. At Step 2, after obtaining the data of lung volume-try (1—2 hours after Step 1, they assessed the compliance of the above criteria for ARDS with those developed by the V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, and redistributed the patients between the groups. The stage of ARDS was determined in accordance with the classification of the above Institute. All the patients underwent a comprehensive examination the key element of which was to estimate gas exchange parameters and to monitor lung volumetry and central hemodynamics by the transpulmonary thermodilution methods, by using a Pulsion PiCCO Plus monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany. The findings were statistically analyzed using a Statistica 7.0 package (arithmetic mean, error of the mean, _ Student’s test, Newman-Keuls test, correlation analysis. The difference was considered to be significant if p-value was Results. The patients with ARDS + NP were observed to have a significantly lower oxygenation index (10 ml/kg and Murray scale scores (>2 than those in patients with NP without ARDS. The reference values of the pulmonary vascular permeability index due to its inadequate informative value call for further investigation. The

  13. NURSING CARE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT BASED TRAINING DECREASE NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION INCIDEN IN POST SECTIO CESAREA PATIENTS

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    Ahsan Ahsan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Model of nursing care based on knowledge management can reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections through the performance of nurses in the prevention of infection. Nursing care based on knowledge management is established from identi fi cation knowledge which is required, prevention performance of nosocomial infections post caesarean section. Nosocomial infections component consists of wound culture result. Method: This study was an observational study with a quasy experimental design. The population were all of nursing staff who working in obstetrics installation and a number of patients who is treated in hospitals A and B post sectio caesarea. Sample is comparised a total population all the nursing staff who worked in obstetrics installation according to criteria of the sample, and most of patients were taken care by nursing staff post caesarean section which is taken by random sampling 15 patients. Data was collected through observation sheets and examination of the wound culture. Data analysis which is used the t test. Result: The result was showed that there was signi fi cant difference in the incidence of nosocomial infection in patients with post sesctio caesarea in hospital before and after nursing care training based on knowledge management (tvalue = 2.316 and p = 0.028 < α = 0.05 level, and the incidence of nosocomial infection was lower after training than before training. Discussion: It can be concluded that training knowledge management based on nursing care effectives to reduce Incidence of Nosocomial Infections in Patients after Sectio Caesarea.

  14. Prevention of nosocomial infections in intensive care unit and nursing practices

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    Sevilay Yüceer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections which are considered as the primary indicator of the quality of care in hospitals, cause to prolong hospitalization at intensive care unit and hospital, increase morbidity, mortality, and the cost of treatment. Although only 5-10% of the patients are treated in the intensive care units, 20-25% of all nosocomial infections are seen in these units. Preventing nosocomial infections in intensive care units is a process started at the patient acceptance to unit that requires an interdisciplinary team approach of intensive care staffs’ and Infection Control Committee members.Intensive care nurses who are in constant contact with patients have important responsibilities in preventing nosocomial infections. Intensive care nurses should be aware that the nosocomial infections can be prevented. They should have current knowledge about universal precautions related to prevention and control of infections, which are accepted by the entire world and they reinforce this knowledge by practice and should provide the most effective care to patients.In this article, nursing practices for prevention of nosocomial infections in intensive care units are discussed based on universal precautions.

  15. The Leaderless Bacteriocin Enterocin K1 Is Highly Potent against Enterococcus faecium: A Study on Structure, Target Spectrum and Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Kirill V; Kristiansen, Per Eugen; Straume, Daniel; Jensen, Marianne S; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2017-01-01

    Enterocin K1 (EntK1), enterocin EJ97 (EntEJ97), and LsbB are three sequence related leaderless bacteriocins. Yet LsbB kills only lactococci while EntK1 and EntEJ97 target wider spectra with EntK1 being particularly active against Enterococcus faecium , including nosocomial multidrug resistant isolates. NMR study of EntK1 showed that it had a structure very similar to LsbB - both having an amphiphilic N-terminal α-helix and an unstructured C-terminus. The α-helix in EntK1 is, however, about 3-4 residues longer than that of LsbB. Enterococcal mutants highly resistant to EntEJ97 and EntK1 were found to have mutations within rseP , a gene encoding a stress response membrane-bound Zn-dependent protease. Heterologous expression of the enterococcal rseP rendered resistant cells of Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitive to EntK1 and EntEJ97, suggesting that RseP likely serves as the receptor for EntK1 and EntEJ97. It was also shown that the conserved proteolytic active site in E. faecalis RseP is partly required for EntK1 and EntEJ97 activity, since alanine substitutions of its conserved residues (HExxH) reduced the sensitivity of the clones to the bacteriocins. RseP is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. As expected, the growth of resistant mutants with mutations within rseP was severely affected when they were exposed to higher (stressing) growth temperatures, e.g., at 45°C, at which wild type cells still grew well. These findings allow us to design a hurdle strategy with a combination of the bacteriocin(s) and higher temperature that effectively kills bacteriocin sensitive bacteria and prevents the development of resistant cells.

  16. Analysis of the world epidemiological situation among vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections and the current situation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga-Ćwiertnia, Katarzyna; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains have become an important hospital pathogen due to their rapid spread, high mortality rate associated with infections and limited therapeutic options. Vancomycin resistance is predominantly mediated by VanA or VanB phenotypes, which differ as regards maintaining sensitivity to teicoplanin in the VanB phenotype. The majority of VREfm cases in the United States, Europe, Korea, South America and Africa are currently caused by the VanA phenotype. However, the epidemics in Australia and Singapore are chiefly brought about by the VanB phenotype. The rate of VREfm isolate spread varies greatly. The greatest percentage of VREfm is now recorded in the USA, Ireland and Australia. Supervision of VRE is implemented to varying degrees. Therefore, the epidemiological situation in some countries is difficult to assess due to limited data or lack thereof.

  17. Enterococcus faecium strains characterization through polymorphism study of VNTR loci

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    Belteghi, C.,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are commensally bacteria of the gastrointestinal and female genital tract in humans and some mammals and birds, and one of the significant causes of hospital-acquired infections, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Genetic fingerprinting (DNA fingerprinting is a tool for identifying, marking and prevention of infectious agents dissemination. SSR (short sequence repeat are known to suffer frequent variations in the number of repetitive units.MLVA (multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis is a variant of genetic fingerprinting, in epidemiological studies on the pathogenetic Enterococcus faecium. Our study included laboratory Enterococcus faecium strains or isolated from clinical cases or from the environment (2003-2008. All analyzed strains of Enterococcus faecium were sensitive to vancomycin, except BM4147, and resistant to oxacilin. Strains isolated from the birds’ samples have shown a smaller resistance profile than those of human origin. 33 Enterococus faecium strains were analyzed by PCR amplification. 27 MT (VNTR profiles were obtained: six in the case of the strains isolated from birds, 15 in the case of the strains isolated form humans, 4 in the case of the collection strains and 2 in the case of the strains isolated from water samples. Among the strains isolated from humans and those isolated from animals, identical profiles were not recorded. Within the strains isolated from clinical cases, and those isolated from birds, circulating genotypes were noted, which can be considered as epidemical. The strains used as probiotics proved to be different from those circulating in birds. All MLVA profiles codes compared with those published on line in the UMC Utrecht database proved to be different. Results obtained in this study support the usefulness of the polymorphic VNTR analysis, as genetic marker, inepidemiological investigations.

  18. Multidrug resistance in Enterococcus species of faecal origin from commercial dairy lactating cattle: Public health concern

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    Godfred Ngu Tanih

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of Enterococcus species in cattle faeces, their corresponding drug resistant patterns as well as the genes coding for resistance in the isolates. Methods: Two hundred and ninety rectal swabs were cultured for the isolation of Enterococcus. Presumptive isolates were confirmed by PCR, targeting the tuf gene, and confirmed isolates were identified to species level, using species-specific primers aimed at targeting six different species. Additionally, antibiogram was performed by disc diffusion and genes implicated in resistance were evaluated using molecular methods. Results: All presumptive isolates were confirmed as Enterococcus and speciated as: Enterococcus hirae (82%, Enterococcus faecium (5%, Enterococcus durans (5%, Enterococcus faecalis (2% and 6% of unidentified species. Resistance to various antimicrobials ranged from 16.4% for penicillin to 69.6% for erythromycin. Among the tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, tet M (100% and erm B (29% were the only amplified genes known to mediate resistance respectively. Other detected genes included van B (25%, van C1 (21% and bla Z (11%. Conclusions: A high prevalence of multidrug resistant Enterococcus species was observed in this study, accentuating the need to improve on animal farming practices to prevent the dissemination of this microorganism to the environment.

  19. Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis in Association with Enterococcus durans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallavollita, Luca; Di Gioacchino, Lorena; Balestrini, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    Enterococci are common organisms associated with endocarditis, but infection by Enterococcus durans is very rare. To our knowledge, only 3 cases have been reported in the medical literature, and all 3 have involved native valves. Here we publish the first reported case (to our knowledge) of E. durans endocarditis in association with a bioprosthetic aortic valve. After the organism and its antibiotic susceptibility were identified, the 74-year-old male patient was treated successfully with teicoplanin and gentamicin, over a course of 6 weeks.

  20. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

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    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  1. SPHINGOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN: NOSOCOMIAL VERSUS COMMUNITY ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

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    Nuri Bayram

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a causative agent of infection in immunocompromised patients, and healthcare-associated infections. Although the infections associated with S.paucimobilis occurs rarely, it has been encountered with increasing frequency in clinical settings. In the current study we noted the risk factors and clinical features of the children with S.paucimobilis infections, and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolated strains among the patients. This study was conducted in Dr. Behçet Uz Children’s Hospital, Turkey, during the period of January 2005 and December 2012. The medical records of pediatric patients with positive cultures for S.paucimobilis were reviewed. Sphingomonas paucimobilis isolates were recovered from 24 pediatric patients. The median age was 4 years (ranging from 3 days infant to 15 years and 58,3% were male. Eight (33,3% of the patients were under 1 months of age. Among the patients; 13 (54,2% infections were community related however 11(45.8% infections were nosocomial infection. The median duration of hospital stay was 7 days (ranging from 4 to 22 days. The most effective antibiotics were fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This is the first largest study in children to evaluate the clinical features of S. paucimobilis infections. Sphingomonas paucimobilis may cause infections in both previously healthy and immunocompromised children. Although variable antimicrobial regimens were achieved to the patients, there was no attributable fatality due to S.paucimobilis infections due to the low virulence of the bacteria.

  2. [Nosocomial Clostridium difficile diarrhea--adverse effect of antibiotic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeni, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    C. difficile is recognised as the main cause for colitis in hospitalised patients which are treated with antibiotics, chemotherapics or other drugs that disturb intestinal microbiota. Thus, a rapid and correct diagnostic of Clostridium difficile infections is essential for preventing nosocomial infection spread. Empiric therapy, regardless of the laboratory investigation results, is inadequate, especially in epidemic situations, as not all the cases of diarrhoea are due to C. difficile infection. Other risk factors for CDAD (Clostridiumn difficile Associated Diseases might be: prolonged hospitalization or residency in an asylum, age, existence of a severe chronic disease in the background nasogastric intubation, anti-ulcer drugs, at less extent gastrointestinal surgery, other immunosuppresive compounds etc. In our country, C. difficile infection is rather frequent in adults, though it is not always reported by clinicians. The circulation of endemic rybotype 027 in Romania is not well documented, the rybotype being extremely virulent and spread in other European countries. Hence the importance of extending the diagnostic capacity of C. difficile infection in order to allow detection of this rybotype among the strains isolated in our country.

  3. [Nosocomial sinusitis in an intensive care unit: a microbiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre Filho, Leonardo Lopes; Vieira, Fernando Mirage Jardim; Stefanini, Renato; Cavalcante, Ricardo; Santos, Rodrigo de Paula; Gregório, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial sinusitis is a common complication of patients in ICUs. Its diagnosis is important, and early treatment is required to avoid serious complications such as pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis, and intracranial abscesses. To identify the germs causing sinusitis in ICUs by nasal swabs and maxillary sinus puncture, and to correlate these results. ICU patients with a diagnosis (CT confirmed) of maxillary sinusitis underwent nasal swab and puncture of the sinus to collect material for culture and antibiogram. This study evaluated 22 patients. The microbial agent isolated in the swab correlated with the agent in the puncture in 14 of 22 cases (63%). Gram-negative bacteria were the most frequent, as follows: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29% of punctures), following by Proteus mirabillis (26%) and Acinetobacter baumanni (14%). The resistance index in the antibiogram was high to antibiotics. Maxillary sinus puncture of ICU patients with sinusitis appears to be the best method for identifying bacteria; antibiograms demonstrate resistance to therapy. The swab has little diagnostic value; the correlation was 63%. It may be used when sinus puncture is contraindicated.

  4. [Risk of nosocomial infection in Intertropical Africa. Part 4: prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudet, S; De Pina, J J; Rapp, C; Kraemer, P; Savini, H; Demortiere, E; Simon, F

    2008-02-01

    Nosocomial infections have long been neglected in Sub-Saharan Africa, even though their prevalence is higher than in developed countries. Recently, however, this major public health problem has been the focus of a growing number of recommendations not only from the World Health Organization but also from some national health ministries. Because of the numerous limitations especially in financial resources in these regions, priority must be given to the implementation of simple and cost-effective measures. Accordingly the greatest efforts must be devoted to educating healthcare workers and patients about the importance of handwashing, eliminating unnecessary injections and transfusions, performing the latter acts in aseptic conditions, isolating patients with communicable diseases, handling waste products safely, and using antimicrobials properly. Amid the daunting health issues facing Sub-Saharan Africa, implementing these inexpensive measures that could save the lives of thousands of patients and healthcare workers appears easy. However it will require a cultural revolution. The keys to success will be changing the organizational culture, developing a commitment to prevention and evaluating performance regularly.

  5. The prophylactic effect of probiotic Enterococcus lactis IW5 against different human cancer cells

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    YOUSEF eNAMI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus lactis IW5 was obtained from human gut and the potential probiotic characteristics of this organism were then evaluated. Results showed that this strain was highly resistant to low pH and high bile salt and adhered strongly to Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal cell lines. The supernatant of E. lactis IW5 strongly inhibited the growth of several pathogenic bacteria and decreased the viability of different cancer cells, such as HeLa, AGS, HT-29, and MCF-7. Conversely, E. lactis IW5 did not inhibit the viability of normal FHs-74 cells. This strain did not generate toxic enzymes, including β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and was highly susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, penicillin, vancomycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazol, and chloramphenicol but resistant to erythromycin and tetracyclin. This study provided evidence for the effect of E. lactis IW5 on cancer cells. Therefore, E. lactis IW5, as a bioactive therapeutics, should be subjected to other relevant tests to verify the therapeutic suitability of this strain for clinical applications.

  6. Study on the susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis from infectious processes to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin

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    A. Genaro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is considered a pathogen responsible for hospital infections and, due to its frequent multi-resistant profile, has caused preoccupations among many medical authorities. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 74 strains isolated from blood cultures and purulent secretions to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin through the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC by using the Microdilution test. The results showed a greater efficacy of vancomycin compared to ciprofloxacin (98.6% of the strains were inhibited by vancomycin at lower concentrations: 0.06 - 1 µg/ml. However, in the MBC analysis 73% of the strains showed a MBC of vancomycin only at high concentrations (equal to or higher than 64 µg/ml. For ciprofloxacin, the strains showed a broad sensitivity with MICs and MBCs distributed along all the MIC classes. Results also revealed a probability that some strains are tolerant to vancomycin, which indicates the need of other tests to confirm this characteristic.

  7. Enterococcus, Myroides, and Exiguobacterium: Bacterial Genus with Probiotic Potential for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Culture

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    Luisa Marcela Villamil Díaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 120 bacteria were isolated from tilapia intestine and screened according to the antibacterial activity against pathogens such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus agalactiae, the ability to adhere to intestinal mucus and growth kinetics. The selected bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing of and were identified as Exigobacterium sp. I9, Enterococcus faecalis I15 and Myroides odoratimimus I19. Furthermore, the in vivo effect on fish growth was assessed by the addition of selected bacteria to juvenile Oreochromis niloticus feed (106 CFU / g, for 15 days. Survival was also determined after a challenge by intraperitoneal injection of E. tarda (100 μL of 105 UFC / mL. The three selected bacteria increased the specific growth rate, reduced mortality of fish during the experimental challenge with E. tarda and did not cause mortality during the addition in the feed. The positive effects observed in vivo are possibly associated with in vitro activity; however, for biosafety reasons, it is recommended that further studies of Exigobacterium sp. I9 and E. faecalis I15 may be carried out since this genus have been reported of as causative agents of fish mortality, whereas in the case of M. odoratimimus I19, verification of positive effects at a higher production scales is desirable.

  8. Effects of sarang semut (Myrmecodia Pendens Merr. & Perry extracts on Enterococcus faecalis sensitivity

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    Cut Soraya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis is a gram positive oral pathogen that reported at the main agent infection of endodontic treatment. Its activities are influenced by the virulence factors facilitating the interaction process between agents with host cells. Like aggregation substance, cytolysin, extracellular superoxide, gelatinase, hyaluronidase, sex pheromones, and surface adhesions molecules. Plant extracts are reported as the material antibacterial as well as E. faecalis in pathogenesis of endodontic infections. Purpose: Purpose of this study was to analyse of sarang semut extracts (Myrmecodia Pendens Merr. & Perry towards sensitivity of E. faecalis. Method: This research used the methanol extract of sarang semut, E. faecalis ATCC 29212, and fosfomycin also chlorhexidine as the positive controls. Whereas, Bradford protein method was measured the concentration of the surface protein of E. faecalis and active component of the sarang semut extract. Result: Generally, the sarang semut extract possessed low sensitivity toward E. faecalis (≤ 13 mm, but on the concentrations of 100 µg/ml and 75 µg/ml better than inhibition of other concentrations, round 10.6-11.6 (mm. Specifically, on 100 µg/ml has indicator the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC on E. faecalis. Whereas minimal inhibition concentration (MIC on the concentration of 3,125 µg/ml. Conclusion: Based on MBC and MIC assay, the extract of sarang semut has potential effects to adherence growth of E. faecalis, mainly on the highest concentration 100 µg/ml also MIC on 3,125 µg/ ml.

  9. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enterococcus faecalis Isolates from Mineral Water and Spring Water in China

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    Lei Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is an important opportunistic pathogen which is frequently detected in mineral water and spring water for human consumption and causes human urinary tract infections, endocarditis and neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of E. faecalis from mineral water and spring water in China. Of 314 water samples collected from January 2013 to January 2014, 48 samples (15.3% were contaminated E. faecalis. The highest contamination rate occurred in activated carbon filtered water of spring water (34.5%, followed by source water of spring water (32.3% and source water of mineral water (6.4%. The virulence gene test of 58 E. faecalis isolates showed that the detection rates of asa1, ace, cylA, gelE and hyl were 79.3, 39.7, 0, 100, 0%, respectively. All 58 E. faecalis isolates were not resistant to 12 kinds of antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and tetracycline. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR classified 58 isolates and three reference strains into nine clusters with a similarity of 75%. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of E. faecalis in mineral water and spring water in China. The results of this study suggested that spring water could be potential vehicles for transmission of E. faecalis.

  10. Transcriptomic and functional analysis of NaCl-induced stress in Enterococcus faecalis.

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    Margrete Solheim

    Full Text Available The robust physiology of Enterococcus faecalis facilitates tolerance to various stresses. We here report the transcriptional response of E. faecalis V583 to growth in the presence of 6.5% NaCl. Among the early responses observed was an immediate down-regulation of mscL, accompanied by an up-regulation of genes predicted to be involved in uptake of extracellular potassium and glycine betaine. The high NaCl concentration also induced expression of chaperons and cell envelope related traits, such as the enterococcal polysaccharide antigen (epa locus. Functional genetic analysis revealed reduced salt stress resistance in both epaB and epaE mutants. The reduced salt resistance phenotype associated with the epaB mutant was restored by complementation, hence demonstrating a role of Epa in the physiological robustness of E. faecalis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Epa confers increased resistance towards multiple cell envelope stress-inducing factors. Accordingly, these findings delineate a potential link between the robust nature of E. faecalis and its ability to perform as a human pathogen, and provide a new perspective on the mechanisms by which Epa contributes to virulence. Notably, the high NaCl concentration also resulted in strict repression of the gelE-sprE operon and impaired gelatinase activity. We demonstrate that NaCl antagonize the GBAP-pheromone dependent induction in a concentration dependent manner.

  11. Characterization and Application of Enterocin RM6, a Bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis

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    En Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of bacteriocins in food preservation has received great attention in recent years. The goal of this study is to characterize enterocin RM6 from Enterococcus faecalis OSY-RM6 and investigate its efficacy against Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. Enterocin RM6 was purified from E. faecalis culture supernatant using ion exchange column, multiple C18-silica cartridges, followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of enterocin RM6 is 7145.0823 as determined by mass spectrometry (MS. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis revealed that enterocin RM6 is a 70-residue cyclic peptide with a head-to-tail linkage between methionine and tryptophan residues. The peptide sequence of enterocin RM6 was further confirmed by sequencing the structural gene of the peptide. Enterocin RM6 is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Enterocin RM6 (final concentration in cottage cheese, 80 AU/mL caused a 4-log reduction in population of L. monocytogenes inoculated in cottage cheese within 30 min of treatment. Therefore, enterocin RM6 has potential applications as a potent antimicrobial peptide against foodborne pathogens in food.

  12. Characterization and application of enterocin RM6, a bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, En; Zhang, Liwen; Chung, Yoon-Kyung; Zheng, Zuoxing; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-01-01

    Use of bacteriocins in food preservation has received great attention in recent years. The goal of this study is to characterize enterocin RM6 from Enterococcus faecalis OSY-RM6 and investigate its efficacy against Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. Enterocin RM6 was purified from E. faecalis culture supernatant using ion exchange column, multiple C18-silica cartridges, followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of enterocin RM6 is 7145.0823 as determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis revealed that enterocin RM6 is a 70-residue cyclic peptide with a head-to-tail linkage between methionine and tryptophan residues. The peptide sequence of enterocin RM6 was further confirmed by sequencing the structural gene of the peptide. Enterocin RM6 is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Enterocin RM6 (final concentration in cottage cheese, 80 AU/mL) caused a 4-log reduction in population of L. monocytogenes inoculated in cottage cheese within 30 min of treatment. Therefore, enterocin RM6 has potential applications as a potent antimicrobial peptide against foodborne pathogens in food.

  13. An agmatine-inducible system for the expression of recombinant proteins in Enterococcus faecalis.

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    Linares, Daniel M; Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, María; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2014-12-04

    Scientific interest in Enterococcus faecalis has increased greatly over recent decades. Some strains are involved in food fermentation and offer health benefits, whereas others are vancomycin-resistant and cause infections that are difficult to treat. The limited availability of vectors able to express cloned genes efficiently in E. faecalis has hindered biotechnological studies on the bacterium's regulatory and pathogenicity-related genes. The agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway of E. faecalis, involved in the conversion of agmatine into putrescine, is driven by a response inducer gene aguR. This study describes that the exposure to the induction factor (agmatine) results in the transcription of genes under the control of the aguB promoter, including the aguBDAC operon. A novel E. faecalis expression vector, named pAGEnt, combining the aguR inducer gene and the aguB promoter followed by a cloning site and a stop codon was constructed. pAGEnt was designed for the overexpression and purification of a protein fused to a 10-amino-acid His-tag at the C-terminus. The use of GFP as a reporter of gene expression in E. faecalis revealed that under induction with 60 mM agmatine, fluorescence reached 40 arbitrary units compared to 0 in uninduced cells. pAGEnt vector can be used for the overexpression of recombinant proteins under the induction of agmatine in E. faecalis, with a close correlation between agmatine concentration and fluorescence when GFP was used as reporter.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and high thermostability of a novel blissecreted by enterococcus mundtiiisolated from Lebanese cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Kassaa, I.; Safourim, N.; Mostafa, N.; Hamze, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used in many fields such as fermentation agents, increasing nutritional value and improving organoleptic quality of food. Also they are use das probiotics and preservatives against pathogensand spoilage microbes by producing antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins. Fifty cow's milk samples were collected and 175 LAB isolates were isolated and identified by using biochemical method. Fifteen isolates showedan antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenesATCC® 19115™.One strain, BL4 which showed the strongest activity, was chosen to extract and characterize its antimicrobial substance in order to evaluate its potential use as a new food protective agent. This strain was identified as Enterococcus mundtiibypyrosequencing method.The active substance was extracted using solvent method.This Bacteriocin likeInhibitory Substances “BLIS”can support a high temperature (121 °C) for a long time and resist pH variation.The BLIS BL4 can be considered as a peptide active against many food pathogen and food-spoilage microbes, such as Listeriamonocytogenes and Penicillium spp. BLISBL4can be used in food application as bio-preservative to reduce food-spoilage and food-borne diseases in food product. (author

  15. Pathogen intelligence

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    Michael eSteinert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behaviour, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behaviour, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies.

  16. Repurposing Clinical Molecule Ebselen to Combat Drug Resistant Pathogens.

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    Shankar Thangamani

    Full Text Available Without a doubt, our current antimicrobials are losing the battle in the fight against newly-emerged multidrug-resistant pathogens. There is a pressing, unmet need for novel antimicrobials and novel approaches to develop them; however, it is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to develop new antimicrobials. One strategy to reduce the time and cost associated with antimicrobial innovation is drug repurposing, which is to find new applications outside the scope of the original medical indication of the drug. Ebselen, an organoselenium clinical molecule, possesses potent antimicrobial activity against clinical multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. Moreover, the activity of ebselen against Gram-positive pathogens exceeded those activities determined for vancomycin and linezolid, drugs of choice for treatment of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus infections. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ebselen at which 90% of clinical isolates of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus were inhibited (MIC90 were found to be 0.5 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. Ebselen showed significant clearance of intracellular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA in comparison to vancomycin and linezolid. We demonstrated that ebselen inhibits the bacterial translation process without affecting mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, ebselen was found to exhibit excellent activity in vivo in a Caenorhabditis elegans MRSA-infected whole animal model. Finally, ebselen showed synergistic activities with conventional antimicrobials against MRSA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ebselen, with its potent antimicrobial activity and safety profiles, can be potentially used to treat multidrug resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections alone or in combination with other antibiotics and should be further clinically evaluated.

  17. Repurposing Clinical Molecule Ebselen to Combat Drug Resistant Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2015-01-01

    Without a doubt, our current antimicrobials are losing the battle in the fight against newly-emerged multidrug-resistant pathogens. There is a pressing, unmet need for novel antimicrobials and novel approaches to develop them; however, it is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to develop new antimicrobials. One strategy to reduce the time and cost associated with antimicrobial innovation is drug repurposing, which is to find new applications outside the scope of the original medical indication of the drug. Ebselen, an organoselenium clinical molecule, possesses potent antimicrobial activity against clinical multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. Moreover, the activity of ebselen against Gram-positive pathogens exceeded those activities determined for vancomycin and linezolid, drugs of choice for treatment of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus infections. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ebselen at which 90% of clinical isolates of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus were inhibited (MIC90) were found to be 0.5 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. Ebselen showed significant clearance of intracellular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in comparison to vancomycin and linezolid. We demonstrated that ebselen inhibits the bacterial translation process without affecting mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, ebselen was found to exhibit excellent activity in vivo in a Caenorhabditis elegans MRSA-infected whole animal model. Finally, ebselen showed synergistic activities with conventional antimicrobials against MRSA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ebselen, with its potent antimicrobial activity and safety profiles, can be potentially used to treat multidrug resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections alone or in combination with other antibiotics and should be further clinically evaluated.

