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Sample records for nose control electronics

  1. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falasconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (ENs have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination of maize grains, and (d fungal contamination on green coffee beans. Despite many successful results, the high intrinsic variability of food samples together with persisting limits of the sensor technology still impairs ENs trustful applications at the industrial scale. Both advantages and drawbacks of sensor technology in food quality control are discussed. Finally, recent trends and future directions are illustrated.

  2. Application Of Electronic Nose And Ion Mobility Spectrometer To Quality Control Of Spice Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banach, U.; Tiebe, C.; Huebert, Th.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the application of electronic nose (e-nose) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to quality control and to find out product adulteration of spice mixtures. Therefore the gaseous head space phase of four different spice mixtures (spices for sausages and saveloy) was differed from original composition and product adulteration. In this set of experiments metal-oxide type e-nose (KAMINA-type) has been used, and characteristic patterns of data corresponding to various complex odors of the four different spice mixtures were generated. Simultaneously an ion mobility spectrometer was coupled also to an emission chamber for the detection of gaseous components of spice mixtures. The two main methods that have been used show a clear discrimination between the original spice mixtures and product adulteration could be distinguished from original spice mixtures.

  3. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  4. Electronic Noses and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine LUMBRERAS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses are customized devices employed to detect and to identify gaseous mixtures, even to give the concentration of the atmosphere components. Nowadays, the research in this domain is more and more growing, in Europe and other countries in the world, for many applications, such as environmental protection, food industries, perfumery, public safety, medicine, and pharmacy. Electronic noses allow to detect many organic volatile compounds, for which there is no specific detector. They constitute an alternative to complex, long, and too expensive existing methods, unable to ensure continuous monitoring. Their conception deals with many related areas (metrology, chemistry, physics, electronics, informatics, statistics, modelisation as well as areas related to the molecules to be detected. The system training is a primary step: during a measurement under a gaseous atmosphere, we must record the sensor time-responses in a treatment system, while specifying the name of the concerned odor. This process must be repeated many times for each studied atmosphere, and for all the chosen atmospheres. So a learning data base can be created, made from representative parameters of all the realized measures. After this training stage, clustering software will classify the data analysis in “concentration” or “nature” groups. Using the group separation rules given by this supervised classification, the system will be able to find itself the name of an odor or a concentration.

  5. Electronic Nose Technology and its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil MAHMOUDI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, Electronic Nose instrumentation has generated much interest internationally for its potential to solve a wide variety of problems in fragrance and cosmetics production, food and beverages manufacturing, chemical engineering, environmental monitoring and more recently medical diagnostic, bioprocesses and clinical diagnostic plant diseases. This instrument measure electrical resistance changes generated by adsorption of volatiles to the surface of electro active- polymer coated sensor- unique digital electronic fingerprint of aroma derived from multi-sensor- responses to distinct mixture of microbial volatiles. Major advances in information and gas sensor technology could enhance the diagnostic power of future bio-electronic nose and facilitate global surveillance mode of disease control and management. Several dozen companies are now designed and selling electronic nose units globally for a wide variety of expending markets. The present review includes principles of electronic nose technology, biosensor structure and applications of electronic nose in many fields.

  6. Applications of electronic noses in meat analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta GÓRSKA-HORCZYCZAK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electronic noses are devices able to characterize and differentiate the aroma profiles of various food, especially meat and meat products. During recent years e-noses have been widely used in food analysis and proved to provide a fast, simple, non-expensive and non-destructive method of food assessment and quality control. The aim of this study is to summarize the most important features of this analytic tool and to present basic fields and typical areas of e-nose use as well as most commonly used sensor types and patterns for e-nose design. Prospects for the future development of this technique are presented. Methods and research results presented in this manuscript may be a guideline for practical e-nose use.

  7. Micro-Electronic Nose System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Frank C.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to "smell" various gas vapors and complex odors is important for many applications such as environmental monitoring for detecting toxic gases as well as quality control in the processing of food, cosmetics, and other chemical products for commercial industries. Mimicking the architecture of the biological nose, a miniature electronic nose system was designed and developed consisting of an array of sensor devices, signal-processing circuits, and software pattern-recognition algorithms. The array of sensors used polymer/carbon-black composite thin-films, which would swell or expand reversibly and reproducibly and cause a resistance change upon exposure to a wide variety of gases. Two types of sensor devices were fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques to form "wells" that confined the polymer/carbon-black to a small and specific area. The first type of sensor device formed the "well" by etching into the silicon substrate using bulk micromachining. The second type built a high-aspect-ratio "well" on the surface of a silicon wafer using SU-8 photoresist. Two sizes of "wells" were fabricated: 500 x 600 mum² and 250 x 250 mum². Custom signal-processing circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board and as an application-specific integrated-circuit (ASIC) chip. The circuits were not only able to measure and amplify the small resistance changes, which corresponded to small ppm (parts-per-million) changes in gas concentrations, but were also adaptable to accommodate the various characteristics of the different thin-films. Since the thin-films were not specific to any one particular gas vapor, an array of sensors each containing a different thin-film was used to produce a distributed response pattern when exposed to a gas vapor. Pattern recognition, including a clustering algorithm and two artificial neural network algorithms, was used to classify the response pattern and identify the gas vapor or odor. Two gas experiments were performed, one

  8. Chocolate Classification by an Electronic Nose with Pressure Controlled Generated Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Luis F; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2016-10-20

    In this work, we will analyze the response of a Metal Oxide Gas Sensor (MOGS) array to a flow controlled stimulus generated in a pressure controlled canister produced by a homemade olfactometer to build an E-nose. The built E-nose is capable of chocolate identification between the 26 analyzed chocolate bar samples and four features recognition (chocolate type, extra ingredient, sweetener and expiration date status). The data analysis tools used were Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The chocolate identification E-nose average classification rate was of 81.3% with 0.99 accuracy (Acc), 0.86 precision (Prc), 0.84 sensitivity (Sen) and 0.99 specificity (Spe) for test. The chocolate feature recognition E-nose gives a classification rate of 85.36% with 0.96 Acc, 0.86 Prc, 0.85 Sen and 0.96 Spe. In addition, a preliminary sample aging analysis was made. The results prove the pressure controlled generated stimulus is reliable for this type of studies.

  9. Chocolate Classification by an Electronic Nose with Pressure Controlled Generated Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Valdez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we will analyze the response of a Metal Oxide Gas Sensor (MOGS array to a flow controlled stimulus generated in a pressure controlled canister produced by a homemade olfactometer to build an E-nose. The built E-nose is capable of chocolate identification between the 26 analyzed chocolate bar samples and four features recognition (chocolate type, extra ingredient, sweetener and expiration date status. The data analysis tools used were Principal Components Analysis (PCA and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs. The chocolate identification E-nose average classification rate was of 81.3% with 0.99 accuracy (Acc, 0.86 precision (Prc, 0.84 sensitivity (Sen and 0.99 specificity (Spe for test. The chocolate feature recognition E-nose gives a classification rate of 85.36% with 0.96 Acc, 0.86 Prc, 0.85 Sen and 0.96 Spe. In addition, a preliminary sample aging analysis was made. The results prove the pressure controlled generated stimulus is reliable for this type of studies.

  10. Electronic nose in edible insects area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Adámek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insect is appraised by many cultures as delicious and nutritionally beneficial food. In western countries this commodity is not fully appreciated, and the worries about edible insect food safety prevail. Electronic noses can become a simple and cheap way of securing the health safety of food, and they can also become a tool for evaluating the quality of certain commodities. This research is a pilot project of using an electronic nose in edible insect culinary treatment, and this manuscript describes the phases of edible insect culinary treatment and methods of distinguishing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor and giant mealworm (Zophobas morio using simple electronic nose. These species were measured in the live stage, after killing with boiling water, after drying and after inserting into the chocolate.The sensing device was based on the Arduino Mega platform with the ability to store the recorded data on the SD memory card, and with the possibility to communicate via internet. Data analysis shows that even a simple, cheap and portable electronic nose can distinguish between the different steps of culinary treatment (native samples, dried samples, samples enriched with chocolate for cooking and selected species. Another benefit of the electronic nose could be its future introduction into the control mechanisms of food security systems (e.g. HACCP.

  11. Handbook of Machine Olfaction: Electronic Nose Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Tim C.; Schiffman, Susan S.; Nagle, H. Troy; Gardner, Julian W.

    2003-02-01

    "Electronic noses" are instruments which mimic the sense of smell. Consisting of olfactory sensors and a suitable signal processing unit, they are able to detect and distinguish odors precisely and at low cost. This makes them very useful for a remarkable variety of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry, in environmental control or clinical diagnostics and more. The scope covers biological and technical fundamentals and up-to-date research. Contributions by renowned international scientists as well as application-oriented news from successful "e-nose" manufacturers give a well-rounded account of the topic, and this coverage from R&D to applications makes this book a must-have read for e-nose researchers, designers and users alike.

  12. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Rodriguez-Mendez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of electronic noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments.

  13. Electronic nose in edible insects area

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Adámek; Anna Adámková; Marie Borkovcová; Jiří Mlček; Martina Bednářová; Lenka Kouřimská; Josef Skácel; Michal Řezníček

    2017-01-01

    Edible insect is appraised by many cultures as delicious and nutritionally beneficial food. In western countries this commodity is not fully appreciated, and the worries about edible insect food safety prevail. Electronic noses can become a simple and cheap way of securing the health safety of food, and they can also become a tool for evaluating the quality of certain commodities. This research is a pilot project of using an electronic nose in edible insect culinary treatment, and this manusc...

  14. Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Baietto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man.

  15. Sensors: From Biosensors to the Electronic Nose

    OpenAIRE

    García-González, Diego L.; Aparicio López, Ramón

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in sensor devices have allowed the developing of new applications in many technological fields. This review describes the current state-of-the-art of this sensor technology, placing special emphasis on the food applications. The design, technology and sensing mechanism of each type of sensor are analysed. A description of the main characteristics of the electronic nose and electronic tongue (taste sensors) is also given. Finally, the applications of some statistical pro...

  16. Sensors: From biosensors to the electronic nose

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio, Ramón; García-González, Diego L.

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in sensor devices have allowed the developing of new applications in many technological fields. This review describes the current state-of-the-art of this sensor technology, placing special emphasis on the food applications. The design, technology and sensing mechanism of each type of sensor are analysed. A description of the main characteristics of the electronic nose and electronic tongue (taste sensors) is also given. Finally, the applications of some statistical proced...

  17. Evaluation of coffee roasting degree by using electronic nose and artificial neural network for off-line quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Santina; Cevoli, Chiara; Fabbri, Angelo; Alessandrini, Laura; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2012-09-01

    An electronic nose (EN) based on an array of 10 metal oxide semiconductor sensors was used, jointly with an artificial neural network (ANN), to predict coffee roasting degree. The flavor release evolution and the main physicochemical modifications (weight loss, density, moisture content, and surface color: L*, a*), during the roasting process of coffee, were monitored at different cooking times (0, 6, 8, 10, 14, 19 min). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of sensors data set (600 values per sensor). The selected PCs were used as ANN input variables. Two types of ANN methods (multilayer perceptron [MLP] and general regression neural network [GRNN]) were used in order to estimate the EN signals. For both neural networks the input values were represented by scores of sensors data set PCs, while the output values were the quality parameter at different roasting times. Both the ANNs were able to well predict coffee roasting degree, giving good prediction results for both roasting time and coffee quality parameters. In particular, GRNN showed the highest prediction reliability. Actually the evaluation of coffee roasting degree is mainly a manned operation, substantially based on the empirical final color observation. For this reason it requires well-trained operators with a long professional skill. The coupling of e-nose and artificial neural networks (ANNs) may represent an effective possibility to roasting process automation and to set up a more reproducible procedure for final coffee bean quality characterization. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Miniature sensor suitable for electronic nose applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Gehl, A. C.; Allman, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    A major research effort has been devoted over the years for the development of chemical sensors for the detection of chemical and explosive vapors. However, the deployment of such chemical sensors will require the use of multiple sensors probably tens of sensors in a sensor package to achieve sel...... microcantilevers. The sensor can detect parts-per-trillion concentrations of DMMP within 10 s exposure times. The small size of the sensor makes it ideally suited for electronic nose applications. © 2007 American Institute of Physics....

  19. Towards a Chemiresistive Sensor-Integrated Electronic Nose: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kea-Tiong Tang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses have potential applications in daily life, but are restricted by their bulky size and high price. This review focuses on the use of chemiresistive gas sensors, metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors and conductive polymer gas sensors in an electronic nose for system integration to reduce size and cost. The review covers the system design considerations and the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated technology for a chemiresistive gas sensor electronic nose, including the integrated sensor array, its readout interface, and pattern recognition hardware. In addition, the state-of-the-art technology integrated in the electronic nose is also presented, such as the sensing front-end chip, electronic nose signal processing chip, and the electronic nose system-on-chip.

  20. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

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    Tomasz Dymerski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h, thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s.

  1. Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-11-25

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s).

  2. Bacteria classification using Cyranose 320 electronic nose

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    Gardner Julian W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An electronic nose (e-nose, the Cyrano Sciences' Cyranose 320, comprising an array of thirty-two polymer carbon black composite sensors has been used to identify six species of bacteria responsible for eye infections when present at a range of concentrations in saline solutions. Readings were taken from the headspace of the samples by manually introducing the portable e-nose system into a sterile glass containing a fixed volume of bacteria in suspension. Gathered data were a very complex mixture of different chemical compounds. Method Linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA method was able to classify four classes of bacteria out of six classes though in reality other two classes were not better evident from PCA analysis and we got 74% classification accuracy from PCA. An innovative data clustering approach was investigated for these bacteria data by combining the 3-dimensional scatter plot, Fuzzy C Means (FCM and Self Organizing Map (SOM network. Using these three data clustering algorithms simultaneously better 'classification' of six eye bacteria classes were represented. Then three supervised classifiers, namely Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP, Probabilistic Neural network (PNN and Radial basis function network (RBF, were used to classify the six bacteria classes. Results A [6 × 1] SOM network gave 96% accuracy for bacteria classification which was best accuracy. A comparative evaluation of the classifiers was conducted for this application. The best results suggest that we are able to predict six classes of bacteria with up to 98% accuracy with the application of the RBF network. Conclusion This type of bacteria data analysis and feature extraction is very difficult. But we can conclude that this combined use of three nonlinear methods can solve the feature extraction problem with very complex data and enhance the performance of Cyranose 320.

  3. Rapid lard identification with portable electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Marsad; Khorsidtalab, Aida; Saputra, Irwan; Akmeliawati, Rini; Nurashikin, Anis; Jaswir, Irwandi; Witjaksono, Gunawan

    2017-11-01

    Human sensory systems are limited in many different regards, yet they are great sources of inspiration for development of technologies that help humans to overcome their restraints. This paper signifies the capability of our developed electronic nose in rapid lard identification. The developed device, known as E-Nose, mimics human’s olfactory system’s technique to identify a particular substance. Lard is a common pig derivative which is often used as a food additive, emulsion or shortening. It’s also commonly used as an adulterant or as an alternative for cooking oils, margarine and butter. This substance is prohibited to be consumed by Muslims and Orthodox Jews for religious reasons. A portable reliable device with an ability to identify lard rapidly can be convenient to users concerned about lard adulteration. The prototype was examined using K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Bagged Trees and Simple Tree, and can identify lard with the highest accuracy of 95.6% among three types of fat (lard, chicken and beef) in liquid form over a certain range of temperature using KNN.

  4. Meat quality assessment by electronic nose (machine olfaction technology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Siadat, Maryam; Balasubramanian, Sundar

    2009-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called "electronic noses") have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.

  5. Applications and advances in electronic-nose technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Wilson; M. Baietto

    2009-01-01

    Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software...

  6. Identification and discrimination of herbicide residues using a conducting polymer electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus Dan Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The identification of herbicide residues on crop foliage is necessary to make crop-management decisions for weed pest control and to monitor pesticide residue levels on food crops. Electronic-nose (e-nose) methods were tested as a cheaper, alternative means of discriminating between herbicide residue types (compared with conventional chromatography methods), by...

  7. Sensors: From biosensors to the electronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, Ramón

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in sensor devices have allowed the developing of new applications in many technological fields. This review describes the current state-of-the-art of this sensor technology, placing special emphasis on the food applications. The design, technology and sensing mechanism of each type of sensor are analysed. A description of the main characteristics of the electronic nose and electronic tongue (taste sensors is also given. Finally, the applications of some statistical procedures in sensor systems are described briefly.Los recientes avances en los sistemas de sensores han permitido el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en muchos campos tecnológicos. Este artículo de revisión describe el estado actual de esta nueva tecnología, con especial énfasis en las aplicaciones alimentarias. El diseño, la tecnología y el mecanismo sensorial de cada tipo de sensor son analizados en el artículo. También se describen las principales características de la nariz y la lengua electrónica (sensores de sabor. Finalmente, se describe brevemente el uso de algunos procedimientos estadísticos en sistemas de sensores.

  8. Advances in electronic-nose technologies developed for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Wilson; Manuela. Baietto

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and...

  9. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

    OpenAIRE

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing ...

  10. Advances in electronic-nose technologies developed for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.

  11. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.

  12. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gallardo Caballero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%.

  13. Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Balasubramanian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses” have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.

  14. Electronic Nose Odor Classification with Advanced Decision Tree Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose (e-nose is an electronic device which can measure chemical compounds in air and consequently classify different odors. In this paper, an e-nose device consisting of 8 different gas sensors was designed and constructed. Using this device, 104 different experiments involving 11 different odor classes (moth, angelica root, rose, mint, polis, lemon, rotten egg, egg, garlic, grass, and acetone were performed. The main contribution of this paper is the finding that using the chemical domain knowledge it is possible to train an accurate odor classification system. The domain knowledge about chemical compounds is represented by a decision tree whose nodes are composed of classifiers such as Support Vector Machines and k-Nearest Neighbor. The overall accuracy achieved with the proposed algorithm and the constructed e-nose device was 97.18 %. Training and testing data sets used in this paper are published online.

  15. A new kernel discriminant analysis framework for electronic nose recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Tian, Feng-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This paper proposes a new discriminant analysis framework for feature extraction and recognition. • The principle of the proposed NDA is derived mathematically. • The NDA framework is coupled with kernel PCA for classification. • The proposed KNDA is compared with state of the art e-Nose recognition methods. • The proposed KNDA shows the best performance in e-Nose experiments. - Abstract: Electronic nose (e-Nose) technology based on metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor array is widely studied for detection of gas components. This paper proposes a new discriminant analysis framework (NDA) for dimension reduction and e-Nose recognition. In a NDA, the between-class and the within-class Laplacian scatter matrix are designed from sample to sample, respectively, to characterize the between-class separability and the within-class compactness by seeking for discriminant matrix to simultaneously maximize the between-class Laplacian scatter and minimize the within-class Laplacian scatter. In terms of the linear separability in high dimensional kernel mapping space and the dimension reduction of principal component analysis (PCA), an effective kernel PCA plus NDA method (KNDA) is proposed for rapid detection of gas mixture components by an e-Nose. The NDA framework is derived in this paper as well as the specific implementations of the proposed KNDA method in training and recognition process. The KNDA is examined on the e-Nose datasets of six kinds of gas components, and compared with state of the art e-Nose classification methods. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed KNDA method shows the best performance with average recognition rate and total recognition rate as 94.14% and 95.06% which leads to a promising feature extraction and multi-class recognition in e-Nose

  16. Future applications of electronic-nose technologies in healthcare and biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    The development and utilization of many new electronic-nose (e-nose) applications in the healthcare and biomedical fields have continued to rapidly accelerate over the past 20 years. Innovative e-nose technologies are providing unique solutions to a diversity of complex problems in biomedicine that are now coming to fruition. A wide range of electronic-nose instrument...

  17. Determination of authenticity of brand perfume using electronic nose prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebicki, Jacek; Szulczynski, Bartosz; Kaminski, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the practical application of an electronic nose technique for fast and efficient discrimination between authentic and fake perfume samples. Two self-built electronic nose prototypes equipped with a set of semiconductor sensors were employed for that purpose. Additionally 10 volunteers took part in the sensory analysis. The following perfumes and their fake counterparts were analysed: Dior—Fahrenheit, Eisenberg—J’ose, YSL—La nuit de L’homme, 7 Loewe and Spice Bomb. The investigations were carried out using the headspace of the aqueous solutions. Data analysis utilized multidimensional techniques: principle component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). The results obtained confirmed the legitimacy of the electronic nose technique as an alternative to the sensory analysis as far as the determination of authenticity of perfume is concerned. (paper)

  18. Determination of authenticity of brand perfume using electronic nose prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebicki, Jacek; Szulczynski, Bartosz; Kaminski, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the practical application of an electronic nose technique for fast and efficient discrimination between authentic and fake perfume samples. Two self-built electronic nose prototypes equipped with a set of semiconductor sensors were employed for that purpose. Additionally 10 volunteers took part in the sensory analysis. The following perfumes and their fake counterparts were analysed: Dior—Fahrenheit, Eisenberg—J’ose, YSL—La nuit de L’homme, 7 Loewe and Spice Bomb. The investigations were carried out using the headspace of the aqueous solutions. Data analysis utilized multidimensional techniques: principle component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). The results obtained confirmed the legitimacy of the electronic nose technique as an alternative to the sensory analysis as far as the determination of authenticity of perfume is concerned.

  19. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-01-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  20. Identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines with Electronic Nose Technology: Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaying Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the most recent works in machine olfaction as applied to the identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs. Due to the wide variety of CHMs, the complexity of growing sources and the diverse specifications of herb components, the quality control of CHMs is a challenging issue. Much research has demonstrated that an electronic nose (E-nose as an advanced machine olfaction system, can overcome this challenge through identification of the complex odors of CHMs. E-nose technology, with better usability, high sensitivity, real-time detection and non-destructive features has shown better performance in comparison with other analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Although there has been immense development of E-nose techniques in other applications, there are limited reports on the application of E-noses for the quality control of CHMs. The aim of current study is to review practical implementation and advantages of E-noses for robust and effective odor identification of CHMs. It covers the use of E-nose technology to study the effects of growing regions, identification methods, production procedures and storage time on CHMs. Moreover, the challenges and applications of E-nose for CHM identification are investigated. Based on the advancement in E-nose technology, odor may become a new quantitative index for quality control of CHMs and drug discovery. It was also found that more research could be done in the area of odor standardization and odor reproduction for remote sensing.

  1. Identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines with Electronic Nose Technology: Applications and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huaying; Luo, Dehan; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Li, Zhong; He, Jiafeng

    2017-05-09

    This paper provides a review of the most recent works in machine olfaction as applied to the identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs). Due to the wide variety of CHMs, the complexity of growing sources and the diverse specifications of herb components, the quality control of CHMs is a challenging issue. Much research has demonstrated that an electronic nose (E-nose) as an advanced machine olfaction system, can overcome this challenge through identification of the complex odors of CHMs. E-nose technology, with better usability, high sensitivity, real-time detection and non-destructive features has shown better performance in comparison with other analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although there has been immense development of E-nose techniques in other applications, there are limited reports on the application of E-noses for the quality control of CHMs. The aim of current study is to review practical implementation and advantages of E-noses for robust and effective odor identification of CHMs. It covers the use of E-nose technology to study the effects of growing regions, identification methods, production procedures and storage time on CHMs. Moreover, the challenges and applications of E-nose for CHM identification are investigated. Based on the advancement in E-nose technology, odor may become a new quantitative index for quality control of CHMs and drug discovery. It was also found that more research could be done in the area of odor standardization and odor reproduction for remote sensing.

  2. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  3. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Electronic Noses to Detect Tumors During Neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.; Kateb, Babak; Chen, Mike

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed to develop special-purpose electronic noses and algorithms for processing the digitized outputs of the electronic noses for determining whether tissue exposed during neurosurgery is cancerous. At present, visual inspection by a surgeon is the only available intraoperative technique for detecting cancerous tissue. Implementation of the proposal would help to satisfy a desire, expressed by some neurosurgeons, for an intraoperative technique for determining whether all of a brain tumor has been removed. The electronic-nose technique could complement multimodal imaging techniques, which have also been proposed as means of detecting cancerous tissue. There are also other potential applications of the electronic-nose technique in general diagnosis of abnormal tissue. In preliminary experiments performed to assess the viability of the proposal, the problem of distinguishing between different types of cultured cells was substituted for the problem of distinguishing between normal and abnormal specimens of the same type of tissue. The figure presents data from one experiment, illustrating differences between patterns that could be used to distinguish between two types of cultured cancer cells. Further development can be expected to include studies directed toward answering questions concerning not only the possibility of distinguishing among various types of normal and abnormal tissue but also distinguishing between tissues of interest and other odorous substances that may be present in medical settings.

  5. Toward a minituarized low-power micromechanical electronic nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karabaçak, D.; Sieben-Xu, L.; Vandecasteele, M.; Andel, Y. van; Wouters, D.; Calama, M.C.; Brongersma, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    An electronic nose based on an array of vibrating doubly clamped beams is proposed. These very high aspect ratio (length/thickness) suspended resonators can be individually functionalized by applying polymer coatings with an inkjet printing approach. The absorption of volatile compounds induces a

  6. Classification of human pathogen bacteria for early screening using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Syahida Amani; Mohamad, Che Wan Syarifah Robiah; Abdullah, Abu Hassan

    2017-10-01

    This paper present human pathogen bacteria for early screening using electronic nose. Electronic nose (E-nose) known as gas sensor array is a device that analyze the odor measurement give the fast response and less time consuming for clinical diagnosis. Many bacterial pathogens could lead to life threatening infections. Accurate and rapid diagnosis is crucial for the successful management of these infections disease. The conventional method need more time to detect the growth of bacterial. Alternatively, the bacteria are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella cultured on different media agar can be detected and classifies according to the volatile compound in shorter time using electronic nose (E-nose). Then, the data from electronic nose (E-nose) is processed using statistical method which is principal component analysis (PCA). The study shows the capability of electronic nose (E-nose) for early screening for bacterial infection in human stomach.

  7. A Solid Trap and Thermal Desorption System with Application to a Medical Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuntao Xu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solid trap/thermal desorption-based odorant gas condensation system has been designed and implemented for measuring low concentration odorant gas. The technique was successfully applied to a medical electronic nose system. The developed system consists of a flow control unit, a temperature control unit and a sorbent tube. The theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that gas condensation, together with the medical electronic nose system can significantly reduce the detection limit of the nose system and increase the system’s ability to distinguish low concentration gas samples. In addition, the integrated system can remove the influence of background components and fluctuation of operational environment. Even with strong disturbances such as water vapour and ethanol gas, the developed system can classify the test samples accurately.

  8. Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue for Detection of Mixed Edible-Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Men, Hong; Chen, Donglin; Zhang, Xiaoting; Liu, Jingjing; Ning, Ke

    2014-01-01

    For the problem of the waste of the edible-oil in the food processing, on the premise of food security, they often need to add new edible-oil to the old frying oil which had been used in food processing to control the cost of the production. Due to the fact that the different additive proportion of the oil has different material and different volatile gases, we use fusion technology based on the electronic nose and electronic tongue to detect the blending ratio of the old frying oil and the n...

  9. Detection and Classification of Human Body Odor Using an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerakiat Kerdcharoen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (E-nose has been designed and equipped with software that can detect and classify human armpit body odor. An array of metal oxide sensors was used for detecting volatile organic compounds. The measurement circuit employs a voltage divider resistor to measure the sensitivity of each sensor. This E-nose was controlled by in-house developed software through a portable USB data acquisition card with a principle component analysis (PCA algorithm implemented for pattern recognition and classification. Because gas sensor sensitivity in the detection of armpit odor samples is affected by humidity, we propose a new method and algorithms combining hardware/software for the correction of the humidity noise. After the humidity correction, the E-nose showed the capability of detecting human body odor and distinguishing the body odors from two persons in a relative manner. The E-nose is still able to recognize people, even after application of deodorant. In conclusion, this is the first report of the application of an E-nose for armpit odor recognition.

  10. Detection and classification of human body odor using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchoosuk, Chatchawal; Lutz, Mario; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-01-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) has been designed and equipped with software that can detect and classify human armpit body odor. An array of metal oxide sensors was used for detecting volatile organic compounds. The measurement circuit employs a voltage divider resistor to measure the sensitivity of each sensor. This E-nose was controlled by in-house developed software through a portable USB data acquisition card with a principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm implemented for pattern recognition and classification. Because gas sensor sensitivity in the detection of armpit odor samples is affected by humidity, we propose a new method and algorithms combining hardware/software for the correction of the humidity noise. After the humidity correction, the E-nose showed the capability of detecting human body odor and distinguishing the body odors from two persons in a relative manner. The E-nose is still able to recognize people, even after application of deodorant. In conclusion, this is the first report of the application of an E-nose for armpit odor recognition.

  11. Design of a portable electronic nose for real-fake detection of liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pei-Feng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Biao; Meng, Qing-Hao

    2017-09-01

    Portability is a major issue that influences the practical application of electronic noses (e-noses). For liquors detection, an e-nose must preprocess the liquid samples (e.g., using evaporation and thermal desorption), which makes the portable design even more difficult. To realize convenient and rapid detection of liquors, we designed a portable e-nose platform that consists of hardware and software systems. The hardware system contains an evaporation/sampling module, a reaction module, a control/data acquisition and analysis module, and a power module. The software system provides a user-friendly interface and can achieve automatic sampling and data processing. This e-nose platform has been applied to the real-fake recognition of Chinese liquors. Through parameter optimization of a one-class support vector machine classifier, the error rate of the negative samples is greatly reduced, and the overall recognition accuracy is improved. The results validated the feasibility of the designed portable e-nose platform.

  12. Differentiation of closely related fungi by electronic nose analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlshøj, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2007-01-01

    the electronic nose potentially responded to, volatile metabolites were collected, by diffusive sampling overnight onto tubes containing Tenax TA, between the 7th and 8th day of Incubation.Volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and the results indicated that mail alcohols...... as well as the noacheese ociated P. expansum have been investigated by electronic nose, GC-MS, and LGMS analysis. The isolates were inoculated on yeast extract sucroseagar in 20-mL headspace flasks and electronicnose analysis was performed daily for a-74period. To assess which volatile metabolites...... by high pressure liquid chromatography, coupled-to a diode array detector and a time of flight mass spectrometer. Several mycotoxins were detected in samples from the specles P.nordicum, P.roqueforti, P.paneum, P.carneum, and P.expansum. Differentiation of closely related mycotoxin producing fungi...

  13. Development of an electronic nose for environmental odour monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Del Rosso, Renato; Zanetti, Sonia; Della Torre, Matteo

    2012-10-25

    Exhaustive odour impact assessment should involve the evaluation of the impact of odours directly on citizens. For this purpose it might be useful to have an instrument capable of continuously monitoring ambient air quality, detecting the presence of odours and also recognizing their provenance. This paper discusses the laboratory and field tests conducted in order to evaluate the performance of a new electronic nose, specifically developed for monitoring environmental odours. The laboratory tests proved the instrument was able to discriminate between the different pure substances being tested, and to estimate the odour concentrations giving correlation indexes (R2) of 0.99 and errors below 15%. Finally, the experimental monitoring tests conducted in the field, allowed us to verify the effectiveness of this electronic nose for the continuous detection of odours in ambient air, proving its stability to variable atmospheric conditions and its capability to detect odour peaks.

  14. Electronic Nose using Gas Chromatography Column and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Agus Sujono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The conventional electronic nose usually consists of an array of dissimilar chemical sensors such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM combined with pattern recognition algorithm such as Neural network. Because of parallel processing, the system needs a huge number of sensors and circuits which may emerge complexity and inter-channel crosstalk problems. In this research, a new type of odor identification which combines between gas chromatography (GC and electronic nose methods has been developed. The system consists of a GC column and a 10-MHz quartz crystal microbalance sensor producing a unique pattern for an odor in time domain. This method offers advantages of substantially reduced size, interferences and power consumption in comparison to existing odor identification system. Several odors of organic compounds were introduced to evaluate the selectivity of the system. Principle component analysis method was used to visualize the classification of each odor in two-dimensional space. This system could resolve common organic solvents, including molecules of different classes (aromatic from alcohols as well as those within a particular class (methanol from ethanol and also fuels (premium from pertamax. The neural network can be taught to recognize the odors tested in the experiment with identification rate of 85 %. It is therefore the system may take the place of human nose, especially for poisonous odor evaluations.

  15. Classification of buildings mold threat using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagód, Grzegorz; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Guz, Łukasz; Sobczuk, Henryk

    2017-07-01

    Mold is considered to be one of the most important features of Sick Building Syndrome and is an important problem in current building industry. In many cases it is caused by the rising moisture of building envelopes surface and exaggerated humidity of indoor air. Concerning historical buildings it is mostly caused by outdated raising techniques among that is absence of horizontal isolation against moisture and hygroscopic materials applied for construction. Recent buildings also suffer problem of mold risk which is caused in many cases by hermetization leading to improper performance of gravitational ventilation systems that make suitable conditions for mold development. Basing on our research there is proposed a method of buildings mold threat classification using electronic nose, based on a gas sensors array which consists of MOS sensors (metal oxide semiconductor). Used device is frequently applied for air quality assessment in environmental engineering branches. Presented results show the interpretation of e-nose readouts of indoor air sampled in rooms threatened with mold development in comparison with clean reference rooms and synthetic air. Obtained multivariate data were processed, visualized and classified using a PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and ANN (Artificial Neural Network) methods. Described investigation confirmed that electronic nose - gas sensors array supported with data processing enables to classify air samples taken from different rooms affected with mold.

  16. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peris, Miguel, E-mail: mperist@qim.upv.es [Departamento de Química, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Escuder-Gilabert, Laura [Departamento de Química Analítica, Universitat de Valencia, C/ Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, E-46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This review paper deals with the applications of electronic noses and electronic tongues to the monitoring of fermentation processes. •Positive and negative aspects of the different approaches reviewed are analyzed. •Current and future endeavors in this field are also commented. -- Abstract: Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one of the most promising ways of developing rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for quality control in fermentation processes is the use of chemical multisensor systems. In this work we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues. After a brief description of the fundamentals of both types of devices, the different approaches are critically commented, their strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. Finally, future trends in this field are also mentioned in the last section of the article.

  17. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peris, Miguel; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This review paper deals with the applications of electronic noses and electronic tongues to the monitoring of fermentation processes. •Positive and negative aspects of the different approaches reviewed are analyzed. •Current and future endeavors in this field are also commented. -- Abstract: Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one of the most promising ways of developing rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for quality control in fermentation processes is the use of chemical multisensor systems. In this work we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues. After a brief description of the fundamentals of both types of devices, the different approaches are critically commented, their strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. Finally, future trends in this field are also mentioned in the last section of the article

  18. Training and Validating a Portable Electronic Nose for Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Goor, Rens; van Hooren, Michel; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Kremer, Bernd; Kross, Kenneth

    2018-05-01

    Profiling volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath enables the diagnosis of several types of cancer. In this study we investigated whether a portable point-of-care version of an electronic nose (e-nose) (Aeonose, [eNose Company, Zutphen, the Netherlands]) is able to discriminate between patients with lung cancer and healthy controls on the basis of their volatile organic compound pattern. In this study, we used five e-nose devices to collect breath samples from patients with lung cancer and healthy controls. A total of 60 patients with lung cancer and 107 controls exhaled through an e-nose for 5 minutes. Patients were assigned either to a training group for building an artificial neural network model or to a blinded control group for validating this model. For differentiating patients with lung cancer from healthy controls, the results showed a diagnostic accuracy of 83% with a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 84%, and area under the curve of 0.84. Results for the blinded group showed comparable results, with a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 86%, and diagnostic accuracy of 86%. This feasibility study showed that this portable e-nose can properly differentiate between patients with lung cancer and healthy controls. This result could have important implications for future lung cancer screening. Further studies with larger cohorts, including also more participants with early-stage tumors, should be performed to increase the robustness of this noninvasive diagnostic tool and to determine its added value in the diagnostic chain for lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of egg freshness during storage using electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimenu, Samuel M; Kim, J Y; Kim, B S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of a fast gas chromatography (GC) e-nose for freshness discrimination and for prediction of storage time as well as sensory and internal quality changes during storage of hen eggs. All samples were obtained from the same egg production farm and stored at 20 °C for 20 d. Egg sampling was conducted every 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 d. During each sampling time, 4 egg cartons (each containing 10 eggs) were randomly selected: one carton for Haugh units, one carton for sensory evaluation and 2 cartons for the e-nose experiment. The e-nose study included 2 independent test sets; calibration (35 samples) and validation (28 samples). Every sampling time, 5 replicates were prepared from one egg carton for calibration samples and 4 replicates were prepared from the remaining egg carton for validation samples. Sensors (peaks) were selected prior to multivariate chemometric analysis; qualitative sensors for principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) and quantitative sensors for partial least square (PLS) modeling. PCA and DFA confirmed the difference in volatile profiles of egg samples from 7 different storage times accounting for a total variance of 95.7% and 93.71%, respectively. Models for predicting storage time, Haugh units, odor score, and overall acceptability score from e-nose data were developed using calibration samples by PLS regression. The results showed that these quality indices were well predicted from the e- nose signals, with correlation coefficients of R2 = 0.9441, R2 = 0.9511, R2 = 0.9725, and R2 = 0.9530 and with training errors of 0.887, 1.24, 0.626, and 0.629, respectively. As a result of ANOVA, most of the PLS model results were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the corresponding reference values. These results proved that the fast GC electronic nose has the potential to assess egg freshness and feasibility to predict multiple egg freshness indices

  20. Review of electronic-nose technologies and algorithms to detect hazardous chemicals in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Novel mobile electronic-nose (e-nose) devices and algorithms capable of real-time detection of industrial and municipal pollutants, released from point-sources, recently have been developed by scientists worldwide that are useful for monitoring specific environmental-pollutant levels for enforcement and implementation of effective pollution-abatement programs. E-nose...

  1. Using the Electronic Nose to Identify Airway Infection during COPD Exacerbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Shafiek

    Full Text Available The electronic nose (e-nose detects volatile organic compounds (VOCs in exhaled air. We hypothesized that the exhaled VOCs print is different in stable vs. exacerbated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, particularly if the latter is associated with airway bacterial infection, and that the e-nose can distinguish them.Smell-prints of the bacteria most commonly involved in exacerbations of COPD (ECOPD were identified in vitro. Subsequently, we tested our hypothesis in 93 patients with ECOPD, 19 of them with pneumonia, 50 with stable COPD and 30 healthy controls in a cross-sectional case-controlled study. Secondly, ECOPD patients were re-studied after 2 months if clinically stable. Exhaled air was collected within a Tedlar bag and processed by a Cynarose 320 e-nose. Breath-prints were analyzed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA with "One Out" technique and Sensor logic Relations (SLR. Sputum samples were collected for culture.ECOPD with evidence of infection were significantly distinguishable from non-infected ECOPD (p = 0.018, with better accuracy when ECOPD was associated to pneumonia. The same patients with ECOPD were significantly distinguishable from stable COPD during follow-up (p = 0.018, unless the patient was colonized. Additionally, breath-prints from COPD patients were significantly distinguished from healthy controls. Various bacteria species were identified in culture but the e-nose was unable to identify accurately the bacteria smell-print in infected patients.E-nose can identify ECOPD, especially if associated with airway bacterial infection or pneumonia.

  2. Impacts of Deflection Nose on Ballistic Trajectory Control Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The deflection of projectile nose is aimed at changing the motion of the projectile in flight with the theory of motion control and changing the exterior ballistics so as to change its range and increase its accuracy. The law of external ballistics with the deflectable nose is considered as the basis of the design of a flight control system and an important part in the process of projectile development. Based on the existing rigid external ballistic model, this paper establishes an external ballistic calculation model for deflectable nose projectile and further establishes the solving programs accordingly. Different angle of attack, velocity, coefficients of lift, resistance, and moment under the deflection can be obtained in this paper based on the previous experiments and emulation researches. In the end, the author pointed out the laws on the impaction of external ballistic trajectory by the deflection of nose of the missile.