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Sensing through Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS) and Nitroxyl (HNO) in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiangchuan; Walsh, Brenna J C; Flores-Mireles, Ana Lidia; Peng, Hui; Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Yixiang; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Hultgren, Scott J; Giedroc, David P

    2018-05-17

    Recent studies of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) signaling implicate low molecular weight (LMW) thiol persulfides and other reactive sulfur species (RSS) as signaling effectors. Here, we show that a CstR protein from the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis), previously identified in Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), is an RSS-sensing repressor that transcriptionally regulates a cst-like operon in response to both exogenous sulfide stress and Angeli's salt, a precursor of nitroxyl (HNO). E. faecalis CstR reacts with coenzyme A persulfide (CoASSH) to form interprotomer disulfide and trisulfide bridges between C32 and C61', which negatively regulate DNA binding to a consensus CstR DNA operator. A Δ cstR strain exhibits deficiency in catheter colonization in a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) mouse model, suggesting sulfide regulation and homeostasis is critical for pathogenicity. Cellular polysulfide metabolite profiling of sodium sulfide-stressed E. faecalis confirms an increase in both inorganic polysulfides and LMW thiols and persulfides sensed by CstR. The cst-like operon encodes two authentic thiosulfate sulfurtransferases and an enzyme we characterize here as an NADH and FAD-dependent coenzyme A (CoA) persulfide reductase (CoAPR) that harbors an N-terminal CoA disulfide reductase (CDR) domain and a C-terminal rhodanese homology domain (RHD). Both cysteines in the CDR (C42) and RHD (C508) domains are required for CoAPR activity and complementation of a sulfide-induced growth phenotype of a S. aureus strain lacking cstB, encoding a nonheme Fe II persulfide dioxygenase. We propose that S. aureus CstB and E. faecalis CoAPR employ orthogonal chemistries to lower CoASSH that accumulates under conditions of cellular sulfide toxicity and signaling.

  19. The incidence of nosocomial infection in the Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia: ICU-acquired nosocomial infection surveillance program 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaidi, S W; Sukro, J; Dan, A

    2001-06-01

    CU-acquired nosocomial infection (NI) remains one of the major causes of ICU mortality. This study presents the incidence of ICU-acquired nosocomial infection in ICU HUKM for the years 1998 and 1999, as part of the ongoing ICU-acquired nosocomial infection surveillance program. The overall incidence was 23%. The main types of NI was lower respiratory tract infection (15.3%), primary bacteraemia (8.1%), ventilator associated pneumonia (5.4%), urinary tract infection (2.0%), skin infection (1.6%) central venous catheter sepsis (1.2%) and surgical skin infection (0.8%). The overall culture positive nosocomial infection rate was only 12.1%, majority from the lungs (12.6%), blood (7.3%), skin swabs (2.0%), and urine (1.6%). The main gram-negative organism cultured was Acinetobacter sp. (19%) and Staph. aureus (8.5%) was the gram-positive organism. The overall ICU mortality rate was 27.5% of which 60.9% of patients who died were attributed directly to sepsis.

  20. Icu Pathogens: A Continuous Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, A.; Munir, T.; Najeeb, S.; Rehman, S.; Gilani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and antibiogram of pathogens in an intensive care unit (ICU). Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, from January 2013 to January 2014. Methodology: Clinical samples, received from patients admitted in ICU, were inoculated on various medias like blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar and urine samples on CLED. These were then incubated at 37 degree C for 24 hours. Isolates were identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test, oxidase test. Species identification in case of Gram Negative Rods was done by using API 20E (BioMerieux). Antibiotic susceptibility was done by using modified KirbyBauer disc diffusion technique. Bacterial isolates were prepared and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of various antibiotic disc (Oxoid, UK) as per manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Zone diameters were measured and interpreted as sensitive and resistant, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of the 367 positive cultures, 116 (31.08 percent) were Acinetobacter baumanniisusceptible to minocycline and tigecycline followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=71, 16 percent) susceptible to tigecycline and meropenem. Others were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Candida spp. Conclusion: Acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequently isolated pathogen. Most of the cultures yielding pathogens were from respiratory tract samples. Gram negative isolates were multidrug resistant but most were tigecycline and susceptible to meropenem. (author)

  1. Prevalence of Nosocomial Infection in Different Wards of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad

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    Jamal Falahi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The CDC defines a nosocomial infection as a localized or systemic condition caused by an adverse reaction to the presence of an infectious agent(s or its toxin(s. It is an infection that occurs between 48 to 72 hours after admission of patients in the hospital or as soon after the hospital discharge and on the admission time, patients don't have this infection. Objectives This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of nosocomial infection in Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in all wards of the Ghaem hospital, Mashhad during the 1 year period (2013; the data were collected from the wards records and HIS system and analyzed by the SPSS software (version16. Results In the present study, of total 35979 hospitalized patients in different wards of the Ghaem hospital was reported 1.1% of nosocomial infection. In the meantime, overall, the most prevalent organism was Acinetobacter baumannii with a prevalence of 37.2% and the minimum was linked to the Bacillus species with a prevalence 0.3%. The highest and lowest prevalence of the nosocomial infection was in the ICU and CCU with 49.9% and 0.3%, respectively. In general, among all wards of the mentioned hospital, the most frequent nosocomial infection was pneumonia (47.4% and the lowest belonged to CSF (2.3%. Conclusions In our study, the ICU ward was accounted for the highest rate of nosocomial infection, due to the critical importance of this ward. Preventive measures and survivelance system for reduction of nosocomial infections is needed.

  2. The Study of Nosocomial Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, A prospective study in Northwest Iran

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    Mohammad Bagher Hosseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are an important cause of mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Therefore, in this study, the incidence and prevalence of nosocomial infections were determined in NICUs of the three largest neonatal centers in northwest Iran, and the causative bacteria were identified in order to provide potential solutions to control the infections in these hospitals. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive-prospective study in which the cases of nosocomial infections were examined in the three largest hospitals in Tabriz in northwest Iran during 1 year (from June 2012 until May 2013 based on clinical findings, medical and nursing reports of patients, and laboratory results. Results: Of the 3129 patients hospitalized in NICUs of the three hospitals, 208 patients were diagnosed with nosocomial infections. The incidence rate of nosocomial infections was 11.34%.per 100 patient days with 52.4% bacteremia, 32.69% pneumonia, 5.77% urinary tract infections, 5.29% wound infections, and 3.85% necrotizing enterocolitis. There was a statistically significant relationship between invasive procedures (such as umbilical catheters, central venous catheters, surgery, and TPN and sepsis (P = 0.001. The relationships between urinary tract infection and urinary catheter (P = 0.000, and aggressive procedures (such as suctioning and intubation and pneumonia (P = 0.001 were also statistically significant. Conclusion: Incidence of nosocomial infections in premature and low birth weight newborns is considered as a health threat. The findings of this research reiterate the importance of giving further attention to prevention and control of nosocomial infections in the NICU.

  3. The Review Systematic and Meta Analysis of Prevalence and Causes of Nosocomial Infection in Iran

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    Pezhman Bagheri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The variation of reported nosocomial infection is very high respectively. It seems review systematic and Meta analysis of related documents gives precise estimate of this subject for correct politisize. So tha aim of this study the review systematic and meta analysis of prevalence and causes of nosocomial infection in iran. Materials and Methods: For this study all articles published in Iranian journals and international journals, Final Report of Research Projects, related papers presented at congresses and thesis were reviewed with using standard and sensitive keywords. Then, all articles published between 1997-2010 years that had eligibility Inclusion criteria after quality control, using random model, intered to process of meta-analysis. Results: The finding show that the best estimate of total prevalence of nosocomial infection in Iran is 30.43% and the most common infections of nosocomial infection are respiratory infection 39.4%%, urinary infection 23.88%, bacteremia 21.98% and the most common factors of nosocomial infection are Pseudomonas aeroginosa 26.78%, klebsiella 31.42%, Staphylococcus 23.6% and E.coli 30.93%. The research also found a substantial heterogeneity that using meta regression method the main cause of produce of this heterogeneity, participants people, sample size, average age of the samples, time of study and gender were introduced. Conclusions: The simple review of studied documents in this survey show that prevalence rate of different nosocomial infection in Iran is high relatively. Hence make appropriate and evidence-based educational and control programs to reduce nosocomial infections prevalence rate in Iran should be considered by policy makers.

  4. Growth- and Stress-Induced PASTA Kinase Phosphorylation in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Benjamin D; Kristich, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Transmembrane Ser/Thr kinases containing extracellular PASTA domains are ubiquitous among Actinobacteria and Firmicutes Such PASTA kinases regulate critical processes, including antibiotic resistance, cell division, toxin production, and virulence, and are essential for viability in certain organisms. Based on in vitro studies with purified extracellular and intracellular fragments of PASTA kinases, a model for signaling has been proposed, in which the extracellular PASTA domains bind currently undefined ligands (typically thought to be peptidoglycan, or fragments thereof) to drive kinase dimerization, which leads to enhanced kinase autophosphorylation and enhanced phosphorylation of substrates. However, this model has not been rigorously tested in vivo Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive intestinal commensal and major antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogen. In E. faecalis , the PASTA kinase IreK drives intrinsic resistance to cell wall-active antimicrobials, suggesting that such antimicrobials may trigger IreK signaling. Here we show that IreK responds to cell wall stress in vivo by enhancing its phosphorylation and that of a downstream substrate. This response requires both the extracellular PASTA domains and specific phosphorylatable residues in the kinase domain. Thus, our results provide in vivo evidence, with an intact full-length PASTA kinase in its native physiological environment, that supports the prevailing model of PASTA kinase signaling. In addition, we show that IreK responds to a signal associated with growth and/or cell division, in the absence of cell wall-active antimicrobials. Surprisingly, the ability of IreK to respond to growth and/or division does not require the extracellular PASTA domains, suggesting that IreK monitors multiple parameters for sensory input in vivo IMPORTANCE Transmembrane Ser/Thr kinases containing extracellular PASTA domains are ubiquitous among Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and regulate critical processes. The

  5. Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. associated with chronic and self-medicated urinary tract infections in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Bisgaard, Magne; Son, Nguyen Thai; Trung, Nguyen Vu; An, Hoang Manh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-11-23

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infections among women worldwide. E. coli often causes more than 75% of acute uncomplicated UTI, however, little is known about how recurrent UTIs and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials affect the aetiology of UTIs. This study aimed to establish the aetiology of UTI in a population of recurrent and self-medicated patients referred from pharmacies to a hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam and to describe genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of the associated bacterial pathogens. The aetiology of bacterial pathogens associated with UTI (defined as ≥ 104 CFU/ml urine) was established by phenotypic and molecular methods. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were typed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Urine samples from 276 patients suffering symptoms of urinary tract infection were collected and cultured on Flexicult agar® allowing for detection of the most common urine pathogens. Patients were interviewed about underlying diseases, duration of symptoms, earlier episodes of UTI, number of episodes diagnosed by doctors and treatment in relation to UTI. All tentative E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were identified to species level by PCR, 16S rRNA and partial sequencing of the groEL gene. E. faecalis isolates were further characterized by Multi Locus Sequence Typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Mean age of 49 patients was 48 yrs (range was 11-86 yrs) and included 94% women. On average, patients reported to have suffered from UTI for 348 days (range 3 days-10 years, and experienced 2.7 UTIs during the previous year). Cephalosporins were reported the second drug of choice in treatment of UTI at the hospital. E. faecalis (55.1%), E. coli (12.2%) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (8.2%) were main bacterial pathogens. MIC testing of E. faecalis showed susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin and

  6. Purification and characterization of enterocin MC13 produced by a potential aquaculture probiont Enterococcus faecium MC13 isolated from the gut of Mugil cephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish Kumar, R; Kanmani, P; Yuvaraj, N; Paari, K A; Pattukumar, V; Arul, V

    2011-12-01

    A bacteriocin producer strain MC13 was isolated from the gut of Mugil cephalus (grey mullet) and identified as Enterococcus faecium. The bacteriocin of E. faecium MC13 was purified to homogeneity, as confirmed by Tricine sodium dodecyl sulphate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed a single active fraction eluted at 26 min, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis showed the molecular mass to be 2.148 kDa. The clear zone in native PAGE corresponding to enterocin MC13 band further substantiated its molecular mass. A dialyzed sample (semicrude preparation) of enterocin MC13 was broad spectrum in its action and inhibited important seafood-borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes , Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. This antibacterial substance was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes: trypsin, protease, and chymotrypsin but insensitive to catalase and lipase, confirming that inhibition was due to the proteinaceous molecule, i.e., bacteriocin, and not due to hydrogen peroxide. Enterocin MC13 tolerated heat treatment (up to 90 °C for 20 min). Enterococcus faecium MC13 was effective in bile salt tolerance, acid tolerance, and adhesion to the HT-29 cell line. These properties reveal the potential of E. faecium MC13 to be a probiotic bacterium. Enterococcus faecium MC13 could be used as potential fish probiotic against pathogens such as V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Aeromonas hydrophila in fisheries. Also, this could be a valuable seafood biopreservative against L. monocytogenes.

  7. Hospital ownership: a risk factor for nosocomial infection rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, C; Behnke, M; Geffers, C; Gastmeier, P

    2018-03-26

    In some countries, a relationship between hospital ownership and the occurrence of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) rates has been described. To investigate the association between hospital ownership and occurrence of HCAI in Germany. Five different components of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system were analysed with regard to the influence of hospital ownership in the period 2014-2016. Endpoints included ventilator-associated pneumonia, central-venous-catheter-associated bloodstream infections, urinary-catheter-associated urinary tract infections, surgical site infections (SSI) following hip prosthesis and colon surgery, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and hand rub consumption per 1000 patient-days. Three hospital ownership types (public, non-profit and private) were analysed using univariate and multi-variate methods. The distribution of hospitals according to the three ownership types was similar in all components. In total, 661 intensive care units (ICUs), 149 departments performing colon procedures, and 349 departments performing hip prosthesis were included. In addition, 568 hospitals provided their MRSA rates and 236 provided their CDI rates, and 1833 ICUs and 12,934 non-ICUs provided their hand rub consumption data. In general, the differences between the hospital types were rather small and not significant for the ICUs. In the multi-variate analysis, public hospitals had a lower SSI rate following hip prosthesis (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.99). Hospital ownership was not found to have a major influence on the incidence of HCAI in Germany. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevention of nosocomial infection in the ICU setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, A; Raimondi, F

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this review is to focus the epidemiology and preventing measures of nosocomial infections that affect the critically ill patients. Most of them (over 80%) are related to the device utilization needed for patient life support but responsible for such complications as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), surgical site infections (SSI) and urinary tract infections (UTI). General recommendations include staff education and use of a surveillance program with a restrictive antibiotic policy. Adequate time must be allowed for hand washing and barrier precautions must always be used during device manipulation. The routine changing of central catheters is not necessary and increases costs; it is necessary to decrease the handling of administration sets, to use a more careful insertion technique and less frequent set replacement. Specific measures for VAP prevention are: 1). use of multi-use, closed-system suction catheters; 2). no routine change of the breathing circuit; 3). lubrication of the the endotracheal tube cuff with a water-soluble gel; 4). maintenance of patient in semi-recumbent position to improve chest physiotherapy. Specific measures for UTI prevention include: 1). use of a catheter-valve instead of a standard drainage system; 2). use of a silver-alloy, hydro gel-coated latex urinary catheter instead of uncoated catheters. By implementing effective preventive measures and maintaining strict surveillance of ICU infections, we hope to affect the associated morbidity, mortality, and cost that our patients and society bare. More clinical trials are needed to verify the efficacy of prevention measures of ICU infections.

  9. The level of nurses’ knowledge of the prevention of nosocomial infections – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Gąska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A basic element in preventing and combating nosocomial infections is the medical personnel knowledge. It is up to health care workers to determine whether the hospital environment will be safe for both patients and those employed in this sector. The aim of the study was to present the level of nursing staff knowledge of nosocomial infections. Materials and methods. The research was carried out in the Podkarpackie Center of Cardiovascular Interventions in Sanok. The study group consisted of all nurses working in the Hemodynamic Department - 20 people. The tests were carried out using the diagnostic survey method. The research tool was the author's questionnaire. Results. The nurses were aware that the scale of the problem of nosocomial infections was important. Almost all nurses rated their level of knowledge of hospital-acquired infections very well. However, the full definition of the term "nosocomial infections" was not given by about a quarter of respondents. In hospitals nurses did not always follow the rules of aseptic and antiseptic treatment. In addition, they did not see the need to educate patients and their families about the prevention of infections. Conclusions. Hospitals should carry out monitoring of nurses’ compliance with the procedures that are aimed at the elimination of ward infections and should consistently strive at their best to apply these procedures at their workplace. The ward staff should be involved in the education of patients and their families in the prevention of nosocomial infections.

  10. Nosocomial outbreak of hepatitis B virus infection involving two hospitals in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, K

    2012-02-01

    The routes of nosocomial hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission have changed over the years. Initiatives to prevent transfusion-associated HBV and healthcare worker-to-patient transmission have had a positive impact on these transmission routes. Recent reports of outbreaks of nosocomial HBV have implicated breaches in standard precautions as important causes of HBV transmission. This report describes a nosocomial outbreak of HBV infection in the Republic of Ireland, which occurred between January 2005 and March 2006. The outbreak was detected following identification of a case of acute HBV infection in a patient whose only risk factor was a recent surgical procedure. The extensive multi-agency investigation that followed revealed that the patient was one of five cases of acute HBV infection and that four separate transmission events between infectious cases had occurred in two different hospitals over a 15-month period. A definitive cause for each transmission event was not identified, although lapses in adherence to standard precautions, safe injection and phlebotomy practices could not be ruled out. Two secondary cases of acute HBV infection in community contacts of two of the nosocomial cases were identified. Phylogenetic analysis proved a useful tool in confirming infection with a pre-core HBV mutant and viral transmission between the seven patients. A patient notification exercise involving 1028 potentially exposed patients found no evidence of additional cases of nosocomial HBV infection. These findings highlight the importance of consistent application of standard precautions.

  11. Contribution of efflux pumps in fluroquinolone resistance in multi-drug resistant nosocomial isolates of Pseudomanas aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital in north east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Choudhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading opportunistic pathogen and its ability to acquire resistance against series of antimicrobial agents confine treatment option for nosocomial infections. Increasing resistance to fluroquinolone (FQ agents has further worsened the scenario. The major mechanism of resistance to FQs includes mutation in FQs target genes in bacteria (DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerases and overexpression of antibiotic efflux pumps. Objective: We have investigated the role of efflux pump mediated FQ resistance in nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital in north eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: A total of 234 non-duplicate, consecutive clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from a tertiary referral hospital of north-east India. An efflux pump inhibitor (EPI, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP based method was used for determination of efflux pump activity and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed for molecular characterisation of efflux pump. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC reduction assay was also performed for all the isolates. Results and Conclusion: A total number of 56 (23% have shown efflux mediated FQ resistance. MexAB-OprM efflux system was predominant type. This is the first report of efflux pump mediated FQ resistance from this part of the world and the continued emergence of these mutants with such high MIC range from this part of the world demands serious awareness, diagnostic intervention, and proper therapeutic option.

  12. Identification and tracing of Enterococcus spp. by RAPD-PCR in traditional fermented sausages and meat environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, B; Corominas, L; Garriga, M; Aymerich, T

    2009-01-01

    Four local small-scale factories were studied to determine the sources of enterococci in traditional fermented sausages. Different points during the production of a traditional fermented sausage type (fuet) were evaluated. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR was used to type 596 Enterococcus isolates from the final products, the initial meat batter, the casing, the workers' hands and the equipment. Species-specific PCR-multiplex and the partial sequencing of atpA gene and 16S rRNA gene sequencing allowed the identification of the isolates: Enterococcus faecalis (31.4%), Enterococcus faecium (30.7%), Enterococcus sanguinicola (14.9%), Enterococcus devriesei (9.7%), Enterococcus malodoratus (7.2%), Enterococcus gilvus (1.0%), Enterococcus gallinarum (1.3%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (3.4%), Enterococcus hermanniensis (0.2%), and Enterococcus durans (0.2%). A total of 92 different RAPD-PCR profiles were distributed among the different factories and samples evaluated. Most of the genotypes found in fuet samples were traced back to their source. The major sources of enterococci in the traditional fermented sausages studied were mainly the equipment followed by the raw ingredients, although a low proportion was traced back to human origin. This work contributes to determine the source of enterococcal contamination in fermented sausages and also to the knowledge of the meat environment.

  13. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus durans isolated from cheese: Survival in the presence of medications under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and adhesion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Daniel M F; Silva, Luana F; Casarotti, Sabrina N; Nascimento, Liane Caroline Sousa; Penna, Ana Lúcia B

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the survival of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus durans, isolated from cheese, in the presence of medications and under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The presence of genes encoding virulence factors, the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and adhesion properties were also assessed. Enterococcus faecium and E. durans both exhibited resistance to most of the tested medications but showed a large sensitivity to analgesics and antihypertensives; they also showed wide susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Enterococcus durans SJRP29 had greater resistance to the presence of medications in comparison with the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. The strains, except for E. durans SJRP05, did not harbor virulence genes. Enterococcus durans SJRP14, SJRP17, and SJRP26 were sensitive to all tested antimicrobial agents. Enterococcus faecium was more stable during the simulation of gastrointestinal tract and showed greater viability. At the end of the assay, except for E. durans SJRP17, all strains showed high viability (>7 log cfu/mL). Enterococcus durans SJRP29 stood out from the other strains and was selected for further evaluation; it tolerated up to 3.0% NaCl at 30 and 37°C, besides having good adhesion properties (high values of auto-aggregation, co-aggregation, and hydrophobicity). Additionally, the microorganism did not show bile salt hydrolase activity or mucin degradation. These results encourage carrying out additional tests to evaluate the probiotic features by using in vitro dynamic models and in vivo tests before applying these strains to a food system. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Do wheelchairs spread pathogenic bacteria within hospital walls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Avi; Koiefman, Anna; Dinisman, Eleonora; Brodsky, Diana; Labay, Kozitta

    2014-02-01

    Transmission of nosocomial pathogens has been linked to transient colonization of health care workers, medical devices and other constituents of patients' environment. In this paper we present our findings concerning the presence of pathogenic bacteria on wheelchairs, and the possibility that wheelchairs constitute a reservoir of these bacteria and a means of spreading them. In this work we examined four wheelchairs, each from a different location: the internal medicine ward, the emergency department, the general surgery ward and wheelchair stockpile of the transportation unit of the hospital. The samples were collected and cultured on different media. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were carried out using accepted practices in the microbiology laboratory. We found that wheelchairs are contaminated with several pathogenic bacteria, among them antibiotic-resistant strains such as MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanni etc. Since there is no specific guideline protocol that deals with disinfection and cleaning frequency of wheelchairs in hospitals, we suggest each hospital to write one.

  15. A Review of Nosocomial Infection at the Lagos university Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infection control program of the Lagos Universityteaching hospital was started in 1974 with an Infection Control team reporting to an Infection Control Committee. There is currently no functioning ... were the most common pathogens accounting for 75% of all organisms isolated. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus ...

  16. Epidemiological markers of Serratia marcescens isolates causing nosocomial infections in Spain (1981-1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquete, T; Vindel, A; Martin-Bourgon, C; Azañedo, L; Sáez-Nieto, J A

    1996-12-01

    The distribution of epidemiological markers (serotyping and phage-typing) of Serratia marcescens isolates from nosocomial episodes (63 nosocomial cutbreaks with 475 isolates, and 1208 sporadic cases) received in our laboratory during the period 1981-1991 was studied. The records for 1683 isolates from Spanish hospitals have been analyzed. In relation with the sporadic cases, the predominant types were serotype O6 (13.4%) and serotype O14 (11.4%); polyagglutinable strains accounted for 15.6%; in outbreaks, type O14 is clearly predominant (27.4%). Phage-typing was a good secondary marker, with a 87.9% of typability; the number of lytic patterns was very high, extended patterns (six or more phages) being the most frequent. We have studied the characteristics of S. marcescens isolates causing infections in the nosocomial environment in Spain.

  17. Knowledge and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection among Ward Nurses at Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oti A. Aja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted for estimating the knowledge and prevention of nosocomial infection among ward nurses at Federal Medical Centre (FMC, Umuahia Abia state. Four objectives were set, and four questions were formulated. A descriptive survey research method was used for the study. A sample size of one hundred and fifty (150 nurses was drawn from eight wards (medical and surgical, at FMC, Umuahia. A self-developed questionnaire with seventeen (17 structured questions was the instrument of data collection. Data were collected, analyzed, and presented in tables, pie chart, bar chart, histogram, and percentages. The results revealed that the nurses were well knowledgeable about nosocomial infection, although little deficiencies existed in the area of infection control practice and compliance, such as hand washing frequency. This study therefore recommends continuing education/seminar/workshop for all health care givers, to sensitize them with the knowledge and practice of nosocomial infection.

  18. Semmelweis revisited: hand hygiene and nosocomial disease transmission in the anesthesia workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Chuck

    2009-06-01

    Hospital-acquired infections occur at an alarmingly high frequency, possibly affecting as many as 1 in 10 patients, resulting in a staggering morbidity and an annual mortality of many tens of thousands of patients. Appropriate hand hygiene is highly effective and represents the simplest approach that we have to preventing nosocomial infections. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has targeted hand-washing compliance as a top research agenda item for patient safety. Recent research has identified inadequate hand washing and contaminated anesthesia workstation issues as likely contributors to nosocomial infections, finding aseptic practices highly variable among providers. It is vital that all healthcare providers, including anesthesia providers, appreciate the role of inadequate hand hygiene in nosocomial infection and meticulously follow the mandates of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists and other professional healthcare organizations.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  20. Virulence Factors Associated with Enterococcus Faecalis Infective Endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian T; Skov, Marianne N; Gill, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The enterococci are accountable for up to 20% of all cases of infective endocarditis, with Enterococcus faecalis being the primary causative isolate. Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening infection of the endocardium that results in the formation of vegetations. Based...... on a literature review, this paper provides an overview of the virulence factors associated with E. faecalis infective endocarditis. Furthermore, it reports the effects of active or passive immunization against some of these involved factors. INDIVIDUAL VIRULENCE FACTORS: Nine virulence factors have in particular...... been associated with E. faecalis infective endocarditis. Absence of these factors entailed attenuation of strains in both mixed- and mono-bacterial infection endocarditis models as well as in in vitro and ex vivo assays when compared to their virulence factor expressing parental strains. PATHOGENESIS...

  1. Endodontic sealers: Intratubular penetration and permeability to Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolini Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Evaluate in vitro the intratubular penetration and permeability of endodontic sealers in teeth contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods : Human canines were filled with AHPlus ® , Endo CPM-sealer ® or EndoRez ® sealers. To evaluate permeability, the coronary portion of each tooth was contaminated with E. faecalis, then the apical portion was immersed in brain heart infusion (BHI broth, and medium turbidity was observed for thirty days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to evaluate the intratubular penetration of each sealer at the cervical, middle, and apical thirds of the tooth. Results : Only one tooth from the Endo CPM-sealer ® group presented broth contamination. EndoRez ® showed increased intratubular penetration compared to AHPlus ® and Endo CPM-sealer ® . Conclusions : Endo CPM-sealer ® showed greater permeability to E. faecalis and EndoRez ® showed increased intratubular penetration.