  3. Integration of electronic nose technology with spirometry: validation of a new approach for exhaled breath analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, R; Brinkman, P; van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Dijkers, E; Bootsma, S K; de Jongh, F H C; Sterk, P J

    2015-10-15

    New 'omics'-technologies have the potential to better define airway disease in terms of pathophysiological and clinical phenotyping. The integration of electronic nose (eNose) technology with existing diagnostic tests, such as routine spirometry, can bring this technology to 'point-of-care'. We aimed to determine and optimize the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of exhaled breath analysis linked to routine spirometry. Exhaled breath was collected in triplicate in healthy subjects by an eNose (SpiroNose) based on five identical metal oxide semiconductor sensor arrays (three arrays monitoring exhaled breath and two reference arrays monitoring ambient air) at the rear end of a pneumotachograph. First, the influence of flow, volume, humidity, temperature, environment, etc, was assessed. Secondly, a two-centre case-control study was performed using diagnostic and monitoring visits in day-to-day clinical care in patients with a (differential) diagnosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. Breathprint analysis involved signal processing, environment correction based on alveolar gradients and statistics based on principal component (PC) analysis, followed by discriminant analysis (Matlab2014/SPSS20). Expiratory flow showed a significant linear correlation with raw sensor deflections (R(2)  =  0.84) in 60 healthy subjects (age 43  ±  11 years). No correlation was found between sensor readings and exhaled volume, humidity and temperature. Exhaled data after environment correction were highly reproducible for each sensor array (Cohen's Kappa 0.81-0.94). Thirty-seven asthmatics (41  ±  14.2 years), 31 COPD patients (66  ±  8.4 years), 31 lung cancer patients (63  ±  10.8 years) and 45 healthy controls (41  ±  12.5 years) entered the cross-sectional study. SpiroNose could adequately distinguish between controls, asthma, COPD and lung cancer patients with cross-validation values

  4. Graphene-Based Chemical Vapor Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallon, Eric C.

    An electronic nose (e-nose) is a biologically inspired device designed to mimic the operation of the olfactory system. The e-nose utilizes a chemical sensor array consisting of broadly responsive vapor sensors, whose combined response produces a unique pattern for a given compound or mixture. The sensor array is inspired by the biological function of the receptor neurons found in the human olfactory system, which are inherently cross-reactive and respond to many different compounds. The use of an e-nose is an attractive approach to predict unknown odors and is used in many fields for quantitative and qualitative analysis. If properly designed, an e-nose has the potential to adapt to new odors it was not originally designed for through laboratory training and algorithm updates. This would eliminate the lengthy and costly R&D costs associated with materiel and product development. Although e-nose technology has been around for over two decades, much research is still being undertaken in order to find new and more diverse types of sensors. Graphene is a single-layer, 2D material comprised of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, with extraordinary electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties due to its 2D, sp2-bonded structure. Graphene has much potential as a chemical sensing material due to its 2D structure, which provides a surface entirely exposed to its surrounding environment. In this configuration, every carbon atom in graphene is a surface atom, providing the greatest possible surface area per unit volume, so that electron transport is highly sensitive to adsorbed molecular species. Graphene has gained much attention since its discovery in 2004, but has not been realized in many commercial electronics. It has the potential to be a revolutionary material for use in chemical sensors due to its excellent conductivity, large surface area, low noise, and versatile surface for functionalization. In this work, graphene is incorporated into a

  5. Advances of electronic nose and its application in fresh foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hao; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    The science and technology aspects of electronic nose (E-nose) has been developed rapidly in last decade (2006-2016). This paper reviews of the publications that that cover the developments in science and technological aspects of electronic nose together with its application in fresh foods. The first part of this review covers the sensing and pattern recognition system (PR) of E-nose. The second part covers the application of E-nose in classification, flavor detection, and evaluation of spoilage in fresh foods area. With more new sensor materials to be found and more combination between E-nose and other analysis technologies, the usages of E-nose in fresh foods will have wider prospects.

  6. Electronic Nose Technology to Measure Soil Microbial Activity and Classify Soil Metabolic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio De Cesare; Elena Di Mattia; Simone Pantalei; Emiliano Zampetti; Vittorio Vinciguerra; Antonella Macagnano

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (E-nose) is a sensing technology that has been widely used to monitor environments in the last decade. In the present study, the capability of an E-nose, in combination with biochemical and microbiological techniques, of both detecting the microbial activity and estimating the metabolic status of soil ecosystems, was tested by measuring on one side respiration, enzyme activities and growth of bacteria in natural but simplified soil ecosystems over 23 days of incubation thr...

  7. Exhaled breath analysis using electronic nose in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia patients with chronic pulmonary infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Odin; Paff, Tamara; Haarman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis...... (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled......, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic workup...

  8. Integration of electronic nose technology with spirometry: validation of a new approach for exhaled breath analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Brinkman, P.; van der Schee, M. P.; Fens, N.; Dijkers, E.; Bootsma, S. K.; de Jongh, F. H. C.; Sterk, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    New 'omics'-technologies have the potential to better define airway disease in terms of pathophysiological and clinical phenotyping. The integration of electronic nose (eNose) technology with existing diagnostic tests, such as routine spirometry, can bring this technology to 'point-of-care'. We

  9. Identification of insecticide residues with a conducting-polymer electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The identification of insecticide residues on crop foliage is needed to make periodic pest management decisions. Electronic-nose (e-nose) methods were developed and tested as a means of acquiring rapid identifications of insecticide residue types at relatively low cost by detection of headspace volatiles released from inert surfaces in vitro. Detection methods were...

  10. Headspace Analysis of Philippine Civet Coffee Beans Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongo, E.; Sevilla, F.; Antonelli, A.; Sberveglieri, G.; Montevecchi, G.; Sberveglieri, V.; de Paola, E. L.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.

    2011-11-01

    Civet coffee, the most expensive and best coffee in the world, is an economically important export product of the Philippines. With a growing threat of food adulteration and counterfeiting, a need for quality authentication is essential to protect the integrity and strong market value of Philippine civet coffee. At present, there is no internationally accepted method of verifying whether a bean is an authentic civet coffee. This study presented a practical and promising approach to identify and establish the headspace qualitative profile of Philippine civet coffee using electronic nose (E-nose) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). E-nose analysis revealed that aroma characteristic is one of the most important quality indicators of civet coffee. The findings were supported by GC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clearly separated civet coffees from their control beans. The chromatographic fingerprints indicated that civet coffees differed with their control beans in terms of composition and concentration of individual volatile constituents.

  11. Potential Applications and Limitations of Electronic Nose Devices for Plant Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cellini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose technology has recently been applied to the detection of several plant diseases and pests, with promising results. However, in spite of its numerous advantages, including operational simplicity, non-destructivity, and bulk sampling, drawbacks include a low sensitivity and specificity in comparison with microbiological and molecular methods. A critical review of the use of an electronic nose for plant disease diagnosis and pest detection is presented, describing the instrumental and procedural advances of sensorial analysis, for the improvement of discrimination between healthy and infected or infested plants. In conclusion, the use of electronic nose technology is suggested to assist, direct, and optimise traditionally adopted diagnostic techniques.

  12. Calibration of an electronic nose for poultry farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Shukor, S. A.; Kamis, M. S.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Mamduh, S. M.; Kamarudin, K.; Saad, F. S. A.; Masnan, M. J.; Mustafa, H.

    2017-03-01

    Malodour from the poultry farms could cause air pollution and therefore potentially dangerous to humans' and animals' health. This issue also poses sustainability risk to the poultry industries due to objections from local community. The aim of this paper is to develop and calibrate a cost effective and efficient electronic nose for poultry farm air monitoring. The instrument main components include sensor chamber, array of specific sensors, microcontroller, signal conditioning circuits and wireless sensor networks. The instrument was calibrated to allow classification of different concentrations of main volatile compounds in the poultry farm malodour. The outcome of the process will also confirm the device's reliability prior to being used for poultry farm malodour assessment. The Multivariate Analysis (HCA and KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) pattern recognition technique was used to process the acquired data. The results show that the instrument is able to calibrate the samples using ANN classification model with high accuracy. The finding verifies the instrument's performance to be used as an effective poultry farm malodour monitoring.

  13. A Novel Semi-Supervised Electronic Nose Learning Technique: M-Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Jia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When an electronic nose (E-nose is used to distinguish different kinds of gases, the label information of the target gas could be lost due to some fault of the operators or some other reason, although this is not expected. Another fact is that the cost of getting the labeled samples is usually higher than for unlabeled ones. In most cases, the classification accuracy of an E-nose trained using labeled samples is higher than that of the E-nose trained by unlabeled ones, so gases without label information should not be used to train an E-nose, however, this wastes resources and can even delay the progress of research. In this work a novel multi-class semi-supervised learning technique called M-training is proposed to train E-noses with both labeled and unlabeled samples. We employ M-training to train the E-nose which is used to distinguish three indoor pollutant gases (benzene, toluene and formaldehyde. Data processing results prove that the classification accuracy of E-nose trained by semi-supervised techniques (tri-training and M-training is higher than that of an E-nose trained only with labeled samples, and the performance of M-training is better than that of tri-training because more base classifiers can be employed by M-training.

  14. A processing architecture for associative short-term memory in electronic noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioggia, G.; Ferro, M.; Di Francesco, F.; DeRossi, D.

    2006-11-01

    Electronic nose (e-nose) architectures usually consist of several modules that process various tasks such as control, data acquisition, data filtering, feature selection and pattern analysis. Heterogeneous techniques derived from chemometrics, neural networks, and fuzzy rules used to implement such tasks may lead to issues concerning module interconnection and cooperation. Moreover, a new learning phase is mandatory once new measurements have been added to the dataset, thus causing changes in the previously derived model. Consequently, if a loss in the previous learning occurs (catastrophic interference), real-time applications of e-noses are limited. To overcome these problems this paper presents an architecture for dynamic and efficient management of multi-transducer data processing techniques and for saving an associative short-term memory of the previously learned model. The architecture implements an artificial model of a hippocampus-based working memory, enabling the system to be ready for real-time applications. Starting from the base models available in the architecture core, dedicated models for neurons, maps and connections were tailored to an artificial olfactory system devoted to analysing olive oil. In order to verify the ability of the processing architecture in associative and short-term memory, a paired-associate learning test was applied. The avoidance of catastrophic interference was observed.

  15. An electronic nose in the discrimination of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Annema, Jouke T; Schot, Robert; van der Schee, Marc P C; Spanevello, Antonio; Carratú, Pierluigi; Resta, Onofrio; Rabe, Klaus F; Sterk, Peter J

    2009-05-01

    Exhaled breath contains thousands of gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may be used as non-invasive markers of lung disease. The electronic nose analyzes VOCs by composite nano-sensor arrays with learning algorithms. It has been shown that an electronic nose can distinguish the VOCs pattern in exhaled breath of lung cancer patients from healthy controls. We hypothesized that an electronic nose can discriminate patients with lung cancer from COPD patients and healthy controls by analyzing the VOC-profile in exhaled breath. 30 subjects participated in a cross-sectional study: 10 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, [age 66.4+/-9.0, FEV(1) 86.3+/-20.7]), 10 patients with COPD (age 61.4+/-5.5, FEV(1) 70.0+/-14.8) and 10 healthy controls (age 58.3+/-8.1, FEV(1) 108.9+/-14.6). After 5 min tidal breathing through a non-rebreathing valve with inspiratory VOC-filter, subjects performed a single vital capacity maneuver to collect dried exhaled air into a Tedlar bag. The bag was connected to the electronic nose (Cyranose 320) within 10 min, with VOC-filtered room air as baseline. The smellprints were analyzed by onboard statistical software. Smellprints from NSCLC patients clustered distinctly from those of COPD subjects (cross validation value [CVV]: 85%; M-distance: 3.73). NSCLC patients could also be discriminated from healthy controls in duplicate measurements (CVV: 90% and 80%, respectively; M-distance: 2.96 and 2.26). VOC-patterns of exhaled breath discriminates patients with lung cancer from COPD patients as well as healthy controls. The electronic nose may qualify as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for lung cancer in the future.

  16. Post-harvest Quality Evaluation of Grapes using Non-destructive Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJIN S. M. Ataul Karim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, electronic nose has opened a variety of possibilities and is becoming one of the most important non-destructive odour inspection technologies in the food industry. The objective of this study is to determine the quality degradation of the fruit by monitoring the change in the volatile compound while kept in storage using a lab manufactured electronic nose. Here, grapes are chosen as the fruit sample for experiment. Principal component analysis (PCA is used to determine the ability of the electronic nose to distinguish the different quality of the fruit stored over an interval of time. The result shows that using PCA analysis, the electronic nose is able to identify a clear distinction between the aromas of grapes stored for different time intervals.

  17. Electronic nose breathprints are independent of acute changes in airway caliber in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, Zsofia; Fens, Niki; Van der Maten, Jan; van der Schee, Marc P.; Wagener, Ariane H.; de Nijs, Selma B.; Dijkers, Erica; Sterk, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway

  18. Electronic Nose Breathprints Are Independent of Acute Changes in Airway Caliber in Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, Z.; Fens, N.; Van der Maten, J.; van der Schee, M.P.; Wagener, A.H.; de Nijs, S.B.; Dijkers, E.; Sterk, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway

  19. Quantification of Wine Mixtures with an Electronic Nose and a Human Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Manuel; Cabellos, Juan M.; Arroyo, Teresa; Horrillo, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an electronic nose and a human panel were used for the quantification of wines formed by binary mixtures of four white grape varieties and two varieties of red wines at different percentages (from 0 to 100% in 10% steps for the electronic nose and from 0 to 100% in 25% steps for the human panel). The wines were prepared using the traditional method with commercial yeasts. Both techniques were able to quantify the mixtures tested, but it is important to note that the technology of the electronic nose is faster, simpler, and more objective than the human panel. In addition, better results of quantification were also obtained using the electronic nose. PMID:29484296

  20. Discrimination of chicken seasonings and beef seasonings using electronic nose and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huaixiang; Li, Fenghua; Qin, Lan; Yu, Haiyan; Ma, Xia

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the feasibility of electronic nose as a method to discriminate chicken and beef seasonings and to predict sensory attributes. Sensory evaluation showed that 8 chicken seasonings and 4 beef seasonings could be well discriminated and classified based on 8 sensory attributes. The sensory attributes including chicken/beef, gamey, garlic, spicy, onion, soy sauce, retention, and overall aroma intensity were generated by a trained evaluation panel. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factor analysis (DFA), and cluster analysis (CA) combined with electronic nose were used to discriminate seasoning samples based on the difference of the sensor response signals of chicken and beef seasonings. The correlation between sensory attributes and electronic nose sensors signal was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. The results showed that the seasoning samples were all correctly classified by the electronic nose combined with PCA, DFA, and CA. The electronic nose gave good prediction results for all the sensory attributes with correlation coefficient (r) higher than 0.8. The work indicated that electronic nose is an effective method for discriminating different seasonings and predicting sensory attributes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Electronic Noses and Tongues: Applications for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic nose (e-nose is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or “Z” nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses.

  2. Nose micro-blowing for asymmetric vortices control on blunt-nose slender body at high angle of attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric vortices over blunt-nose slender body at high angles of attack result in random side force. In this paper, a nose micro-blowing technology is used to control the asymmetric flow. Pressure measurement and particle image velocimetry (PIV experiments are conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel to research effects of jet flow rate on asymmetric vortices over blunt-nose slender body. The angle of attack of the model is fixed at 50° and the Reynolds number for the experiments is 1.6×10 5 based on diameter of aftbody. A blow hole (5 mm in diameter on the nose is processed at circumferential angle θb= 90° and meridian angle γb= 20° with jet momentum ratio Cμ ranging from 5.30×10-7 to 1.19×10−4. Tests are made under two kinds of perturbations. One is called single perturbation with only blow hole and the other is called combined perturbation consists of blow hole and additional granules set on nose. The results show that whether the model has the single perturbation or the combined one, the sectional side force of x/D = 3 varies in the same direction with the increasement of Cμ and remains stable when Cμ is greater than 3.29×10−6. But the stable force values are different according to various perturbations. The fact proves that the size and direction of the side force of blunt-nose slender body can be controlled by the nose micro-blowing.

  3. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhebo; Xiao, Xize; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2017-10-31

    In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose) was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages-all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP) and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP). The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA), locally linear embedding (LLE) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R² = 0.9942) worked much better than PLSR.

  4. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhebo Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages—all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP. The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA, locally linear embedding (LLE and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR and support vector machine (SVM were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R2 = 0.9942 worked much better than PLSR.

  5. Use of a MS-electronic nose for prediction of early fungal spoilage of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, S; Vinaixa, M; Brezmes, J; Llobet, E; Vilanova, X; Correig, X; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2007-02-28

    A MS-based electronic nose was used to detect fungal spoilage (measured as ergosterol concentration) in samples of bakery products. Bakery products were inoculated with different Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium species, incubated in sealed vials and their headspace sampled after 2, 4 and 7 days. Once the headspace was sampled, ergosterol content was determined in each sample. Different electronic nose signals were recorded depending on incubation time. Both the e-nose signals and ergosterol levels were used to build models for prediction of ergosterol content using e-nose measurements. Accuracy on prediction of those models was between 87 and 96%, except for samples inoculated with Penicillium corylophilum where the best predictions only reached 46%.

  6. Development of a Portable Electronic Nose System for the Detection and Classification of Fruity Odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kea-Tiong Tang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed a prototype of a portable electronic nose (E-Nose comprising a sensor array of eight commercially available sensors, a data acquisition interface PCB, and a microprocessor. Verification software was developed to verify system functions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system prototype is able to identify the fragrance of three fruits, namely lemon, banana, and litchi.

  7. Gestão de odores: fundamentos do Nariz Eletrônico Odor management: fundamentals of Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Melo Lisboa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Narizes Eletrônicos têm sido desenvolvidos para detecção automática e classificação de odores, vapores e gases. São instrumentos capazes de medir a concentração ou intensidade odorante de modo similar a um olfatômetro, mas sem as limitações inerentes ao uso de painéis humanos, o que é altamente desejável. Um Nariz Eletrônico é geralmente composto por um sistema de sensores químicos e um sistema eletrônico associado à inteligência artificial para reconhecimento. Têm sido aplicados em muitas áreas, tais como análise de alimentos, controles ambientais e diagnósticos médicos. Do ponto de vista ambiental, sistemas de Narizes Eletrônicos vêm sendo usados para monitorar a qualidade do ar, detectar fontes e quantificar emissões odorantes. Este artigo pretende apresentar os fundamentos dos Narizes Eletrônicos.Electronic noses have been developed for automatic detection and classification of odors, vapors and gases. They are instruments capable to identify odors as the human nose does, and measure the odor concentration or intensity according to similar metrics as an olfactometer, but without the inherent limitations of human panels. An Electronic Nose is generally composed of a matrix of chemical sensors and computer based system for odor recognition and classification. It has been applied in many areas, such as food quality analysis, explosives detection, environmental monitoring and medical diagnosis. In the ambient environment, systems of Electronic Noses have been used to monitor the quality of air and to detect and quantify odor sources and emissions. This article intends to present the fundamentals and main characteristics of Electronic Noses.

  8. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eusebio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy, it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  9. A novel method for qualitative analysis of edible oil oxidation using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lirong; Yu, Xiuzhu; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) was used for rapid assessment of the degree of oxidation in edible oils. Peroxide and acid values of edible oil samples were analyzed using data obtained by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method for reference. Qualitative discrimination between non-oxidized and oxidized oils was conducted using the E-nose technique developed in combination with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results from CA, PCA and LDA indicated that the E-nose technique could be used for differentiation of non-oxidized and oxidized oils. LDA produced slightly better results than CA and PCA. The proposed approach can be used as an alternative to AOCS Official Method as an innovative tool for rapid detection of edible oil oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Hybrid System Based on an Electronic Nose Coupled with an Electronic Tongue for the Characterization of Moroccan Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Haddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid multisensor system combined with multivariate analysis was applied to the characterization of different kinds of Moroccan waters. The proposed hybrid system based on an electronic nose coupled with an electronic tongue consisted of metal oxide semiconductors and potentiometric sensors respectively. Five Taguchi Gas Sensors were implemented in the electronic nose for the discrimination between mineral, natural, sparkling, river and tap waters. Afterwards, the electronic tongue, based on series of Ion-Selective-Electrodes was applied to the analysis of the same waters. Multisensor responses obtained from the waters were processed by two chemometrics: Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. PCA results using electronic nose data depict all of the potable water samples in a separate group from the samples that were originated from river. Furthermore, PCA and LDA analysis on electronic tongue data permitted clear and rapid recognizing of the different waters due to the concentration changes of the chemical parameters from source to another.

  11. Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using different types of electronic noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gebicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation on quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using a prototype of electronic nose instrument and a commercial electronic nose of Fast/Flash GC type- HERACLES II. The prototype was equipped with TGS type semiconductor sensors. HERACLES II included two chromatographic columns with different polarity of stationary phase and two FID detectors. In case of the prototype volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate was prepared via barbotage process, whereas HERACLES II analysed the headspace fraction. Classification of the samples into three quality classes was performed using: quadratic discriminant function (QDA), supported with cross-validation method. Over 95% correct classification of the agricultural distillates into particular quality classes was observed for the analyses with HERACLES II. The prototype of electronic nose provided correct classification at the level of 70%.

  12. Bacterial Infection Potato Tuber Soft Rot Disease Detection Based on Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a severe bacterial disease of potatoes, and soft rot infection can cause significant economic losses during the storage period of potatoes. In this study, potato soft rot was selected as the research object, and a type of potato tuber soft rot disease early detection method based on the electronic nose technology was proposed. An optimized bionic electronic nose gas chamber and a scientific and reasonable sampling device were designed to detect a change in volatile substances of the infected soft rot disease of potato tuber. The infection of soft rot disease in potato tuber samples was detected and identified by using the RBF NN algorithm and SVM algorithm. The results revealed that the proposed bionic electronic nose system can be utilized for early detection of potato tuber soft rot disease. Through comparison and analysis, the recognition rate using the SVM algorithm reached up to 89.7%, and the results were superior to the RBF NN algorithm.

  13. Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Orto V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

  14. Continuous monitoring of odours from a composting plant using electronic noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Selena; Capelli, Laura; Céntola, Paolo; Del Rosso, Renato; Il Grande, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    The odour impact of a composting plant situated in an urbanized area was evaluated by continuously monitoring the ambient air close to the plant during a period of about 4 days using two electronic noses. One electronic nose was installed in a nearby house, and the other one inside the perimeter of the composting plant in order to compare the response of both instruments. The results of the monitoring are represented by tables that report the olfactory class and the odour concentration value attributed to the analyzed air for each of the 370 measurements carried out during the monitoring period. The electronic nose installed at the house detected the presence of odours coming from the composting plant for about 7.8% of the monitoring total duration. Of the odour detections, 86% (25 of 29 measurements) were classified as belonging to the olfactory class corresponding to the open air storage of the waste screening overflows heaps, which was therefore identified to be the major odour source of the monitored composting plant. In correspondence of the measurements during which the electronic nose inside the house detected the presence of odours from the composting plant, the olfactory classes recognized by both instruments coincide. Moreover, the electronic nose at the house detected the presence of odours from the composting plant at issue in correspondence of each odour perception of the house occupants. The results of the study show the possibility of using an electronic nose for environmental odours monitoring, which enables the classification of the quality of the air and to quantify the olfactory nuisance from an industrial source in terms of duration and odour concentration.

  15. Diverse Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies in Agriculture and Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic-nose (e-nose) instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems. PMID:23396191

  16. Diverse applications of electronic-nose technologies in agriculture and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D

    2013-02-08

    Electronic-nose (e-nose) instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems.

  17. An improved approach to identify irradiated spices using electronic nose, FTIR, and EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Maeng, Jeong-Hwan; Kyung, Hyun-Kyu; Lim, Ha-Kyeong; Sharma, Arun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-09-01

    Changes in cumin and chili powder from India resulting from electron-beam irradiation were investigated using 3 analytical methods: electronic nose (E-nose), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The spices had been exposed to 6 to 14 kGy doses recommended for microbial decontamination. E-nose measured a clear difference in flavor patterns of the irradiated spices in comparison with the nonirradiated samples. Principal component analysis further showed a dose-dependent variation. FTIR spectra of the samples showed strong absorption bands at 3425, 3007 to 2854, and 1746 cm(-1). However, both nonirradiated and irradiated spice samples had comparable patterns without any noteworthy changes in functional groups. EPR spectroscopy of the irradiated samples showed a radiation-specific triplet signal at g = 2.006 with a hyper-fine coupling constant of 3 mT confirming the results obtained with the E-nose technique. Thus, E-nose was found to be a potential tool to identify irradiated spices. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Application of fuzzy logic to determine the odour intensity of model gas mixtures using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyński, Bartosz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the possibility of application of fuzzy logic to determine the odour intensity of model, ternary gas mixtures (α-pinene, toluene and triethylamine) using electronic nose prototype. The results obtained using fuzzy logic algorithms were compared with the values obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) model and sensory analysis. As the results of the studies, it was found the electronic nose prototype along with the fuzzy logic pattern recognition system can be successfully used to estimate the odour intensity of tested gas mixtures. The correctness of the results obtained using fuzzy logic was equal to 68%.

  19. Electronic nose as an innovative tool for the diagnosis of grapevine crown gall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasioli, S., E-mail: sonia.blasioli@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Biondi, E., E-mail: erbiondi@tin.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Braschi, I., E-mail: ilaria.braschi@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Mazzucchi, U., E-mail: umberto.mazzucchi@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Bazzi, C., E-mail: carlo.bazzi@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Gessa, C.E., E-mail: carloemanuele.gessa@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-05

    For the first time, a portable electronic nose was used to discriminate between healthy and galled grapevines, experimentally inoculated with two tumourigenic strains of Agrobacterium vitis. The volatile profile of target cutting samples was analysed by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Spectra from tumoured samples revealed the presence of styrene which is compatible with decarboxylation of cinnamic acid involved in secondary metabolism of plants. Principal Component Analysis confirmed the difference in volatile profiles of infected vines and their healthy controls. Linear Discriminant Analysis allowed the correct discrimination between healthy and galled grapevines (83.3%, cross-validation). Although a larger number of samples should be analysed to create a more robust model, our results give novel interesting clues to go further with research on the diagnostic potential of this innovative system associated with multi-dimensional chemometric techniques.

  20. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, S.; Ballabio, D.; Giovanelli, G.; Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga; Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: → We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. → NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. → Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. → NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. → The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that

  1. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buratti, S., E-mail: susanna.buratti@unimi.it [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ballabio, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Giovanelli, G. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia); Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: > We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. > NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. > Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. > NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. > The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that NIR and MIR

  2. Monitoring storage time and quality attribute of egg based on electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongwei; Jun Wang; Bo Zhou; Qiujun Lu

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of an electronic nose (E-nose) technique for monitoring egg storage time and quality attributes. An electronic nose was used to distinguish eggs under cool and room-temperature storage by means of principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), BP neural network (BPNN) and the combination of a genetic algorithm and BP neural network (GANN). Results showed that the E-nose could distinguish eggs of different storage time under cool and room-temperature storage by LDA, PCA, BPNN and GANN; better prediction values were obtained by GANN than by BPNN. Relationships were established between the E-nose signal and egg quality indices (Haugh unit and yolk factor) by quadratic polynomial step regression (QPSR). The prediction models for Haugh unit and yolk factor indicated a good prediction performance. The Haugh unit model had a standard error of prediction of 3.74 and correlation coefficient 0.91; the yolk factor model had a 0.02 SEP and 0.93 correlation coefficient between predicted and measured values respectively.

  3. An electronic nose in the discrimination of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Annema, Jouke T.; Schot, Robert; van der Schee, Marc P. C.; Spanevello, Antonio; Carratú, Pierluigi; Resta, Onofrio; Rabe, Klaus F.; Sterk, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exhaled breath contains thousands of gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may be used as non-invasive markers of lung disease. The electronic nose analyzes VOCs by composite nano-sensor arrays with learning algorithms. It has been shown that an electronic nose can distinguish

  4. Research on Electronic-nose Application Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, A; Wang, L; Yao, C H

    2006-01-01

    The paper proposed a structure of Wireless Sensor Networks based Electronic-nose system to monitors air quality in the building. In the study, the authors researched a data processing algorithm: fuzzy neural network based on RBF(Radial Basis Function) network model, to quantitatively analyze the gas ingredient and put forward a routing protocol for the system

  5. Electronic-nose technology using sputum samples in diagnosis of patients with tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Hoelscher, M.; Maboko, L.; Jung, J.; Kuijper, S.; Cauchi, M.; Bessant, C.; van Beers, S.; Dutta, R.; Gibson, T.; Reither, K.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the potential of two different electronic noses (EN; code named "Rob" and "Walter") to differentiate between sputum headspace samples from tuberculosis (TB) patients and non-TB patients. Only samples from Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN)- and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive

  6. Monitoring of biological odour filtration in closed environments with olfactometry and an electronic nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Gijsel, de P.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Amico, D' A.; Martinelli, E.; Natale, Di C.; Ras, van N.; Waarde, van der J.

    2004-01-01

    Air treatment with a compact biological membrane filter, and air quality monitoring with an electronic nose were tested in the laboratory on air from a cage containing six mice. Additional analyses of air to and from the filter were performed using olfactometry and ammonia and hydrogen sulphide gas

  7. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  8. Analog Multilayer Perceptron Circuit with On-chip Learning: Portable Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chih-Heng; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2011-09-01

    This article presents an analog multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network circuit with on-chip back propagation learning. This low power and small area analog MLP circuit is proposed to implement as a classifier in an electronic nose (E-nose). Comparing with the E-nose using microprocessor or FPGA as a classifier, the E-nose applying analog circuit as a classifier can be faster and much smaller, demonstrate greater power efficiency and be capable of developing a portable E-nose [1]. The system contains four inputs, four hidden neurons, and only one output neuron; this simple structure allows the circuit to have a smaller area and less power consumption. The circuit is fabricated using TSMC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process with 1.8 V supply voltage. The area of this chip is 1.353×1.353 mm2 and the power consumption is 0.54 mW. Post-layout simulations show that the proposed analog MLP circuit can be successively trained to identify three kinds of fruit odors.

  9. Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Oberle, Charisse S.; Oberle, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P 90%) and with relatively low rates (≤5%) of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed. PMID:24287526

  10. A Novel Wearable Electronic Nose for Healthcare Based on Flexible Printed Chemical Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panida Lorwongtragool

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this technique both composite-like layer and actual composite film of CNTs/polymer were prepared as sensing layers for the chemical sensor array. The sensor array can response to a variety of complex odors and is installed in a prototype of wearable e-nose for monitoring the axillary odor released from human body. The wearable e-nose allows the classification of different armpit odors and the amount of the volatiles released as a function of level of skin hygiene upon different activities.

  11. Application of Electronic Noses for Disease Diagnosis and Food Spoilage Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Casalinuovo, Ida A.; Di Pierro, Donato; Coletta, Massimiliano; Di Francesco, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so-called “electronic noses”) have odour analyses made possible. This paper describes the applications of these systems for microbial detection in different fields such as medicine and the food industry, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate management of health care. Several groups have employed different electronic noses for classification and quantification of bacteria and fungi to obtain accurate med...

  12. Detecting aroma changes of local flavored green tea (Camellia sinensis) using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralisnawati, D.; Sukartiko, A. C.; Suryandono, A.; Triyana, K.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is currently the sixth largest tea producer in the world. However, consumption of the product in the country was considered low. Besides tea, the country also has various local flavor ingredients that are potential to be developed. The addition of local flavored ingredients such as ginger, lemon grass, and lime leaves on green tea products is gaining acceptance from consumers and producers. The aroma of local flavored green tea was suspected to changes during storage, while its sensory testing has some limitations. Therefore, the study aimed to detect aroma changes of local flavors added in green tea using electronic nose (e-nose), an instrument developed to mimic the function of the human nose. The test was performed on a four-gram sample. The data was collected with 120 seconds of sensing time and 60 seconds of blowing time. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find out the aroma changes of local flavored green tea during storage. We observed that electronic nose could detect aroma changes of ginger flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 with variance percentage 99.6%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lemon grass flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.3%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lime leaves flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.4%.

  13. Electronic-nose applications in forensic science and for analysis of volatile biomarkers in the human breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    AD Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data...

  14. Advances in electronic-nose technologies for the detection of volatile biomarker metabolites in the human breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in the use of electronic-nose (e-nose) devices to analyze human breath profiles for the presence of specific volatile metabolites, known as biomarkers or chemical bio-indicators of specific human diseases, metabolic disorders and the overall health status of individuals, are providing the potential for new noninvasive tools and techniques useful to...

  15. Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9 indicating a significant difference at (P < 0.05. The A32S e-nose effectively discriminated between good-flavor and off-flavor catfish at high levels of accuracy (>90% and with relatively low rates (≤5% of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed.

  16. Valid Probabilistic Predictions for Ginseng with Venn Machines Using Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the application of electronic noses (E-noses, probabilistic prediction is a good way to estimate how confident we are about our prediction. In this work, a homemade E-nose system embedded with 16 metal-oxide semi-conductive gas sensors was used to discriminate nine kinds of ginsengs of different species or production places. A flexible machine learning framework, Venn machine (VM was introduced to make probabilistic predictions for each prediction. Three Venn predictors were developed based on three classical probabilistic prediction methods (Platt’s method, Softmax regression and Naive Bayes. Three Venn predictors and three classical probabilistic prediction methods were compared in aspect of classification rate and especially the validity of estimated probability. A best classification rate of 88.57% was achieved with Platt’s method in offline mode, and the classification rate of VM-SVM (Venn machine based on Support Vector Machine was 86.35%, just 2.22% lower. The validity of Venn predictors performed better than that of corresponding classical probabilistic prediction methods. The validity of VM-SVM was superior to the other methods. The results demonstrated that Venn machine is a flexible tool to make precise and valid probabilistic prediction in the application of E-nose, and VM-SVM achieved the best performance for the probabilistic prediction of ginseng samples.

  17. Quantitative analysis of different volatile organic compounds using an improved electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Daqi; Ji, Jiuming; Gong, Jiayu; Cai, Chaoqian

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets up an improved electronic nose with an automatic sampling mode, large volumetric vapors and constant temperature for headspace vapors and gas sensor array. In order to facilitate the fast recovery and good repeatability of gas sensors, the steps taken include (A) short-time contact with odors measured; (B) long-time purification using environmental air; (C) exact calibration using clean air before sampling. We employ multiple single-output perceptrons to discriminate and quantify multiple kinds of odors. This task is first regarded as multiple two-class discrimination problems and then multiple quantification problems, and accomplished by multiple single-output perceptrons followed by multiple single-output perceptrons. The experimental results for measuring and quantifying 12 kinds of volatile organic compounds with changing concentrations show that the type of electronic nose with a hierarchical perceptron model has a simple structure, easy operation, good repeatability and good discrimination and quantification performance. (paper)

  18. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  19. Quantitative analysis of different volatile organic compounds using an improved electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daqi; Ji, Jiuming; Gong, Jiayu; Cai, Chaoqian

    2012-10-01

    This paper sets up an improved electronic nose with an automatic sampling mode, large volumetric vapors and constant temperature for headspace vapors and gas sensor array. In order to facilitate the fast recovery and good repeatability of gas sensors, the steps taken include (A) short-time contact with odors measured; (B) long-time purification using environmental air; (C) exact calibration using clean air before sampling. We employ multiple single-output perceptrons to discriminate and quantify multiple kinds of odors. This task is first regarded as multiple two-class discrimination problems and then multiple quantification problems, and accomplished by multiple single-output perceptrons followed by multiple single-output perceptrons. The experimental results for measuring and quantifying 12 kinds of volatile organic compounds with changing concentrations show that the type of electronic nose with a hierarchical perceptron model has a simple structure, easy operation, good repeatability and good discrimination and quantification performance.

  20. Towards an electronic dog nose: surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-05

    This review describes an "electronic dog nose" based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor and an antigen-antibody interaction for security and safety. We have concentrated on developing appropriate sensor surfaces for the SPR sensor for practical use. The review covers different surface fabrications, which all include variations of a self-assembled monolayer containing oligo(ethylene glycol), dendrimer, and hydrophilic polymer. We have carried out detection of explosives using the sensor surfaces. For the SPR sensor to detect explosives, the vapor or particles of the target substances have to be dissolved in a liquid. Therefore, we also review the development of sampling processes for explosives, and a protocol for the measurement of explosives on the SPR sensor in the field. Additionally, sensing elements, which have the potential to be applied for the electronic dog nose, are described.

  1. Electronic Nose to Determine the Maturity Index of the Tree Tomato (Cyphomandra Betacea Sendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán-Acevedo Cristhian Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of an Electronic Nose for nondestructive monitoring of tree tomato ripening process (Cyphomandra Betacea Sendt. An array of 16 chemical gas sensors was arranged for the detection of three ripeness levels of tree types of tomato (green, ripe and overripe. A Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN as variable selection technique (Simulated Annealing was coupled to improve the result and the PCA (Principal Component Analysis technique was applied to discriminate each one of volatile compounds. A number of measures for physicochemical tests were analyzed with the goal of evaluating the physical, chemical and sensory properties (i.e, pH, acidity and Brix of the product, and the results of the Electronic Nose were compared. The olfactory system was able to classify the samples of tree tomato in three different stages with very high accuracy, to reach a success rate 99.886% in classification.

  2. Early detection of fungal growth in bakery products by use of an electronic nose based on mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinaixa, Maria; Marín, Sonia; Brezmes, Jesús; Llobet, Eduard; Vilanova, Xavier; Correig, Xavier; Ramos, Antonio; Sanchis, Vicent

    2004-10-06

    This paper presents the design, optimization, and evaluation of a mass spectrometry-based electronic nose (MS e-nose) for early detection of unwanted fungal growth in bakery products. Seven fungal species (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium rubrum, Eurotium repens, and Penicillium corylophillum) were isolated from bakery products and used for the study. Two sampling headspace techniques were tested: static headspace (SH) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Cross-validated models based on principal component analysis (PCA), coupled to discriminant function analysis (DFA) and fuzzy ARTMAP, were used as data treatment. When attempting to discriminate between inoculated and blank control vials or between genera or species of in vitro growing cultures, sampling based on SPME showed better results than those based on static headspace. The SPME-MS-based e-nose was able to predict fungal growth with 88% success after 24 h of inoculation and 98% success after 48 h when changes were monitored in the headspace of fungal cultures growing on bakery product analogues. Prediction of the right fungal genus reached 78% and 88% after 24 and 96 h, respectively.

  3. Electronic Nose Characterization of the Quality Parameters of Freeze-Dried Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, R.; Santonico, M.; Martinelli, E.; Paolesse, R.; Passot, S.; Fonseca, F.; Cenard, S.; Trelea, C.; Di Natale, C.

    2011-09-01

    Freeze-drying is the method of choice for preserving heat sensitive biological products such as microorganisms. The development of a fast analytical method for evaluating the properties of the dehydrated bacteria is then necessary for a proper utilization of the product in several food processes. In this paper, dried bacteria headspace is analyzed by a GC-MS and an electronic nose. Results indicate that headspace contains enough information to assess the products quality.

  4. Electronic Nose Breathprints Are Independent of Acute Changes in Airway Caliber in Asthma

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    Jan van der Maten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway caliber. We hypothesized that breathprints obtained by electronic nose are independent of acute changes in airway caliber in asthma. Ten patients with stable asthma underwent methacholine provocation (Visit 1 and sham challenge with isotonic saline (Visit 2. At Visit 1, exhaled air was repetitively collected pre-challenge, after reaching the provocative concentration (PC20 causing 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and after subsequent salbutamol inhalation. At Visit 2, breath was collected pre-challenge, post-saline and post-salbutamol. At each occasion, an expiratory vital capacity was collected after 5 min of tidal breathing through an inspiratory VOC-filter in a Tedlar bag and sampled by electronic nose (Cyranose 320. Breathprints were analyzed with principal component analysis and individual factors were compared with mixed model analysis followed by pairwise comparisons. Inhalation of methacholine led to a 30.8 ± 3.3% fall in FEV1 and was followed by a significant change in breathprint (p = 0.04. Saline inhalation did not induce a significant change in FEV1, but altered the breathprint (p = 0.01. However, the breathprint obtained after the methacholine provocation was not significantly different from that after saline challenge (p = 0.27. The molecular profile of exhaled air in patients with asthma is altered by nebulized aerosols, but is not affected by acute changes in airway caliber. Our data demonstrate that breathprints by electronic nose are not confounded by the level of airway obstruction.

  5. Chemical Selectivity and Sensitivity of a 16-Channel Electronic Nose for Trace Vapour Detection

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    Drago Strle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Good chemical selectivity of sensors for detecting vapour traces of targeted molecules is vital to reliable detection systems for explosives and other harmful materials. We present the design, construction and measurements of the electronic response of a 16 channel electronic nose based on 16 differential microcapacitors, which were surface-functionalized by different silanes. The e-nose detects less than 1 molecule of TNT out of 10+12 N2 molecules in a carrier gas in 1 s. Differently silanized sensors give different responses to different molecules. Electronic responses are presented for TNT, RDX, DNT, H2S, HCN, FeS, NH3, propane, methanol, acetone, ethanol, methane, toluene and water. We consider the number density of these molecules and find that silane surfaces show extreme affinity for attracting molecules of TNT, DNT and RDX. The probability to bind these molecules and form a surface-adsorbate is typically 10+7 times larger than the probability to bind water molecules, for example. We present a matrix of responses of differently functionalized microcapacitors and we propose that chemical selectivity of multichannel e-nose could be enhanced by using artificial intelligence deep learning methods.

  6. Performance Comparison of Fuzzy ARTMAP and LDA in Qualitative Classification of Iranian Rosa damascena Essential Oils by an Electronic Nose

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    Abbas Gorji-Chakespari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control of essential oils is an important topic in industrial processing of medicinal and aromatic plants. In this paper, the performance of Fuzzy Adaptive Resonant Theory Map (ARTMAP and linear discriminant analysis (LDA algorithms are compared in the specific task of quality classification of Rosa damascene essential oil samples (one of the most famous and valuable essential oils in the world using an electronic nose (EN system based on seven metal oxide semiconductor (MOS sensors. First, with the aid of a GC-MS analysis, samples of Rosa damascene essential oils were classified into three different categories (low, middle, and high quality, classes C1, C2, and C3, respectively based on the total percent of the most crucial qualitative compounds. An ad-hoc electronic nose (EN system was implemented to sense the samples and acquire signals. Forty-nine features were extracted from the EN sensor matrix (seven parameters to describe each sensor curve response. The extracted features were ordered in relevance by the intra/inter variance criterion (Vr, also known as the Fisher discriminant. A leave-one-out cross validation technique was implemented for estimating the classification accuracy reached by both algorithms. Success rates were calculated using 10, 20, 30, and the entire selected features from the response of the sensor array. The results revealed a maximum classification accuracy of 99% when applying the Fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm and 82% for LDA, using the first 10 features in both cases. Further classification results explained that sub-optimal performance is likely to occur when all the response features are applied. It was found that an electronic nose system employing a Fuzzy ARTMAP classifier could become an accurate, easy, and inexpensive alternative tool for qualitative control in the production of Rosa damascene essential oil.

  7. Pressure-driven fast reaction and recovery of peptide receptor for an electronic nose application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Yong Kyoung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Biomicrosystems, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Myung [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Myung-Sic; Yoon Kang, Ji; Song Kim, Tae; Seon Hwang, Kyo, E-mail: kshwang@kist.re.kr, E-mail: jhlee@kw.ac.kr [Center for Biomicrosystems, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hoon Lee, Jeong, E-mail: kshwang@kist.re.kr, E-mail: jhlee@kw.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-24

    Combining a highly sensitive sensor platform with highly selective recognition elements is essential for micro/nanotechnology-based electronic nose applications. Particularly, the regeneration sensor surface and its conditions are key issues for practical e-nose applications. We propose a highly sensitive piezoelectric-driven microcantilever array chip with highly selective peptide receptors. By utilizing the peptide receptor, which was discovered by a phase display screening process, we immobilized a dinitrotoluene (DNT) specific peptide as well as a DNT nonspecific peptide on the surface of the cantilever array. The delivery of DNT gas via pressure-driven flow led to a greater instant response of ∼30 Hz, compared to diffusion only (∼15 Hz for 15 h). Using a simple pressure-driven air flow of ∼50 sccm, we confirmed that a ratio of ∼70% of the specific-bounded sites from DNT gas molecules could be regenerated, showing re-usability of the peptide receptor in on-site monitoring for electronic nose applications.

  8. Validation of honey-bee smelling profile by using a commercial electronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Correa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural sweetener and its quality labels are associated to its botanical or geographical origin, which is being established by palynological and sensorial analysis. The use of fast and non-invasive techniques such as an electronic nose can become an alternative for honey classification. In this study, the operational parameters of a commercial electronic nose were validated to determine the honey odor profile. A central composite design with five factors, three levels and 28 assays was used, varying sample amounts (1, 2 and 3 g, incubation temperature (30, 40 and 50 °C, incubation time 30 min, gas flow (50, 150 and 250 mL/min and injection time (100, 200 and 300 s. The commercial nose had ten sensors. Repeatability was evaluated with a coefficient of variation of 10 %. The response surface methodology was used and the optimal operating conditions were: 3 g of sample, incubation at 50 °C for 17 min, gas flow of 100 mL/min and sampling time of 150 s. Finally, these parameters were used to analyze 19 samples of honey, which were classified according to their odor profiles, showing that it can be a useful tool to classify honey.

  9. Gas Classification Using Combined Features Based on a Discriminant Analysis for an Electronic Nose

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    Sang-Il Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a gas classification method for an electronic nose (e-nose system, for which combined features that have been configured through discriminant analysis are used. First, each global feature is extracted from the entire measurement section of the data samples, while the same process is applied to the local features of the section that corresponds to the stabilization, exposure, and purge stages. The discriminative information amounts in the individual features are then measured based on the discriminant analysis, and the combined features are subsequently composed by selecting the features that have a large amount of discriminative information. Regarding a variety of volatile organic compound data, the results of the experiment show that, in a noisy environment, the proposed method exhibits classification performance that is relatively excellent compared to the other feature types.

  10. Calibration transfer between electronic nose systems for rapid In situ measurement of pulp and paper industry emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Sharvari; Kamde, Kalyani; Jana, Arun; Korde, Sanjivani; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Sankar, Ravi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Pandey, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • E-nose developed for obnoxious emissions measurement at pulp and paper industrial site. • ANN model developed for prediction of (CH 3 ) 2 S, (CH 3 ) 2 S 2 , CH 3 SH and H 2 S concentration. • Calibration transfer methodology developed for transfer between two e-nose instruments. • Box–Behnken design and robust regression used for calibration transfer. • Results show effective transfer of training model from one e-nose system to other. - Abstract: Electronic nose systems when deployed in network mesh can effectively provide a low budget and onsite solution for the industrial obnoxious gaseous measurement. For accurate and identical prediction capability by all the electronic nose systems, a reliable calibration transfer model needs to be implemented in order to overcome the inherent sensor array variability. In this work, robust regression (RR) is used for calibration transfer between two electronic nose systems using a Box–Behnken (BB) design. Out of the two electronic nose systems, one was trained using industrial gas samples by four artificial neural network models, for the measurement of obnoxious odours emitted from pulp and paper industries. The emissions constitute mainly of hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) in different proportions. A Box–Behnken design consisting of 27 experiment sets based on synthetic gas combinations of H 2 S, MM, DMS and DMDS, were conducted for calibration transfer between two identical electronic nose systems. Identical sensors on both the systems were mapped and the prediction models developed using ANN were then transferred to the second system using BB–RR methodology. The results showed successful transmission of prediction models developed for one system to other system, with the mean absolute error between the actual and predicted concentration of analytes in mg L −1 after calibration transfer (on second system) being 0.076, 0

  11. Determination of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris: Direct Analysis by Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreiro-González

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsonists usually use an accelerant in order to start or accelerate a fire. The most widely used analytical method to determine the presence of such accelerants consists of a pre-concentration step of the ignitable liquid residues followed by chromatographic analysis. A rapid analytical method based on headspace-mass spectrometry electronic nose (E-Nose has been developed for the analysis of Ignitable Liquid Residues (ILRs. The working conditions for the E-Nose analytical procedure were optimized by studying different fire debris samples. The optimized experimental variables were related to headspace generation, specifically, incubation temperature and incubation time. The optimal conditions were 115 °C and 10 min for these two parameters. Chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were applied to the MS data (45–200 m/z to establish the most suitable spectroscopic signals for the discrimination of several ignitable liquids. The optimized method was applied to a set of fire debris samples. In order to simulate post-burn samples several ignitable liquids (gasoline, diesel, citronella, kerosene, paraffin were used to ignite different substrates (wood, cotton, cork, paper and paperboard. A full discrimination was obtained on using discriminant analysis. This method reported here can be considered as a green technique for fire debris analyses.

  12. A False Alarm Reduction Method for a Gas Sensor Based Electronic Nose

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    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (E-Noses are becoming popular for food and fruit quality assessment due to their robustness and repeated usability without fatigue, unlike human experts. An E-Nose equipped with classification algorithms and having open ended classification boundaries such as the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN, support vector machine (SVM, and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN, are found to suffer from false classification errors of irrelevant odor data. To reduce false classification and misclassification errors, and to improve correct rejection performance; algorithms with a hyperspheric boundary, such as a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and generalized regression neural network (GRNN with a Gaussian activation function in the hidden layer should be used. The simulation results presented in this paper show that GRNN has more correct classification efficiency and false alarm reduction capability compared to RBFNN. As the design of a GRNN and RBFNN is complex and expensive due to large numbers of neuron requirements, a simple hyperspheric classification method based on minimum, maximum, and mean (MMM values of each class of the training dataset was presented. The MMM algorithm was simple and found to be fast and efficient in correctly classifying data of training classes, and correctly rejecting data of extraneous odors, and thereby reduced false alarms.

  13. Determination of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris: Direct Analysis by Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Barbero, Gerardo F.; Palma, Miguel; Ayuso, Jesús; Álvarez, José A.; Barroso, Carmelo G.

    2016-01-01

    Arsonists usually use an accelerant in order to start or accelerate a fire. The most widely used analytical method to determine the presence of such accelerants consists of a pre-concentration step of the ignitable liquid residues followed by chromatographic analysis. A rapid analytical method based on headspace-mass spectrometry electronic nose (E-Nose) has been developed for the analysis of Ignitable Liquid Residues (ILRs). The working conditions for the E-Nose analytical procedure were optimized by studying different fire debris samples. The optimized experimental variables were related to headspace generation, specifically, incubation temperature and incubation time. The optimal conditions were 115 °C and 10 min for these two parameters. Chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to the MS data (45–200 m/z) to establish the most suitable spectroscopic signals for the discrimination of several ignitable liquids. The optimized method was applied to a set of fire debris samples. In order to simulate post-burn samples several ignitable liquids (gasoline, diesel, citronella, kerosene, paraffin) were used to ignite different substrates (wood, cotton, cork, paper and paperboard). A full discrimination was obtained on using discriminant analysis. This method reported here can be considered as a green technique for fire debris analyses. PMID:27187407

  14. Identification of Four Wood Species by an Electronic Nose and by LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R. Cordeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two complementary methods capable of identifying four wood species (Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea porosa, Hymenolobium petraeum, and Aspidosperma subincanum both by their volatile organic compounds and by the presence of 10 chemical elements: Al, B, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Na, and Si. The volatile compounds were detected by an electronic nose formed by an array of three different conductive polymer gas sensors. The elemental determination was made by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS. The emissions measured were treated by principal component analysis (PCA. Leave-one-out analysis showed a rate of hits of 100%.

  15. Identification Of Geographical Origin Of Coffee Before And After Roasting By Electronic Noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Ongo, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Geographical origin traceability of food is a relevant issue for both producers' business protection and customers' rights safeguard. Differentiation of coffees on the basis of geographical origin is still a challenging issue, though possible by means of chemical techniques [1]. Between the most widely consumed beverage, coffee is a valuable one, with an aroma constituted by hundreds of volatiles [2]. Since the final global volatile composition is also determined by the cultivation climatic conditions, Electronic Noses (ENs) could be interesting candidates for distinguishing the geographical provenience by exploiting differences in chemical volatile profile. The present investigation is directed toward the characterization of green and roasted coffees samples according to their geographical origin.

  16. Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Homer, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic nose that uses an array of 32 polymer-carbon black composite sensors has been developed, trained, and tested. By selecting a variety of chemical functionalities in the polymers used to make sensors, it is possible to construct an array capable of identifying and quantifying a broad range of target compounds, such as alcohols and aromatics, and distinguishing isomers and enantiomers (mirror-image isomers). A model of the interaction between target molecules and the polymer-carbon black composite sensors is under development to aid in selecting the array members and to enable identification of compounds with responses not stored in the analysis library.

  17. Application of the Electronic Nose Technique to Differentiation between Model Mixtures with COPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the potential of an electronic nose technique in the field of fast diagnostics of patients suspected of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. The investigations were performed using a simple electronic nose prototype equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors manufactured by FIGARO Co. They were aimed at verification of a possibility of differentiation between model reference mixtures with potential COPD markers (N,N-dimethylformamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide. These mixtures contained volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as acetone, isoprene, carbon disulphide, propan-2-ol, formamide, benzene, toluene, acetonitrile, acetic acid, dimethyl ether, dimethyl sulphide, acrolein, furan, propanol and pyridine, recognized as the components of exhaled air. The model reference mixtures were prepared at three concentration levels—10 ppb, 25 ppb, 50 ppb v/v—of each component, except for the COPD markers. Concentration of the COPD markers in the mixtures was from 0 ppb to 100 ppb v/v. Interpretation of the obtained data employed principal component analysis (PCA. The investigations revealed the usefulness of the electronic device only in the case when the concentration of the COPD markers was twice as high as the concentration of the remaining components of the mixture and for a limited number of basic mixture components.

  18. The prediction of food additives in the fruit juice based on electronic nose with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Food additives are added to products to enhance their taste, and preserve flavor or appearance. While their use should be restricted to achieve a technological benefit, the contents of food additives should be also strictly controlled. In this study, E-nose was applied as an alternative to traditional monitoring technologies for determining two food additives, namely benzoic acid and chitosan. For quantitative monitoring, support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), extreme learning machine (ELM) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were applied to establish regression models between E-nose signals and the amount of food additives in fruit juices. The monitoring models based on ELM and RF reached higher correlation coefficients (R 2 s) and lower root mean square errors (RMSEs) than models based on PLSR and SVM. This work indicates that E-nose combined with RF or ELM can be a cost-effective, easy-to-build and rapid detection system for food additive monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Novel Feature Extraction Approach Using Window Function Capturing and QPSO-SVM for Enhancing Electronic Nose Performance

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    Xiuzhen Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel feature extraction approach which can be referred to as moving window function capturing (MWFC has been proposed to analyze signals of an electronic nose (E-nose used for detecting types of infectious pathogens in rat wounds. Meanwhile, a quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm is implemented in conjunction with support vector machine (SVM for realizing a synchronization optimization of the sensor array and SVM model parameters. The results prove the efficacy of the proposed method for E-nose feature extraction, which can lead to a higher classification accuracy rate compared to other established techniques. Meanwhile it is interesting to note that different classification results can be obtained by changing the types, widths or positions of windows. By selecting the optimum window function for the sensor response, the performance of an E-nose can be enhanced.

  20. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-06-16

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose (e-nose) could fit this profile but has never been tested in this setting before. In a single-center registered trial (NTR 4601) patients admitted with AECOPD were tested with the Aeonose(®) electronic nose, and a diagnosis of viral or bacterial infection was obtained by bacterial culture on sputa and viral PCR on nose swabs. A neural network with leave-10%-out cross-validation was used to assess the e-nose data. Forty three patients were included. In the bacterial infection model, 22 positive cases were tested versus the negatives; and similarly 18 positive cases were tested in the viral infection model. The Aeonose was able to distinguish between COPD-subjects suffering from a viral infection and COPD patients without infection, showing an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74. Similarly, for bacterial infections, an AUC of 0.72 was obtained. The Aeonose e-nose yields promising results in 'smelling' the presence or absence of a viral or bacterial respiratory infection during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Validation of these results using a new and large cohort is required before introduction into clinical practice.

  1. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies for the Detection of Volatile Biomarker Metabolites in the Human Breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in the use of electronic-nose (e-nose devices to analyze human breath profiles for the presence of specific volatile metabolites, known as biomarkers or chemical bio-indicators of specific human diseases, metabolic disorders and the overall health status of individuals, are providing the potential for new noninvasive tools and techniques useful to point-of-care clinical disease diagnoses. This exciting new area of electronic disease detection and diagnosis promises to yield much faster and earlier detection of human diseases and disorders, allowing earlier, more effective treatments, resulting in more rapid patient recovery from various afflictions. E-nose devices are particularly suited for the field of disease diagnostics, because they are sensitive to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and can effectively distinguish between different complex gaseous mixtures via analysis of electronic aroma sensor-array output profiles of volatile metabolites present in the human breath. This review provides a summary of some recent developments of electronic-nose technologies, particularly involving breath analysis, with the potential for providing many new diagnostic applications for the detection of specific human diseases associated with different organs in the body, detectable from e-nose analyses of aberrant disease-associated VOCs present in air expired from the lungs.

  2. Towards an Electronic Dog Nose: Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for Security and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Onodera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes an “electronic dog nose” based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor and an antigen–antibody interaction for security and safety. We have concentrated on developing appropriate sensor surfaces for the SPR sensor for practical use. The review covers different surface fabrications, which all include variations of a self-assembled monolayer containing oligo(ethylene glycol, dendrimer, and hydrophilic polymer. We have carried out detection of explosives using the sensor surfaces. For the SPR sensor to detect explosives, the vapor or particles of the target substances have to be dissolved in a liquid. Therefore, we also review the development of sampling processes for explosives, and a protocol for the measurement of explosives on the SPR sensor in the field. Additionally, sensing elements, which have the potential to be applied for the electronic dog nose, are described.

  3. Validation of exhaled volatile organic compounds analysis using electronic nose as index of COPD severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finamore P

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Panaiotis Finamore,1 Claudio Pedone,1 Simone Scarlata,1 Alessandra Di Paolo,1 Simone Grasso,2 Marco Santonico,2 Giorgio Pennazza,2 Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi1 1Unit of Geriatrics, Campus Bio-Medico di Roma University, Rome, Italy; 2Unit of Electronics for Sensor Systems, Campus Bio-Medico di Roma University, Rome, Italy Aim: Six-minute walking test distance (6MWD and body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea and exercise (BODE index are measures of functional status in COPD patients, but require space, time and patient’s compliance. Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs analysis via electronic nose is a quick and easy method that has already been used to discriminate COPD phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether VOCs analysis can predict functional status and its variation over time in COPD patients.Methods: A monocentric prospective study with 1 year of follow-up was carried out. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests, arterial gas analysis, bioimpedance analysis, 6-minute walking test, and VOCs collection. Exhaled breath was collected with Pneumopipe® and analyzed using BIONOTE electronic nose. Outcomes prediction was performed by k-fold cross-validated partial least square discriminant analysis: accuracy, sensitivity and specificity as well as Cohen’s kappa for agreement were calculated.Results: We enrolled 63 patients, 60.3% men, with a mean age of 71 (SD: 8 years, median BODE index of 1 (interquartile range: 0–3 and mean 6MWD normalized by squared height (n6MWD of 133.5 (SD: 42 m/m2. The BIONOTE predicted baseline BODE score (dichotomized as BODE score <3 or ≥3 with an accuracy of 86% and quartiles of n6MWD with an accuracy of 79%. n6MWD decline more than the median value after 1 year was predicted with an accuracy of 86% by BIONOTE, 52% by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD class and 78% by combined BIONOTE and GOLD class.Conclusion: Exhaled VOCs analysis identifies classes of BODE

  4. Volatile Discrimination of Irradiated and Fumigated White Ginseng Powders at Different Storage Times and Temperatures Using the Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Shin, J.A.; Lee, K.T.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of volatile emissions from white ginseng powders (WGP) that were treated with selected preservatives was investigated during 5-months of storage (at-10 and 25℃) by an electronic nose system equipped with 12 metal-oxide sensors. WGP were treated with gamma radiation at 5 kGy, commercial methyl bromide (MeBr), and phosphine fumigations. Electronic nose differentiated the volatile patterns of the WGP with each different preservative treatment. In addition, each volatile pattern was affected by both storage time (1, 2 and 5 months) and temperature (-10 and 25℃)

  5. Development of fabric-based chemical gas sensors for use as wearable electronic noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seesaard, Thara; Lorwongtragool, Panida; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2015-01-16

    Novel gas sensors embroidered into fabric substrates based on polymers/ SWNT-COOH nanocomposites were proposed in this paper, aiming for their use as a wearable electronic nose (e-nose). The fabric-based chemical gas sensors were fabricated by two main processes: drop coating and embroidery. Four potential polymers (PVC, cumene-PSMA, PSE and PVP)/functionalized-SWCNT sensing materials were deposited onto interdigitated electrodes previously prepared by embroidering conductive thread on a fabric substrate to make an optimal set of sensors. After preliminary trials of the obtained sensors, it was found that the sensors yielded a electrical resistance in the region of a few kilo-Ohms. The sensors were tested with various volatile compounds such as ammonium hydroxide, ethanol, pyridine, triethylamine, methanol and acetone, which are commonly found in the wastes released from the human body. These sensors were used to detect and discriminate between the body odors of different regions and exist in various forms such as the urine, armpit and exhaled breath odor. Based on a simple pattern recognition technique, we have shown that the proposed fabric-based chemical gas sensors can discriminate the human body odor from two persons.

  6. Development of Fabric-Based Chemical Gas Sensors for Use as Wearable Electronic Noses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thara Seesaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel gas sensors embroidered into fabric substrates based on polymers/ SWNT-COOH nanocomposites were proposed in this paper, aiming for their use as a wearable electronic nose (e-nose. The fabric-based chemical gas sensors were fabricated by two main processes: drop coating and embroidery. Four potential polymers (PVC, cumene-PSMA, PSE and PVP/functionalized-SWCNT sensing materials were deposited onto interdigitated electrodes previously prepared by embroidering conductive thread on a fabric substrate to make an optimal set of sensors. After preliminary trials of the obtained sensors, it was found that the sensors yielded a electrical resistance in the region of a few kilo-Ohms. The sensors were tested with various volatile compounds such as ammonium hydroxide, ethanol, pyridine, triethylamine, methanol and acetone, which are commonly found in the wastes released from the human body. These sensors were used to detect and discriminate between the body odors of different regions and exist in various forms such as the urine, armpit and exhaled breath odor. Based on a simple pattern recognition technique, we have shown that the proposed fabric-based chemical gas sensors can discriminate the human body odor from two persons.

  7. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-04

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator.

  8. Classification of root canal microorganisms using electronic-nose and discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özbilge Hatice

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root canal treatment is a debridement process which disrupts and removes entire microorganisms from the root canal system. Identification of microorganisms may help clinicians decide on treatment alternatives such as using different irrigants, intracanal medicaments and antibiotics. However, the difficulty in cultivation and the complexity in isolation of predominant anaerobic microorganisms make clinicians resort to empirical medical treatments. For this reason, identification of microorganisms is not a routinely used procedure in root canal treatment. In this study, we aimed at classifying 7 different standard microorganism strains which are frequently seen in root canal infections, using odor data collected using an electronic nose instrument. Method Our microorganism odor data set consisted of 5 repeated samples from 7 different classes at 4 concentration levels. For each concentration, 35 samples were classified using 3 different discriminant analysis methods. In order to determine an optimal setting for using electronic-nose in such an application, we have tried 3 different approaches in evaluating sensor responses. Moreover, we have used 3 different sensor baseline values in normalizing sensor responses. Since the number of sensors is relatively large compared to sample size, we have also investigated the influence of two different dimension reduction methods on classification performance. Results We have found that quadratic type dicriminant analysis outperforms other varieties of this method. We have also observed that classification performance decreases as the concentration decreases. Among different baseline values used for pre-processing the sensor responses, the model where the minimum values of sensor readings in the sample were accepted as the baseline yields better classification performance. Corresponding to this optimal choice of baseline value, we have noted that among different sensor response model and

  9. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Jonas; Nascimento, Henry M.; Yamauchi, Elaine Y.; Li, Rosamaria W.C.; Esteves, Carlos H.A.; Rehder, Gustavo P.; Gaylarde, Christine C.; Shirakawa, Márcia A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s. - Highlights: • Early detection of Penicillium digitatum in oranges • Low cost electronic nose based on conductive polymers • Efficient distinction between good and poor quality fruits

  10. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Jonas, E-mail: jogruber@iq.usp.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Henry M. [Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yamauchi, Elaine Y. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Li, Rosamaria W.C. [Centro Universitário Estácio Radial São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Esteves, Carlos H.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rehder, Gustavo P. [Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gaylarde, Christine C. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Shirakawa, Márcia A. [Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s. - Highlights: • Early detection of Penicillium digitatum in oranges • Low cost electronic nose based on conductive polymers • Efficient distinction between good and poor quality fruits.

  11. Tracking Dynamic Source Direction with a Novel Stationary Electronic Nose System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Levy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of chemical sensors, usually called electronic noses (ENose, are widelyused in industry for classifying and identifying odours. They may also be used to locate theposition and detect the direction of an emission source. Usually this task is performed by anENose cooperating with a mobile vehicle, but when a source is instantaneous, or thesurrounding terrain is hard for vehicles to traverse, an alternative approach is needed. Thus athree-step method for a stationary ENose with a novel structure to detect the direction of adynamic source is presented in this paper. The method uses the ratio of measuredconcentration from different sensors (Cn /C1 where n=2, 4 as a discriminator. In addition,this method could easily be adapted to robotics as an optimized algorithm for path trackingto a source location. The paper presents the results of a simulation of the method.

  12. Development of an electronic nose sensing platform for undergraduate education in nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Daniel V; Burek, Michael J; Iutzi, Ryan M; Mracek, James A; Hesjedal, Thorsten, E-mail: thesjeda@uwaterloo.ca [Nanotechnology Engineering Program and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    The teaching of the different aspects of a sensor system, with a focus on the involved nanotechnology, is a challenging, yet important task. We present the development of an electronic nose system that utilizes a nanoscale amperometric sensing mechanism for gas mixtures. The fabrication of the system makes use of a basic microfabrication facility, as well as an undergraduate chemistry laboratory for material synthesis and preparation. The sensing device consists of an array of cross-reactive sensors composed of metal-oxide semiconducting nanoparticles. Each sensor in the array produces a unique response in the presence of a target gas, allowing the sensor to determine the identity and concentration of multiple gases in a mixture. The educational aspects include microheater simulation and fabrication, design and fabrication of interdigitated electrodes, development of interfacing circuitry and software, development and calibration of a sensory array, sol-gel processing of nanoparticle films and their characterization, and details of the fundamental chemical sensing mechanism.

  13. Molecular modeling of interactions in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding analyte interactions with sensors made from polymer-carbon black composite films. The sensors are used in an Electronic Nose (ENose) which is used for monitoring the breathing air quality in human habitats. The model mimics the experimental conditions of the composite film deposition and formation and was developed using molecular modeling and simulation tools. The Dreiding 2.21 Force Field was used for the polymer and analyte molecules while graphite parameters were assigned to the carbon black atoms. The polymer considered for this work is methyl vinyl ether / maleic acid copolymer. The target analytes include both inorganic (NH3) and organic (methanol) types of compound. Results indicate different composite-analyte interaction behavior.

  14. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  15. Calibration transfer between electronic nose systems for rapid In situ measurement of pulp and paper industry emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Sharvari [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering and Research Institute, Nagpur (India); Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Kamde, Kalyani [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering and Research Institute, Nagpur (India); Jana, Arun [Center for Development of Advance Computing, Kolkata (India); Korde, Sanjivani [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering and Research Institute, Nagpur (India); Bandyopadhyay, Rajib [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Sankar, Ravi [Center for Development of Advance Computing, Kolkata (India); Bhattacharyya, Nabarun, E-mail: nabarun.bhattacharya@cdac.in [Center for Development of Advance Computing, Kolkata (India); Pandey, R.A., E-mail: ra_pandey@neeri.res.in [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering and Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • E-nose developed for obnoxious emissions measurement at pulp and paper industrial site. • ANN model developed for prediction of (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}S, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}S{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}SH and H{sub 2}S concentration. • Calibration transfer methodology developed for transfer between two e-nose instruments. • Box–Behnken design and robust regression used for calibration transfer. • Results show effective transfer of training model from one e-nose system to other. - Abstract: Electronic nose systems when deployed in network mesh can effectively provide a low budget and onsite solution for the industrial obnoxious gaseous measurement. For accurate and identical prediction capability by all the electronic nose systems, a reliable calibration transfer model needs to be implemented in order to overcome the inherent sensor array variability. In this work, robust regression (RR) is used for calibration transfer between two electronic nose systems using a Box–Behnken (BB) design. Out of the two electronic nose systems, one was trained using industrial gas samples by four artificial neural network models, for the measurement of obnoxious odours emitted from pulp and paper industries. The emissions constitute mainly of hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) in different proportions. A Box–Behnken design consisting of 27 experiment sets based on synthetic gas combinations of H{sub 2}S, MM, DMS and DMDS, were conducted for calibration transfer between two identical electronic nose systems. Identical sensors on both the systems were mapped and the prediction models developed using ANN were then transferred to the second system using BB–RR methodology. The results showed successful transmission of prediction models developed for one system to other system, with the mean absolute error between the actual and predicted concentration of analytes in mg L{sup −1} after calibration

  16. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose

  17. ``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''

    Science.gov (United States)

    na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-05-01

    In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

  18. Ultra-Low-Power Smart Electronic Nose System Based on Three-Dimensional Tin Oxide Nanotube Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Chen, Zhuo; Boussaid, Farid; Zhang, Daquan; Pan, Xiaofang; Zhao, Huijuan; Bermak, Amine; Tsui, Chi-Ying; Wang, Xinran; Fan, Zhiyong

    2018-06-04

    In this work, we present a high-performance smart electronic nose (E-nose) system consisting of a multiplexed tin oxide (SnO 2 ) nanotube sensor array, read-out circuit, wireless data transmission unit, mobile phone receiver, and data processing application (App). Using the designed nanotube sensor device structure in conjunction with multiple electrode materials, high-sensitivity gas detection and discrimination have been achieved at room temperature, enabling a 1000 times reduction of the sensor's power consumption as compared to a conventional device using thin film SnO 2 . The experimental results demonstrate that the developed E-nose can identify indoor target gases using a simple vector-matching gas recognition algorithm. In addition, the fabricated E-nose has achieved state-of-the-art sensitivity for H 2 and benzene detection at room temperature with metal oxide sensors. Such a smart E-nose system can address the imperative needs for distributed environmental monitoring in smart homes, smart buildings, and smart cities.

  19. Is it possible to rapidly and noninvasively identify different plants from Asteraceae using electronic nose with multiple mathematical algorithms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many plants originating from the Asteraceae family are applied as herbal medicines and also beverage ingredients in Asian areas, particularly in China. However, they may be confused due to their similar odor, especially when ground into powder, losing their typical macroscopic characteristics. In this paper, 11 different multiple mathematical algorithms, which are commonly used in data processing, were utilized and compared to analyze the electronic nose (E-nose response signals of different plants from Asteraceae family. Results demonstrate that three-dimensional plot scatter figure of principal component analysis with less extracted components could offer the identification results more visually; simultaneously, all nine kinds of artificial neural network could give classification accuracies at 100%. This paper presents a rapid, accurate, and effective method to distinguish Asteraceae plants based on their response signals in E-nose. It also gives insights to further studies, such as to find unique sensors that are more sensitive and exclusive to volatile components in Chinese herbal medicines and to improve the identification ability of E-nose. Screening sensors made by other novel materials would be also an interesting way to improve identification capability of E-nose.

  20. Rapid and accurate detection of urinary pathogens by mobile IMS-based electronic nose: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roine, Antti; Saviauk, Taavi; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Karjalainen, Markus; Tuokko, Antti; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Lekkala, Jukka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tammela, Teuvo L; Oksala, Niku K J

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose) is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) -based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR). The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures. These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI.

  1. Rapid and accurate detection of urinary pathogens by mobile IMS-based electronic nose: a proof-of-principle study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Roine

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS -based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA and logistic regression (LR. The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures.These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI.

  2. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao, E-mail: qh-meng@tju.edu.cn; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-05-15

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively.

  3. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen

    2014-01-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively

  4. A Novel Method for the Discrimination of Semen Arecae and Its Processed Products by Using Computer Vision, Electronic Nose, and Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut, commonly known locally as Semen Arecae (SA in China, has been used as an important Chinese herbal medicine for thousands of years. The raw SA (RAW is commonly processed by stir-baking to yellow (SBY, stir-baking to dark brown (SBD, and stir-baking to carbon dark (SBC for different clinical uses. In our present investigation, intelligent sensory technologies consisting of computer vision (CV, electronic nose (E-nose, and electronic tongue (E-tongue were employed in order to develop a novel and accurate method for discrimination of SA and its processed products. Firstly, the color parameters and electronic sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue of the samples were determined, respectively. Then, indicative components including 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF and arecoline (ARE were determined by HPLC. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant factor analysis (DFA were performed. The results demonstrated that these three instruments can effectively discriminate SA and its processed products. 5-HMF and ARE can reflect the stir-baking degree of SA. Interestingly, the two components showed close correlations to the color parameters and sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue. In conclusion, this novel method based on CV, E-nose, and E-tongue can be successfully used to discriminate SA and its processed products.

  5. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, Amalia Z., E-mail: Amalia.Berna@csiro.au [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trowell, Stephen [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Clifford, David [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, Locked Bag 17, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel [The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Road, Urrbrae, PO Box 197, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2009-08-26

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  6. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Trowell, Stephen; Clifford, David; Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  7. Pattern Classification Using an Olfactory Model with PCA Feature Selection in Electronic Noses: Study and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Zheng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically-inspired models and algorithms are considered as promising sensor array signal processing methods for electronic noses. Feature selection is one of the most important issues for developing robust pattern recognition models in machine learning. This paper describes an investigation into the classification performance of a bionic olfactory model with the increase of the dimensions of input feature vector (outer factor as well as its parallel channels (inner factor. The principal component analysis technique was applied for feature selection and dimension reduction. Two data sets of three classes of wine derived from different cultivars and five classes of green tea derived from five different provinces of China were used for experiments. In the former case the results showed that the average correct classification rate increased as more principal components were put in to feature vector. In the latter case the results showed that sufficient parallel channels should be reserved in the model to avoid pattern space crowding. We concluded that 6~8 channels of the model with principal component feature vector values of at least 90% cumulative variance is adequate for a classification task of 3~5 pattern classes considering the trade-off between time consumption and classification rate.

  8. Molecular modeling of polymer composite-analyte interactions in electronic nose sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to investigate the polymer-carbon black (CB) composite-analyte interactions in resistive sensors. These sensors comprise the JPL electronic nose (ENose) sensing array developed for monitoring breathing air in human habitats. The polymer in the composite is modeled based on its stereoisomerism and sequence isomerism, while the CB is modeled as uncharged naphthalene rings with no hydrogens. The Dreiding 2.21 force field is used for the polymer, solvent molecules and graphite parameters are assigned to the carbon black atoms. A combination of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (NPT-MD and NVT-MD) techniques are used to obtain the equilibrium composite structure by inserting naphthalene rings in the polymer matrix. Polymers considered for this work include poly(4-vinylphenol), polyethylene oxide, and ethyl cellulose. Analytes studied are representative of both inorganic and organic compounds. The results are analyzed for the composite microstructure by calculating the radial distribution profiles as well as for the sensor response by predicting the interaction energies of the analytes with the composites. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins). Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS 835 ) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

  10. Identification by microscopy and MS-based electronic nose of a fraudulent addition to maize gluten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frick G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical and chemometric methods have been used to detect falsified maize gluten products. Microscopic observations (numerous starch grains, seed envelopes and wheat bran fragments clearly showed the presence of atypical maize gluten particles in samples with otherwise normal crude protein levels (≥ 60% and the usual gold-yellow color. Chemical analyses in a few samples confirmed the presence of urea (19 to 174 g.kg-1, melamine (0 to 20 g.kg-1, and cyanuric acid (0 to 10 g.kg-1 coping for the low levels of methionine (0 to 13 g.kg-1 in incriminated products (genuine maize gluten methionine level ≥ 16 g.kg-1. Furthermore, a fast technique (an electronic nose based on mass spectrometry detection also proved to be reliable for the identification of falsified maize gluten products: 100% correct classification of model and unknown samples was achieved with principal component analysis. As a consequence of these results, the Swiss feed-inspection authority blocked the import, or restricted the use, of 2,500 tons of the falsified products.

  11. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  12. Rapid identification of pork for halal authentication using the electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjuliana, M; Che Man, Y B; Mat Hashim, D; Mohamed, A K S

    2011-08-01

    The volatile compounds of pork, other meats and meat products were studied using an electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer (GCMS-HS) for halal verification. The zNose™ was successfully employed for identification and differentiation of pork and pork sausages from beef, mutton and chicken meats and sausages which were achieved using a visual odor pattern called VaporPrint™, derived from the frequency of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector of the electronic nose. GCMS-HS was employed to separate and analyze the headspace gasses from samples into peaks corresponding to individual compounds for the purpose of identification. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for data interpretation. Analysis by PCA was able to cluster and discriminate pork from other types of meats and sausages. It was shown that PCA could provide a good separation of the samples with 67% of the total variance accounted by PC1. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Close-To-Practice Assessment Of Meat Freshness With Metal Oxide Sensor Microarray Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Sysoev, V. V.; Sommer, M.; Kiselev, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we estimate the ability of KAMINA e-nose, based on a metal oxide sensor (MOS) microarray and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) pattern recognition, to evaluate meat freshness. The received results show that, 1) one or two exposures of standard meat samples to the e-nose are enough for the instrument to recognize the fresh meat prepared by the same supplier with 100% probability; 2) the meat samples of two kinds, stored at 4 deg. C and 25 deg. C, are mutually recognized at early stages of decay with the help of the LDA model built independently under the e-nose training to each kind of meat; 3) the 3-4 training cycles of exposure to meat from different suppliers are necessary for the e-nose to build a reliable LDA model accounting for the supplier factor. This study approves that the MOS e-nose is ready to be currently utilised in food industry for evaluation of product freshness. The e-nose performance is characterized by low training cost, a confident recognition power of various product decay conditions and easy adjustment to changing conditions.

  15. The Detection of Patients at Risk of Gastrointestinal Toxicity during Pelvic Radiotherapy by Electronic Nose and FAIMS: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, James A.; Wedlake, Linda; Andreyev, Jervoise; Ouaret, Nathalie; Thomas, Matthew G.; Nwokolo, Chuka U.; Bardhan, Karna D.; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the electronic nose can be used to identify differences between human health and disease for a range of disorders. We present a pilot study to investigate if the electronic nose and a newer technology, FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry), can be used to identify and help inform the treatment pathway for patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy, which frequently causes gastrointestinal side-effects, severe in some. From a larger group, 23 radiotherapy patients were selected where half had the highest levels of toxicity and the others the lowest. Stool samples were obtained before and four weeks after radiotherapy and the volatiles and gases emitted analysed by both methods; these chemicals are products of fermentation caused by gut microflora. Principal component analysis of the electronic nose data and wavelet transform followed by Fisher discriminant analysis of FAIMS data indicated that it was possible to separate patients after treatment by their toxicity levels. More interestingly, differences were also identified in their pre-treatment samples. We believe these patterns arise from differences in gut microflora where some combinations of bacteria result to give this olfactory signature. In the future our approach may result in a technique that will help identify patients at “high risk” even before radiation treatment is started. PMID:23201982

  16. The Detection of Patients at Risk of Gastrointestinal Toxicity during Pelvic Radiotherapy by Electronic Nose and FAIMS: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh P. Arasaradnam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the electronic nose can be used to identify differences between human health and disease for a range of disorders. We present a pilot study to investigate if the electronic nose and a newer technology, FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry, can be used to identify and help inform the treatment pathway for patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy, which frequently causes gastrointestinal side-effects, severe in some. From a larger group, 23 radiotherapy patients were selected where half had the highest levels of toxicity and the others the lowest. Stool samples were obtained before and four weeks after radiotherapy and the volatiles and gases emitted analysed by both methods; these chemicals are products of fermentation caused by gut microflora. Principal component analysis of the electronic nose data and wavelet transform followed by Fisher discriminant analysis of FAIMS data indicated that it was possible to separate patients after treatment by their toxicity levels. More interestingly, differences were also identified in their pre-treatment samples. We believe these patterns arise from differences in gut microflora where some combinations of bacteria result to give this olfactory signature. In the future our approach may result in a technique that will help identify patients at “high risk” even before radiation treatment is started.

  17. Detection and quantification of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in barley grains by GC-MS and electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, J; Börjesson, T; Lundstedt, T; Schnürer, J

    2002-02-05

    Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains can be detected and quantified using complex extraction procedures and analytical techniques. Normally, the grain odour, i.e. the presence of non-grain volatile metabolites, is used for quality classification of grain. We have investigated the possibility of using fungal volatile metabolites as indicators of mycotoxins in grain. Ten barley samples with normal odour, and 30 with some kind of off-odour were selected from Swedish granaries. The samples were evaluated with regard to moisture content, fungal contamination, ergosterol content, and levels of ochratoxin A (OA) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Volatile compounds were also analysed using both an electronic nose and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples with normal odour had no detectable ochratoxin A and average DON contents of 16 microg kg(-1) (range 0-80), while samples with off-odour had average OA contents of 76 microg kg(-1) (range 0-934) and DON contents of 69 microg kg(-1) (range 0-857). Data were evaluated by multivariate data analysis using projection methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). The results show that it was possible to classify the OA level as below or above the maximum limit of 5 microg kg(-1) cereal grain established by the Swedish National Food Administration, and that the DON level could be estimated using PLS. Samples with OA levels below 5 microg kg(-1) had higher concentration of aldehydes (nonanal, 2-hexenal) and alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, 1-octanol). Samples with OA levels above 5 microg kg(-1) had higher concentrations of ketones (2-hexanone, 3-octanone). The GC-MS system predicted OA concentrations with a higher accuracy than the electronic nose, since the GC-MS misclassified only 3 of 37 samples and the electronic nose 7 of 37 samples. No correlation was found between odour and OA level, as samples with pronounced or strong off-odours had OA levels both below and above 5

  18. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chun Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (E-Nose is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm2. The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively.