  2. Exploiting CRISPR-Cas to manipulate Enterococcus faecalis populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullahalli, Karthik; Rodrigues, Marinelle; Palmer, Kelli L

    2017-06-23

    CRISPR-Cas provides a barrier to horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes. It was previously observed that functional CRISPR-Cas systems are absent from multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterococcus faecalis , which only possess an orphan CRISPR locus, termed CRISPR2, lacking cas genes. Here, we investigate how the interplay between CRISPR-Cas genome defense and antibiotic selection for mobile genetic elements shapes in vitro E. faecalis populations. We demonstrate that CRISPR2 can be reactivated for genome defense in MDR strains. Interestingly, we observe that E. faecalis transiently maintains CRISPR targets despite active CRISPR-Cas systems. Subsequently, if selection for the CRISPR target is present, toxic CRISPR spacers are lost over time, while in the absence of selection, CRISPR targets are lost over time. We find that forced maintenance of CRISPR targets induces a fitness cost that can be exploited to alter heterogeneous E. faecalis populations.

  3. Chemical disinfection of non-porous inanimate surfaces experimentally contaminated with four human pathogenic viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar, S. A.; Springthorpe, V. S.; Karim, Y.; Loro, P.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical disinfection of virus-contaminated non-porous inanimate surfaces was investigated using coxsackievirus B3, adenovirus type 5, parainfluenza virus type 3 and coronavirus 229E as representatives of important nosocomial viral pathogens. A 10 microliter amount of the test virus, suspended in either faeces or mucin, was placed onto each stainless steel disk (about 1 cm in diameter) and the inoculum allowed to dry for 1 h under ambient conditions. Sixteen disinfectant formulations were...

  4. Determinantes morfológicos de prognóstico em pneumonia nosocomial: um estudo em autópsias Morphological prognostic factors in nosocomial pneumonia: an autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mário Baptista Martinelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de pneumonia nosocomial nas autópsias em um hospital público universitário; identificar os fatores de risco relacionados à pneumonia nosocomial e os potenciais fatores prognósticos relacionados à ocorrência de pneumonia nosocomial fatal; e correlacionar os achados anatomopatológicos com a ocorrência de pneumonia nosocomial e/ou pneumonia aspirativa. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 199 pacientes autopsiados, maiores de 1 ano de idade, internados no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu da Universidade Estadual Paulista entre 1999 e 2006, cuja causa de morte (causa básica ou associada foi pneumonia nosocomial. Testou-se a associação dos dados demográficos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos com os desfechos pneumonia nosocomial fatal e pneumonia aspirativa fatal. As variáveis significativas entraram na análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 59 ± 19 anos. A prevalência de pneumonia nosocomial em autópsias foi 29%, e essa foi a causa mortis de 22,6% dos pacientes autopsiados. A pneumonia nosocomial fatal correlacionou-se com os achados anatomopatológicos de alterações estruturais tabágicas (OR = 3,23; IC95%: 1,26-2,95; p = 0,02 e acometimento pulmonar bilateral (OR = 3,23; IC95%: 1,26-8,30; p = 0,01. Não houve associações significativas entre as variáveis e pneumonia aspirativa fatal. CONCLUSÕES: Em nossa amostra, a pneumonia nosocomial teve prevalência elevada e foi responsável por quase 25% das mortes. A mortalidade é favorecida por alterações estruturais tabágicas e pneumonia bilateral. Esses achados corroboram os resultados de diversos estudos clínicos sobre pneumonia nosocomial.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies at a public university hospital; to identify the risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia and the potential prognostic factors associated with fatal nosocomial pneumonia and with fatal

  5. PCR-based identification of selected pathogens associated with endodontic infections in deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Uzel, Atac; Oncag, Ozant; Eronat, Cemal

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the selected pathogens in samples from deciduous and permanent tooth root canals by using PCR method and to determine the association of these organisms with clinical symptoms. A total of 145 children, 5 to 13 years old, were involved in this study. The presence of selected pathogens (Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus intermedius, Treponema denticola, Parvimonas micra, Tannerella forsythensis, Enterococcus faecium, Prevotella melaninogenica) in infected root canals was studied using PCR. T. denticola (P = .012, .02) and E. faecalis (P = .012, .04) were highly associated with periapical radiolucency and previous pain, while P. gingivalis was associated with tenderness to percussion in both deciduous and permanent teeth (P = .01, .015). The results of the present study confirm that certain species of microorganisms are associated with clinical signs and symptoms of endodontic disease in both deciduous and permanent teeth.

  6. Occurrence of mastitis pathogens in relation to somatic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vyletělová Klimešová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There were examined 161 cows from 4 farms in total. The suspect animals were selected according to viscosity test results, clinical symptoms and somatic cell count (SCC. Milk samples were examined for the presence of pathogens and for SCC. 55 mastitis pathogens were identified. The most frequently isolated species was Enterococcus faecalis (n = 20, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (n = 6 and Streptococcus uberis (n = 5. The SCC ranged from 9 to 24 204 ths.ml−1. There was positive occurrence of bacteria genus Staphylococcus and Enterococcus at lower SCC (50 ths.ml−1 and at higher SCC numbers (> 300 ths. ml−1 bacteria genus Streptococcus, Enterobacter and Escherichia coli. Differences in SCC were significant (P < 0.001 in negative samples xg 131 SCC versus 491 for positive, 611 for staphylococci and 464 ths.ml−1 for other positive. SCC discrimination limit for practical likelihood of pathogen occurrence estimation in infectious sample groups was calculated. This limit for suspicion of infection is 159 for positive group, 113 for staphylococci and 174 ths.ml−1 for other positive. This could be possible to recommend the value 174 ths.ml−1 for practical use with target to apply preventive or curative measures.

  7. Nosocomial oral myiasis in ICU patients: occurrence of three sequential cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leylabadlo, Hamed Ebrahimzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the infestation of living vertebrates or humans tissues by dipterous larvae. The oral cavity is rarely affected by this infestation and the circumstances which can lead to oral myiasis include persistent mouth opening together with poor hygiene. Such infestations have been reported mainly in developing countries such as in Asia. Although rare, nosocomial myiasis must be noted carefully, especially in case of hospitalized patients. This report describes three cases of nosocomial oral myiasis in hospitalized patients in ICU (intensive care unit in Tabriz, North West of Iran.

  8. Isolation and characterisation of an enterocin P-producing Enterococcus lactis strain from a fresh shrimp (Penaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Braïek, Olfa; Ghomrassi, Hamdi; Cremonesi, Paola; Morandi, Stefano; Fleury, Yannick; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Hani, Khaled; Bel Hadj, Omrane; Ghrairi, Taoufik

    2017-06-01

    Screening for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fresh shrimp samples (Penaeus vannamei) collected from retail seafood markets in the Tunisian's coast, resulted in the isolation of an Enterococcus strain termed Q1. This strain was selected for its antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactococcus garvieae and against fungi (Aspergillus niger and Fusarium equiseti). The Q1 strain was characterised using standard morphological and biochemical tests, growth assays at different temperatures, pH and salinity. 16S rRNA, rpoA and pheS gene sequencing, as well as the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer analyses, were combined to identify strain Q1 as a strain of Enterococcus lactis. The bacteriocin produced by E. lactis Q1 is thermostable, active in the pH range from 4.0 to 9.0 and has a bactericidal mode of action. The enterocin P structural gene was detected by specific PCR in strain E. lactis Q1, which is in good agreement with SDS-PAGE data of the purified bacteriocin. A lack of significant antibiotic resistance genes and virulence determinants was confirmed by specific PCRs. This work provides the first description of an enterocin P producer E. lactis strain isolated from a fresh shrimp. Based on its safety properties (absence of haemolytic activity, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes), this strain has the potential to be used as a natural additive or adjunct protective culture in food biopreservation and/or probiotic culture.

  9. [Characteristic situation on prevention of nosocomial infection in the hospital for the severely multi-disabled--experiences in care and treatment of 4 kinds of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Y; Tanaka, H; Yano, Y; Yano, T; Yoshida, K

    1997-12-01

    We experienced Hepatitis A, B, C and fulminant hepatitis due to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in our hospital for the severely multi-disabled (SMD) who had both severe motor and intellectual disabilities, and some of whom might be further complicated by blindness and/or deafness. In this hospital, 100 SMDs are hospitalized. Case 1: The disabled, 25 year old male, was transmitted Hepatitis A from a nurse. Case 2: The disabled, 60 year old female carrier of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) who has been cared for more than 10 years. Case 3: The disabled, 46 year old male carrier of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) (RNA type 3), has been cared for more than 4 years. Case 4: The disabled, 39 year old male, had a fever of 39 degrees C for 9 days and suddenly died. He was diagnosed as fulminant hepatitis due to HSV-1 by necropsy. The hospitals for SMD are characteristic in prevention of nosocomial infections; 1) The disabled infected is not aware of the fact that he or she is the source of infection and that the other disabled living with him or her are in risk of infection, because of their severe mental condition. 2) All of the disabled need complete or incomplete helps for activities of daily life (ADL), so that the disabled who is the carrier of some pathogen constantly gives risk of infection to staffs, including medical staffs (doctor, nurse and therapist), psychologist and helpers by bloody secretion from wounds, saliva, urine, feces as well as menstrual blood. 3) If a carrier of some pathogen is hospitalized, the staffs should serve under risk of infection involving blood-mediated infectious disease for many years, because SMDs are permitted lifelong stay in the hospitals for SMD, which also play a role of care house or institution, by public expense in Japan. In case of an outbreak of Hepatitis A, nosocomial infection ended in the original case (a nurse), another nurse and a case of the disabled by general treatment and care against communicable diseases of the digestive

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity and characterization of mangrove isolates of streptomycetes effective against bacteria and fungi of nosocomial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Das

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaliphilic and halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from a mangrove ecosystem and identification of a potent strain. Twenty five isolates of actinomycetes were isolated from the sediment samples of Valapattanam mangrove swamp in Kerala, India. Antimicrobial activity of four selected actinomycete isolates was determined against bacterial and fungal pathogens of nosocomial origin by agar well diffusion method. Molecular characterization of the potent isolate was performed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Isolate no I-1 significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (12 mm, S. aureus (15±0.05 mm, S. citreus (20±0.5 mm, Bacillus cereus (17±0.2 mm and Serratia marcescens (12 mm. It also demonstrated effective antifungal action against Penicillium sp. (12±0.2 mm, Candida albicans (20±0.5 mm, C. parapsilosis (12 mm and Cryptococcus neoformans (12 mm. Morphological study revealed that all the isolated actinomycetes belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Based on 16S rDNA sequence data, the selected isolate I-1 was shown to be closely related to Streptomyces xiamenensis. The results revealed that the mangrove ecosystem of Valapattanam harboured a rich consortium of many potent actinomycetes, which could synthesize novel bioactive compounds of pharmacological significance.

  11. Nosocomial acquisition of Escherichia coli by infants delivered in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K; Murono, K

    1996-04-01

    The delivery of infants in hospitals is desirable for obstetric reasons, but exposes the neonates to the microbiological hazards of a maternity unit. When neonates are born and cared for in hospital, the Escherichia coli strains that colonize the intestine tend to be acquired from the environment or from other babies, and are potentially pathogenic. The colonization of the infant with maternal flora should be promoted by strict rooming-in of mother and baby, or by delivery at home.

  12. Development of Novel Antibiotics for the Treatment of Acinetobacter and Related Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-07

    8217]’ . [ugmL ’] Staphylococcus aureus Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 32 ATCC 12608 2 ATCC 12608+10% serum 2 Bacillus subtilis ATCC 12608 +50% serum...March 1, 2009 to February 28, 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Novel Antibiotics for the Treatment of Acinetobacter and Related Pathogens...novel antibacterial agents. 15. SUBJECT TERMS antibiotics , compound screening, complex small molecules 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT U

  13. Safety Evaluation of Enterocin Producer Enterococcus sp. Strains Isolated from Traditional Turkish Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Mine; Özden Tuncer, Banu

    2017-07-06

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity and occurrence of bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus spp. isolated from different cheeses and also investigate some of their virulence factors. Enterococcus strains were isolated from 33 different cheeses. Enterococcus faecium (6 strains) and Enterococcus faecalis (5 strains) enterocin-producing strains were identified by 16S rDNA analyses. Structural genes entA, entB, entP and entX were detected in some isolates. Multiple enterocin structural genes were found in 7 strains. None of the tested enterococci demonstrated anyβ-haemolytic activity and only one strain had gelatinase activity. Six strains showed multiple antibiotic resistance patterns and in addition, vanA and several virulence genes were detected in many strains. Only E. faecalis MBE1-9 showed tyrosine decarboxylase activity and tdc gene was detected only in this strain.

  14. Foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bintsis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens are causing a great number of diseases with significant effects on human health and economy. The characteristics of the most common pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter sakazakii, Esherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococccus aureus, Vibrio spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, viruses (Hepatitis A and Noroviruses and parasites (Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis, together with some important outbreaks, are reviewed. Food safety management systems based on to classical hazard-based approach has been proved to be inefficient, and risk-based food safety approach is now suggested from leading researchers and organizations. In this context, a food safety management system should be designed in a way to estimate the risks to human health from food consumption and to identify, select and implement mitigation strategies in order to control and reduce these risks. In addition, the application of suitable food safety education programs for all involved people in the production and consumption of foods is suggested.

  15. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in goat's milk and goat's jben by the bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus faecium F58 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achemchem, Fouad; Abrini, Jamal; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes

    2006-10-01

    The bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus faecium F58 strain, a natural goat's jben cheese isolate, lacks decarboxylase activity involved in most biogenic amine formation. It was also sensitive to 13 antibiotics assayed and free of virulence and vancomycin resistance genes. The F58 strain reached the stationary phase after 12 h of growth in sterile goat's milk, and the production of enterocin F-58 (Ent L50) was first detected after 48 h (400 AU/ml), thereafter remaining stable up to 5 days. The effectiveness of the F58 strain in controlling Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b in reduced fat and whole goat's milk, and in goat's jben has been examined. Coculture experiments of F58-L. monocytogenes in both types of milk demonstrated that listeriae were not eliminated, although reductions by 1 to 4 log units were found. Nevertheless, when the F58 strain was previously inoculated in whole milk and left to grow for 12 h before contamination, the pathogen was completely eliminated after 130 h of coculture. Production of jben cheese contaminated with L. monocytogenes prior to packaging, using preparations of F58-producer strain, caused a significant decrease in the number of viable listeriae, which were undetectable after 1 week of cheese storage at 22 degrees C. Altogether, results from this study suggest that E. faecium F58 strain may be used as an adjunct culture in cheese to control contamination and growth of L. monocytogenes by in situ enterocin production, thus providing an additional hurdle to enhance control of this pathogen.

  16. Clostridium difficile is an autotrophic bacterial pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köpke

    Full Text Available During the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection showed a dramatic increase in incidence and virulence in the Northern hemisphere. This incessantly challenging disease is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated and nosocomial infectious diarrhea and became life-threatening especially among elderly people. It is generally assumed that all human bacterial pathogens are heterotrophic organisms, being either saccharolytic or proteolytic. So far, this has not been questioned as colonization of the human gut gives access to an environment, rich in organic nutrients. Here, we present data that C. difficile (both clinical and rumen isolates is also able to grow on CO2+H2 as sole carbon and energy source, thus representing the first identified autotrophic bacterial pathogen. Comparison of several different strains revealed high conservation of genes for autotrophic growth and showed that the ability to use gas mixtures for growth decreases or is lost upon prolonged culturing under heterotrophic conditions. The metabolic flexibility of C. difficile (heterotrophic growth on various substrates as well as autotrophy could allow the organism in the gut to avoid competition by niche differentiation and contribute to its survival when stressed or in unfavorable conditions that cause death to other bacteria. This may be an important trait for the pathogenicity of C. difficile.

  17. Purification and characterization of enterocin 4, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis INIA 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, H M; Nunez, M; Devreese, B; Van Beeumen, J; Marugg, J D

    1996-01-01

    A simple two-step procedure was developed to obtain pure enterocin 4, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis INIA 4. Chemical and genetic characterization revealed that the primary structure of enterocin 4 is identical to that of peptide antibiotic AS-48 from Enterococcus faecalis S-48. In contrast to the reported inhibitory spectrum of AS-48, enterocin 4 displayed no activity against gram-negative bacteria. PMID:8900014

  18. Purification and characterization of enterocin 4, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis INIA 4.

    OpenAIRE

    Joosten, H M; Nunez, M; Devreese, B; Van Beeumen, J; Marugg, J D

    1996-01-01

    A simple two-step procedure was developed to obtain pure enterocin 4, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis INIA 4. Chemical and genetic characterization revealed that the primary structure of enterocin 4 is identical to that of peptide antibiotic AS-48 from Enterococcus faecalis S-48. In contrast to the reported inhibitory spectrum of AS-48, enterocin 4 displayed no activity against gram-negative bacteria.

  19. Draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains isolated from chickens in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolka, Beata; Boyen, Filip; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains (1710s23 and 1711s24), cultivated from the ceca of healthy laying hens originating from different farms in Belgium.......Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains (1710s23 and 1711s24), cultivated from the ceca of healthy laying hens originating from different farms in Belgium....

  20. Global regulation of gene expression by the MafR protein of Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía eRuiz-Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is a natural inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract. However, as an opportunistic pathogen, it is able to colonize other host niches and cause life-threatening infections. Its adaptation to new environments involves global changes in gene expression. The EF3013 gene (here named mafR of E. faecalis strain V583 encodes a protein (MafR, 482 residues that has sequence similarity to global response regulators of the Mga/AtxA family. The enterococcal OG1RF genome also encodes the MafR protein (gene OG1RF_12293. In this work, we have identified the promoter of the mafR gene using several in vivo approaches. Moreover, we show that MafR influences positively the transcription of many genes on a genome-wide scale. The most significant target genes encode components of PTS-type membrane transporters, components of ABC-type membrane transporters, and proteins involved in the metabolism of carbon sources. Some of these genes were previously reported to be up-regulated during the growth of E. faecalis in blood and/or in human urine. Furthermore, we show that a mafR deletion mutant strain induces a significant lower degree of inflammation in the peritoneal cavity of mice, suggesting that enterococcal cells deficient in MafR are less virulent. Our work indicates that MafR is a global transcriptional regulator. It might facilitate the adaptation of E. faecalis to particular host niches and, therefore, contribute to its potential virulence.

  1. New trends in dentistry: plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. The efficacy compared to chlorhexidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lígia de Castilho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is an important pathogen associated with endodontic diseases, and its elimination and control are of paramount importance, as it represents one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of endodontic disease. Twenty-five plant extracts obtained from Brazilian forests were found to be effective against planktonic E. faecalis and were subjected to two traditional antibacterial assays, the microdilution broth assay (MDBA and the disk diffusion assay (DDA, using chlorhexidine (CHX as a control. Seven out of 25 extracts showed significant antibacterial activity and were tested in a biofilm assay, and three of these extracts were subjected to chemical fractionation. Residues were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the first chemical findings were described based on thin layer chromatography (TLC. Extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba, Symphonia globulifera and Moronobea coccinea showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA. The same I. alba and S. globulifera extracts, as well as the extract obtained from Connarus ruber var. ruber, showed significant activity in the DDA. RH2O obtained from Psidium densicomum and Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum showed better antibacterial activity compared to the respective crude extracts and CHX. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds and triterpenes represent the first findings of chemical groups that may occur in all species. The results of the present study include the discovery of six active extracts against planktonic E. faecalis and support further testing via assays involving biofilm formation, as well as the determination of the compounds' chemical profiles, as their activity was significantly better than that observed for CHX.

  2. In Vitro Synergy of Telavancin and Rifampin Against Enterococcus faecium Resistant to Both Linezolid and Vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, George A; Ashcraft, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    An emerging pathogen is Enterococcus faecium resistant to both linezolid and vancomycin (LRVRE). Antimicrobial combinations may be required for therapy and need to be evaluated. The combination of daptomycin and rifampin has demonstrated good in vitro activity against gram-positive bacteria, including E faecium. Telavancin, a newer lipoglycopeptide, has shown in vitro activity against E faecium. We evaluated the combination of telavancin and rifampin and compared the results to the combination of daptomycin and rifampin used previously on the same isolates. Twenty-four genetically unique (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis), clinical LRVRE isolates were collected in the United States from 2001-2004. Etest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (μg/mL) were 0.064-8 for telavancin, 1-4 for daptomycin, and 0.012 to >32 for rifampin. In vitro synergy testing was performed in triplicate by an Etest MIC:MIC ratio method, and summation fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated: synergy ≤0.5; indifference >0.5-4; and antagonism >4. The Etest method showed synergy (ΣFICs of 0.1-0.5) with telavancin + rifampin in 20/24 (83%) isolates and indifference (ΣFICs of 0.6-0.8) in 4/24 (17%) isolates. Similarly, the daptomycin + rifampin combination showed synergy (ΣFICs of 0.1-0.5) in 21/24 (88%) isolates and indifference (ΣFICs of 0.6-1.0) in 3/24 (12%) isolates by the Etest method. No antagonism was found. In vitro synergy with both combinations (rifampin + telavancin or daptomycin) was 83% and 88%, respectively, by Etest against these LRVRE isolates. Although both daptomycin and telavancin in combination with rifampin showed a high incidence of synergistic activity, further in vitro synergy testing with this combination should be performed against additional E faecium isolates. In vitro synergy may or may not translate into in vivo effectiveness.

  3. Screening of the Enterocin-Encoding Genes and Antimicrobial Activity in Enterococcus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaki, Mayara Baptistucci; Rocha, Katia Real; Terra, MÁrcia Regina; Furlaneto, MÁrcia Cristina; Maia, Luciana Furlaneto

    2016-06-28

    In the current study, a total of 135 enterococci strains from different sources were screened for the presence of the enterocin-encoding genes entA, entP, entB, entL50A, and entL50B. The enterocin genes were present at different frequencies, with entA occurring the most frequently, followed by entP and entB; entL50A and L50B were not detected. The occurrence of single enterocin genes was higher than the occurrence of multiple enterocin gene combinations. The 80 isolates that harbor at least one enterocin-encoding gene (denoted "Gene(+) strains") were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 82.5% of the Gene(+) strains inhibited at least one of the indicator strains, and the isolates harboring multiple enterocin-encoding genes inhibited a larger number of indicator strains than isolates harboring a single gene. The indicator strains that exhibited growth inhibition included Listeria innocua strain CLIP 12612 (ATCC BAA-680), Listeria monocytogenes strain CDC 4555, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 6538, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Salmonella typhimurium strain UK-1 (ATCC 68169), and Escherichia coli BAC 49LT ETEC. Inhibition due to either bacteriophage lysis or cytolysin activity was excluded. The growth inhibition of antilisterial Gene+ strains was further tested under different culture conditions. Among the culture media formulations, the MRS agar medium supplemented with 2% (w/v) yeast extract was the best solidified medium for enterocin production. Our findings extend the current knowledge of enterocin-producing enterococci, which may have potential applications as biopreservatives in the food industry due to their capability of controlling food spoilage pathogens.

  4. Photodynamic and antibiotic therapy impair the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in a whole animal insect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Chibebe Junior

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium has emerged as one of the most important pathogens in healthcare-associated infections worldwide due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT is an alternative therapeutic platform that is currently under investigation for the control and treatment of infections. PDT is based on the use of photoactive dye molecules, widely known as photosensitizer (PS. PS, upon irradiation with visible light, produces reactive oxygen species that can destroy lipids and proteins causing cell death. We employed Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth caterpillar fatally infected with E. faecium to develop an invertebrate host model system that can be used to study the antimicrobial PDT (alone or combined with antibiotics. In the establishment of infection by E. faecium in G. mellonella, we found that the G. mellonella death rate was dependent on the number of bacterial cells injected into the insect hemocoel and all E. faecium strains tested were capable of infecting and killing G. mellonella. Antibiotic treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin or the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin prolonged caterpillar survival infected by E. faecium (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively. In the study of antimicrobial PDT, we verified that methylene blue (MB injected into the insect followed by whole body illumination prolonged the caterpillar survival (P = 0.0192. Interestingly, combination therapy of larvae infected with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with antimicrobial PDT followed by vancomycin, significantly prolonged the survival of the caterpillars when compared to either antimicrobial PDT (P = 0.0095 or vancomycin treatment alone (P = 0.0025, suggesting that the aPDT made the vancomycin resistant E. faecium strain more susceptible to vancomycin action. In summary, G. mellonella provides an invertebrate model host to

  5. Incidence, microbiological profile of nosocomial infections, and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a high volume Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs in the postoperative period not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also impose a significant economic burden on the health care infrastructure. This retrospective study was undertaken to (a evaluate the incidence, characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of NIs and (b identify common microorganisms responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance profile in our Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU. Patients and Methods: After ethics committee approval, the CSICU records of all patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NI, distribution of NI sites, types of microorganisms and their antibiotic resistance, length of CSICU stay, and patient-outcome were determined. Results: Three hundred and nineteen of 6864 patients (4.6% developed NI after cardiac surgery. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs accounted for most of the infections (44.2% followed by surgical-site infection (SSI, 11.6%, bloodstream infection (BSI, 7.5%, urinary tract infection (UTI, 6.9% and infections from combined sources (29.8%. Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTI, BSI, UTI, and SSI, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources were found to be highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion: The incidence of NI and sepsis-related mortality, in our CSICU, was 4.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Lower respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and Gram-negative bacilli, the most common pathogens after cardiac surgery. Antibiotic resistance was maximum with Acinetobacter spp.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus isolates in Turkey: A meta-analysis of current studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbas, Imdat; Ciftci, Ihsan Hakki

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a meta-analysis of Enterococcus isolates collected in 2000-2015 in Turkey and their susceptibility/resistance to antibiotics, clinical indications for initial drug treatment, and identification of alternative treatments was conducted. The meta-analysis examined antibiotic susceptibility/resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolates. The study was planned and conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Statements on antimicrobial resistance were grouped according to the antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP). The mean resistance rates of Enterococcus faecalis to vancomycin (VAN) and linezolid (LNZ) were 1.0±2.2% and 1.9±2.6%, respectively, whereas the mean resistance rates of Enterococcus faecium to VAN and LNZ were 10.3±11.3% and 2.4±0%, respectively. This study is the first meta-analysis of the resistance of clinical Enterococcus isolates in Turkey to antimicrobial agents, which is a major problem stemming from the excessive usage of antibiotics. The development of antibiotic resistance in Turkey has changed over time. To support the practice of evidence-based medicine, more notifications about Enterococcus resistance status are needed, especially notifications following ASP rules. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Doripenem in hospital infections: a focus on nosocomial pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infections, and complicated urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Shien Lo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tze Shien Lo,1 Stephanie M Borchardt,2 Justin M Welch,3 Melissa A Rohrich,3 Augusto M Alonto,4 Anne V Alonto51Infectious Diseases Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Fargo, North Dakota, USA; 2Research Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Fargo, North Dakota, USA; 3Pharmacy Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Fargo, North Dakota, USA; 4Infectious Diseases Department, MeritCare Medical Center, Fargo, North Dakota, USA; 5Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Fargo, North Dakota, USAAbstract: Doripenem is the latest carbapenem on the market to date. Although not an antibiotic in a new class, it offers a glimmer of hope in combating serious infections secondary to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria when we have not seen a new class of antibacterial, particularly for Gram-negative bacteria, for more than 10 years. In vitro, doripenem exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and Amp-C β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes. Doripenem also exhibits better in vitro activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to other anti-pseudomonal carbapenems. It combines the desirable activities of both imipenem and meropenem. It has similar activity to imipenem against Gram-positive pathogens and has the antimicrobial spectrum of meropenem against Gram-negative organisms. Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that doripenem is non-inferior to meropenem, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, or levofloxacin in its efficacy and safety profile in treating a wide range of serious bacterial infections including intra-abdominal infection, complicated urinary tract infection, and nosocomial pneumonia. Due to its wide spectrum of activity and good safety profile it is susceptible to misuse leading to increasing rates of resistance

  8. SAFETY-MODE RESPIRATORY SUPPORT IN NOSOCOMIAL PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic criteria for and approaches to differentiated treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in nosocomial pneumonia (NP have been elaborated, but approaches to preventing this syndrome in the presence of risk factors have not been investigated. Safety-mode mechanical ventilation (MV (protective MV is the most probable way of preventing ARDS in NP. Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of MV with safety parameters in preventing ARDS in NP in patients with surgical abdominal infection. Subjects and methods. This retrospective unicentric study was conducted at the clinical bases of the V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology in 2013—2014. During a retrospective analysis, the patients were divided into two groups: 1 safe MV — after NP was diagnosed, the patients underwent safetymode MV (tidal volume (TV 6—8 ml/kg; 2 standard MV — after NP was diagnosed, the patients were on MV with traditional parameters (TV 8—10 ml/kg. The incidence of ARDS in the patient groups was taken as a main criterion for the efficiency of safetymode respiratory support. The duration of MV, the length of stay in an intensive care unit, and 30day mortality rates were estimated as secondary criteria for the efficiency of safety-mode respiratory support. The findings were statistically analyzed using a Statistica 7.0 package. The data were expressed as the median (± 25—75 percentiles interquartile range (IQR. The difference at p<0.05 was considered signif icant. >Results. Comparison of oxygenation index (OI and extravascular lung water index (ELWI showed that there were natural significant differences between the safe MV and standard MV groups in these indicators, beginning from day 2 of the investigation. The standard MV group displayed a significant decrease in OI and an increase in ELWI at 7 days versus at day 1 of the investigation. In the safe MV group, TV was naturally lower than that in the standard MV group on days 1

  9. Nosocomial transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetem, David J; Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit

    2012-01-01

    exposure. Despite obvious epidemiological differences, it is unknown whether differences in nosocomial transmissibility exist. We have, therefore, quantified the transmissibility, expressed by the single admission reproduction number (R(A)), of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA in hospital settings in Denmark....

  10. Endemic nosocomial infections and misuse of antibiotics in a maternity hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Naser Eldin; Gedebou, Messele; Al-Ghamdi, Saleh

    2002-02-01

    Patients admitted during a 6-month period to a maternity hospital in Saudi Arabia were studied for nosocomial infections and misuse of antibiotics. Patient history and diagnosis on admission and subsequent clinical and laboratory data were analysed. Infection developing from 72 h after admission was considered nosocomial. Therapeutic and prophylactic data as recorded on the patients' charts were assessed for possible misuse of antibiotics. Of 3439 patients, 136 (4.0%) developed nosocomial infection: 2.0%, 8.9% and 37.7% in obstetric, gynaecologic and nursery patients, respectively. Infections among adults were mostly found in the urinary (44.4%) and lower genital (33.3%) tracts. Among newborns, over 70% of cases were eye and ear (29.8%), skin (26.2%) and blood (19.0%) infections. Gram-negative bacteria caused 65.7% of the infections. Over 90% of the bacterial isolates were multidrug-resistant. About 24% of patients received single or multiple antibiotics; 57.2% were misused. The minimal hospital cost estimate for both nosocomial infections and misused antibiotics was US $318,705. The findings of this study, the first of its type in this region, should prompt improved infection control measures as well as educational and antibiotic restriction interventions.

  11. A NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION MANIFESTED AS ERYSIPELAS IN PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS PATIENT UNDER INTRAVENOUS DEXAMETHASONE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Yudha Pranata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Puncture wound in diagnostic interventions permits the entry of bacteria into the skin or soft tissue, thus precipitating nosocomial infection, such as erysipelas. There are other risk factors of nosocomial infections including old age, immunosuppressive drugs, and underlying diseases. Pemphigus foliaceus (PF is an autoimmune disease with corticosteroid treatment as the mainstay therapy, which could cause immunosuppression and predispose patients to infection. The objective of this paper was to report erysipelas as one of the manifestations of nosocomial infection in patients under immunosuppressive therapy. Case: A case of erysipelas acquired on the 9th day of hospitalization in a PF patient underwent intravenous dexamethasone injection, with history of puncture wounds on the previous day on the site of erysipelas was reported. The clinical findings of erysipelas were well defined, painful erythema and edema that felt firm and warm on palpation, with blisters and pustules on top. Gram staining from the pustules and blisters fluid revealed Gram (+ cocci. Patient was given 2 grams intravenous ceftriaxone for 7 days and saline wet compress. Improvement on the erysipelas was seen the day after ceftriaxone injection. The patient was discharged after 12 days of hospitalization with improvement both on the PF and the erysipelas. On the next visit 7 days later, the erysipelas lesion disappeared. Conclusion: Puncture wound and immunosuppresive treatment are the factors that could cause erysipelas as a nosocomial infection, and an appropriate treatment of the infection would decrease the functional disability of the patient.

  12. Pattern of nosocomial infections in the special care baby unit of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-27

    Sep 27, 2013 ... -risk infants delivered in the maternity unit of the hospi- tal as well as infants referred ..... In the present study, the risk of nosocomial infection was not significantly higher ... German surveillance system for very low birth weight ...

  13. The impact of nosocomially-acquired resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a burn unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Alexis D; Shankowsky, Heather A; Swanson, Todd; Lee, Jonathan; Tredget, Edward E

    2007-07-01

    Nosocomially-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains a serious cause of infection and septic mortality in burn patients. This study was conducted to quantify the impact of nosocomially-transmitted resistant P. aeruginosa in a burn population. Using a TRACS burn database, 48 patients with P. aeruginosa resistant to gentamicin were identified (Pseudomonas group). Thirty-nine were case-matched to controls without resistant P. aeruginosa cultures (control group) for age, total body surface area, admission year, and presence of inhalation injury. Mortality and various morbidity endpoints were examined, as well as antibiotic costs. There was a significantly higher mortality rate in the Pseudomonas group (33% vs. 8%, p products used (packed cells 51.1 +/- 8.0 vs. 21.1 +/- 3.4, p < 0.01; platelets 11.9 +/- 3.0 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.7, p < 0.01) were all significantly higher in the Pseudomonas group. Cost of antibiotics was also significantly higher ($2,658.52 +/- $647.93 vs. $829.22 +/- $152.82, p < 0.01). Nosocomial colonization or infection, or both, of burn patients with aminoglycoside-resistant P. aeruginosa is associated with significantly higher morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. Increased resource consumption did not prevent significantly higher mortality rates when compared with that of control patients. Thus, prevention, identification, and eradication of nosocomial Pseudomonas contamination are critical for cost-effective, successful burn care.

  14. Nosocomial infections in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One HIV-infected child died of varicella pneumonia. Other common nosocomial infections encountered in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children respectively were upper respiratory tract infections (pharyngitis, tonsillitis or rhinitis) affecting 21 and four, otitis media in five and one, oral candidiasis in seven and zero, urinary ...

  15. Norovirus Genotypes in Hospital Settings - Differences between Nosocomial and Community-Acquired Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina Træholt; Nielsen, Rikke Thoft; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Norovirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis and hospital outbreaks, leading to substantial morbidity and direct healthcare expenses as well as indirect societal costs. The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of nosocomial norovirus infections among inpatients tested...

  16. Nosocomial infections in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-five nosocomial infections (23%) among the HIV-infected children, but only ... candidiasis in seven and zero, urinary tract infection in four and one and .... tant or multidrug-resistant TB received ... bacterial infections, 96 hours in the case.

  17. Cost-analysis of seven nosocomial outbreaks in an academic hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Dinkelacker, Ariane D.; Vemer, Pepijn; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; Lokate, Mariette; Sinha, Bhanu; Friedrich, Alex W.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nosocomial outbreaks, especially with (multi-)resistant microorganisms, are a major problem for health care institutions. They can cause morbidity and mortality for patients and controlling these costs substantial amounts of funds and resources. However, how much is unclear. This study

  18. Field inversion gel electrophoretic analysis of Legionella pneumophila strains associated with nosocomial legionellosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Wald, E R; Dashefsky, B; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1996-01-01

    Two nosocomial cases of Legionnaires' disease occurred in children. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from both patients and 30 of 39 plumbing system sites in the hospital. The patient and hospital environmental isolates yielded identical field inversion gel electrophoretic patterns which differed from patterns observed with epidemiologically unrelated strains.

  19. Nosocomial infections in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction between tuberculosis and HIV-infected infection is well known and is responsible for the increase in the incidence of tuberculosis ... This retrospective case-control study evaluated the occurrence of nosocomial infections in (HIV)-infected children and age- and time of ... complicated disease, or whose social.

  20. Risk Factors for Nosocomial Bacterremia Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pujol (Miquel); C. Pena; R. Pallares (Roman); J. Ayats (Josefina); J. Ariza (Javier); F. Gudiol (Francesc)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn a prospective surveillance study (February 1990–December 1991) performed at a 1000-bed teaching hospital to identify risk factors for nosocomial methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia, 309 patients were found to be colonized (n=103; 33 %) or infected (n=206; 67

  1. Bacteriophages for detection of bacterial pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutateladze, M.

    2009-01-01

    The G. Eliava Institute of Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology (Tbilisi, Georgia) is one of the most famous institutions focused on bacteriophage research for the elaboration of appropriate phage methodologies for human and animal protection. The main direction of the institute is the study and production of bacteriophages against intestinal disorders (dysentery, typhoid, intesti) and purulent-septic infections (staphylococcus, streptococcus, pyophage, etc.). These preparations were successfully introduced during the Soviet era, and for decades were used throughout the former Soviet Union and in other Socialist countries for the treatment, prophylaxis, and diagnosis of various infectious diseases, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteriophages were widely used for identifying and detecting infections caused by the most dangerous pathogens and causative agents of epidemiological outbreaks. The specific topic of this presentation is the phage typing of bacterial species, which can be an important method for epidemiological diagnostics. Together with different genetic methodologies - such as PCR-based methods, PFGE, plasmid fingerprinting, and ribosomal typing - phage typing is one method for identifying bacterial pathogens. The method has a high percentage of determination of phage types, high specificity of reaction, and is easy for interpretation and use by health workers. Phage typing was applied for inter-species differentiation of different species of Salmonella, S. typhi, Brucella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, E. col,i Clostridium deficile, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Lysteria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, plant pathogens, and other bacterial pathogens. In addition to addressing the utility and efficacy of phage typing, the paper will discuss the isolation and selection of diagnostic typing phages for interspecies differentiation of pathogens that is necessary

  2. Nosocomial infections: knowledge and source of information among clinical health care students in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello AI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ajediran I Bello1, Eunice N Asiedu1, Babatunde OA Adegoke2, Jonathan NA Quartey1, Kwadwo O Appiah-Kubi1, Bertha Owusu-Ansah11Department of Physiotherapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 2Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground: This study determined and compared the knowledge of nosocomial infections among clinical health care students at the College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana.Methods: Two hundred undergraduate health care students from four academic programs participated in the study. The study sample was drawn from each academic program by a simple random sampling technique using the class directory from each course. The Infection Control Standardized Questionnaire (ICSQ was used to assess the knowledge of students about three main domains, ie, hand hygiene, nosocomial infections, and standard precautions. A maximum score of 50 was obtainable, and respondents with scores ≥70% were classified as having a satisfactory knowledge. The response on each item was coded numerically to generate data for statistical analysis. Comparison of knowledge on the domains among categories of students was assessed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, while associations between courses of study and knowledge about nosocomial infections were determined using the Chi-square test. All statistical tests had a significant level of 5% (P < 0.05Results: Overall mean percentage score of the participants on ICSQ was 65.4 ± 2.58, with medical, physiotherapy, radiography, and nursing students recording mean percentage scores of 70.58 ± 0.62, 65.02 ± 2.00, 64.74 ± 1.19, and 61.31 ± 2.35, respectively. The main source of information about the prevention of nosocomial infections as cited by participants was their routine formal training in class. There was no significant association (P > 0.05 between course of study and knowledge of

  3. Comparison of the Nosocomial Pneumonia Mortality Prediction (NPMP) model with standard mortality prediction tools.

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    Srinivasan, M; Shetty, N; Gadekari, S; Thunga, G; Rao, K; Kunhikatta, V

    2017-07-01

    Severity or mortality prediction of nosocomial pneumonia could aid in the effective triage of patients and assisting physicians. To compare various severity assessment scoring systems for predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in nosocomial pneumonia patients. A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital in Manipal, India. One hundred patients with nosocomial pneumonia, admitted in the ICUs who developed pneumonia after >48h of admission, were included. The Nosocomial Pneumonia Mortality Prediction (NPMP) model, developed in our hospital, was compared with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Mortality Probability Model II (MPM 72  II), Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS), Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Predisposition, Insult, Response, Organ dysfunction (VAP-PIRO). Data and clinical variables were collected on the day of pneumonia diagnosis. The outcome for the study was ICU mortality. The sensitivity and specificity of the various scoring systems was analysed by plotting receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and computing the area under the curve for each of the mortality predicting tools. NPMP, APACHE II, SAPS II, MPM 72  II, SOFA, and VAP-PIRO were found to have similar and acceptable discrimination power as assessed by the area under the ROC curve. The AUC values for the above scores ranged from 0.735 to 0.762. CPIS and MODS showed least discrimination. NPMP is a specific tool to predict mortality in nosocomial pneumonia and is comparable to other standard scores. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors and mortality for nosocomial bloodstream infections in elderly patients.

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    Reunes, S; Rombaut, V; Vogelaers, D; Brusselaers, N; Lizy, C; Cankurtaran, M; Labeau, S; Petrovic, M; Blot, S

    2011-10-01

    To determine risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) and associated mortality in geriatric patients in geriatric and internal medicine wards at a university hospital. Single-center retrospective (1992-2007), pairwise-matched (1:1-ratio) cohort study. Geriatric patients with nosocomial BSI were matched with controls without BSI on year of admission and length of hospitalization before onset of BSI. Demographic, microbiological, and clinical data are collected. One-hundred forty-two BSI occurred in 129 patients. Predominant microorganisms were Escherichia coli (23.2%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (19.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (7.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.8%) and Candida spp. (5.8%). Matching was successful for 109 cases. Compared to matched control subjects, cases were more frequently female, suffered more frequently from arthrosis, angina pectoris and pressure ulcers, had worse Activities of Daily Living-scores, had more often an intravenous or bladder catheter, and were more often bedridden. Logistic regression demonstrated presence of an intravenous catheter (odds ratio [OR] 7.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-22.9) and being bedridden (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3) as independent risk factors for BSI. In univariate analysis nosocomial BSI was associated with increased mortality (22.0% vs. 11.0%; P=0.029). After adjustment for confounding co-variates, however, nosocomial BSI was not associated with mortality (hazard ratio 1.3, 95% CI 0.6-2.6). Being bedridden and increasing age were independent risk factors for death. Intravenous catheters and being bedridden are the main risk factors for nosocomial BSI. Although associated with higher mortality, this infectious complication seems not to be an independent risk factor for death in geriatric patients. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of an infection control programme in reducing nosocomial bloodstream infections in a Senegalese neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landre-Peigne, C; Ka, A S; Peigne, V; Bougere, J; Seye, M N; Imbert, P

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal nosocomial infections are public health threats in the developing world, and successful interventions are rarely reported. A before-and-after study was conducted in the neonatal unit of the Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal to assess the efficacy of a multi-faceted hospital infection control programme implemented from March to May 2005. The interventions included clustering of nursing care, a simple algorithm for empirical therapy of suspected early-onset sepsis, minimal invasive care and promotion of early discharge of neonates. Data on nosocomial bloodstream infections, mortality, bacterial resistance and antibiotic use were collected before and after implementation of the infection control programme. One hundred and twenty-five infants were admitted immediately before the programme (Period 1, January-February 2005) and 148 infants were admitted immediately after the programme (Period 2, June-July 2005). The two groups of infants were comparable in terms of reason for admission and birth weight. After implementation of the infection control programme, the overall rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections decreased from 8.8% to 2.0% (P=0.01), and the rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections/patient-day decreased from 10.9 to 2.9/1000 patient-days (P=0.03). Overall mortality rates did not differ significantly. The proportion of neonates who received antimicrobial therapy for suspected early-onset sepsis decreased significantly from 100% to 51% of at-risk infants (Punit, simple, low-cost and sustainable interventions led to the control of a high incidence of bacterial nosocomial bloodstream infections, and the efficacy of these interventions was long-lasting. Such interventions could be extended to other low-income countries. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Leaderless Bacteriocin Enterocin K1 Is Highly Potent against Enterococcus faecium: A Study on Structure, Target Spectrum and Receptor

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    Kirill V. Ovchinnikov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin K1 (EntK1, enterocin EJ97 (EntEJ97, and LsbB are three sequence related leaderless bacteriocins. Yet LsbB kills only lactococci while EntK1 and EntEJ97 target wider spectra with EntK1 being particularly active against Enterococcus faecium, including nosocomial multidrug resistant isolates. NMR study of EntK1 showed that it had a structure very similar to LsbB – both having an amphiphilic N-terminal α-helix and an unstructured C-terminus. The α-helix in EntK1 is, however, about 3–4 residues longer than that of LsbB. Enterococcal mutants highly resistant to EntEJ97 and EntK1 were found to have mutations within rseP, a gene encoding a stress response membrane-bound Zn-dependent protease. Heterologous expression of the enterococcal rseP rendered resistant cells of Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitive to EntK1 and EntEJ97, suggesting that RseP likely serves as the receptor for EntK1 and EntEJ97. It was also shown that the conserved proteolytic active site in E. faecalis RseP is partly required for EntK1 and EntEJ97 activity, since alanine substitutions of its conserved residues (HExxH reduced the sensitivity of the clones to the bacteriocins. RseP is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. As expected, the growth of resistant mutants with mutations within rseP was severely affected when they were exposed to higher (stressing growth temperatures, e.g., at 45°C, at which wild type cells still grew well. These findings allow us to design a hurdle strategy with a combination of the bacteriocin(s and higher temperature that effectively kills bacteriocin sensitive bacteria and prevents the development of resistant cells.

  7. Inherent Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infection in the Long Stay Critically Ill Child Without Known Baseline Immunocompromise: A Post Hoc Analysis of the CRISIS Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcillo, Joseph A; Dean, J Michael; Holubkov, Richard; Berger, John; Meert, Kathleen L; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J; Harrison, Rick; Burr, Jeri; Willson, Douglas F; Nicholson, Carol; Bell, Michael J; Berg, Robert A; Shanley, Thomas P; Heidemann, Sabrina M; Dalton, Heidi; Jenkins, Tammara L; Doctor, Allan; Webster, Angie

    2016-11-01

    Nosocomial infection remains an important health problem in long stay (>3 days) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Admission risk factors related to the development of nosocomial infection in long stay immune competent patients in particular are not known. Post-hoc analysis of the previously published Critical Illness Stress induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial database, to identify baseline risk factors for nosocomial infection. Because there was no difference between treatment arms of that study in nosocomial infection in the population without known baseline immunocompromise, both arms were combined and the cohort that developed nosocomial infection was compared with the cohort that did not. There were 254 long stay PICU patients without known baseline immunocompromise. Ninety (35%) developed nosocomial infection, and 164 (65%) did not. Admission characteristics associated with increased nosocomial infection risk were increased age, higher Pediatric Risk of Mortality version III score, the diagnoses of trauma or cardiac arrest and lymphopenia (P risk of developing nosocomial infection (P risk factors (P < 0.05); whereas trauma tended to be related to nosocomial infection development (P = 0.07). These data suggest that increasing age, cardiac arrest and lymphopenia predispose long stay PICU patients without known baseline immunocompromise to nosocomial infection. These findings may inform pre-hoc stratification randomization strategies for prospective studies designed to prevent nosocomial infection in this population.

  8. Rapid kill-novel endodontic sealer and Enterococcus faecalis.

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    Nurit Beyth

    Full Text Available With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means.

  9. The Enterococcus faecalis exoproteome: identification and temporal regulation by Fsr.

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    Jayendra Shankar

    Full Text Available Analysis of the culture supernatant exoproteins produced by two PFGE clusters of high-level gentamicin and ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis from the UK and Ireland revealed two distinct protein profiles. This grouping distinguished OG1RF and GelE metalloprotease-expressing isolates from JH2-2 and other GelE-negative isolates. The integrity of the fsrABDC operon was found to determine the exoproteome composition, since an fsrB mutant of strain OG1RF appeared very similar to that of strain JH2-2, and complementation of the latter with the fsrABDC operon produced an OG1RF-like exoproteome. The proteins present in the supernatant fraction of OG1RF were separated using 2D gels and identified by mass spectrometry and comprised many mass and pI variants of the GelE and SprE proteases. In addition cell wall synthesis and cell division proteins were identified. An OG1RF fsrB mutant had a distinct exoprotein fraction with an absence of the Fsr-regulated proteases and was characterised by general stress and glycolytic proteins. The exoproteome of the OG1RF fsrB mutant resembles that of a divIVA mutant of E. faecalis, suggestive of a stress phenotype.

  10. Overexpression of Enterococcus faecalis elr operon protects from phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Perez, Naima G; Dumoulin, Romain; Gaubert, Stéphane; Lacoux, Caroline; Bugli, Francesca; Martin, Rebeca; Chat, Sophie; Piquand, Kevin; Meylheuc, Thierry; Langella, Philippe; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Serror, Pascale

    2015-05-25

    Mechanisms underlying the transition from commensalism to virulence in Enterococcus faecalis are not fully understood. We previously identified the enterococcal leucine-rich protein A (ElrA) as a virulence factor of E. faecalis. The elrA gene is part of an operon that comprises four other ORFs encoding putative surface proteins of unknown function. In this work, we compared the susceptibility to phagocytosis of three E. faecalis strains, including a wild-type (WT), a ΔelrA strain, and a strain overexpressing the whole elr operon in order to understand the role of this operon in E. faecalis virulence. While both WT and ΔelrA strains were efficiently phagocytized by RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages, the elr operon-overexpressing strain showed a decreased capability to be internalized by the phagocytic cells. Consistently, the strain overexpressing elr operon was less adherent to macrophages than the WT strain, suggesting that overexpression of the elr operon could confer E. faecalis with additional anti-adhesion properties. In addition, increased virulence of the elr operon-overexpressing strain was shown in a mouse peritonitis model. Altogether, our results indicate that overexpression of the elr operon facilitates the E. faecalis escape from host immune defenses.

  11. Blue light-mediated inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Giorgio; Wataha, John C; Girard, Myriam; Grad, Iwona; Schrenzel, Jacques; Lange, Norbert; Bouillaguet, Serge

    2013-05-01

    In dentistry, residual infection remains a major cause of failure after endodontic treatment; many of these infections involve Enterococcus faecalis. In the current study, we explored the possibility that blue light activated photosensitizers could be used, in principle, to inactivate this microbe as an adjunct disinfection strategy for endodontic therapy. Three blue light absorbing photosensitizers, eosin-Y, rose bengal, and curcumin, were tested on E. faecalis grown in planktonic suspensions or biofilms. Photosensitizers were incubated for 30 min with bacteria then exposed to blue light (450-500 nm) for 240 s. Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was used as a control. After 48 h, the viability of E. faecalis was estimated by measuring colony-forming units post-exposure vs. untreated controls (CFU/mL). Blue light irradiation alone did not alter E. faecalis viability. For planktonic cultures, blue light activated eosin-Y (5 μM), rose bengal (1 μM), or curcumin (5 μM) significantly (pcurcumin of 100, 10, and 10 μM respectively, completely suppressed E. faecalis viability (p<0.05). Although the current results are limited to an in vitro model, they support further exploration of blue light activated antimicrobials as an adjunct therapy in endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Buwchitin: a ruminal peptide with antimicrobial potential against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Linda B.; Crochet, Jean-Adrien; Edwards, Joan E.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Cookson, Alan R.; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Hilpert, Kai; Golyshin, Peter N.; Golyshina, Olga V.; Privé, Florence; Hess, Matthias; Mantovani, Hilario C.; Creevey, Christopher J.; Huws, Sharon A.

    2017-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gaining popularity as alternatives for treatment of bacterial infections and recent advances in omics technologies provide new platforms for AMP discovery. We sought to determine the antibacterial activity of a novel antimicrobial peptide, buwchitin, against Enterococcus faecalis. Buwchitin was identified from a rumen bacterial metagenome library, cloned, expressed and purified. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was assessed using a broth microdilution susceptibility assay to determine the peptide's killing kinetics against selected bacterial strains. The killing mechanism of buwchitin was investigated further by monitoring its ability to cause membrane depolarization (diSC3(5) method) and morphological changes in E. faecalis cells. Transmission electron micrographs of buwchitin treated E. faecalis cells showed intact outer membranes with blebbing, but no major damaging effects and cell morphology changes. Buwchitin had negligible cytotoxicity against defibrinated sheep erythrocytes. Although no significant membrane leakage and depolarization was observed, buwchitin at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was bacteriostatic against E. faecalis cells and inhibited growth in vitro by 70% when compared to untreated cells. These findings suggest that buwchitin, a rumen derived peptide, has potential for antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis.

  13. Buwchitin: A Ruminal Peptide with Antimicrobial Potential against Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda B. Oyama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are gaining popularity as alternatives for treatment of bacterial infections and recent advances in omics technologies provide new platforms for AMP discovery. We sought to determine the antibacterial activity of a novel antimicrobial peptide, buwchitin, against Enterococcus faecalis. Buwchitin was identified from a rumen bacterial metagenome library, cloned, expressed and purified. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was assessed using a broth microdilution susceptibility assay to determine the peptide's killing kinetics against selected bacterial strains. The killing mechanism of buwchitin was investigated further by monitoring its ability to cause membrane depolarization (diSC3(5 method and morphological changes in E. faecalis cells. Transmission electron micrographs of buwchitin treated E. faecalis cells showed intact outer membranes with blebbing, but no major damaging effects and cell morphology changes. Buwchitin had negligible cytotoxicity against defibrinated sheep erythrocytes. Although no significant membrane leakage and depolarization was observed, buwchitin at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was bacteriostatic against E. faecalis cells and inhibited growth in vitro by 70% when compared to untreated cells. These findings suggest that buwchitin, a rumen derived peptide, has potential for antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis.

  14. Emergent multisystemic Enterococcus infection threatens endangered Christmas Island reptile populations.

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    Karrie Rose

    Full Text Available Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus, in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island. The Gram and periodic acid-Schiff positive cocci to diplococci have a propensity to form chains surrounded by a matrix, which ultrastructurally appears to be formed by fibrillar capsular projections. The bacterium was associated with severe and extensive replacement of tissues, but minimal host inflammatory response. Attempts to grow the organism in culture and in embryonated eggs were unsuccessful. Molecular characterisation of the organism placed it as a novel member of the genus Enterococcus. Disease Risk Analyses including this organism should now be factored into conservation management actions and island biosecurity.