  19. Sensory methods and electronic nose as innovative tools for the evaluation of the aroma transfer properties of food plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Piochi, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Despite the key role of the sensory quality for food acceptance, the aroma transfer properties of food packaging materials have not yet been studied using sensory approaches. This research investigated the suitability of sensory and electronic nose methods to evaluate the aroma transfer properties of plastic materials that come in contact with food. Four (W, X, Y, and Z) commercial freezer bags (polyethylene) for domestic uses were compared. The degree of the aroma transfer through the materials was estimated as the sensory contamination of an odor absorber food (bread) by an odor releaser food (onion), separated by the bags and stored under frozen conditions. Bread samples were analyzed by means of an electronic nose, and 42 assessors used three different sensory methods (triangle, scoring, and partial sorted Napping tests). From the triangle test, none of the plastic bags acted as a complete aroma barrier, showing a sensory contamination of bread stored in all four materials. Partial sorting Napping results clearly described the sensory contamination of bread as "onion flavor", due to the aroma transfer from the odor releaser food to the odor absorber food through the plastic bag. Scoring tests showed significant (pbags, revealing the highest aroma permeation for W (3.1±0.1), the lowest aroma transfer for X and Y (2.0±0.1), and intermediate aroma transfer properties for Z (2.6±0.1). Electronic nose data were in good agreement with the sensory responses, and a high correlation with the scoring data was observed (R 2 =0.988). The presented approaches had suitable results to provide meaningful information on the aroma transfer properties of freezer plastic bags, and could advantageously be applied in the future for analyzing other finished food containers (e.g. plastic trays, boxes, etc.) or packaging materials of a different nature (multilayer plastic films, biodegradable materials, composites, etc.). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Odor Profile of Different Varieties of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil During Deep Frying Using an Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Valeria; Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana; Descalzo, Adriana; Grigioni, Gabriela; de Reca, Noemí Walsöe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the performed work was to evaluate with an electronic nose changes in odor profile of Arauco and Arbequina varieties of extra-virgin olive oil during deep-frying. Changes in odor were analyzed using an electronic nose composed of 16 sensors. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-FID. Principal Component Analysis was applied for electronic results. Arauco variety showed the highest response for sensors. Statistical analysis for volatile compounds indicated a significant (P<0.001) interaction between variety and time of frying processes. Arauco variety showed the highest production of volatile compounds at 60 min of deep frying. The two varieties presented distinct patterns of volatile products, being clearly identified with the electronic nose.

  1. Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Siavash; Sagar, Nidhi M; Kyrou, Ioannis; Mozdiak, Ella; O'Connell, Nicola; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna D; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; Covington, James A

    2016-01-25

    The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One technology that is showing promise for analyzing these gas-phase biomarkers is the electronic nose--an instrument designed to replicate the biological olfactory system. Of the possible biological media available to "sniff", urine is becoming ever more important as it is easy to collect and to store for batch testing. However, this raises the question of sample storage shelf-life, even at -80 °C. Here we investigated the effect of storage time (years) on stability and reproducibility of total gas/vapour emissions from urine samples. Urine samples from 87 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were collected over a four-year period and stored at -80 °C. These samples were then analyzed using FAIMS (field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry--a type of electronic nose). It was discovered that gas emissions (concentration and diversity) reduced over time. However, there was less variation in the initial nine months of storage with greater uniformity and stability of concentrations together with tighter clustering of the total number of chemicals released. This suggests that nine months could be considered a general guide to a sample shelf-life.

  2. Quality-grade evaluation of petroleum waxes using an electronic nose with a TGS gas sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ji; Gao, Daqi; Wang, Zejian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the potential of an improved electronic nose to discriminate the quality of petroleum waxes based on their volatile profile was analyzed. Two datasets at 25 and 50 °C were collected from an experiment in order to compare influence by temperature. More fine-grained levels were further labeled for classification to meet various purposes. As petroleum waxes with lower odor levels are more difficult and important to identify than those with higher odor levels, we focus on the discrimination task for low-level ones. Principal component analysis was used for dimensionality reduction and data visualization. k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine, and multilayer perceptron were employed to classify among different qualities of petroleum waxes. The leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed due to the small sample sizes. Results showed good performance on both datasets, and at a temperature of 50 °C all pattern recognition methods showed improved classification rates. The improved electronic nose can potentially be applied to discriminate the quality of petroleum wax. (paper)

  3. Classification of Tempranillo wines according to geographic origin: Combination of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynkar, Wies, E-mail: wies.cynkar@awri.com.au [Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Dambergs, Robert [Australian Wine Research Institute, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Smith, Paul; Cozzolino, Daniel [Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Rapid methods employing instruments such as electronic noses (EN) or gas sensors are used in the food and beverage industries to monitor and assess the composition and quality of products. Similar to other food industries, the wine industry has a clear need for simple, rapid and cost effective techniques for objectively evaluating the quality of grapes, wine and spirits. In this study a mass spectrometry based electronic nose (MS-EN) instrument combined with chemometrics was used to predict the geographical origin of Tempranillo wines produced in Australia and Spain. The MS-EN data generated were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) with full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The SLDA classified correctly 86% of the samples while PLS-DA 85% of Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. The relative benefits of using MS-EN will provide capability for rapid screening of wines. However, this technique does not provide the identification and quantitative determination of individual compounds responsible for the different aroma notes in the wine.

  4. Both gas chromatography and an electronic nose reflect chemical polymorphism of juniper shrubs browsed or avoided by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, Gábor; Novák, Ildikó; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2011-07-01

    Chemical polymorphism may contribute to variation in browsing damage by mammalian herbivores. Earlier, we demonstrated that essential oil concentration in juniper, Juniperus communis, was negatively associated with herbivore browsing. The aim of the present study was to characterize the volatile chemical composition of browsed and non-browsed J. communis. By using either gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) or an electronic nose device, we could separate sheep-browsed or non-browsed juniper shrubs by their essential oil pattern and complex odor matrix. The main components of the essential oil from J. communis were monoterpenes. We distinguished three chemotypes, dominated either by α-pinene, sabinene, or δ-3-carene. Shrubs belonging to the α-pinene- or sabinene-dominated groups were browsed, whereas all individuals with the δ-3-carene chemotype were unused by the local herbivores. The electronic nose also separated the browsed and non-browsed shrubs indicating that their odor matrix could guide sheep browsing. Responses of sheep could integrate the post-ingestive effects of plant secondary metabolites with sensory experience that stems from odor-phytotoxin interactions. Chemotype diversity could increase the survival rate in the present population of J. communis as certain shrubs could benefit from relatively better chemical protection against the herbivores.

  5. Classification of Tempranillo wines according to geographic origin: Combination of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cynkar, Wies; Dambergs, Robert; Smith, Paul; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Rapid methods employing instruments such as electronic noses (EN) or gas sensors are used in the food and beverage industries to monitor and assess the composition and quality of products. Similar to other food industries, the wine industry has a clear need for simple, rapid and cost effective techniques for objectively evaluating the quality of grapes, wine and spirits. In this study a mass spectrometry based electronic nose (MS-EN) instrument combined with chemometrics was used to predict the geographical origin of Tempranillo wines produced in Australia and Spain. The MS-EN data generated were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) with full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The SLDA classified correctly 86% of the samples while PLS-DA 85% of Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. The relative benefits of using MS-EN will provide capability for rapid screening of wines. However, this technique does not provide the identification and quantitative determination of individual compounds responsible for the different aroma notes in the wine.

  6. Discrimination of volatiles of refined and whole wheat bread containing red and white wheat bran using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapirstein, Harry D; Siddhu, Silvi; Aliani, Michel

    2012-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of electronic (E) nose technology to discriminate refined and whole wheat bread made with white or red wheat bran according to their headspace volatiles. Whole wheat flour was formulated with a common refined flour from hard red spring wheat, blended at the 15% replacement level with bran milled from representative samples of one hard red and 2 hard white wheats. A commercial formula was used for breadmaking. Results varied according to the nature of the sample, that is, crust, crumb, or whole slices. Bread crust and crumb were completely discriminated. Crumb of whole wheat bread made with red bran was distinct from other bread types. When misclassified, whole wheat bread crumb with white bran was almost invariably identified as refined flour bread crumb. Using crust as the basis for comparisons, the largest difference in volatiles was between refined flour bread and whole wheat bread as a group. When refined flour bread crust was misclassified, samples tended to be confused with whole white wheat crust. Samples prepared from whole bread slices were poorly discriminated in general. E-nose results indicated that whole wheat bread formulated with white bran was more similar in volatile makeup to refined flour bread compared to whole wheat bread made with red bran. The E-nose appears to be very capable to accommodate differentiation of bread volatiles whose composition varies due to differences in flour or bran type. Consumer preference of bread made using refined flour in contrast to whole wheat flour is partly due to the different aroma of whole wheat bread. This study used an electronic nose to analyze bread volatiles, and showed that whole wheat bread incorporating white bran was different from counterpart bread made using red bran, and was closer in volatile makeup to "white" bread made without bran. Commercial millers and bakers can take advantage of these results to formulate whole wheat flour

  7. Thermo-oxidation in Arauco and Arbequina Extra-virgin Olive Oil. Changes in Odour using and Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Messina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in odour of Arauco and Arbequina extra-virgin olive oil were monitored during frying by electronic nose and solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography methodologies. Electronic nose data and volatile compounds were analyzed at intervals of 60 min (t60 during 180 min of frying (t180. Principal components analysis applied to electronic nose data showed one component, PC1 which accounted 96.3 % of the total odour variation. SnO2 sensors had a positive correlation with PC1. Arauco variety corresponding to frying t120 and t180 had the highest positive correlation with PC1. Analysis of variance results for volatile compounds showed an increase on production for: 3-methyl butanal, n-pentanal, n-hexanal, n-heptanal and n-nonanal at 60 min of frying for both varieties.

  8. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  9. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

    2013-11-15

    This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Volatile aroma components and MS-based electronic nose profiles of dogfruit (Pithecellobium jiringa and stink bean (Parkia speciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonathan Asikin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogfruit (Pithecellobium jiringa and stink bean (Parkia speciosa are two typical smelly legumes from Southeast Asia that are widely used in the cuisines of this region. Headspace/gas chromatography/flame ionization detection analysis and mass spectrometry (MS-based electronic nose techniques were applied to monitor ripening changes in the volatile flavor profiles of dogfruit and stink bean. Compositional analysis showed that the ripening process greatly influenced the composition and content of the volatile aroma profiles of these two smelly food materials, particularly their alcohol, aldehyde, and sulfur components. The quantity of predominant hexanal in stink bean significantly declined (P < 0.05 during the ripening process, whereas the major volatile components of dogfruit changed from 3-methylbutanal and methanol in the unripe state to acetaldehyde and ethanol in the ripe bean. Moreover, the amount of the typical volatile flavor compound 1,2,4-trithiolane significantly increased (P < 0.05 in both ripened dogfruit and stink bean from 1.70 and 0.93%, to relative amounts of 19.97 and 13.66%, respectively. MS-based nose profiling gave further detailed differentiation of the volatile profiles of dogfruit and stink bean of various ripening stages through multivariate statistical analysis, and provided discriminant ion masses, such as m/z 41, 43, 58, 78, and 124, as valuable “digital fingerprint” dataset that can be used for fast flavor monitoring of smelly food resources.

  11. SU-F-T-81: Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, L; Fan, J; Eldib, A; Price, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Treating nose skin with an electron beam is of a substantial challenge due to uneven nose surfaces and tissue heterogeneity, and consequently could have a great uncertainty of dose accuracy on the target. This work explored the method using Monte Carlo (MC)-based energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), which would be delivered with a photon MLC in a standard medical linac (Artiste). Methods: The traditional treatment on the nose skin involves the usage of a bolus, often with a single energy electron beam. This work avoided using the bolus, and utilized mixed energies of electron beams. An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. A clinical case of the nose skin, which was previously treated with a single 9 MeV electron beam, was replanned with the MERT method. The resultant dose distributions were compared with the plan previously clinically used. The dose volume histogram of the MERT plan is calculated to examine the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) and critical structure doses. Results: The target coverage and conformality in the MERT plan are improved as compared to the conventional plan. The MERT can provide more sufficient target coverage and less normal tissue dose underneath the nose skin. Conclusion: Compared to the conventional treatment technique, using MERT for the nose skin treatment has shown the dosimetric advantages in the PTV coverage and conformality. In addition, this technique eliminates the necessity of the cutout and bolus, which makes the treatment more efficient and accurate.

  12. Improved algorithms for the classification of rough rice using a bionic electronic nose based on PCA and the Wilks distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin

    2014-03-19

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks Λ-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the Wilks distribution). The improved algorithms, which combine regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, were developed after analysing the functionality and defects of PCA. Verification tests were conducted using a PEN3 electronic nose. The collected samples consisted of the volatiles of six varieties of rough rice (Zhongxiang1, Xiangwan13, Yaopingxiang, WufengyouT025, Pin 36, and Youyou122), grown in same area and season. The first two principal components used as analysis vectors cannot perform the rough rice varieties classification task based on a regular PCA. Using the improved algorithms, which combine the regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, many different principal components were selected as analysis vectors. The set of data points of the Mahalanobis distance between each of the varieties of rough rice was selected to estimate the performance of the classification. The result illustrates that the rough rice varieties classification task is achieved well using the improved algorithm. A Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) was also established to test the effectiveness of the improved algorithms. The first two principal components (namely PC1 and PC2) and the first and fifth principal component (namely PC1 and PC5) were selected as the inputs of PNN for the classification of the six rough rice varieties. The results indicate that the classification accuracy based on the improved algorithm was improved by 6.67% compared to the results of the regular method. These results prove the effectiveness of using the Wilks Λ-statistic to improve the classification accuracy of the regular PCA approach. The results

  13. Mining Data of Noisy Signal Patterns in Recognition of Gasoline Bio-Based Additives using Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osowski Stanisław

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the distorted data of an electronic nose in recognizing the gasoline bio-based additives. Different tools of data mining, such as the methods of data clustering, principal component analysis, wavelet transformation, support vector machine and random forest of decision trees are applied. A special stress is put on the robustness of signal processing systems to the noise distorting the registered sensor signals. A special denoising procedure based on application of discrete wavelet transformation has been proposed. This procedure enables to reduce the error rate of recognition in a significant way. The numerical results of experiments devoted to the recognition of different blends of gasoline have shown the superiority of support vector machine in a noisy environment of measurement.

  14. Rapid direct analysis to discriminate geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils by flash gas chromatography electronic nose and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Bendini, Alessandra; Tesini, Federica; Barbieri, Sara; Zappi, Alessandro; Vichi, Stefania; Conte, Lanfranco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-08-01

    At present, the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils can be ensured by documented traceability, although chemical analysis may add information that is useful for possible confirmation. This preliminary study investigated the effectiveness of flash gas chromatography electronic nose and multivariate data analysis to perform rapid screening of commercial extra virgin olive oils characterized by a different geographical origin declared in the label. A comparison with solid phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was also performed. The new method is suitable to verify the geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils based on principal components analysis and discriminant analysis applied to the volatile profile of the headspace as a fingerprint. The selected variables were suitable in discriminating between "100% Italian" and "non-100% Italian" oils. Partial least squares discriminant analysis also allowed prediction of the degree of membership of unknown samples to the classes examined. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Characterization of Volatile Compounds in Chilled Cod (Gadus morhua) fillets by gas chromatography and detection of quality indicators by an electronic nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Jonsdottir, R.; Lauzon, H.L.; Luten, J.B.; Kristbergsson, K.

    2005-01-01

    Volatile compounds in cod fillets packed in Styrofoam boxes were analyzed during chilled storage (0.5 C) by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry to screen potential quality indicators present in concentrations high enough for detection by an electronic nose. Photobacterium

  16. Predicting bat colony survival under controls targeting multiple transmission routes of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A D; Stevens, D F; Blackwood, J C

    2016-11-21

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a lethal infection of bats caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Since the first cases of WNS were documented in 2006, it is estimated that as many as 5.5million bats have succumbed in the United States-one of the fastest mammalian die-offs due to disease ever observed, and the first known sustained epizootic of bats. WNS is contagious between bats, and mounting evidence suggests that a persistent environmental reservoir of Pd plays a significant role in transmission as well. It is unclear, however, the relative contributions of bat-to-bat and environment-to-bat transmission to disease propagation within a colony. We analyze a mathematical model to investigate the consequences of both avenues of transmission on colony survival in addition to the efficacy of disease control strategies. Our model shows that selection of the most effective control strategies is highly dependent on the primary route of WNS transmission. Under all scenarios, however, generalized culling is ineffective and while targeted culling of infected bats may be effective under idealized conditions, it primarily has negative consequences. Thus, understanding the significance of environment-to-bat transmission is paramount to designing effective management plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronically Controlled Resistor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Walter L.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance quickly varied in small steps over wide range. Device with no moving parts provides variable electrical resistance. Used with analog or digital circuity to provide electronic selection of large number of resistance values for testing, simulation, control, or other purposes. Nearest electromechanical equivalent of all-electronic device is potentiometer driven by servomotor.

  18. Advanced methods for teaching electronic-nose technologies to diagnosticians and clinical laboratory technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Electronic-detection technologies and instruments increasingly are being utilized in the biomedical field to perform a wide variety of clinical operations and laboratory analyses to facilitate the delivery of health care to patients. The introduction of improved electronic instruments for diagnosing diseases and for administering treatments has required new training of...

  19. Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Esfahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One technology that is showing promise for analyzing these gas-phase biomarkers is the electronic nose—an instrument designed to replicate the biological olfactory system. Of the possible biological media available to “sniff”, urine is becoming ever more important as it is easy to collect and to store for batch testing. However, this raises the question of sample storage shelf-life, even at −80 °C. Here we investigated the effect of storage time (years on stability and reproducibility of total gas/vapour emissions from urine samples. Urine samples from 87 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were collected over a four-year period and stored at −80 °C. These samples were then analyzed using FAIMS (field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry—a type of electronic nose. It was discovered that gas emissions (concentration and diversity reduced over time. However, there was less variation in the initial nine months of storage with greater uniformity and stability of concentrations together with tighter clustering of the total number of chemicals released. This suggests that nine months could be considered a general guide to a sample shelf-life.

  20. Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Siavash; Sagar, Nidhi M.; Kyrou, Ioannis; Mozdiak, Ella; O’Connell, Nicola; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna D.; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P.; Covington, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One technology that is showing promise for analyzing these gas-phase biomarkers is the electronic nose—an instrument designed to replicate the biological olfactory system. Of the possible biological media available to “sniff”, urine is becoming ever more important as it is easy to collect and to store for batch testing. However, this raises the question of sample storage shelf-life, even at −80 °C. Here we investigated the effect of storage time (years) on stability and reproducibility of total gas/vapour emissions from urine samples. Urine samples from 87 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were collected over a four-year period and stored at −80 °C. These samples were then analyzed using FAIMS (field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry—a type of electronic nose). It was discovered that gas emissions (concentration and diversity) reduced over time. However, there was less variation in the initial nine months of storage with greater uniformity and stability of concentrations together with tighter clustering of the total number of chemicals released. This suggests that nine months could be considered a general guide to a sample shelf-life. PMID:26821055

  1. Discrimination and characterization of strawberry juice based on electronic nose and tongue: comparison of different juice processing approaches by LDA, PLSR, RF, and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun; Gao, Liping

    2014-07-09

    An electronic nose (E-nose) and an electronic tongue (E-tongue) have been used to characterize five types of strawberry juices based on processing approaches (i.e., microwave pasteurization, steam blanching, high temperature short time pasteurization, frozen-thawed, and freshly squeezed). Juice quality parameters (vitamin C, pH, total soluble solid, total acid, and sugar/acid ratio) were detected by traditional measuring methods. Multivariate statistical methods (linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR)) and neural networks (Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines) were employed to qualitative classification and quantitative regression. E-tongue system reached higher accuracy rates than E-nose did, and the simultaneous utilization did have an advantage in LDA classification and PLSR regression. According to cross-validation, RF has shown outstanding and indisputable performances in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. This work indicates that the simultaneous utilization of E-nose and E-tongue can discriminate processed fruit juices and predict quality parameters successfully for the beverage industry.

  2. SU-E-T-632: Preliminary Study On Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, L; Eldib, A; Li, J; Price, R; Ma, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Uneven nose surfaces and air cavities underneath and the use of bolus present complexity and dose uncertainty when using a single electron energy beam to plan treatments of nose skin with a pencil beam-based planning system. This work demonstrates more accurate dose calculation and more optimal planning using energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) delivered with a pMLC. Methods: An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. Our previous work demonstrates good agreement in percentage depth dose and off-axis dose between calculations and film measurement for various field sizes. A MERT plan was generated for treating the nose skin using a patient geometry and a dose volume histogram (DVH) was obtained. The work also shows the comparison of 2D dose distributions between a clinically used conventional single electron energy plan and the MERT plan. Results: The MERT plan resulted in improved target dose coverage as compared to the conventional plan, which demonstrated a target dose deficit at the field edge. The conventional plan showed higher dose normal tissue irradiation underneath the nose skin while the MERT plan resulted in improved conformity and thus reduces normal tissue dose. Conclusion: This preliminary work illustrates that MC-based MERT planning is a promising technique in treating nose skin, not only providing more accurate dose calculation, but also offering an improved target dose coverage and conformity. In addition, this technique may eliminate the necessity of bolus, which often produces dose delivery uncertainty due to the air gaps that may exist between the bolus and skin

  3. Theoretical and practical considerations for teaching diagnostic electronic-nose technologies to clinical laboratory technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of new electronic technologies and instruments, utilized to perform many current clinical operations in the biomedical field, is changing the way medical health care is delivered to patients. The majority of test results from laboratory analyses, performed with these analytical instruments often prior to clinical examinations, are frequently used...

  4. Analyzing the flavor compounds in Chinese traditional fermented shrimp pastes by HS-SPME-GC/MS and electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Hou, Hu; Xue, Changhu

    2017-04-01

    Shrimp paste is a type of condiments with high nutritional value. However, the flavors of shrimp paste, particularly the non-uniformity flavors, have limited its application in food processing. In order to identify the characteristic flavor compounds in Chinese traditional shrimp pastes, five kinds of typical commercial products were evaluated in this study. The differences in the volatile composition of the five products were investigated. Solid phase micro-extraction method was employed to extract the volatile compounds. GC-MS and electronic nose were applied to identify the compounds, and the data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 62 volatile compounds were identified, including 8 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 7 ethers, 7 acids, 3 esters, 6 hydrocarbons, 12 pyrazines, 2 phenols, and 7 other compounds. The typical volatile compounds contributing to the flavor of shrimp paste were found as follows: dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl tetrasulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethyl pyrazine, ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl-pyrazine, phenol and indole. Propanoic acid, butanoic acid, furans, and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone caused unpleasant odors, such as pungent and rancid odors. Principal component analysis showed that the content of volatile compounds varied depending on the processing conditions and shrimp species. These results indicated that the combinations of multiple analysis and identification methods could make up the limitations of a single method, enhance the accuracy of identification, and provide useful information for sensory research and product development.

  5. Quasi Real Time Data Analysis for Air Quality Monitoring with an Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, M. Amy

    2006-01-01

    Cabin Air Quality Monitoring: A) Functions; 1) Incident monitor for targeted contaminants exceeding targeted concentrations. Identify and quantify. 2) Monitor for presence of compounds associated with fires or overheating electronics. 3) Monitor clean-up process. B) Characteristics; 1) Low mass, low power device. 2) Requires little crew time for maintenance and calibration. 3) Detects, identifies and quantifies selected chemical species at or below 24 hour SMAC.

  6. Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GC/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak; Marek Siwulski; Sylwia Mildner-Szkudlarz; Erwin Wąsowicz

    2009-01-01

    The aroma of several strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor was studied by GC/MS. Three main mushrooms aroma constituents: 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were taken into account for quantitative measurements. The highest amount of 1-octen-3-ol was recorded in P. ostreatus, while considerably lower amounts in P. citrinopileatus. Sensory profile analysis as well as the electronic nose also varied between the three species of Pleurotus. Chiral gas ...

  7. Determining degree of roasting in cocoa beans by artificial neural network (ANN)-based electronic nose system and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Juzhong; Kerr, William L

    2018-08-01

    Roasting is a critical step in chocolate processing, where moisture content is decreased and unique flavors and texture are developed. The determination of the degree of roasting in cocoa beans is important to ensure the quality of chocolate. Determining the degree of roasting relies on human specialists or sophisticated chemical analyses that are inaccessible to small manufacturers and farmers. In this study, an electronic nose system was constructed consisting of an array of gas sensors and used to detect volatiles emanating from cocoa beans roasted for 0, 20, 30 and 40 min. The several signals were used to train a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN). Headspace samples were also analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with 23 select volatiles used to train a separate ANN. Both ANNs were used to predict the degree of roasting of cocoa beans. The electronic nose had a prediction accuracy of 94.4% using signals from sensors TGS 813, 826, 822, 830, 830, 2620, 2602 and 2610. In comparison, the GC/MS predicted the degree of roasting with an accuracy of 95.8%. The electronic nose system is able to predict the extent of roasting, as well as a more sophisticated approach using GC/MS. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Application of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics for fingerprinting radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Volatile compounds were isolated from apples and grapes employing solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and subsequently analyzed by GC/MS equipped with a transfer line without stationary phase. Single peak obtained was integrated to obtain total mass spectrum of the volatile fraction of samples. A data matrix having relative abundance of all mass-to-charge ratios was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify radiation treatment. PCA results suggested that there is sufficient variability between control and irradiated samples to build classification models based on supervised techniques. LDA successfully aided in segregating control from irradiated samples at all doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 kGy). SPME-MS with chemometrics was successfully demonstrated as simple screening method for radiation treatment. - Highlights: • Total mass spectra obtained from HS-MS for control and irradiated fruits. • Grapes and apples are chosen for present study. • Total mass spectrum was analyzed by two chemometric techniques (PCA and LDA). • Successful segregation of control and irradiated samples achieved using chemometrics

  9. Application of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics for fingerprinting radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Volatile compounds were isolated from apples and grapes employing solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and subsequently analyzed by GC/MS equipped with a transfer line without stationary phase. Single peak obtained was integrated to obtain total mass spectrum of the volatile fraction of samples. A data matrix having relative abundance of all mass-to-charge ratios was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify radiation treatment. PCA results suggested that there is sufficient variability between control and irradiated samples to build classification models based on supervised techniques. LDA successfully aided in segregating control from irradiated samples at all doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 kGy). SPME-MS with chemometrics was successfully demonstrated as simple screening method for radiation treatment.

  10. Biological compost stability influences odor molecules production measured by electronic nose during food-waste high-rate composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Crivelli, Fernando; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Composting is a technique that is used to convert organic waste into agriculturally useful products. Composting is an aerobic, solid-state biological process, which typically can be divided into two phases, a high-rate composting phase and a curing phase. High-rate composting plays an important role during the composting process, owing to the high microbial activity occurring during this phase. It requires an accurate plant design to prevent the formation of anaerobic conditions and odors. The formation of anaerobic conditions mainly depends on the rate of O 2 consumption needed to degrade the substrate, i.e., the biological stability of the substrate. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the biological activity, measured by the dynamic respiration index (DRI) and the odor molecules production, measured by an electronic nose (EN) during two food-waste high-rate composting processes. Although the O 2 concentration in the biomass free air space (FAS) was kept optimal (O 2 > 140 ml l -1 , v/v) during composting, strong anaerobic conditions developed. This was indicated by the high levels of sulfur compounds, methane, and hydrogen in the outlet air stream. Both the high level of O 2 consumption, needed to degrade the high-degradable water-soluble organic matter and the low water O 2 solubility, caused by high temperature reached in this stage (up to 60 deg. C), led to the anaerobic conditions observed in the biofilm-particle level. The application of the partial least square (PLS) analysis demonstrated a good regression between the DRI and the odor molecules produced that was detected by the EN (R 2 = 0.991; R 2 CV = 0.990), signifying the usefulness of the DRI as a parameter to estimate the potential production of odor molecules of the biomass

  11. Nondestructive measurement of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in pork meat by integrating near infrared spectroscopy, computer vision and electronic nose techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-02-15

    Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content is an important reference index for evaluating pork freshness. This paper attempted to measure TVB-N content in pork meat using integrating near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), computer vision (CV), and electronic nose (E-nose) techniques. In the experiment, 90 pork samples with different freshness were collected for data acquisition by three different techniques, respectively. Then, the individual characteristic variables were extracted from each sensor. Next, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to achieve data fusion based on these characteristic variables from 3 different sensors data. Back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was used to construct the model for TVB-N content prediction, and the top principal components (PCs) were extracted as the input of model. The result of the model was achieved as follows: the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) = 2.73 mg/100g and the determination coefficient (R(p)(2)) = 0.9527 in the prediction set. Compared with single technique, integrating three techniques, in this paper, has its own superiority. This work demonstrates that it has the potential in nondestructive detection of TVB-N content in pork meat using integrating NIRS, CV and E-nose, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve TVB-N prediction performance. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Analysis of volatile flavor compounds influencing Chinese-type soy sauces using GC-MS combined with HS-SPME and discrimination with electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lihua; Liu, Ting; An, Xinjing; Zhang, Jinlan; Ma, Xiaoran; Cui, Jinmei

    2017-01-01

    Soy sauce contains a variety of volatiles that are highly valuable to its quality with regard to sensory characteristics. This paper describes the analysis of volatile compounds influencing the flavor quality of Chinese-type soy sauces. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with headspace-solid phase microextraction and electronic nose (E-nose) were applied for identifying the volatile flavor compounds as well as determining their volatile profiles of 12 soy sauces manufactured by different fermentation process. Forty one key volatile components of these 12 soy sauce products, a pure soy sauce and an acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein sample, were compared in semi-quantitative form, and their volatile flavor profiles were analyzed by E-nose. The substantially similar results between hierarchical cluster analysis based on GC-MS data and E-nose analysis suggested that both techniques may be useful in evaluating the flavor quality of soy sauces and differentiating soy sauce products. The study also showed that there were less volatile flavor compounds in soy sauces produced through low-salt solid-state fermentation process, a traditional manufacturing technology and a widely adopted technology in Chinese soy sauce industries. In addition, the investigation suggested that the flavor quality of soy sauce varied widely in Chinese domestic market, and that the present Chinese national standards of soy sauce should be further perfected by the addition of flavor grades of soy sauce in the physical and chemical index. Meanwhile, this research provided valuable information to manufacturers and government regulators, which have practical significance to improve quality of soy sauces.

  13. Application of multi-way analysis to UV-visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, N. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Leardi, R. [Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Chemistry and Technology, University of Genoa, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147 8 Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P., E-mail: oliveri@dictfa.unige.it [Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Chemistry and Technology, University of Genoa, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147 8 Genoa (Italy); Hernando-Esquisabel, D.; Iniguez-Crespo, M. [Gobierno de la Rioja, Consejeria de Agricultura y Alimentacion, Estacion Enologica, Breton de los Herreros 4, 26200 Haro, La Rioja (Spain); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wine samples were analytically characterised according to their ageing process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Signals from a sensor-based electronic nose were fused with GC-MS and UV-visible data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study involved 6 periodical determinations of 20 variables on 6 different wines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-way analysis allowed to efficiently extract the maximum information from data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-way methods represent the most suitable tool for processing three-mode data. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC-MS, and colour characterisation by UV-visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation.

  14. Application of multi-way analysis to UV–visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, N.; Rodriguez-Méndez, M.L.; Leardi, R.; Oliveri, P.; Hernando-Esquisabel, D.; Iñiguez-Crespo, M.; Saja, J.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wine samples were analytically characterised according to their ageing process. ► Signals from a sensor-based electronic nose were fused with GC–MS and UV–visible data. ► The study involved 6 periodical determinations of 20 variables on 6 different wines. ► Multi-way analysis allowed to efficiently extract the maximum information from data. ► Multi-way methods represent the most suitable tool for processing three-mode data. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC–MS, and colour characterisation by UV–visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation.

  15. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  16. Effect of hot air drying on volatile compounds of Flammulina velutipes detected by HS-SPME-GC-MS and electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjian; Yu, Jie; Pei, Fei; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Ma, Ning; Fang, Yong; Hu, Qiuhui

    2016-04-01

    Volatile compounds are important factors that affect the flavor quality of Flammulina velutipes, but the changes occurring during hot air drying is still unclear. To clarify the dynamic changes of flavor components during hot air drying, comprehensive flavor characterization and volatile compounds of F. velutipes were evaluated using electronic nose technology and headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), respectively. Results showed that volatile components in F. velutipes significantly changed during hot air drying according to the principal component analysis and radar fingerprint chart of electronic nose. Volatile compounds of fresh F. velutipes consisted mainly of ketones, aldehydes and alcohols, and 3-octanone was the dominant compound. Drying process could significantly decrease the relative content of ketones and promoted the generation of alcohols, acids, and esters, which became the main volatile compounds of dried F. velutipes. These may provide a theoretical basis for the formation mechanism of flavor substances in dried F. velutipes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  18. Application of multi-way analysis to UV-visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Rodriguez-Méndez, M L; Leardi, R; Oliveri, P; Hernando-Esquisabel, D; Iñiguez-Crespo, M; de Saja, J A

    2012-03-16

    In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC-MS, and colour characterisation by UV-visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Local Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm and a Weighted and Constrained Least-Squared Method for Mixed Odor Analysis by Electronic Nose Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyuo-Min Shyu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of work has been done to develop techniques for odor analysis by electronic nose systems. These analyses mostly focus on identifying a particular odor by comparing with a known odor dataset. However, in many situations, it would be more practical if each individual odorant could be determined directly. This paper proposes two methods for such odor components analysis for electronic nose systems. First, a K-nearest neighbor (KNN-based local weighted nearest neighbor (LWNN algorithm is proposed to determine the components of an odor. According to the component analysis, the odor training data is firstly categorized into several groups, each of which is represented by its centroid. The examined odor is then classified as the class of the nearest centroid. The distance between the examined odor and the centroid is calculated based on a weighting scheme, which captures the local structure of each predefined group. To further determine the concentration of each component, odor models are built by regressions. Then, a weighted and constrained least-squares (WCLS method is proposed to estimate the component concentrations. Experiments were carried out to assess the effectiveness of the proposed methods. The LWNN algorithm is able to classify mixed odors with different mixing ratios, while the WCLS method can provide good estimates on component concentrations.

  20. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1 using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2 performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score; and (3 selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes, white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, shiitake (Lentinus edodes, and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa, shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus plus the above mushrooms. Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values.

  1. Design Specification for a Thrust-Vectoring, Actuated-Nose-Strake Flight Control Law for the High-Alpha Research Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.

  2. Comparison of an Electronic Nose Based on Ultrafast Gas Chromatography, Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography, and Sensory Evaluation for an Analysis of Type of Whisky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wiśniewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whisky is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages. There are many types of whisky, for example, Scotch, Irish, and American whisky (called bourbon. The whisky market is highly diversified, and, because of this, it is important to have a method which would enable rapid quality evaluation and authentication of the type of whisky. The aim of this work was to compare 3 methods: an electronic nose based on the technology of ultrafast gas chromatography (Fast-GC, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC, and sensory evaluation. The selected whisky brands included 6 blended whiskies from Scotland, 4 blended whiskies from Ireland, and 4 bourbons produced in the USA. For data analysis, peak heights of chromatograms were used. The panelists who took part in sensory evaluations included 4 women and 4 men. The obtained data were analyzed by 2 chemometric methods: partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and discrimination function analysis (DFA. E-nose and GC × GC allowed for differentiation between whiskies by type. Sensory analysis did not allow for differentiation between whiskies by type, but it allowed giving consumer preferences.

  3. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce[Gamma irradiation; Fermented anchovy; Color; Flavor compounds; Electronic nose; Sensory evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2004-02-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy (P<0.05), while the alcohols and furan groups were increased by irradiation. Different odor patterns were observed among samples using electronic nose system analysis. Gamma-irradiated samples showed better sensory score and the quality was sustained during storage. In conclusion, gamma irradiation of salted and fermented anchovy sauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

  4. An electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave array for wireless sensor network applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Li, Cheng-Han; Chiu, Shih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K(2) 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications.

  5. An Electronic-Nose Sensor Node Based on a Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Array for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Li, Cheng-Han; Chiu, Shih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K2 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. PMID:22163865

  6. An Electronic-Nose Sensor Node Based on a Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Array for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kea-Tiong Tang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K2 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN applications.

  7. Baroreflex control of heart rate in the broad-nosed caiman Caiman latirostris is temperature dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagensen, Mette K; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that ectothermic vertebrates primarily control blood pressure to protect the pulmonary vasculature from oedema caused by high pressure, while endothermic vertebrates control blood pressure to maintain adequate oxygen delivery to the tissues. In the present study we have...

  8. Electronic control devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartill, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The subject of these lectures is the translation of information from particle detectors to computers. Large solid angle general purpose detectors at the intersection regions of high energy e+e- storage rings and pp and pp storage rings are discussed. Three choices for data acquisition are reviewed: use CAMAC (Computer Aided Measurement and Control), start from scratch and design a system, or wait for the final version of the proposed FASTBUS to be developed. The do-it-yourself procedure includes designs of drift chamber discriminator, time to amplitude converter, and data card block diagram. Trigger systems, the fast decision making systems judging an event interesting enough for a read-out cycle to be initiated, are discussed. Finally, a FASTBUS system layout, with its goals of minimum bus speed, general system topologies, and support multiple smart devices is given

  9. Love Acoustic Wave-Based Devices and Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers as Versatile Sensors for Electronic Nose or Tongue for Cancer Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Dejous

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and actual analytical techniques are restrictive in detecting it. Thus, there is still a challenge, as well as a need, for the development of quantitative non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of cancers and the follow-up care of patients. We introduce first the overall interest of electronic nose or tongue for such application of microsensors arrays with data processing in complex media, either gas (e.g., Volatile Organic Compounds or VOCs as biomarkers in breath or liquid (e.g., modified nucleosides as urinary biomarkers. Then this is illustrated with a versatile acoustic wave transducer, functionalized with molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIP synthesized for adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP as a model for nucleosides. The device including the thin film coating is described, then static measurements with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electrical characterization after each step of the sensitive MIP process (deposit, removal of AMP template, capture of AMP target demonstrate the thin film functionality. Dynamic measurements with a microfluidic setup and four targets are presented afterwards. They show a sensitivity of 5 Hz·ppm−1 of the non-optimized microsensor for AMP detection, with a specificity of three times compared to PMPA, and almost nil sensitivity to 3′AMP and CMP, in accordance with previously published results on bulk MIP.

  10. Electron gun controlled smart structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey W.; Main, John Alan; Redmond, James M.; Henson, Tammy D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and system for actively controlling the shape of a sheet of electroactive material; the system comprising: one or more electrodes attached to the frontside of the electroactive sheet; a charged particle generator, disposed so as to direct a beam of charged particles (e.g. electrons) onto the electrode; a conductive substrate attached to the backside of the sheet; and a power supply electrically connected to the conductive substrate; whereby the sheet changes its shape in response to an electric field created across the sheet by an accumulation of electric charge within the electrode(s), relative to a potential applied to the conductive substrate. Use of multiple electrodes distributed across on the frontside ensures a uniform distribution of the charge with a single point of e-beam incidence, thereby greatly simplifying the beam scanning algorithm and raster control electronics, and reducing the problems associated with "blooming". By placing a distribution of electrodes over the front surface of a piezoelectric film (or other electroactive material), this arrangement enables improved control over the distribution of surface electric charges (e.g. electrons) by creating uniform (and possibly different) charge distributions within each individual electrode. Removal or deposition of net electric charge can be affected by controlling the secondary electron yield through manipulation of the backside electric potential with the power supply. The system can be used for actively controlling the shape of space-based deployable optics, such as adaptive mirrors and inflatable antennae.

  11. Managing of gas sensing characteristic of a reduced graphene oxide based gas sensor by the change in synthesis condition: A new approach for electronic nose design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Taher, E-mail: talizadeh@ut.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedsoltani, Leyla [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Natural graphite was oxidized and exfoliated via two different methods, leading to two types of graphene oxide (GO) materials. The obtained materials were reduced by three different reducing agents including: hydrazine hydrate, ascorbic acid and sodium borohydride, giving thus six kinds of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) materials. The obtained materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The RGOs were then used to fabricate different gas sensors and their electrical resistances were recorded upon exposing to various volatile organic compounds vapors (VOCs). Gas sensing selectivity of each RGO was significantly affected by the synthesis condition. The RGO-based sensor array was fabricated and its capability for discrimination of seven kinds of VOCs was evaluated, utilizing principal component analysis and cluster analysis methods. Loading plot indicated that the presence of five RGO-based sensors could effectively discriminate the aimed vapors. The electronic nose, containing five kinds of RGOs, was used for the classification of seven kinds of VOCs at their different concentrations. - Highlights: • Two oxidation procedures and three reducing agents were utilized to produce six kinds of RGOs. • The synthesized different RGOs exhibited significantly different sensing behaviors. • Seven kinds of organic vapors were chosen for the evaluation of discrimination power of EN. • Using PCA, it was found that seven of six RFGOs were appropriate number to use in final EN. • The developed EN was capable of properly discrimination of tested vapors.

  12. A novel method to quantify the activity of alcohol acetyltransferase Using a SnO2-based sensor of electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongqiu; Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Huxuan; Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2016-07-15

    Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATFase) extensively catalyzes the reactions of alcohols to acetic esters in microorganisms and plants. In this work, a novel method has been proposed to quantify the activity of AATFase using a SnO2-based sensor of electronic nose, which was determined on the basis of its higher sensitivity to the reducing alcohol than the oxidizing ester. The maximum value of the first-derivative of the signals from the SnO2-based sensor was therein found to be an eigenvalue of isoamyl alcohol concentration. Quadratic polynomial regression perfectly fitted the correlation between the eigenvalue and the isoamyl alcohol concentration. The method was used to determine the AATFase activity in this type of reaction by calculating the conversion rate of isoamyl alcohol. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the AATFase activity of a cider yeast strain. Compared with GC-MS, the method shows promises with ideal recovery and low cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Your Nose, the Guardian of Your Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more susceptible to germs and pollens. Many anti-anxiety medications also have a drying effect on the nose and throat. Birth control pills, blood pressure medicines called beta-blockers, and Viagra can cause increased nasal congestion. Eye ...

  14. Qualitative characteristics and comparison of volatile fraction of vodkas made from different botanical materials by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and the electronic nose based on the technology of ultra-fast gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Vodka is a spirit-based beverage made from ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin. At present, increasingly more vodka brands have labels that specify the botanical origin of the product. Until now, the techniques for distinguishing between vodkas of different botanical origin have been costly, time-consuming and insufficient for making a distinction between vodka produced from similar raw materials. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to find a fast and relatively inexpensive technique for conducting such tests. In the present study, we employed comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and an electronic nose based on the technology of ultra-fast GC with chemometric methods such as partial least square discriminant analysis, discriminant function analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy. Both techniques allow a distinction between the vodkas produced from different raw materials. In the case of GC×GC, the differences between vodkas were more noticeable than in the analysis by electronic nose; however, the electronic nose allowed the significantly faster analysis of vodkas. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Controlling electronics boards with PVSS

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of implementing a control system for electronics boards in order to perform remote Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programming, hardware configuration, register control, and monitoring, as well as interfacing it to an expert system. The paper presents an implementation, using the Distributed Information Management (DIM) package and the industrial SCADA system PVSS II from ETM, in which the access mechanisms to the board resources are completely generic and in which the device prescription and the handling of mapping between functional parameters and physical registers follow a common structure independent of the board type. The control system also incorporates mechanisms by which it may be controlled from a finite state machine based expert system. Finally the paper suggests an improvement in which the mapping between logical parameters and physical registers is represented by descriptors in the device description such that the translation can be handled by a common m...

  16. Different Ways to Apply a Measurement Instrument of E-Nose Type to Evaluate Ambient Air Quality with Respect to Odour Nuisance in a Vicinity of Municipal Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Szulczyński

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents different ways to apply a measurement instrument of e-nose type to evaluate ambient air with respect to detection of the odorants characterized by unpleasant odour in a vicinity of municipal processing plants. An emphasis was put on the following applications of the electronic nose instruments: monitoring networks, remote controlled robots and drones as well as portable devices. Moreover, this paper presents commercially available sensors utilized in the electronic noses and characterized by the limit of quantification below 1 ppm v/v, which is close to the odour threshold of some odorants. Additionally, information about bioelectronic noses being a possible alternative to electronic noses and their principle of operation and application potential in the field of air evaluation with respect to detection of the odorants characterized by unpleasant odour was provided.

  17. Scanning electron microscopic study of the otolithic organs in the bichir (Polypterus bichir) and shovel-nose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, A N

    1978-09-01

    The anatomy and ultrastructure of the sacculus, lagena, and utriculus of the ear of Polypterus bichir and Scaphirhynchus platorynchus were studied using the scanning electron microscope. The otolithic organs each contain a single dense calcareous otolith in close contact with a sensory epithelium (macula). The maculae have sensory hair cells typical of those found in other vertebrates, surrounded by microvilli-covered supporting cells. The hair cells on each macula are divided into several groups, with all of the cells in each group morphologically polarized in the same direction. The cells of the utricular macula in both species are divided into opposing groups in a pattern similar to that found in other vertebrates. The saccular and lagenar maculae are located in a single large chamber in both species. In Scaphirhychus the two maculae are on the same plane, while in Polypterus they are at right angles to one another. The hair cells on the saccular maculae of both species are divided into two oppositely oriented groups. In Scaphirhynchus the cells on the posterior half of the macula are oriented dorsally on the dorsal half of the macula and ventrally on the ventral half. The anterior region of the macula is rotated and the cells of the dorsal and ventral groups are shifted so that they are oriented on the animal's horizon plane. A similar pattern is found in Polypterus, except that this macula is shaped like a "J" with the vertical portion of the J having horizontal cells and the bottom portion vertical cells. The lagenar maculae in both species have dorsally oriented cells on the anterior side of the macula and ventrally oriented cells on the posterior half of the macula. While these data are not sufficient for clarifying the taxonomic relationship between the two species studied, it is clear that the ears in these species have a number of significant differences from the teleost ear that could have functional and/or taxonomic significance.

  18. Electron backscattering for process control in electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardenne, T. von; Panzer, S.

    1983-01-01

    A number of solutions to the automation of electron beam welding is presented. On the basis of electron backscattering a complex system of process control has been developed. It allows an enlarged imaging of the material's surface, improved adjustment of the beam focusing and definite focus positioning. Furthermore, both manual and automated positioning of the electron beam before and during the welding process has become possible. Monitoring of the welding process for meeting standard welding requirements can be achieved with the aid of a control quantity derived from the results of electronic evaluation of the high-frequency electron backscattering

  19. Laser control of electron matter waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, E.; Becker, M.; Luiten, O.J.; Batelaan, H.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years laser light has been used to control the motion of electron waves. Electrons can now be diffracted by standing waves of light. Laser light in the vicinity of nanostructures is used to affect free electrons, for example, femto-second and atto-second laser-induced electrons are emitted

  20. Plant Pest Detection Using an Artificial Nose System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqing Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews artificial intelligent noses (or electronic noses as a fast and noninvasive approach for the diagnosis of insects and diseases that attack vegetables and fruit trees. The particular focus is on bacterial, fungal, and viral infections, and insect damage. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from plants, which provide functional information about the plant’s growth, defense, and health status, allow for the possibility of using noninvasive detection to monitor plants status. Electronic noses are comprised of a sensor array, signal conditioning circuit, and pattern recognition algorithms. Compared with traditional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques, electronic noses are noninvasive and can be a rapid, cost-effective option for several applications. However, using electronic noses for plant pest diagnosis is still in its early stages, and there are challenges regarding sensor performance, sampling and detection in open areas, and scaling up measurements. This review paper introduces each element of electronic nose systems, especially commonly used sensors and pattern recognition methods, along with their advantages and limitations. It includes a comprehensive comparison and summary of applications, possible challenges, and potential improvements of electronic nose systems for different plant pest diagnoses.

  1. Plant Pest Detection Using an Artificial Nose System: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Ling, Peter; Zhu, Heping; Keener, Harold M

    2018-01-28

    This paper reviews artificial intelligent noses (or electronic noses) as a fast and noninvasive approach for the diagnosis of insects and diseases that attack vegetables and fruit trees. The particular focus is on bacterial, fungal, and viral infections, and insect damage. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants, which provide functional information about the plant's growth, defense, and health status, allow for the possibility of using noninvasive detection to monitor plants status. Electronic noses are comprised of a sensor array, signal conditioning circuit, and pattern recognition algorithms. Compared with traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques, electronic noses are noninvasive and can be a rapid, cost-effective option for several applications. However, using electronic noses for plant pest diagnosis is still in its early stages, and there are challenges regarding sensor performance, sampling and detection in open areas, and scaling up measurements. This review paper introduces each element of electronic nose systems, especially commonly used sensors and pattern recognition methods, along with their advantages and limitations. It includes a comprehensive comparison and summary of applications, possible challenges, and potential improvements of electronic nose systems for different plant pest diagnoses.

  2. Integrated control system for electron beam processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, L.; Koleva, E.; Batchkova, I.; Mladenov, G.

    2018-03-01

    The ISO/IEC 62264 standard is widely used for integration of the business systems of a manufacturer with the corresponding manufacturing control systems based on hierarchical equipment models, functional data and manufacturing operations activity models. In order to achieve the integration of control systems, formal object communication models must be developed, together with manufacturing operations activity models, which coordinate the integration between different levels of control. In this article, the development of integrated control system for electron beam welding process is presented as part of a fully integrated control system of an electron beam plant, including also other additional processes: surface modification, electron beam evaporation, selective melting and electron beam diagnostics.

  3. Controlling Electronics Boards with PVS

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    - Introduction - Control System Architecture - Device Description - FPGA Programming - Register Control - Data Subscription - Examples of Graphics User Interfaces - Parameter - Register Translation - Application on the LHCb Timing Fast Control System

  4. Control system for JAERI Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    A control system comprising of the personal computers network and the CAMAC stations for the JAERI Free Electron Laser is designed and is in the development stage. It controls the equipment and analyzes the electron and optical beam experiments. The concept and the prototype of the control system are described. (author)

  5. Foreign body in the nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000037.htm Foreign body in the nose To use the sharing features ... in a normal attempt to explore their own bodies. Objects placed in the nose may include food, ...

  6. Hierarchical control of electron-transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Egger, Louis

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong...... back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis...

  7. Rate control for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellingerhout, A.J.G.; Janocko, M.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Mooij, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for obtaining high-quality rate control for electron gun evaporation are discussed. The design criteria for rate controllers are derived from this analysis. Results are presented which have been obtained with e-guns whose evaporation rate is controlled by a Wehnelt electrode or by sweeping of the electron beam. Further improvements of rate stability can be obtained by improved design of e-guns and power supplies

  8. Development of the MOOSY4 eNose IoT for Sulphur-Based VOC Water Pollution Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, Enric; Pelegri-Sebastia, Jose; Sogorb, Tomas; Talens, J B; Chilo, Jose

    2017-08-20

    In this paper, we describe a new low-cost and portable electronic nose instrument, the Multisensory Odor Olfactory System MOOSY4. This prototype is based on only four metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors suitable for IoT technology. The system architecture consists of four stages: data acquisition, data storage, data processing, and user interfacing. The designed eNose was tested with experiment for detection of volatile components in water pollution, as a dimethyl disulphide or dimethyl diselenide or sulphur. Therefore, the results provide evidence that odor information can be recognized with around 86% efficiency, detecting smells unwanted in the water and improving the quality control in bottled water factories.

  9. The average Indian female nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Surendra B; Kale, Satish M; Jaiswal, Sumeet; Khare, Nishant; Math, Mahantesh

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to delineate the anthropometric measurements of the noses of young women of an Indian population and to compare them with the published ideals and average measurements for white women. This anthropometric survey included a volunteer sample of 100 young Indian women ages 18 to 35 years with Indian parents and no history of previous surgery or trauma to the nose. Standardized frontal, lateral, oblique, and basal photographs of the subjects' noses were taken, and 12 standard anthropometric measurements of the nose were determined. The results were compared with published standards for North American white women. In addition, nine nasal indices were calculated and compared with the standards for North American white women. The nose of Indian women differs significantly from the white nose. All the nasal measurements for the Indian women were found to be significantly different from those for North American white women. Seven of the nine nasal indices also differed significantly. Anthropometric analysis suggests differences between the Indian female nose and the North American white nose. Thus, a single aesthetic ideal is inadequate. Noses of Indian women are smaller and wider, with a less projected and rounded tip than the noses of white women. This study established the nasal anthropometric norms for nasal parameters, which will serve as a guide for cosmetic and reconstructive surgery in Indian women.

  10. Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project intends to design and develop an Intelligent Electronic Speed Controller (IESC) for use on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The IESC will advance the...

  11. Can electronic stability control replace studded tyres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Electronic stability control can substitute studded tyres. • This makes it easier to discourage the use of studded tyres. • A certain level of use of studded tyres makes roads less slippery.......Highlights • Electronic stability control can substitute studded tyres. • This makes it easier to discourage the use of studded tyres. • A certain level of use of studded tyres makes roads less slippery....

  12. Nose: Applied aspects in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dammaningala Venkataramaiah Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nose is the most prominent part of the mid-face and has important physiological, aesthetic and psychological functions. Skin diseases on the nose are commonly seen by dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and plastic surgeons. Because of its exposed, highly visible localization, lesions on the skin of the nose are often noticed by patients themselves, typically very early in the course of the disease. Similarly, the dermatological lexicon is well known with descriptive terminologies, synonyms, acronyms, eponyms, toponyms, misnomers. We have tried to compile the anatomical applications of nose in cosmetology and dermatosurgery subspecialities with nasal eponyms and signs encountered in clinical dermatology that would be helpful for residents.

  13. Seeing smells: development of an optoelectronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Suslick

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of an array of chemically-responsive dyes on a porous membrane and in its use as a general sensor for odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs is reviewed. These colorimetric sensor arrays (CSA act as an "optoelectronic nose" by using an array of multiple dyes whose color changes are based on the full range of intermolecular interactions. The CSA is digitally imaged before and after exposure and the resulting difference map provides a digital fingerprint for any VOC or mixture of odorants. The result is an enormous increase in discriminatory power among odorants compared to prior electronic nose technologies. For the detection of biologically important analytes, including amines, carboxylic acids, and thiols, high sensitivities (ppbv have been demonstrated. The array is essentially non-responsive to changes in humidity due to the hydrophobicity of the dyes and membrane.

  14. Automatic control variac system for electronic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuocheng; Wang Dan; Jing Lan; Qiao Weimin; Ma Yunhai

    2006-01-01

    An automatic control variac system is designed in order to satisfy the controlling requirement of the electronic accelerator developed by the Institute. Both design and operational principles, structure of the system as well as the software of industrial PC and micro controller unit are described. The interfaces of the control module are RS232 and RS485. A fiber optical interface (FOC) could be set up if an industrial FOC network is necessary, which will extend the filed of its application and make the communication of the system better. It is shown in practice that the system can adjust the variac output voltage automatically and assure the accurate and automatic control of the electronic accelerator. The system is designed in accordance with the general design principles and possesses the merits such as easy operation and maintenance, good expansibility, and low cost, thus it could also be used in other industrial branches. (authors)

  15. Electronically controllable spoof localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong Jin; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Liu; Xun Xiao, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Electronically controllable multipolar spoof localized surface plasmons (LSPs) are experimentally demonstrated in the microwave frequencies. It has been shown that half integer order LSPs modes exist on the corrugated ring loaded with a slit, which actually arise from the Fabry-Perot-like resonances. By mounting active components across the slit in the corrugated rings, electronic switchability and tunability of spoof LSPs modes have been accomplished. Both simulated and measured results demonstrate efficient dynamic control of the spoof LSPs. These elements may form the basis of highly integrated programmable plasmonic circuits in microwave and terahertz regimes.

  16. Control electronics of the PEP RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.; Schwarz, H.

    1981-01-01

    The operation of the major components used for controlling the phase and field level of the PEP RF cavities is described. The control electronics of one RF station is composed of several control loops: each cavity has a tuners' servo loop which maintains the frequency constant and also keeps the fields of each cavity balanced; the total gap voltage developed by a pair of cavities is regulated by a gap voltage controller; finally, the phase variation along the amplification chain, the klystron and the cavities are compensated by a phase lock loop. The design criteria of each loop are set forth and the circuit implementation and test results are presented

  17. Control system in the technological electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriskin, V.N.; Akchurin, Yu.I.; Bahmetev, N.N.; Gurin, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The special system has been developed for linac control.It controls the electron beam current,the energy and the position,protects the accelerating and scanning systems from the damage caused by the beam;blocks the modulator and the klystron amplifier in the case of intolerable operating modes;regulates the phase and power of the HF signals in the injecting system and also regulates the source power currents in the magnetic system

  18. Study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.J.; Pancarobo, M.; Denisenko, N.; Aguilar, M.; Rejon, V.; Pena, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics is made. The knowledge of its behaviour allows us to determine accurately the region where the unstable operation could effect the measurements, and also to set the optimal working parameters. Each feedback circuitry compound is discussed as well as their mutual interaction. Different working conditions analysis and results are presented. (Author) 12 refs

  19. Controlled dissemination of Electronic Medical Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Noordende, G.

    2011-01-01

    Building upon a security analysis of the Dutch electronic patient record system, this paper describes an approach to construct a fully decentralized patient record system, using controlled disclosure of references to medical records. This paper identifies several paths that can be used to disclose

  20. Model based design of electronic throttle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Fenin; Ranjan, Ashish; Bhowmick, Pathikrit; Rammohan, A.

    2017-11-01

    With the advent of torque based Engine Management Systems, the precise control and robust performance of the throttle body becomes a key factor in the overall performance of the vehicle. Electronic Throttle Control provides benefits such as improved air-fuel ratio for improving the vehicle performance and lower exhausts emissions to meet the stringent emission norms. Modern vehicles facilitate various features such as Cruise Control, Traction Control, Electronic Stability Program and Pre-crash systems. These systems require control over engine power without driver intervention, which is not possible with conventional mechanical throttle system. Thus these systems are integrated to function with the electronic throttle control. However, due to inherent non-linearities in the throttle body, the control becomes a difficult task. In order to eliminate the influence of this hysteresis at the initial operation of the butterfly valve, a control to compensate the shortage must be added to the duty required for starting throttle operation when the initial operation is detected. Therefore, a lot of work is being done in this field to incorporate the various nonlinearities to achieve robust control. In our present work, the ETB was tested to verify the working of the system. Calibration of the TPS sensors was carried out in order to acquire accurate throttle opening angle. The response of the calibrated system was then plotted against a step input signal. A linear model of the ETB was prepared using Simulink and its response was compared with the experimental data to find out the initial deviation of the model from the actual system. To reduce this deviation, non-linearities from existing literature were introduced to the system and a response analysis was performed to check the deviation from the actual system. Based on this investigation, an introduction of a new nonlinearity parameter can be used in future to reduce the deviation further making the control of the ETB more

  1. Controller for control of pulsed electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryazgin, A.A.; Faktorovich, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The controller is based on the K1816VE31 microprocessor and contains 22-channel integrating 10-digital two-wire analog-to-digital converter, 8-channel 12-digit digital-to-analog converter, 24-digit output register, 16-digit input register pulse generator in the range of 0.5 - 50 Hz with the regulation step of 0.05 Hz and delayed pulse generator. The controller is used for pulsed electron linear accelerator control and is reduced to regulation of the electron beam pulse repetition rate and beam energy. 1 ref., 1 fig

  2. Statistical process control for electron beam monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Luquero-Llopis, Naika; García-Mollá, Rafael; Quirós-Higueras, Juan David; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Juan-Senabre, Xavier Jordi; de Marco-Blancas, Noelia; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos; Santos-Serra, Agustín

    2015-07-01

    To assess the electron beam monitoring statistical process control (SPC) in linear accelerator (linac) daily quality control. We present a long-term record of our measurements and evaluate which SPC-led conditions are feasible for maintaining control. We retrieved our linac beam calibration, symmetry, and flatness daily records for all electron beam energies from January 2008 to December 2013, and retrospectively studied how SPC could have been applied and which of its features could be used in the future. A set of adjustment interventions designed to maintain these parameters under control was also simulated. All phase I data was under control. The dose plots were characterized by rising trends followed by steep drops caused by our attempts to re-center the linac beam calibration. Where flatness and symmetry trends were detected they were less-well defined. The process capability ratios ranged from 1.6 to 9.3 at a 2% specification level. Simulated interventions ranged from 2% to 34% of the total number of measurement sessions. We also noted that if prospective SPC had been applied it would have met quality control specifications. SPC can be used to assess the inherent variability of our electron beam monitoring system. It can also indicate whether a process is capable of maintaining electron parameters under control with respect to established specifications by using a daily checking device, but this is not practical unless a method to establish direct feedback from the device to the linac can be devised. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanically controllable break junctions for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dong; Jeong, Hyunhak; Lee, Takhee; Mayer, Dirk

    2013-09-20

    A mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) represents a fundamental technique for the investigation of molecular electronic junctions, especially for the study of the electronic properties of single molecules. With unique advantages, the MCBJ technique has provided substantial insight into charge transport processes in molecules. In this review, the techniques for sample fabrication, operation and the various applications of MCBJs are introduced and the history, challenges and future of MCBJs are discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Telesne spremembe med nosečnostjo

    OpenAIRE

    Predikaka, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    POVZETEK Nosečnost spremljajo obsežne fiziološke spremembe, ki se pojavijo že zgodaj po zanositvi. Pogosto se to zgodi, še preden se ženska zave, da je noseča. Nosečnost ni bolezen, ampak je »drugo stanje«, na to stanje se je potrebno pripraviti, saj le zdrava nosečnost prinese zdravega in primerno razvitega otroka. Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti, kako nosečnice gledajo na telesne spremembe v nosečnosti in kako to vpliva na njihovo zadovoljstvo. Anketirali smo 100 nosečnic, ki so obi...

  5. Stuffy or runny nose - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than 10 days, or produces yellow-green or gray mucus Symptoms that last more than 3 weeks ... baby or infant has a fever Images Throat anatomy Runny and stuffy nose References McGann KA, Long SS. ...

  6. Stuffy or runny nose - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than 10 days, or produces yellow-green or gray mucus Nasal discharge following a head injury Symptoms ... nose; Postnasal drip; Rhinorrhea; Nasal congestion Images Throat anatomy References Bachert C, Calus L, Gevaert P. Rhinosinusitis ...

  7. An electronically controlled automatic security access gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. ENOKELA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The security challenges being encountered in many places require electronic means of controlling access to communities, recreational centres, offices, and homes. The electronically controlled automated security access gate being proposed in this work helps to prevent an unwanted access to controlled environments. This is achieved mainly through the use of a Radio Frequency (RF transmitter-receiver pair. In the design a microcontroller is programmed to decode a given sequence of keys that is entered on a keypad and commands a transmitter module to send out this code as signal at a given radio frequency. Upon reception of this RF signal by the receiver module, another microcontroller activates a driver circuitry to operate the gate automatically. The codes for the microcontrollers were written in C language and were debugged and compiled using the KEIL Micro vision 4 integrated development environment. The resultant Hex files were programmed into the memories of the microcontrollers with the aid of a universal programmer. Software simulation was carried out using the Proteus Virtual System Modeling (VSM version 7.7. A scaled-down prototype of the system was built and tested. The electronically controlled automated security access gate can be useful in providing security for homes, organizations, and automobile terminals. The four-character password required to operate the gate gives the system an increased level of security. Due to its standalone nature of operation the system is cheaper to maintain in comparison with a manually operated type.

  8. Controlling Underwater Robots with Electronic Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing robot controllers based on biomimetic design principles. The goal is to realise the adaptive capabilities of the animal models in natural environments. We report feasibility studies of a hybrid architecture that instantiates a command and coordinating level with computed discrete-time map-based (DTM neuronal networks and the central pattern generators with analogue VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration electronic neuron (aVLSI networks. DTM networks are realised using neurons based on a 1-D or 2-D Map with two additional parameters that define silent, spiking and bursting regimes. Electronic neurons (ENs based on Hindmarsh–Rose (HR dynamics can be instantiated in analogue VLSI and exhibit similar behaviour to those based on discrete components. We have constructed locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs with aVLSI networks that can be modulated to select different behaviours on the basis of selective command input. The two technologies can be fused by interfacing the signals from the DTM circuits directly to the aVLSI CPGs. Using DTMs, we have been able to simulate complex sensory fusion for rheotaxic behaviour based on both hydrodynamic and optical flow senses. We will illustrate aspects of controllers for ambulatory biomimetic robots. These studies indicate that it is feasible to fabricate an electronic nervous system controller integrating both aVLSI CPGs and layered DTM exteroceptive reflexes.

  9. The spectacular human nose: an amplifier of individual quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åse Kristine Rognmo Mikalsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier. For an amplifier to evolve, the average fitness benefit to the high quality individuals should be higher than the average cost for the low quality individuals. The human nose is, compared to the nose of most other primates, extraordinary large, fragile and easily broken—especially in male–male interactions. May it have evolved as an amplifier among high quality individuals, allowing easy assessment of individual quality and influencing the perception of attractiveness? We tested the latter by manipulating the position of the nose tip or, as a control, the mouth in facial pictures and had the pictures rated for attractiveness. Our results show that facial attractiveness failed to be influenced by mouth manipulations. Yet, facial attractiveness increased when the nose tip was artificially centered according to other facial features. Conversely, attractiveness decreased when the nose tip was displaced away from its central position. Our results suggest that our evaluation of attractiveness is clearly sensitive to the centering of the nose tip, possibly because it affects our perception of the face’s symmetry and/or averageness. However, whether such centering is related to individual quality remains unclear.

  10. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, M Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-02-27

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  11. Electron beam accelerator energy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Vijay; Rajan, Rehim; Acharya, S.; Mittal, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    A control system has been developed for the energy control of the electron beam accelerator using PLC. The accelerating voltage of 3 MV has been obtained by using parallel coupled voltage multiplier circuit. A autotransformer controlled variable 0-10 KV DC is fed to a tube based push pull oscillator to generate 120 Khz, 10 KV AC. Oscillator output voltage is stepped up to 0-300 KV/AC using a transformer. 0-300 KVAC is fed to the voltage multiplier column to generate the accelerating voltage at the dome 0-3 MV/DC. The control system has been designed to maintain the accelerator voltage same throughout the operation by adjusting the input voltage in close loop. Whenever there is any change in the output voltage either because of beam loading or arcing in the accelerator. The instantaneous accelerator voltage or energy is a direct proportional to 0-10 KVDC obtained from autotransformer. A PLC based control system with user settable energy level has been installed for 3 MeV, EB accelerator. The PLC takes the user defined energy value through a touch screen and compares it to the actual accelerating voltage (obtained using resistive divider). Depending upon the error the PLC generates the pulses to adjust the autotransformer to bring the actual voltage to the set value within the window of error (presently set to +/- 0.1%). (author)

  12. Photonics and electronics for nitrogen vacancy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaun Ho

    2014-01-01

    Deterministic indistinguishable single photon sources are one of the key requirements for the realisation of Optical Quantum Computing. Recent low temperature experiments have shown the potential of the negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV-) centre as a source of indistinguishable photons. Furthermore its ground state spin structure with extensional decoherence time and spin dependent transitions means it can be harnessed as a spin-photon interface. However, development of these potential applications requires exquisite control of te electronic and spin states via Stark and Zeeman shifting, as well as enhanced photon collection through photonic structures. Here we present the integration of micro-fabricated solid immersion lenses with lithographically defined gold electrodes for control and spin manipulation. (author)

  13. Electronic circuit provides automatic level control for liquid nitrogen traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvy, R. R.

    1968-01-01

    Electronic circuit, based on the principle of increased thermistor resistance corresponding to decreases in temperature provides an automatic level control for liquid nitrogen cold traps. The electronically controlled apparatus is practically service-free, requiring only occasional reliability checks.

  14. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like ... white). Soft tissue, such as the eye, is gray. The maxillary sinus of adults has a volume ...

  15. Effect of a single prophylactic preoperative oral antibiotic dose on surgical site infection following complex dermatological procedures on the nose and ear: a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Helena; Heal, Clare F; Buttner, Petra G

    2018-04-19

    There is limited published research studying the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on surgical site infection (SSI) in dermatological surgery, and there is no consensus for its use in higher-risk cases. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a single oral preoperative 2 g dose of cephalexin in preventing SSI following flap and graft dermatological closures on the nose and ear. Prospective double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial testing for difference in infection rates. Primary care skin cancer clinics in North Queensland, Australia, were randomised to 2 g oral cephalexin or placebo 40-60 min prior to skin incision. 154 consecutive eligible patients booked for flap or graft closure following skin cancer excision on the ear and nose. 2 g dose of cephalexin administered 40-60 min prior to surgery. Overall 8/69 (11.6%) controls and 1/73 (1.4%) in the intervention group developed SSI (p=0.015; absolute SSI reduction 10.2%; number needed to treat (NNT) for benefit 9.8, 95% CI 5.5 to 45.5). In males, 7/44 controls and 0/33 in the intervention group developed SSI (p=0.018; absolute SSI reduction 15.9%; NNT for benefit 6.3, 95% CI 3.8 to 19.2). SSI was much lower in female controls (1/25) and antibiotic prophylaxis did not further reduce this (p=1.0). There was no difference between the study groups in adverse symptoms attributable to high-dose antibiotic administration (p=0.871). A single oral 2 g dose of cephalexin given before complex skin closure on the nose and ear reduced SSI. ANZCTR 365115; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. APPARATUS FOR ELECTRON BEAM HEATING CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W.H.; Reece, J.B.

    1962-09-18

    An improved electron beam welding or melting apparatus is designed which utilizes a high voltage rectifier operating below its temperature saturation region to decrease variations in electron beam current which normally result from the gas generated in such apparatus. (AEC)

  17. Development of the electron gun control system of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dayong; Lin Guoqiang; Liu Dekang; Shen Liren

    2010-01-01

    An electron gun is the key part of a linac, the beam quality of which depends on beam quality of the electron gun, hence the need of a stable control system of the electron gun to ensure its safe operation.In this paper, we report our progresses in developing the linac's electron gun control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). It uses PLC as the device controllers, with the monitoring software developed on EPICS. The whole system is connected by Ethernet. The PLC and Ethernet technology ensures good reliability and easy maintenance of the electron gun control system. (authors)

  18. The Nose Knows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Doug

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the following considerations when using restroom air fresheners: the types available, timing and frequency of fragrance delivery, and dispenser placement. An example is provided of one school's success at improving restroom hygiene and controlling odor. (GR)

  19. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  20. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©. The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%. The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%, and the predominance of sutures (24.76% was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%. Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures.

  1. Discrimination between Pseudogymnoascus destructans, other dermatophytes of cave-dwelling bats, and related innocuous keratinophilic fungi based on electronic-nose/GC signatures of VOC-metabolites produced in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus Dan Wilson; Lisa Beth Forse

    2017-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal dermatophyte (Pseudogymnoascus destructans), is considered the most important disease affecting hibernating bats in North America. The identification of dermatophytic fungi, isolated from the skins of cave-dwelling bat species, is necessary to distinguish pathogenic (disease-causing) microbes from those that are innocuous...

  2. A new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Molina, J.C.; Guerrero González, A.; Gilabert, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles is presented. This control system is characterized by a distribution in control over two network of type CANBus and Ethernet. This new electronic control system integrates functionalities of AUVs, as the automatic execution of preprogrammed trajectories. The control system also integrates an acoustic positioning system based on USBL. The information of relative positioning is sent through specific...

  3. Control of insect pests with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2003-01-01

    Effects of electron beams with an energy of 2.5 MeV on insect pests were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. Electron beams at 400 Gy inactivated all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetraychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, and Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia and gerbera were tolerant to electron beams at 400-600 Gy, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea and iris were intolerant. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. Soft-electrons at 60 keV effectively inactivated eggs, larvae and pupae of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and eggs of adzuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis) at a dose of 1 kGy. The adults of T. castaneum and P. interpunctella were inactivated by electron treatment at 5.0 kGy and 7.5 kGy, respectively. Adults of C. chinensis survived at 7.5 kGy, but were inactivated having lost ability to walk at 2.5 kGy. Soft-electrons at 60 keV could not completely inactivate the larvae of C. chinensis and smaller larvae (2nd instar) of maize weevil (Stiophilus zeamais) inside beans and grains, because the electrons with low penetration did not reach the larvae due to the shield of beans or grains. However, soft-electrons at 60 keV inactivated eggs, larger larvae (4th instar) and pupae of S. zeamais in rice grains, which indicated that S. zeamais was exposed to electrons even inside the grains. (author)

  4. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY... for transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system... Design Features The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit...

  5. Two-pulse laser control of nuclear and electronic motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1997-01-01

    We discuss an explicitly time-dependent two-pulse laser scheme for controlling where nuclei and electrons are going in unimolecular reactions. We focus on electronic motion and show, with HD+ as an example, that one can find non-stationary states where the electron (with some probability...

  6. development of an electronic vehicular traffic signal controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION ... The SCOOT (Split Cycle Offset Optimization Technique) signal control system implements an adaptive ... An electronic traffic signal controller is basically a sequential machine whose operation can be modeled using finite ...

  7. High quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelbloom, A.M.; Hadley, P.; van der Marel, D.; Mooij, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a high quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation developed and tested for the MBE growth of high temperature superconductors. The system can be applied to any electron gun without altering the electron gun itself. Essential elements of the system are a high bandwidth mass spectrometer, control electronics and a high voltage modulator to sweep the electron beam over the melt at high frequencies. the sweep amplitude of the electron beam is used to control the evaporation flux at high frequencies. The feedback loop of the system has a bandwidth of over 100 Hz, which makes it possible to grow superlattices and layered structures in a fast and precisely controlled manner

  8. Design and remote fiber communication of NSRL electron gun controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weibing; Gao Hui; Hong Jun; Chen Jun; Wang Guicheng; He Duohui; Chen Gang

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of pulse electron gun controller for 200 MeV LINAC at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory was introduced in this paper, including the working principle of the pulse electron gun, the applications of I 2 C serial bus and embedded microcontroller in controlling system. The emphasis is on the hardware design of digital controlled current regulator, digital controlled switch voltage source and high voltage pulse power supply. The software design of fiber communication and PC controlling is also presented. The electron gun controller has successfully been used in NSRL. The result shows that it is quite reliable and the performance is good. This electronic digital system has completely replaced the old mechanical control system. (authors)

  9. Modeling and Control of a teletruck using electronic load sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Iversen, Asger Malte; Jensen, Mads Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    system is most commonly controlled using a hydro-mechanical control scheme called Hydraulic Load Sensing (HLS). However, with the demands for increased efficiency and controllability the HLS solutions are reaching their limits. Motivated by availability of electronic controllable fluid power...... components and the potential of increased dynamic performance and efficiency, this paper investigates how HLS can be replaced with electronic control, i.e. Electronic Load Sensing (ELS). The investigation is performed by taking a specific application, a teletruck, and replace the HLS control with ELS. To aid...... the controller design for the ELS system, a complete model of the teletruck’s articulated arm and fluid power system is developed. To show the feasibility, a preliminary control structure for the ELS system is developed. The controller is tested on the machine, validating that features such as pump pressure...

  10. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  11. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heefner, J.W.; Williams, C.W.; Lauze, R.R.; Karsner, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The ECRH Control System was installed on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) in 1980. The system provides approximately 1 MW of 28 GHz microwave power to the TMX-U plasma. The subsystems of ECRH that must be controlled include high-voltage charging supplies, series pass tubes, and magnet supplies. In addition to the devices that must be controlled, many interlocks must be continuously monitored. The previous control system used relay logic and analog controls to operate the system. This approach has many drawbacks such as lack of system flexibility and maintainability. In order to address these problems, it was decided to go with a CAMAC and Modicon based system that uses a Hewlett-Packard 9836C personal computer to replace the previous analog controls. 2 figs

  12. Electronic control system for irradiation probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluza, E.; Neumann, J.; Zahalka, F.

    1980-01-01

    The EROS-78 system for the supply and power control of six heating sections of the irradiation probe of the CHOUCA type placed in the reactor vessel is described. The system allows temperature control at the location of the heat sensor with an accuracy of +-1% of the rated value within the region of 100 to 1000 degC. The equipment is provided with its own quartz controlled clock. The temperature is picked up by a chromel-alumel jacket thermocouple. The power input of the heating elements is thyristor controlled. (J.B.)

  13. The system of RF beam control for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnyakov, A.M.; Levichev, A.E.; Chernousov, Yu.D.; Ivannikov, V.I.; Shebolaev, I.V.

    2015-01-01

    The system of RF control of three-electrode electron gun current is described. It consists of a source of microwave signal, coaxial line, coaxial RF switch and RF antenna lead. The system allows one to get the electron beam in the form of bunches with the frequency of the accelerating section to achieve the capture of particles in the acceleration mode close to 100%. The results of calculation and analysis of the elements of the system are presented. Characteristics of the devices are obtained experimentally. The results of using RF control in three-electrode electron gun at electron linear accelerator are described

  14. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device intended to close a patient's external nares (nostrils) during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (b... from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in part 820...

  15. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang; Cao, Wei; Li, Yuhua; Wang, Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    A new method to coherently control the electron dynamics is proposed using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with a controlling field. It is shown that this method not only broadens the attosecond pulse bandwidth, but also reduces the chirp, then an isolated 80-as pulse is straightforwardly obtained and even shorter pulse is achievable by increasing the intensity of the controlling field. Such ultrashort pulses allow one to investigate ultrafast electronic processes which have never be a...

  16. An Electron-Beam Controlled Semiconductor Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    of the Seventeenth Power Modulator Symposium, Seattle, WA, pp. 214-218. 1986. 21. Bovino , L., ’ioumans,R., Weiner, H., Burke, T . , "Optica lly... Bovino , R. Youmans, M. Weiner, and T. Burke, ’ ’Optically Co ntrolled Semiconducto r Switch for ~lulti-~legawatt Rep-Rated Pulse r s ," Conf. Record...p. 615. (II 1 W. N. Carr, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-12, p. 531 , 1965. (121 T. Burke, M. Weiner. L. Bovino , and R. Youmans, in Proc

  17. Attosecond control of electron beams at dielectric and absorbing membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuya; Baum, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Ultrashort electron pulses are crucial for time-resolved electron diffraction and microscopy of the fundamental light-matter interaction. In this work, we study experimentally and theoretically the generation and characterization of attosecond electron pulses by optical-field-driven compression and streaking at dielectric or absorbing interaction elements. The achievable acceleration and deflection gradient depends on the laser-electron angle, the laser's electric and magnetic field directions, and the foil orientation. Electric and magnetic fields have similar contributions to the final effect and both need to be considered. Experiments and theory agree well and reveal the optimum conditions for highly efficient, velocity-matched electron-field interactions in the longitudinal or transverse direction. We find that metallic membranes are optimum for light-electron control at mid-infrared or terahertz wavelengths, but dielectric membranes are excellent in the visible and near-infrared regimes and are therefore ideal for the formation of attosecond electron pulses.

  18. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or... Design Features The Gulfstream Model GVI airplane has an electronic flight control system and no direct... impending control surface limiting, piloted or auto-flight system control of the airplane might be...

  19. Electron Gun for Computer-controlled Welding of Small Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupák, Jan; Vlček, Ivan; Zobač, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 62, 2-3 (2001), s. 159-164 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2065015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : Electron beam-welding machine * Electron gun * Computer- control led beam Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2001

  20. Engineered Surfaces to Control Secondary Electron Yield for Multipactor Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Air Force Institute of Technology AFIT Scholar Theses and Dissertations 9-14-2017 Engineered Surfaces to Control Secondary Electron Yield for...Multipactor Suppression James M. Sattler Follow this and additional works at: https://scholar.afit.edu/etd Part of the Electrical and Electronics Commons... TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

  1. Electronic Monitoring and Family Control in Probation and Parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, James F.; Holman, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Examined effects of electronic monitoring on family's contribution to external constraint of felony offenders under community supervision. Data from probationers and parolees (n=121) indicated that reported levels of family control did not change significantly during three months of electronic monitoring. Demographic variables, offense type, and…

  2. Atto-second control of collective electron motion in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borot, Antonin; Malvache, Arnaud; Chen, Xiaowei; Jullien, Aurelie; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Geindre, Jean-Paul; Audebert, Patrick; Mourou, Gerard; Quere, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Today, light fields of controlled and measured waveform can be used to guide electron motion in atoms and molecules with atto-second precision. Here, we demonstrate atto-second control of collective electron motion in plasmas driven by extreme intensity (approximate to 10 18 W cm -2 ) light fields. Controlled few-cycle near-infrared waves are tightly focused at the interface between vacuum and a solid-density plasma, where they launch and guide sub-cycle motion of electrons from the plasma with characteristic energies in the multi-kilo-electron-volt range-two orders of magnitude more than has been achieved so far in atoms and molecules. The basic spectroscopy of the coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation emerging from the light-plasma interaction allows us to probe this collective motion of charge with sub-200 as resolution. This is an important step towards atto-second control of charge dynamics in laser-driven plasma experiments. (authors)

  3. A control system for a free electron laser experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giove, D.

    1992-01-01

    The general layout of a control and data acquisition system for a Free Electron Laser experiment will be discussed. Some general considerations about the requirements and the architecture of the whole system will be developed. (author)

  4. Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study that assessed and compared six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systems. These standards include ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - ...

  5. Controlling front-end electronics boards using commercial solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Beneyton, R; Jost, B; Schmeling, S

    2002-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated B-physics experiment under construction at CERN's large hadron collider (LHC) accelerator. This paper will describe the novel approach LHCb is taking toward controlling and monitoring of electronics boards. Instead of using the bus in a crate to exercise control over the boards, we use credit-card sized personal computers (CCPCs) connected via Ethernet to cheap control PCs. The CCPCs will provide a simple parallel, I2C, and JTAG buses toward the electronics board. Each board will be equipped with a CCPC and, hence, will be completely independently controlled. The advantages of this scheme versus the traditional bus-based scheme will be described. Also, the integration of the controls of the electronics boards into a commercial supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system will be shown. (5 refs).