  15. Genes Important for Catalase Activity in Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baureder, Michael; Hederstedt, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Little in general is known about how heme proteins are assembled from their constituents in cells. The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme and does not depend on it for growth. However, when supplied with heme in the growth medium the cells can synthesize two heme proteins; catalase (KatA) and cytochrome bd (CydAB). To identify novel factors important for catalase biogenesis libraries of E. faecalis gene insertion mutants were generated using two different types of transposons. The libraries of mutants were screened for clones deficient in catalase activity using a colony zymogram staining procedure. Analysis of obtained clones identified, in addition to katA (encoding the catalase enzyme protein), nine genes distributed over five different chromosomal loci. No factors with a dedicated essential role in catalase biogenesis or heme trafficking were revealed, but the results indicate the RNA degradosome (srmB, rnjA), an ABC-type oligopeptide transporter (oppBC), a two-component signal transducer (etaR), and NADH peroxidase (npr) as being important for expression of catalase activity in E. faecalis. It is demonstrated that catalase biogenesis in E. faecalis is independent of the CydABCD proteins and that a conserved proline residue in the N-terminal region of KatA is important for catalase assembly. PMID:22590595

  16. [BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, A S; Rogozhin, E A; Valyshev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Isolate bacteriocins from Enterococcus faecium metabolites and characterize their effect on cells of Gram positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Methods of solid-phase extraction, ion-exchange and reversed phase chromatography were applied for isolation of bacteriocins from cultural medium of bacteria MALDI time-of-flight mass-spectrometry was used for characterization of the obtained preparations. The mechanism of biological effect of peptides was evaluated using DNA-tropic dyes (SYTO 9 and PI) with subsequent registration of fluorescence spectra: Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) was used for characterization of morpho-functional reaction of target cells. Peptide fractions with mass of 1.0 - 3.0 kDa were isolated from enterococci metabolites, that inhibit the growth of indicator microorganisms. E. faecium strain exoproducts were shown to increase membrane permeability during interaction with L. monocytogenes, that results in subsequent detectable disturbance of normal cell morphology of listeria. Alterations of E. coli surface during the effect of purified peptide fraction was detected using AFM. The studies carried out have revealed the effect of bacteriocins of enterococci on microorganisms with various types of cell wall composition and have confirmed the importance of bacterial barrier structure permeability disturbance in the mechanism of antimicrobial effect of enterocins.

  17. Antibacterial Effect of Diclofenac Sodium on Enterococcus faecalis

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    Amin Salemmilani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have shown antibacterial activity in some recent studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of diclofenac against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis as a resistant endodontic bacterium in comparison with ibuprofen, calcium hydroxide and amoxicillin.Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of materials was evaluated using agar diffusion test and tube dilution method. Mixtures of 400 mg/ml of materials were prepared. The bacteria were seeded on 10 Muller-Hinton agar culture plates. Thirty microliter of each test material was placed in each well punched in agar plates. After incubation, the zone of bacterial inhibition was measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the test materials was determined by agar dilution method. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA followed by Sidak post hoc test was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups.Results: There were significant differences between the two groups (p< 0.05. Results of the agar diffusion test showed that antibiotics (amoxicillin, gentamycin had the greatest antibacterial activity followed by NSAIDs (ibuprofen, diclofenac. Ca(OH2 failed to show antibacterial activity. Diclofenac and ibuprofen showed distinct antibacterial activity against E. faecalis in 50 µg/ml and above concentrations.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it is concluded that diclofenac and ibuprofen have significantly more pronounced antibacterial activity against E. faecalis in comparison with Ca(OH2.

  18. Modulation of virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains by Enterococcus faecium probiotic strain culture fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditu, Lia-Mara; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Voltsi, Chrysa; Bleotu, Coralia; Pelinescu, Diana; Mihaescu, Grigore; Lazar, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    The increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance drastically reduced the efficiency of conventional antibiotics and led to the reconsideration of the interspecies interactions in influencing bacterial virulence and response to therapy. The aim of the study was the investigation of the influence of the soluble and cellular fractions of Enterococcus (E.) faecium CMGB16 probiotic culture on the virulence and antibiotic resistance markers expression in clinical enteropathogenic Escherichia (E.) coli strains. The 7 clinical enteropathogenic E. coli strains, one standard E. coli ATCC 25,922 and one Bacillus (B.) cereus strains were cultivated in nutrient broth, aerobically at 37 °C, for 24 h. The E. faecium CMGB16 probiotic strain was cultivated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C in MRS (Man Rogosa Sharpe) broth, and co-cultivated with two pathogenic strains (B. cereus and E. coli O28) culture fractions (supernatant, washed sediment and heat-inactivated culture) for 6 h, at 37 °C. After co-cultivation, the soluble and cellular fractions of the probiotic strain cultivated in the presence of two pathogenic strains were separated by centrifugation (6000 rpm, 10 min), heat-inactivated (15 min, 100 °C) and co-cultivated with the clinical enteropathogenic E. coli strains in McConkey broth, for 24 h, at 37 °C, in order to investigate the influence of the probiotic fractions on the adherence capacity and antibiotic susceptibility. All tested probiotic combinations influenced the adherence pattern of E. coli tested strains. The enteropathogenic E. coli strains susceptibility to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams and quinolones was increased by all probiotic combinations and decreased for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. This study demonstrates that the plurifactorial anti-infective action of probiotics is also due to the modulation of virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility expression in E. coli pathogenic strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Convergence of PASTA kinase and two-component signaling in response to cell wall stress in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Stephanie L; Kristich, Christopher J

    2018-04-09

    Two common signal transduction mechanisms used by bacteria to sense and respond to changing environments are two-component systems (TCSs) and eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinases and phosphatases (eSTK/Ps). Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive bacterium and serious opportunistic pathogen that relies on both a TCS and an eSTK/P pathway for intrinsic resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics. The TCS consists of a histidine kinase (CroS) and response regulator (CroR) that become activated upon exposure of cells to cell wall-targeting antibiotics, leading to modulation of gene expression. The eSTK/P pathway consists of a transmembrane kinase (IreK) and its cognate phosphatase (IreP), which act antagonistically to mediate antibiotic resistance through an unknown mechanism. Because both CroS/R and IreK/P contribute to enterococcal resistance towards cell wall-targeting antibiotics, we hypothesized these signaling systems are intertwined. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed CroR phosphorylation and CroS/R-dependent gene expression to probe the influence of IreK and IreP on CroS/R signaling. In addition, we analyzed the phosphorylation state of CroS which revealed IreK-dependent phosphorylation of a Thr residue important for CroS function. Our results are consistent with a model in which IreK positively influences CroR-dependent gene expression through phosphorylation of CroS to promote antimicrobial resistance in E. faecalis Importance Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) and eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinases (eSTKs) are used by bacteria to sense and adapt to changing environments. Understanding how these pathways are regulated to promote bacterial survival is critical for a more complete understanding of bacterial stress responses and physiology. The opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis relies on both a TCS (CroS/R) and an eSTK (IreK) for intrinsic resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics. We probed the relationship between CroS/R and IreK, revealing

  20. [The risk of infection to the mother prior, during and after delivery. A registration of nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, H A; Niehues, U

    1982-09-01

    During 5 1/2 years all infections arising in the hospital (nosocomial infections) were registered prospectively by an infection control nurse. The incidence of all nosocomial infections in 3192 maternity patients was 2.1%. In 10,569 women following vaginal deliveries 2.6% and in 1,353 women following Caesarean section 21.1%. The commonest infections were urinary tract infections, endometritis, infections of the abdominal wound or the episiotomy, and a phlebitis of the intravenous infusion site. Measures to prevent infection resulted in a steadily decreasing incidence of infections during the 6 years of registration of nosocomial infections.

  1. The percentage of nosocomial-related out of total hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis and its association with hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbourd-Zinman, Orith; Ben-Ziony, Shiri; Solter, Ester; Chodick, Gabriel; Ashkenazi, Shai; Livni, Gilat

    2011-03-01

    Because the absolute numbers of both community-acquired and nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) vary, we studied the percentage of hospitalizations for RVGE that were transmitted nosocomially as an indicator of in-hospital acquisition of the infection. In a 4-year prospective study, the percentage of nosocomial RVGE declined steadily, from 20.3% in 2003 to 12.7% in 2006 (P = .001). Concomitantly, the rate of compliance with hand hygiene increased from 33.7% to 49% (P = .012), with a significant (P Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated Detection of Pathogens and Host Biomarkers for Wounds

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    Jaing, C

    2012-03-19

    The increasing incidence and complications arising from combat wounds has necessitated a reassessment of methods for effective treatment. Infection, excessive inflammation, and incidence of drug-resistant organisms all contribute toward negative outcomes for afflicted individuals. The organisms and host processes involved in wound progression, however, are incompletely understood. We therefore set out, using our unique technical resources, to construct a profile of combat wounds which did or did not successfully resolve. We employed the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array and identified a number of nosocomial pathogens present in wound samples. Some of these identities corresponded with bacterial isolates previously cultured, while others were not obtained via standard microbiology. Further, we optimized proteomics protocols for the identification of host biomarkers indicative of various stages in wound progression. In combination with our pathogen data, our biomarker discovery efforts will provide a profile corresponding to wound complications, and will assist significantly in treatment of these complex cases.

  3. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  4. Differential Effects of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Culturable Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus DNA Determined Using Real-time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological contamination of aquatic environments by pathogenic microorganisms is often assessed using fecal indicator bacteria such as enterococci. The concentrations of enterococci are commonly determined by culturing techniques, but there has been recent interest in using molec...

  5. The role of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in teeth periapical lesions immunopathogenesis caused by Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Yuanita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periapical lesions, are characterized by an immune response to the invading bacteria consequences periapical bone destruction. In root canal treatment failure was found Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis as most species. iNOS found an important role in protection against infection, plays vital roles in fighting pathogens and contributing to disease pathology. Purpose: This study was to observed the role of iNOS in teeth periapical lessions immunopathogenesis caused by E. faecalis. Methods: The randomized post-only control group design used in this study, This study used 24 Wistar rats, were divided into three groups (each group consisted of 8 rats, as negative controls group is a normal teeth, in the positive controls group was made by drilling the upper right first molar to penetrate the dental pulp and was induced with 10µl BHI-b then filled with Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC and the treatment group, after drilling the teeth, then inoculated with E. faecalis ATCC 29212 106 CFU into 10µl BHI-b then filled with GIC to prevent contamination. It takes 21 days to get periapical lesions and rat were sacrificed, and then the expression of iNOS was measured. Results: Statistical analysis using ANOVA found a significant differenced between control and treatment groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: This study concluded that iNOS role in teeth periapical lesions immunopathogenesis caused by E. faecalis.Latar belakang: Lesi periapikal merupakan hasil suatu respon imun untuk melawan invasi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi tulang periapikal. Pada perawatan saluran akar yang mengalami kegagalan ditemukan Enterococcus faecalis sebagai spesies terbanyak. iNOS berperan penting untuk proteksi terhadap bakteri, mempunyai peran yang vital untuk melawan patogen dan berkonstribusi secara patologik untuk menyebabkan suatu penyakit. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengobservasi peran iNOS secara imunohistokimia pada lesi periapikal tikus Wistar. Metode

  6. [Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among nosocomial gram-negative bacilli from intensive care units in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Jun; Wang, Hui

    2003-03-10

    To investigate the change of antimicrobial resistance among nosocomial gram-negative bacilli, especially those of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from intensive care units from 1994 to 2001 in China. E test was made to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 10 279 isolates of gram-negative bacilli (including 5 829 strains of bacilli of Enterobacteriaceae) from 32 hospitals in China from 1994 to 2001. The most common pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacter spp, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The most common pathogens in respiratory tract specimens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18%), and Acinetobacter baumanni (11%). The most common pathogens in blood and urine specimens were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibiotic remaining the most active against all of the gram-negative bacilli for 7 years was imipenem (with a susceptibility rate of 87%), followed by cefoperazone/sulbactam (however, with a susceptibility rate decreasing from 86% to 75%), amikacin (75%), ceftazidime (73%), cefepime (72%), and piperacillin/tazobactam (71%). The susceptibility rate of Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae to imipenem remained 98% with a MIC(90) of 0.5 micro g/ml during the 7 years, much higher than those to amikacin (84%), ceftazidime (83%), cefoperazone/sulbactam (83%), piperacillin/tazobactam (80%), and cefepime (80%). The susceptibility rate of these two species to cefoperazone/sulbactam decreased from 90% in 1996 to 74% in 2001. While the susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone decreased from 82% to 57%. The susceptibility rate of Escherichia coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 54% to 25% and that of Klebsiella pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin decreased from 90% to 75%. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in these two species increased from 11% in 1994 to 34% in 2001. The most active antibiotics against

  7. SENSITIVITY TO ANTIBIOTICS, ANTISEPTICAL NOSOCOMIAL PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA, ISOLATED IN UROLOGICAL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymsha E.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Given the active introduction into clinical practice of new groups of antibiotics and antiseptics, the problem of treatment of purulent-inflammatory complications after prostatectomy and today is relevant. Of particular concern belated cases of diagnosis and treatment of postoperative complications in urological practice patients receiving antibiotic therapy The use of traditional antibiotics is not prevents the development of infection, because the problem of resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics and antiseptics remains relevant. The solution to the problem of development of infectious complications and prevent the formation of resistant clinical strains largely depends on the isolated pathogen, susceptibility to antimicrobial agents based on its bioavailability , ability to spread and penetrate into cells and tissues, selection of dose, interval, and route of administration to maintain minimum bactericidal concentration Material and methods. The study involved 145 patients who were treated in the urology Department of the Vinnytsia regional clinical hospital named of M. I. Pirogov. Patients underwent the surgical treatment of benign hypertrophic prostate. Material for bacteriological studies of purulent-inflammatory diseases were urine, pieces of the prostate, remote operationally, urinary catheters, through which conducted irrigation of the bladder. Specimen collection, transportation was carried out in accordance with modern requirements. Identification was done by morphological, cultural and biochemical properties. The definition of antibiotic resistance were performed according to "guidelines for the definition of sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics by the method of diffusion in agar using discs" (No. 2675-83, Kiev, 2007 12 .]. Evaluation of the results of determining the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics was carried out on the basis of the determination of the zone of growth (mm of the studied

  8. [Nosocomial infections due to human coronaviruses in the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneur, A; Legrand, M C; Picard, B; Baron, R; Talbot, P J; de Parscau, L; Sizun, J

    2002-01-01

    Human coronaviruses, with two known serogroups named 229-E and OC-43, are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The large RNA is surrounded by a nucleoprotein (protein N). The envelop contains 2 or 3 glycoproteins: spike protein (or protein S), matrix protein (or protein M) and a hemagglutinin (or protein HE). Their pathogen role remains unclear because their isolation is difficult. Reliable and rapid methods as immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction allow new researches on epidemiology. Human coronaviruses can survive for as long as 6 days in suspension and 3 hours after drying on surfaces, suggesting that they could be a source of hospital-acquired infections. Two prospective studies conducted in a neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit demonstrated a significant association of coronavirus-positive nasopharyngal samples with respiratory illness in hospitalised preterm neonates. Positive samples from staff suggested either a patient-to-staff or a staff-to-patient transmission. No cross-infection were observed from community-acquired respiratory-syncitial virus or influenza-infected children to neonates. Universal precautions with hand washing and surface desinfection could be proposed to prevent coronavirus transmission.

  9. [Ceftaroline fosamil in community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo, Esther; Zaragoza, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection in developed countries and causes a large number of hospital admissions and deaths. In recent years, the incidence of this disease has increased, caused by progressive population aging. Following the introduction of the conjugate vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae, there have been significant epidemiological changes that require close monitoring because of the possible emergence of new patterns of resistance. This article aims to review the role of ceftaroline fosamil, a new parenteral cephalosporin with antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, in the treatment of pneumonia. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Additionally, ceftaroline has shown similar efficacy and safety to ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with severe prognosis (prognostic severity index III and IV) in two phase III clinical trials. Although a non-inferiority design was used for these clinical trials, some data suggest a superior efficacy of ceftaroline, with earlier clinical response and higher cure rate in infections caused by S. pneumoniae, making this drug particularly interesting for critically-ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Ceftaroline may also be considered for empirical and directed treatment of MRSA pneumonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Measures to prevent nosocomial infections during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Paula; Bassi, Gianluigi L; Torres, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are lifesaving measures in critically ill patients. However, these interventions increase the risk of respiratory infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP constitutes a serious burden for the healthcare system and worsens the patient's outcomes; thus, several preventive strategies have been implemented. This communication reviews the current knowledge on VAP pathogenesis and the latest preventive measures. Pathogen-laden oropharyngeal secretions leak across the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff; thus, a continuous control of the internal cuff pressure and cuffs made of polyurethane improve sealing effectiveness and associated risks of infections. Subglottic secretions aspiration prevents VAP, and the latest evidence demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of late-onset VAP. The role of ETT biofilm in the pathogenesis of VAP is not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, antimicrobial-coated ETTs have showed beneficial effects in VAP incidence. Recent experimental evidence has challenged the benefits associated with the use of the semirecumbent position; yet, these findings need to be corroborated in clinical trials. The latest results from trials testing the effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) showed beneficial effects on patients' outcomes, but concerns remain regarding the emergence of bacterial resistance, specifically upon digestive tract re-colonization. The use of oropharyngeal decontamination with antiseptics and the use of probiotics are potential alternatives to SDD. There is consistent evidence that strategies affecting the primary mechanisms of VAP pathogenesis efficiently reduce the occurrence of the disease. Preventive measures should be implemented grouped into bundles to improve overall efficacy.

  11. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  12. Hiding in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: Opportunistic Pathogens May Cross Geographical Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra S. Al-Kharousi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different microbial groups of the microbiome of fresh produce can have diverse effects on human health. This study was aimed at identifying some microbial communities of fresh produce by analyzing 105 samples of imported fresh fruits and vegetables originated from different countries in the world including local samples (Oman for aerobic plate count and the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated bacteria were identified by molecular (PCR and biochemical methods (VITEK 2. Enterobacteriaceae occurred in 60% of fruits and 91% of vegetables. Enterococcus was isolated from 20% of fruits and 42% of vegetables. E. coli and S. aureus were isolated from 22% and 7% of vegetables, respectively. Ninety-seven bacteria comprising 21 species were similarly identified by VITEK 2 and PCR to species level. E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and Enterobacter cloacae were the most abundant species; many are known as opportunistic pathogens which may raise concern to improve the microbial quality of fresh produce. Phylogenetic trees showed no relationship between clustering of the isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene and the original countries of fresh produce. Intercountry passage of opportunistic pathogens in fresh produce cannot be ruled out, which requires better management.

  13. Beta-lactam combination therapy for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species bacteremia: A summary and appraisal of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bartash

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal bacteremia and enterococcal bacteremia are prevalent in hospitalized or recently instrumented patients, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. They are often difficult to treat due to the pathogenicity of the organisms, poor response to antibiotics, and increasing development of multidrug resistance. Therefore, there has been increasing interest in combination therapy for the treatment of these infections. The aim of this review was to summarize and assess the evidence supporting combination beta-lactam therapy for both Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species blood stream infections. Currently, there is promising in vitro data but little clinical evidence supporting combination beta-lactam therapy for this indication. Further clinical investigations are needed to elucidate the potential benefits of beta-lactam combination therapy over monotherapy for Gram-positive bacteremia, although combination therapy may be useful in refractory cases of bacteremia that do not respond to standard antibiotic therapy.

  14. Characterization of a Toxin A-Negative, Toxin B-Positive Strain of Clostridium difficile Responsible for a Nosocomial Outbreak of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfa, Michelle J.; Kabani, Amin; Lyerly, David; Moncrief, Scott; Neville, Laurie M.; Al-Barrak, Ali; Harding, Godfrey K. H.; Dyck, Brenda; Olekson, Karen; Embil, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CAD) is a very common nosocomial infection that contributes significantly to patient morbidity and mortality as well as to the cost of hospitalization. Previously, strains of toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive C. difficile were not thought to be associated with clinically significant disease. This study reports the characterization of a toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive strain of C. difficile that was responsible for a recently described nosocomial outbreak of CAD. Analysis of the seven patient isolates from the outbreak by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that this outbreak was due to transmission of a single strain of C. difficile. Our characterization of this strain (HSC98) has demonstrated that the toxin A gene lacks 1.8 kb from the carboxy repetitive oligopeptide (CROP) region but apparently has no other major deletions from other regions of the toxin A or toxin B gene. The remaining 1.3-kb fragment of the toxin A CROP region from strain HSC98 showed 98% sequence homology with strain 1470, previously reported by M. Weidmann in 1997 (GenBank accession number Y12616), suggesting that HSC98 is toxinotype VIII. The HSC98 strain infecting patients involved in this outbreak produced the full spectrum of clinical illness usually associated with C. difficile-associated disease. This pathogenic spectrum was manifest despite the inability of this strain to alter tight junctions as determined by using in vitro tissue culture testing, which suggested that no functional toxin A was produced by this strain. PMID:10878068

  15. Virulence profiles and innate immune responses against highly lethal, multidrug-resistant nosocomial isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from a tertiary care hospital in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayosso-Vázquez, Catalina; Fernández-Vázquez, José Luis; Jarillo-Quijada, Ma Dolores; Rivera-Benítez, César; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    inflammatory immune response making this nosocomial pathogen a serious threat to hospitalized patients. PMID:28797068

  16. Impact of an Infection Control Program on the Prevalence of Nosocomial Infections at a Tertiary Care Center in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Ebnöther, Corina; Tanner, Beate; Schmid, Flavia; Rocca, Vittoria La; Heinzer, Ivo; Bregenzer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To study the impact of a multimodal infection control program on the rate of nosocomial infections at a 550-bed tertiary care center. Methods. Before and after the implementation of an infection control program, the rate of nosocomial infection was recorded in time-interval prevalence studies. Hand hygiene compliance was studied before and after the intervention. As a surrogate marker of compliance, the amount of alcohol-based hand rub consumed before the intervention was compared ...

  17. Case-mix adjustment approach to benchmarking prevalence rates of nosocomial infection in hospitals in Cyprus and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsotakis, Evangelos I; Dimitriadis, Ioannis; Roumbelaki, Maria; Vounou, Emelia; Kontou, Maria; Papakyriakou, Panikos; Koliou-Mazeri, Maria; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Vrouchos, George; Troulakis, George; Gikas, Achilleas

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of heterogeneous case mix for a benchmarking analysis and interhospital comparison of the prevalence rates of nosocomial infection. Cross-sectional survey. Eleven hospitals located in Cyprus and in the region of Crete in Greece. The survey included all inpatients in the medical, surgical, pediatric, and gynecology-obstetrics wards, as well as those in intensive care units. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used to define nosocomial infection. The information collected for all patients included demographic characteristics, primary admission diagnosis, Karnofsky functional status index, Charlson comorbidity index, McCabe-Jackson severity of illness classification, use of antibiotics, and prior exposures to medical and surgical risk factors. Outcome data were also recorded for all patients. Case mix-adjusted rates were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for nosocomial infection risk and an indirect standardization method.Results. The overall prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 7.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.9%-8.3%) among 1,832 screened patients. Significant variation in nosocomial infection rates was observed across hospitals (range, 2.2%-9.6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the mean predicted risk of nosocomial infection across hospitals ranged from 3.7% to 10.3%, suggesting considerable variation in patient risk. Case mix-adjusted rates ranged from 2.6% to 12.4%, and the relative ranking of hospitals was affected by case-mix adjustment in 8 cases (72.8%). Nosocomial infection was significantly and independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6 [95% confidence interval, 2.1-6.1]). The first attempt to rank the risk of nosocomial infection in these regions demonstrated the importance of accounting for heterogeneous case mix before attempting interhospital comparisons.

  18. Disinfection efficacy of an ultraviolet light on film cassettes for preventive of the nosocomial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Jeon, Yong Woong; Cho, Am

    2001-01-01

    The bacterial infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevention from nosocomial infection and for improvement of the hospital environment. The laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection is proven suitable for bacterial. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In addition education of nosocomial infection for radiographers will be required. In conclusion, ultraviolet is considered effective to irradiate bacterial. Additionally, two minutes are required to sterilize film cassettes

  19. Does disinfection of environmental surfaces influence nosocomial infection rates? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenkofer, Markus; Wenzler, Sibylle; Amthor, Susanne; Antes, Gerd; Motschall, Edith; Daschner, Franz D

    2004-04-01

    To review the evidence on the effects of disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals (as compared with cleaning without use of disinfectants) on the occurrence of nosocomial infections. Systematic review of experimental and nonexperimental intervention studies dealing with environmental disinfection or cleaning in different health care settings. A total of 236 scientific articles were identified. None described a meta-analysis, systematic review, or randomized controlled trial. Only 4 articles described completed cohort studies matching the inclusion criteria. None of these studies showed lower infection rates associated with routine disinfection of surfaces (mainly floors) versus cleaning with detergent only. Disinfectants may pose a danger to staff, patients, and the environment and require special safety precautions. However, targeted disinfection of certain environmental surfaces is in certain instances an established component of hospital infection control. Given the complex, multifactorial nature of nosocomial infections, well-designed studies that systematically investigate the role of surface disinfection are required.

  20. Nosocomial outbreak of Enterobacter gergoviae bacteraemia in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeswire, R; Thong, K L; Puthucheary, S D

    2003-04-01

    A nosocomial outbreak of bacteraemia, caused by Enterobacter gergoviae infected 11 babies, nine of whom were premature, and was investigated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a general hospital in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The strain that was isolated from the babies was also isolated from the dextrose saline used for the dilution of parenteral antibiotics and from the hands of a healthcare worker on duty in the nursery. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of Xba I-digested chromosomal DNA confirmed a possible cross-contamination of parenteral dextrose saline and the healthcare worker. Prompt and effective control measures were initiated within NICU and the nosocomial infection of E. gergoviae was brought to an abrupt end. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak of E. gergoviae in the NICU in a hospital in the state of Johor, Malaysia.

  1. Nosocomial Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Puja R.; Openshaw, Peter J.M.; Gadd, Elaine M.; Lim, Wei Shen; Semple, Malcolm G.; Read, Robert C.; Taylor, Bruce L.; McMenamin, James; Armstrong, Colin; Bannister, Barbara; Nicholson, Karl G.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    To determine clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized in the United Kingdom with pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we studied 1,520 patients in 75 National Health Service hospitals. We characterized patients who acquired influenza nosocomially during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak. Of 30 patients, 12 (80%) of 15 adults and 14 (93%) of 15 children had serious underlying illnesses. Only 12 (57%) of 21 patients who received antiviral therapy did so within 48 hours after symptom onset, but 53% needed escalated care or mechanical ventilation; 8 (27%) of 30 died. Despite national guidelines and standardized infection control procedures, nosocomial transmission remains a problem when influenza is prevalent. Health care workers should be routinely offered influenza vaccine, and vaccination should be prioritized for all patients at high risk. Staff should remain alert to the possibility of influenza in patients with complex clinical problems and be ready to institute antiviral therapy while awaiting diagnosis during influenza outbreaks. PMID:21470446

  2. Positive impact of infection prevention on the management of nosocomial outbreaks at an academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H; Sinha, Bhanu; Lokate, Mariëtte; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; Dinkelacker, Ariane G; Postma, Maarten J; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2016-10-01

    Infection prevention (IP) measures are vital to prevent (nosocomial) outbreaks. Financial evaluations of these are scarce. An incremental cost analysis for an academic IP unit was performed. On a yearly basis, we evaluated: IP measures; costs thereof; numbers of patients at risk for causing nosocomial outbreaks; predicted outbreak patients; and actual outbreak patients. IP costs rose on average yearly with €150,000; however, more IP actions were undertaken. Numbers of patients colonized with high-risk microorganisms increased. The trend of actual outbreak patients remained stable. Predicted prevented outbreak patients saved costs, leading to a positive return on investment of 1.94. This study shows that investments in IP can prevent outbreak cases, thereby saving enough money to earn back these investments.