  6. Chaotic behaviour and controlling chaos in free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenjie; Chen Shigang; Du Xiangwan; Wang Guangrui

    1995-01-01

    Chaos in free electron lasers (FEL) is reviewed. Special attention has been paid to the chaotic behaviour of the electrons and the laser field. The problem of controlling and utilizing chaotic motion of the electrons and the laser field has also been discussed. In order to find out the rules of instability and chaos in FEL, some typical methods of the chaotic theory are used. These methods include making the Poincare surface of section, drawing the phase space diagrams of the electron orbits, calculating the Liapunov exponents, and computing the power spectrum, etc. Finally, some problems in FEL research are discussed (103 refs., 54 figs.)

  7. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  8. Laboratory electron exposure of TSS-1 thermal control coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Mccollum, M.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    RM400, a conductive thermal control coating, was developed for use on the exterior shell of the tethered satellite. Testing was performed by the Engineering Physics Division to quantify effects of the space environment on this coating and its conductive and optical properties. Included in this testing was exposure of RM400 to electrons with energies ranging from 0.1 to 1 keV, to simulate electrons accelerated from the ambient space plasma when the tethered satellite is fully deployed. During this testing, the coating was found to luminesce, and a prolonged exposure of the coating to high-energy electrons caused the coating to darken. This report describes the tests done to quantify the degradation of the thermal control properties caused by electron exposure and to measure the luminescence as a function of electron energy and current density to the satellite.

  9. Electronic circuit for control rod attracting electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention provides a discharging circuit for control rod attracting electromagnet used for a reactor which is highly reliable and has high performance. The resistor of the circuit comprises a non-linear resistor element and a blocking rectification element connected in series. The discharging circuit can be prevented from short-circuit by selecting a resistor having a resistance value about ten times as great as the coil resistance, even in a case where the blocking rectification element and the non-linear resistor element are failed. Accordingly, reduction of attracting force and the increase of scream releasing time can be minimized. (I.S.)

  10. Advanced and intelligent control in power electronics and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Rodríguez, José

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics and variable frequency drives are continuously developing multidisciplinary fields in electrical engineering, and it is practically not possible to write a book covering the entire area by one individual specialist. Especially by taking account the recent fast development in the neighboring fields like control theory, computational intelligence and signal processing, which all strongly influence new solutions in control of power electronics and drives. Therefore, this book is written by individual key specialist working on the area of modern advanced control methods which penetrates current implementation of power converters and drives. Although some of the presented methods are still not adopted by industry, they create new solutions with high further research and application potential. The material of the book is presented in the following three parts: Part I: Advanced Power Electronic Control in Renewable Energy Sources (Chapters 1-4), Part II: Predictive Control of Power Converters and D...

  11. Development of control system for the electron gun modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Nagasawa, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Hanaki, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing a compact and inexpensive electron gun modulator for the SPring-8 Linac. The modulator was redesigned and manufactured to achieve good maintainability and high controllability. A control system of the modulator and a high voltage station is composed mainly of PLCs as a controller and touch panels for human interface. This simplified construction will result in enhancement of its reliability. The rich graphical user interface on the touch panels greatly extends the function of the control system. (author)

  12. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  13. Gated-controlled electron pumping in connected quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.P.A.; Domínguez-Adame, F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the electronic transport across connected quantum rings attached to leads and subjected to time-harmonic side-gate voltages. Using the Floquet formalism, we calculate the net pumped current generated and controlled by the side-gate voltage. The control of the current is achieved by varying the phase shift between the two side-gate voltages as well as the Fermi energy. In particular, the maximum current is reached when the side-gate voltages are in quadrature. This new design based on connected quantum rings controlled without magnetic fields can be easily integrated in standard electronic devices. - Highlights: • We introduce and study a minimal setup to pump electrons through connected quantum rings. • Quantum pumping is achieved by time-harmonic side-gate voltages instead of the more conventional time-dependent magnetic fluxes. • Our new design could be easily integrated in standard electronic devices

  14. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  15. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2018-01-30

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  16. Dose controlled low energy electron irradiator for biomolecular films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S V K; Tare, Satej T; Upalekar, Yogesh V; Tsering, Thupten

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a multi target, Low Energy Electron (LEE), precise dose controlled irradiator for biomolecular films. Up to seven samples can be irradiated one after another at any preset electron energy and dose under UHV conditions without venting the chamber. In addition, one more sample goes through all the steps except irradiation, which can be used as control for comparison with the irradiated samples. All the samples are protected against stray electron irradiation by biasing them at -20 V during the entire period, except during irradiation. Ethernet based communication electronics hardware, LEE beam control electronics and computer interface were developed in house. The user Graphical User Interface to control the irradiation and dose measurement was developed using National Instruments Lab Windows CVI. The working and reliability of the dose controlled irradiator has been fully tested over the electron energy range of 0.5 to 500 eV by studying LEE induced single strand breaks to ΦX174 RF1 dsDNA.

  17. Dose controlled low energy electron irradiator for biomolecular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. V. K., E-mail: svkk@tifr.res.in; Tare, Satej T.; Upalekar, Yogesh V.; Tsering, Thupten [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2016-03-15

    We have developed a multi target, Low Energy Electron (LEE), precise dose controlled irradiator for biomolecular films. Up to seven samples can be irradiated one after another at any preset electron energy and dose under UHV conditions without venting the chamber. In addition, one more sample goes through all the steps except irradiation, which can be used as control for comparison with the irradiated samples. All the samples are protected against stray electron irradiation by biasing them at −20 V during the entire period, except during irradiation. Ethernet based communication electronics hardware, LEE beam control electronics and computer interface were developed in house. The user Graphical User Interface to control the irradiation and dose measurement was developed using National Instruments Lab Windows CVI. The working and reliability of the dose controlled irradiator has been fully tested over the electron energy range of 0.5 to 500 eV by studying LEE induced single strand breaks to ΦX174 RF1 dsDNA.

  18. Coherent control of single electrons: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuerle, Christopher; Glattli, D. Christian; Meunier, Tristan; Portier, Fabien; Roche, Patrice; Roulleau, Preden; Takada, Shintaro; Waintal, Xavier

    2018-05-01

    In this report we review the present state of the art of the control of propagating quantum states at the single-electron level and its potential application to quantum information processing. We give an overview of the different approaches that have been developed over the last few years in order to gain full control over a propagating single-electron in a solid-state system. After a brief introduction of the basic concepts, we present experiments on flying qubit circuits for ensemble of electrons measured in the low frequency (DC) limit. We then present the basic ingredients necessary to realise such experiments at the single-electron level. This includes a review of the various single-electron sources that have been developed over the last years and which are compatible with integrated single-electron circuits. This is followed by a review of recent key experiments on electron quantum optics with single electrons. Finally we will present recent developments in the new physics that has emerged using ultrashort voltage pulses. We conclude our review with an outlook and future challenges in the field.

  19. Method’s and Test Stand for Electronic PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents method’s and a testing stand for electronic controller using for this a signal generator and a digital oscilloscope respectively the virtual instrumentation and the signal acquisitions from the controllers input and output through an data acquisition board and an PC on that Lab View program runs.

  20. White-Nose Syndrome of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Martin J. Pfeiffer; Daniel L. Lindner

    2016-01-01

    Devastating. Catastrophic. Unprecedented. This is how white-nose syndrome of bats (WNS) is characterized. It is one of the deadliest wildlife diseases ever observed and could have significant impacts on outdoor recreation, agriculture and wildlife management.

  1. Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    A method to coherently control electron dynamics is proposed using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with a controlling field. It is shown that this method not only broadens the attosecond pulse bandwidth, but also reduces the chirp; thus an isolated 80-as pulse is straightforwardly obtained, and even shorter pulses are achievable by increasing the intensity of the controlling field. Such ultrashort pulses allow one to investigate ultrafast electronic processes. In addition, the few-cycle synthesized pulse is expected to be useful for manipulating a wide range of laser-atom interactions

  2. A computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. IV: Electronic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, Benedick A.; McShan, Daniel L.; Matrone, Gwynne M.; Weaver, Tamar A.; Lewis, James D.; Kessler, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The design and implementation of a system for electronically tracking relevant plan, prescription, and treatment data for computer-controlled conformal radiation therapy is described. Methods and Materials: The electronic charting system is implemented on a computer cluster coupled by high-speed networks to computer-controlled therapy machines. A methodical approach to the specification and design of an integrated solution has been used in developing the system. The electronic chart system is designed to allow identification and access of patient-specific data including treatment-planning data, treatment prescription information, and charting of doses. An in-house developed database system is used to provide an integrated approach to the database requirements of the design. A hierarchy of databases is used for both centralization and distribution of the treatment data for specific treatment machines. Results: The basic electronic database system has been implemented and has been in use since July 1993. The system has been used to download and manage treatment data on all patients treated on our first fully computer-controlled treatment machine. To date, electronic dose charting functions have not been fully implemented clinically, requiring the continued use of paper charting for dose tracking. Conclusions: The routine clinical application of complex computer-controlled conformal treatment procedures requires the management of large quantities of information for describing and tracking treatments. An integrated and comprehensive approach to this problem has led to a full electronic chart for conformal radiation therapy treatments

  3. Nosing Around: Play in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Horback

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of measuring welfare in swine focuses on overt physical ailments, such as skin lesions, lameness, and body condition. An alternative metric for assessing welfare in swine can be to measure the frequency and duration of positive behavioral states, such as play. Given that play occurs only when an animal's primary needs (food, comfort, safety, etc. have been satisfied, it has been suggested that play may be a sensitive indicator for assessing the welfare of non-human animals. Play has primarily been described in young piglets and is assessed via the occurrence of specific play markers. These play markers include overt bursts of energy like scamper, or more subtle social behaviors like nose-to-body contact. This review describes four areas of play for swine: locomotor, object, sow-piglet, and, peer play. From sporadic leaping to combative wrestling, play behavior allows for the fine-tuning of reflexive behavior which can enhance physical development, enrich cognitive abilities, and facilitate the maintenance of social bonds.

  4. Quality control of the documentation process in electronic economic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova A.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the main tool that will provide adequate information resources e economic activities of social and economic relations are documenting quality control processes as the basis of global information space. Directions problems as formation evaluation information resources in the process of documentation, namely development tools assess the efficiency of the system components – qualitative assessment; development of mathematical modeling tools – quantitative evaluation. A qualitative assessment of electronic documentation of economic activity through exercise performance, efficiency of communication; document management efficiency; effectiveness of flow control operations; relationship management effectiveness. The concept of quality control process documents electronically economic activity to components which include: the level of workflow; forms adequacy of information; consumer quality documents; quality attributes; type of income data; condition monitoring systems; organizational level process documentation; attributes of quality, performance quality consumer; type of management system; type of income data; condition monitoring systems. Grounded components of the control system electronic document subjects of economic activity. Detected components IT-audit management system economic activity: compliance audit; audit of internal control; detailed multilevel analysis; corporate risk assessment methodology. The stages and methods of processing electronic transactions economic activity during condition monitoring of electronic economic activity.

  5. Electron energy distribution function control in gas discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godyak, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and electron temperature in low temperature gas discharge plasmas is analyzed in frames of local and non-local electron kinetics. It is shown, that contrary to the local case, typical for plasma in uniform electric field, there is the possibility for EEDF modification, at the condition of non-local electron kinetics in strongly non-uniform electric fields. Such conditions “naturally” occur in some self-organized steady state dc and rf discharge plasmas, and they suggest the variety of artificial methods for EEDF modification. EEDF modification and electron temperature control in non-equilibrium conditions occurring naturally and those stimulated by different kinds of plasma disturbances are illustrated with numerous experiments. The necessary conditions for EEDF modification in gas discharge plasmas are formulated

  6. Laser pulse control of bridge mediated heterogeneous electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Luxia; May, Volkhard

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer from surface attached dye molecules into semiconductor band states is analyzed. The focus is on systems where the dye is separated from the surface by different bridge anchor groups. To simulate the full quantum dynamics of the transfer process a model of reduced dimensionality is used. It comprises the electronic levels of the dye, the bridge anchor group electronic levels and the continuum of semiconductor band states, all defined versus a single intramolecular vibrational coordinate. The effect of the bridge states is demonstrated, firstly, in studying the injection dynamics following an impulsive excitation of the dye. Then, by discussing different control tasks it is demonstrate in which way the charge injection process can be influenced by tailored laser pulses. To highlight the importance of electron wave function interference emphasis is put on asymmetric two-bridge molecule systems which are also characterized by different and complex valued electronic transfer matrix elements.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of an electronic informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Wong, Bob; Rose, Nancy C; Anderson, Rebecca; Fedor, Beth; Stark, Louisa A; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2014-12-01

    A pilot study assessed an electronic informed consent model within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants who were recruited for the parent RCT project were randomly selected and randomized to either an electronic consent group (n = 32) or a simplified paper-based consent group (n = 30). Results from the electronic consent group reported significantly higher understanding of the purpose of the study, alternatives to participation, and who to contact if they had questions or concerns about the study. However, participants in the paper-based control group reported higher mean scores on some survey items. This research suggests that an electronic informed consent presentation may improve participant understanding for some aspects of a research study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. [Basal cell carcinoma of the nose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallot, T; Raulo, Y; Zeller, J; Faivre, J M; Horn, G; Baruch, J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study of 81 patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the nose was to present the oncological and cosmetic results of surgical treatment and compare these results with those of other possible treatments. We report a series of 81 cases of histologically proven BCC of the nose located chiefly on the alae nasi and on the lower end of this organ; 42 p. 100 of the tumors had previously been treated and had recurred. The patients' mean age was 63 years, and the shortest follow-up was 3 years. Excision of the tumor under simple or reinforced local anaesthesia was complete in 88 p. 100 of the cases, incomplete or borderline in 12 p. 100 and systematically repeated. Extemporaneous histological examination was performed in 18 p. 100 of the cases. The operative lesion was repaired with a graft or a flap. There was no postsurgical treatment. The recurrence rate was 4 p. 100 with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. The cosmetic result was good in 78 p. 100 of the patients. Numerous treatments have been used against BCC of the nose, the results, advantages and disadvantages of each of these treatments are given below: 1. Cryosurgery. The problem with this method is that it is relatively difficult to perform and requires reliable operators. The cure rate is similar to that of other treatments. 2. Chemotherapy is not frequently used. 3. Electrocoagulation. Contrary to the conventional excision, this method precludes all histological controls, and the common idea of good oncological results is now being revised. 4. Radiotherapy. The recurrence rate varies from 7 to 11.8 p. 100 with fair cosmetic results. It requires numerous sessions, cannot be repeated in case of recurrence and complicates the surgical treatment. In addition, there is a long-term risk of radiodystrophy. 5. Curietherapy by local implantation of 192Iridium has a recurrence rate of 2.5 to 7 p. 100. This treatment requires hospitalization and is costly. It is indicated in cases of complex surgery

  9. Adaptation and validation of the Dutch version of the nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijl, Floris V W J; Timman, Reinier; Datema, Frank R

    2017-06-01

    The nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale is a validated disease-specific, self-completed questionnaire for the assessment of quality of life related to nasal obstruction. The aim of this study was to validate the Dutch (NL-NOSE) questionnaire. A prospective instrument validation study was performed in a tertiary academic referral center. Guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation process from the original English language scale into a Dutch language version were followed. Patients undergoing functional septoplasty or septorhinoplasty and asymptomatic controls completed the questionnaire both before and 3 months after surgery to test reliability and validity. Additionally, we explored the possibility to reduce the NOSE scale even further using graded response models. 129 patients and 50 controls were included. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.82) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.89) were good. The instrument showed excellent between-group discrimination (Mann-Whitney U = 85, p Dutch version of the NOSE (NL-NOSE) demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity. We recommend the use of the NL-NOSE as a validated instrument to measure subjective severity of nasal obstruction in Dutch adult patients.

  10. Monitoring and control system of the Saclay electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafontaine, Antoine

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the automatic monitoring and control system of the 60MeV electron linear accelerator of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. The paper is mostly concerned with the programmation of the system. However, in a real time device, there is a very close association between computer and electronics, the latter are therefore described in details and make up most of the paper. [fr

  11. Nano Electronics on Atomically Controlled van der Waals Quantum Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0012 Nano Electronics on Atomically Controlled van der Waals Quantum Heterostructures PHILIP Kim HARVARD COLLEGE PRESIDENT...21-02-2018 2.  REPORT TYPE      Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      15 Aug 2015 to 14 Feb 2017 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nano Electronics on...NOTES 14.  ABSTRACT We report molecular beam epitaxial growth and electronic transport properties of high quality topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films

  12. Characterization and control of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) open up new frontiers in photon science, and in order to take full advantage of these unique accelerator-based light sources, the characterization and control of the femtosecond electron and X-ray beams is essential. Within this cumulative thesis, recent results achieved within the active research field of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at FELs are reported.The basic principles of X-ray FELs are described, and concepts of longitudinal electron beam diagnostics with femtosecond accuracy are covered. Experimental results obtained with a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) and spectroscopy of coherent terahertz radiation are presented, and the suppression of coherent optical radiation effects, required for diagnostics utilizing a TDS, is demonstrated. Control of the longitudinal phase space by using multiple radio frequencies for longitudinal electron beam tailoring is presented, and a new technique of reversible electron beam heating with two TDSs is described. For the characterization of femtosecond X-ray pulses, a novel method based on dedicated longitudinal phase space diagnostics for electron beams is introduced, and recent measurements with a streaking technique using external terahertz fields are presented.

  13. Characterization and control of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2012-11-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) open up new frontiers in photon science, and in order to take full advantage of these unique accelerator-based light sources, the characterization and control of the femtosecond electron and X-ray beams is essential. Within this cumulative thesis, recent results achieved within the active research field of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at FELs are reported.The basic principles of X-ray FELs are described, and concepts of longitudinal electron beam diagnostics with femtosecond accuracy are covered. Experimental results obtained with a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) and spectroscopy of coherent terahertz radiation are presented, and the suppression of coherent optical radiation effects, required for diagnostics utilizing a TDS, is demonstrated. Control of the longitudinal phase space by using multiple radio frequencies for longitudinal electron beam tailoring is presented, and a new technique of reversible electron beam heating with two TDSs is described. For the characterization of femtosecond X-ray pulses, a novel method based on dedicated longitudinal phase space diagnostics for electron beams is introduced, and recent measurements with a streaking technique using external terahertz fields are presented.

  14. A first approach to runaway electron control in FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncagni, L.; Carnevale, D.; Cianfarani, C.; Esposito, B.; Granucci, G.; Maddaluno, G.; Marocco, D.; Martin-Solis, J.R.; Pucella, G.; Sozzi, C.; Varano, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Plasma Control System (PCS) of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is not equipped with any runaway electron (RE) beam control or suppression tool. In this paper we propose an upgraded PCS including an architecture for the control of disruption-generated REs that, making use of filtering techniques to estimate the onsets of the current quench (CQ) and of the RE beam current plateau, provides a controlled plasma current shut-down and a simultaneous RE position control. The control strategy is based on a nonlinear technique, called Input Allocation, that allows to re-configure the current in the poloidal field (PF) coils and improve the PCS responsiveness needed for RE position control. Preliminary results on the implementation of the Input Allocation and an experimental proposal to test the control scheme architecture are discussed

  15. A first approach to runaway electron control in FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Carnevale, D., E-mail: carnevaledaniele@gmail.com [Dipartimento Ing. Civile ed Ing. Informatica Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cianfarani, C.; Esposito, B. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Granucci, G. [Associazione Euratom-CNR sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Maddaluno, G.; Marocco, D. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Martin-Solis, J.R. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes-Madrid (Spain); Pucella, G. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Sozzi, C. [Associazione Euratom-CNR sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Varano, G. [Dipartimento Ing. Civile ed Ing. Informatica Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Vitale, V. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 av. du colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Univ. de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-10-15

    The Plasma Control System (PCS) of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is not equipped with any runaway electron (RE) beam control or suppression tool. In this paper we propose an upgraded PCS including an architecture for the control of disruption-generated REs that, making use of filtering techniques to estimate the onsets of the current quench (CQ) and of the RE beam current plateau, provides a controlled plasma current shut-down and a simultaneous RE position control. The control strategy is based on a nonlinear technique, called Input Allocation, that allows to re-configure the current in the poloidal field (PF) coils and improve the PCS responsiveness needed for RE position control. Preliminary results on the implementation of the Input Allocation and an experimental proposal to test the control scheme architecture are discussed.

  16. Optical polarimeter based on Fourier analysis and electronic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilardy, J; Salas, V.; Torres, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show the design and implementation of an optical polarimeter using electronic control and the Fourier analysis. The polarimeter prototype will be used as a main tool for the students of the Universidad Popular del Cesar that belong to the following university programs: Electronics engineering (optoelectronics area), Math and Physics degree and the Master in Physics Sciences, in order to learning the theory and experimental aspects of the state of optical polarization via the Stokes vector measurement. Using the electronic polarimeter proposed in this paper, the students will be able to observe (in an optical bench) and understand the different interactions of the states of optical polarization when the optical waves pass through to the polarizers and retarder waves plates. The electronic polarimeter has a software that captures the optical intensity measurement and evaluates the Stokes vector. (Author)

  17. Two-process approach to electron beam welding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lastovirya, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and synthesis of multi-dimensional welding control systems, which require the usage of computers, should be conducted within the temporal range. From the general control theory point two approaches - one-process and two-process - are possible to electron beam welding. In case of two-process approach, subprocesses of heat source formation and direct metal melting are separated. Two-process approach leads to two-profile control system and provides the complete controlability of electron beam welding within the frameworks of systems with concentrated, as well as, with distributed parameters. Approach choice for the given problem solution is determined, first of all, by stability degree of heat source during welding

  18. Help system for control of JAERI FEL (Free Electron laser)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi

    1993-01-01

    The control system of JAERI FEL (Free Electron Laser) has a help system to provide the information necessary to operate the machine and to develop the new user interface. As the control software is constructed on the MS-Windows 3.x, the hyper-text feature of the Windows help system can be accessed. It consists of three major parts: (1) on-line help, (2) full document, and (3) tutorial system. (author)

  19. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Monmasson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

  20. Control-grid electron gun as a source of modulated electron beam for a collective accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakumenko, A.A.; Belikov, V.V.; Zvyagintsev, A.V.; Lyul'chenko, V.I.; Lymar', A.G.; Martynenko, P.A.; Suryadnyj, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Structure is described and experimental results of investigations into an electron gun with transverse beam compression and control grid are presented. The pulse trailing edge is formed by a sectioned discharger. A modulated electron beam with the following parameters: 110 keV beam energy, 70 A current amplitude, 3-8 MHz modulation frequency, 100% modulation depth, ≅8-6 mm minimal beam diameter, ≅ 10μs pulse duration, 3% pulse top non-uniformity, more than 200 compression degree is obtained when introducing the positive feedback in auto-generator regime to the gun supply circuit. Further it is supposed to use the developed electron gun for heavy ion acceleration by a field of space charge of a modulated electron beam in a corrugated liner. It should be underlined that power supply of such an accelerator does not require powerful outside HF generator. 5 refs.; 1 fig

  1. Radiosterilization process control in plants using electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuglik, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam parameters deciding the irradiation dose in radiosterilization plants should be continuously controlled during the process. Dosimetric procedure suitable to irradiated material and dose range should be chosen. The practical advice and directions in this subject have been done. 7 refs

  2. 21 CFR 11.200 - Electronic signature components and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... signature components and controls. (a) Electronic signatures that are not based upon biometrics shall: (1) Employ at least two distinct identification components such as an identification code and password. (i... signatures based upon biometrics shall be designed to ensure that they cannot be used by anyone other than...

  3. 75 FR 16235 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... mature standard for the formatting of prescription data, most electronic prescriptions are routed from... prescriptions prior to granting access to sign such prescriptions, two-factor authentication including a hard... practitioner can retain control of a biometric or hard token. Authentication based only on knowledge factors is...

  4. Electronic Performance Monitoring: An Organizational Justice and Concertive Control Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, G. Stoney; Tompkins, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Applies theories of organizational justice/concertive control to account for contradictions inherent in electronic monitoring of workers by organizations. Argues that results are usually positive when workers are involved in the design and implementation of monitoring systems, and monitoring is restricted to performance-related activities with…

  5. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fatih Adak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC, which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  6. Palm Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Control Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Douglas E.; Holliday, Ezekiel

    2007-01-01

    A prototype 35We, JP-8 fueled, soldier-wearable power system for the DARPA Palm Power program has been developed and tested by Sunpower. A hermetically-sealed 42We Sunpower Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) with integral linear alternator is the prime mover for this system. To maximize system efficiency over a broad range of output power, a non-dissipative, highly efficient electronic control system which modulates engine output power by varying piston stroke and converts the AC output voltage of the FPSE into 28Vdc for the Palm Power end user, has been designed and demonstrated as an integral component of the Palm Power system. This paper reviews the current status and progress made in developing the control electronics for the Palm Power system, in addition to describing the operation and demonstrated performance of the engine controller in the context of the current JP-8 fueled Palm Power system.

  7. Supply system with microprocessor control for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplin, N.I.; Sergeev, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Precision supply system for electron gun used in Auger-spectrometer is described. The supply system consists of control and high-voltage parts, made as separate units. Supply high-voltage unit includes system supply module, filament module to supply electron gun cathode and 6 high-volt modules to supply accelerating, modulating and three focusing electrodes of the gun. High-voltage modules have the following characteristics: U-(100-1000)V output voltage, 5x10 -5 U stability, 10 -5 xU pulsation amplitude, J-(0-5)A filament current change range at 10 -4 xJ stability. Control unit including microprocessor, timer and storage devices forms control voltage for all modules and regulates voltage and current of filament at electrodes

  8. Control system by the technological electron Linac KUT-20

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, Y I; Gurin, V A; Demidov, N V

    2001-01-01

    The high-power technological electron linac KUT-20 was developed at the Science Research Complex 'Accelerator' of NSC KIPT. The linac consists of two 1.2 m length accelerating structures with a variable geometry and an injector. The latter comprises a diode electron gun,a klystron type buncher and an accelerating cavity.With a RF supply power at accelerating structure entries of 11 MW and with a current at the accelerator exit of 1A,the beam energy will be up to 20 MeV.An average beam power is planned to be 20 kW.All systems of the accelerator are controlled by a computerised control system. The program and technical complex consist of PC equipped with fast ADC control console, synchronization unit, microprocessor-operated complexes.

  9. Speed Control of General Purpose Engine with Electronic Governor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawut, Umerujan; Tohti, Gheyret; Takigawa, Buso; Tsuji, Teruo

    This paper presents a general purpose engine speed control system with an electronic governor in order to improve the current system with a mechanical governor which shows unstable characteristics by change of mecanical friction or A/F ratio (Air/Fuel ratio). For the control system above, there are problems that the feedback signal is only a crank angle because of cost and the controlled object is a general purpose engine which is strongly nonlinear. In order to overcome these problems, the system model is shown for the dynamic estimation of the amount of air flow and the robust controller is designed. That is, the proposed system includes the robust sliding-mode controller by the feedback signal of only a crank angle where Genetic Algorithm is applied for the controller design. The simulation and the experiments by MATLAB/Simulink are performed to show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  10. Advance of Mechanically Controllable Break Junction for Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Xiang, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Molecular electronics stands for the ultimate size of functional elements, keeping up with an unstoppable trend over the past few decades. As a vital component of molecular electronics, single molecular junctions have attracted significant attention from research groups all over the world. Due to its pronounced superiority, the mechanically controllable break junctions (MCBJ) technique has been widely applied to characterize the dynamic performance of single molecular junctions. This review presents a system analysis for single-molecule junctions and offers an overview of four test-beds for single-molecule junctions, thus offering more insight into the mechanisms of electron transport. We mainly focus on the development of state-of-the-art mechanically controlled break junctions. The three-terminal gated MCBJ approaches are introduced to manipulate the electron transport of molecules, and MCBJs are combined with characterization techniques. Additionally, applications of MCBJs and remarkable properties of single molecules are addressed. Finally, the challenges and perspective for the mechanically controllable break junctions technique are provided.

  11. Implementation to spanish protocol of quality control of accelerators to daily control of electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaimi Hernandez, P.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Diaz Fuente, R.; Ferrando Sanchez, A.

    2011-01-01

    A revised procedure for daily control of the electron beams to make measurements more meaningful physically, having a better reproducibility and more in line with the recommendations of the Spanish Protocol for Quality Control in Electron Linear Accelerators Clinical Use. The daily quality control beams of high energy electrons that had been done so far was the finding that the record of a series of measures (symmetry, uniformity, stability, energy, beam central dose) were within tolerance values established. The amendment is to check the beam quality by directly measuring changes in absorption depth at which the dose is reduced to half its maximum value, R50.

  12. Techniques for increasing the reliability of accelerator control system electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utterback, J.

    1993-09-01

    As the physical size of modern accelerators becomes larger and larger, the number of required control system circuit boards increases, and the probability of one of those circuit boards failing while in service also increases. In order to do physics, the experimenters need the accelerator to provide beam reliably with as little down time as possible. With the advent of colliding beams physics, reliability becomes even more important due to the fact that a control system failure can cause the loss of painstakingly produced antiprotons. These facts prove the importance of keeping reliability in mind when designing and maintaining accelerator control system electronics

  13. ASIL determination for motorbike's Electronics Throttle Control System (ETCS) mulfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman Rokhani, Fakhrul; Rahman, Muhammad Taqiuddin Abdul; Ain Kamsani, Noor; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Saripan, M. Iqbal; Samsudin, Khairulmizam; Khair Hassan, Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Electronics Throttle Control System (ETCS) is the principal electronic unit in all fuel injection engine motorbike, augmenting the engine performance efficiency in comparison to the conventional carburetor based engine. ETCS is regarded as a safety-critical component, whereby ETCS malfunction can cause unintended acceleration or deceleration event, which can be hazardous to riders. In this study, Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment, an ISO26262 functional safety standard analysis has been applied on motorbike's ETCS to determine the required automotive safety integrity level. Based on the analysis, the established automotive safety integrity level can help to derive technical and functional safety measures for ETCS development.

  14. Runaway electron beam control for longitudinally pumped metal vapor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbychev, G. V.; Kolbycheva, P. D.

    1995-08-01

    Physics and techniques for producing of the pulsed runaway electron beams are considered. The main obstacle for increasing electron energies in the beams is revealed to be a self- breakdown of the e-gun's gas-filled diode. Two methods to suppress the self-breakdown and enhance the volumetric discharge producing the e-beam are offered and examined. Each of them provides 1.5 fold increase of the ceiling potential on the gun. The methods also give the ways to control several guns simultaneously. Resulting in the possibility of realizing the powerful longitudinal pumping of metal-vapor lasers on self-terminated transitions of atoms or ions.

  15. Electron precipitation control of the Mars nightside ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, R. J.; Girazian, Z.; Mitchell, D. L.; Adams, D.; Xu, S.; Benna, M.; Elrod, M. K.; Larson, D. E.; McFadden, J. P.; Andersson, L.; Fowler, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The nightside ionosphere of Mars is known to be highly variable, with densities varying substantially with ion species, solar zenith angle, solar wind conditions and geographic location. The factors that control its structure include neutral densities, day-night plasma transport, plasma temperatures, dynamo current systems driven by neutral winds, solar energetic particle events, superthermal electron precipitation, chemical reaction rates and the strength, geometry and topology of crustal magnetic fields. The MAVEN mission has been the first to systematically sample the nightside ionosphere by species, showing that shorter-lived species such as CO2+ and O+ are more correlated with electron precipitation flux than longer lived species such as O2+ and NO+, as would be expected, and is shown in the figure below from Girazian et al. [2017, under review at Geophysical Research Letters]. In this study we use electron pitch-angle and energy spectra from the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) instruments, ion and neutral densities from the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS), electron densities and temperatures from the Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) instrument, as well as electron-neutral ionization cross-sections. We present a comprehensive statistical study of electron precipitation on the Martian nightside and its effect on the vertical, local-time and geographic structure and composition of the ionosphere, over three years of MAVEN observations. We also calculate insitu electron impact ionization rates and compare with ion densities to judge the applicability of photochemical models of the formation and maintenance of the nightside ionosphere. Lastly, we show how this applicability varies with altitude and is affected by ion transport measured by the Suprathermal and thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument.

  16. Externally Controlled Injection of Electrons by a Laser Pulse in a Laser Wakefield Electron Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Szu Yuan; Chen Wei Ting; Chien, Ting-Yei; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Wang, Jyhpyng

    2005-01-01

    Spatially and temporally localized injection of electrons is a key element for development of plasma-wave electron accelerator. Here we report the demonstration of two different schemes for electron injection in a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SM-LWFA) by using a laser pulse. In the first scheme, by implementing a copropagating laser prepulse with proper timing, we are able to control the growth of Raman forward scattering and the production of accelerated electrons. We found that the stimulated Raman backward scattering of the prepulse plays the essential role of injecting hot electrons into the fast plasma wave driven by the pump pulse. In the second scheme, by using a transient density ramp we achieve self-injection of electrons in a SM-LWFA with spatial localization. The transient density ramp is produced by a prepulse propagating transversely to drill a density depression channel via ionization and expansion. The same mechanism of injection with comparable efficiency is also demonstrated wi...

  17. Mechanism of enhancement of controllable secondary-electron emission from fast single electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorikyan, M.P.; Kavalov, R.L.; Trofimchuk, N.N.; Arvanov, A.N.; Gavalyan, V.G.

    For porous KCl films (density approximately 2 percent, thickness 50-400 μm), the controllable secondary electron emission (CSEE) from fast single electrons with energies of 0.7-2 MeV was studied. An electric field E of approximately 10 4 -10 5 V/cm was set up inside the porous films and the emission curves anti sigma = f(E) and the energy spectra of the secondary electrons were measured. The mean emission coefficient anti sigma increases with increasing E, reaching a value of anti sigma approximately equal to 230. Internal enhancement of CSEE under the action of the E field is explained by a process similar to the Townsend semi-self-maintained discharge in gases. The mean free path L/sub e/ of the secondary electrons estimated on the basis of this mechanism of CSEE enhancement is in good agreement with the L/sub e/ value obtained independently from the energy spectra of the secondary electrons. The report examines the effect of the first critical potential U/sub il/ and of the electron affinity of the dielectric α on the formation of CSEE from a porous dielectric film. The possibility of using such films in particle detectors is discussed

  18. Theseus Nose and Pod Cones Being Unloaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Crew members are seen here unloading the nose and pod cones of the Theseus prototype research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental

  19. The virtual nose: a 3-dimensional virtual reality model of the human nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, A John; Holcomb, Joi; Ai, Zhuming; Rasmussen, Mary; Tardy, M Eugene; Thomas, J Regan

    2004-01-01

    The 3-dimensionally complex interplay of soft tissue, cartilaginous, and bony elements makes the mastery of nasal anatomy difficult. Conventional methods of learning nasal anatomy exist, but they often involve a steep learning curve. Computerized models and virtual reality applications have been used to facilitate teaching in a number of other complex anatomical regions, such as the human temporal bone and pelvic floor. We present a 3-dimensional (3-D) virtual reality model of the human nose. Human cadaveric axial cross-sectional (0.33-mm cuts) photographic data of the head and neck were used. With 460 digitized images, individual structures were traced and programmed to create a computerized polygonal model of the nose. Further refinements to this model were made using a number of specialized computer programs. This 3-D computer model of the nose was then programmed to operate as a virtual reality model. Anatomically correct 3-D model of the nose was produced. High-resolution images of the "virtual nose" demonstrate the nasal septum, lower lateral cartilages, middle vault, bony dorsum, and other structural details of the nose. Also, the model can be combined with a separate virtual reality model of the face and its skin cover as well as the skull. The user can manipulate the model in space, examine 3-D anatomical relationships, and fade superficial structures to reveal deeper ones. The virtual nose is a 3-D virtual reality model of the nose that is accurate and easy to use. It can be run on a personal computer or in a specialized virtual reality environment. It can serve as an effective teaching tool. As the first virtual reality model of the nose, it establishes a virtual reality platform from which future applications can be launched.

  20. Power electronic converters modeling and control with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Seddik; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Modern power electronic converters are involved in a very broad spectrum of applications: switched-mode power supplies, electrical-machine-motion-control, active power filters, distributed power generation, flexible AC transmission systems, renewable energy conversion systems and vehicular technology, among them. Power Electronics Converters Modeling and Control teaches the reader how to analyze and model the behavior of converters and so to improve their design and control. Dealing with a set of confirmed algorithms specifically developed for use with power converters, this text is in two parts: models and control methods. The first is a detailed exposition of the most usual power converter models: ·        switched and averaged models; ·        small/large-signal models; and ·        time/frequency models. The second focuses on three groups of control methods: ·        linear control approaches normally associated with power converters; ·        resonant controllers b...

  1. Control systems for power electronics a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the book covers most of the aspects as a primer on power electronics starting from a simple diode bridge to a DC-DC convertor using PWM control. The thyristor-bridge and the mechanism of designing a closed loop system are discussed in chapter one, two and three. The concepts are applied in the fourth chapter as a case study for buck converter which uses MOSFETs as switching devices and the closed loop system is elaborated in the fifth chapter. Chapter six is focused on the embedded system basics and the implementation of controls in the digital domain. Chapter seven is a case study of application of an embedded control system for a DC motor. With this book, the reader will find it easy to work on the practical control systems with microcontroller implementation. The core intent of this book is to help gain an accelerated learning path to practical control system engineering and transform control theory to an implementable control system through electronics. Illustrations are provided for most of...

  2. Research on fuzzy PID control to electronic speed regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-gang; Chen, Xue-hui; Zheng, Sheng-guo

    2007-12-01

    As an important part of diesel engine, the speed regulator plays an important role in stabilizing speed and improving engine's performance. Because there are so many model parameters of diesel-engine considered in traditional PID control and these parameters present non-linear characteristic.The method to adjust engine speed using traditional PID is not considered as a best way. Especially for the diesel-engine generator set. In this paper, the Fuzzy PID control strategy is proposed. Some problems about its utilization in electronic speed regulator are discussed. A mathematical model of electric control system for diesel-engine generator set is established and the way of the PID parameters in the model to affect the function of system is analyzed. And then it is proposed the differential coefficient must be applied in control design for reducing dynamic deviation of system and adjusting time. Based on the control theory, a study combined control with PID calculation together for turning fuzzy PID parameter is implemented. And also a simulation experiment about electronic speed regulator system was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and the Fuzzy-Toolbox. Compared with the traditional PID Algorithm, the simulated results presented obvious improvements in the instantaneous speed governing rate and steady state speed governing rate of diesel-engine generator set when the fuzzy logic control strategy used.

  3. Depletion of liver glutathione levels in rats: a potential confound of nose-only inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Laurence D; Nelson-Miller, Alisa; Gearhart, Caroline

    2008-07-01

    Nose-only inhalation exposure chambers offer key advantages to whole-body systems, particularly when aerosol or mixed aerosol-vapor exposures are used. Specifically, nose-only chambers provide enhanced control over the route of exposure and dose by minimizing the deposition of particles either on the subjects skin/fur or on surfaces of a whole-body exposure system. In the current series of experiments, liver, brain, and lung total glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed following either nose-only or whole-body exposures to either jet fuel or to clean, filtered air. The data were compared to untreated control subjects. Acute nose-only inhalation exposures of rats resulted in a significant depletion of liver GSH levels both in subjects that were exposed to clean, filtered air as well as those exposed to JP-8 jet fuel and to a synthetic jet fuel. Glutathione levels were not altered in lung or brain tissue. Whole-body inhalation exposure had no effect on GSH levels in any tissue for any of the treatment groups. A second experiment demonstrated that the loss of GSH did not occur if rats were anaesthetized prior to and during nose-only exposure to clean, filtered air or to mixed hydrocarbons. These data appear to be consistent with studies demonstrating depletion in liver GSH levels among rats subjected to restraint stress. Finally, the depletion of GSH that was observed in liver following a single acute exposure was reduced following five daily exposures to clean, filtered air, suggesting the possibility of habituation to restraint in the nose-only exposure chamber. The finding that placement in a nose-only exposure chamber per se yields liver GSH depletion raises the possibility of an interaction between this mode of toxicant exposure and the toxicological effects of certain inhaled test substances.

  4. Toroidal electron beam energy storage for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.; Korn, P.; Mondelli, A.; Rostoker, N.