  3. Nosocomial infection control in healthcare settings: Protection against emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuanxi; Wang, Shengyong

    2016-04-12

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea in 2015 may be attributable to poor nosocomial infection control procedures implemented. Strict infection control measures were taken in the hospital where an imported case with MERS was treated in southern China and 53 health care workers were confirmed to be MERS-CoV negative. Infection control in healthcare settings, in which patients with emerging infectious diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus disease, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are diagnosed and treated, are often imperfect. When it comes to emerging or unknown infectious diseases, before the imported case was finally identified or community transmission was reported, cases have often occurred in clusters in healthcare settings. Nosocomial infection control measures should be further strengthened among the workers and inpatients in designated healthcare settings that accommodate suspected cases suffering from emerging or unknown infectious diseases.

  4. Disinfection efficacy of an ultraviolet light on film cassettes for preventive of the nosocomial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yong Woong; Cho, Am [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    The bacterial infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevention from nosocomial infection and for improvement of the hospital environment. The laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection is proven suitable for bacterial. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In addition education of nosocomial infection for radiographers will be required. In conclusion, ultraviolet is considered effective to irradiate bacterial. Additionally, two minutes are required to sterilize film cassettes.

  5. An investigation of radiographers' mobile phone use and the success of an awareness campaign at reducing the nosocomial infection risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, C C; Foley, S J

    2018-02-01

    Mobile phone use by healthcare workers (HCWs) is widespread. Studies have shown that HCW's mobile phones can harbour pathogens associated with nosocomial infections. This study investigated whether an awareness campaign will result in an improvement in radiographers' phone and hand hygiene practices. Radiographers working in the general department of two university hospitals were invited to participate. One hospital was assigned as the experiment hospital and the other as a control. In the experiment hospital, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testing of each participant's mobile phone determined the cleanliness of its surface. A corresponding survey was completed to determine their current practices and level of awareness. Subsequently, an infection control poster campaign took place for a one-month period, followed by re-testing. In the control hospital, the ATP testing and survey were also completed before and after a one-month period, but without a poster campaign. Radiographers were generally unaware of the infection risks associated with mobile phone use with 44% of all participants never cleaning their phone. The campaign successfully improved phone hygiene frequency and method in the experiment hospital. However, it did not improve hand hygiene practices and actual phone cleanliness (mean ATP count reductions of 10% (experiment hospital) and 20% (control)). The ATP testing as a less direct form of intervention showed similar levels of success in comparison to the poster campaign. A multifaceted educational approach is likely to be most effective in raising awareness and changing radiographers' phone and hand hygiene practices. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction in nosocomial infection with improved hand hygiene in intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Guzman, Sandra; Safdar, Nasia

    2005-09-01

    Hand hygiene is a fundamental measure for the control of nosocomial infection. However, sustained compliance with hand hygiene in health care workers is poor. We attempted to enhance compliance with hand hygiene by implementing education, training, and performance feedback. We measured nosocomial infections in parallel. We monitored the overall compliance with hand hygiene during routine patient care in intensive care units (ICUs); 1 medical surgical ICU and 1 coronary ICU, of 1 hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, before and during implementation of a hand hygiene education, training, and performance feedback program. Observational surveys were done twice a week from September 2000 to May 2002. Nosocomial infections in the ICUs were identified using the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) criteria, with prospective surveillance. We observed 4347 opportunities for hand hygiene in both ICUs. Compliance improved progressively (handwashing adherence, 23.1% (268/1160) to 64.5% (2056/3187) (RR, 2.79; 95% CI: 2.46-3.17; P nosocomial infection in both ICUs decreased from 47.55 per 1000 patient-days (104/2187) to 27.93 per 1000 patient days (207/7409) RR, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.46-0.74, P hand hygiene, coinciding with a reduction in nosocomial infection rates in the ICUs.

  7. Ongoing large measles outbreak with nosocomial transmission in Milan, northern Italy, March-August 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena R; Ciceri, Giulia; Faccini, Marino; Senatore, Sabrina; Colzani, Daniela; Lamberti, Anna; Baggieri, Melissa; Cereda, Danilo; Gramegna, Maria; Nicoletti, Loredana; Magurano, Fabio; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2017-08-17

    A large measles outbreak has been ongoing in Milan and surrounding areas. From 1 March to 30 June 2017, 203 measles cases were laboratory-confirmed (108 sporadic cases and 95 related to 47 clusters). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the co-circulation of two different genotypes, D8 and B3. Both genotypes caused nosocomial clusters in two hospitals. The rapid analysis of epidemiological and phylogenetic data allowed effective surveillance and tracking of transmission pathways. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  8. Does routine gowning reduce nosocomial infection and mortality rates in a neonatal nursery? A Singapore experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S G; Lim, S H; Malathi, I

    1995-11-01

    A 1 year prospective study on routine gowning before entering a neonatal unit was conducted in a maternity hospital in Singapore. This study was done based on previous work by Donowitz, Haque and Chagla and Agbayani et al., as there have been no known studies done in Singapore. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that routine gowning before entering a neonatal nursery does not reduce nosocomial infection and mortality rate. A total of 212 neonates from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and 1694 neonates from the neonatal special care unit (NSCU) were studied. Neonates admitted during the 1 year study were assigned to the gowning (control) and no routine gowning (trial) group on every alternate 2 months. The hospital infection control nurse provided data on nosocomial infection. The overall nosocomial infection rate in the NICU was 24% (25 of 104 admissions) during gowning periods compared to 16.6% (18 of 108 admissions) when plastic aprons were not worn before entry. In the NSCU, the overall infection rate was 1.5% (12 of 800 admissions) during gowning periods compared to 2.1% (19 of 894 admissions) when no gown was worn before entry. Results of the study found no significant differences in the incidences of nosocomial infection and mortality in the neonates. The cost of gowns used during the no routine gowning periods was S$2012.8 compared to S$3708 used during the routine gowning procedure. The investigators recommend that routine gowning before entering a neonatal unit is not essential and cost effective for the purpose of reducing infection. Rather the focus should be on adequate handwashing by all hospital personnel and visitors before handling neonates.

  9. Early Prediction and Outcome of Septic Encephalopathy in Acute Stroke Patients With Nosocomial Coma

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Dao-Ming; Zhou, Ye-Ting; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Tong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Septic encephalopathy (SE) is the most common acute encephalopathy in ICU; however, little attention has been focused on risk of SE in the course of acute stroke. Our aim is to investigate the early prediction and outcome of SE in stroke patients with nosocomial coma (NC). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in an ICU of the tertiary teaching hospital in China from January 2006 to December 2009. Ninety-four acute stroke patients with NC were grouped according to with...

  10. Optimization of conditions for probiotic curd formulation by Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 with probiotic properties using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2014-11-01

    Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 possessing potential probiotic properties as well as enterocin producing ability was used as starter culture. Effect of time (12-24 h) and inoculum level (3-7 % v/v) on cell growth, bacteriocin production, antioxidant property, titrable acidity and pH of curd was studied by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were 26.48 h and 2.17%v/v inoculum and the second order model validated. Co cultivation studies revealed that the formulated product had the ability to prevent growth of foodborne pathogens that affect keeping quality of the product during storage. The results indicated that application of E. faecium MTCC 5695 along with usage of optimized conditions attributed to the formation of highly consistent well set curd with bioactive and bioprotective properties. Formulated curd with potential probiotic attributes can be used as therapeutic agent for the treatment of foodborne diseases like Traveler's diarrhea and gastroenteritis which thereby help in improvement of bowel health.

  11. Extracellular dextran and DNA affect the formation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and their susceptibility to 2% chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilan; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Qiong

    2012-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is frequently recovered from root-filled teeth with refractory apical periodontitis. The ability of E. faecalis to form a matrix-encased biofilm contributes to its pathogenicity; however, the role of extracellular dextran and DNA in biofilm formation and its effect on the susceptibility of the biofilm to chlorhexidine remains poorly understood. E. faecalis biofilms were incubated on dentin blocks. The effect of a dextran-degrading enzyme (dextranase) and DNase I on the adhesion of E. faecalis to dentin was measured using the colony-forming unit (CFU) counting method. CFU assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to investigate the influence of dextranase and DNase I on the antimicrobial activity of 2% chlorhexidine. The CFU count assays indicated that the formation of biofilms by E. faecalis was reduced in cells treated with dextranase or DNase I compared with that in untreated cells (P biofilms with dextranase or DNase I effectively sensitized the biofilms to 2% chlorhexidine (P biofilms to 2% chlorhexidine. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A cluster of cases of nosocomial legionnaires disease linked to a contaminated hospital decorative water fountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Tara N; Stock, Frida; White, Margaret; Bordner, MaryAnn; Michelin, Angela; Bennett, John E; Murray, Patrick R; Henderson, David K

    2009-08-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks of Legionnaires disease have been linked to contaminated water in hospitals. Immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable and, when infected, have a high mortality rate. We report the investigation of a cluster of cases of nosocomial pneumonia attributable to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 that occurred among patients on our stem cell transplantation unit. We conducted a record review to identify common points of potential exposure, followed by environmental and water sampling for Legionella species from those sources. We used an air sampler to in an attempt to detect aerosolized Legionella and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to compare clinical and environmental isolates. The most likely sources identified were the water supply in the patients' rooms and a decorative fountain in the radiation oncology suite. Samples from the patients' rooms did not grow Legionella species. Cultures of the fountain, which had been restarted 4 months earlier after being shut off for 5 months, yielded L. pneumophila serogroup 1. The isolates from both patients and the fountain were identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Both patients developed pneumonia within 10 days of completing radiation therapy, and each reported having observed the fountain at close range. Both patients' infections were identified early and treated promptly, and both recovered. This cluster was caused by contamination of a decorative fountain despite its being equipped with a filter and ozone generator. Fountains are a potential source of nosocomial Legionnaires disease despite standard maintenance and sanitizing measures. In our opinion, fountains present unacceptable risk in hospitals serving immunocompromised patients.

  13. The Incidence of Nosocomial Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea in Tehran Tertiary Medical Centers

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    Norakhoda Sadeghifard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. It is usually a consequence of antibiotic treatment, But sporadic cases can occur. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of the nosocomial Clostridium difficile (C. difficile associated diarrhea in Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals and study of antibacterial susceptibility of isolates. In this study a total of 942 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea that were hospitalized in Imam Khomeini hospital, Shariati hospital and Children clinical center were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37°C for 5 days. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests. Bacterial cytotoxicity was assayed on tissue culture (vero. Antimicrobial sensitivity of isolated toxigenic C. difficile were investigated by kirby Beuer method (disk diffusion. Our findings show that, of the total patients, 57 toxigenic C. difficile (6.1% were isolated. Results of statistical analysis show significant differences between the rate of isolated toxigenic C. difficile and age group of patients (P

  14. The Incidence And Risk Factors Nosocomial Pneumonia In A Neuromedical Intensive Care Unit

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    Devragudi TS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study examined the incidence and factors influencing the occurrence of nonsocomial pneumonia (NP in a neuromedical intensive care unit (NICU. Of the 57 patients admitted to the NICU over one year, 26% developed nosocomial pneumonia. It was observed that the infected patients were significantly older than the noninfected (43+15 vs 22+18 years; p<0.001, had a longer NICU stay (33+31 vs 18+18 days: p=0.05 and needed longer duration of mechanical ventilation (20+25 vs 9 + 12 days: P<0.05. Patients with neuromuscular diseases had a trend towards higher incidence of NP than those with encephalopathy and therapeutic interventions such as plasmapheresis, blood transfusion and inotropic therapy did not influence the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia. The NICU mortality was not significantly influenced by nosocomial pneumonia. Pseudomonas aerugenosa was the predominant organism responsible for pneumonia. Nine percent of the tracheobronchial isolates were resistant to the routinely-tested antibiotics. In conclusion, nosocornial pneumonia is a common complication in a NICU and while it increases the duration of NICU stay, mortality appears to be uninfluenced.

  15. [Nosocomial infections after cardiac surgery in infants and children with congenital heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, José; Cerda, Jaime; Abarca, Katia; Ferrés, Marcela; Fajuri, Paula; Riquelme, María; Carrillo, Diego; Clavería, Cristián

    2014-02-01

    Nosocomial infections generate high morbidity and mortality in children undergoing cardiac surgery. To determine risk factors for nosocomial infections in children after congenital heart surgery. A retrospective case-control study, in patients younger than 15 years undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease from January 2007 to December 2011 admitted to the Pediatric Critical Patient Unit (UPC-P) in a university hospital. For cases, the information was analyzed from the first episode of infection. 39 patients who develop infections and 39 controls who did not develop infection were enrolled. The median age of cases was 2 months. We identified a number of factors associated with the occurrence of infections, highlighting in univariate analysis: age, weight, univentricular heart physiology, complexity of the surgical procedure according to RACHS-1 and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time ≥ 200 minutes. Multivariate analysis identified CPB time ≥ 200 minutes as the major risk factor, with an OR of 11.57 (CI: 1.04 to 128.5). CPB time ≥ 200 minutes was the mayor risk factor associated with the development of nosocomial infections.

  16. The Evaluation of Nosocomial Infections in Pediatric Patients with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

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    Pelin Ayyıldız

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has become a standard technique over the past few decades in intensive care unit (ICU. Objective: A review of pediatric patients who received ECMO support in the pediatric cardiac ICU was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors and causal organisms related to acquired infections and assess the survival rates of ECMO patients with nosocomial infections. Methods: Sixty-six patients who received ECMO support in the pediatric cardiac ICU between January 2011 and June 2014 were included in the study. Demographic, echocardiographic, hemodynamic features and surgical procedures were reviewed. Results: Sixty-six patients received a total of 292.5 days of venoarterial ECMO support. Sixty were postoperative patients. Forty-five patients were weaned from ECMO support with an ECMO survival rate of 68.2%. The rate of infection was 116.2/1000 ECMO days. Prolonged ICU stay, duration of ventilation and ECMO were found associated with development of nosocomial infection and only the duration of ECMO was an independent risk factor for nosocomial infections in ECMO patients. Conclusion: The correction of the underlying process leading to ECMO support and shortening the length of ECMO duration together with stricter application of ECMO indications would improve the infection incidence and hospital surveillance of the patient group.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Nazar M; Osman, Amani A; Haimour, Waleed O; Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Mohammed, Mohammed N; Zyad, Eyhab M; Al-Ghtani, Abdalla M

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of antibiotics towards nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species. The study took place during the period Dec. 2011- Dec. 2012 at Assir Central Hospital in collaboration with the department of microbiology, college of medicine, King Khalid University, Abha. A prospective study involving 150 patients presented with nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species detected by bacteriological tests; direct microscopy, culture in blood agar media, fermentation test in MacConkey media and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for antibiotics sensitivity using Muller Hinton media and Chemical test using API 20. A 150 nosocomial infections in this study showed gram-negative coccobacilli, non motile, glucose-negative fermentor and oxidase negative. All isolates showed 100% sensitivity to: Imipramine, Meropenem, Colistin. From the rest of tested antibiotics the higher resistant ones were; Nitrofurantoin 87% and Cefoxitin 85%. The least resistant antibiotics; Imipenem 3% and Ticarcillin 7%. While variable resistance in the rest of tested antimicrobials. A 47 patients (31.3%) have used antibiotics prior to this study. The high rate of usage occurred in elder patients. The frequency of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex multi-drugs resistance ABCMDR is rising including almost all commonly used antibiotics. Only few antibiotics exert 100% sensitivity towards these bacteria.

  18. Emergence of vanA Enterococcus faecium in Denmark, 2005-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette M; Baig, Sharmin; Kamel, Yasmin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the changing epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in clinical samples in Denmark 2005-15 according to species and van type, and, furthermore, to investigate the genetic relatedness of the clinical E. faecium isolates from 2015...... were detected along with 1 vanA E. faecalis and 1 vanB E. faecalis . cgMLST subdivided the 368 vanA E. faecium isolates into 33 cluster types (CTs), whereas the vanB E. faecium isolate belonged to a different CT. ST203-CT859 was most prevalent (51%), followed by ST80-CT14 (22%), ST117-CT24 (6%), ST80...

  19. Partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis DU10 and its probiotic attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Venkatesh; Repally, Ayyanna; Dasari, Ankaiah; Venkatesan, Arul

    2016-10-02

    A novel bacteriocin produced by avian duck isolated lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecalis DU10 was isolated. This bacteriocin showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against important food-borne pathogens and was purified by size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in a C-18 column. Tricine-SDS PAGE revealed the presence of a band with an estimated molecular mass of 6.3 kDa. The zymogram clearly linked the antimicrobial activity with this band. This result was further confirmed by mass-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, since a sharp peak corresponding to 6.313 kDa was detected and the functional groups were revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bacteriocin DU10 activity was found sensitive to proteinase-K and pepsin and partially affected by trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. The activity of bacteriocin DU10 was partially resistant to heat treatments ranging from 30 to 90°C for 30 min. It also withstood a treatment at 121°C for 10 min. Cytotoxicity of bacteriocin DU10 by methyl-thiazolyl-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay showed that the viability of HT-29 and HeLa cells decreased 60 ± 0.7% and 43 ± 4.8%, respectively, in the presence of 3,200 AU/mL of bacteriocin. The strain withstood 0.3% w/v of bile oxgall and pH 2 affected the bacterial growth between 2 and 4 hr of incubation. Adhesion properties examined with HT-29 cell line showed 69.85% initial population of strain E. faecalis DU10, which was found to be strongly adhered to this cell line. These results conclude bacteriocin DU10 may be used as a potential biopreservative and E. faecalis DU10 may be used as a potential probiont to control Salmonella infections.

  20. Reduced susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolates from Cairo University Hospital to tigecycline: Highlight on the influence of proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Reem Mostafa; Ghaith, Doaa Mohammad; Ismail, Dalia Kadry; Zafer, Mai Mahmoud

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of reduced susceptibility to tigecycline (TIG) is increasing. This study aimed to analyse the in vitro activity of TIG against Enterococcus spp. isolates recovered from hospitalised patients and to evaluate the effect of omeprazole on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TIG against several enterococcal species. A total of 67 Enterococcus clinical isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and multiplex PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TIG alone and in combination with omeprazole (10, 30 and 60mg/L) were determined by broth microdilution. Antibiotic susceptibility to other antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion. The presence of van, tet(X) and tet(X1) genes was tested by multiplex PCR. Of the 67 Enterococcus isolates, 2 (3.0%) were resistant to TIG and 13 (19.4%) were intermediate-resistant according to EUCAST. The frequencies of resistance to norfloxacin (80.6%), doxycycline (80.6%), levofloxacin (74.6%) and ciprofloxacin (71.6%) were highest, whilst that of vancomycin (25.4%) was lowest. The vanA gene was detected in 11 Enterococcus isolates (8 Enterococcus faecalis, 3 Enterococcus faecium), vanB in 3 Enterococcus isolates (2 E. faecium, 1 E. faecalis) and vanC-2/3 in 3 Enterococcus casseliflavus. Nine isolates (13.4%) were positive for tet(X1). TIG resistance occurred both in patients receiving or not TIG and/or omeprazole. Omeprazole increased TIG MICs by 4-128-fold. The possibility of selection of TIG-non-susceptible Enterococcus in the gut may occur with long-term use of omeprazole. Omeprazole influenced TIG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. To our knowledge; this is the first report of TIG-non-susceptible Enterococcus spp. in Egypt. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enterococcus faecium F58, a bacteriocinogenic strain naturally occurring in Jben, a soft, farmhouse goat's cheese made in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achemchem, F; Martínez-Bueno, M; Abrini, J; Valdivia, E; Maqueda, M

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of Ent F-58 produced by Enterococcus faecium strain F58 isolated from Jben, a soft, farmhouse goat's cheese manufactured without starter cultures. E. faecium strain F58 was isolated because of its broad inhibitory spectrum, including activity against food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The antimicrobial substance was produced during the growth phase, with maximum production after 16-20 h of incubation at 30 degrees C, and was stable over a wide pH range (4-8) and at high temperatures (5 min at 100 degrees C). The enterocin was purified to homogeneity using cation exchange and hydrophobic interaction on C-18 and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity was eluted as two individual active fractions (F-58A and F-58B) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis showed masses of 5210.5 and 5234.3 Da respectively. Both peptides were partially sequenced by Edman degradation, and amino-acid sequencing revealed high similarity with enterocin L50 (I). PCR-amplified fragments containing the structural genes for F-58 A and B were located in a 22-kb plasmid harboured by this strain. We verified that it also holds the structural gene for P-like enterocin. E. faecium strain F58 from Jben cheese, a producer of enterocin L50, exerts an inhibitory effect against strains of genera such as Listeria, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Brochothrix and Bacillus. Enterocin was characterized according to its functional and biological properties, purification to homogeneity and an analysis of its amino acid and genetic sequences. E. faecium strain F58 is a newly discovered producer of enterocin L50, the biotechnological characteristics of which indicate its potential for application as a protective agent against pathogens and spoilage bacteria in foods.

  2. Antimicrobial-Resistance Genetic Markers in Potentially Pathogenic Gram Positive Cocci Isolated from Brazilian Soft Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Ferreira-Machado, Alessandra Barbosa; Nascimento, Thiago César; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2018-02-01

    Although most Brazilian dairy products meet high technological standards, there are quality issues regarding milk production, which may reduce the final product quality. Several microbial species may contaminate milk during manufacture and handling. If antimicrobial usage remains uncontrolled in dairy cattle, the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in foodstuffs may be of particular concern for both food producers and dairy industry. This study focused on the evaluation of putative Gram positive cocci in Minas cheese and of antimicrobial and biocide resistance genes among the isolated bacteria. Representative samples of 7 different industrially trademarked Minas cheeses (n = 35) were processed for selective culture and isolation of Gram positive cocci. All isolated bacteria were identified by DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Antimicrobial resistance genes were screened by PCR. Overall, 208 strains were isolated and identified as follows: Enterococcus faecalis (47.6%), Macrococcus caseolyticus (18.3%), Enterococcus faecium (11.5%), Enterococcus caseliflavus (7.7%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (7.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (4.3%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (2.9%), and Enterococcus hirae (0.5%). The genetic markers mecA (78.0%) and smr (71.4%) were the most prevalent, but others were also detected, such as blaZ (65.2%), msrA (60.9%), msrB (46.6%), linA (54.7%), and aacA-aphD (47.6%). The occurrence of opportunist pathogenic bacteria harboring antimicrobial resistance markers in the cheese samples are of special concern, since these bacteria are not considered harmful contaminating agents according to the Brazilian sanitary regulations. However, they are potentially pathogenic bacteria and the cheese may be considered a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes available for horizontal transfer through the food chain, manufacturing personnel and consumers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

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    Moro Serrano Manuel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1 was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%; 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%, and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%. Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of

  4. Torque Generation of Enterococcus hirae V-ATPase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Minagawa, Yoshihiro; Hara, Mayu; Rahman, Suhaila; Yamato, Ichiro; Muneyuki, Eiro; Noji, Hiroyuki; Murata, Takeshi; Iino, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    V-ATPase (VoV1) converts the chemical free energy of ATP into an ion-motive force across the cell membrane via mechanical rotation. This energy conversion requires proper interactions between the rotor and stator in VoV1 for tight coupling among chemical reaction, torque generation, and ion transport. We developed an Escherichia coli expression system for Enterococcus hirae VoV1 (EhVoV1) and established a single-molecule rotation assay to measure the torque generated. Recombinant and native EhVoV1 exhibited almost identical dependence of ATP hydrolysis activity on sodium ion and ATP concentrations, indicating their functional equivalence. In a single-molecule rotation assay with a low load probe at high ATP concentration, EhVoV1 only showed the “clear” state without apparent backward steps, whereas EhV1 showed two states, “clear” and “unclear.” Furthermore, EhVoV1 showed slower rotation than EhV1 without the three distinct pauses separated by 120° that were observed in EhV1. When using a large probe, EhVoV1 showed faster rotation than EhV1, and the torque of EhVoV1 estimated from the continuous rotation was nearly double that of EhV1. On the other hand, stepping torque of EhV1 in the clear state was comparable with that of EhVoV1. These results indicate that rotor-stator interactions of the Vo moiety and/or sodium ion transport limit the rotation driven by the V1 moiety, and the rotor-stator interactions in EhVoV1 are stabilized by two peripheral stalks to generate a larger torque than that of isolated EhV1. However, the torque value was substantially lower than that of other rotary ATPases, implying the low energy conversion efficiency of EhVoV1. PMID:25258315

  5. The dynamics of biofilm overgrowth of Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Synetar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature of microorganisms can exist in two physiological forms that allow microbes to preserve livelihoods and continue their life cycle. The first is the population of planktonic forms of microorganisms which live freely in the environment with the developed systems of active and passive mobility, contributing to the rapid spread of a liquid medium. The second forms are those expressing specific mechanisms of adhesion, and able to aggregate on biogenic and abiogenic surfaces. Even in the deep sea vast number of species of bacteria live in their inherent horizons. Thus, the study of biofilms tube life support systems, diagnostic, laparoscopic devices during prolonged catheterization of the urinary system is of great practical, theoretical and biological significance in medicine and biology. For almost 20% of catheter-associated infections antibiotic therapy is uneffective, particularly through the formation of microbial biofilms on the surface of urinary catheters. We characterized the dynamics of biofilm growth of Enterococcus faecalis on fragments ofsilicone catheter. The study was conducted using bacteriological and electron microscopic techniques. Study of the dynamics of biofilm formation was performed using E. faecalis strain 49, which is isolated from the urine of persons who are not the patients of the urological department of resuscitation and intensive therapy. Using scanning electron microscopy we have established dynamics and phase attachment ofE. faecalis bacteria and subsequent overgrowth of silicone catheter surface. Aftercalculations, index of adhesion on the turbulent wall amounted to 0,49 microbial cells. That is, every other cell of the monolayer adhered on the catheter. Area of biofilm growth of E. faecalis after 24 hour incubation was equal to 51.5 μm2, in 48 hours it increased to 231.5 μm2. After 72 hours of incubation we recorded the increase in biofilm growth of E. faecalisto 1922,8 μm2. The results were obtained

  6. Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance from Enterococcus faecium of fermented meat origin to clinical isolates of E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Musarrat; Zhanel, George G; Sparling, Richard; Holley, Richard A

    2015-04-16

    Enterococcus species are part of the normal intestinal flora of a large number of mammals including humans and consequently, they can be used as indicators of faecal contamination in food and water for human consumption. Their presence in large numbers in foods may indicate a lapse in sanitation and their ability to serve as a genetic reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance is of concern. In the present study, Enterococcus spp., isolated from commercially fermented meat and human clinical specimen were studied to determine genetic relationships. SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns exhibited genomic heterogeneity within and between both groups of isolates. However, in spite of this heterogeneity there were still substantial phenotypic similarities which suggested that food might be a potential vehicle for distribution of resistant bacteria among humans. In vitro conjugation experiments demonstrated transfer of the tetracycline resistant determinant, tet(M), from Enterococcus faecium S27 isolated from fermented sausage to clinical isolates of both E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. The streptomycin resistance of E. faecium S27 was also transferred to a clinical strain, E. faecalis 82916, which was confirmed by the presence of the streptomycin resistance gene, aadA, in the donor and transconjugant strains. Since the aadA gene is associated with a class 1 integron, results also suggested that resistance transfer might have occurred via an integron. It appears this is the first identification of a class 1 integron in E. faecium isolated from food. The importance of food enterococci as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes and the potential for their genetic transfer to human strains following consumption of uncooked or undercooked contaminated meat is underlined by this work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a multi-species biofilm with Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and control through sanitation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-04

    The formation of mono-species biofilm (Listeria monocytogenes) and multi-species biofilms (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and L. monocytogenes) was evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness of sanitation procedures for the control of the multi-species biofilm also was evaluated. The biofilms were grown on stainless steel coupons at various incubation temperatures (7, 25 and 39°C) and contact times (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). In all tests, at 7°C, the microbial counts were below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) and not characteristic of biofilms. In mono-species biofilm, the counts of L. monocytogenes after 8 days of contact were 4.1 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C, respectively. In the multi-species biofilms, Enterococcus spp. were present at counts of 8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C after 8 days of contact. However, the L. monocytogenes in multi-species biofilms was significantly affected by the presence of Enterococcus spp. and by temperature. At 25°C, the growth of L. monocytogenes biofilms was favored in multi-species cultures, with counts above 6 log CFU/cm(2) after 8 days of contact. In contrast, at 39°C, a negative effect was observed for L. monocytogenes biofilm growth in mixed cultures, with a significant reduction in counts over time and values below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) starting at day 4. Anionic tensioactive cleaning complemented with another procedure (acid cleaning, disinfection or acid cleaning+disinfection) eliminated the multi-species biofilms under all conditions tested (counts of all micro-organismsbiofilms under all tested conditions (counts of the all microorganisms biofilms under all the test conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efektivitas antibakteri ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn)terhadap bakteri Enterococcus faecalis (Antibacterial effectiveness of betel leaf extract (Piper Betle Linn) to Enterococcus faecalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Armianty Armianty; Indrya Kirana Mattulada

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of bacteria which have resistance against the pulp tissue defense mechanism and often found in endodontic infections. This bacterial is may hold good colonization, can survive in the root canal without other bacteria, and is capable of producing toxins directly or through the induction of inflammation. Betel leaf (Piper betle Linn)contain essential oils, as the main components of the essential oils are phenols and compounds, among other derivate such a...