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of an external magnetic field stable equilibria exist for an unneutralized electron beam with ν/γ >1. As a result, it is in principle, possible to store very large quantities of energy in relatively small volumes by confining an unneutralized electron beam in a Tokamak-like device. The energy is stored principally in the electrostatic and self-magnetic fields associated with the beam and is available for rapid heating of pellets for controlled fusion. The large electrostatic potential well in such a device would be sufficient to contain energetic alpha particles, thereby reducing reactor wall bombardment. This approach also avoids plasma loss and wall bombardment by charge exchange neutrals. The conceptual design of an electrostatic Tokamak fusion reactor (ETFR) is discussed. A small toroidal device (the STP machine) has been constructed to test the principles involved. Preliminary experiments on this device have produced electron densities approximately 10% of those required in a reactor

  5. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thai M; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-07-19

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  6. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thai M.; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-07-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  7. Emission spectra of dimethoxybenzenes by controlled electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Teiichiro; Imasaka, Totaro; Toyoda, Minoru; Tsuji, Masaharu; Ishibashi, Nobuhiko

    1975-01-01

    The emission spectra of o-, m-, and p-dimethoxybenzenes under controlled electron impact excitation (200 eV) were measured in the 220 - 450 nm region at very low pressures. The photoemissions of the excited parent species and such fragment species as H, CH, CO, and CO + were observed and assigned. The relative intensities of the photoemissions of the parent species were compared with those of the fluorescence spectra (photoexcitation) in an n-hexane solution. The excited parent species, H, and CH were concluded to be produced in one-electron processes; however, the CO + species were assumed to be produced in both one- and two-electron processes, and the relative contributions are evaluated. It was concluded that the rate of the predissociation of o-dimethoxybenzene was faster than those of the other two isomers, and the observed characteristics of o-dimethoxybenzene had something to do with this faster rate. (auth.)

  8. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath

  9. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS. Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  10. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  11. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity ... self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, and ...

  12. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric ... of self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, ...

  13. Electronic Control Of Small Hydro-Generators Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz B, Pedro; Torres M, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    The present project arises for the Colombian population's necessity to overcome the underdevelopment, the poverty, the education and the level of life in rural areas of difficult access, for an economic rural electrification. The UIS, by means of the advisory committee of investigations of the ability of Physical-mechanical Sciences and the ability of Electricity and Electronic, it begins the process of developing in 1991 a study of economic and reliable control for the handling of small micro-centrals. Providing from electric power to the rural sector is a world problem, and have more than enough this some countries (China, Nepal, Peru, The islands of Papua, New Guinea), they have made investigations, outlining and building central micro controlled by microprocessor. The present study is developed with the objective of carrying out a load control that acts reliable and quickly. Traditionally they have been come using mechanical governors, which are those in charge of making the load control by means of valves that regulate the flow of water in the turbines, involving this way big retards characteristic of any mechanical control. In summary, the electronic governor of load presents on the mechanical governor, the advantage of acting to more speed and consequently to maintain stable the frequency of the system. To continue with the study, the objective that this project must develop, is an electronic control of load which presents to a small hydro generator, a relatively constant and independent electric load that the demanded consumption for the user varies from none to full load, given as initial parameters a constant flow in the turbine and a control in the line tension. This way it seeks to improve the energy quality given by isolated generators

  14. Analysis on electronic control unit of continuously variable transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuanggui

    Continuously variable transmission system can ensure that the engine work along the line of best fuel economy, improve fuel economy, save fuel and reduce harmful gas emissions. At the same time, continuously variable transmission allows the vehicle speed is more smooth and improves the ride comfort. Although the CVT technology has made great development, but there are many shortcomings in the CVT. The CVT system of ordinary vehicles now is still low efficiency, poor starting performance, low transmission power, and is not ideal controlling, high cost and other issues. Therefore, many scholars began to study some new type of continuously variable transmission. The transmission system with electronic systems control can achieve automatic control of power transmission, give full play to the characteristics of the engine to achieve optimal control of powertrain, so the vehicle is always traveling around the best condition. Electronic control unit is composed of the core processor, input and output circuit module and other auxiliary circuit module. Input module collects and process many signals sent by sensor and , such as throttle angle, brake signals, engine speed signal, speed signal of input and output shaft of transmission, manual shift signals, mode selection signals, gear position signal and the speed ratio signal, so as to provide its corresponding processing for the controller core.

  15. Auxiliary controllers for data acquisition from scintillation detector electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonenko, D A; Rybakov, V G; Sen' ko, V A [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij

    1983-01-01

    Structural schemes of auxiliary controllers of three types ensuring compression, filtration and record in buffer storage of data from scintillation detectors electronic equipment are described. The electronics is made according to the CAMAC ideology. The KD-85 controller exercises data readout from analog-to-digital converters (ADC), subtraction of pedestal values, discrimination by the bottom level and record into the buffer storage module. The KD-86 controller summarizes data from all the ADC channels in a crate dicscriminates the summarized data by the upper and bottom levels, and rejects data classified as useless. The KD-90 controller ensures data reading from different modules of the crate according to preset code and records information in the buffer storage module. The considered controllers employ integral microcircuits of the K 155 series. At present the controllers are under experimental operation. Their utilization would permit to adopt new arrangement of data acquisition from experimental facilities in the nearest future and essentially increase the operating efficiency of these facilities.

  16. Control of electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M A; Behn, R; Coda, S; Condrea, I; Duval, B P; Goodman, T P; Karpushov, A; Martin, Y; Martynov, An; Moret, J-M; Nikkola, P; Porte, L; Sauter, O; Scarabosio, A; Zhuang, G [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CRPP-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2004-05-01

    Current profile tailoring has been performed by application of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive, leading to improved energy confinement in the plasma core of the TCV tokamak. The improved confinement is characterized by a substantial enhancement (H-factor) of the global electron energy confinement time relative to the prediction of the RLW scaling law (Rebut P H et al 1989 Proc. 12th Int. Conf. of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research (Nice, 1988) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) p 191), which predicts well Ohmic and standard ECH discharges on TCV. The improved confinement is attributed to a hollow current density profile producing a reversed shear profile creating an electron internal transport barrier. We relate the strength of the barrier to the depth of the hollow current density profile and the volume enclosed by the radial location of the peak current density. The {rho}{sub T}{sup *} (Tresset G et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 520) criterion is used to evaluate the performance of the barrier relative to changes in the ECH parameters or the addition of Ohmic current, which aid in identifying the control parameters available for improving either the strength or volume of the barrier for enhanced performance. A figure of merit for the global scaling factor is used that scales the confinement enhancement as the product of the barrier volume and strength.

  17. Control of electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M A; Behn, R; Coda, S; Condrea, I; Duval, B P; Goodman, T P; Karpushov, A; Martin, Y; Martynov, An; Moret, J-M; Nikkola, P; Porte, L; Sauter, O; Scarabosio, A; Zhuang, G

    2004-01-01

    Current profile tailoring has been performed by application of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive, leading to improved energy confinement in the plasma core of the TCV tokamak. The improved confinement is characterized by a substantial enhancement (H-factor) of the global electron energy confinement time relative to the prediction of the RLW scaling law (Rebut P H et al 1989 Proc. 12th Int. Conf. of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research (Nice, 1988) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) p 191), which predicts well Ohmic and standard ECH discharges on TCV. The improved confinement is attributed to a hollow current density profile producing a reversed shear profile creating an electron internal transport barrier. We relate the strength of the barrier to the depth of the hollow current density profile and the volume enclosed by the radial location of the peak current density. The ρ T * (Tresset G et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 520) criterion is used to evaluate the performance of the barrier relative to changes in the ECH parameters or the addition of Ohmic current, which aid in identifying the control parameters available for improving either the strength or volume of the barrier for enhanced performance. A figure of merit for the global scaling factor is used that scales the confinement enhancement as the product of the barrier volume and strength

  18. Control of climatics environments to enhance reliability of electronics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhon, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    The techniques to control temperature and humidity to reduce failures in semiconductor devices are presented. The maximum operating junction temperature affects the electronic system reliability, and the equation for the junction temperature of the device shows that internal and external thermal resistances affect component life. Junction temperature reductions up to 60 C were achieved by the development of heat pipes for microcircuits, which will enhance electronics life by 32 times. Humidity control by improved sealing and use of heaters to prevent moisture condensation proved difficult and costly, and high pressure dehydrators were heavy and expensive. Therefore, low pressure dehydrator was developed which is smaller, lighter, and less expensive. The development of low pressure dehumidifying system including test data is presented

  19. Mechanical design of an electronic control unit using axiomatic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazacu Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available If the engine of the car can be considered as the heart, then the E.C.U’s represents the brain of the car. Electronic control units (E.C.U’s are electronic devices which control the way different components of a car (engine, windows, airbags, etc. react in some situations (overheating, button pressed by a passenger, crash, etc.. Axiomatic design is a set of principles that theorizes the act of conceiving a new project. Based on two axiom this method comes into designers help, giving them the option to reach in a short period of time a fully functional and compliant product without supporting the design of the product on chance, past experiences or “try and fail” principle.

  20. The upper level of control system of electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribov, I.V.; Nedeoglo, F.N.; Shvedunov, I.V.

    2005-01-01

    The upper level software of a three-level control system that supports several electron accelerators is described. This software operates in the Linux and RTLinux (Real Time Linux) environment. The object information model functions on the basis of a parametric description supported by the SQLite Data Base Management System. The Javascript sublanguage is used for script forming, and the Qt Designer application is used to construct the user interface [ru

  1. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  2. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  3. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  4. Pulse energy control through dual loop electronic feedback

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, Cobus

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available University of Stellenbosch WWW.LASER-RESEARCH.CO.ZA University of Stellenbosch Pulse Energy Control Through Dual Loop Electronic Feedback Cobus Jacobs, Steven Kriel Christoph Bollig, Thomas Jones Cobus Jacobs et al. Overview head2righthead2right...What is Laser Pulse Energy Control? head2righthead2rightWhy do we need it? head2righthead2rightHow do we get it? head2righthead2rightSimulation head2righthead2rightExperimental Setup head2righthead2rightResults Cobus Jacobs et al. head2righthead2right...

  5. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: "Medieval" Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine's cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, "What happens if we leave Afghanistan," fuelled debate about the "medieval" practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband "lost his nose." This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word "medieval" can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an "eastern" practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful.

  6. Headaches from ear, nose and throat diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, R.

    1984-01-01

    Headaches are a frequent symptom in ENT-patients. The complex sensory innervation of the ear, nose and paranasal sinuses is demonstrated. Heterotopic or referred pain must be differentiated from homotopic pain that is experienced at the point of injury. The nervous pathways of heterotopic otalgia are shown. The quality of pain of the most common rhinological and otological diseases is reported. (orig.) [de

  7. Why Rudolph's nose is red: Observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ince (Can); A.-M. van Kuijen (Anne-Marijevan); D.M.J. Milstein (Dan); K. Yuruk (Koray); L.P. Folkow (Lars P); W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A.S. Blix (Arnoldus S)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Claus's sleigh, is due to the presence of

  8. Control system for 10 MeV irradiation electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Ziqiang; Zhang Lifeng; Lu Weixing; Gao Zhenjiang; Zhang Yan; Han Guangwen; Wang Shuxian

    2005-01-01

    Control system of the 10 MeV electron linac using Distributed Control System (DCS) was studied. The hardware of control system consists of four SIEMENS PLCs and monitor computer, the software bases on STEP 7, Labwindows/CVI and SQL Server. The bus between the monitor computer and the main PLC is 100 M industrial networks, between PLCs is MPI bus, between PLC and remote partner is PROFIBUS, between PLC and terminals is RS485/422. The software of control system can provide a friendly human machine interface to operate the machine, protect the human and equipment from risk, and storage the status of the accelerator real time to the database. The monitor and maintenance of the linac can been carried out not only on local computer or local network, but also in internet. (author)

  9. Rapid Identification of Asteraceae Plants with Improved RBF-ANN Classification Models Based on MOS Sensor E-Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants from Asteraceae family are widely used as herbal medicines and food ingredients, especially in Asian area. Therefore, authentication and quality control of these different Asteraceae plants are important for ensuring consumers’ safety and efficacy. In recent decades, electronic nose (E-nose has been studied as an alternative approach. In this paper, we aim to develop a novel discriminative model by improving radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN classification model. Feature selection algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA and BestFirst + CfsSubsetEval (BC, were applied in the improvement of RBF-ANN models. Results illustrate that in the improved RBF-ANN models with lower dimension data classification accuracies (100% remained the same as in the original model with higher-dimension data. It is the first time to introduce feature selection methods to get valuable information on how to attribute more relevant MOS sensors; namely, in this case, S1, S3, S4, S6, and S7 show better capability to distinguish these Asteraceae plants. This paper also gives insights to further research in this area, for instance, sensor array optimization and performance improvement of classification model.

  10. Control and electronic subsystems for the advanced servomanipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Hamel, W.R.; Killough, S.M.; Spille, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) represents a new generation of electrically driven force-reflecting manipulator systems designed to be remotely maintainable. This ASM is being developed to perform remote maintenance in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant where human access is not allowed. The primary function of the manipulator control system is to maintain stable, accurate master/slave operation while providing sensitive force reflection to the operator. The control system is based upon tightly coupled distributed digital microprocessing methods. The architectural structure of the control system is outlined and is compared to the previously developed Model M-2 control system, and justification for the advances incorporated into the ASM structure are given. The various modes of operation and diagnostics are described, and throughput requirements associated with joint servo-control and counter-balancing are discussed. The fundamental elements of the control system are reviewed, including the processor selection (Motorola MC68000) and the language (FORTH). The purpose of this document is to review the design decisions and the resulting design selections to serve as a base for future improvements. Four main areas will be covered: (1) system overview, (2) hardware implementation, (3) software partitioning, and (4) remote electronics considerations. Each area will address the specifics of the selected equipment or the functional requirements of the control method. 9 references, 4 figures

  11. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). Conclusions: In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings......Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Methods: Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars...... the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...

  12. Effectiveness Of Security Controls On Electronic Health Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everleen Wanyonyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Health Record EHR systems enhance efficiency and effectiveness in handling patients information in healthcare. This study focused on the EHR security by initially establishing the nature of threats affecting the system and reviewing the implemented security safeguards. The study was done at a referral hospital level 6 government facility in Kenya. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample of 196 out of 385 staff and a questionnaire designed for qualitative data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. Correlations and binary logistic regression were obtained. Binary Logistic Regression BLR was used to establish the effect of the safeguards predictors on EHR security. It was established that physical security contributes more to the security of an information system than administrative controls and technical controls in that order. BLR helped in predicting effective safeguards to control EHR security threats in limited resourced public health facilities.

  13. An Electronically Controlled 8-Element Switched Beam Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Sharawi, Mohammad S.

    2015-02-24

    An 8-element planar antenna array with electronically controlled switchable-beam pattern is proposed. The planar antenna array consists of patch elements and operates in the 2.45 GHz ISM band. The array is integrated with a digitally controlled feed network that provides the required phases to generate 8 fixed beams covering most of the upper hemisphere of the array. Unlike typical switchable beam antenna arrays, which operate only in one plane, the proposed design is the first to provide full 3D switchable beams with simple control. Only a 3-bit digital word is required for the generation of the 8 different beams. The integrated array is designed on a 3-layer PCB on a Taconic substrate (RF60A). The total dimensions of the fabricated array are 187.1 × 261.3 × 1.3mm3.

  14. Electronic device for automatic control of exposure in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, A.S.; Jayakumar, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic instrument for calculating and controlling exposure in radiography practice using radioisotopes is described. When using this equipment, only factor to be known is the dose required by the film for a given density and the thickness of material inspected. It eliminates all the problems arising out of various parameters such as source decay etc in the conventional procedure for calculating exposure time. Principle of operation, the electronic circuitry adopted and the functional aspects of the system are described in detail. Exposure doses for different industrial films have been related to the instrumental readouts. The system reproducibility and reliability have been evaluated. The advantages and limitations of the present system and the future development to overcome the problems are indicated. (author)

  15. A novel grounded to floating admittance converter with electronic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Dinesh; Ahmad, Javed; Srivastava, Mayank

    2018-01-01

    This article suggests a new grounded to floating admittance convertor employing only two voltage differencing transconductance amplifiers (VDTAs). The proposed circuit can convert any arbitrary grounded admittance into floating admittance with electronically controllable scaling factor. The presented converter enjoys the following beneficial: (1) no requirement of any additional passive element (2) scaling factor can be tuned electronically through bias currents of VDTAs (3) no matching constraint required (4) low values of active/passive sensitivity indexes and (5) excellent non ideal behavior that indicates no deviation in circuit behavior even under non ideal environment. Application of the proposed configuration in realization of floating resistor and floating capacitor has been presented and the workability of these floating elements has been confirmed by active filter design examples. SPICE simulations have been performed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed circuits.

  16. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  17. Modeling and the analysis of control logic for a digital PWM controller based on a nano electronic single electron transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathnakannan Kailasam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the modelling and the analysis of control logic for a Nano-Device- based PWM controller. A comprehensive simple SPICE schematic model for Single Electron transistor has been proposed. The operation of basic Single Electron Transistor logic gates and SET flip flops were successfully designed and their performances analyzed. The proposed design for realizing the logic gates and flip-flops is used in constructing the PWM controller utilized for switching the buck converter circuit. The output of the converter circuit is compared with reference voltage, and when the error voltage and the reference are matched the latch is reset so as to generate the PWM signal. Due to the simplicity and accuracy of the compact model, the simulation time and speed are much faster, which makes it potentially applicable in large-scale circuit simulation. This study confirms that the SET-based PWM controller is small in size, consumes ultra low power and operates at high speeds without compromising any performance. In addition these devices are capable of measuring charges of extremely high sensitivity.

  18. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or...). Novel or Unusual Design Features The GVI will have a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system. This system provides an electronic interface between the pilot's flight controls and the flight control...

  19. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  20. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  1. Electronic-state control of amino acids on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masato; Nakayama, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Electronic structures of amino acids on the Si(1 1 1) surfaces are investigated by using ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that among various polar amino acids, a histidine is the only one that can be positively ionized when hole carriers are supplied in the Si substrate, by transferring the hole charge from Si substrate to an amino acid. This result indicates that the ionization of a histidine, which will activate the protein functions, can be controlled electrically by producing amino acid/Si junctions

  2. A comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicle: Powertrain configurations, powertrain control techniques and electronic control units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagatay Bayindir, Kamil; Goezuekuecuek, Mehmet Ali; Teke, Ahmet [Cukurova University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Balcali, Saricam, Adana (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The studies for hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) have attracted considerable attention because of the necessity of developing alternative methods to generate energy for vehicles due to limited fuel based energy, global warming and exhaust emission limits in the last century. HEV incorporates internal composition engine, electric machines and power electronic equipments. In this study, overview of HEVs with a focus on hybrid configurations, energy management strategies and electronic control units are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are clearly emphasized. The existing powertrain control techniques for HEVs are classified and comprehensively described. Electronic control units used in HEV configuration are also elaborated. The latest trends and technological challenges in the near future for HEVs are discussed. (author)

  3. Chemical potential and reaction electronic flux in symmetry controlled reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt-Geisse, Stefan; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2016-07-15

    In symmetry controlled reactions, orbital degeneracies among orbitals of different symmetries can occur along a reaction coordinate. In such case Koopmans' theorem and the finite difference approximation provide a chemical potential profile with nondifferentiable points. This results in an ill-defined reaction electronic flux (REF) profile, since it is defined as the derivative of the chemical potential with respect to the reaction coordinate. To overcome this deficiency, we propose a new way for the calculation of the chemical potential based on a many orbital approach, suitable for reactions in which symmetry is preserved. This new approach gives rise to a new descriptor: symmetry adapted chemical potential (SA-CP), which is the chemical potential corresponding to a given irreducible representation of a symmetry group. A corresponding symmetry adapted reaction electronic flux (SA-REF) is also obtained. Using this approach smooth chemical potential profiles and well defined REFs are achieved. An application of SA-CP and SA-REF is presented by studying the Cs enol-keto tautomerization of thioformic acid. Two SA-REFs are obtained, JA'(ξ) and JA'' (ξ). It is found that the tautomerization proceeds via an in-plane delocalized 3-center 4-electron O-H-S hypervalent bond which is predicted to exist only in the transition state (TS) region. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  5. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  6. Electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC).

  7. The electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC). (author)

  8. Characterization and switching performance of electron-beam controlled discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, J.F.; Kline, L.E.; Heberlein, J.V.R.

    1986-01-01

    The electron-beam sustained discharge switch is an attractive concept for repetitive pulsed power switching because it has a demonstrated capability to interrupt direct current and because it is inherently scalable. The authors report on experiments with this type of switch in a 4-kV dc circuit. A wire-ion-plasma (WIP) electron-beam (e-beam) gun is used to irradiate and sustain a switch discharge with a 100-cm/sup 2/ cross-sectional area in l atm of N/sub 2/ or CH/sub 4/. Interruption of 8-10-μs pulses of up to 1.9 kA, and of 100-μs pulses of 150 A has been demonstrated in methane, and interruption against higher recovery voltages (11 kV) has been performed at 1.2 kA by adding series inductance to the circuit. These values represent power supply limitations rather than limitations of the switch itself. A comparison of the measured discharge characteristics with theoretical predictions shows that the measured switch conductivities are higher than the predicted values for given e-beam current values. A qualitative explanation for this observation is offered by considering the effects of electron reflection from the discharge anode and of nonlinear paths for the beam electrons across the discharge gap. The authors conclude that the switching performance of the e-beam controlled discharge switch corresponds to its design parameters, and that for a given switch size a lower voltage drop during the on time can be expected compared with the voltage drop predicted by previously published theory

  9. Nose muscular dynamics: the tip trigonum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figallo, E E; Acosta, J A

    2001-10-01

    In 1995, the senior author (E.E.F.) published an article in which he described the musculus digastricus septi nasi labialis. In the article presented here, work carried out by anatomists and other researchers who, over the last two centuries, studied nose muscular dynamics is described. The present study is based on Gray's Anatomy, which, in 1858, first described the nasal tip muscles, along with the other nasal muscles. Later works not only used different terminology for these muscles but also ignored some, creating tremendous confusion. The study presented here provides an update of the exact terms, location, insertions, and muscle functions of the muscles of the nose. Each nose muscle is described with regard to the two portions able to produce separate contractions. In this study, the term "dual function" is used and characterizes the nasal mimetic muscles that do not have well-defined fascia. Therefore, there is doubt about the existence of a real nasal superficial muscle aponeurotic system. The musculus myrtiformis seems to have a dual function, inserting in the canine fosse and in the periosteum of the central incisors, forming two portions-one to the septum and the other to the nostril-each of which has specific functions. This study has been based on research in physiognomy, the science of expression. With regard to the basis for nose expressions, common anatomical research is excluded because it provides a different view of the dynamics studied to date. The term trigonum musculare apicis nasi defines the interaction of the musculi compressor narium minor and dilator naris anterior, connecting with the columellar bundle of the musculus digastricus and levering the nasal spine. This muscular trigone creates circular concentric and eccentric movements of the nasal tip.

  10. Complication of nose and paranasal sinus disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, H.S.; Ali, S.; Ali, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of nose and paranasal sinuses can complicate to involve the orbit and other surrounding structures because of their close proximity. These diseases are usually infective or can be neoplastic in origin. Method: All the patients presenting in ENT or Eye Departments of Ayub Teaching Hospital during the one year study period who had complicated nose or paranasal sinus disease were included in the study. A detailed history and examination followed by CT scanning and laboratory investigations to assess the type and extent of the disease, was carried out. Results: Infections were the most common cause of complicated sinus disease 11 (75%). The rest of the 4 (25%) cases were tumours. 12 (80%) of the cases presented with proptosis. In 1 of these 12 cases, there was complete blindness. In 2 (13%) of the cases there was only orbital cellulitis. Two of these patients had facial swelling and 2 had nasal obstruction and presented as snoring. Two patients presented with history of weight loss and these patients had malignant tumour of the paranasal sinuses. One patient presented with early signs of meningitis. In 1 case sub periosteal scalp abscess (Pott's puffy tumour) was the only complication noted. Conclusion: Nose and paranasal sinus diseases can complicate to involve mostly the orbit, but sometimes brain, meninges and skull bones can also get involved. (author)

  11. Rhinoplasty for the multiply revised nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the problems encountered on revising a multiply operated nose and the methods used in correcting such problems. The study included 50 cases presenting for revision rhinoplasty after having had 2 or more previous rhinoplasties. An external rhinoplasty approach was used in all cases. Simultaneous septal surgery was done whenever indicated. All cases were followed for a mean period of 32 months (range, 1.5-8 years). Evaluation of the surgical result depended on clinical examination, comparison of pre- and postoperative photographs, and degree of patients' satisfaction with their aesthetic and functional outcome. Functionally, 68% suffered nasal obstruction that was mainly caused by septal deviations and nasal valve problems. Aesthetically, the most common deformities of the upper two thirds of the nose included pollybeak (64%), dorsal irregularities (54%), dorsal saddle (44%), and open roof deformity (42%), whereas the deformities of lower third included depressed tip (68%), tip contour irregularities (60%), and overrotated tip (42%). Nasal grafting was necessary in all cases; usually more than 1 type of graft was used in each case. Postoperatively, 79% of the patients, with preoperative nasal obstruction, reported improved breathing; 84% were satisfied with their aesthetic result; and only 8 cases (16%) requested further revision to correct minor deformities. Revision of a multiply operated nose is a complex and technically demanding task, yet, in a good percentage of cases, aesthetic as well as functional improvement are still possible.

  12. Low power RF beam control electronics for the LEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestha, L.K.; Mangino, J.; Brouk, V.; Uher, T.; Webber, R.C.

    1993-05-01

    Beam Control Electronics for the Low Energy Booster (LEB) should provide a fine reference phase and frequency for the High Power RF System. Corrections applied on the frequency of the rf signal will reduce dipole synchrotron oscillations due to power supply regulation errors, errors in frequency source or errors in the cavity voltage. It will allow programmed beam radial position control throughout the LEB acceleration cycle. Furthermore the rf signal provides necessary connections during, adiabatic capture of the beam as injected into the LEB by the Linac and will guarantee LEB rf phase synchronism with the Medium Energy Booster (MEB) rf at a programmed time in the LEB cycle between a unique LEB bucket and a unique MEB bucket. We show in this paper a design and possible interfaces with other subsystems of the LEB such as the beam instrumentation, High Power RF Stations, global accelerator controls and the precision timing system. The outline of various components of the beam control system is also presented followed by some test results

  13. Remote control scanning electron microscope with Web operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, A.; Hirahara, O.; Date, M.; Lozbin, V.; Tsuchida, T.; Sugano, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Recently, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and the other observation instruments are coming to use a LAN (Local Area Network) to save the image in the database. We developed a remote control system in which SEM image and Control interface is indicated on the WEB Browser. In this system, SEM can be controlled by an external (client) PC installed in a general WEB Browser (Internet Explorer). Accordingly, operation interface can be indicated on the WEB browser. A JSM-6700F is connected to a LAN, and so a client PC can control the microscope. The JSM-6700F has two lines to the LAN for image transfer and communication with the SEM control. In order to transfer the image, the image size squeezes from 1280 x 1024-pixels (SEM image size) to 640x480-pixels for quick transfer. The image signal (640 x 480-pixels) is connected to the video server only, and then the image transfers to the client PC via LAN. The SEM control communicates with client PC for external command. On the other hand, the SEM control interface and the image are indicated on WEB Browser (Internet explorer). The SEM control interface is composed of the SEM image area and the SEM control part. The SEM image indicates the 640x480-pixels live image. This live image is being used as a high resolution live image transfer in the image transfer technology which a network is used for at present. If it is LAN beyond 10 base, this indication of an image can be transferred fully. When it is connected in the small line of the capacity, the refresh speed of the image becomes slow because of image data doesn't finish transferring it. In such a case, image size can be changed smaller by the LAN conditions. When a high quality image is necessary, the image of 1280 x 1024-pixels is saved on a SEM (server) side by choosing the image save button. At the same time, the file kept in SEM (server) is transferred to the client PC automatically, so that we can display a high quality image on the client PC side. The

  14. To the problem of electron temperature control in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galechyan, G.A.; Anna, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the main problems in low temperature plasma is control plasma parameters at fixed values of current and gas pressure in the discharge. It is known that an increase in the intensity of sound wave directed along the positive column to values in excess of a definite threshold leads to essential rise of the temperature of electrons. However, no less important is the reduction of electron temperature in the discharge down to the value less than that in plasma in the absence external influence. It is known that to reduce the electron temperature in the plasma of CO 2 laser, easily ionizable admixture are usually introduced in the discharge area with the view of increasing the overpopulation. In the present work we shall show that the value of electron temperature can be reduced by varying of sound wave intensity at its lower values. The experiment was performed on an experimental setup consisted of the tube with length 52 cm and diameter 9.8 cm, two electrodes placed at the distance of 27 cm from each other. An electrodynamical radiator of sound wave was fastened to one of tube ends. Fastened to the flange at the opposite end was a microphone for the control of sound wave parameters. The studies were performed in range of pressures from 40 to 180 Torr and discharge currents from 40 to 110 mA. The intensity of sound wave was varied from 74 to 92 dB. The measurement made at the first resonance frequency f = 150 Hz of sound in the discharge tube, at which a quarter of wave length keep within the length of the tube. The measurement of longitudinal electric field voltage in plasma of positive column was conducted with the help of two probes according to the compensation method. Besides, the measurement of gas temperature in the discharge were taken. Two thermocouple sensors were arranged at the distance of 8 cm from the anode, one of them being installed on the discharge tube axis, the second-fixed the tube wall

  15. To the problem of electron temperature control in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galechyan, G.A. [Institute of Applied Problem of Physics, Yerevan (Armenia); Anna, P.R. [Raritan Valley Community College, Somerville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the main problems in low temperature plasma is control plasma parameters at fixed values of current and gas pressure in the discharge. It is known that an increase in the intensity of sound wave directed along the positive column to values in excess of a definite threshold leads to essential rise of the temperature of electrons. However, no less important is the reduction of electron temperature in the discharge down to the value less than that in plasma in the absence external influence. It is known that to reduce the electron temperature in the plasma of CO{sub 2} laser, easily ionizable admixture are usually introduced in the discharge area with the view of increasing the overpopulation. In the present work we shall show that the value of electron temperature can be reduced by varying of sound wave intensity at its lower values. The experiment was performed on an experimental setup consisted of the tube with length 52 cm and diameter 9.8 cm, two electrodes placed at the distance of 27 cm from each other. An electrodynamical radiator of sound wave was fastened to one of tube ends. Fastened to the flange at the opposite end was a microphone for the control of sound wave parameters. The studies were performed in range of pressures from 40 to 180 Torr and discharge currents from 40 to 110 mA. The intensity of sound wave was varied from 74 to 92 dB. The measurement made at the first resonance frequency f = 150 Hz of sound in the discharge tube, at which a quarter of wave length keep within the length of the tube. The measurement of longitudinal electric field voltage in plasma of positive column was conducted with the help of two probes according to the compensation method. Besides, the measurement of gas temperature in the discharge were taken. Two thermocouple sensors were arranged at the distance of 8 cm from the anode, one of them being installed on the discharge tube axis, the second-fixed the tube wall.

  16. Electronic Control Of Small Hydro-Generators Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez G, Alvaro; Romero A, Carlos E.

    1993-01-01

    This work is the beginning of several applied itineraries, to the government of micro-centrals, mainly directed to the control of electric variables of the generator with the desire of obtaining a system of electric generation to drop it climbs, economic, reliable and with great sense of use of the hydraulic resources guided to poor communities, isolated of the system of national interconnection. In all hydroelectric power station without caring their capacity is fundamental to govern the speed of the system turbine generator, to guarantee a constant frequency of 60 Hz, the stability of this parameter is a measure of the quality of the energy given to the user. The used regulation method is the mechanical governor, its action it is to control the flow of water that it enters to the turbine. For small generation power stations (smaller to 200 Kw), the mechanical governor's cost is comparable to the total cost of the plant, then it is economic to use an electronic load control. The project develops the load control whose function is to add external electric load to the generator to maintain the constant nominal active power and similar to the power nominal mechanics surrendered by the turbine. The microprocessor 8088 dedicated to the control of the system by the complexity of the process, the quantity of variables and the precision in the answer of the system is used. To carry out the investigation project a simulation program it was designed in computer that allows to know the answer of the load control ahead of time for different conditions of the user's operation. These results were answered with the obtained experimental values of the final tests of the team, throwing very near values to those calculated

  17. The Electronic Control of the Employer in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Coelho Moreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The way the work is made has been suffering in the last years countless changes related with the huge increase and development of the use of new information and communication technologies in the work relationship. The theme of privacy and surveillance of the employer have been turning in a matter of considerable interest and surrounded of great controversy in the last years all around the world and Portugal is no exception.The technological innovation allows, through several instruments as the use of video surveillance, GPS, RFID, control of electronic communications, control of online social networks or the internet, the continuous surveillance and monitoring of the workers and new questions arise in the horizon. These new forms of control constitute powerful means of surveillance and of memorization, but also of analysis and of interference in the people’ privacy, and one of the major challenges put today is the regulation of this new forms of control in the workplace because the advancement of modern technology has made it possible to collect and store information on a seemingly limitless scale, while also facilitating access to it. The question that arises before the use of this technology is to know what limits should be established. And the answer is related, it seems, with the principles of data protection, mainly, in Portugal, articles 20, 21 and 22 of Portuguese Labour Code and also the Portuguese Data Protection Act, Law number 67/98, from 26th October, and, most of all, the legitimate principle, the proportionality principle and the transparency principle.This as led to a new form of control much more intrusive and that controls almost everything even the way the worker thinks.

  18. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety..., Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's title is: Crash Prevention Effectiveness in Light-Vehicle...

  19. 78 FR 37958 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Electronic Engine Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...; Electronic Engine Control System Installation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... feature(s) associated with the installation of an electronic engine control. The applicable airworthiness...) fuel. The J182T incorporates an engine controlled by an electronic engine [[Page 37959

  20. Whisker and Nose Tactile Sense Guide Rat Behavior in a Skilled Reaching Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierantonio Parmiani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Skilled reaching is a complex movement in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food for eating. Video-recordings analysis of control rats enables us to distinguish several components of skilled reaching: Orient, approaching the front wall of the reaching box and poking the nose into the slot to locate the food pellet; Transport, advancing the forelimb through the slot to reach-grasp the pellet; and Withdrawal of the grasped food to eat. Although food location and skilled reaching is guided by olfaction, the importance of whisker/nose tactile sense in rats suggests that this too could play a role in reaching behavior. To test this hypothesis, we studied skilled reaching in rats trained in a single-pellet reaching task before and after bilateral whisker trimming and bilateral infraorbital nerve (ION severing. During the task, bilaterally trimmed rats showed impaired Orient with respect to controls. Specifically, they detected the presence of the wall by hitting it with their nose (rather than their whiskers, and then located the slot through repetitive nose touches. The number of nose touches preceding poking was significantly higher in comparison to controls. On the other hand, macrovibrissae trimming resulted in no change in reaching/grasping or withdrawal components of skilled reaching. Bilaterally ION-severed rats, displayed a marked change in the structure of their skilled reaching. With respect to controls, in ION-severed rats: (a approaches to the front wall were significantly reduced at 3–5 and 6–8 days; (b nose pokes were significantly reduced at 3–5 days, and the slot was only located after many repetitive nose touches; (c the reaching-grasping-retracting movement never appeared at 3–5 days; (d explorative paw movements, equal to zero in controls, reached significance at 9–11 days; and (e the restored reaching-grasping-retracting sequence was globally slower than in controls, but the success rate was the same. These findings

  1. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars manufactured in the period 1998 to 2011 and the principle of induced exposure, 2 measures of the effectiveness of ESC were calculated: The crude odds ratio and the adjusted odds ratio, the latter by means of logistic regression. The logistic regression controlled for a number of confounding factors, of which the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section characteristics. The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across the injury severity categories (slight, severe, and fatal). In line with previous results, this study concludes that ESC reduces the risk for single-vehicle injury accidents by 31% when controlling for various confounding factors related to the driver, the car, and the accident surroundings. Furthermore, it is concluded that it is important to control for human factors (at a minimum age and gender) in analyses where evaluations of this type are performed.

  2. Investigation of thermal management materials for automotive electronic control units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Sabuj; Ekere, Ndy; Best, Chris; Bhatti, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Today's electronics packages are smaller and more powerful than ever before. This leads to ever increasing thermal challenges for the systems designer. The automotive electronic control unit (ECU) package faces the same challenge of thermal management as the industry in general. This is coupled with the latest European Union legislation (Euro 6 standard) which forced the ECU manufacturers to completely re-design their ECU platform with improved hardware and software capability. This will result in increased power densities and therefore, the ability to dissipate heat will be a key factor. A higher thermal conductivity (TC) material for the ECU housing (than the currently used Aluminium) could improve heat dissipation from the ECU. This paper critically reviews the state-of-the-art in thermal management materials which may be applicable to an automotive ECU. This review shows that of the different materials currently available, the Al/SiC composites in particular have very good potential for automotive ECU application. In terms of metal composites processing, the liquid metal infiltration process is recommended as it has a lower processing cost and it also has the ability to produce near net-shape materials.

  3. Prehrana in telesna aktivnost nosečnice

    OpenAIRE

    Ciglar, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo predstavili nosečnost kot stanje fizioloških in psiholoških sprememb ter prehrano in telesno aktivnost nosečnice. Zdrava in uravnotežena prehrana je pomembna v vseh življenjskih obdobjih ženske, še posebej pa pred nosečnostjo, v nosečnosti in v času laktacije. Telesna ali športna dejavnost pa vpliva pozitivno na nosečničino zdravje in dobro počutje. Diplomsko delo je sestavljeno iz dveh delov. V prvem (teoretičnem) delu je predstavljena fiziologija nosečnosti, prehrana ...

  4. Vehicle rollover risk and electronic stability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, P A; Marshall, T; Griffin, R; Purcell, M; McGwin, G; Rue, L W

    2008-06-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems were developed to reduce motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) caused by loss of control. Introduced in Europe in 1995 and in the USA in 1996, ESC is designed to improve vehicle lateral stability by electronically detecting and automatically assisting drivers in unfavorable situations. To examine the relationship between vehicle rollover risk and presence of ESC using a large national database of MVCs. A retrospective cohort study for the period 1995 through 2006 was carried out using data obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System. All passenger cars and sport utility vehicles (SUVs)/vans of model year 1996 and later were eligible. Vehicle ESC (unavailable, optional, standard) was determined on the basis of make, model, and model year. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated to compare rollover risk by vehicle ESC group. For all crashes, vehicles equipped with standard ESC had decreased risk of rollover (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.77) compared with vehicles with ESC unavailable. The association was consistent for single-vehicle MVCs (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.82); passenger cars had decreased rollover risk (RR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.12), but SUVs/vans had a more dramatically decreased risk (RR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.61). This study supports previous results showing ESC to be effective in reducing the risk of rollover. ESC is more effective in SUVs/vans for rollovers related to single-vehicle MVCs.

  5. Acoustic rhinometry of the Indian and Anglo-Saxon nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, P; Diver, J; Morgan, N; MacGregor, F; Lund, V

    1996-09-01

    The internal and external geometry of the nose has previously been shown to differ between Anglo-Saxon, Chinese, and Negro noses. It is therefore important to define the normal geometric nasal parameters of a given race, so as to detect the abnormal nose. We present acoustic rhinometric data, with height-adjusted figures, examining the nasal minimum cross-sectional area (MCA), the distance to the nostril from the MCA, and the MCA between 0-6 cm. These data show no significant differences between Indian and Anglo-Saxon noses.

  6. Flight Investigation at Low Angles of Attack to Determine the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of a Cruciform Canard Missile Configuration with a Low-Aspect-Ratio Wing and Blunt Nose at Mach Numbers from 1.2 to 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clarence A , Jr

    1957-01-01

    A full- scale rocket-powered model of a cruciform canard missile configuration with a low- aspect - ratio wing and blunt nose has been flight tested by the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Division. Static and dynamic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of this interdigitated canard-wing missile configuration were determined by using the pulsed- control technique at low angles of attack and for a Mach number range of 1.2 to 2.1. The lift - curve slope showed only small nonlinearities with changes in control deflection or angle of attack but indicated a difference in lift- .curve slope of approximately 7 percent for the two control deflections of delta = 3.0 deg and delta= -0.3 deg . The large tail length of the missile tested was effective in producing damping in pitch throughout the Mach number range tested. The aerodynamic- center location was nearly constant with Mach number for the two control deflections but was shown to be less stable with the larger control deflection. The increment of lift produced by the controls was small and positive throughout the Mach number range tested, whereas the pitching moment produced by the controls exhibited a normal trend of reduced effectiveness with increasing Mach number.The effectiveness of the controls in producing angle of attack, lift, and pitching moment was good at all Mach numbers tested.

  7. Evaluation of electronic stability control effectiveness in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jim; Newstead, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) is an in-vehicle technology aimed at improving primary safety by assisting the driver in avoiding loss of control of the vehicle. The aim of this study was to use available crash data from Australia and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing crash risk and to establish whether benefits estimated from overseas studies have translated to the Australian and New Zealand environments. The sample analysed included 7699 crashed vehicles fitted with ESC which comprised of 90 different models. Poisson regression was used to test whether the differences in the observed and expected crash counts for ESC fitted vehicles were significant, with exposure being induced from counts of rear end impacts. It was found that ESC reduced the risk of single vehicle crashes in which the driver was injured by 68% for 4WDs compared with 27% for passenger cars. The effect of ESC on multiple vehicle crashes in Australia and New Zealand was not clear. The long-term benefits of fitting ESC to all vehicles in Australia were also investigated based on the estimated single vehicle crash reductions.

  8. Development of aromatic VOC control technology by electron beam hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon

    2006-01-01

    As a fundamental study, the decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using electron beam (EB) irradiation has been extensively investigated. EB treatments of VOCs such as toluene and styrene are discussed. The degradation characteristics were intensively investigated under various concentrations and irradiation doses to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. This work illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs generally increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Based on these basic studies, it was found that by-products produced from EB irradiation of VOCs would cause a secondary pollution problem. Therefore, a novel hybrid technology has been applied to control aromatic VOC emissions by annexing the catalyst technique with conventional treatment study using EB technology. The experiments were carried out using a bench-scale at first, then a pilot-scale system was followed. Toluene was selected as a typical VOC for EB hybrid control to investigate by-products, effects of ceramic and catalyst, and factors affecting overall efficiency of degradation. It was concluded that VOCs could be destroyed more effectively by a novel hybrid system than single EB irradiation. (author)

  9. Car drivers' perceptions of electronic stability control (ESC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeby, Anna; Wiklund, Mats; Forward, Sonja

    2011-05-01

    As a way to reduce the number of car crashes different in-car safety devices are being introduced. In this paper one such application is being investigated, namely the electronic stability control system (ESC). The study used a survey method, including 2000 private car drivers (1000 driving a car with ESC and 1000 driving a car without ESC). The main objective was to investigate the effect of ESC on driver behaviour. Results show that drivers report that they drive even more carelessly when they believe that they have ESC, than when they do not. Men are more risk prone than women and young drivers more than older drivers. Using the theory of planned behaviour the results show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived control explain between 62% and 67% of driver's variation of intentions to take risks. When descriptive norm was added to the model a small but statistically significant increase was found. The study also shows that more than 35% erroneously believe that their car is equipped with an ESC system. These findings may suggest that driver behaviour could reduce the positive effect ESC has on accidents. It also shows that drivers who purchase a new car are not well informed about what kind of safety devices the car is equipped with. These findings highlight the need for more targeted information to drivers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: “Medieval” Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine’s cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, “What happens if we leave Afghanistan,” fuelled debate about the “medieval” practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband “lost his nose.” This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word “medieval” can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an “eastern” practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful. PMID:24790391

  11. 27 CFR 73.11 - What are the required components and controls for acceptable electronic signatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... components and controls for acceptable electronic signatures? 73.11 Section 73.11 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Signatures § 73.11...

  12. The high pressure electronic control system in liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Stefan; Popeneciu, Gabriel; Toadere, Florin

    2002-01-01

    The Liquid Chromatography system can perform a wide variety of measurements and separations especially for the organic liquids, with maximum applications flexibility for less than half price of Gas Chromatography. The repeatability and accuracy of results in quantitative high pressure liquid chromatography are highly dependent on the reproducibility and accuracy of both integrated flow rate and mobile phase composition. Flow rate fluctuation leads to poor reproducibility in both integrated peak areas and retention times. Similarly, poor control of mobile phase composition will cause poor repeatability of retention time and peak heights. The our Solvent Delivery System SDS 200 is a single pump system which provides precise compensated flow rates from 0.01 to 10 mL/min, selectable upper pressure limits of 0 to 100 bar or 10 to 450 bar, and solvent compressibility correction. Ternary solvent system on-line mixing capability saves time, reduces solvent waste and provides more flexibility for difficult separations. The pump itself has two different displacement pistons which are used alternately on both suction and discharge, so that intake of the solvent are synchronous. The evacuated solvent from the two pump's chambers is mixed in the reference unit and then is supplied to the damping unit for flow ripple reduction. The SDS Electronic Module ensures the functions: controls the programmed flow rate, detects and shows the solvent pressure in solvent, supplies the step motor, measures and limits the solvent pressure. The control panel of SDS 200, contains a two-stages flow decimal programmer, a eight-positions knob for upper pressure limits, an alarm LED and a parallel port for connection to a PC system. (authors)

  13. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation of electron beam from two strip electron guns and control of power density by rotation of gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, G K; Baruah, S; Thakur, K B

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam is preferably used for large scale evaporation of refractory materials. Material evaporation from a long and narrow source providing a well collimated wedge shaped atomic beam has applications in isotopic purification of metals relevant to nuclear industry. The electron beam from an electron gun with strip type filament provides a linear heating source. However, the high power density of the electron beam can lead to turbulence of the melt pool and undesirable splashing of molten metal. For obtaining quiet surface evaporation, the linear electron beam is generally scanned along its length. To further reduce the power density to maintain quiet evaporation the width of the vapour source can be controlled by rotating the electron gun on its plane, thereby scanning an inclined beam over the molten pool. The rotation of gun has further advantages. When multiple strip type electron guns are used for scaling up evaporation length, a dark zone appears between two beams due to physical separation of adjacent guns. This dark zone can be reduced by rotating the gun and thereby bringing two adjacent beams closer. The paper presented here provides the simulation results of the electron beam trajectory and incident power density originating from two strip electron guns by using in-house developed code. The effect of electron gun rotation on the electron beam trajectory and power density is studied. The simulation result is experimentally verified with the image of molten pool and heat affected zone taken after experiment. This technique can be gainfully utilized in controlling the time averaged power density of the electron beam and obtaining quiet evaporation from the metal molten pool.

  15. Least Squares Neural Network-Based Wireless E-Nose System Using an SnO₂ Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Areej; Choi, Jong-Hyeok; Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2018-05-06

    Over the last few decades, the development of the electronic nose (E-nose) for detection and quantification of dangerous and odorless gases, such as methane (CH₄) and carbon monoxide (CO), using an array of SnO₂ gas sensors has attracted considerable attention. This paper addresses sensor cross sensitivity by developing a classifier and estimator using an artificial neural network (ANN) and least squares regression (LSR), respectively. Initially, the ANN was implemented using a feedforward pattern recognition algorithm to learn the collective behavior of an array as the signature of a particular gas. In the second phase, the classified gas was quantified by minimizing the mean square error using LSR. The combined approach produced 98.7% recognition probability, with 95.5 and 94.4% estimated gas concentration accuracies for CH₄ and CO, respectively. The classifier and estimator parameters were deployed in a remote microcontroller for the actualization of a wireless E-nose system.

  16. Control of runaway electron energy using externally injected whistler waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2018-03-01

    One way of mitigating runaway damage of the plasma-facing components in a tokamak fusion reactor is by limiting the runaway electron energy under a few MeV, while not necessarily reducing the runaway current appreciably. Here, we describe a physics mechanism by which such momentum space engineering of the runaway distribution can be facilitated by externally injected high-frequency electromagnetic waves such as whistler waves. The drastic impact that wave-induced scattering can have on the runaway energy distribution is fundamentally the result of its ability to control the runaway vortex in the momentum space. The runaway vortex, which is a local circulation of runaways in momentum space, is the outcome of the competition between Coulomb collisions, synchrotron radiation damping, and runaway acceleration by the parallel electric field. By introducing a wave that resonantly interacts with runaways in a particular range of energies which is mildly relativistic, the enhanced scattering would reshape the vortex by cutting off the part that is highly relativistic. The efficiency of resonant scattering accentuates the requirement that the wave amplitude can be small so the power requirement from external wave injection is practical for the mitigation scheme.

  17. Electron beam treatment parameters for control of stored product insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleghorn, D.A.; Nablo, S.V.; Ferro, D.N.; Hagstrum, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    The fluidized bed process (EBFB) has been evaluated for the disinfestation of cereal grains. The various life stages from egg to adult have been studied on the 225 kV pilot as a function of surface dose. Three of the most common pests were selected: the rice weevil (S. oryzae), the lesser grain borer (R. dominica) and the red flour beetle (T. castaneum). The major challenge to this process lies in those 'protected' life-stages active deeply within the endosperm of the grain kernel. The rice weevil is such an internal feeder in which the larvae develop through several molts during several weeks before pupation and adult emergence. Product velocities up to 2000 m/min have been used for infested hard winter wheat at dose levels up to 1000 Gy. Detailed depth of penetration studies at three life stages of S. oryzae larvae were conducted at 225-700 kV and demonstrated effective mortality at 400 kVx200 Gy. Mortality data are also presented for the radiation labile eggs of these insects as well as the (sterile) adults, which typically lived for several weeks before death. These results are compared with earlier 60 Co gamma-ray studies on these same insects. Based upon these studies, the effectiveness of the fluidized bed process employing self-shielded electron beam equipment for insect control in wheat/rice at sub-kilogray dose levels has been demonstrated

  18. Surgical Considerations in the Management of Tumours of the Nose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tumours of the nose and paranasal sinuses in sub-Saharan Africa are generally characterised by late presentation posing management challenges to the otorhinolaryngologists in the sub-region. OBJECTIVES: To appraise surgical considerations in the management of tumours of the nose and paranasal ...

  19. Enterobius vermicularis in the nose: A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Kaniyur, Vishnu; Chandra Prasad, Kishore H.; Devan, P. P.; Doddamani, S. S.; Balachandran, Bharati; Kulkarni, Vikram

    2005-01-01

    A rare case of enterobius vermicularis pin-worm is reported in the nose. An 11-year-old girl presented with the vague symptoms of crawling sensation in the nose for few weeks, who had received treatment for allergic rhinitis. The nasal secretions were examined and confirmed the diagnosis of pinworm infection and treated by albendazole.

  20. Economic Evaluation pf Antibacterial Usage in Ear, Nose and Throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose ...

  1. The New Star, the New Nose: Tycho Brahe's Nasal Prosthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Tycho Brahe’s loss of part of his nose in a duel has become an important part of his afterlife. The exact nature of his nasal prosthesis–of brass, gold, or silver–remains an enigma, not even solved at his exhumation in 2010. This essay discusses the materiality of Brahe’s new nose...

  2. Holdaway's analysis of the nose prominence of an adult Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nose prominence was assessed using Holdaway's analysis. Twenty radiographs randomly selected, were retraced to assess for errors. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Student's t‑tests and analysis of variance using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: The mean value recorded for the nose ...

  3. Power Electronics and Controls for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use power electronics to achieve high efficiency in power generation, transmission/distribution and utilization. This paper discuss trends of the most promising renewable energy sources, wind energy, which ,integrated with power...... electronics, is changing the future electrical infrastructure and also contributes steadily to non-carbon based electricity production. The paper’s focus is on the power electronics technologies used in wind turbine systems....

  4. Physics of lateral triple quantum-dot molecules with controlled electron numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2012-11-01

    We review the recent progress in theory and experiments with lateral triple quantum dots with controlled electron numbers down to one electron in each dot. The theory covers electronic and spin properties as a function of topology, number of electrons, gate voltage and external magnetic field. The orbital Hund's rules and Nagaoka ferromagnetism, magnetic frustration and chirality, interplay of quantum interference and electron-electron interactions and geometrical phases are described and related to charging and transport spectroscopy. Fabrication techniques and recent experiments are covered, as well as potential applications of triple quantum-dot molecule in coherent control, spin manipulation and quantum computation.

  5. Method for controlling low-energy high current density electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.N.; Oswald, R.B. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for controlling the angle of incidence of low-energy, high current density electron beams are disclosed. The apparatus includes a current generating diode arrangement with a mesh anode for producing a drifting electron beam. An auxiliary grounded screen electrode is placed between the anode and a target for controlling the average angle of incidence of electrons in the drifting electron beam. According to the method of the present invention, movement of the auxiliary screen electrode relative to the target and the anode permits reliable and reproducible adjustment of the average angle of incidence of the electrons in low energy, high current density relativistic electron beams

  6. Conceptual Design of Deployment Structure of Morphing Nose Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a reusable space vehicle or a missile, the shape of the nose cone has a significant effect on the drag of the vehicle. In this paper, the concept of morphing nose cone is proposed to reduce the drag when the reentry vehicle flies back into the atmosphere. The conceptual design of the structure of morphing nose cone is conducted. Mechanical design and optimization approach are developed by employing genetic algorithm to find the optimal geometric parameters of the morphing structure. An example is analyzed by using the proposed method. The results show that optimal solution supplies the minimum position error. The concept of morphing nose cone will provide a novel way for the drag reduction of reentry vehicle. The proposed method could be practically used for the design and optimization of the deployable structure of morphing nose cone.

  7. Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magura Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two did not have a significant effect

  8. Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two) did not have a significant effect on any outcomes

  9. First-principles electron dynamics control simulation of diamond under femtosecond laser pulse train irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cong; Jiang Lan; Wang Feng; Li Xin; Yuan Yanping; Xiao Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Lu Yongfeng

    2012-01-01

    A real-time and real-space time-dependent density functional is applied to simulate the nonlinear electron-photon interactions during shaped femtosecond laser pulse train ablation of diamond. Effects of the key pulse train parameters such as the pulse separation, spatial/temporal pulse energy distribution and pulse number per train on the electron excitation and energy absorption are discussed. The calculations show that photon-electron interactions and transient localized electron dynamics can be controlled including photon absorption, electron excitation, electron density, and free electron distribution by the ultrafast laser pulse train. (paper)

  10. The Fabrication of Non-Implant 3D Printed Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Yong Leng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-surgical rhinoplasty procedures which involves the use of injectable derma fillers are highly risky as patients are susceptible to side effects and complications that may cause unwanted changes in their appearance. This research explores an alternative method of non-surgical rhinoplasty for patients seeking augmentation of the nose with the use of three-dimensional (3D printing. Most rhinoplasty procedures are conducted with the intention of enhancing the aesthetical features of the nose, a 3D model nose was designed based on the combination of the average and the ideal aesthetic parameters of the Northern European Caucasians and South Asia Chinese nose. The modelling of nose is done using the SolidWorks CAD software. An initial design was sketched in a polygon mesh form and further improved on. Different printing materials and infill densities were compared to determine the suitable printing technique. The final nose model is then printed using the Ultimaker 3D printer using Polylactic acid (PLA with an infill density of 100% at a thickness of 1.4 mm. An inner layer to the 3D printed nose was developed for comfortable attachment of the nose model to human skin. The inner layer was fabricated using agar gelatine. Experiments were carried out to increase the strength and adhesiveness of the gelatine so that it could adhere to the human skin and the PLA surface. Tensile and adhesive strength tests were carried out to determine the suitable gel composition for the attachment of the nose to the user’s face. The key outcome from the experiments using natural gelatine was capability of gel to act as an inner layer for the temporary attachment of the 3D nose model to the human skin

  11. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis and size control by electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, K A; Dhole, S D; Bhoraskar, V N [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India)

    2006-07-14

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by irradiating solutions, prepared by mixing AgNO{sub 3} and poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), with 6 MeV electrons. The electron-irradiated solutions and the thin coatings cast from them were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. During electron irradiation, the process of formation of the silver nanoparticles appeared to be initiated at an electron fluence of {approx}2 x 10{sup 13} e cm{sup -2}. This was evidenced from the solution, which turned yellow and exhibited the characteristic plasmon absorption peak around 455 nm. Silver nanoparticles of different sizes in the range 60-10 nm, with a narrow size distribution, could be synthesized by varying the electron fluence from 2 x 10{sup 13} to 3 x 10{sup 15} e cm{sup -2}. Silver nanoparticles of sizes in the range 100-200 nm were also synthesized by irradiating an aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution with 6 MeV electrons.

  12. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  13. Distribution of adsorbed molecules in electronic nose sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, M.J.; Glidle, A.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2000-01-01

    Neutron reflectivity measurements of thin films of electropolymerised poly(pyrrole) show that swelling of these insoluble polymers does occur following vapour adsorption. The variation in swelling found for different vapours is correlated with corresponding changes in polymer conductivity and mass...

  14. Aerothermodynamics of generic re-entry vehicle with a series of aerospikes at nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh; Velidi, Gurunadh; Guven, Ugur

    2014-03-01

    Re-entry of a blunt nosed vehicle is one of the most intriguing problems in any space programme. Especially in light of various space tourism possibilities, there are many works concerning re-entry of commercial blunt nosed space vehicles. In this paper, a generic blunt body re-entry model represented by a hemisphere-cylinder, fitted axisymmetrically with an aerodisk aerospike at the nose is investigated numerically with commercially available control volume based axisymmetric flow solver. The scaled down re-entry model has a base diameter of 40 mm and an overall length of 100 mm. A 6 mm diameter aerospike fitted axisymmetrically at the nose has a hemispherical cap from which another aerospike of 4 mm diameter protrudes which again has a hemispherical cap. Two dimensional compressible, axisymmetric Navier Stokes Equations are solved for a turbulent hypersonic flow of a 5 species, chemically reacting air in thermal equilibrium with free stream conditions of Mach no., static pressure and temperature of 10.1, 16,066 Pa and 216.65 K, respectively. The results are compared with that of re-entry model without any aerospike. Among the cases investigated, the spiked blunt body having two aerospikes in series with lengths l1 and l2 equal to 30 and 20 respectively and overall length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 showed a favourable reduction in the peak reattachment heat flux along with high reduction in aerodynamic drag and thus stands as a prospective case for blunt body nose configuration for hypersonic flight.

  15. Modeling and simulation of control system for electron beam machine (EBM) using programmable automation controller (PAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo Kwee Wah; Lojius Lombigit; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali; Muhamad Zahidee Taat; Ayub Mohamed; Chong Foh Yoong

    2006-01-01

    An EBM electronic model is designed to simulate the control system of the Nissin EBM, which is located at Block 43, MINT complex of Jalan Dengkil with maximum output of 3 MeV, 30 mA using a Programmable Automation Controllers (PAC). This model operates likes a real EBM system where all the start-up, interlocking and stopping procedures are fully followed. It also involves formulating the mathematical models to relate certain output with the input parameters using data from actual operation on EB machine. The simulation involves a set of PAC system consisting of the digital and analogue input/output modules. The program code is written using Labview software (real-time version) on a PC and then downloaded into the PAC stand-alone memory. All the 23 interlocking signals required by the EB machine are manually controlled by mechanical switches and represented by LEDs. The EB parameters are manually controlled by potentiometers and displayed on analogue and digital meters. All these signals are then interfaced to the PC via a wifi wireless communication built-in at the PAC controller. The program is developed in accordance to the specifications and requirement of the original real EB system and displays them on the panel of the model and also on the PC monitor. All possible chances from human errors, hardware and software malfunctions, including the worst-case conditions will be tested, evaluated and modified. We hope that the performance of our model complies the requirements of operating the EB machine. It also hopes that this electronic model can replace the original PC interfacing being utilized in the Nissin EBM in the near future. The system can also be used to study the fault tolerance analysis and automatic re-configuration for advanced control of the EB system. (Author)

  16. Tests of an electron monitor for routine quality control measurements of electron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, E.B.; Reinstein, L.E.; Meek, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The depth dose for electrons is sensitive to energy and the AAPM Task Group 24 has recommended that tests be performed at monthly intervals to assure electron beam energy constancy by verifying the depth for the 80% dose to within ±3 mm. Typically, this is accomplished by using a two-depth dose ratio technique. Recently, a new device, the Geske monitor, has been introduced that is designed for verifying energy constancy in a single reading. The monitor consists of nine parallel plate detectors that alternate with 5-mm-thick absorbers made of an aluminum alloy. An evaluation of the clinical usefulness of this monitor for the electron beams available on a Varian Clinac 20 has been undertaken with respect to energy discrimination. Beam energy changes of 3 mm of the 80% dose give rise to measurable output changes ranging from 1.7% for 20-MeV electron beams to 15% for 6-MeV electron beams

  17. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  18. Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, C. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

  19. Primary nasal tuberculosis following blunt trauma nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary nasal tuberculosis is a rare disease with nearly 40 cases reported. Our patient was a young male presented with left sided nasal obstruction, anosmia and occasional epistaxis for last 7 weeks after 6 months of blunt trauma nose. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the para nasal sinuses showed increased soft-tissue density with contrast enhancement in the left maxillary antrum with extension through left osteomeatal foramen to the left nasal cavity along with further extension through choana to nasopharynx resulting in partial obliteration of the nasopharyngeal airway. Nasal endoscopy revealed a sessile polypoidal pinkish mass arising from the left osteomeatal foramen. Histopathological examination of excisional biopsy of that area showed caseating granuloma. Our patient diagnosed as primary nasal tuberculosis following trauma and treated with anti-tubercular chemotherapy.

  20. Sheath structure transition controlled by secondary electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Langendorf, S. J.; Walker, M. L. R.; Keidar, M.

    2015-04-01

    In particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC MCC) simulations and in an experiment we study sheath formation over an emissive floating Al2O3 plate in a direct current discharge plasma at argon gas pressure 10-4 Torr. The discharge glow is maintained by the beam electrons emitted from a negatively biased hot cathode. We observe three types of sheaths near the floating emissive plate and the transition between them is driven by changing the negative bias. The Debye sheath appears at lower voltages, when secondary electron emission is negligible. With increasing applied voltage, secondary electron emission switches on and a first transition to a new sheath type, beam electron emission (BEE), takes place. For the first time we find this specific regime of sheath operation near the floating emissive surface. In this regime, the potential drop over the plate sheath is about four times larger than the temperature of plasma electrons. The virtual cathode appears near the emissive plate and its modification helps to maintain the BEE regime within some voltage range. Further increase of the applied voltage U initiates the second smooth transition to the plasma electron emission sheath regime and the ratio Δφs/Te tends to unity with increasing U. The oscillatory behavior of the emissive sheath is analyzed in PIC MCC simulations. A plasmoid of slow electrons is formed near the plate and transported to the bulk plasma periodically with a frequency of about 25 kHz.

  1. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pico, R.; Diamond, B.; Fugitt, J.; Bork, R.

    1989-01-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Trends in Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Kerekes, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss trends of the most emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy and photovoltaics, which...... by means of power electronics are changing the future electrical infrastructure but also contributes steadily more to non-carbon based electricity production. Most focus is on the power electronics technologies used. In the case of photovoltaics transformer-less systems are discussed as they have...

  3. Elucidation and control of electronic properties related to organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Nobuo; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structure of organic solids and interfaces plays a crucial role in the performance of optoelectronic devices using organic semiconductors such as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, and photovoltaic cells. The functionality of these organic devices is seriously dominated by the geometric structure, which varies depending on the molecular structure and the sample preparation condition. Due to the rapid progress in sample preparation methods and surface science techniques, we can now discuss in detail the correlation of the electronic structure with the geometric structure of organic solids, films, and interfaces. This paper reviews the recent progress of studies in the geometric and electronic structures related to organic semiconductors. (author)

  4. Design studies on high current and grid control electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinnan; Lu Kun; Chi Yunlong; Zhou Zusheng

    2011-01-01

    Electron gun, the source of electrons, is a kind of ultrahigh vacuum device and plays an important role in different kind of accelerators. With the irradiation accelerator demands, describes the design studies on beam optics optimization. The simulation result shows that the beam current is above 5 A with cathode voltage of 80 kV and beam emittance, gun electric field and beam waist radius meet the accelerator needs. The electron gun manufactured and installed in the test stand, the conditioning and test will be done in the near future. (authors)

  5. Power Electronics Control of Wind Energy in Distributed Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  6. Controlling competing electronic orders via non-equilibrium acoustic phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Michael; Orth, Peter; Levchenko, Alex; Fernandes, Rafael

    The interplay between multiple electronic orders is a hallmark of strongly correlated systems displaying unconventional superconductivity. While doping, pressure, and magnetic field are the standard knobs employed to assess these different phases, ultrafast pump-and-probe techniques opened a new window to probe these systems. Recent examples include the ultrafast excitation of coherent optical phonons coupling to electronic states in cuprates and iron pnictides. In this work, we demonstrate theoretically that non-equilibrium acoustic phonons provide a promising framework to manipulate competing electronic phases and favor unconventional superconductivity over other states. In particular, we show that electrons coupled to out-of-equilibrium anisotropic acoustic phonons enter a steady state in which the effective electronic temperature varies around the Fermi surface. Such a momentum-dependent temperature can then be used to selectively heat electronic states that contribute primarily to density-wave instabilities, reducing their competition with superconductivity. We illustrate this phenomenon by computing the microscopic steady-state phase diagram of the iron pnictides, showing that superconductivity is enhanced with respect to the competing antiferromagnetic phase.

  7. 78 FR 11553 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Awareness and Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) associated with the control surface awareness and mode annunciation of the electronic flight control system... a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the flightdeck controller...

  8. Physics of lateral triple quantum-dot molecules with controlled electron numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We review the recent progress in theory and experiments with lateral triple quantum dots with controlled electron numbers down to one electron in each dot. The theory covers electronic and spin properties as a function of topology, number of electrons, gate voltage and external magnetic field. The orbital Hund's rules and Nagaoka ferromagnetism, magnetic frustration and chirality, interplay of quantum interference and electron–electron interactions and geometrical phases are described and related to charging and transport spectroscopy. Fabrication techniques and recent experiments are covered, as well as potential applications of triple quantum-dot molecule in coherent control, spin manipulation and quantum computation. (review article)

  9. Control circuits in power electronics practical issues in design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Control circuits are a key element in the operation and performance of power electronics converters. This book describes practical issues related to the design and implementation of these control circuits, and is divided into three parts - analogue control circuits, digital control circuits, and new trends in control circuits.

  10. Backup control airstart performance on a digital electronic engine control-equipped F100-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The air start capability of a backup control (BUC) was tested for a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) equipped F100 engine, which was installed in an F-15 aircraft. Two air start schedules were tested. Using the group 1 start schedule, based on a 40 sec timer, an air speed of 300 knots was required to ensure successful 40 and 25% BUC mode spooldown airstarts. If core rotor speed (N2) was less than 40% a stall would occur when the start bleed closed, 40 sec after initiation of the air start. All jet fuel starter (JFS) assisted air starts were successful with the group 1 start schedule. For the group 2 schedule, the time between pressurization and start bleed closure ranged between 50 sec and 72 sec. Idle rps was lower than the desired 65% for air starts at higher altitudes and lower air speeds.

  11. Allosteric control of internal electron transfer in cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Kroneck, Peter M H; Zumft, Walter G

    2003-01-01

    Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase is a bifunctional multiheme enzyme catalyzing the one-electron reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide and the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the internal electron transfer process in the Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme have...... been studied and found to be dominated by pronounced interactions between the c and the d1 hemes. The interactions are expressed both in dramatic changes in the internal electron-transfer rates between these sites and in marked cooperativity in their electron affinity. The results constitute a prime...... example of intraprotein control of the electron-transfer rates by allosteric interactions....

  12. Real-time control of electronic motion: Application to NaI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1998-01-01

    + + I- depends on the electron distribution (i.e., where the electron "sits") prior to the time where the bond is broken by a subpicosecond half-cycle unipolar electromagnetic pulse. Thus we control, in real time, which nucleus one of the valence electrons will follow after the bond is broken. (C) 1998......We study theoretically the electronic and nuclear dynamics in NaI. After a femtosecond pulse has prepared a wave packet in the first excited state, we consider the adiabatic and the nonadiabatic electronic dynamics and demonstrate explicitly that a nonstationary electron is created in Na...

  13. Implementation to spanish protocol of quality control of accelerators to daily control of electron beams; Implementacion del protocolo espanol de control de calidad de aceleradores al control diario de haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaimi Hernandez, P.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Diaz Fuente, R.; Ferrando Sanchez, A.

    2011-07-01

    A revised procedure for daily control of the electron beams to make measurements more meaningful physically, having a better reproducibility and more in line with the recommendations of the Spanish Protocol for Quality Control in Electron Linear Accelerators Clinical Use. The daily quality control beams of high energy electrons that had been done so far was the finding that the record of a series of measures (symmetry, uniformity, stability, energy, beam central dose) were within tolerance values established. The amendment is to check the beam quality by directly measuring changes in absorption depth at which the dose is reduced to half its maximum value, R50.

  14. Co-simulation of heavy truck tire dynamics and electronic stability control systems (phase A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems have been proven to be an effective means of preventing instability and loss of control on both passenger vehicles and heavy trucks. In addition, roll stability algorithms are an effective means of reducing ...

  15. Technical tutorial: How to pack a nose with bismuth iodoform paraffin paste gauze safely and effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, F; Pace-Balzan, A

    2009-01-01

    The current primary treatment for epistaxis in accident and emergency departments is the insertion of Merocel packs. If these are properly inserted, but fail to control bleeding, it is necessary to insert a bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP) pack. A BIPP pack, when properly inserted, has the potential to stop most bleeds, but books and journals suggest a method of insertion that limits its effectiveness. A safer and more effective way of packing a nose with BIPP than the traditional method is described.

  16. Power electronics for renewable and distributed energy systems a sourcebook of topologies, control and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kramer, William E

    2013-01-01

    While most books approach power electronics and renewable energy as two separate subjects, Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems takes an integrative approach; discussing power electronic converters topologies, controls and integration that are specific to the renewable and distributed energy system applications. An overview of power electronic technologies is followed by the introduction of various renewable and distributed energy resources that includes photovoltaics, wind, small hydroelectric, fuel cells, microturbines and variable speed generation. Energy storage s

  17. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-01

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  18. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-15

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  19. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  20. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2932] Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, DN 2932; the...

  1. Characterization and Differentiation of Petroleum-Derived Products by E-Nose Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreiro-González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of petroleum-derived products is an area of continuing importance in environmental science, mainly related to fuel spills. In this study, a non-separative analytical method based on E-Nose (Electronic Nose is presented as a rapid alternative for the characterization of several different petroleum-derived products including gasoline, diesel, aromatic solvents, and ethanol samples, which were poured onto different surfaces (wood, cork, and cotton. The working conditions about the headspace generation were 145 °C and 10 min. Mass spectroscopic data (45–200 m/z combined with chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, later principal component analysis (PCA, and finally linear discriminant analysis (LDA allowed for a full discrimination of the samples. A characteristic fingerprint for each product can be used for discrimination or identification. The E-Nose can be considered as a green technique, and it is rapid and easy to use in routine analysis, thus providing a good alternative to currently used methods.

  2. Spin-controlled nanomechanics induced by single-electron tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, D; Nordenfelt, A; Kadigrobov, A M; Shekhter, R I; Jonson, M; Gorelik, L Y

    2011-12-02

    We consider dc-electronic transport through a nanowire suspended between normal- and spin-polarized metal leads in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that magnetomotive coupling between the electrical current through the nanowire and vibrations of the wire may result in self-excitation of mechanical vibrations. The self-excitation mechanism is based on correlations between the occupancy of the quantized electronic energy levels inside the nanowire and the velocity of the nanowire. We derive conditions for the occurrence of the instability and find stable regimes of mechanical oscillations. © 2011 American Physical Society

  3. Catalysts under Controlled Atmospheres in the Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    of resolution. Using suitably clean gases, modified pumping schemes, and short pathways through dense gas regions, these issues are now circumvented. Here we provide an account of best practice using environmental transmission electron microscopy on catalytic systems illustrated using select examples from......Over time, there has been an increasing interest in observing catalysts in their operating environment at high spatial resolution and ultimately to determine the structure of a catalytically active surface. One tool with the potential to do exactly this in direct space is the transmission electron...

  4. On the Temporal Stability of Analyte Recognition with an E-Nose Based on a Metal Oxide Sensor Array in Practical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Ilia; Sysoev, Victor; Kaikov, Igor; Koronczi, Ilona; Adil Akai Tegin, Ruslan; Smanalieva, Jamila; Sommer, Martin; Ilicali, Coskan; Hauptmannl, Michael

    2018-02-11

    The paper deals with a functional instability of electronic nose (e-nose) units which significantly limits their real-life applications. Here we demonstrate how to approach this issue with example of an e-nose based on a metal oxide sensor array developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). We consider the instability of e-nose operation at different time scales ranging from minutes to many years. To test the e-nose we employ open-air and headspace sampling of analyte odors. The multivariate recognition algorithm to process the multisensor array signals is based on the linear discriminant analysis method. Accounting for the received results, we argue that the stability of device operation is mostly affected by accidental changes in the ambient air composition. To overcome instabilities, we introduce the add-training procedure which is found to successfully manage both the temporal changes of ambient and the drift of multisensor array properties, even long-term. The method can be easily implemented in practical applications of e-noses and improve prospects for device marketing.

  5. Surgical Management of the Thick-Skinned Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard E; Hrisomalos, Emily N

    2018-02-01

    When executed properly, open structure rhinoplasty can dramatically improve the consistency, durability, and quality of the cosmetic surgical outcome. Moreover, in expert hands, dramatic transformations in skeletal architecture can be accomplished with minimal risk and unparalleled control, all while preserving nasal airway function. While skeletal enhancements have become increasingly more controlled and precise, the outer skin-soft tissue envelope (SSTE) often presents a formidable obstacle to a satisfactory cosmetic result. In noses with unusually thick skin, excessive skin volume and characteristically hostile healing responses frequently combine to obscure or sometimes even negate cosmetic skeletal modifications and taint the surgical outcome. For this challenging patient subgroup, care must be taken to optimize the SSTE using a graduated treatment strategy directed at minimizing skin thickness and controlling unfavorable healing responses. When appropriate efforts are implemented to manage thick nasal skin, cosmetic outcomes are often substantially improved, sometimes even negating the ill-effects of thick skin altogether. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Size Control Technology of Silver Nanoparticles Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Kim, Byungnam; Kim, Hye Won; Koo, Yong Hwan; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Ji Hyun; Bae, Hyung Bin; Park, Changmoon

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of silver nanoparticles using an electron beam is easy, fast, and highly productive, and it is possible at room temperature with no chemical residuals. Its various advantages therefore make this an important method for manufacturing nanoparticles such as silver, copper, and platinum. In particular, despite the use of electron beam irradiation, the results show that this method makes it possible to produce silver nanoparticles at low cost since low beam energy and low doses are used. This means that middle and high-energy electron beam accelerators are very expensive, but a low-energy electron beam accelerator has a relatively low cost of around 4-5 times, and mass production for a flow reaction without the need for extra radiation shielding is possible. Silver nanoparticles are of great interest to many researchers owing to their ability to be used in many applications such as catalysis, nanoelectronics, optical filters, electromagnetic interference shielding, surface Raman scattering, medical supplies, fabrics, cosmetics, hygiene and kitchen supplies, and electric home appliances

  7. Inventory Control: A Small Electronic Device for Studying Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Shows how the rate of reaction can be studied using a simple electronic device that overcomes the difficulty students encounter in solving the differential equations describing chemical equilibrium. The device, used in conjunction with an oscilloscope, supplies the voltages that represent the chemical variables that take part in the equilibrium.…

  8. Size Control Technology of Silver Nanoparticles Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Kim, Byungnam; Kim, Hye Won; Koo, Yong Hwan; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hyun [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyung Bin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Changmoon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The manufacturing of silver nanoparticles using an electron beam is easy, fast, and highly productive, and it is possible at room temperature with no chemical residuals. Its various advantages therefore make this an important method for manufacturing nanoparticles such as silver, copper, and platinum. In particular, despite the use of electron beam irradiation, the results show that this method makes it possible to produce silver nanoparticles at low cost since low beam energy and low doses are used. This means that middle and high-energy electron beam accelerators are very expensive, but a low-energy electron beam accelerator has a relatively low cost of around 4-5 times, and mass production for a flow reaction without the need for extra radiation shielding is possible. Silver nanoparticles are of great interest to many researchers owing to their ability to be used in many applications such as catalysis, nanoelectronics, optical filters, electromagnetic interference shielding, surface Raman scattering, medical supplies, fabrics, cosmetics, hygiene and kitchen supplies, and electric home appliances.

  9. Radiation control at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), a new high power CW electron accelerator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, G.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of the design goals and radiation control measures, for a new 4 GeV, 1 MW electron accelerator under construction in the USA. The paper illustrates the importance of cooperation between designers and regulators. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Research on automatic correction of electronic beam path for distributed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xin; Su Haijun; Li Deming; Wang Shengli; Guo Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dynamitron, an electron irradiation accelerator of high-voltage, is used as a radiation source for industrial and agricultural production. The control system is an important component of dynamitron. Purpose: The aim is to improve the control system to meet the performance requirements of dynamitron for the stability. Methods: A distributed control system for the 1.5-MeV dynamitron is proposed to gain better performance. On this basis, an electron beam trajectory automatic correction method based on Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller and Proportional-Integral Derivative (CMAC-PID) controller is designed to improve the function of electron beam extraction system. Results: The distributed control system can meet the control requirements of the accelerator. The stability of the CMAC PID controller is better than that of conventional PID controller for the electron beam trajectory automatic correction system, and hence the CMAC-PID controller can provide better protection of dynamitron when electron beam deflection occurs. Conclusion: The distributed control system and the electron beam trajectory automatic correction method system can effectively improve the performance and reduce the failure probability of the accelerator, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the accelerator. (authors)

  11. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, Jiri; Bandouchova, Hana; Novotny, Ladislav; Meteyer, Carol U; Zukal, Jan; Irwin, Nancy R; Zima, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans.

  12. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, J.; Bandouchova, H.; Novotny, L.; Meteyer, C.U.; Zukal, J.; Irwin, N.R.; Zima, J.; Martinkova, N.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

  13. Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats Hipposideros commersoni ... Reproductive females dispersed twice during the annual cycle, while in ... Synchronized parturitions within maternity roosts (in late October) created a hot, ...

  14. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences...

  15. Diagnostic imaging of the nose and paranasal sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.A.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book offers extensively illustrated and comprehensive coverage of diagnostic imaging techniques of the nose and paranasal sinuses. The important feature of the work is the way it correlates histology with CT and MRI and includes magnetic resonance contrast studies using Gadolinium DTPA. Furthermore, it is the first text to treat the imaging of the various types of tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses on an individual basis

  16. Present and potential distribution of Snub-nosed Monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    are the Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus), a temperate-subtropical East Asian genus. We use species distribution modeling to assess the following question of key relevancy for conservation management of Rhinopithecus; 1. Which climatic factors determine the present distribution of Rhinopithecus within...... distribution of Rhinopithecus within the region, considering climate, habitat availability and the locations of nature reserves. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, conservation, China, snub-nosed monkey, rhinopithecus, primates, species distribution modeling...

  17. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... with an electronic engine control (EEC), also known as a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC... engine design certification, and the certification requirements for engine control systems are driven by... aircraft supplied power and data failures on the engine control system, and the resulting effects on engine...

  18. Electron dynamics in RF sources with a laser controlled emission

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V; Metrochenko, V V

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission radiofrequency (RF) electron sources are sources of electron beams with extremely high brightness. Beam bunching processes in such devices are well studied in case when laser pulse duration is much lower of rf oscillation period.At the same time photoemission RF guns have some merits when operating in 'long-pulse' mode. In this case the laser pulse duration is much higher of rf oscillation period but much lower of rise time of oscillations in a gun cavity. Beam parameters at the gun output are compared for photoemission and thermoemission cathode applications. The paper presents results of a beam dynamics simulation in such guns with different resonance structures. Questions connected with defining of the current pulse peak value that can be obtained in such guns are discussed.

  19. Junction Temperature Control for More Reliable Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Markus; Ma, Ke; Buticchi, Giampaolo

    2018-01-01

    The thermal stress of power electronic components is one of the most important causes of their failure. Proper thermal management plays an important role for more reliable and cost-effective energy conversion. As one of the most vulnerable and expensive components, power semiconductor components ...... the desired cost-benefit tradeoff. This paper analyzes also the many open questions of this research area. Among them, it is worth highlighting that a verification of the actual lifetime extension is still missing....

  20. A new therapeutic strategy for lengthening severe short nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikimaru, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Watanabe, Koichi; Koga, Noriyuki; Nishi, Yukiko

    2010-03-01

    Correction of severe short nose is a distressing problem for plastic surgeons. It is difficult to simultaneously lengthen the 3 components of the nose, which are the outer skin envelope, the framework, and the mucosal lining. We developed a new method to lengthen the nose more than 10 mm definitively and safely, which was performed using the technique of distraction osteogenesis. The procedure involves a 2-stage operation. At the first stage, boat-shaped iliac bone is grafted on the dorsum. More than 6 months later, the second-stage operation is performed. The grafted bone is cut horizontally in the center, and the distraction device is applied to it. Distraction osteogenesis is started after a latency period of 14 days and performed at a rate of 0.6 mm once daily. The distraction device is replaced by a special attachment (Ribbond; Ribbond Inc) during the 3-month consolidation period. Our method was applied for 2 patients with congenitally and posttraumatic severe short nose, respectively. The total amount of distraction osteogenesis was 12.6 and 13.8 mm, respectively. The profiles of both of the patients improved, and they were satisfied with the results. The method we developed is an entirely new approach to the correction of severe short nose. Furthermore, it was determined that nonvascularized grafted iliac bone could be lengthened by distraction osteogenesis. Our new method was a very effective and definitive technique and could become a mainstream procedure for the correction of severe short nose.