  9. Accumulation of pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and resistance genes in soils irrigated with wastewater for zero to 100 years in central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Dalkmann

    Full Text Available Irrigation with wastewater releases pharmaceuticals, pathogenic bacteria, and resistance genes, but little is known about the accumulation of these contaminants in the environment when wastewater is applied for decades. We sampled a chronosequence of soils that were variously irrigated with wastewater from zero up to 100 years in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, and investigated the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, clarithromycin, carbamazepine, bezafibrate, naproxen, diclofenac, as well as the occurrence of Enterococcus spp., and sul and qnr resistance genes. Total concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine increased with irrigation duration reaching 95% of their upper limit of 1.4 µg/kg (ciprofloxacin, 4.3 µg/kg (sulfamethoxazole, and 5.4 µg/kg (carbamazepine in soils irrigated for 19-28 years. Accumulation was soil-type-specific, with largest accumulation rates in Leptosols and no time-trend in Vertisols. Acidic pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, naproxen, bezafibrate were not retained and thus did not accumulate in soils. We did not detect qnrA genes, but qnrS and qnrB genes were found in two of the irrigated soils. Relative concentrations of sul1 genes in irrigated soils were two orders of magnitude larger (3.15 × 10(-3 ± 0.22 × 10(-3 copies/16S rDNA than in non-irrigated soils (4.35 × 10(-5± 1.00 × 10(-5 copies/16S rDNA, while those of sul2 exceeded the ones in non-irrigated soils still by a factor of 22 (6.61 × 10(-4 ± 0.59 × 10(-4 versus 2.99 × 10(-5 ± 0.26 × 10(-5 copies/16S rDNA. Absolute numbers of sul genes continued to increase with prolonging irrigation together with Enterococcus spp. 23S rDNA and total 16S rDNA contents. Increasing total concentrations of antibiotics in soil are not accompanied by increasing relative abundances of resistance genes. Nevertheless, wastewater irrigation enlarges the absolute concentration of resistance genes in soils due to a

  10. Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and Resistance Genes in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater for Zero to 100 Years in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebe, Christina; Willaschek, Elisha; Sakinc, Tuerkan; Huebner, Johannes; Amelung, Wulf; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Siemens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation with wastewater releases pharmaceuticals, pathogenic bacteria, and resistance genes, but little is known about the accumulation of these contaminants in the environment when wastewater is applied for decades. We sampled a chronosequence of soils that were variously irrigated with wastewater from zero up to 100 years in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, and investigated the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, clarithromycin, carbamazepine, bezafibrate, naproxen, diclofenac, as well as the occurrence of Enterococcus spp., and sul and qnr resistance genes. Total concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine increased with irrigation duration reaching 95% of their upper limit of 1.4 µg/kg (ciprofloxacin), 4.3 µg/kg (sulfamethoxazole), and 5.4 µg/kg (carbamazepine) in soils irrigated for 19–28 years. Accumulation was soil-type-specific, with largest accumulation rates in Leptosols and no time-trend in Vertisols. Acidic pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, naproxen, bezafibrate) were not retained and thus did not accumulate in soils. We did not detect qnrA genes, but qnrS and qnrB genes were found in two of the irrigated soils. Relative concentrations of sul1 genes in irrigated soils were two orders of magnitude larger (3.15×10−3±0.22×10−3 copies/16S rDNA) than in non-irrigated soils (4.35×10−5±1.00×10−5 copies/16S rDNA), while those of sul2 exceeded the ones in non-irrigated soils still by a factor of 22 (6.61×10–4±0.59×10−4 versus 2.99×10−5±0.26×10−5 copies/16S rDNA). Absolute numbers of sul genes continued to increase with prolonging irrigation together with Enterococcus spp. 23S rDNA and total 16S rDNA contents. Increasing total concentrations of antibiotics in soil are not accompanied by increasing relative abundances of resistance genes. Nevertheless, wastewater irrigation enlarges the absolute concentration of resistance genes in soils due to a long-term increase in

  11. BACTERIAL AIR MICROFLORA ISOLATES IN TWO OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY UNITS OF A HOSPITAL IN NIGERIA ARE POTENTIAL THREATS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the history of infirmaries, nosocomial infections have been of grave threats to hospital set-ups, the deadliest being nosocomial respiratory tract infection (RTI). Nosocomial RTI was consequently investigated in two units of Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of a hospital in Nigeria using the and ldquo;Settling Plate and rdquo; technique and various culture media for bacteria isolation. Identification of the isolates was done on the basis of each isolate\\'s cultural, morpholog...

  12. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium : ecology, transmission dynamics and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Regt, M.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    For years, E. faecium only sporadically caused opportunistic infections in humans and was considered a relatively harmless commensal. In the last two decades, however, a specific polyclonal E. faecium subpopulation has rapidly become a prominent cause of nosocomial infections, which are often

  13. [Study of marine actinomycetes isolated from the central coast of Peru and their antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jorge; Aponte, Juan José; Rojas, Rosario; Cuadra, D'Lourdes; Ayala, Nathaly; Tomás, Gloria; Guerrero, Marco

    2011-06-01

    To determine the antimicrobial potential of marine actinomycetes against drug-resistant pathogens represented by strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Strains of actinomycetes (29) isolated from marine sediment were evaluated by their characteristics in two culture media and by testing their inhibitory capacity by in vitro antagonism against multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria for MRSA and VRE. Organic extracts of 3 selected actinomicetes were processed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the active compound. Most isolated actinomycetes belong to a homogeneous group of write-gray actinomycetes with a good growth in Marine Agar. The inhibitory rates of the isolates were above 85% for both pathogens with inhibition zones greater than 69 and 78 mm in diameter for MRSA and VRE respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of 3 isolates (I-400A, B1-T61, M10-77) showed strong inhibitory activity of both pathogens, M10-77 being the highest actinomycete strain with antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis ATCC 51299 with a minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 7.9 and 31.7 μg/ml respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of M10-77 strain showed 99% similarity with the marine species Streptomyces erythrogriseus. Marine sediments of the central coast of Peru, are a source of actinomycetes strains showing high capacity to produce bioactive compounds able to inhibit pathogens classified as multi-drug-resistant such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Tyramine Producer Enterococcus durans Strain IPLA 655

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladero, Victor; Linares, Daniel M.; del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, M. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    We here report a 3.059-Mbp draft assembly for the genome of Enterococcus durans strain IPLA 655. This dairy isolate provides a model for studying the regulation of the biosynthesis of tyramine (a toxic compound). These results should aid our understanding of tyramine production and allow tyramine accumulation in food to be reduced. PMID:23682153

  15. Failure of daptomycin β-Lactam combination therapy to prevent resistance emergence in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vidthiya; Davis, Rebecca; Shackel, Nick; Espedido, Bjorn A; Beukers, Alicia G; Jensen, Slade O; van Hal, Sebastiaan J

    2018-02-01

    Daptomycin β-Lactam combination therapy offers "protection" against daptomycin non-susceptibility (DNS) development in Enterococcus faecium. We report failure of this strategy and the importance of source control. Mutations were detected in the LiaF and cls genes in DNS isolates. A single DNS isolate contained an unrecognized mutation, which requires confirmation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid Emergence of Resistance to Linezolid during Linezolid Therapy of an Enterococcus faecium Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Seedat, Jamela; Zick, Günther; Klare, Ingo; Konstabel, Carola; Weiler, Norbert; Sahly, Hany

    2006-01-01

    We report the emergence of linezolid resistance (MICs of 16 to 32 mg/liter) in clonally related vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from an intensive care unit patient after 12 days of linezolid therapy. Only linezolid-susceptible isolates of the same clone were detected at 28 days after termination of linezolid therapy.

  17. Characterization and susceptibility patterns of clinically important Enterococcus species in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A; Khanal, A; Kanungo, R; Mohapatra, T

    2007-12-01

    Life threatening infections caused by enterococcus species with multidrug resistance has emerged as a threat to medical care in the present era. This study was conducted to characterize enterococcus species isolated from different clinical samples and to detect the pattern of susceptibility to some of the commonly used antibiotics in B.P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), a tertiary care hospital in eastern Nepal. Clinical samples submitted to the microbiology unit of Central Laboratory Service (CLS) for culture and sensitivity during March 2002 - February 2003 was analyzed. Enterococcus species were identified by colony characteristics, gram staining and relevant biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Of 50 Enterococcus species isolated, E. faecalis was the predominant isolate (48.0%) followed by E. faecium (32.0%) and E. avium (20.0%). Eighty-eight percent of E. faecalis showed sensitivity to cephotaxime and 87.0% to vancomycin. Multiple drug resistance was observed most commonly in E. faecium. Seventeen percent of E. faecium were resistant to vancomycin and 63.0% to ciprofloxacin and 44.0% to ampicillin. On the contrary E. avium rarely showed resistance to the antimicrobials tested including vancomycin. Enterococcal infections are common nowadays specially in hospitalized patients. Inappropriate use of antibiotics in clinical practice and poultry should be discouraged to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistant species.

  18. Enterocin TW21, a novel bacteriocin from dochi-isolated Enterococcus faecium D081821.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S-Y; Chen, Y-S; Pan, S-F; Lee, Y-S; Chang, C-H; Chang, C-H; Yu, B; Wu, H-C

    2013-09-01

    Purification and characterization of a novel bacteriocin produced by strain Enterococcus faecium D081821. Enterococcus faecium D081821, isolated from the traditional Taiwanese fermented food dochi (fermented black beans), was previously found to produce a bacteriocin against Listeria monocytogenes and some Gram-positive bacteria. This bacteriocin, termed enterocin TW21, was purified from culture supernatant by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sep-Pak C18 cartridge, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Mass spectrometry analysis showed the mass of the peptide to be approximately 5300·6 Da. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing yielded a partial sequence NH2 -ATYYGNGVYxNTQK by Edman degradation, and it contains the consensus class IIa bacteriocin motif YGNGV in the N-terminal region. The open reading frame (ORF) encoding the bacteriocin was identified from the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium D081821, and sequence analysis of this peptide indicated that enterocin TW21 is a novel bacteriocin. Enterococcus faecium D081821 produced a bacteriocin named enterocin TW21, the molecular weight and amino acid sequence both revealed it to be a novel bacteriocin. A new member of class IIa bacteriocin was identified. This bacteriocin shows great inhibitory ability against L. monocytogenes and could be applied as a natural food preservative. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. The Relationship among Tyrosine Decarboxylase and Agmatine Deiminase Pathways in Enterococcus faecalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begona; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar; Kok, Jan; Martin, M. Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Enterococci are considered mainly responsible for the undesirable accumulation of the biogenic amines tyramine and putrescine in cheeses. The biosynthesis of tyramine and putrescine has been described as a species trait in Enterococcus faecalis. Tyramine is formed by the decarboxylation of the amino

  20. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; Jiang, L.M.; de Soet, J.J.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Crielaard, W.

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  1. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput

  2. Enterococcus faecalis zinc-responsive proteins mediate bacterial defence against zinc overload, lysozyme and oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Abrantes, Marta; Kok, Jan; de Fatima Silva Lopes, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Two Enterococcus faecalis genes encoding the P-type ATPase EF1400 and the putative SapB protein EF0759 were previously shown to be strongly upregulated in the presence of high concentrations of zinc. In the present work, we showed that a Zn(2+)-responsive DNA-binding motif (zim) is present in the

  3. Characterization of transferable tetracycline resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis isolated from raw food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Licht, Tine Rask

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of tetracycline resistance, and of specific genetic determinants for this resistance was investigated in 1003 strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from various raw food products originating from five categories including chicken meat, other poultry meat, beef, pork, and 'other...

  4. Enterococcal surface protein transiently aggravates Enterococcus faecium-induced urinary tract infection in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendertse, Masja; Heikens, Esther; Wijnands, Lucas M.; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Teske, Gwendoline J. D.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; van der Poll, Tom; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The role that the enterococcal surface protein Esp plays in the capacity of Enterococcus faecium to adhere to uroepithelial cells and the role that it plays in urinary tract infection and peritonitis was investigated in vitro and in vivo, respectively, using Esp-expressing E. faecium (E1162) and its

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Commensal Enterococcus faecalis 62, Isolated from a Healthy Norwegian Infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brede, Dag Anders; Snipen, Lars Gustav; Ussery, David

    2011-01-01

    The genome of Enterococcus faecalis 62, a commensal isolate from a healthy Norwegian infant, revealed multiple adaptive traits to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environment and the milk-containing diet of breast-fed infants. Adaptation to a commensal existence was emphasized by lactose and other...

  6. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Enterococcus species Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro en aislamientos clínicos de Enterococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Calderón-Jaimes

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of several antimicrobial agents against 97 clinical significant isolates of Enterococcus spp. MATHERIAL AND METHODS: During a 2-year prospective study at Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. Ninety seven strains of Enterococcus spp. (60 E. faecalis and 37 E. faecium were tested against 11 antibiotics. Susceptibility tests were performed with agar, according to the standards of the sNational Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Isolates were screened for high-level resistance (HLR to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and other antibiotics, as well as for vancomycin-phenotypes. Differences between proportions were evaluated with chi2 of Fisher exact fest. RESULTS: Overall resistance rates to the antibiotics tested were: 17/97 (17.5% to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and imipenem. There was neither HLR nor beta-lactamase production; 74/97 (48.4% were resistant to erythromycin; 60% to ciprofloxacin; 31/97 (32% to gentamicin, and 55/97 (56.7% to streptomycin. Seven strains were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, all of them identified as E. faecium; 5/7 with Van A and 2/7 with Van B phenotypes. All the isolates were susceptible to linezolid. The difference in susceptibility among species was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Mutidrug-resistant enterococci is a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. The microbiology laboratory is the first line of defense against the spread of multiantibiotic-resistan enterococci in the hospital environment . All the strains recovered should be tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin and glycopeptides.OBJECTIVO: Describir la actividad antimicrobiana de varios antibióticos, contra 97 cepas de Enterococcus spp., consideradas como aislamientos clínicamente significativos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En un estudio prospectivo de dos años, (enero de 1998

  7. Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Bulk Tank Milk in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya Jing; Qin, Yun; Guix Vallverdú, Roger; Maldonado García, Jaime; Sun, Wei; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the herd prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) in China dairy herds, to determine the relationship between the presence of mastitis pathogens and bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BTSCC), and to investigate the impact of different dairy cattle farming modes and region on bacterial species. BTM samples collected from 894 dairy herds in China were examined for the presence of mastitis pathogens. The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards were used for BTM sample collection, storage, and transportation and bacterial DNA amplification by real-time PCR. Among contagious pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were detected in 50.1, 92.2, and 72.3% of the 894 BTM samples, respectively. Among environmental pathogens, E. coli, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were detected in 28.6, 8.9, 35.7, 20.0, 1.3, 17.0, and 67.2% of the BTM samples, respectively. Staphylococcal β-lactamase gene was detected in 61.7% of the BTM samples. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were significantly associated with high BTSCC, respectively. Significant differences were found in presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in BTM sampled from the small household farms, dairy-farming communities, and large-scaled dairy farms. There were significant differences in the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, staphylococcal β-lactamase gene, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus uberis in BTM among Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Hebei province. In conclusion, contagious mammary pathogens are predominated among pathogens in BTM samples in China. PMID:27187065

  8. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  9. Success of linezolid therapy for postneurosurgical ventriculitis due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaJi Qiu; Jie Tang; DeLing Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ventriculitis is one of the most severe events in postneurosurgical intracranial infections.There are no guidelines recommending an appropriate treatment before.Case presentation:This case presents a successful linezolid treatment for post-neurosurgical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ventriculitis of a 24-year-old man in the department of neurosurgery,Beijing Tiantan Hospital.Conclusions:Linezolid should be considered as one of the important methods for the treatment of postneurosurgical intracranial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

  10. [Perception of nosocomial risk among healthcare workers at "Hopital Principal" in Dakar, Senegal (survey 2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, B; Margery, J; Wade, B; Ka, S; Diatta, B; Gueye, M; Mbaye, P S; Debonne, J M

    2008-12-01

    Nosocomial Infection (NI) is also observed in healthcare facilities in non-Western countries. The purpose of this report is to describe the findings of a survey undertaken to evaluate hygiene procedures implemented at the "Hopital Principal" in Dakar, Senegal and to assess perception and awareness of nosocomial risk among the hospital staff. A total of 264 healthcare workers were interviewed. Mean age was 39 years (range, 18-60) and the sex ratio was 1.3 (150 men/114 women). Sixty (22.7%) had university degrees, 106 (40.2%) had secondary school diplomas, 50 (18.9%) had attended middle school, and 13 (4.9%) had no schooling. Analysis of interview data showed that 56.1% (157/264) defined NI as infection acquired at the hospital but that only 9.8% (n=26) knew that a minimum 48-hour delay was necessary to distinguish nosocomial from community acquired infection. While understanding about NI was correlated with education level, data showed that 1 out of 3 physicians (13/39) failed to give the exact definition. Hand contact was cited as the second route of transmission. Isolation precautions were understood by 22.7% of personnel (60/264). Systematic handwashing was reported by 363% (96/264) but observation demonstrated that it was not performed properly regardless of the category of personnel. Care protocols were understood by 54.6% of persons interviewed (144/264). A hygiene-training course had been attended by 52.2% (n=138). Two thirds of the staff (69.7%: 54/264) was able to identify the hygiene nurse. Ninety-eight health care providers (37.1%) were familiar with the CLIN (Comités de Lutte contre les Infections Nosocomiales).

  11. Pentaglobin as an adjunct therapy in very low birthweight neonates with nosocomial sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihoglu, O.; Can, E.; Koc, M.O.; Durmus, E.; Hatipoglu, S.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of pentaglobin treatment on clinical and laboratory parametres and the major morbidities in very low birthweight neonates with nosocomial sepsis before and after pentaglobin treatment. Methods: The prospective interventional study was conducted from January 1 to December 31, 2010, at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Pentaglobin was initiated on the day of diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis to 13 pre-term neonates as a support therapy in addition to antibiotics; 5 ml/kg per day of pentaglobin was infused over a 4-hour period on 3 consecutive days. Clinical and laboratory parametres and major morbidities were recorded before and after pentaglobin treatment and compared using NCSS software. Results: Of the total, 8(66%) were females and 5 (40%) males. Following pentaglobin therapy, the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio and C-reactive protein levels were significantly decreased, and the capillary pH and base excess were significantly increased (p 0.05). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=3; 23%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2; 15.3%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1; 7.7%) were identified in blood cultures. The presence of intraventricular haemorrhages, necrotising enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia, and patent ductus arteriosus was not changed following the treatment. Adverse effects and mortality were not observed during or after the therapy. Conclusion: Pentaglobin treatment of nosocomial sepsis could be used as an adjunct therapy without any adverse short-term reactions, even in very low birthweight pre-term infants. (author)

  12. Hospital costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Eva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to assess the hospital economic costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. Methods A retrospective study of all hospital admissions between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006 was carried out in a 420-bed, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain. All patients with a first positive clinical culture for P. aeruginosa more than 48 h after admission were included. Patient and hospitalization characteristics were collected from hospital and microbiology laboratory computerized records. According to antibiotic susceptibility, isolates were classified as non-resistant, resistant and multi-drug resistant. Cost estimation was based on a full-costing cost accounting system and on the criteria of clinical Activity-Based Costing methods. Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized linear models of log-transformed costs. Results Cost estimations were available for 402 nosocomial incident P. aeruginosa positive cultures. Their distribution by antibiotic susceptibility pattern was 37.1% non-resistant, 29.6% resistant and 33.3% multi-drug resistant. The total mean economic cost per admission of patients with multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains was higher than that for non-resistant strains (15,265 vs. 4,933 Euros. In multivariate analysis, resistant and multi-drug resistant strains were independently predictive of an increased hospital total cost in compared with non-resistant strains (the incremental increase in total hospital cost was more than 1.37-fold and 1.77-fold that for non-resistant strains, respectively. Conclusions P. aeruginosa multi-drug resistance independently predicted higher hospital costs with a more than 70% increase per admission compared with non-resistant strains. Prevention of the nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms is essential to limit the strong economic impact.

  13. Hospital costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Cots, Francesc; Sala, Maria; Comas, Mercè; Belvis, Francesc; Riu, Marta; Salvadó, Margarita; Grau, Santiago; Horcajada, Juan P; Montero, Maria Milagro; Castells, Xavier

    2012-05-23

    We aimed to assess the hospital economic costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. A retrospective study of all hospital admissions between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006 was carried out in a 420-bed, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain). All patients with a first positive clinical culture for P. aeruginosa more than 48 h after admission were included. Patient and hospitalization characteristics were collected from hospital and microbiology laboratory computerized records. According to antibiotic susceptibility, isolates were classified as non-resistant, resistant and multi-drug resistant. Cost estimation was based on a full-costing cost accounting system and on the criteria of clinical Activity-Based Costing methods. Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized linear models of log-transformed costs. Cost estimations were available for 402 nosocomial incident P. aeruginosa positive cultures. Their distribution by antibiotic susceptibility pattern was 37.1% non-resistant, 29.6% resistant and 33.3% multi-drug resistant. The total mean economic cost per admission of patients with multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains was higher than that for non-resistant strains (15,265 vs. 4,933 Euros). In multivariate analysis, resistant and multi-drug resistant strains were independently predictive of an increased hospital total cost in compared with non-resistant strains (the incremental increase in total hospital cost was more than 1.37-fold and 1.77-fold that for non-resistant strains, respectively). P. aeruginosa multi-drug resistance independently predicted higher hospital costs with a more than 70% increase per admission compared with non-resistant strains. Prevention of the nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms is essential to limit the strong economic impact.

  14. Multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from nosocomial respiratory and urinary infections in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Maysa; Al Najjar, Mona; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2015-02-19

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a serious clinical challenge due to its frequent involvement in nosocomial infections and its tendency towards multidrug resistance. This study uncovered antibiotic susceptibility patterns in 177 isolates from inpatients in three key hospitals in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria. Exceptionally low susceptibility to most routinely used antibiotics was uncovered; resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was 64.9% and 70.3%, respectively. Contrarily, susceptibility to colistin was the highest (89.1%). Multidrug resistance was rife, found at a rate of 53.67% among studied P. aeruginosa isolates.

  15. [Legal aspects of the health care institution liability for nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek; Pakowski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the basic concepts concerning the liability of health care institution for nosocomial infections are presented. The principles of ex contracto and ex delicto liabilities, as well as the concept of so-called anonymous guilt are discussed. The range of duties for both the health care institution and the employed medical personnel is indicated, the duties and the consequences of their non-fulfillment are systematized, and the obligatory jurisdiction concerning the functioning of prima facie evidence is considered. The author aimed at explaining the principles governing the civil liability of health care institutions and their employees.

  16. Nosocomial infections of ocular conjunctiva in newborns delivered by cesarian section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirtzoglou, E; Romond, C

    1991-01-01

    Colonization of the ocular conjunctiva in newborns delivered by cesarian section occurs usually within the first day of life. We have studied the flora of the ocular conjunctiva at birth, from 19 newborns delivered by cesarian section, coming from two different maternity hospitals. Ocular conjunctiva cultures yielded the main predominant flora in both maternity hospitals considered. The most common genus of this flora are: Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium acnes. Peptostreptococcus productus, Neisseria, Eubacterium and Clostridium perfringens are isolated occasionally. In newborns delivered by cesarian section, this flora principally acquired may be the consequence of the presence of bacteria in the ambient air, as well as differences in care provided by the nosocomial personnel.

  17. [Risk factors of development of nosocomial pyogenic and septic infections in maternity hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Iu A; Nikolaeva, A M; Fel'dblium, I V

    2007-01-01

    During prospective epidemiological surveillance cases of pyogenic and septic infections (PSI) in mothers and newborns in two maternity hospitals were studied using standard case definition and leading risk factors of their development were revealed. These factors differed in two hospitals and were connected mainly with high level of patients colonization, contamination of the environment by nosocomial strains of microorganisms, and degree of participation of mother's relatives in delivery. It was shown that permission to relatives for presence on delivery did not influence on the rate of PSI. Specificity of risk factors of PSI in mothers and newborns dictates necessity to determine them in each maternity hospital.

  18. Nosocomial infections—a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfill, G. E.; Shimizu, T.; Steffes, B.; Schmidt, H.-U.

    2009-11-01

    A new, very efficient, large area scalable and robust electrode design for plasma production in air at atmosphere pressures has been developed and tested. This has made the development of a 'plasma dispenser' for hospital disinfection possible, which has certain advantages over current fluid disinfection systems. The properties of this device are presented, in particular the bactericidal and fungicidal efficiency, and the advantages are described. Such plasma dispensers could play an important role in the future fight against the alarming and growing threat posed by nosocomial (=hospital and community associated) bacterial infections.

  19. Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G E; Shimizu, T; Steffes, B; Schmidt, H-U

    2009-01-01

    A new, very efficient, large area scalable and robust electrode design for plasma production in air at atmosphere pressures has been developed and tested. This has made the development of a 'plasma dispenser' for hospital disinfection possible, which has certain advantages over current fluid disinfection systems. The properties of this device are presented, in particular the bactericidal and fungicidal efficiency, and the advantages are described. Such plasma dispensers could play an important role in the future fight against the alarming and growing threat posed by nosocomial (=hospital and community associated) bacterial infections.

  20. Analysis on Risk Factors of Nosocomial Infection in Orthopedic Patients and Research on Nursing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhitao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic patients mostly comprise traumatic patients and elderly or sick individuals. More patients with emergency surgery suffer from open wounds and serious pollution, and operation time is relatively long. Thus, orthopedic patients with surgical incision infection account for a large proportion of incidence of hospital infection. Orthopedic patients are also bedridden for long periods, and they receive poor bone tissue blood supply. In surgical incision infections, mild cases suffer from delayed wound healing, whereas severe cases can form osteomyelitis. This study reviews progress of research on risk factors of nosocomial infection among orthopedic patients in recent years.

  1. Nosocomial infection of CCHF among health care workers in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pragya D; Patil, Deepak Y; Shete, Anita M; Kokate, Prasad; Goyal, Pulkit; Jadhav, Santosh; Sinha, Sanjeev; Zawar, Divya; Sharma, Surendra K; Kapil, Arti; Sharma, D K; Upadhyay, Kamlesh J; Mourya, Devendra T

    2016-11-03

    Ever since Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] discovered in India, several outbreaks of this disease have been recorded in Gujarat State, India. During the year 2011 to 2015 several districts of Gujarat and Rajasthan state (Sirohi) found to be affected with CCHF including the positivity among ticks and livestock. During these years many infected individuals succumbed to this disease; which subsequently led to nosocomial infections. Herein, we report CCHF cases recorded from Rajasthan state during January 2015. This has affected four individuals apparently associated with one suspected CCHF case admitted in a private hospital in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. A 30-year-old male was hospitalized in a private hospital in Jodhpur, Rajasthan State, who subsequently had developed thrombocytopenia and showed hemorrhagic manifestations and died in the hospital. Later on, four nursing staff from the same hospital also developed the similar symptoms (Index case and Case A, B, C). Index case succumbed to the disease in the hospital at Jodhpur followed by the death of the case A that was shifted to AIIMS hospital, Delhi due to clinical deterioration. Blood samples of the index case and Case A, B, C were referred to the National institute of Virology, Pune, India for CCHF diagnosis from the different hospitals in Rajasthan, Delhi and Gujarat. However, a sample of deceased suspected CCHF case was not referred. Subsequently, blood samples of 5 nursing staff and 37 contacts (Case D was one of them) from Pokhran area, Jaisalmer district were referred to NIV, Pune. It clearly indicated that nursing staff acquired a nosocomial infection while attending the suspected CCHF case in an Intensive Care Unit of a private hospital in Jodhpur. However, one case was confirmed from the Pokhran area where the suspected CCHF case was residing. This case might have got the infection from suspected CCHF case or through other routes. CCHF strain associated with these nosocomial infections shares the

  2. AMPK in Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Inês Morais; Moreira, Diana; Marques, Belém Sampaio; Laforge, Mireille; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Ludovico, Paula; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo Jorge Leal

    2016-01-01

    During host–pathogen interactions, a complex web of events is crucial for the outcome of infection. Pathogen recognition triggers powerful cellular signaling events that is translated into the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive host immunity against infection. In opposition, pathogens employ active mechanisms to manipulate host cell regulatory pathways toward their proliferation and survival. Among these, subversion of host cell energy metabolism by pathogens is currently recogn...

  3. Enhanced Control of Listeria monocytogenes by Enterococcus faecium KE82, a Multiple Enterocin-Producing Strain, in Different Milk Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandera, Elpiniki; Lianou, Alexandra; Kakouri, Athanasia; Feng, Jinbo; Koukkou, Anna-Irini; Samelis, John

    2017-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium KE82, isolated from traditional Greek Graviera cheese, was identified in pure broth cultures in vitro as a multiple enterocin-producing bacterial strain possessing the structural entA, entB, and entP enterocin genes. E. faecium KE82 was further assessed for in situ antilisterial activity in raw milk (RM) and commercially thermized milk (TM; 63°C for 30 s) in the presence of the indigenous microbiota and in sterile raw milk (SRM; 121°C for 5 min) with or without the addition of two commercial starter culture (CSC) strains Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis . Growth of Listeria monocytogenes was completely inhibited in RM incubated at 37°C for 6 h, whereas the pathogen was significantly inactivated in RM+KE82 samples during further incubation at 18°C for 66 h. In contrast, L. monocytogenes levels increased by approximately 2 log CFU/ml in TM, but in TM+KE82 samples, pathogen growth was retarded during the first 6 h at 37°C followed by growth cessation and partial inactivation at 18°C. After 48 to 72 h, growth of L. monocytogenes in SRM+CSC samples decreased by 4 to 5 log CFU/ml compared with the SRM control, whereas additional 10-fold decreases in the pathogen were observed in SRM+CSC+KE82 samples. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of SRM+KE82 and SRM+CSC+KE82 samples confirmed that the entA and entB genes were transcribed, but entP gene transcription was not detected. All RM and SRM samples inoculated with E. faecium KE82 displayed strong in situ inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes in well diffusion bioassays, whereas activity was weaker to undetectable in comparable or additional TM+KE82 samples; no milk sample without E. faecium KE82 had activity against L. monocytogenes . The findings of this study indicate that E. faecium KE82 is an antilisterial agent that could be used in traditional dairy foods because it concomitantly produces enterocins A and B in situ in milk.

  4. Pathogenic Acinetobacter: from the Cell Surface to Infinity and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Brent S.; Harding, Christian M.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Acinetobacter encompasses multiple nosocomial opportunistic pathogens that are of increasing worldwide relevance because of their ability to survive exposure to various antimicrobial and sterilization agents. Among these, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, and Acinetobacter pittii are the most frequently isolated in hospitals around the world. Despite the growing incidence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp., little is known about the factors that contribute to pathogenesis. New strategies for treating and managing infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter strains are urgently needed, and this requires a detailed understanding of the pathobiology of these organisms. In recent years, some virulence factors important for Acinetobacter colonization have started to emerge. In this review, we focus on several recently described virulence factors that act at the bacterial surface level, such as the capsule, O-linked protein glycosylation, and adhesins. Furthermore, we describe the current knowledge regarding the type II and type VI secretion systems present in these strains. PMID:26712938

  5. Anticancer and enhanced antimicrobial activity of biosynthesizd silver nanoparticles against clinical pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Vanaja, Mahendran; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation shows the biosynthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles using culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and study the effect of enhanced antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity against pathogenic bacteria, fungi and cancer cell lines. Silver nanoparticles was synthesized by adding 1 mM silver nitrate into the 100 ml of 24 h freshly prepared culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Selected Area Diffraction X-Ray (SAED), Energy Dispersive X Ray (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infra red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were impregnated with commercial antibiotics for evaluation of enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further these synthesized silver nanoparticles were assessed for its anticancer activity against cancer cell lines. In this study crystalline structured nanoparticles with spherical in the size ranges from 10 to 80 nm and it shows excellent enhanced antimicrobial activity than the commercial antibiotics. The in vitro assay of silver nanoparticles on anticancer have great potential to inhibit the cell viability. Amide linkages and carboxylate groups of proteins from Enterococcus sp. may bind with silver ions and convert into nanoparticles. The activities of commercial antibiotics were enhanced by coating silver nanoparticles shows significant improved antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles have the great potential to inhibit the cell viability of liver cancer cells lines (HepG2) and lung cancer cell lines (A549).

  6. Comparison of the Antibacterial effect of Diapaste with Sealapex and Zinc Oxide-Eugenol (ZOE on Enterococcus Faecalis: A Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bahram Abadi

    Full Text Available Introduction: The antiseptic characteristic of root canal filling materials seems very critical in pulpectomy procedure to eliminate residual pathogens of root canals. The aim of this laboratory study was to compare the antibacterial activity of a newly introduced premixed calcium hydroxide root canal filling paste of deciduous teeth (Diapaste with Zinc Oxide-Eugenol (ZOE and Sealapex on Enterococcus faecalis. Materials & Methods: In this study, agar diffusion inhibitory test was used to assess antibacterial activity. Ten 10-cm-diameter dishes with 4.0mm thickness of agar inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis were used and four 5-mm-diameter wells per dish at equidistant points were filled with the three test root canal filling materials (Diapaste, ZOE and Sealapex and distilled water as a negative control was used to fill the fourth well. After incubation of the plates at 37oC for 48 hours, the diameter of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm with a caliper. Data were analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Kruskall-Wallis test indicated that there were statistically significant differences (P<0.001 among median of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced by the three different materials. Mean diameter of inhibition zones of bacterial growth was significantly higher in Diapaste than Sealapex (P<0.001 and ZOE (P<0.001. Conclusion: With respect to the limitations of an in vitro study, it appears that Diapaste has more antibacterial activity than ZOE and Sealapex.

  7. A Discrete Events Delay Differential System Model for Transmission of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-19

    estimated directly form the surveillance data Infection control measures were implemented in the form of health care worker hand - hygiene before and after...hospital infections , is used to motivate possibilities of modeling nosocomial infec- tion dynamics. This is done in the context of hospital monitoring and...model development. Key Words: Delay equations, discrete events, nosocomial infection dynamics, surveil- lance data, inverse problems, parameter

  8. Use of proton pump inhibitors is associated with increased mortality due to nosocomial pneumonia in bedridden patients receiving tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Kosuke; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Ohshimo, Shinichiro; Wakabayashi, Yu; Ihara, Daisuke; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Hamada, Hironobu; Ono, Koichi; Hattori, Noboru

    2018-05-22

    To investigate the association between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and nosocomial pneumonia and gastrointestinal bleeding in bedridden patients receiving tube feeding. A total of 116 bedridden hospitalized patients receiving tube feeding, of which 80 were supported by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and 36 by nasogastric tube, were included in the present study. The patients were divided into two groups: 62 patients treated with PPI (PPI group) and 54 patients without PPI (non-PPI group). Mortality due to nosocomial pneumonia was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier approach and the log-rank test. A total of 36 patients (31%) died of nosocomial pneumonia during the observation period; the mortality rate due to nosocomial pneumonia was significantly higher in the PPI group than in the non-PPI group (P = 0.0395). Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the use of PPI and lower levels of serum albumin were independent predictors of 2-year mortality due to nosocomial pneumonia. Gastrointestinal bleeding was observed in four patients in the non-PPI group (7.7%) and in one patient in the PPI group (1.6%); there was no significant difference between the two groups. The use of PPI in bedridden tube-fed patients was independently associated with mortality due to nosocomial pneumonia, and the PPI group had a non-significant lower incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding than the non-PPI group. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 The Authors Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Inactivation of airborne Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus using a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation scrubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Xin, H.

    2014-01-01

    High microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. A pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic (UV-PCO) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

  10. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance of clinical and non-clinical Enterococcus cecorum from poultry using whole-genome sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterococcus cecorum has been implicated as a possible cause of disease in poultry including spondylitis, vertebral osteoarthritis and femoral osteomyelitis. Antimicrobials have been used to treat the disease during outbreaks, but have been ineffective in controlling outbreak mortality possibly due...

  11. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  12. The mazEF toxin–antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheili S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sara Soheili,1 Sobhan Ghafourian,2 Zamberi Sekawi,1 Vasantha Kumari Neela,1 Nourkhoda Sadeghifard,2 Morovat Taherikalani,2 Afra Khosravi,2 Ramliza Ramli,3 Rukman Awang Hamat11Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 2Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaakob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: The toxin–antitoxin (TA system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems

  13. Quorum sensing molecules production by nosocomial and soil isolates Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdönmez, Demet; Rad, Abbas Yousefi; Aksöz, Nilüfer

    2017-12-01

    Acinetobacter species remain alive in hospitals on various surfaces, both dry and moist, forming an important source of hospital infections. These bacteria are naturally resistant to many antibiotic classes. Although the role of the quorum sensing system in regulating the virulence factors of Acinetobacter species has not been fully elucidated, it has been reported that they play a role in bacterial biofilm formation. The biofilm formation helps them to survive under unfavorable growth conditions and antimicrobial treatments. It is based on the accumulation of bacterial communication signal molecules in the area. In this study, we compared the bacterial signal molecules of 50 nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii strain and 20 A. baumannii strain isolated from soil. The signal molecules were detected by the biosensor bacteria (Chromobacterium violaceum 026, Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL1) and their separation was determined by thin-layer chromatography. As a result, it has been found that soil-borne isolates can produce 3-oxo-C8-AHL and C8-AHL, whereas nosocomial-derived isolates can produce long-chain signals such as C10-AHL, C12-AHL, C14-AHL and C16-AHL. According to these results, it is possible to understand that these signal molecules are found in the infection caused by A. baumannii. The inhibition of this signaling molecules in a communication could use to prevent multiple antibiotic resistance of these bacteria.

  14. [Nosocomial infection due to Trichosporon asahii in a critical burned patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Lomas, Luis; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Martín Luengo, Ana Isabel; Eiros Bouza, José María; Piqueras Pérez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal infection is an important cause of morbimortality in patients with severe burns. The advances in burn care therapy have considerably extended the survival of seriously burned patients, exposing them to infectious complications, notably fungal infections, with increased recognition of invasive infections caused by Candida species. However, some opportunistic fungi, like Trichosporon asahii, have emerged as important causes of nosocomial infection. A case of nosocomial infection due to T. asahii in a severely ill burned patient successfully treated with voriconazole is presented. The management of invasive fungal infections in burned patients, from diagnosis to selection of the therapeutic protocol, is often a challenge. Early diagnosis and treatment are associated with a better prognosis. In this case report, current treatment options are discussed, and a review of previously published cases is presented. Due to the difficulty in the diagnosis of invasive mycoses and their high associated mortality rates, it is advisable to keep a high degree of clinical suspicion of trichosporonosis in susceptible patients, including burned patients. The isolation of T. asahii in clinical specimens of this type of host must raise clinical alert, since it may precede an invasive infection. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  16. [Preliminary result on the nosocomial infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome in one hospital of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yao; Jiang, Yong; Xing, Yu-bin; Zhong, Guang-lin; Wang, Lei; Sun, Zheng-ji; Jia, Hong; Chang, Qing; Wang, Yong; Ni, Bin; Chen, Shi-ping

    2003-07-01

    To study the transmission route of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) nosocomial infection. Ten identified SARS patients were selected from a general hospital in March. Survey was carried out through a standardized questionnaire provided by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Contents of the questionnaire would include: history of contact with SARS patient, route of infection, methods used for protection and so on. (1) Distribution os SARS patients were confined to 3 wards: 4, 5, and 6 on the 7, 8, 12, 13 and 14 floors in the west unit of the inpatient building. Most of the inpatients were elderly and having severe original diseases. (2) Index patients were the first generation source of transmission and they infected inpatients and medical staff, making them the second generation. People with latent infection who had close contact with SARS patients might also serve as the possible source of transmission. (3) The major transmission routes were: near distant droplet infection and close contact infection. There was also a clue to the probability of aerosol or droplet nuclei infection through air-conditioning and ventilation system. Nosocomial infection appeared to be the main characteristic of the SARS epidemic in the early stage of this hospital. Other than close contact and near space airborne transmission of SARS virus, the possibility of long-distance aerosol transmission called for further epidemiological and experimental studies in the future.

  17. A case of nosocomial Legionella pneumonia associated with a contaminated hospital cooling tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Abe, Yasuhisa; Jikimoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2014-01-01

    We report the epidemiological investigation of a nosocomial pneumonia case due to Legionella pneumophila linked to a contaminated hospital cooling tower in an immune-compromised patient. A 73-year-old female patient was diagnosed with nosocomial Legionella pneumonia proven by a culture of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Two strains isolated from the patient and two strains isolated from two cooling towers were found to be identical using repetitive-sequence-based-PCR with a 95% probability. This Legionella pneumonia case might be caused by aerosol from cooling towers on the roof of the hospital building which was contaminated by L. pneumophila. We increased up the temperature of hot water supply appropriately for prevention of Legionella breeding in an environment of patients' living. On the other hand, as the maintenance of cooling tower, we increased the frequency of Legionella culture tests from twice a year to three times a year. In addition, we introduced an automated disinfectants insertion machine and added one antiseptic reagent (BALSTER ST-40 N, Tohzai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Kawasaki, Japan) after this Legionella disease, and thereafter, we have no additional cases of Legionella disease or detection of Legionella spp. from the cooling tower or hot water supply. This case demonstrates the importance of detecting the infection source and carrying out environmental maintenance in cooperation with the infection control team. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inadequate ventilation for nosocomial tuberculosis prevention in public hospitals in Central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamjarasrangsi, W; Bualert, S; Chongthaleong, A; Chaindamporn, A; Udomsantisuk, N; Euasamarnjit, W

    2009-04-01

    Forty-two community and general hospitals in central Thailand. To examine the adequacy of indoor ventilation for nosocomial tuberculosis (TB) prevention in public hospitals in central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 patient care and ancillary areas in the target hospitals. Data on indoor ventilation rate were collected by the tracer gas method and reported as air changes per hour (ACH). The adequacy of the measured ventilation rates were then determined by comparison with the international recommended standard values. Indoor ventilation rates were inadequate in almost half of the studied areas (144/323, 44.6%). The inadequacy was particularly serious in the emergency rooms (ERs) and radiological areas, where 73.8% (31/42 each) of the rooms had ACH below the recommended standards. Detailed analysis showed that most of the rooms with natural ventilation had air exchange rates that exceeded the recommended standards, while the opposite was the case for rooms with air-conditioning, particularly the window or wall-mount type. Indoor ventilation in high-risk nosocomial TB areas in public hospitals in Thailand was inadequate due to the installation of air-conditioning systems in modern buildings.

  19. [Incidence and risk factors associated with nosocomial infection in pediatric heart surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Raya, Fidencia; Baeza-Zarco, Fabiola Janet

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients undergoing heart surgery. Our objective was to determine the incidence and associated risk factors to nosocomial infections in this group of patients. A descriptive, prospective, clinical study was conducted in a tertiary hospital for a year. We calculated the rate of incidence, accumulated incidence and devices used. Was Applied the EPIDAT 2004 version 3.1 program OPS for obtaining of Chi-square with Yates correction for p with a confidence of 95 %, alpha of 0.05 with a degree of freedom, we calculated odds ratio, besides of the identification of microorganisms, their sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics. We calculated rates of: 45 % the incidence, 80.6 % cumulative incidence, 7.4 % of mortality, 13.3 % of case-fatality rate of infected and 2.7 % non-infected. The 44.4 % with pneumonia, 74 % associated with mechanical ventilation, 100 % nasogastric tube. The most frequently isolated microorganisms are: Acinetobacter baumanni, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with high resistance to antibiotics. Pediatric patients undergoing heart surgery have high risk of infection heart disease, cyanogen's have 5 times more risk. We observed a statistically significant association with infection using nasogastric probe and endotracheal tube, the risk increases to increased hospital stay. Infected patients have 4 times the risk of death.

  20. The gene bap, involved in biofilm production, is present in Staphylococcus spp. strains from nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Amina; Ceotto, Hilana; Giambiagi-Demarval, Marcia; dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto; Nes, Ingolf F; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2009-06-01

    This study analyzed ten strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) involved in nosocomial infections in three Brazilian hospitals. Their antibiotic susceptibility profile showed that most strains exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance and possessed the mecA gene. The ability of these strains to adhere to polystyrene microtiter plates was also tested and nine of them proved to be biofilm producers at least in one of the three conditions tested: growth in TSB, in TSB supplemented with NaCl, or in TSB supplemented with glucose. The presence of the bap gene, which codes for the biofilm-associated protein (Bap), was investigated in all ten strains by PCR. AU strains were bop-positive and DNA sequencing experiments confirmed that the fragments amplified were indeed part of a bap gene. The presence of the icaA gene, one of the genes involved in polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) formation, was also detected by PCR in eight of the ten strains tested. The two icaA-negative strains were either weak biofilm producer or no biofilm producer, although they were bop-positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of the bap gene in nosocomial isolates of CNS, being also the first report on the presence of this gene in Staphylococcus haemolyticus and S. cohnii.

  1. Use of 99mTc-Mononuclear Leukocyte Scintigraphy in Nosocomial Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutfilen, B.; Lopes de Souza, S.A.; Martins, F.P.P.; Cardoso, L.R.; Pinheiro Pessoa, M.C.; Fonseca, L.M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the overall diagnostic accuracy of mononuclear leukocyte- 99m Tc scintigraphy in the routine detection of infectious lesions and fever of unknown origin (FUO) in inpatients. Material and Methods: The use of mononuclear leukocyte 99m Tc scintigraphy is presented in 87 patients who fulfilled the Durack and Street diagnostic criteria of nosocomial FUO; 66 patients were suspected of having infectious lesions (myocarditis, endocarditis, infected catheters, diabetic foot, and osteomyelitis) and 21 patients presented with unknown causes of FUO. Scans were carried out 1, 3, and 24 h after injection of labeled leukocytes. Results: In three cases (3/27) where scintigraphs were negative, biopsies were positive. There were two (2/87) false-positive scintigrams. We found a 95.8% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity. PPV was 93.8%, PPN 94.7%, and accuracy 94.2%. Conclusion: Mononuclear leukocyte 99m Tc scintigraphy showed high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values in patients with nosocomial FUO. These results suggest an important role for nuclear medicine in the management of patients with infection/inflammation

  2. Handwashing: a simple, economical and effective method for preventing nosocomial infections in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, A; Ulusoy, H; Ozen, I

    2006-04-01

    As most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of healthcare workers, handwashing is considered to be the single most important intervention to prevent nosocomial infections. However, studies have shown that handwashing practices are poor, especially among medical personnel. This review gives an overview of handwashing in health care and in the community, including some aspects that have attracted little attention, such as hand drying and cultural issues determining hand hygiene behaviour. Hand hygiene is the most effective measure for interrupting the transmission of micro-organisms which cause infection, both in the community and in the healthcare setting. Using hand hygiene as a sole measure to reduce infection is unlikely to be successful when other factors in infection control, such as environmental hygiene, crowding, staffing levels and education, are inadequate. Hand hygiene must be part of an integrated approach to infection control. Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is poor worldwide. While the techniques involved in hand hygiene are simple, the complex interdependence of factors that determine hand hygiene behaviour makes the study of hand hygiene complex. It is now recognized that improving compliance with hand hygiene recommendations depends on altering human behaviour. Input from behavioural and social sciences is essential when designing studies to investigate compliance. Interventions to increase compliance with hand hygiene practices must be appropriate for different cultural and social needs.

  3. Low Compliance to Handwashing Program and High Nosocomial Infection in a Brazilian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandra Ferreira de Almeida e Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is a fact that hand hygiene prevents nosocomial infection, but compliance with recommended instructions is commonly poor. The purpose of this study was to implement a hand hygiene program for increase compliance with hand hygiene and its relationship with nosocomial infection (NI and MRSA infection/colonization rates. Methods. Compliance to hand hygiene was evaluated in a hospital by direct observation and measured of health care-associated infections, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, before and after an educational intervention, using visual poster, colorful stamps, and feedback of the results. Results. Overall compliance did not increase during intervention, only handwashing before and after patient contact has improved from 40% to 76% (=0.01 for HCWs, but NI and MRSA rates remained high and stable. Conclusion. In a combination of high prevalence of NI and low compliance to hand hygiene, the programme of measure does not motivate the HCW hand hygiene. Future interventions should employ incremental evaluation to develop effective hand hygiene initiatives.

  4. [Primary pneumonic plague with nosocomial transmission in La Libertad, Peru 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaires, Luis F; Céspedes, Manuel; Valencia, Pedro; Salas, Juan Carlos; Luna, María E; Castañeda, Alex; Peralta, Víctor; Cabezas, César; Pachas, Paul E

    2010-09-01

    Pneumonic plague is one of the clinical forms of plague, of low frequency and high mortality, transmitted by direct inhalation of Yersinia pestis coming from an animal or from person to person. To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the cases of primary pneumonic plague in an outbreak in the north of Peru. The clinical records of the confirmed cases of primary pneumonic plague presenting in an outbreak occurring in La Libertad, in July 2010, were reviewed, also the search and contact investigation was performed. The index case was identified, as well as three additional cases, out of these, two were nosocomial infections related to the index case. The initial clinical presentation was characterized by sudden onset of fever, chills, myalgia and chest pain, which in less than 24 hours evolved to hypotension and cyanosis. The initiation of specific treatment varied from 2 to 12 days, and cases with prompt initiation of treatment had a better clinical outcome. The lethality was 50% (2/4). Nosocomial transmission of pneumonic plague in Peru is evidenced, with severe clinical manifestations and high lethality.

  5. Use of {sup 99m}Tc-Mononuclear Leukocyte Scintigraphy in Nosocomial Fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfilen, B.; Lopes de Souza, S.A.; Martins, F.P.P.; Cardoso, L.R.; Pinheiro Pessoa, M.C.; Fonseca, L.M.B. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To determine the overall diagnostic accuracy of mononuclear leukocyte-{sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy in the routine detection of infectious lesions and fever of unknown origin (FUO) in inpatients. Material and Methods: The use of mononuclear leukocyte {sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy is presented in 87 patients who fulfilled the Durack and Street diagnostic criteria of nosocomial FUO; 66 patients were suspected of having infectious lesions (myocarditis, endocarditis, infected catheters, diabetic foot, and osteomyelitis) and 21 patients presented with unknown causes of FUO. Scans were carried out 1, 3, and 24 h after injection of labeled leukocytes. Results: In three cases (3/27) where scintigraphs were negative, biopsies were positive. There were two (2/87) false-positive scintigrams. We found a 95.8% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity. PPV was 93.8%, PPN 94.7%, and accuracy 94.2%. Conclusion: Mononuclear leukocyte {sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy showed high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values in patients with nosocomial FUO. These results suggest an important role for nuclear medicine in the management of patients with infection/inflammation.

  6. Enterococcus spp. Resistant to Multiple Antimicrobial Drugs and Determination of Fecal Contamination Levels in Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubião, Cynthia Annes; Franco, Robson Maia; Mesquita, Eliana de Fátima Marques de; Miguel, Marco Antonio Lemos; Cabral, Claudius Couto; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine and compare the Most Probable Number (MPN) of Total Coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolated from oysters collected in the Barra de Guaratiba Mangrove, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The enumeration of E. coli has been used to indicate fecal contamination and hygienic-sanitary conditions of bivalve molluscs. Enterococci are capable to transfer several ...

  7. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie E; Lieberman, Mia T; Lebreton, Francois; Trowel, Elise; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Dzink-Fox, Joanne; Gilmore, Michael S; Fox, James G

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST): ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-III, str, ant(6)-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I) and gyrA (S83I) were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC), hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB), and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx). Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting.

  8. Class IIa bacteriocin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis V583: The mannose PTS operon mediates global transcriptional responses

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    Opsata Mona

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The class IIa bacteriocin, pediocin PA-1, has clear potential as food preservative and in the medical field to be used against Gram negative pathogen species as Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes. Resistance towards class IIa bacteriocins appear in laboratory and characterization of these phenotypes is important for their application. To gain insight into bacteriocin resistance we studied mutants of E. faecalis V583 resistant to pediocin PA-1 by use of transcriptomic analyses. Results Mutants of E. faecalis V583 resistant to pediocin PA-1 were isolated, and their gene expression profiles were analyzed and compared to the wild type using whole-genome microarray. Significantly altered transcription was detected from about 200 genes; most of them encoding proteins involved in energy metabolism and transport. Glycolytic genes were down-regulated in the mutants, but most of the genes showing differential expression were up-regulated. The data indicate that the mutants were relieved from glucose repression and putative catabolic responsive elements (cre could be identified in the upstream regions of 70% of the differentially expressed genes. Bacteriocin resistance was caused by reduced expression of the mpt operon encoding the mannose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS, and the same transcriptional changes were seen in a mptD-inactivated mutant. This mutant also had decreased transcription of the whole mpt operon, showing that the PTS is involved in its own transcriptional regulation. Conclusion Our data confirm the important role of mannose PTS in class IIa bacteriocin sensitivity and we demonstrate its importance involving global carbon catabolite control.

  9. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Woods

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST: ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6'-aph(2", aph(3'-III, str, ant(6-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I and gyrA (S83I were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC, hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB, and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx. Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting.

  10. A study of aerobic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis in reproductive age group women (15-45 years) and their sensitivity pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeetha K. T.; Saroj Golia; Vasudha C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is caused by a displacement of the healthy vaginal Lactobacillus species with aerobic pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus that triggers a localized vaginal inflammatory immune response. AV if it is not diagnosed and treated early, especially during pregnancy can place the health of both the mother and the foetus at risk as it is associated with preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and chorioamni...